WorldWideScience

Sample records for current review focuses

  1. Focused Ultrasound for Essential Tremor: Review of the Evidence and Discussion of Current Hurdles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rohani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. While there is no breakthrough progress in the medical treatment of essential tremor (ET, in the past decades several remarkable achievements happened in the surgical field, such as radiofrequency thalamotomy, thalamic deep brain stimulation and gamma knife thalamotomy. The most recent advance in this area is magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS. Methods. Purpose of this review is to discuss the new developments and trials of MRgFUS in the treatment of ET and other tremor disorders. Results. MRgFUS is an incision-less surgery performed without anesthesia and ionizing radiation (no risk of cumulative dose and delayed side effects. Studies have shown the safety and effectiveness of unilateral MRgFUS-thalamotomy in the treatment of ET. It has been successfully used in few patients with Parkinson's disease-related tremor and fewer patients with Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome. Safety and long-term effects of the procedure are still unclear, as temporary and permanent adverse events have been reported as well as reoccurrence of tremor. Discussion. MRgFUS is a promising new surgical approach with still a number of unknowns and unsolved issues. It represents a valuable option particularly for patients who refused or could not be candidate for other procedures, deep brain stimulation in particular. 

  2. Current trends in stroke rehabilitation. A review with focus on brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B B

    2011-03-01

    Current understanding of brain plasticity has lead to new approaches in ischemic stroke rehabilitation. Stroke units that combine good medical and nursing care with task-oriented intense training in an environment that provides confidence, stimulation and motivation significantly improve outcome. Repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are applied in rehabilitation of motor function. The long-term effect, optimal way of stimulation and possibly efficacy in cognitive rehabilitation need evaluation. Methods based on multisensory integration of motor, cognitive, and perceptual processes including action observation, mental training, and virtual reality are being tested. Different approaches of intensive aphasia training are described. Recent data on intensive melodic intonation therapy indicate that even patients with very severe non-fluent aphasia can regain speech through homotopic white matter tract plasticity. Music therapy is applied in motor and cognitive rehabilitation. To avoid the confounding effect of spontaneous improvement, most trials are preformed ≥3 months post stroke. Randomized controlled trials starting earlier after strokes are needed. More attention should be given to stroke heterogeneity, cognitive rehabilitation, and social adjustment and to genetic differences, including the role of BDNF polymorphism in brain plasticity. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Reducing Current Spread using Current Focusing in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, David M.; Padilla, Monica; Srinivasan, Arthi G.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implant performance in difficult listening situations is limited by channel interactions. It is known that partial tripolar (PTP) stimulation reduces the spread of excitation (SOE). However, the greater the degree of current focusing, the greater the absolute current required to maintain a fixed loudness. As current increases, so does SOE. In experiment 1, the SOE for equally loud stimuli with different degrees of current focusing is measured via a forward-masking procedure. Results suggest that at a fixed loudness, some but not all patients have a reduced SOE with PTP stimulation. Therefore, it seems likely that a PTP speech processing strategy could improve spectral resolution for only those patients with a reduced SOE. In experiment 2, the ability to discriminate different levels of current focusing was measured. In experiment 3, patients subjectively scaled verbal descriptors of stimuli of various levels of current focusing. Both discrimination and scaling of verbal descriptors correlated well with SOE reduction, suggesting that either technique have the potential to be used clinically to quickly predict which patients would receive benefit from a current focusing strategy. PMID:22230370

  4. Review of Current Student-Monitoring Techniques used in eLearning-Focused recommender Systems and Learning analytics. The Experience API & LIME model Case Study

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    Alberto Corbi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems require input information in order to properly operate and deliver content or behaviour suggestions to end users. eLearning scenarios are no exception. Users are current students and recommendations can be built upon paths (both formal and informal, relationships, behaviours, friends, followers, actions, grades, tutor interaction, etc. A recommender system must somehow retrieve, categorize and work with all these details. There are several ways to do so: from raw and inelegant database access to more curated web APIs or even via HTML scrapping. New server-centric user-action logging and monitoring standard technologies have been presented in past years by several groups, organizations and standard bodies. The Experience API (xAPI, detailed in this article, is one of these. In the first part of this paper we analyse current learner-monitoring techniques as an initialization phase for eLearning recommender systems. We next review standardization efforts in this area; finally, we focus on xAPI and the potential interaction with the LIME model, which will be also summarized below.

  5. Current scaling of plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiuma, C.; Herold, H.; Kaeppeler, H.J.; Shakhatre, M.; Auluck, S.K.H.

    1990-03-01

    In continuation of the work by G. Decker et al. on current and neutron yield scaling of plasma focus devices an analytical solution for the circuit equation (with resistance R = 0) in the compression phase was derived. Together with the solution for the rundown phase from G. Decker et al, which was extended for finite resistance (R ≠ 0), there follows an analytical scaling theory for maximum and pinch currents. At the same time there exists the possibility to discuss the influence of finite resistance on current variation and scaling parameters. The model solutions were checked out by numerical integrations of the current equation. While at the beginning of the rundown phase the ohmic resistance cannot be neglected (the magnitude R/L plays an important role), its influence at the end of the rundown phase and in the compression phase is negligible. The theoretically determined values are compared with the results of numerous probe measurements. (orig.)

  6. Current strategies for the diagnosis and management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, with a focus on poor-risk CLL: A review

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    Fabienne Mc Clanahan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial advancement in the understanding and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, a standard curative approach does not exist. The choice of treatment is generally based on the existence of biological and genetic factors associated with the prediction of prognosis, individual response to therapy, and duration of remission. About 20% of patients that require treatment have an aggressive disease course and die within a few years, despite early initiation of intensive therapy (poor-risk CLL. Poor-risk CLL can be predicted by the presence of genomic markers, and the quality and duration of response to purine-analogue-based treatment. Within this patient subgroup alternative treatment approaches such as alemtuzumab or new substances such as flavopiridol or IMiDs® should be considered. To date, the only treatment bearing curative potential is allogeneic stem cell transplantation; in contrast to conventional immunochemotherapy, it can provide long-term disease control, even in patients with del 17p or other unfavorable biological and clinical risk factors. The aim of this review was to outline the current strategies for the diagnosis and management of CLL, with a focus on high-risk CLL.

  7. Current strategies for the diagnosis and management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with a focus on poor-risk CLL: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanahan, Fabienne Mc; Dreger, Peter

    2011-06-05

    Despite substantial advancement in the understanding and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a standard curative approach does not exist. The choice of treatment is generally based on the existence of biological and genetic factors associated with the prediction of prognosis, individual response to therapy, and duration of remission. About 20% of patients that require treatment have an aggressive disease course and die within a few years, despite early initiation of intensive therapy (poor-risk CLL). Poor-risk CLL can be predicted by the presence of genomic markers, and the quality and duration of response to purine-analogue-based treatment. Within this patient subgroup alternative treatment approaches such as alemtuzumab or new substances such as flavopiridol or IMiDs® should be considered. To date, the only treatment bearing curative potential is allogeneic stem cell transplantation; in contrast to conventional immunochemotherapy, it can provide long-term disease control, even in patients with del 17p or other unfavorable biological and clinical risk factors. The aim of this review was to outline the current strategies for the diagnosis and management of CLL, with a focus on high-risk CLL.

  8. Optimizing Glycemic Control Through Titration of Insulin Glargine 100 U/mL: A Review of Current and Future Approaches with a Focus on Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Bajpai, Shailendra; Dwipayana, I Made Pande; Hussein, Zanariah; Mabunay, Maria Aileen; Rosales, Reynaldo; Tsai, Shih-Tzer; Tsang, Man Wo

    2017-12-01

    Various data have demonstrated inadequate glycemic control amongst Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), possibly on account of suboptimal titration of basal insulin-an issue which needs to be further examined. Here we review the available global and Asia-specific data on titration of basal insulin, with a focus on the use of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100). We also discuss clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of titrating Gla-100, different approaches to titration, including some of the latest technological advancements, and guidance on the titration of basal insulin from international and local Asian guidelines. The authors also provide their recommendations for the initiation and titration of basal insulin for Asian populations. Discussion of the data included in this review and in relation to the authors' clinical experience with treating T2DM in Asian patients is also included. Briefly, clinical studies demonstrate the achievement of adequate glycemic control in adults with T2DM through titration of Gla-100. However, studies investigating approaches to titration, specifically in Asian populations, are lacking and need to be conducted. Given that the management of insulin therapy is a multidisciplinary team effort involving endocrinologists, primary care physicians, nurse educators, and patients, greater resources and education targeted at these groups are needed regarding the optimal titration of basal insulin. Technological advancements in the form of mobile or web-based applications for automated dose adjustment can aid different stakeholders in optimizing the dose of basal insulin, enabling a larger number of patients in Asia to reach their target glycemic goals with improved outcomes.

  9. Electric current sensors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The review makes a brief overview of traditional methods of measurement of electric current and shows in more detail relatively new types of current sensors. These include Hall sensors with field concentrators, AMR current sensors, magneto-optical and superconducting current sensors. The influence of the magnetic core properties on the error of the current transformer shows why nanocrystalline materials are so advantageous for this application. Built-in CMOS current sensors are important tools for monitoring the health of integrated circuits. Of special industrial value are current clamps which can be installed without breaking the measured conductor. Parameters of current sensors are also discussed, including geometrical selectivity. This parameter specific for current sensors means the ability to suppress the influence of currents external to the sensor (including the position of the return conductor) and also suppress the influence on the position of the measured conductor with respect to the current. (topical review)

  10. Neonicotinoids in the Canadian aquatic environment: a literature review on current use products with a focus on fate, exposure, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J C; Dubetz, C; Palace, V P

    2015-02-01

    Developed to replace organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids are structurally similar to nicotine. The three main neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, are being re-evaluated by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). An important aspect of the re-evaluation is the potential for effects in non-target organisms, including aquatic organisms. Leaching into surface waters is one of the major concerns surrounding extensive use of neonicotinoids, especially in close proximity to water bodies. The PMRA has classified IMI as 'persistent' with a 'high' leaching potential. Globally, neonicotinoids have been detected in a variety of water bodies, typically at concentrations in the low μg/L range. While IMI has been included in some monitoring exercises, there are currently very few published data for the presence of CLO and THM in Canadian water bodies. The majority of neonicotinoid toxicity studies have been conducted with IMI due to its longer presence on the market and high prevalence of use. Aquatic insects are particularly vulnerable to neonicotinoids and chronic toxicity has been observed at concentrations of IMI below 1 μg/L. Acute toxicity has been reported at concentrations below 20 μg/L for the most sensitive species, including Hyalella azteca, ostracods, and Chironomus riparius. Fish, algae, amphibians, and molluscs are relatively insensitive to IMI. However, the biological effects of THM and CLO have not been as well explored. The Canadian interim water quality guideline for IMI is 0.23 μg/L, but there is currently insufficient use, fate, and toxicological information available to establish guidelines for CLO and THM. Based on concentrations of neonicotinoids reported in surface waters in Canada and globally, there is potential for aquatic invertebrates to be negatively impacted by neonicotinoids. Therefore, it is necessary to address knowledge gaps to inform decisions around guidelines

  11. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) FY1999 Midyear Review Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlahta, Stephan N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Midyear Review was to improve the quality and responsiveness of TFA technical solutions to identified user needs. This review goal was achieved through executing a multi-phased review approach. The first phase of the midyear review focused on the subset of FY99 work identified by Department of energy users as having continuing benefit in FY00-01. The TFA FY00-02 Technical Responses identified FY99 work that had continued applicability based on the most current set of site user needs. Each TFA FY00-02 Technical Response which included FY work scope was reviewed by the TFA Technical Advisory Group (TAG), in a meeting held in February 1999. Made up of technical experts from across the country, the TAG provides high-quality, short-turnaround, independent technical reviews for the TFA

  12. Dense plasma focus - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendys, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)

  13. Internet Addiction: A Current Review

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    Hasan Bozkurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 235-247

  14. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: A Current Review

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    Katie M. Twomley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM is a rare but potentially lethal complication of pregnancy occurring in approximately 1 : 3,000 live births in the United States although some series report a much higher incidence. African-American women are particularly at risk. Diagnosis requires symptoms of heart failure in the last month of pregnancy or within five months of delivery in the absence of recognized cardiac disease prior to pregnancy as well as objective evidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. This paper provides an updated, comprehensive review of PPCM, including emerging insights into the etiology of this disorder as well as current treatment options.

  15. Remote sub-wavelength focusing of ultrasonically activated Lorentz current

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    Rekhi, Angad S.; Arbabian, Amin

    2017-04-01

    We propose the use of a combination of ultrasonic and magnetic fields in conductive media for the creation of RF electrical current via the Lorentz force, in order to achieve current generation with extreme sub-wavelength resolution at large depth. We demonstrate the modeling, generation, and measurement of Lorentz current in a conductive solution and show that this current can be localized at a distance of 13 cm from the ultrasonic source to a region about three orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding wavelength of electromagnetic waves at the same operation frequency. Our results exhibit greater depth, tighter localization, and closer agreement with prediction than previous work on the measurement of Lorentz current in a solution of homogeneous conductivity. The proposed method of RF current excitation overcomes the trade-off between focusing and propagation that is fundamental in the use of RF electromagnetic excitation alone and has the potential to improve localization and depth of operation for RF current-based biomedical applications.

  16. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Current Review

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    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electroconvulsive therapy guidelines state that severe major depression with psychotic features, manic delirium, or catatonia are conditions where there is a clear consensus favoring early electroconvulsive therapy. The decision to administer electroconvulsive therapy is based on an evaluation of the risks and benefits for the individual patient and involves a combination of factors, including psychiatric diagnosis, type and severity of symptoms, prior treatment history and response, identification of possible alternative treatment options, and consumer preference. In this review history, mechanisms of action, side effects that have been referenced in the literature and clinical experience are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 107-125

  17. Rotating flux-focusing eddy current probe for flaw detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil, The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head.

  18. Ion clusters, REB, and current sheath characteristics in focused discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolotti, A.; Brzosko, J.; DeChiara, P.; Kilic, H.; Mezzetti, F.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.; Zeng, D.

    1990-01-01

    Small fluctuations in the current sheath characteristics (peak current density, FWHM of leading sheath, control parameters of sheath internal structure) are linked to wide fluctuations of ion and ion cluster emission from the pinch. Magnetic probe data are used for correlating variations of current sheath parameters with particle emission intensity, Z/M composition, particle energy spectrum. The emission of ion and ion clusters at 90 degrees from the axis of a plasma focus discharge is monitored simultaneously with the 0 degrees emission. The particle energy spectrum is analyzed with a Thomson (parabola) spectrometer (time resolution ∼ 1 nanosec). The cross-sectional structure of the REB at 180 degrees along the discharge axis is monitored via the deposition of collective-field accelerated ions on a target in the REB direction. Etched tracks of ion and ion clusters are in all cases recorded on CR-39 plates. Sharp peaks of the D + -ion spectrum at 90 degrees are found for E > 200 keV/unit charge in all focused discharges. These peaks are due to ion crossing of the azimuthal magnetic field of the pinch region, in a predominant ion cluster structure

  19. Oscillation of the current sheet velocity in plasma focus discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melzacki, K.; Nardi, V.

    1994-01-01

    The oscillation of the propagation speed of the plasma focus current sheet has been recorded with schlieren photography. The sheet stuttering in the propagation during the implosion phase has a frequency of about 60 MHz. The effect could be recorded due to application of long exposure time (60 ns) technique. It is not detectable in the subnanosecond pictures. The pictures are taken in black schlieren. The probing range of the electron density gradient, with integration along the path of the 1 J, Q-switched ruby laser beam, has been selected by the size of the stop and aperture within 3 x 10 18 cm -3 and 3 x 10 20 cm -3 . Raising the sensitivity threshold to 2 x 10 19 cm -3 (refraction angle of 4 mrad) has helped to clear the pictures by limiting their image to high gradients of density only. With this technique (and other diagnostic methods) the dynamics of 6 kJ, 16 kV plasma focus discharges in deuterium at 5 torr, with a 10% decrease of the magnetic insulation at the breech has been investigated. The average implosion velocity of the current sheath obtained with this effect, 5 x 10 6 cm/s, is consistent with those measured by the smear effect, and the electric probe. The electron density gradient has been determined at several instants; at the pinch time it is (3 ± 1.5) x 10 20 cm -4 . The data are discussed on the basis of several pictures

  20. Summary of the working group on high current transport and final focus lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garren, A.A.

    1978-09-01

    The group reviewed recent work, and then addressed itself to relating the current understanding of relevant beam transport effects to the four reference concepts. In addition there was discussion on plans for future experimental and theoretical work. Discussions covered the following topics: (1) Transverse instabilities on intense beams through periodic focusing systems, (2) evaluation and correction of chromatic aberrations in the final beam transport lines, (3) evaluation and correction of geometric aberrations due to quadrupole fringe fields, and (4) ion focusing by electrons

  1. Plasma-current structures of plasma focus during the current disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokhin, O.N.; Kalachev, N.V.; Malafeev, Yu.S.; Nikulin, V.Ya; Polukhin, S.N.; Tsybenko, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of the plasma structures arising during the current disruption in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The study was performed using the laser-shadow and interferometry methods together with measurements of current and X-ray radiation. An analysis of the experimental results shows that for the construction of a multi mega-amperes current disruption device, the Filippov type of DPF (in comparison with the Mather type) is to be preferred since the processes occurring in the X-ray regime are much faster than in the pinch regime, and this type of plasma focus is geometrically more suitable for the assembly of such a current disrupter.This disrupter is now under construction, based on the 'Tulip' DPF installation

  2. Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V. A.

    2008-04-01

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement—MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy.

  3. Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement--MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy

  4. Review of reasearch and technical development focused

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    Slavkovský Marián

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of flotation tetrahedrite concentrates produced from the of ore mined in the Rudňany and Rožňava ore deposits is a very complex technological problem. This problem has not been solved succesfuly so far. The presence and quality of undesired metal components such as antimony and mercury in the product of a wet ore dressing is a limiting factor for subsequent metalurgical process to obtain pure metal copper and/or silver in copper smelter plants. This factor has been the principal reason of a great effort provided in this respects by both, manufacturers and reaserchers mainly in the last 25 years. This article is focused on the summary of mentioned activities.

  5. Mediterranea Forecasting System: a focus on wave-current coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emanuela; Delrosso, Damiano; Pistoia, Jenny; Drudi, Massimiliano; Fratianni, Claudia; Grandi, Alessandro; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Tonani, Marina

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) is a numerical ocean prediction system that produces analyses, reanalyses and short term forecasts for the entire Mediterranean Sea and its Atlantic Ocean adjacent areas. MFS became operational in the late 90's and has been developed and continuously improved in the framework of a series of EU and National funded programs and is now part of the Copernicus Marine Service. The MFS is composed by the hydrodynamic model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) 2-way coupled with the third generation wave model WW3 (WaveWatchIII) implemented in the Mediterranean Sea with 1/16 horizontal resolution and forced by ECMWF atmospheric fields. The model solutions are corrected by the data assimilation system (3D variational scheme adapted to the oceanic assimilation problem) with a daily assimilation cycle, using a background error correlation matrix varying seasonally and in different sub-regions of the Mediterranean Sea. The focus of this work is to present the latest modelling system upgrades and the related achieved improvements. In order to evaluate the performance of the coupled system a set of experiments has been built by coupling the wave and circulation models that hourly exchange the following fields: the sea surface currents and air-sea temperature difference are transferred from NEMO model to WW3 model modifying respectively the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter; while the neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 model is passed to NEMO that computes the turbulent component. In order to validate the modelling system, numerical results have been compared with in-situ and remote sensing data. This work suggests that a coupled model might be capable of a better description of wave-current interactions, in particular feedback from the ocean to the waves might assess an improvement on the prediction capability of wave characteristics, while suggests to proceed toward a fully

  6. BOOK REVIEW: The Current Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersons, Oskars

    1989-01-01

    This 120-page book is a concise, yet comprehensive, clearly-written and well-illustrated monograph that covers the subject matter from basic principles through design, construction and calibration details to the principal applications. The book will be useful, as a primer, to the uninitiated and, as a reference book to the practitioner involved with transformer-type ratio devices. The length of the book and the style of presentation will not overburden any informed reader. The described techniques and the cited references are primarily from the work at the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Any omissions, however, are not serious with respect to coverage of the subject matter, since most of the development work has been done at NRC. The role of transformers and transformer-like devices for establishing accurate voltage and current ratios has been recognized for over half a century. Transformer techniques were much explored and developed in the fifties and sixties for accuracy levels suitable for standards laboratories. Three-winding voltage transformers were developed for scaling of impedances in connection with the calculable Thompson Lampard capacitor; three-winding current transformers or current comparators were initially explored for the calibration of current transformers and later for specialized impedance measurements. Extensive development of the current comparator and its applications has been and is still being conducted at the NRC by a team that was started and, until his retirement, led by N L Kusters. The team is now led by W J M Moore. He and P N Miljanic, the authors of this book, have had the principal roles in the development of the current comparator. It is fortunate for the field of metrology that considerabe resources and a talented group of researchers were available to do this development along with mechanisms that were available to transfer this technology to a private sector instrument manufacturer and, thus, disseminate it world wide

  7. Review of current drive theory: selected topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    Two themes in current drive theory in tokamaks are reviewed, both relevant to the progression of tokamak experiments toward the reactor regime. First, the physics of the tail electrons is reviewed. These electrons are capable of carrying enormous rf-driven electric current, and, in the course of current-drive experiments worldwide not only has the current drive effect been demonstrated, but the underlying physical description of these tail electrons has been established. Second, anticipating the presence of the energetic alpha particles that result from D-T reactions in a reactor, certain mechanisms through which these alpha particles can be used to facilitate current-drive are reviewed. (Author)

  8. Review: Current Advances in Gloriosa superba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA K. RAI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Gloriosa superba L. is an important medicinal plant of Asia and Africa. It is used in diseases, like cancer, gout, scrofula and act as antipyretic, antihelmintic, purgative and antiabortive. It is a source of colchicines and colchicocides, which are very costly, being highly demanded by pharma industries. Due to excessive use of the plant for diverse medicinal purposes the species is on the verge of extinction and included in Red Data Book. The strenuous efforts of botanists, biotechnologists, policy makers and conservationists are required. It is a matter of great concern to conserve this plant otherwise we will be loosing it by 2020.The present review is focused on current status of the genus, source of alkaloids, poisonous nature, the strategies for its conservation and future perspectives of G. superba.

  9. Avoidant Personality Disorder: a Current Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbrecht, Anna; Schulze, Lars; Boettcher, Johanna; Renneberg, Babette

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on recent research on diagnostic aspects, etiology, and treatment of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). Current studies stress the close relation between AVPD and social anxiety disorder, the influence of genetic factors in the development of AVPD, and the relative stability of symptoms. Treatment approaches should target the pervasive patterns of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation. Empirical evidence for cognitive-behavior and schema therapy is promising. Few other therapeutic approaches have been developed, but until now, these have only been investigated in case studies. We conclude that AVPD qualifies as a neglected disorder and that more research specifically on avoidant personality disorder symptoms and its treatment is needed.

  10. [Focused ultrasound therapy: current status and potential applications in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervishi, E; Aubry, J-F; Delattre, J-Y; Boch, A-L

    2013-12-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is an innovative approach for tissue ablation, based on high intensity focused ultrasound beams. At the focus, HIFU induces a temperature elevation and the tissue can be thermally destroyed. In fact, this approach has been tested in a number of clinical studies for the treatment of several tumors, primarily the prostate, uterine, breast, bone, liver, kidney and pancreas. For transcranial brain therapy, the skull bone is a major limitation, however, new adaptive techniques of phase correction for focusing ultrasound through the skull have recently been implemented by research systems, paving the way for HIFU therapy to become an interesting alternative to brain surgery and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Focusing on Content: Discourse in L2 Peer Review Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on peer review groups in second language classes have focused on various topics, including collaboration (Carr, 2008) and the effect of peer review versus teacher feedback on students' writing (Zhang, 1995). One area that has received little attention is the content of students' speech during peer review. This longitudinal case…

  12. MR-guided focused ultrasound. Current and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumm, C.G.; Peller, M.; Clevert, D.A.; Stahl, R.; Reiser, M.; Napoli, A.; Matzko, M.

    2013-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (synonyms FUS and HIFU) under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance (synonyms MRgFUS and MR-HIFU) is a completely non-invasive technology for accurate thermal ablation of a target tissue while neighboring tissues and organs are preserved. The combination of FUS with MRI for planning, (near) real-time monitoring and outcome assessment of treatment markedly enhances the safety of the procedure. The MRgFUS procedure is clinically established in particular for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, followed by palliative ablation of painful bone metastases. Furthermore, promising results have been shown for the treatment of adenomyosis, malignant tumors of the prostate, breast and liver and for various intracranial applications, such as thermal ablation of brain tumors, functional neurosurgery and transient disruption of the blood-brain barrier. (orig.) [de

  13. [MR-guided focused ultrasound. Current and future applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumm, C G; Napoli, A; Peller, M; Clevert, D-A; Stahl, R; Reiser, M; Matzko, M

    2013-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (synonyms FUS and HIFU) under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance (synonyms MRgFUS and MR-HIFU) is a completely non-invasive technology for accurate thermal ablation of a target tissue while neighboring tissues and organs are preserved. The combination of FUS with MRI for planning, (near) real-time monitoring and outcome assessment of treatment markedly enhances the safety of the procedure. The MRgFUS procedure is clinically established in particular for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, followed by palliative ablation of painful bone metastases. Furthermore, promising results have been shown for the treatment of adenomyosis, malignant tumors of the prostate, breast and liver and for various intracranial applications, such as thermal ablation of brain tumors, functional neurosurgery and transient disruption of the blood-brain barrier.

  14. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  15. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  16. A review of the quantum current standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Nobu-Hisa; Nakamura, Shuji; Okazaki, Yuma

    2016-01-01

    The electric current, voltage, and resistance standards are the most important standards related to electricity and magnetism. Of these three standards, only the ampere, which is the unit of electric current, is an International System of Units (SI) base unit. However, even with modern technology, relatively large uncertainty exists regarding the generation and measurement of current. As a result of various innovative techniques based on nanotechnology and novel materials, new types of junctions for quantum current generation and single-electron current sources have recently been proposed. These newly developed methods are also being used to investigate the consistency of the three quantum electrical effects, i.e. the Josephson, quantum Hall, and single-electron tunneling effects, which are also known as ‘the quantum metrology triangle’. This article describes recent research and related developments regarding current standards and quantum-metrology-triangle experiments. (topical review)

  17. Review of tolerances at the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Roy, G.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors review the tolerances associated with the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). The authors have computed the acceptability window of the input beam for orbit jitter, emittance beta functions mismatch, incoming dispersion and coupling; tolerances on magnet alignment, strength and multipole content; and the initial tuneability capture of the line

  18. Review of tolerances at the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Roy, G.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-05-01

    We review the tolerances associated with the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). We have computed the acceptability window of the input beam for orbit jitter, emittance beta functions mismatch, incoming dispersion and coupling; tolerances on magnet alignment, strength and multipole content; and the initial tuneability capture of the line. 2 refs., 1 fig

  19. Tanks Focus Area FY98 midyear technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlahta, S.N.; Brouns, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) serves as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s national technology and solution development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. In total, 17 technologies and technical solutions were selected for review. The purpose of each review was to understand the state of development of each technology selected for review and to identify issues to be resolved before the technology or technical solution progressed to the next level of maturity. The reviewers provided detailed technical and programmatic recommendations and comments. The disposition of these recommendations and comments and their impact on the program is documented in this report.

  20. Tanks Focus Area FY98 midyear technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlahta, S.N.; Brouns, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) serves as the DOE's Office of Environmental Management's national technology and solution development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. In total, 17 technologies and technical solutions were selected for review. The purpose of each review was to understand the state of development of each technology selected for review and to identify issues to be resolved before the technology or technical solution progressed to the next level of maturity. The reviewers provided detailed technical and programmatic recommendations and comments. The disposition of these recommendations and comments and their impact on the program is documented in this report

  1. Family-focused practices in addictions: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgiantakis, Toula; Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2018-01-13

    Families are significantly impacted by addictions and family involvement in treatment can reduce the harms and can also improve treatment entry, treatment completion and treatment outcomes for the individual coping with an addiction. Although the benefits of family-focused practices in addictions have been documented, services continue to have an individual focus and research on this topic is also limited. The objective of this study is to map the extent, range and nature of evidence available examining family interventions in addictions and identify gaps to guide future research, policy and practice. This is a scoping review using the five-stage framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley. We will include published and unpublished empirical studies focusing on any type of family interventions in addiction treatment between 2000 and the present in English or French. A reviewer will search for literature that meets the inclusion criteria through the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Services Abstracts. For a comprehensive search, we will also hand-search reference lists, web sites and key journals. Data will be charted and sorted using a thematic analysis approach. This review will be the first to examine all forms of family-focused practices for both substance use and problem gambling treatment for adults. It will provide information about existing service provisions and gaps in practice. This review can be used to start moving towards the development of best practices for families in addiction treatment. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal and at mental health and addiction conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Family-focused practices in addictions: a scoping review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Families are significantly impacted by addictions and family involvement in treatment can reduce the harms and can also improve treatment entry, treatment completion and treatment outcomes for the individual coping with an addiction. Although the benefits of family-focused practices in addictions have been documented, services continue to have an individual focus and research on this topic is also limited. The objective of this study is to map the extent, range and nature of evidence available examining family interventions in addictions and identify gaps to guide future research, policy and practice. Methods and analysis This is a scoping review using the five-stage framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley. We will include published and unpublished empirical studies focusing on any type of family interventions in addiction treatment between 2000 and the present in English or French. A reviewer will search for literature that meets the inclusion criteria through the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Services Abstracts. For a comprehensive search, we will also hand-search reference lists, web sites and key journals. Data will be charted and sorted using a thematic analysis approach. Ethics and dissemination This review will be the first to examine all forms of family-focused practices for both substance use and problem gambling treatment for adults. It will provide information about existing service provisions and gaps in practice. This review can be used to start moving towards the development of best practices for families in addiction treatment. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal and at mental health and addiction conferences. PMID:29331973

  3. Situational Factors in Focus Group Studies: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Orvik MPolSc; Lillebeth Larun PhD; Astrid Berland MSc; Karin C. Ringsberg PhD

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see how contextual factors are expressed, used, and analyzed in data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs). The study includes an assessment of how the methodological reporting of contextual factors might influence and improve the trustworthiness of articles. Articles reporting workplace health, stress, and coping among health professionals were identified in a systematic review and used in the analysis. By using Vicsek's framework of situational factors for...

  4. Situational Factors in Focus Group Studies: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Orvik MPolSc

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see how contextual factors are expressed, used, and analyzed in data collected in focus group discussions (FGDs. The study includes an assessment of how the methodological reporting of contextual factors might influence and improve the trustworthiness of articles. Articles reporting workplace health, stress, and coping among health professionals were identified in a systematic review and used in the analysis. By using Vicsek's framework of situational factors for analysis of focus group results as a starting point, we found that contextual factors were most frequently described in the method sections and less frequently in the results and discussion sections. Vicsek's framework for the analysis of focus group results covers six contextual and methodological dimensions: interactional factors, personal characteristics of the participants, the moderator, the environment, time factors, and the content of FGDs. We found that the framework does not include a consideration of psychological safety, ethical issues, or organizational information. To deepen the analysis of focus group results, we argue that contextual factors should be analyzed as methodological dimensions and be considered as a sensitizing concept. Credibility, confirmability, dependability, and transferability can be strengthened by using, reporting, and discussing contextual factors in detail. The study contributes to elucidating how reporting of contextual data may enrich the analysis of focus group results and strengthen the trustworthiness. Future research should focus on clear reporting of contextual factors as well as further develop Vicsek's model to enhance reporting accuracy and transferability.

  5. Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-IV has been criticized foremost for its limitations in capturing the range and complexity of narcissistic pathology. The attention to the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns--at the expense of his or her internal complexity and individual suffering--has also added to the diagnosis' low clinical utility and limited guidance for treatment. Recent studies and reviews have pointed to the need for change in the diagnostic approach to and formulation of narcissism. This review focuses specifically on studies of features that add to the identification, understanding, and treatment of patients with pathological narcissistic functioning and narcissistic personality disorder. They have been integrated into a regulatory model that includes the functions and fluctuations of internal control, self-esteem, perfectionism with accompanying self-criticism, shame, and empathic ability and functioning.

  6. Review of actinide nitride properties with focus on safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiol, Thierry [CEA Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report provides a review of the potential advantages of using actinide nitrides as fuels and/or targets for nuclear waste transmutation. Then a summary of available properties of actinide nitrides is given. Results from irradiation experiments are reviewed and safety relevant aspects of nitride fuels are discussed, including design basis accidents (transients) and severe (core disruptive) accidents. Anyway, as rather few safety studies are currently available and as many basic physical data are still missing for some actinide nitrides, complementary studies are proposed. (author)

  7. Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested

  8. A review of ocean energy converters, with an Australian focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knight

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The requirement to move away from carbon based fossil fuels has led to a renewed interest in unconventional energy sources. Of interest in this article are ocean waves and current and tidal flows. This paper reviews the numerous options for ocean energy conversion systems that are currently available. A basic nomenclature for the variety of systems is utilized to classify the devices. A variety of issues including competing use, boating, fishing, commercial shipping and tourism are discussed with respect to impacts on and from ocean renewable energy.

  9. Antisocial personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Johnson, Alexandria K; Raine, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) classification of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) describes individuals who engage in repetitive irresponsible, delinquent, and criminal behavior. The diagnosis is highly controversial, with many researchers and clinicians arguing that the category is too heterogeneous, overinclusive, and demonstrates considerable overlap with other disorders. This review focuses on recent studies that have improved our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who fit the ASPD definition by exploring how subtypes differ and how comorbid conditions influence the presentation of ASPD. In addition, we discuss research on the etiology of ASPD that has identified genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial behavior, and brain imaging research that has improved our understanding of the relationships between ASPD and other psychopathology. Finally, we discuss promising preliminary research on treatment for this disorder.

  10. Current biodiesel production technologies: A comparative review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaszaadeh, Ahmad; Ghobadian, Barat; Omidkhah, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Gholamhassan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this paper we review the technologies related to biodiesel production. ► 4 Primary approaches reviewed are direct use and blending of oils, micro-emulsions, pyrolysis and transesterification method. ► Both advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel production methods are also discussed. ► The most common technology of biodiesel production is transesterification of oils. ► Selection of a transesterification method depends on the amount of FFA and water content of the feedstock. - Abstract: Despite the high energy demand in the industrialized world and the pollution problems caused by widespread use of fossil fuels, the need for developing renewable energy sources with less environmental impacts are increasing. Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid and extensive technological reforms in industries and academia. The major obstacle in production and biodiesel commercialization path is production cost. Thus, in previous years numerous studies on the use of technologies and different methods to evaluate optimal conditions of biodiesel production technically and economically have been carried out. In this paper, a comparative review of the current technological methods so far used to produce biodiesel has been investigated. Four primary approaches to make biodiesel are direct use and blending of vegetable oils, micro-emulsions, thermal cracking (pyrolysis) and transesterification. Transesterification reaction, the most common method in the production of biodiesel, is emphasized in this review. The two types of transestrification process; catalytic and non-catalytic are discussed at length in the paper. Both advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel production methods are also discussed.

  11. Automatic Speech Recognition from Neural Signals: A Focused Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herff

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech interfaces have become widely accepted and are nowadays integrated in various real-life applications and devices. They have become a part of our daily life. However, speech interfaces presume the ability to produce intelligible speech, which might be impossible due to either loud environments, bothering bystanders or incapabilities to produce speech (i.e.~patients suffering from locked-in syndrome. For these reasons it would be highly desirable to not speak but to simply envision oneself to say words or sentences. Interfaces based on imagined speech would enable fast and natural communication without the need for audible speech and would give a voice to otherwise mute people.This focused review analyzes the potential of different brain imaging techniques to recognize speech from neural signals by applying Automatic Speech Recognition technology. We argue that modalities based on metabolic processes, such as functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, are less suited for Automatic Speech Recognition from neural signals due to low temporal resolution but are very useful for the investigation of the underlying neural mechanisms involved in speech processes. In contrast, electrophysiologic activity is fast enough to capture speech processes and is therefor better suited for ASR. Our experimental results indicate the potential of these signals for speech recognition from neural data with a focus on invasively measured brain activity (electrocorticography. As a first example of Automatic Speech Recognition techniques used from neural signals, we discuss the emph{Brain-to-text} system.

  12. Teaching hydrogeology: a review of current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T.; Allen, D. M.; Ferguson, G.

    2012-07-01

    Hydrogeology is now taught in a broad spectrum of departments and institutions to students with diverse backgrounds. Successful instruction in hydrogeology thus requires a variety of pedagogical approaches depending on desired learning outcomes and the background of students. We review the pedagogical literature in hydrogeology to highlight recent advances and analyze a 2005 survey among 68 hydrogeology instructors. The literature and survey results suggest there are only ~ 15 topics that are considered crucial by most hydrogeologists and > 100 other topics that are considered crucial by some hydrogeologists. The crucial topics focus on properties of aquifers and fundamentals of groundwater flow, and should likely be part of all undergraduate hydrogeology courses. Other topics can supplement and support these crucial topics, depending on desired learning outcomes. Classroom settings continue to provide a venue for emphasizing fundamental knowledge. However, recent pedagogical advances are biased towards field and laboratory instruction with a goal of bolstering experiential learning. Field methods build on the fundamentals taught in the classroom and emphasize the collection of data, data uncertainty, and the development of vocational skills. Laboratory and computer-based exercises similarly build on theory, and offer an opportunity for data analysis and integration. The literature suggests curricula at all levels should ideally balance field, laboratory, and classroom pedagogy into an iterative and integrative whole. An integrated, iterative and balanced approach leads to greater student motivation and advancement of theoretical and vocational knowledge.

  13. Robotic bariatric surgery: A general review of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Current sheath curvature correlation with the neon soft x-ray emission from plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T; Lin, X; Chandra, K A; Tan, T L; Springham, S V; Patran, A; Lee, P; Lee, S; Rawat, R S

    2005-01-01

    The insulator sleeve length is one of the major parameters that can severely affect the neon soft x-ray yield from a plasma focus. The effect of the insulation sleeve length on various characteristic timings of plasma focus discharges and hence the soft x-ray emission characteristics has been investigated using a resistive divider. The pinhole images and laser shadowgraphy are used to explain the observed variation in the average soft x-ray yield (measured using a diode x-ray spectrometer) with variation of the insulator sleeve length. We have found that for a neon filled plasma focus device the change in insulator sleeve length changes the current sheath curvature angle and thus the length of the focused plasma column. The optimized current sheath curvature angle is found to be between 39 0 and 41 0 , at the specific axial position of 6.2-9.3 cm from the cathode support plate, for our 3.3 kJ plasma focus device. A strong dependence of the neon soft x-ray yield on the current sheath curvature angle has thus been reported

  15. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  16. Spontaneous and persistent currents in superconductive and mesoscopic structures (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, I. O.

    2004-07-01

    We briefly review aspects of superconductive persistent currents in Josephson junctions of the S/I/S, S/O/S and S/N/S types, focusing on the origin of jumps in the current versus phase dependences, and discuss in more detail the persistent and the "spontaneous" currents in Aharonov-Bohm mesoscopic and nanoscopic (macromolecular) structures. A fixed-number-of-electrons mesoscopic or macromolecular conducting ring is shown to be unstable against structural transformation removing spatial symmetry (in particular, azimuthal periodicity) of its electron-lattice Hamiltonian. In the case when the transformation is blocked by strong coupling to an external azimuthally symmetric environment, the system becomes bistable in its electronic configuration at a certain number of electrons. Under such a condition, the persistent current has a nonzero value even at an (almost) zero applied Aharonov-Bohm flux and results in very high magnetic susceptibility dM/dH at small nonzero fields, followed by an oscillatory dependence at larger fields. We tentatively assume that previously observed oscillatory magnetization in cyclic metallo-organic molecules by Gatteschi et al. can be attributed to persistent currents. If this proves correct, it may present an opportunity for (and, more generally, macromolecular cyclic structures may suggest the possibility of) engineering quantum computational tools based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect in ballistic nanostructures and macromolecular cyclic aggregates.

  17. Design of high-energy high-current linac with focusing by superconducting solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batskikh, G.I.; Belugin, V.M.; Bondarev, B.I. [Moscow Radiotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The advancement of MRTI design for 1.5 GeV and 250 mA ion CW linac was presented in a previous report. In this new linac version all the way from input to output the ions are focused by magnetic fields of superconducting solenoids. The ion limit current is far beyond the needed value. The linac focusing channel offers major advantages over the more conventional ones. The acceptance is 1.7 times as large for such focusing channel as for quadrupole one. Concurrently, a random perturbation sensitivity for such channel is one order of magnitude smaller than in quadrupole channel. These focusing channel features allow to decrease beam matched radius and increase a linac radiation purity without aperture growth. {open_quotes}Regotron{close_quotes} is used as high power generator in linac main part. But D&W cavities need not be divided into sections connected by RF-bridges which denuded them of high coupling factor.

  18. Current status of high-intensity focused ultrasound for the management of uterine adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. T.

    2017-01-01

    While high-intensity focused ultrasound has been used for some time in the management of uterine fibroids, its effectiveness and safety in managing adenomyosis is less well established. A literature review was performed of all eligible reports using this modality as a treatment for adenomyosis. Relevant publications were obtained from the PubMed electronic database from inception through March 2016. Eleven articles, including information from 1,150 treatments and follow-up data from 990 patients, were reviewed. High-intensity focused ultrasound appears to be effective and safe in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis, and can be considered as an alternative uterine-sparing option for women with this condition

  19. Current status of high-intensity focused ultrasound for the management of uterine adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    While high-intensity focused ultrasound has been used for some time in the management of uterine fibroids, its effectiveness and safety in managing adenomyosis is less well established. A literature review was performed of all eligible reports using this modality as a treatment for adenomyosis. Relevant publications were obtained from the PubMed electronic database from inception through March 2016. Eleven articles, including information from 1,150 treatments and follow-up data from 990 patients, were reviewed. High-intensity focused ultrasound appears to be effective and safe in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis, and can be considered as an alternative uterine-sparing option for women with this condition.

  20. A critical literature review of focused electron beam induced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorp, W. F. van; Hagen, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review is given of the results from literature on electron beam induced deposition. Electron beam induced deposition is a complex process, where many and often mutually dependent factors are involved. The process has been studied by many over many years in many different experimental setups, so it is not surprising that there is a great variety of experimental results. To come to a better understanding of the process, it is important to see to which extent the experimental results are consistent with each other and with the existing model. All results from literature were categorized by sorting the data according to the specific parameter that was varied (current density, acceleration voltage, scan patterns, etc.). Each of these parameters can have an effect on the final deposit properties, such as the physical dimensions, the composition, the morphology, or the conductivity. For each parameter-property combination, the available data are discussed and (as far as possible) interpreted. By combining models for electron scattering in a solid, two different growth regimes, and electron beam induced heating, the majority of the experimental results were explained qualitatively. This indicates that the physical processes are well understood, although quantitatively speaking the models can still be improved. The review makes clear that several major issues remain. One issue encountered when interpreting results from literature is the lack of data. Often, important parameters (such as the local precursor pressure) are not reported, which can complicate interpretation of the results. Another issue is the fact that the cross section for electron induced dissociation is unknown. In a number of cases, a correlation between the vertical growth rate and the secondary electron yield was found, which suggests that the secondary electrons dominate the dissociation rather than the primary electrons. Conclusive evidence for this hypothesis has not been found. Finally

  1. Electromagnetic particle in cell modeling of the plasma focus: Current sheath formation and lift off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    The shaping and formation of the current sheath takes place in the breakdown phase of a plasma focus device and critically controls the device performance. Electrostatic particle in cell codes, with magnetic effects ignored, have been used to model the breakdown phase. This Letter reports the successful development and implementation of an electromagnetic particle in cell (EMPIC) code, including magnetic effects self-consistently, to simulate the breakdown phase; from the ionization, localization and gliding discharge along the insulator to the time instant of current sheath lift off. The magnetic field was found to be appreciable from the time the current sheath came into contact with the anode with increased local current, initiating the voltage breakdown of the device as a result

  2. A historical review on ''magnetic focusing method'' in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Abe, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Several topics on the development of the magnetic focusing method and its recent progress are discussed. The magnetic focusing method will be effective for measuring the local NMR parameters, and the advanced imaging technique will also be as useful as the recent conventional NMR Imaging techniques

  3. Tanks Focus Area midyear review report FY00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder-Smith, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    In accordance with EM's office of Science and Technology (OST), the TFA is committed to assessing the maturity of technology development projects and ensuring their readiness for implementation and subsequent deployment. The TFA conducts an annual Midyear Review to document the status of ongoing projects, reaffirm and document user commitment to selected projects, and to improve the effective deployment of technology by determining and documenting the readiness of selected projects to move ahead. Since 1995, OST has used a linear technology maturation model that spans through seven defined stages of maturity, from basic research to implementation. Application of this Stage/Gate model to technology development resulted in prescriptive and somewhat cumbersome review procedures, resulting in limited and inconsistent use. Subsequently, in February 2000, OST issued revised guidance in an effort to streamline the technology tracking and review process. While the new OST guidance reinforces peer review requirements and the use of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for independent reviews, it also implements a simplified Gate model. The TFA is now responsible for providing auditable documentation for passing only three stages of technology maturity: ready for research (Gate 0); ready for development (Gate 2); ready for demonstration (Gate 5). The TFA Midyear Review is a key element in the overall review procedure, as the tracking evidence for all active projects is required to be available at this time. While the Midyear Report contains an overview of the status of all TFA reviews and projects, not all the reviews were conducted during the Midyear Review. The TFA used a phased approach to accomplish the Midyear Review requirements

  4. TFA Tanks Focus Area midyear review report FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder-Smith

    2000-05-02

    In accordance with EM's office of Science and Technology (OST), the TFA is committed to assessing the maturity of technology development projects and ensuring their readiness for implementation and subsequent deployment. The TFA conducts an annual Midyear Review to document the status of ongoing projects, reaffirm and document user commitment to selected projects, and to improve the effective deployment of technology by determining and documenting the readiness of selected projects to move ahead. Since 1995, OST has used a linear technology maturation model that spans through seven defined stages of maturity, from basic research to implementation. Application of this Stage/Gate model to technology development resulted in prescriptive and somewhat cumbersome review procedures, resulting in limited and inconsistent use. Subsequently, in February 2000, OST issued revised guidance in an effort to streamline the technology tracking and review process. While the new OST guidance reinforces peer review requirements and the use of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for independent reviews, it also implements a simplified Gate model. The TFA is now responsible for providing auditable documentation for passing only three stages of technology maturity: ready for research (Gate 0); ready for development (Gate 2); ready for demonstration (Gate 5). The TFA Midyear Review is a key element in the overall review procedure, as the tracking evidence for all active projects is required to be available at this time. While the Midyear Report contains an overview of the status of all TFA reviews and projects, not all the reviews were conducted during the Midyear Review. The TFA used a phased approach to accomplish the Midyear Review requirements.

  5. Transfer and focusing of high current relativistic electron beams on a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranchikov, E.I.; Gordeev, A.V.; Koba, Yu.V.; Korolev, V.D.; Penkina, V.S.; Rudakov, L.I.; Smirnov, V.P.; Sukhov, A.D.; Tarumov, E.Z.; Bakshaeev, Yu.L.

    Research is being conducted at the I. V. Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute to investigate possibilities of creating a pulsed thermonuclear reactor based on REBs; this work involves the creation of a multimodel system using vacuum lines for transferring energy and an acute angled external magnetic field for transferring electron beams to the target. A field of this configuration can be used at the same time for accumulating a ''cloud'' of relativistic protons around the target for purposes of irradiating them. This alternative solution of the problem of target irradiation, instead of focusing beams directly on it, may prove to be highly promising. Experiments are described which were conducted recently on high current electron accelerators ''URAL'', ''MS'' and others and which were directed at investigating possibilities of transferring and focusing high current REBs, as well as effective transmission of electromagnetic energy using vacuum lines at considerable distances

  6. Reviewing the Focus: A Summary and Critique of Child-Focused Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2016-10-26

    Due to the high incidence, and widespread detrimental health consequences, of child sexual abuse (CSA), effective prevention remains at the forefront of public and mental health research, prevention and intervention agendas. To date much of the focus of prevention has been on school-based education programs designed to teach children skills to evade adult sexual advances, and disclose past or ongoing abuse. Evaluation of sexual abuse prevention programs demonstrate their effectiveness in increasing children's knowledge of CSA concepts and protection skills, but little is known about their effects on children's capacity to prevent abuse. Moreover, concerns persist about the unintended side-effects for young children such as anxiety, worry and wariness of touch. This paper summarizes the recent history of CSA prevention and the critique of child-focused protection programs in order to demonstrate the need to compliment or replace these programs by focusing more on protectors in the children's ecology, specifically parents, in order to create safer environments in which abuse is less likely to occur. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  8. Bone island (enostosis): current concept - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, A.

    1995-01-01

    A bone island can be virtually diagnosed based on its characteristic clinical and radiologic features. Typically asymptomatic, the lesion is usually an incidental finding, with a preference for the pelvis, femur, and other long bones, although it may be found anywhere in the skeleton, including the spine. Plain radiography reveals a homogeneously dense, sclerotic focus in the cancellous bone with distinctive radiating bony streaks (''thorny radiation'') that blend with the trabeculae of the host bone, creating a feathered or brush-like border. On CT scan, a bone island appears as a low-attenuation focus, and on MRI sequences it shows low signal intensity like cortical bone. A distinguishing feature of bone islands is that they are usually ''cold'' on skeletal scintigraphy. Thus, bone scan has been and continues to be the means of differentiating bone islands from the more aggressive entities. However, reports of histologically confirmed bone islands that were scintigraphically active have raised a note of caution about relying on this modality in the differential consideration of lesions otherwise characteristic of bone islands. Guides to the correct diagnosis should be looked for in the individual clinical situation and in the morphologic features of the lesion on plain radiography, CT, and MRI, without regard to the lesion's activity on bone scan. If such a lesion, however, is symptomatic and ''hot'' on scintigraphy, it demands close observation with follow-up imaging studies. (orig./VHE)

  9. Review of current and coming attractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, G.D.; Hindmarsh, A.C.

    1987-05-01

    Stiff ordinary differential equation (ODEs) can now be solved more or less routinely. This review is intended for the user who is interested in learning how to solve these systems of equations. Consequently, this review explains what stiff ODEs are and where they arise. It tells what is expected of the solftware and sketches how it works. So, several tried and true, as well as experimental, numerical methods are outlined. Perhaps the most salient feature is a set of examples that has been compiled during the last 15 years. These examples include several prototypical problems. The problems are deliberately tractable in size, yet display features of much larger problems in science and engineering. In each case, the choice of the software package, the ODE solver, is given. These choices are based on the author's combined experience and take into account problem structure. This then is a brief handbook which could be used to learn or to teach the pragmatics of numerically solving stiff ODEs. This work should be useful to line scientists, scientific computing managers, and to students. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  10. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Uterine Fibroid Treatment: Review Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z.; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Aljuhani, Manal Saud; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a highly precise medical procedure used locally to heat and destroy diseased tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU in uterine fibroid therapy, to evaluate the role of HIFU in the therapy of leiomyomas as well as to review the actual clinical activities in this field including efficacy and safety measures beside the published clinical literature. An inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation, and how it resulted in the development of extracorporeal distinct devices. Studies addressing HIFU in leiomyomas were identified from a search of the Internet scientific databases. The analysis of literature was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. In current gynecologic oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of leiomyomas. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for leiomyomas began in the 1990s, and the majority of patients with leiomyomas were treated predominantly with HIFUNIT 9000 and prototype single focus ultrasound devices. HIFU is a non-invasive and highly effective standard treatment with a large indication range for all sizes of leiomyomas, associated with high efficacy, low operative morbidity and no systemic side effects. Uterine fibroid treatment using HIFU was effective and safe in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Few studies are available in the literature regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE). HIFU provides an excellent option to treat uterine fibroids

  11. Book review: Current perspectives on zinc deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    This book, published in 2015 by the Irish Association for Economic Geology (IAEG), is a compilation of papers and abstracts written by selected authors who attended the ZINC 2010 Conference in Cork, Ireland. Unlike most books produced each decade by the IAEG, which are focused primarily on achievements of the Irish and European mineral sectors, this book has a global perspective of a single commodity—zinc. As stated in the Preface, the theme of the conference and book was quite relevant for the IAEG because Ireland has the highest concentration of zinc per square kilometer on the planet. The book contains 7 full papers and 5 extended abstracts by keynote speakers, followed by 17 extended abstracts by other presenters, plus an Appendix (reprint) of a previously published paper.

  12. Flux-focusing eddy current probe and rotating probe method for flaw detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Buzz A.; Fulton, James P.; Nath, Shridhar C.; Simpson, John W.; Namkung, Min

    1994-11-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head.

  13. Measurement of electron- and ion beam energies and currents in a plasma focus discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshikazu; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Shimoda, Katsuji; Hirano, Katsumi

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of energetic particle beams in a plsma focus with a Mather type device are presented. Rogowski coils are used for time-resolved measurement, and solid-state nuclear track detectors for time-integrated measurement of the beams. In the upstream direction with respect to the discharge current, only the electron beam with the maximum current of several kA was detected, which was approximately one percent of the discharge current. The electron energies of the beam were spread from 0.1 to 1 MeV. In the downstream direction, two successive emissions of ions were observed. The first emission had an extremely high energy of the order of some MeV and a low beam current of less than 10 A. The second emission, the main part of the ion beam, with energies of 100 - 800 keV, followed the first one with a time lag of several tens of nanoseconds, and the beam current reached several tens of amperes. (author)

  14. Current Rehabilitation Practices for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Focus and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaby, Dana; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Steven, Emma; Tremblay, Stephanie; Snider, Laurie; Avery, Lisa; Law, Mary

    2017-02-01

    To describe the focus of therapy practices in occupational and physical therapy for school-aged children with cerebral palsy, and better understand whether it is congruent with recommended practices. A Canada-wide Web-based survey was completed by 62 occupational and 61 physical therapists to identify problems, assessments, and treatment interventions for two case-based scenarios. Data were coded using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) definitions for "body functions and structure," "activity and participation," and "environment." Physical therapists, in comparison to occupational therapists, were more likely to select interventions classed in the "body functions and structure" category (34-42% and 18-20%, respectively). Both professions focused on "activity and participation" (34-61%) when identifying problems, assessing, and intervening; attention, however, was mainly directed towards task-oriented activities such as activities of daily living and mobility. Participation in leisure or community-based activities received less attention (2-15%). The environment received limited attention for problems and assessments (4-25%), though it was an important focus of intervention (19-37%). While body functions and structure are well-addressed, other ICF elements, specifically participation, are poorly integrated into practice. The emerging focus on the environment in therapy intervention, by modifying the context rather than changing aspects of the child, is consistent with current approaches and evidence. Knowledge translation implementation initiatives are recommended to bridge identified gaps.

  15. Extended trochanteric osteotomy: current concepts review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Duraisamy, Gopinath; Chandrasekharan, Jayadev; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2016-04-01

    Revision total hip arthroplasty is a technically demanding procedure which has gained importance for more than two decades. It was a nightmare for revision surgeons during its initial years of inception before the advent of extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO). This technique gains access to the femoral medullary canal without compromising the bone stock and aids removal of primary implant and cement mantle without further damaging the parent bone. Like any other surgery, ETO does have certain limitations and complications as reported by various authors. Though it has been routinely used by revision surgeons, thorough knowledge of technical details of ETO is still lacking. So this review article is aimed at addressing the indications, surgical procedure, fixation technique, implant selection and complication of ETO which has been presented over a period of years by various authors. We searched in the most commonly used portals like MEDLINE (PubMed) and Google scholar using appropriate terminologies for the literature regarding the various preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative clinical scenarios in which revision surgeons utilized ETO. ETO is an important tool in the revision surgeon's armamentarium and can be used in variety of clinical scenarios and for various intraoperative needs and goals. Awareness about biomechanics of ETO, indications, implants selection, fixation techniques and complications is paramount for good intraoperative and postoperative outcome. ETO by posterior approach continues to be a work horse approach for most revision surgeons all over the world.

  16. Technology - a review of current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.

    1986-01-01

    The book reviews the history of the efforts taken by the political and administrative authorities to acquire the technical knowledge required to fulfill their functions as competent authorities to evaluate and decide on technical feasibility and economic justification of complex technical processes, a task which constantly puts strain on the authorities, who have to keep up with the technological know-how of the industrial and technological establishments who, as it where, stand opposite to the authorities in the process of legal regulation of technological risks. The author explains the problems involved in the attempt to use existing, or establish adequate new, legal provisions to reconcile the interests of the law with those of the economy. The leading example for this purpose is the air pollution control laws. Further aspects discussed are steps taken from a technicalization of the law towards a proceduralization, and attempts towards a control of technology in a democratic constitutional state. The chapter on the 'risk to be tolerated' in the law on licensing of nuclear installations has been separately analysed and abstracted for the database. (HSCH) [de

  17. Dynamics of the plasma current sheath in plasma focus discharges in different gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, V. P.; Krauz, V. I., E-mail: krauz-vi@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Mokeev, A. N. [Project Center ITER (Russian Federation); Myalton, V. V.; Kharrasov, A. M. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The shape of the plasma current sheath (PCS) in the final stage of its radial compression, the dynamics of pinching, and the subsequent pinch decay in plasma focus (PF) discharges in different gases are studied using an improved multichannel system of electron-optical plasma photography and a newly elaborated synchronization system. The PCS structure in discharges in heavy gases (Ne, Ar) is found to differ significantly from that in discharges in hydrogen and deuterium. The influence of a heavy gas (Xe) additive to hydrogen and deuterium on the structure and compression dynamics of the PCS is investigated.

  18. Current advances in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: focused on considerations targeting Aβ and tau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Qi Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder that impairs mainly the memory and cognitive function in elderly. Extracellular beta amyloid deposition and intracellular tau hyperphosphorylation are the two pathological events that are thought to cause neuronal dysfunction in AD. Since the detailed mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of AD are still not clear, the current treatments are those drugs that can alleviate the symptoms of AD patients. Recent studies have indicated that these symptom-reliving drugs also have the ability of regulating amyloid precursor protein processing and tau phosphorylation. Thus the pharmacological mechanism of these drugs may be too simply-evaluated. This review summarizes the current status of AD therapy and some potential preclinical considerations that target beta amyloid and tau protein are also discussed.

  19. Response to Absorber-Focus Coil Preliminary Safety Review Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Giles; Baynham, Elwyn; Black, Edgar; Bradshaw, Tom; Cummings, Mary Anne; Green, Michael A.; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Lau, Wing; Zisman, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    In this document we provide responses to the various issues raised in the report of the Preliminary Safety Review Panel (see http://mice.iit.edu/mnp/MICE0069.pdf). In some cases we have made design changes in response to the Panels suggestions. In other cases, we have chosen not to do so. In a few cases, we indicate our plans, although the tasks have not yet been completed. For simplicity, the responses are organized along the same lines as those of the Panel Report

  20. Low-Frequency Pulsed Current Versus Kilohertz-Frequency Alternating Current: A Scoping Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Frasson, Viviane Bortoluzzi

    2018-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of low-frequency pulsed current versus kilohertz-frequency alternating current in terms of evoked force, discomfort level, current intensity, and muscle fatigability; to discuss the physiological mechanisms of each neuromuscular electrical stimulation type; and to determine if kilohertz-frequency alternating current is better than low-frequency pulsed current for clinical treatment. Articles were obtained from PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SPORTSDiscus databases using the terms Russian current or kilohertz current or alternating current or pulsed current or Aussie current and torque or discomfort or fatigue or current intensity, and through citation tracking up to July 2017. Two independent reviewers selected studies comparing the use of the 2 neuromuscular electrical stimulation currents. Studies describing maximal current intensity tolerated and the main effects of the 2 different current types on discomfort, muscle force, and fatigability were independently reviewed. Data were systematized according to (1) methodology; (2) electrical current characteristics; and (3) outcomes on discomfort level, evoked force, current intensity, and muscle fatigability. The search revealed 15 articles comparing the 2 current types. Kilohertz-frequency alternated current generated equal or less force, similar discomfort, similar current intensity for maximal tolerated neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and more fatigue compared with low-frequency pulsed current. Similar submaximal levels of evoked force revealed higher discomfort and current intensity for kilohertz-frequency alternated current compared with low-frequency pulsed current. Available evidence does not support the idea that kilohertz-frequency alternated current is better than low-frequency pulsed current for strength training and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  1. Aptamer therapeutics: A review of current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.; Missailidis, S.

    2007-01-01

    meet the criteria for robust, generic drug discovery technology and open new horizons for the development of future radiopharmaceuticals. We have shown that aptamers directed against the MUC1 antigen, a tumour marker previously extensively used in tumour imaging and therapy, demonstrated high specificity and uniform penetration in tumour xenografts. The future strategy will be to manipulate the molecular weight of the molecules to achieve an optimum balance between the low immunogenicity and excellent tumour penetration for diagnostic imaging and targeted therapy. In this way, a balance can be achieved between the rapid renal clearance and adequate tumour uptake required for diagnostic imaging and targeted therapy. The current work and future prospects for aptamer therapeutics will be described. (author)

  2. Leishmaniases in Ecuador: Comprehensive review and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Velez, Lenin N; Villegas, Nancy V; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Gomez, Eduardo A L; Kato, Hirotomo

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL). Eight Leishmania species, L. (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (Leishmania) mexicana, L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (L.) major-like, L. (V.) naiffiand L. (V.) lainsoni were characterized. The last two species were most recently reported from the Ecuadorian Amazon regions. Of the 73 Ecuadorian Lutzomyia species (43 man-biting species) recorded, only four, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ayacuchensis, and Lu. tortura were incriminated as vectors of the Leishmania parasites. Current knowledge on the reservoir hosts of Leishmania in Ecuador is extremely poor. Recently, in Ecuador different kinds of molecular techniques were developed for diagnosis and mass screening of the disease, employing various materials derived from patients and sand fly vectors. These are PCR-RFLP, colorimetric FTA-LAMP etc. Brief comments and recommendations were also given, for future research and control of leishmaniases in Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although the production processes of amino acids have been extensively investigated in previous studies, a comprehensive overview of the developments in bioprocess technology has not been reported yet. This review states the importance of the fermentation process for industrial amino acids production, underlining the strengths and the weaknesses of the process. Moreover, the potential of innovative approaches utilizing macro and microalgae or bacteria are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. THE CURRENT METHODS FOR MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS OF FISH DISEASES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zaloilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The methods of molecular diagnostic (MMD gradually become widespread in modern fish farming. MMD contain a wide variety of specific approaches, each of which has distinct limits of their possible applications and is characterized by individual peculiarities in practical performance. In addition to high sensitivity and the possibility of rapid diagnostics, the main advantage of molecular methods is to determine the uncultivated infectious agents. DNA amplification allows identifying pathogenic microorganisms at very small quantities even in the minimum sample volume. Molecular methods of diagnostic enable the determination of infection in latent or acute phases. These methods allow showing the differences between pathogens with similar antigenic structures. The current literature data on this subject usually show a methodology in the narrow context of the tasks or practical results obtained through such approaches. Thus, a synthesis of existing information on the mechanisms of action and the limits of the typical problems of basic methods of molecular diagnostics are an urgent task of fish breeding. In particular, the following description will more effectively choose one or several approaches to identify pathogens in fish. Findings. This paper reviews the basic molecular methods that are used in the world's aquaculture for diagnosis of various diseases in commercial fish species. Originality. This work is a generalization of data on the principles and mechanisms for the implementation of diagnostics based on modern molecular techniques. For each of the mentioned approaches, the most promising areas of application were shown. The information is provided in the form of a comparative analysis of each methodology, indicating positive and negative practical aspects. Practical value. The current review of modern methods of molecular diagnostic in aquaculture is focused on practical application. Generalizing and analytical information can be

  5. Improving speech perception in noise with current focusing in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Arthi G; Padilla, Monica; Shannon, Robert V; Landsberger, David M

    2013-05-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users typically have excellent speech recognition in quiet but struggle with understanding speech in noise. It is thought that broad current spread from stimulating electrodes causes adjacent electrodes to activate overlapping populations of neurons which results in interactions across adjacent channels. Current focusing has been studied as a way to reduce spread of excitation, and therefore, reduce channel interactions. In particular, partial tripolar stimulation has been shown to reduce spread of excitation relative to monopolar stimulation. However, the crucial question is whether this benefit translates to improvements in speech perception. In this study, we compared speech perception in noise with experimental monopolar and partial tripolar speech processing strategies. The two strategies were matched in terms of number of active electrodes, microphone, filterbanks, stimulation rate and loudness (although both strategies used a lower stimulation rate than typical clinical strategies). The results of this study showed a significant improvement in speech perception in noise with partial tripolar stimulation. All subjects benefited from the current focused speech processing strategy. There was a mean improvement in speech recognition threshold of 2.7 dB in a digits in noise task and a mean improvement of 3 dB in a sentences in noise task with partial tripolar stimulation relative to monopolar stimulation. Although the experimental monopolar strategy was worse than the clinical, presumably due to different microphones, frequency allocations and stimulation rates, the experimental partial-tripolar strategy, which had the same changes, showed no acute deficit relative to the clinical. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives...... an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium...... glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although...

  8. Determinants of mortality in systemic sclerosis: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Dilli Ram; Jayakumar, Divya; Danve, Abhijeet; Sehra, Shiv Tej; Derk, Chris T

    2017-11-07

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is an autoimmune rheumatic disorder that is characterized by fibrosis, vascular dysfunction, and autoantibody production that involves most visceral organs. It is characterized by a high morbidity and mortality rate, mainly due to disease-related complications. Epidemiological data describing mortality and survival in this population have been based on both population and observational studies. Multiple clinical and non-clinical factors have been found to predict higher likelihood of death among thepatients. Here, we do an extensive review of the available literature, utilizing the PubMed database, to describe scleroderma and non-scleroderma related determinants of mortality in this population. We found that even though the mortality among the general population has declined, scleroderma continues to carry a very high morbidity and mortality rate, however we have made some slow progress in improving the mortality among scleroderma patients over the last few decades.

  9. From biofilm ecology to reactors: a focused review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltz, Joshua P.; Smets, Barth F.; Rittmann, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    the following three topics: (1) biofilm ecology, (2) biofilm reactor technology and design, and (3) biofilm modeling. In so doing, it addresses the processes occurring in the biofilm, and how these affect and are affected by the broader biofilm system. The symphonic application of a suite of biological methods...... on the performance of various systems, but they can also be used beneficially for the treatment of water (defined herein as potable water, municipal and industrial wastewater, fresh/brackish/salt water bodies, groundwater) as well as in water stream-based biological resource recovery systems. This review addresses...... polymeric substance matrix are somewhat known, but their exact composition and role in the microbial conversion kinetics and biochemical transformations are still to be resolved. Biofilm grown microorganisms may contribute to increased metabolism of micro-pollutants. Several types of biofilm reactors have...

  10. Review: Quantifying animal feeding behaviour with a focus on pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselyne, Jarissa; Saeys, Wouter; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The study of animal feeding behaviour is of interest to understand feeding, to investigate the effect of treatments and conditions or to predict illness. This paper reviews the different steps to undertake when studying animal feeding behaviour, with illustrations for group-housed pigs. First, one must be aware of the mechanisms that control feeding and the various influences that can change feeding behaviour. Satiety is shown to largely influence free feeding (ad libitum and without an operant condition) in animals, but 'free' feeding seems a very fragile process, given the many factors that can influence feeding behaviour. Second, a measurement method must be chosen that is compatible with the goal of the research. Several measurement methods exist, which lead to different experimental set-ups and measurement data. Sensors are available for lab conditions, for research on group-housed pigs and also for on-farm use. Most of these methods result in a record of feeding visits. However, these feeding visits are often found to be clustered into meals. Thus, the third step is to choose which unit of feeding behaviour to use for analysis. Depending on the situation, either meals, feeding visits, other raw data, or a combination thereof can be suitable. Meals are more appropriate for analysing short-term feeding behaviour, but this may not be true for disease detection. Further research is therefore needed. To cluster visits into meals, an appropriate analysis method has to be selected. The last part of this paper provides a review and discussion of the existing methods for meal determination. A variety of methods exist, with the most recent methods based on the influence of satiety on feeding. More thorough validation of the recent methods, including validation from a behavioural point of view and uniformity in the applied methods is therefore necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current National Approach to Healthcare ICT Standardization: Focus on Progress in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Taek; Atalag, Koray

    2015-07-01

    Many countries try to efficiently deliver high quality healthcare services at lower and manageable costs where healthcare information and communication technologies (ICT) standardisation may play an important role. New Zealand provides a good model of healthcare ICT standardisation. The purpose of this study was to review the current healthcare ICT standardisation and progress in New Zealand. This study reviewed the reports regarding the healthcare ICT standardisation in New Zealand. We also investigated relevant websites related with the healthcare ICT standards, most of which were run by the government. Then, we summarised the governance structure, standardisation processes, and their output regarding the current healthcare ICT standards status of New Zealand. New Zealand government bodies have established a set of healthcare ICT standards and clear guidelines and procedures for healthcare ICT standardisation. Government has actively participated in various enactments of healthcare ICT standards from the inception of ideas to their eventual retirement. Great achievements in eHealth have already been realized, and various standards are currently utilised at all levels of healthcare regionally and nationally. Standard clinical terminologies, such as International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) have been adopted and Health Level Seven (HL7) standards are actively used in health information exchanges. The government to New Zealand has well organised ICT institutions, guidelines, and regulations, as well as various programs, such as e-Medications and integrated care services. Local district health boards directly running hospitals have effectively adopted various new ICT standards. They might already be benefiting from improved efficiency resulting from healthcare ICT standardisation.

  12. Dehydration in the Elderly: A Review Focused on Economic Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangeskou, M; Lopez-Valcarcel, B; Serra-Majem, L

    2015-06-01

    Dehydration is the most common fluid and electrolyte problem among elderly patients. It is reported to be widely prevalent and costly to individuals and to the health care system. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature on the economic burden of dehydration in the elderly. A comprehensive search of several databases from database inception to November 2013, only in English language, was conducted. The databases included Pubmed and ISI Web of Science. The search terms «dehydration» / "hyponaremia" / "hypernatremia" AND «cost» AND «elderly» were used to search for comparative studies of the economic burden of dehydration. A total of 15 papers were identified. Dehydration in the elderly is an independent factor of higher health care expenditures. It is directly associated with an increase in hospital mortality, as well as with an increase in the utilization of ICU, short and long term care facilities, readmission rates and hospital resources, especially among those with moderate to severe hyponatremia. Dehydration represents a potential target for intervention to reduce healthcare expenditures and improve patients' quality of life.

  13. Current management of chronic hepatitis B: review | Cariem | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Gastroenterology Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Review: Health Management in Disasters with Focusing on Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khankeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Disasters should never be considered as routine. Disasters of any kind—natural or manmade—clearly disrupt the normal functioning of any community and frequently overwhelm both personal and community resources. In the post-disaster context, following the initial shock of the disaster, returning lives and livelihoods to normalcy becomes a primary concern of the affected communities and nations. Traditionally, this has been known as the recovery and rehabilitation phase, where "normalcy" refers to the return of the community to the state it was in prior to the disaster event. Rehabilitation is this process of returning the community to “normal” that may extend for many years and involves the physical, social and economic components of the community. Disasters can take on a life of their own, therefore being prepared is the single most effective way to improve outcomes. Proper pre-event planning and providing mechanisms for resource coordination are critical which will be resulted a successful response. It should focus on increasing the participation of civil authorities in order to reestablish local authorities. In order to develop safer communities with fewer deaths, physical injuries, and psycho-social trauma following disasters, health systems must be capable of providing a coordinated response during disasters and of delivering effective mitigation and preparedness programs before disaster impact. The health sector has a vested interest and a key role in this process. In addition, prior to the occurrence of disasters, national, provincial, and local planning should be blueprinted by managers. The public must be educated regarding the importance of individual and family preparation for disaster

  15. Aberrations due to solenoid focusing of a multiply charged high-current ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, G; Lisi, N; Schnuriger, J C; Scrivens, R; Tambini, J

    2000-01-01

    At the output of a laser ion source, a high current of highly charged ions with a large range of charge states is available. The focusing of such a beam by magnetic elements causes a nonlinear space-charge field to develop which can induce large aberrations and emittance growth in the beam. Simulation of the beam from the CERN laser ion source will be presented for an ideal magnetic and electrostatic system using a radially symmetric model. In addition, the three dimensional software KOBRA3 is used for the simulation of the solenoid line. The results of these simulations will be compared with experiments performed on the CERN laser ion source with solenoids (resulting in a hollow beam) and a series of gridded electrostatic lenses. (5 refs).

  16. Optimization of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for the HighCurrent Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, GianLuca; Gourlay, Steve; Gung, Chen-yu; Hafalia, Ray; Lietzke, Alan; Martovetski, Nicolai; Mattafirri, Sara; Meinke, Rainer; Minervini, Joseph; Schultz, Joel; Seidl, Peter

    2005-09-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is progressing through a series of physics and technology demonstrations leading to an inertial fusion power plant. The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physics of intense beams with high line-charge density. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles have been developed for the HCX magnetic transport studies. A baseline design was selected following several pre-series models. Optimization of the baseline design led to the development of a first prototype that achieved a conductor-limited gradient of 132 T/m in a 70 mm bore, without training, with measured field errors at the 0.1% level. Based on these results, the magnet geometry and fabrication procedures were adjusted to improve the field quality. These modifications were implemented in a second prototype. In this paper, the optimized design is presented and comparisons between the design harmonics and magnetic measurements performed on the new prototype are discussed.

  17. Mixed waste focus area integrated master schedule (current as of May 6, 1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with the participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating the Department of Energy's (DOE's) mixed wastes. In support of this mission, the MWTA produced the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report, Phase I Volume 1, January 16, 1996, which identified a prioritized list of 30 national mixed waste technology deficiencies. The MWFA is targeting funding toward technology development projects that address the current list of deficiencies. A clear connection between the technology development projects and the EM-30 and EM-40 treatment systems that they support is essential for optimizing the MWFA efforts. The purpose of the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) is to establish and document these connections and to ensure that all technology development activities performed by the MWFA are developed for timely use in those treatment systems. The IMS is a list of treatment systems from the Site Treatment Plans (STPs)/Consent Orders that have been assigned technology development needs with associated time-driven schedules, Technology deficiencies and associated technology development (TD) needs have been identified for each treatment system based on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste targeted for the treatment system. The schedule, the technology development activities, and the treatment system have been verified through the operations contact from the EM-30 organization at the site

  18. Filamentary structures in dense plasma focus: Current filaments or vortex filaments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Castillo, Fermin [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, México (Mexico); Veloso, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Auluck, S. K. H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Recent observations of an azimuthally distributed array of sub-millimeter size sources of fusion protons and correlation between extreme ultraviolet (XUV) images of filaments with neutron yield in PF-1000 plasma focus have re-kindled interest in their significance. These filaments have been described variously in literature as current filaments and vortex filaments, with very little experimental evidence in support of either nomenclature. This paper provides, for the first time, experimental observations of filaments on a table-top plasma focus device using three techniques: framing photography of visible self-luminosity from the plasma, schlieren photography, and interferometry. Quantitative evaluation of density profile of filaments from interferometry reveals that their radius closely agrees with the collision-less ion skin depth. This is a signature of relaxed state of a Hall fluid, which has significant mass flow with equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy, supporting the “vortex filament” description. This interpretation is consistent with empirical evidence of an efficient energy concentration mechanism inferred from nuclear reaction yields.

  19. Production of tightly focused E-beam with high-current accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poukey, J.W.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Frost, C.A.; Ramirez, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    Using numerical modeling the authors study several approaches to the problem of designing an injector to produce a 3-30 kA, 2-4 mm diameter electron beam in the energy range 10-20 MeV. The cathode may be small in diameter and immersed in a strong magnetic field, producing an equilibrium beam for transport to a target (the immersed case). This approach appears to be the most promising for applications such as radiography, and the authors shall emphasize it in this paper. The alternative is the conventional non-immersed cathode, in which the beam from a larger-radius, cold-beam cathode is focused with magnetic lenses to a small spot on the target. Because the non-immersed cathode, in which the beam from a larger-radius, cold-beam cathode is focused with a magnetic lenses to a small spot on the target. Because the non-immersed case has been extensively studied, and because it has advantages for these purposes, the authors shall only discuss a few of the non-immersed-cathode injector studies, primarily for purposes of comparison. Either type of diode is to be powered by an inductive voltage adder based on the successful SABRE/Hermes III/RADLAC (SMILE) magnetically-insulated-transmission-line design concepts. A possible variation uses a re-entrant geometry with low electric stresses so that only the cathode face emits. The authors discuss issues such as dumping excess current and voltage dependence of the focus

  20. Pediatric Renal Transplantation: Focus on Current Transition Care and Proposal of the "RISE to Transition" Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Rupesh; Wang, Joseph; Krishnappa, Vinod; Ferris, Maria

    2018-01-16

    The transition from pediatric to adult medical services is an important time in the life of an adolescent or young adult with a renal transplant. Failure of proper transition can lead to medical non-adherence and subsequent loss of graft and/or return to dialysis. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and survey to assess the challenges and existing practices in transition of renal transplant recipient children to adult services, and to develop a transition protocol. We conducted a literature review and performed a survey of pediatric nephrologists across the United States to examine the current state of transition care. A structured transition protocol was developed based on these results. Our literature review revealed that a transition program has a positive impact on decline in renal function and acute rejection episodes, and may improve long-term graft outcomes in pediatric kidney transplant patients. With a response rate of 40% (60/150) from nephrologists in 56% (49/87) of centers, our survey shows inconsistent use of validated tools despite their availability, inefficient communication between teams, and lack of use of dedicated clinics. To address these issues, we developed the "RISE to Transition" protocol, which relies on 4 competency areas: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits. The transition program decreases acute graft rejection episodes, and the main challenges in transition care are the communication gap between health care providers and inconsistent use of transition tools. Our RISE to transition protocol incorporates transition tools, defines personnel, and aims to improve communication between teams.

  1. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  2. Review Paper: A Review on Brain Stimulation Using Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Rezayat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain stimulation techniques are important in both basic and clinical studies. Majority of well-known brain stimulating techniques have low spatial resolution or entail invasive processes. Low intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU seems to be a proper candidate for dealing with such deficiencies. This review recapitulates studies which explored the effects of LIFU on brain structures and its function, in both research and clinical areas. Although the mechanism of LIFU action is still unclear, its different effects from molecular level up to behavioral level can be explored in animal and human brain. It can also be coupled with brain imaging assessments in future research.

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications. TiO2 NPs possess different physicochemical properties compared to their fine particle (FP) analogs, which might alter their bioactivity. Most of the literature cited here has focused on the respiratory system, showing the importance of inhalation as the primary route for TiO2 NP exposure in the workplace. TiO2 NPs may translocate to systemic organs from the lung and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) although the rate of translocation appears low. There have also been studies focusing on other potential routes of human exposure. Oral exposure mainly occurs through food products containing TiO2 NP-additives. Most dermal exposure studies, whether in vivo or in vitro, report that TiO2 NPs do not penetrate the stratum corneum (SC). In the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection can deliver TiO2 nanoparticulate carriers directly into the human body. Upon intravenous exposure, TiO2 NPs can induce pathological lesions of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain. We have also shown here that most of these effects may be due to the use of very high doses of TiO2 NPs. There is also an enormous lack of epidemiological data regarding TiO2 NPs in spite of its increased production and use. However, long-term inhalation studies in rats have reported lung tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the toxicology of TiO2 NPs and points out areas where further information is needed. PMID:23587290

  4. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongbo; Magaye, Ruth; Castranova, Vincent; Zhao, Jinshun

    2013-04-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications. TiO2 NPs possess different physicochemical properties compared to their fine particle (FP) analogs, which might alter their bioactivity. Most of the literature cited here has focused on the respiratory system, showing the importance of inhalation as the primary route for TiO2 NP exposure in the workplace. TiO2 NPs may translocate to systemic organs from the lung and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) although the rate of translocation appears low. There have also been studies focusing on other potential routes of human exposure. Oral exposure mainly occurs through food products containing TiO2 NP-additives. Most dermal exposure studies, whether in vivo or in vitro, report that TiO2 NPs do not penetrate the stratum corneum (SC). In the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection can deliver TiO2 nanoparticulate carriers directly into the human body. Upon intravenous exposure, TiO2 NPs can induce pathological lesions of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain. We have also shown here that most of these effects may be due to the use of very high doses of TiO2 NPs. There is also an enormous lack of epidemiological data regarding TiO2 NPs in spite of its increased production and use. However, long-term inhalation studies in rats have reported lung tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the toxicology of TiO2 NPs and points out areas where further information is needed.

  5. The Impact of Different Environmental Conditions on Cognitive Function: A Focused Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee; Watkins, Samuel L.; Marshall, Hannah; Dascombe, Ben J.; Foster, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive function defines performance in objective tasks that require conscious mental effort. Extreme environments, namely heat, hypoxia, and cold can all alter human cognitive function due to a variety of psychological and/or biological processes. The aims of this Focused Review were to discuss; (1) the current state of knowledge on the effects of heat, hypoxic and cold stress on cognitive function, (2) the potential mechanisms underpinning these alterations, and (3) plausible interventions that may maintain cognitive function upon exposure to each of these environmental stressors. The available evidence suggests that the effects of heat, hypoxia, and cold stress on cognitive function are both task and severity dependent. Complex tasks are particularly vulnerable to extreme heat stress, whereas both simple and complex task performance appear to be vulnerable at even at moderate altitudes. Cold stress also appears to negatively impact both simple and complex task performance, however, the research in this area is sparse in comparison to heat and hypoxia. In summary, this focused review provides updated knowledge regarding the effects of extreme environmental stressors on cognitive function and their biological underpinnings. Tyrosine supplementation may help individuals maintain cognitive function in very hot, hypoxic, and/or cold conditions. However, more research is needed to clarify these and other postulated interventions. PMID:26779029

  6. Short Review: Mitigation of Current Environmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Young

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol has become a widely used and globally distributed product. Methanol is very important due to the current depletion of fossil fuels. Industrially, methanol produced from the catalytic reaction of synthetic gas composed of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Methanol production has brought great attention due to carbon dioxide as the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Combined of reducing CO2 emissions and supplying an alternative fuel source has created the idea of a carbon neutral cycle called “the methanol economy”. The best catalyst for the methanol economy would show a high CO2 conversion and high selectivity for methanol production. This paper investigates research focused on catalyst development for efficient methanol synthesis from hydrogenation of carbon dioxide through added various supports and additives such as silica, zirconium, and palladium. Catalysts that displayed the highest activity included a zirconia and silicon-titanium oxide promoted Cu/Zn/Al2O3 catalyst. Alternative method of catalyst preparation, include the oxalate-gel, solid-state reaction, co-precipitation and combustion method also investigated.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th October 2012; Revised: 7th February 2012; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Young, A., Lesmana, D., Dai, D.J., Wu, H.S. (2013. Short Review: Mitigation of Current En-vironmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 1-13. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13] | View in  |

  7. Reduction in spread of excitation from current focusing at multiple cochlear locations in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Monica; Landsberger, David M

    2016-03-01

    Channel interaction from a broad spread of excitation is likely to be a limiting factor in performance by cochlear implant users. Although partial tripolar stimulation has been shown to reduce spread of excitation, the magnitude of the reduction is highly variable across subjects. Because the reduction in spread of excitation is typically only measured at one electrode for a given subject, the degree of variability across cochlear locations is unknown. The first goal of the present study was to determine if the reduction in spread of excitation observed from partial tripolar current focusing systematically varies across the cochlea. The second goal was to measure the variability in reduction of spread of excitation relative to monopolar stimulation across the cochlea. The third goal was to expand upon previous results that suggest that scaling of verbal descriptors can be used to predict the reduction in spread of excitation, by increasing the limited number of sites previously evaluated and verify the relationships remain with the larger dataset. The spread of excitation for monopolar and partial tripolar stimulation was measured at 5 cochlear locations using a psychophysical forward masking task. Results of the present study suggest that although partial tripolar stimulation typically reduces spread of excitation, the degree of reduction in spread of excitation was found to be highly variable and no effect of cochlear location was found. Additionally, subjective scaling of certain verbal descriptors (Clean/Dirty, Pure/Noisy) correlated with the reduction in spread of excitation suggesting sound quality scaling might be used as a quick clinical estimate of channels providing a reduction in spread of excitation. This quick scaling technique might help clinicians determine which patients would be most likely to benefit from a focused strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedad Z. Mostafa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The “sunshine” vitamin is a hot topic that attracted ample attention over the past decades, specially that a considerable proportion of the worldwide population are deficient in this essential nutrient. Vitamin D was primarily acknowledged for its importance in bone formation, however; increasing evidence point to its interference with the proper function of nearly every tissue in our bodies including brain, heart, muscles, immune system and skin. Thereby its deficiency has been incriminated in a long panel of diseases including cancers, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Its involvement in the pathogenesis of different dermatological diseases is no exception and has been the subject of much research over the recent years. In the current review, we will throw light on this highly disputed vitamin that is creating a significant concern from a dermatological perspective. Furthermore, the consequences of its deficiency on the skin will be in focus.

  9. Compression of morbidity 1980-2011: a focused review of paradigms and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, James F; Bruce, Bonnie; Chakravarty, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    The Compression of Morbidity hypothesis-positing that the age of onset of chronic illness may be postponed more than the age at death and squeezing most of the morbidity in life into a shorter period with less lifetime disability-was introduced by our group in 1980. This paper is focused upon the evolution of the concept, the controversies and responses, the supportive multidisciplinary science, and the evolving lines of evidence that establish proof of concept. We summarize data from 20-year prospective longitudinal studies of lifestyle progression of disability, national population studies of trends in disability, and randomized controlled trials of risk factor reduction with life-style-based "healthy aging" interventions. From the perspective of this influential and broadly cited paradigm, we review its current history, the development of a theoretical structure for healthy aging, and the challenges to develop coherent health policies directed at reduction in morbidity.

  10. Compression of Morbidity 1980–2011: A Focused Review of Paradigms and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, James F.; Bruce, Bonnie; Chakravarty, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    The Compression of Morbidity hypothesis—positing that the age of onset of chronic illness may be postponed more than the age at death and squeezing most of the morbidity in life into a shorter period with less lifetime disability—was introduced by our group in 1980. This paper is focused upon the evolution of the concept, the controversies and responses, the supportive multidisciplinary science, and the evolving lines of evidence that establish proof of concept. We summarize data from 20-year prospective longitudinal studies of lifestyle progression of disability, national population studies of trends in disability, and randomized controlled trials of risk factor reduction with life-style-based “healthy aging” interventions. From the perspective of this influential and broadly cited paradigm, we review its current history, the development of a theoretical structure for healthy aging, and the challenges to develop coherent health policies directed at reduction in morbidity. PMID:21876805

  11. Compression of Morbidity 1980–2011: A Focused Review of Paradigms and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Fries

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Compression of Morbidity hypothesis—positing that the age of onset of chronic illness may be postponed more than the age at death and squeezing most of the morbidity in life into a shorter period with less lifetime disability—was introduced by our group in 1980. This paper is focused upon the evolution of the concept, the controversies and responses, the supportive multidisciplinary science, and the evolving lines of evidence that establish proof of concept. We summarize data from 20-year prospective longitudinal studies of lifestyle progression of disability, national population studies of trends in disability, and randomized controlled trials of risk factor reduction with life-style-based “healthy aging” interventions. From the perspective of this influential and broadly cited paradigm, we review its current history, the development of a theoretical structure for healthy aging, and the challenges to develop coherent health policies directed at reduction in morbidity.

  12. Effects of external focus of attention on balance: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Hee; Yi, Chae Woo; Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The present study reviewed studies that examined the effects of attentional focus on balance. [Methods] Keywords such as "attentional", "focus", and "balance" were used to find relevant research papers in PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Forty-five papers were found, and 18 of them were used for this study, excluding review papers and papers irrelevant to the topic of this study. [Results] Among the papers used for the review, the number of papers in which external focus produced effective outcomes was 15 (83.3%). The number of papers in which both external and internal focus produced effective outcomes was 2 (11.1%). The number of paper in which no instruction about attentional focus was effective was 1 (5.5%), and the number of papers in which internal focus was effective was zero. [Conclusion] This short review suggests clinical implications about how physical therapists can use attentional focus for balance rehabilitation of patients. Instructions about external focus of attention can generally be useful as a method to improve posture and balance control. Furthermore, the present reviews indicates that external focus of attention would be more useful in a rehabilitation stage in which the difficulty level of balance performance is gradually increased.

  13. Dose-current discharge correlation analysis in a Mather type Plasma Focus device for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumini, M.; Mostacci, D.; Tartari, A.; Mazza, A.; Cucchi, G.; Isolan, L.; Buontempo, F.; Zironi, I.; Castellani, G.

    2017-11-01

    In a Plasma Focus device the plasma collapses into the pinch where it reaches thermonuclear conditions for a few tens of nanoseconds, becoming a multi-radiation source. The nature of the radiation generated depends on the gas filling the chamber and the device working parameters. The self-collimated electron beam generated in the backward direction with respect to the plasma motion is one of the main radiation sources of interest also for medical applications. The electron beam may be guided against a high Z material target to produce an X-ray beam. This technique offers an ultra-high dose rate source of X-rays, able to deliver during the pinch a massive dose (up to 1 Gy per discharge for the PFMA-3 test device), as measured with EBT3 GafchromicⒸfilm tissue equivalent dosimeters. Given the stochastic behavior of the discharge process, a reliable on-line estimate of the dose-delivered is a very challenging task, in some way preventing a systematic application as a potentially interesting therapy device. This work presents an approach to linking the dose registered by the EBT3 GafchromicⒸfilms with the information contained in the signal recorded during the current discharge process. Processing the signal with the Wigner-Ville distribution, a spectrogram was obtained, displaying the information on intensity at various frequency scales, identifying the band of frequencies representative of the pinch events and define some patterns correlated with the dose.

  14. Risk of vicarious trauma in nursing research: a focused mapping review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Jones, Christine; Herber, Oliver Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    To provide a snapshot of how vicarious trauma is considered within the published nursing research literature. Vicarious trauma (secondary traumatic stress) has been the focus of attention in nursing practice for many years. The most pertinent areas to invoke vicarious trauma in research have been suggested as abuse/violence and death/dying. What is not known is how researchers account for the risks of vicarious trauma in research. Focused mapping review and synthesis. Empirical studies meeting criteria for abuse/violence or death/dying in relevant Scopus ranked top nursing journals (n = 6) January 2009 to December 2014. Relevant papers were scrutinised for the extent to which researchers discussed the risk of vicarious trauma. Aspects of the studies were mapped systematically to a pre-defined template, allowing patterns and gaps in authors' reporting to be determined. These were synthesised into a coherent profile of current reporting practices and from this, a new conceptualisation seeking to anticipate and address the risk of vicarious trauma was developed. Two thousand five hundred and three papers were published during the review period, of which 104 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were distributed evenly by method (52 qualitative; 51 quantitative; one mixed methods) and by focus (54 abuse/violence; 50 death/dying). The majority of studies (98) were carried out in adult populations. Only two papers reported on vicarious trauma. The conceptualisation of vicarious trauma takes account of both sensitivity of the substantive data collected, and closeness of those involved with the research. This might assist researchers in designing ethical and protective research and foreground the importance of managing risks of vicarious trauma. Vicarious trauma is not well considered in research into clinically important topics. Our proposed framework allows for consideration of these so that precautionary measures can be put in place to minimise harm to staff. © 2016

  15. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, J K; Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-02-17

    To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Qualitative focus group interview study. Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Biotechnological Utilization with a Focus on Anaerobic Treatment of Cheese Whey: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspasia A. Chatzipaschali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese whey utilization is of major concern nowadays. Its high organic matter content, in combination with the high volumes produced and limited treatment options make cheese whey a serious environmental problem. However, the potential production of biogas (methane, hydrogen or other marketable products with a simultaneous high COD reduction through appropriate treatment proves that cheese whey must be considered as an energy resource rather than a pollutant. The presence of biodegradable components in the cheese whey coupled with the advantages of anaerobic digestion processes over other treatment methods makes anaerobic digestion an attractive and suitable treatment option. This paper intends to review the most representative applications of anaerobic treatment of cheese whey currently being exploited and under research. Moreover, an effort has been made to categorize the common characteristics of the various research efforts and find a comparative basis, as far as their results are concerned. In addition, a number of dairy industries already using such anaerobic digestion systems are presented.

  17. Concussions in the National Football League: A Current Concepts Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Johnson, Daniel J; Zuckerman, Scott L; Solomon, Gary S

    2016-03-01

    Significant attention has been directed toward the immediate and long-term effects of sport-related concussions on athletes participating in contact sports, particularly football. The highest level of football, the National Football League (NFL), has received significant attention and criticism regarding player management and safety after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several review articles have reported data related to concussion in the NFL, but a succinct review and synthesis of data regarding NFL concussions is currently lacking. To (1) review systematically the published data regarding concussion in the NFL and assess limitations of the studies, (2) elucidate areas where further research is needed, and (3) identify methods to improve future investigations of concussion in the NFL. Systematic review of literature. English-language titles and abstracts published between 1900 and September 2014 were searched systematically across electronic databases, and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they contained NFL concussion data with or without additional associated long-term effects. Reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and comments were not included. Of the 344 records screened for review, 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. There were 31 studies that met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the evidence synthesis. Included in the current review were 8 case-control studies (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence level 3b), 6 descriptive epidemiological studies (level 4), 6 cross-sectional studies (level 4), 6 cohort studies (level 2b), and 5 case series (level 4). The study of concussions in the NFL has been limited by lack of recent empirical data, reliance on self-reported concussion history, and ascertainment bias of brains donated for autopsy studies. The scientific community

  18. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-focused primary healthcare social and emotional wellbeing research: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Marie; Hackett, Maree Lisa

    2015-12-30

    Research with a focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian's (hereafter referred to as Indigenous(1)) needs is crucial to ensure culturally appropriate evidence-based strategies are developed to improve health. However, concerns surrounding this research exist, arising from some previous research lacking community consultation, resulting in little community benefit or infringing on important cultural values. Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research (hereafter referred to as Values and Ethics), developed by The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia in 2003, is the ethical standard for Indigenous-focused health research. Researchers must address its Values in research design and conduct. However, its impact on research processes is unclear. Local Protocols should also be considered. This review aims to systematically examine practices related to Values and Ethics, Local Protocols and the processes of conducting Indigenous-focused primary healthcare research in collaboration with external researchers. The following electronic databases and grey literature will be searched (2003 to current): MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit and HealthInfoNet--an Indigenous-specific research and program website. Indigenous-focused research will be included. Research must be conducted in one or more primary healthcare services, in collaboration with external researchers and with a focus on social and emotional well being. One reviewer will review titles and abstracts to remove obviously irrelevant research articles. Full-text research articles will be retrieved and independently examined by two reviewers. Data and quality assessment will be completed by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Quality will be assessed using modified versions of established quality assessment tools. This review will provide information on research processes and the impact of Values and Ethics on

  19. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Sau Fong Leung, Frederick KK Yeung, Wai Kit Wong School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major healthcare databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy, psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of

  20. Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Little, M.P.

    1988-10-01

    This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

  1. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential for caffeinated energy drinks to negatively affect mental health, and particularly so in young consumers at whom they are often targeted. The products are frequently marketed with declarations of increasing mental and physical energy, providing a short-term boost to mood and performance. Although a certain amount of evidence has accumulated to substantiate some of these claims, the chronic effects of energy drinks on mental health also need to be addressed. Methods: To review the relevant literature, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all peer-reviewed articles published in English that addressed associations between energy drink use and mental health outcomes. Case reports were also considered, though empirical studies investigating acute mood effects were excluded as a review of such articles had recently been published. Fifty-six articles were retrieved: 20 of these (along with eight more identified through other means) were included in the current review, and, because the majority addressed aspects of stress, anxiety, and depression, particular focus was placed on these outcomes. Results: Though a number of null findings (and one negative relationship) were observed, the majority of studies examined reported positive associations between energy drink consumption and symptoms of mental health problems. Conclusions: Though the findings imply that energy drink use may increase the risk of undesirable mental health outcomes, the majority of research examined utilized cross-sectional designs. In most cases, it was therefore not possible to determine causation or direction of effect. For this reason, longitudinal and intervention studies are required to increase our understanding of the nature of the relationships observed. PMID:27274415

  2. A literature review of record linkage procedures focusing on infant health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Jorge Machado

    Full Text Available Record linkage is a powerful tool in assembling information from different data sources and has been used by a number of public health researchers. In this review, we provide an overview of the record linkage methodologies, focusing particularly on probabilistic record linkage. We then stress the purposes and research applications of linking records by focusing on studies of infant health outcomes based on large data sets, and provide a critical review of the studies in Brazil.

  3. Nursing staff under heavy stress: focus on Greece A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Theofanidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current global financial constrains place a burden on the development of health care services worldwide. Although nurses are the backbone of any health establishment, they seem are under constant occupational stress which varies from country to country.Aim: This paper aims to present and analyze critically the key stress factors on contemporary nursing.Method: A strategically planned four-step literature review was used focusing on identifying key stress factors in selected papers.Results: The refining process identified 26 key references which were analyzed and tabulated. These revealed areas of concern such as: insufficient work recourses, poor communication with superiors, dissatisfaction with psychosocial work environment, lowering levels of education achieved and pay, split-shifts and prolonged night shifts, high demanding tasks, verbal abuse, mobbing and antagonistic attitudes in work place and poor organization at work.Conclusions: A number of intervention strategies to avoid excess stress are presented which include: improved education of the workforce and awareness building; assessment-focused interventions; therapeutic counseling; skill-building and reorganizing the work environment.

  4. Optical Remote Sensing of Glacier Characteristics: A Review with Focus on the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, Adina E.; Williams, Mark W.; Barry, Roger G.

    2008-01-01

    The increased availability of remote sensing platforms with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution, global coverage and low financial costs allows for fast, semi-automated, and cost-effective estimates of changes in glacier parameters over large areas. Remote sensing approaches allow for regular monitoring of the properties of alpine glaciers such as ice extent, terminus position, volume and surface elevation, from which glacier mass balance can be inferred. Such methods are particularly useful in remote areas with limited field-based glaciological measurements. This paper reviews advances in the use of visible and infrared remote sensing combined with field methods for estimating glacier parameters, with emphasis on volume/area changes and glacier mass balance. The focus is on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor and its applicability for monitoring Himalayan glaciers. The methods reviewed are: volumetric changes inferred from digital elevation models (DEMs), glacier delineation algorithms from multi-spectral analysis, changes in glacier area at decadal time scales, and AAR/ELA methods used to calculate yearly mass balances. The current limitations and on-going challenges in using remote sensing for mapping characteristics of mountain glaciers also discussed, specifically in the context of the Himalaya. PMID:27879883

  5. Nitrate removal from drinking water with a focus on biological methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Fariba; Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad-Hossein; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-05-31

    This article summarizes several developed and industrial technologies for nitrate removal from drinking water, including physicochemical and biological techniques, with a focus on autotrophic nitrate removal. Approaches are primarily classified into separation-based and elimination-based methods according to the fate of the nitrate in water treatment. Biological denitrification as a cost-effective and promising method of biological nitrate elimination is reviewed in terms of its removal process, applicability, efficiency, and associated disadvantages. The various pathways during biological nitrate removal, including assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, are also explained. A comparative study was carried out to provide a better understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification. Sulfur-based and hydrogen-based denitrifications, which are the most common autotrophic processes of nitrate removal, are reviewed with the aim of presenting the salient features of hydrogenotrophic denitrification along with some drawbacks of the technology and research areas in which it could be used but currently is not. The application of algae-based water treatment is also introduced as a nature-inspired approach that may broaden future horizons of nitrate removal technology.

  6. A Systematic Review of Current Understandings of Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stella; Dodd, Lorna J.; Steele, Catherine; Randall, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical framework is essential for the effective evaluation of employability. However, there are a wide range of definitions of employability coexisting in current literature. A review into existing ways in which employability has been conceptualised is needed to inform a better understanding of the nature of contributions made by various…

  7. Aortopathy associated with congenital heart disease: A current literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Francois

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients born with congenital heart disease, dilatation of the aorta is a frequent feature at presentation and during follow-up after surgical intervention. This review provides an overview of the pathologies associated with aortopathy, and discusses the current knowledge on pathophysiology, evolution, and treatment guidelines of the aortic disease associated with congenital heart defects.

  8. Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review and appraisal of monitoring from 1989 to 1997. ... The Benguela upwelling system is subjected to blooms of harmful and toxic algae, the incidence and consequences of which are documented here. Red tides are common and usually attributed to members of ...

  9. Review of coastal currents in Southern African waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, TFW

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available unevenly spaced. In regions where such studies were not available, recourse had to be made to ships' drift reports. Because of the nature of the data it was necessary to restrict the review, almost entirely, to surface currents. Where possible, wave...

  10. Aortopathy associated with congenital heart disease: A current literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    In patients born with congenital heart disease, dilatation of the aorta is a frequent feature at presentation and during follow-up after surgical intervention. This review provides an overview of the pathologies associated with aortopathy, and discusses the current knowledge on pathophysiology, evolution, and treatment guidelines of the aortic disease associated with congenital heart defects

  11. Multicultural Competence: A Literature Review Supporting Focused Training for Preservice Teachers Teaching Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on an in depth literature review based on preservice teachers perceptions of their multicultural competence in teaching diverse students. More specifically, the literature review was framed around findings from a study looking at the gap between increased diversity of students and the level of multicultural competence of…

  12. Surveys of current status in biomedical science grant review: funding organisations' and grant reviewers' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroter, Sara; Groves, Trish; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were (a) to describe the current status of grant review for biomedical projects and programmes from the perspectives of international funding organisations and grant reviewers, and (b) to explore funders' interest in developing uniform requirements for grant review...

  13. A review of the current state of digital plate reading of cultures in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Novak, Susan M; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-01-01

    Digital plate reading (DPR) is increasingly being adopted as a means to facilitate the analysis and improve the quality and efficiency within the clinical microbiology laboratory. This review discusses the role of DPR in the context of total laboratory automation and explores some of the platforms currently available or in development for digital image capturing of microbial growth on media. The review focuses on the advantages and challenges of DPR. Peer-reviewed studies describing the utility and quality of these novel DPR systems are largely lacking, and professional guidelines for DPR implementation and quality management are needed. Further development and more widespread adoption of DPR is anticipated.

  14. Review of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound in the treatment of uterine fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Felipe Magalhães Peregrino

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyoma is the most frequently occurring solid pelvic tumor in women during the reproductive period. Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound is a promising technique for decreasing menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea in symptomatic women. The aim of this study is to review the role of Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of uterine fibroids in symptomatic patients. We performed a review of the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases up to April 2016. The analysis and data collection were performed using the following keywords: Leiomyoma, High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation, Ultrasonography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Menorrhagia. Two reviewers independently performed a quality assessment; when there was a disagreement, a third reviewer was consulted. Nineteen studies of Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound-treated fibroid patients were selected. The data indicated that tumor size was reduced and that symptoms were improved after treatment. There were few adverse effects, and they were not severe. Some studies have reported that in some cases, additional sessions of Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound or other interventions, such as myomectomy, uterine artery embolization or even hysterectomy, were necessary. This review suggests that Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound is a safe and effective technique. However, additional evidence from future studies will be required before the technique can be recommended as an alternative treatment for fibroids.

  15. Current issues in patient adherence and persistence: focus on anticoagulants for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P Kneeland

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patrick P Kneeland, Margaret C FangThe University of California, San Francisco Division of Hospital Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Warfarin therapy reduces morbidity and mortality related to thromboembolism. Yet adherence to long-term warfarin therapy remains challenging due to the risks of anticoagulantassociated complications and the burden of monitoring. The aim of this paper is to review determinants of adherence and persistence on long-term anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. We evaluate what the current literature reveals about the impact of warfarin on quality of life, examine warfarin trial data for patterns of adherence, and summarize known risk factors for warfarin discontinuation. Studies suggest only modest adverse effects of warfarin on quality of life, but highlight the variability of individual lifestyle experiences of patients on warfarin. Interestingly, clinical trials comparing anticoagulant adherence to alternatives (such as aspirin show that discontinuation rates on warfarin are not consistently higher than in control arms. Observational studies link a number of risk factors to warfarin non-adherence including younger age, male sex, lower stroke risk, poor cognitive function, poverty, and higher educational attainment. In addition to differentiating the relative impact of warfarin-associated complications (such as bleeding versus the lifestyle burdens of warfarin monitoring on adherence, future investigation should focus on optimizing patient education and enhancing models of physician–patient shared-decision making around anticoagulation.Keywords: anticoagulation, warfarin, adherence, persistence, thromboembolism

  16. Current steering and current focusing in cochlear implants: comparison of monopolar, tripolar, and virtual channel electrode configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, Carlo K; Mens, Lucas H M; Mulder, Jef J S; Vanpoucke, Filiep J

    2008-04-01

    To compare the effects of Monopole (Mono), Tripole (Tri), and "Virtual channel" (Vchan) electrode configurations on spectral resolution and speech perception in a crossover design. Nine experienced adults who received an Advanced Bionics CII/90K cochlear implant participated in a crossover design using three experimental strategies for 2 wk each. Three strategies were compared: (1) Mono; (2) Tri with current partly returning to adjacent electrodes and partly (25 or 75%) to the extracochlear reference; and (3) a monopolar "Vchan" strategy creating seven intermediate channels between two contacts. Each strategy was a variant of the standard "HiRes" processing strategy using 14 channels and 1105 pulses/sec/ channel, and a pulse duration of 32 microsec/phase. Spectral resolution was measured using broadband noise with a sinusoidally rippled spectral envelope with peaks evenly spaced on a logarithmic frequency scale. Speech perception was measured for monosyllables in quiet and in steady-state and fluctuating noises. Subjective comments on music experience and preferences in everyday use were assessed through questionnaires. Thresholds and most comfortable levels with Mono and Vchan were both significantly lower than levels with Tri. Spectral resolution was significantly higher with Tri than with Mono; spectral resolution with Vchan did not differ significantly from the other configurations. Moderate but significant correlations between word recognition and spectral resolution were found in speech in quiet and fluctuating noise. For speech in quiet, word recognition was best with Mono and worst with Vchan; Tri did not significantly differ from the other configurations. Pooled across the noise conditions, word recognition was best with Tri and worst with Vchan (Mono did not significantly differ from the other configurations). These differences were small and insufficient to result in a clear increase in performance across subjects if the result from the best

  17. Review of the current status of linear hybrid reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1977-07-01

    A review was made of the current status of linear fusion-fission hybrid reactor design studies in the USA. The linear hybrid reactor concepts reviewed include the linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor being studied at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, the electron beam-heated solenoid hybrid reactor under development at Physics International Co., the laser-heated solenoid hybrid reactor being investigated at Mathematical Sciences Northwest, Inc., and the linear fusion waste burning reactor being studied at General Atomic Company. The discussion addresses confinement and heating mechanisms for each concept, as well as the hybrid blanket designs. The current state of the four reactor designs is summarized and the performance of the various concepts compared

  18. International consensus on use of focused ultrasound for painful bone metastases : Current status and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel; ter Haar, Gail; Napoli, Alessandro; Hananel, Arik; Ghanouni, Pejman; Lövey, György; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Rieke, Viola; Majumdar, Sharmila; Marchetti, Luca; Pfeffer, Raphael M; Hurwitz, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), in particular magnetic resonance guided FUS (MRgFUS), is an emerging non-invasive thermal treatment modality in oncology that has recently proven to be effective for the palliation of metastatic bone pain. A consensus panel of internationally recognised experts in

  19. THE FOCUS OF COMPANIES ON CLIENTS A MAJOR TREND IN THE CURRENT BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    SOCA, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Under the impact of economic dynamism, sharpening competition, globalization and computerization, the late twentieth century is characterized by moving from a transactional to a relational marketing in which companies focus on developing relationships with customers, increasing their level of satisfaction and ultimately gaining their loyalty.

  20. Value of Travel Time Reliability: A review of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carrion; David Levinson

    2010-01-01

    Travel time reliability is a fundamental factor in travel behavior. It represents the temporal uncertainty experienced by users in their movement between any two nodes in a network. The importance of the time reliability depends on the penalties incurred by the users. In road networks, travelers consider the existence of a trip travel time uncertainty in different choice situations (departure time, route, mode, and others). In this paper, a systematic review of the current state of research i...

  1. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  2. Summary of the working group on high current transport and final focus lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garren, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Transverse instabilities of intense beams in periodic transport lines are reviewed. Chromatic aberrations in the final beam transport lines and geometric aberrations due to quadrupole fringe fields are discussed and corrections to reduce them are evaluated. The implications for four reference designs are evaluated by comparing the tune depression, momentum spread, and emittance

  3. Analysis of current trends on the Czech food market with a focus on a healthy lifestyle.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartůňková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The thesis of this work is to map current trends on the Czech food market with focus on a healthy lifestyle. In particular, it focuses on foodstuff labelling and GDA labels. The paper begins by surveying the development of the healthy lifestyle trend, as well as the activities of the Federation of the Food and Drink Industries of the Czech Republic involved in a healthy lifestyle; furthermore, the work elaborates on segmentation of the consumer and evaluation of a healthy lifestyle, obesity a...

  4. Review of wet environment types on Mars with focus on duration and volumetric issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, Akos

    2012-06-01

    The astrobiological significance of certain environment types on Mars strongly depends on the temperature, duration, and chemistry of liquid water that was present there in the past. Recent works have focused on the identification of signs of ancient water on Mars, as it is more difficult to estimate the above-mentioned parameters. In this paper, two important factors are reviewed, the duration and the volume of water at different environment types on past and present Mars. Using currently available information, we can only roughly estimate these values, but as environment types show characteristic differences in this respect, it is worth comparing them and the result may have importance for research in astrobiology. Impact-induced and geothermal hydrothermal systems, lakes, and valley networks were in existence on Mars over the course of from 10(2) to 10(6) years, although they would have experienced substantially different temperature regimes. Ancient oceans, as well as water in outflow channels and gullies, and at the microscopic scale as interfacial water layers, would have had inherently different times of duration and overall volume: oceans may have endured from 10(4) to 10(6) years, while interfacial water would have had the smallest volume and residence time of liquid phase on Mars. Martian wet environments with longer residence times of liquid water are believed to have existed for that amount of time necessary for life to develop on Earth between the Late Heavy Bombardment and the age of the earliest fossil record. The results of this review show the necessity for more detailed analysis of conditions within geothermal heat-induced systems to reconstruct the conditions during weathering and mineral alteration, as well as to search for signs of reoccurring wet periods in ancient crater lakes.

  5. Review of vascularised bone tissue-engineering strategies with a focus on co-culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuchun; Chan, Jerry K Y; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2015-02-01

    Poor angiogenesis within tissue-engineered grafts has been identified as a main challenge limiting the clinical introduction of bone tissue-engineering (BTE) approaches for the repair of large bone defects. Thick BTE grafts often exhibit poor cellular viability particularly at the core, leading to graft failure and lack of integration with host tissues. Various BTE approaches have been explored for improving vascularisation in tissue-engineered constructs and are briefly discussed in this review. Recent investigations relating to co-culture systems of endothelial and osteoblast-like cells have shown evidence of BTE efficacy in increasing vascularization in thick constructs. This review provides an overview of key concepts related to bone formation and then focuses on the current state of engineered vascularized co-culture systems using bone repair as a model. It will also address key questions regarding the generation of clinically relevant vascularized bone constructs as well as potential directions and considerations for research with the objective of pursuing engineered co-culture systems in other disciplines of vascularized regenerative medicine. The final objective is to generate serious and functional long-lasting vessels for sustainable angiogenesis that will enable enhanced cellular survival within thick voluminous bone grafts, thereby aiding in bone formation and remodelling in the long term. However, more evidence about the quality of blood vessels formed and its associated functional improvement in bone formation as well as a mechanistic understanding of their interactions are necessary for designing better therapeutic strategies for translation to clinical settings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. PCMs for Residential Building Applications: A Short Review Focused on Disadvantages and Proposals for Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs offer great potential as a latent heat energy storage technique to provide energy efficient systems in new and existing residential buildings. Due to their unique characteristic of high storage densities and latent heat properties, PCMs provide opportunities for greater energy storage in many applications for residential buildings. These applications include, but are not limited to, solar water heating, space heating/cooling, and waste heat recovery. This study reviews PCM systems in residential building applications, with a focus on their major disadvantages and concludes with proposals for future development. Several disadvantages of PCM use in the given application have been identified and include; super cooling, low thermal conductivity, phase segregation, fire safety, and cost. The issues caused by super cooling and phase segregation lead to thermal cycling degradation, limiting the useful lifecycle of the material. These issues could limit their potential in building applications, which require systems of a long lifespan. Low thermal conductivities can slow down the rate at which heat is distributed or absorbed from the building, which affect the occupants comfort and as well as the efficiency of the system. Ideas based on the current research on ways to limit these disadvantages are included in the study. This study also identifies that further research is required on novel maintenance ways for the PCM systems after they have been installed.

  7. The Focus of Current HCI Research in Usability Evaluation and Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a systematic literature study of the research on usability evaluation and feedback. The literature study covers the papers published from five key human-computer interaction journals for a period of four years, and depicts the most current research within...... the field with regard to usability evaluation and feedback....

  8. The current state of epilepsy guidelines: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Dunkley, Colin; Janszky, Jozsef; Kumlien, Eva; Moshé, Solomon; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Pedley, Timothy A; Perucca, Emilio; Senties, Horacio; Thomas, Sanjeev V; Wang, Yuping; Wilmshurst, Jo; Jetté, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Epilepsy Guidelines Task Force, composed of 14 international members, was established in 2011 to identify, using systematic review methodology, international epilepsy clinical care guidelines, assess their quality, and determine gaps in areas of need of development. A systematic review of the literature (1985-2014) was performed in six electronic databases (e.g. Medline, Embase) using a broad search strategy without initial limits to language or study design. Six gray literature databases (e.g., American Academy of Neurology [AAN], ILAE) were also searched to minimize publication bias. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, reviewed full text articles, and performed data abstraction. Descriptive statistics and a meta-analysis were generated. The search identified 10,926 abstracts. Of the 410 articles selected for full text review, 63 met our eligibility criteria for a guideline. Of those included, 54 were in English and 9 were in other languages (French, Spanish, and Italian). Of all guidelines, 29% did not specify the target age groups, 27% were focused on adults, 22% included only children, and 6% specifically addressed issues related to women with epilepsy. Guidelines included in the review were most often aimed at guiding clinical practice for status epilepticus (n = 7), first seizure (n = 6), drug-resistant epilepsy (n = 5), and febrile seizures (n = 4), among others. Most of the guidelines were therapeutic (n = 35) or diagnostic (n = 16) in nature. The quality of the guidelines using a 1-7 point scale (7 = highest) varied and was moderate overall (mean = 4.99 ± 1.05 [SD]). We identified substantial gaps in topics (e.g., epilepsy in the elderly) and there was considerable heterogeneity in methodologic quality. The findings should offer a valuable resource for health professionals caring for people with epilepsy, since they will help guide the prioritization, development, and dissemination of future

  9. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  10. Magnetic electron focusing and tuning of the electron current with a pn-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@uantwerpen.be; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-01-28

    Transverse magnetic focusing properties of graphene using a ballistic four terminal structure are investigated. The electric response is obtained using the semiclassical billiard model. The transmission exhibits pronounced peaks as a consequence of skipping orbits at the edge of the structure. When we add a pn-junction between the two probes, snake states along the pn-interface appear. Injected electrons are guided by the pn-interface to one of the leads depending on the value of the applied magnetic field. Oscillations in the resistance are found depending on the amount of particles that end up in each lead.

  11. Current concepts of metabolic abnormalities in HIV patients: focus on lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Donald P

    2003-12-01

    HIV infection is associated with a number of metabolic abnormalities, including lipodystrophy, a difficult-to-define disorder whose characteristics include hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and fat redistribution. Current data suggest that lipodystrophy is caused by multiple factors. Dual-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy combined with protease inhibitor therapy has been shown to increase the risk of metabolic abnormalities, but susceptibility independent of drug effects has also been shown. While many of the treatments for the broad range of signs and symptoms of lipodystrophy bring about improvements in patient status, none have been demonstrated to bring about a return to baseline levels.

  12. Current Status of Periodic Safety Review of HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Choong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A PSR for a research reactor became a legal requirement as the Nuclear Safety Act was amended and came into effect in 2014. This paper describes the current status and methodology of the first Periodic Safety Review (PSR) of HANARO that is being performed. The legal requirements, work plan, and process of implementing a PSR are described. Because this is the first PSR for a research reactor, it is our understating that the operating organization and regulatory body should communicate well with each other to complete the PSR in a timely manner. The first PSR of HANARO is under way. In order to achieve a successful result, activities of the operation organization such as scheduling, maintaining consistency in input data for review, and reviewing the PSR reports that will require intensive resources should be well planned. This means the operating organization needs to incorporate appropriate measures to ensure the transfer of knowledge and expertise arising from the PSR via a contractor to the operation organization. It is desirable for the Regulatory Body to be involved in all stage of the PSR to prevent any waste of resources and minimize the potential for a reworking of the PSR and the need for an additional assessment and review as recommended by foreign experts.

  13. Patient-focused internet interventions in reproductive medicine: a scoping review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, J.W.M.; Haak, P. van den; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Tuil, W.S.; Faber, M.J.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Internet has revolutionized fertility care since it became a popular source of information and support for infertile patients in the last decade. The aim of this scoping review is to map (i) the main categories of patient-focused Internet interventions within fertility care, (ii) the

  14. Current robotic curricula for surgery residents: A need for additional cognitive and psychomotor focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Courtney A; Chern, Hueylan; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2018-02-01

    Current robot surgery curricula developed by industry were designed for expert surgeons. We sought to identify the robotic curricula that currently exist in general surgery residencies and describe their components. We identified 12 residency programs with robotic curricula. Using a structured coding form to identify themes including sequence, duration, emphasis and assessment, we generated a descriptive summary. Curricula followed a similar sequence: learners started with online modules and simulation exercises, followed by bedside experience during R2-R3 training years, and then operative opportunities on the console in the final years of training. Consistent portions of the curricula reflect a device-dependent training paradigm; they defined the sequence of instruction. Most curricula lacked specifics on duration and content of training activities. None clearly described cognitive or psychomotor skills needed by residents and none required a proficiency assessment before graduation. Resident-specific robotic curricula remain grounded in initial industrial efforts to train experienced surgeons, are non-specific regarding the type and nature of hands on experience, and do not include discussion of operative technique and surgical concepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational chemistry reviews of current trends v.4

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents a balanced blend of methodological and applied contributions. It supplements well the first three volumes of the series, revealing results of current research in computational chemistry. It also reviews the topographical features of several molecular scalar fields. A brief discussion of topographical concepts is followed by examples of their application to several branches of chemistry.The size of a basis set applied in a calculation determines the amount of computer resources necessary for a particular task. The details of a common strategy - the ab initio model potential

  16. Current applications of nanotechnology in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavikatti, Shaeesta Khaleelahmed; Bhardwaj, Smiti; Prabhuji, M L V

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for advances in diagnosis and treatment modalities, nanotechnology is being considered as a groundbreaking and viable research subject. This technology, which deals with matter in nanodimensions, has widened our views of poorly understood health issues and provided novel means of diagnosis and treatment. Researchers in the field of dentistry have explored the potential of nanoparticles in existing therapeutic modalities with moderate success. The key implementations in the field of dentistry include local drug delivery agents, restorative materials, bone graft materials, and implant surface modifications. This review provides detailed insights about current developments in the field of dentistry, and discusses potential future uses of nanotechnology.

  17. Individual Performance Management: A Review of Current Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O’ Boyle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of current practice in relation to individual performance management systems and process within the traditional business environment. There is a consensus that the role of the individual is central to the overall performance of any organization and how individual performances are managed and evaluated can have significant impacts on overall organizational success. Many organizations employ the traditional performance appraisal in order to monitor and assess individual employee performances. However, new approaches, such as 360-degree feedback have also become commonplace within the business environment. An analysis of each approach including benefits and challenges associated with each process is presented within this paper.

  18. Sportsman hernia; the review of current diagnosis and treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksoy, Melih; Sekmen, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    Groin pain is an important clinical entity that may affect a sportsman's active sports life. Sportsman's hernia is a chronic low abdominal and groin pain syndrome. Open and laparoscopic surgical treatment may be chosen in case of conservative treatment failure. Studies on sportsman's hernia, which is a challenging situation in both diagnosis and treatment, are ongoing in many centers. We reviewed the treatment results of 37 patients diagnosed and treated as sportsman's hernia at our hospital between 2011-2014, in light of current literature.

  19. Review: New Vaccine Against Tuberculosis: Current Developments and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global health threat. BCG was developed as an attenuated live vaccine for tuberculosis control nearly a century ago. Despite being the most widely used vaccine in human history, BCG is not an ideal vaccine and has two major limitations: its poor efficacy against adult pulmonary TB and its disconcerting safety in immunocompromised individuals. A safer and more effective TB vaccine is urgently needed. This review article discusses current strategies to develop the next generation of TB vaccines to replace BCG. While some progresses have been made in the past decade, significant challenges lie ahead.

  20. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: Environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial...... waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has...... no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few...

  1. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IIiadou, Vasiliki; Ptok, Martin; Grech, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Current notions of "hearing impairment," as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other...... of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional......, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order...

  2. On 2D electron cloud dynamics in high-current plasma lens for ion beam focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A. A.; Litovko, I. V.; Onishchenko, I. N.; Zadorozhny, V. F.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we are dealing with the appear the stable existence and dynamics of 2-D electron vortical structures in crossed electric and magnetic fields. The collective interactions in which the electron motion is nonlinear and ion motion is linear, is concerned. By using of the kinetic equation and the catastrophe theory approach we deduce an origin of the vortical structures. The nonlinear differential equation for the electric potential in a hydrodynamical approximation is obtained. It describes a drift motion of the electrons in oscillating electric fields of the high-current plasma lens(PL), arising due to presence the principal unremoval radical gradient of the axical component of the magnetic field. It was shown that the considered equations have contained the solutions in the form of the single vortical structures. The stability of the structures are given

  3. Happiness and Well-Being: Shifting the Focus of the Current Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    The point of departure of this paper is the recently emphasised distinction between psychological theories of happiness, on the one hand, and normative theories of well-being, on the other. With this distinction in mind, I examine three possible kinds of relation that might exist between (psychol......The point of departure of this paper is the recently emphasised distinction between psychological theories of happiness, on the one hand, and normative theories of well-being, on the other. With this distinction in mind, I examine three possible kinds of relation that might exist between...... (psychological) happiness and (normative) well-being; to wit, happiness may be understood as playing a central part in (1) a formal theory of well-being, (2) a substantive theory of well-being or (3) as an indicator for well-being. I note that, in the relevant literature, happiness is mostly discussed in terms...... of either (1) or (2). In this paper, I attempt to motivate a shift of focus away from such accounts of happiness and towards (3), i.e. its epistemic role. When examined in connection to (normative) well-being, (psychological states of) happiness and unhappiness should be understood as psychological states...

  4. Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle P. Oswald

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation. Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON is typically found in more than 50% of the samples and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins  and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

  5. Current status and future direction of nanomedicine: Focus on advanced biological and medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Mi; Jeong, Hwan Jeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Cyclotron Research Center, Institute for Medical Science, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Nanotechnology is the engineering and manipulation of materials and devices with sizes in the nanometer range. Colloidal gold, iron oxide nanoparticles and quantum dot semiconductor nanocrystals are examples of nanoparticles, with sizes generally ranging from 1 to 20 nm. These nanotechnologies have been researched tremendously in the last decade and this has led to a new area of “nanomedicine” which is the application of nanotechnology to human health-care for diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, prediction and prevention of diseases. Recently progress has been made in overcoming some of the difficulties in the human use of nanomedicines. In the mid-1990s, Doxil was approved by the FDA, and now various nanoconstructs are on the market and in clinical trials. However, there are many obstacles in the human application of nanomaterials. For translation to clinical use, a detailed understanding is needed of the chemical and physical properties of particles and their pharmacokinetic behavior in the body, including their biodistribution, toxicity, and biocompatibility. In this review, we provide a broad introduction to nanomedicines and discuss the preclinical and clinical trials in which they have been evaluated.

  6. Current status and future direction of nanomedicine: Focus on advanced biological and medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Mi; Jeong, Hwan Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the engineering and manipulation of materials and devices with sizes in the nanometer range. Colloidal gold, iron oxide nanoparticles and quantum dot semiconductor nanocrystals are examples of nanoparticles, with sizes generally ranging from 1 to 20 nm. These nanotechnologies have been researched tremendously in the last decade and this has led to a new area of “nanomedicine” which is the application of nanotechnology to human health-care for diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, prediction and prevention of diseases. Recently progress has been made in overcoming some of the difficulties in the human use of nanomedicines. In the mid-1990s, Doxil was approved by the FDA, and now various nanoconstructs are on the market and in clinical trials. However, there are many obstacles in the human application of nanomaterials. For translation to clinical use, a detailed understanding is needed of the chemical and physical properties of particles and their pharmacokinetic behavior in the body, including their biodistribution, toxicity, and biocompatibility. In this review, we provide a broad introduction to nanomedicines and discuss the preclinical and clinical trials in which they have been evaluated

  7. Promotion of multi-electron transfer for enhanced photocatalysis: A review focused on oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Changhua [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, and Key Laboratory for UV-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); College of Chemistry and Biology, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Zhang, Xintong, E-mail: xtzhang@nenu.edu.cn [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, and Key Laboratory for UV-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liu, Yichun [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, and Key Laboratory for UV-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in photocatalysis process is focused. • Multi-electron transfer ORR is reviewed. • This review provides a guide to access to enhanced photocatalysis via multi-electron transfer. - Abstract: Semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted significant interest for solar light induced environmental remediation and solar fuel generation. As is well known, photocatalytic performance is determined by three steps: photoexcitation, separation and transport of photogenerated charge carriers, and surface reactions. To achieve higher efficiency, significant efforts have been made on improvement of efficiency of above first two steps, which have been well documented in recent review articles. In contrast, this review intends to focus on strategies moving onto the third step of improvement for enhanced photocatalysis wherein active oxygen species including superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical are in situ detected. Particularly, surface electron-transfer reduction of oxygen over single component photocatalysts is reviewed and systems enabling multi-electron transfer induced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are highlighted. It is expected this review could provide a guideline for readers to better understand the critical role of ORR over photocatalyst in charge carrier separation and transfer and obtain reliable results for enhanced aerobic photocatalysis.

  8. Very high-current propagation in the ion-focused to collision-dominated regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Welch, D.R.; Mock, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements and analysis show that the 13 TW, Hermes-III [J. J. Ramirez et al., Digest of Technical Papers, 6th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1987), p. 294], pulsed, electron beam has two windows of stable transport in long drift cells filled with N 2 gas terminated by a bremsstrahlung producing target: a low-pressure window (between ∼1 and ∼100 mTorr) that is dominated by propagation in the semicollisionless ion-focused regime (IFR), and a high-pressure window (between ∼1 and ∼100 Torr) that is dominated by propagation in the resistive collisional regime. In the transition region between the two windows, beam plasma--electron instabilities significantly disrupt propagation. Propagation in both regimes (the IFR at early time and the collisional at later time) is observed from ∼5 to ∼100 mTorr, which produces two distinct bremsstrahlung pulses from the single injected beam pulse. As the pressure increases, two-stream instabilities terminate IFR propagation and the associated bremsstrahlung pulse earlier and earlier in time. Above 5 mTorr, the instability is sufficiently quenched by gas collisions that propagation in the collisional regime back in the beam body occurs, leading to a second propagation and associated bremsstrahlung pulse. Above 200 mTorr, the gas breaks down too rapidly for a significant IFR pulse to form, and for higher pressures only a single pulse in the collisional regime is propagated. Reasonable stability in the collisional regime is not achieved until pressures exceed 1 Torr

  9. Addressing unwarranted clinical variation: A rapid review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reema; Manias, Elizabeth; Mears, Stephen; Heslop, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Hay, Liz

    2018-05-15

    Unwarranted clinical variation (UCV) can be described as variation that can only be explained by differences in health system performance. There is a lack of clarity regarding how to define and identify UCV and, once identified, to determine whether it is sufficiently problematic to warrant action. As such, the implementation of systemic approaches to reducing UCV is challenging. A review of approaches to understand, identify, and address UCV was undertaken to determine how conceptual and theoretical frameworks currently attempt to define UCV, the approaches used to identify UCV, and the evidence of their effectiveness. Rapid evidence assessment (REA) methodology was used. A range of text words, synonyms, and subject headings were developed for the major concepts of unwarranted clinical variation, standards (and deviation from these standards), and health care environment. Two electronic databases (Medline and Pubmed) were searched from January 2006 to April 2017, in addition to hand searching of relevant journals, reference lists, and grey literature. Results were merged using reference-management software (Endnote) and duplicates removed. Inclusion criteria were independently applied to potentially relevant articles by 3 reviewers. Findings were presented in a narrative synthesis to highlight key concepts addressed in the published literature. A total of 48 relevant publications were included in the review; 21 articles were identified as eligible from the database search, 4 from hand searching published work and 23 from the grey literature. The search process highlighted the voluminous literature reporting clinical variation internationally; yet, there is a dearth of evidence regarding systematic approaches to identifying or addressing UCV. Wennberg's classification framework is commonly cited in relation to classifying variation, but no single approach is agreed upon to systematically explore and address UCV. The instances of UCV that warrant investigation and

  10. Robotic Buccal Ureteroplasty: a Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorf, Benjamin; Lee, Ziho; Kidd, Laura; Kaplan, Joshua; Harris, Andrew; Metro, Michael; Liu, Jeffrey; Eun, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of the literature on buccal mucosal ureteroplasty for ureteral stricture disease, with a specific focus on the application of the robotic platform to buccal ureteroplasty. In our review, we highlight the results of Zhao et al. from the New York University School of Medicine Department of Urology, as well as our own results from Temple University Hospital. Zhao et al. published the first series of four patients who underwent robotic buccal ureteroplasty. Mean stricture length was 3.0 cm, and at a mean follow-up of 15 months, all repairs remained patent. We also describe our results in 10 patients who underwent robotic buccal ureteroplasty at Temple University Hospital. Median stricture length was 3.0 cm, and at a median follow-up of 5 months, all repairs remain patent. Robotic buccal ureteroplasty offers a promising option for repair of complex ureteral strictures.

  11. Current aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR HUGO LOPES DE ANDRADE

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this article was to present a review of the literature by searching the databases Pubmed and Scielo, focusing on publications related to polycystic ovaries, including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic aspects, as well as its association with cardiovascular and arterial hypertensive disorders.

  12. A Review of Technology-Based Youth and Family-Focused Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Kathleen Watson; Prinz, Ronald J

    2017-06-01

    In the past 10 years, mental and behavioral health has seen a proliferation of technology-based interventions in the form of online and other computer-delivered programs. This paper focuses on technology-based treatment and preventive interventions aimed at benefitting children and adolescents via either involving the parents and families, or only the youth. The review considered only technology-based interventions that had at least one published study with a randomized controlled trial design. Questions being addressed included: (1) What are the technology-based interventions in the mental/behavioral health area that have been systematically evaluated in published studies? (2) What are the common and unique characteristics of these interventions and their application with respect to sample characteristics, target problems, and technology characteristics (platforms, structures, elements, and communication formats)? and (3) Which intervention approaches and strategies have accrued the greatest evidence? The review identified 30 technology-based psychosocial interventions for children and families, 19 of which were parent or family-focused (32 studies) and 11 of which were youth-focused (in 13 studies). For the parent/family-focused interventions, greatest promise was found in those that addressed either youth behavioral problems or depressive/anxious symptoms, as well as more general bolstering of parenting efficacy. The youth-focused interventions showed some promise in reducing depressive/anxious symptoms. Advantages and disadvantages of the technology-based approaches were considered, and areas for future research and development were discussed.

  13. A review of high beam current RFQ accelerators and funnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The authors review the design features of several high-current (> 20-mA) and high-power (> 1-mA average) proton or H - injectors, RFQs, and funnels. They include a summary of observed performance and will mention a sampling of new designs, including the proposed incorporation of beam choppers. Different programs and organizations have chosen to build the RFQ in diverse configurations. Although the majority of RFQs are either low-current or very low duty-factor, several versions have included high-current and/or high-power designs for either protons or H - ions. The challenges of cooling, handling high space-charge forces, and coupling with injectors and subsequent accelerators are significant. In all instances, beam tests were a valuable learning experience, because not always did these as-built structures perform exactly as predicted by the earlier design codes. They summarize the key operational parameters, indicate what was achieved, and highlight what was learned in these tests. Based on this generally good performance and high promise, even more challenging designs are being considered for new applications that include even higher powers, beam funnels and choppers

  14. Current Status of Mycotoxin Analysis: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Gordon S

    2016-07-01

    It is over 50 years since the discovery of aflatoxins focused the attention of food safety specialists on fungal toxins in the feed and food supply. Since then, analysis of this important group of natural contaminants has advanced in parallel with general developments in analytical science, and current MS methods are capable of simultaneously analyzing hundreds of compounds, including mycotoxins, pesticides, and drugs. This profusion of data may advance our understanding of human exposure, yet constitutes an interpretive challenge to toxicologists and food safety regulators. Despite these advances in analytical science, the basic problem of the extreme heterogeneity of mycotoxin contamination, although now well understood, cannot be circumvented. The real health challenges posed by mycotoxin exposure occur in the developing world, especially among small-scale and subsistence farmers. Addressing these problems requires innovative approaches in which analytical science must also play a role in providing suitable out-of-laboratory analytical techniques.

  15. Magnetic resonance neurography. Current perspectives and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Radiology and Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Adjunct Faculty, Baltimore, MD (United States); Madhuranthakam, Ananth J. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Advanced Imaging Research Institute, Dallas, TX (United States); Andreisek, Gustav [University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2018-02-15

    Magnetic resonance neurography (also called MRN or MR neurography) refers to MR imaging dedicated to the peripheral nerves. It is a technique that enhances selective multiplanar visualisation of the peripheral nerve and pathology by encompassing a combination of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and diffusion imaging pulse sequences. Referring physicians who seek imaging techniques that can depict and diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies superior to conventional MR imaging are driving the demand for MRN. This article reviews the pathophysiology of peripheral nerves in common practice scenarios, technical considerations of MRN, current indications of MRN, normal and abnormal neuromuscular appearances, and imaging pitfalls. Finally, the emerging utility of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging is discussed and future directions are highlighted. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance neurography. Current perspectives and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance neurography (also called MRN or MR neurography) refers to MR imaging dedicated to the peripheral nerves. It is a technique that enhances selective multiplanar visualisation of the peripheral nerve and pathology by encompassing a combination of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and diffusion imaging pulse sequences. Referring physicians who seek imaging techniques that can depict and diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies superior to conventional MR imaging are driving the demand for MRN. This article reviews the pathophysiology of peripheral nerves in common practice scenarios, technical considerations of MRN, current indications of MRN, normal and abnormal neuromuscular appearances, and imaging pitfalls. Finally, the emerging utility of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging is discussed and future directions are highlighted. (orig.)

  17. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  18. Veganism and osteoporosis: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Annabelle M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature regarding calcium and Vitamin D deficiencies in vegan diets and the possible relationship to low bone mineral density and incidence for fracture. Prominent databases were searched for original research publications providing data capable of answering these questions: (i) Do vegans have lower-than-recommended levels of calcium/Vitamin D? (ii) Do vegans have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts? (iii) Are vegans at a greater risk for fractures than non-vegans? The findings gathered consistently support the hypothesis that vegans do have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts. However, the evidence regarding calcium, Vitamin D and fracture incidence is inconclusive. More research is needed to definitively answer these questions and to address the effects of such deficiencies on the medical and socioeconomic aspects of life.

  19. Current management options for latent tuberculosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton BL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brianna L Norton, David P HollandDepartment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis remains the world’s second leading infectious cause of death, with nearly one-third of the global population latently infected. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a mainstay of tuberculosis-control efforts in low-to medium-incidence countries. Isoniazid monotherapy has been the standard of care for decades, but its utility is impaired by poor completion rates. However, new, shorter-course regimens using rifamycins improve completion rates and are cost-saving compared with standard isoniazid monotherapy. We review the currently available therapies for latent tuberculosis infection and their toxicities and include a brief economic comparison of the different regimens.Keywords: isoniazid, rifampin, rifapentine, tuberculin skin test, interferon-gamma release assay

  20. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

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    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO and American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.

  1. Concierge and Second-Opinion Radiology: Review of Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shehbaz; Bafana, Rounak; Halabi, Safwan S

    2016-01-01

    Radiology's core assets include the production, interpretation, and distribution of quality imaging studies. Second-opinion services and concierge practices in radiology aim to augment traditional services by providing patient-centered and physician-centered care, respectively. Patient centeredness enhances patients' understanding and comfort with their radiology tests and procedures and allows them to make better decisions about their health care. As the fee-for-service paradigm shifts to value-based care models, radiology practices have begun to diversify imaging service delivery and communication to coincide with the American College of Radiology Imaging 3.0 campaign. Physician-centered consultation allows for communication of evidence-based guidelines to assist referring physicians and other providers in making the most appropriate imaging or treatment decision for a specific clinical condition. There are disparate practice models and payment schema for the various second-opinion and concierge practices. This review article explores the current state and payment models of second-opinion and concierge practices in radiology. This review also includes a discussion on the benefits, roadblocks, and ethical issues that surround these novel types of practices. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  3. A Review Focused on the Psychological Effectiveness of Tai Chi on Different Populations

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    Long Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a popular exercise form, Tai Chi (TC has been investigated to determine its contributions to an active and healthy lifestyle. There are an increasing number of researchers who focus on exploring the potential physiological and psychological benefits of TC but only a few systematic reviews of these benefits to a variety of populations. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively evaluate the reported psychological benefits associated with practicing TC. Although many investigators have reported possible psychological benefits of TC for children, young adults, older healthy adults, and for a variety of patient populations, many of the reports suffer one or more methodological flaws. These flaws include inadequate study design, including lack of control groups, small sample sizes, unsophisticated statistical techniques, or publication without rigorous peer review. After reviewing the results of the existing literature regarding the potential psychological benefits of TC, we recommend that future investigations be conducted with additional adherence to the traditional scientific process.

  4. Air travel and radiation risks - review of current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeb, H.; Blettner, M.

    2004-01-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to cosmic radiation, in particular when travelling routes close to the poles and in high altitudes. The paper reviews current radiation measurement and estimation approaches as well as the actual level of cosmic radiation that personnel and travellers receive and summarizes the available epidemiological evidence on health effects of cosmic radiation. On average, German aircrew is exposed to les than 5 mSv per annum, and even frequent travellers only rarely reach values above 1 mSv/year. Cohort studies among aircrew have found very little evidence for an increased incidence or mortality of radiation-associated cancers. Only malignant melanoma rates have consistently found to be increased among male aircrew. Socioeconomic and reproductive aspects are likely to contribute to the slightly elevated breast cancer risk of female aircrew. Cytogenetic studies have not yielded consistent results. Based on these data overall risk increases for cancer among occupationally exposed aircrew appear unlikely. This also applies to air travellers who are usually exposed to much lower radiation levels. Occasional air travel during pregnancy does not pose a significant radiation risk, but further considerations apply in this situation. The currently available studies are limited with regard to methodological issues and case numbers so that a continuation of cohort studies in several European countries is being planned. (orig.) [de

  5. Vitamin D and alcohol: A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardelli, Vitor Soares; Lago, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Fidalgo, Thiago Marques

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria. Of 932 articles, 49 met our inclusion criteria. The majority of the papers (71.4%) were cross-sectional studies. Alcohol intake was found to be positively associated with vitamin D status in 15 articles and negatively associated with vitamin D in 18 articles; no association was found in 16 articles. Heterogeneous results were found in our review, with a similar number of papers indicating a positive association, a negative association or the absence of any association between alcohol use and vitamin D levels. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the studies in which a positive association was found were more recent papers that involved considerably larger sample sizes than those in other studies. The older studies compared vitamin D levels in alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients, in contrast to more recent studies, which focused on more specific populations. In addition, most of the selected papers were from high latitude countries, where exposure to sunlight tends to be lower than in tropical countries. The data concerning vitamin D levels in patients with alcohol use disorders remain controversial. Additional research using a standardized methodology is necessary to demonstrate the real impact of alcohol consumption on vitamin D serum levels as well as on the health status of alcohol users

  6. Models of clinical reasoning with a focus on general practice: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseini, Fakhrolsadat

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis lies at the heart of general practice. Every day general practitioners (GPs) visit patients with a wide variety of complaints and concerns, with often minor but sometimes serious symptoms. General practice has many features which differentiate it from specialty care setting, but during the last four decades little attention was paid to clinical reasoning in general practice. Therefore, we aimed to critically review the clinical reasoning models with a focus on the clinical reasoning in general practice or clinical reasoning of general practitioners to find out to what extent the existing models explain the clinical reasoning specially in primary care and also identity the gaps of the model for use in primary care settings. A systematic search to find models of clinical reasoning were performed. To have more precision, we excluded the studies that focused on neurobiological aspects of reasoning, reasoning in disciplines other than medicine decision making or decision analysis on treatment or management plan. All the articles and documents were first scanned to see whether they include important relevant contents or any models. The selected studies which described a model of clinical reasoning in general practitioners or with a focus on general practice were then reviewed and appraisal or critics of other authors on these models were included. The reviewed documents on the model were synthesized. Six models of clinical reasoning were identified including hypothetic-deductive model, pattern recognition, a dual process diagnostic reasoning model, pathway for clinical reasoning, an integrative model of clinical reasoning, and model of diagnostic reasoning strategies in primary care. Only one model had specifically focused on general practitioners reasoning. A Model of clinical reasoning that included specific features of general practice to better help the general practitioners with the difficulties of clinical reasoning in this setting is needed.

  7. Models of clinical reasoning with a focus on general practice: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHRAM YAZDANI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis lies at the heart of general practice. Every day general practitioners (GPs visit patients with a wide variety of complaints and concerns, with often minor but sometimes serious symptoms. General practice has many features which differentiate it from specialty care setting, but during the last four decades little attention was paid to clinical reasoning in general practice. Therefore, we aimed to critically review the clinical reasoning models with a focus on the clinical reasoning in general practice or clinical reasoning of general practitioners to find out to what extent the existing models explain the clinical reasoning specially in primary care and also identity the gaps of the model for use in primary care settings Methods: A systematic search to find models of clinical reasoning were performed. To have more precision, we excluded the studies that focused on neurobiological aspects of reasoning, reasoning in disciplines other than medicine decision making or decision analysis on treatment or management plan. All the articles and documents were first scanned to see whether they include important relevant contents or any models. The selected studies which described a model of clinical reasoning in general practitioners or with a focus on general practice were then reviewed and appraisal or critics of other authors on these models were included. The reviewed documents on the model were synthesized Results: Six models of clinical reasoning were identified including hypothetic-deductive model, pattern recognition, a dual process diagnostic reasoning model, pathway for clinical reasoning, an integrative model of clinical reasoning, and model of diagnostic reasoning strategies in primary care. Only one model had specifically focused on general practitioners reasoning. Conclusion: A Model of clinical reasoning that included specific features of general practice to better help the general practitioners with the difficulties

  8. Current concept review: quality and process improvement in orthopedics

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    Pinney SJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephen J Pinney,1 Alexandra E Page,2 David S Jevsevar,3 Kevin J Bozic4 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St Mary's Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Orthopaedic Surgery, AAOS Health Care Systems Committee, San Diego, CA, USA; 3Department of Orthopaedics, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH, USA; 4Department of Surgery and Perioperative Care, Dell Medical School at the University of Texas, Austin, TX, USAAbstract: Multiple health care stakeholders are increasingly scrutinizing musculoskeletal care to optimize quality and cost efficiency. This has led to greater emphasis on quality and process improvement. There is a robust set of business strategies that are increasingly being applied to health care delivery. These quality and process improvement tools (QPITs have specific applications to segments of, or the entire episode of, patient care. In the rapidly changing health care world, it will behoove all orthopedic surgeons to have an understanding of the manner in which care delivery processes can be evaluated and improved. Many of the commonly used QPITs, including checklist initiatives, standardized clinical care pathways, lean methodology, six sigma strategies, and total quality management, embrace basic principles of quality improvement. These principles include focusing on outcomes, optimizing communication among health care team members, increasing process standardization, and decreasing process variation. This review summarizes the common QPITs, including how and when they might be employed to improve care delivery. Keywords: clinical care pathway, musculoskeletal care, outcomes, quality management, six sigma, lean thinking

  9. Practitioner Review: The Effectiveness of Solution Focused Brief Therapy with Children and Families: A Systematic and Critical Evaluation of the Literature from 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Caroline; Woods, Kevin; Humphrey, Neil; Symes, Wendy; Green, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Background and scope: Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a strengths-based therapeutic approach, emphasizing the resources that people possess and how these can be applied to a positive change process. The current study provides a systematic review of the SFBT evidence base and a critical evaluation of the use and application of SFBT in…

  10. Experimental Study of Current Discharge Behavior and Hard X-ray Anisotropy by APF Plasma Focus Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.; Attaran, M.

    2009-03-01

    Amirkabir (APF) is a new Mather-type plasma focus device (16 kV, 36 μf, and 115 nH). In this work we present some experimental results as variation of discharge current signal respect to applied voltage at the optimum pressure, focusing time of plasma versus gas pressure, and variations of current discharge with different insulator sleeve dimensions. As we prospected optimum pressure tending to increase as we tried to higher voltage levels. The time taken by the current sheath to lift-off the insulator surface and therefore quality of pinched plasma depends on the length of the insulator sleeve. The results show that the insulator diameter can influence on pinch quality. Behavior of hard X-ray (HXR) signals with the pressure and also anisotropy of HXR investigated by the use of two scintillation detectors. The distribution of HXR intensity shows a large anisotropy with a maximum intensity between 22.5° and 45° and also between -22.5° and -67.5°.

  11. High current density ion beam obtained by a transition to a highly focused state in extremely low-energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Y., E-mail: y.hirano@aist.go.jp, E-mail: hirano.yoichi@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); College of Science and Technologies, Nihon University, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 101-0897 (Japan); Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H. [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Fujiwara, Y.; Sakakita, H. [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    A high current density (≈3 mA/cm{sup 2}) hydrogen ion beam source operating in an extremely low-energy region (E{sub ib} ≈ 150–200 eV) has been realized by using a transition to a highly focused state, where the beam is extracted from the ion source chamber through three concave electrodes with nominal focal lengths of ≈350 mm. The transition occurs when the beam energy exceeds a threshold value between 145 and 170 eV. Low-level hysteresis is observed in the transition when E{sub ib} is being reduced. The radial profiles of the ion beam current density and the low temperature ion current density can be obtained separately using a Faraday cup with a grid in front. The measured profiles confirm that more than a half of the extracted beam ions reaches the target plate with a good focusing profile with a full width at half maximum of ≈3 cm. Estimation of the particle balances in beam ions, the slow ions, and the electrons indicates the possibility that the secondary electron emission from the target plate and electron impact ionization of hydrogen may play roles as particle sources in this extremely low-energy beam after the compensation of beam ion space charge.

  12. Should Rehabilitation Specialists Use External Focus Instructions When Motor Learning Is Fostered? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja H. Kakebeeke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constrained Action Hypothesis, motor learning is believed to be more efficient when an external focus (EF of motor control is given to the performer instead of an internal focus (IF of motor control. This systematic review investigated whether findings of studies focusing on the Constrained Action Hypothesis may be transferred to rehabilitation settings by assessing the methodological quality and risk of bias (ROB of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Of the 18 selected reports representing 20 RCTs, the methodological quality was rather low, and the majority of the reports appeared to have a high ROB. The 18 reports included 68 patients tested in a rehabilitation setting and 725 healthy participants. The time scale of the motor learning processes presented in the selected articles was heterogenic. The results of this systematic review indicate that the assumption that an external focus of control is to be preferred during motor learning processes is not sufficiently substantiated. The level of available evidence is not large enough to warrant transfer to patient populations (including children and the elderly and raises doubts about research with healthy individuals. This implies that based on the methodology used so far, there seems to be insufficient evidence for the superiority of an external focus of control, neither in healthy individuals nor in clinical populations. The relationship between EF instructions and motor learning research and its effect in both patient rehabilitation settings and healthy populations requires further exploration. Future adequately powered studies with low ROB and with rehabilitation populations that are followed over extended time periods should, therefore, be performed to substantiate or refute the assumption of the superiority of an EF in motor learning.

  13. Review--Interactions between diatoms and stainless steel: focus on biofouling and biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoulsi, J; Cooksey, K E; Dupres, V

    2011-11-01

    There is a considerable body of information regarding bacterially enhanced corrosion, however, this review focuses on diatoms (unicellular algae) whose contribution to biocorrosion is less well studied. The reasons why diatoms have been neglected in studies of biocorrosion in natural waters are discussed and the question whether diatoms should be considered as inert with respect of electrochemical processes is considered. A particular focus is given to the case of stainless steels (SS), which are widely used in variety of applications in natural waters. Basic information on the cell biology of diatoms is included in the review, particularly with respect to their ability to 'sense' and adhere to surfaces. Investigations at the nanoscale are reviewed as these studies provide information about the behavior of cells at interfaces. Recent advances include the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM), although only a few studies have been applied to diatoms. Regarding the electrochemical behavior of SS, the mechanisms by which diatoms influence the potential ennoblement process is discussed. Such studies reveal the association of diatoms, in addition to bacteria, with biocorrosion processes.

  14. Neurocognitive Processes and Pediatric Obesity Interventions: Review of Current Literature and Suggested Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L

    2016-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States, but current childhood obesity prevention approaches have limited efficacy. Self-regulation processes organize behavior to achieve a goal and may shape health behaviors and health outcomes. Obesity prevention approaches that focus on the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms that underlie self-regulation early in life may therefore lead to better outcomes. This article reviews the development of executive functioning (EF), identifies influences on EF development, discusses aspects of EF relating to increased risk for childhood obesity, and considers how EF-weight associations may change across development. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving menstrual hygiene management in emergency contexts: literature review of current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLeeuwen, Crystal; Torondel, Belen

    2018-01-01

    Management of menstruation in contexts of humanitarian emergencies can be challenging. A lack of empirical research about effective interventions which improve menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among female populations in humanitarian emergencies and a lack of clarity about which sectors within a humanitarian response should deliver MHM interventions can both be attributable to the lack of clear guidance on design and delivery of culturally appropriate MHM intervention in settings of humanitarian emergencies. The objective of this review was to collate, summarize, and appraise existing peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes the current scenario of MHM in emergency contexts in order to describe the breadth and depth of current policies, guidelines, empirical research, and humanitarian aid activities addressing populations' menstrual needs. A structured-search strategy was conducted for peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify studies, published reports, guidelines, and policy papers related to menstrual response in emergency humanitarian contexts. Of the 51 articles included in the review, 16 were peer-reviewed papers and 35 were gray literature. Most of the literature agreed that hardware interventions should focus on the supply of adequate material (not only absorbent material but also other supportive material) and adequate sanitation facilities, with access to water and private space for washing, changing, drying, and disposing menstrual materials. Software interventions should focus on education in the usage of materials to manage menstruation hygienically and education about the female body's biological processes. There was clear agreement that the needs of the target population should be assessed before designing any intervention. Although there is insight about which factors should be included in an effective menstrual hygiene intervention, there is insufficient empirical evidence to establish which interventions are most effective in

  16. Review of the Current State of UAV Regulations

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    Claudia Stöcker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available UAVs—unmanned aerial vehicles—facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the importance, impact, and diversity of UAV regulations, this paper provides an exploratory investigation of UAV regulations on the global scale. For this, the methodological approach consists of a research synthesis of UAV regulations, including a thorough literature review and a comparative analysis of national regulatory frameworks. Similarities and contrasting elements in the various national UAV regulations are explored including their statuses from the perspectives of past, present, and future trends. Since the early 2000s, countries have gradually established national legal frameworks. Although all UAV regulations have one common goal—minimizing the risks to other airspace users and to both people and property on the ground—the results reveal distinct variations in all the compared variables. Furthermore, besides the clear presence of legal frameworks, market forces such as industry design standards and reliable information about UAVs as public goods are expected to shape future developments.

  17. Current Treatment of Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis: An Evidence-Based Review

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    Meredith Harrell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To perform an evidence-based review of treatments for Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database and the key phrase “ocular toxoplasmosis treatment” and the filter for “controlled clinical trial” and “randomized clinical trial” as well as OVID medline (1946 to May week 2 2014 using the keyword ‘‘ocular toxoplasmosis’’. The included studies were used to evaluate the various treatment modalities of TRC. Results. The electronic search yielded a total of 974 publications of which 44 reported on the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. There were 9 randomized controlled studies and an additional 3 comparative studies on the treatment of acute TRC with systemic or intravitreous antibiotics or on reducing the recurrences of TRC. Endpoints of studies included visual acuity improvement, inflammatory response, lesion size changes, recurrences of lesions, and adverse effects of medications. Conclusions. There was conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics for TRC. There is no evidence to support that one antibiotic regimen is superior to another so choice needs to be informed by the safety profile. Intravitreous clindamycin with dexamethasone seems to be as effective as systemic treatments. There is currently level I evidence that intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrence of the disease.

  18. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Alice; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    This review provides a current overview on the diagnostics, epidemiology, co-occurrences, aetiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). The diagnostic criteria for OCPD according to the recently published Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include an official set of criteria for clinical practice and a new, alternative set of criteria for research purposes. OCPD is a personality disorder prevalent in the general population (3-8 %) that is more common in older and less educated individuals. Findings on sex distribution and course of OCPD are inconsistent. OCPD is comorbid with several other medical and psychological conditions. As for causes of OCPD, most empirical evidence provides support for disturbed attachment as well as the heritability of OCPD. So far, cognitive (behavioural) therapy is the best validated treatment of OCPD. Self-esteem variability, stronger early alliances as well as the distress level seem to predict cognitive (behavioural) therapy outcome. Future research is needed to further advance knowledge in OCPD and to resolve inconsistencies.

  19. Review of Current Immunologic Therapies for Hidradenitis Suppurativa

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    Victoria K. Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory disease of apocrine gland-bearing skin which affects approximately 1–4% of the population. The disease is more common in women and patients of African American descent and approximately one-third of patients report a family history. Obesity and smoking are known risk factors, but associations with other immune disorders, especially inflammatory bowel disease, are also recognized. The pathogenesis of HS is poorly understood and host innate or adaptive immune response, defective keratinocyte function, and the microbial environment in the hair follicle and apocrine gland have all been postulated to play a role in disease activity. While surgical interventions can be helpful to reduce disease burden, there is a high recurrence rate. Increasingly, data supports targeted immune therapy for HS, and longitudinal studies suggest benefit from these agents, both when used alone and as an adjunct to surgical treatments. The purpose of this review is to outline the current data supporting use of targeted immune therapy in HS management.

  20. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  1. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jin Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  2. Laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction - current status - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeliga, Jacek; Jackowski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    Acute small bowel obstruction (SBO) is an urgent medical condition. Its diagnosis is based mainly on a clinical examination followed by confirmatory simple routine radiological examinations such as plain X-ray of the abdominal cavity or computed tomography (CT). However, a real surgical challenge is not a decision whether to perform a surgery, but a decision when and how to perform it. To determine the place of laparoscopy in contemporary management of acute SBO based on the current literature. A review of the literature based on the Medline database and including mainly the period of 2013-2017 was performed. With regard to SBO, laparoscopy is a technique showing its advantages resulting from a minimally invasive approach. However, SBO is still a condition where the use of laparoscopy is limited mainly to selected cases such as SBO caused by single adhesions or foreign bodies. A basic limitation of using this technique is advanced and complicated SBO and lack of sufficient technical skills of the surgeon.

  3. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Jin; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Keun Ho

    2012-12-01

    Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs) are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D) image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  4. A Review on Current Status of Stability and Knowledge on Liquid Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sauvage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gather the current background in materials development and provide the reader with an accurate image of today’s knowledge regarding the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. This contribution highlights the literature from the 1970s to the present day on nanostructured TiO2, dye, Pt counter electrode, and liquid electrolyte for which this review is focused on.

  5. Focused issue on antiferromagnetic spintronics: An overview (Part of a collection of reviews on antiferromagnetic spintronics)

    KAUST Repository

    Jungwirth, T.

    2017-05-30

    This focused issue attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction into the field of antiferromagnetic spintronics. Apart from the brief overview below, it features five review articles. The intention is to cover in a coherent and complementary way key physical aspects of the antiferromagnetic spintronics research. These range from microelectronic memory devices and optical manipulation and detection of antiferromagnetic spins, to the fundamentals of antiferromagnetic dynamics in uniform or spin-textured systems, and to the interplay of antiferromagnetic spintronics with topological phenomena. The antiferromagnetic ordering can take a number of forms including fully compensated collinear, non-collinear, and non-coplanar magnetic lattices, compensated and uncompensated ferrimagnets, or metamagnetic materials hosting an antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. Apart from the variety of distinct magnetic crystal structures, the focused issue also encompasses spintronic phenomena and devices studied in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet heterostructures and in synthetic antiferromagnets.

  6. Focused issue on antiferromagnetic spintronics: An overview (Part of a collection of reviews on antiferromagnetic spintronics)

    KAUST Repository

    Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, J.; Manchon, Aurelien; Marti, X.; Wunderlich, J.; Felser, C.

    2017-01-01

    This focused issue attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction into the field of antiferromagnetic spintronics. Apart from the brief overview below, it features five review articles. The intention is to cover in a coherent and complementary way key physical aspects of the antiferromagnetic spintronics research. These range from microelectronic memory devices and optical manipulation and detection of antiferromagnetic spins, to the fundamentals of antiferromagnetic dynamics in uniform or spin-textured systems, and to the interplay of antiferromagnetic spintronics with topological phenomena. The antiferromagnetic ordering can take a number of forms including fully compensated collinear, non-collinear, and non-coplanar magnetic lattices, compensated and uncompensated ferrimagnets, or metamagnetic materials hosting an antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. Apart from the variety of distinct magnetic crystal structures, the focused issue also encompasses spintronic phenomena and devices studied in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet heterostructures and in synthetic antiferromagnets.

  7. A Technological Review of the Instrumented Footwear for Rehabilitation with a Focus on Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maculewicz, Justyna; Kofoed, Lise Busk; Serafin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize systems for gait rehabilitation based on instrumented footwear and present a context of their usage in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' auditory and haptic rehabilitation. We focus on the needs of PD patients, but since only a few systems were made with this purpose, we go through several applications used in different scenarios when gait detection and rehabilitation are considered. We present developments of the designs, possible improvements, and software challenges and requirements. We conclude that in order to build successful systems for PD patients' gait rehabilitation, technological solutions from several studies have to be applied and combined with knowledge from auditory and haptic cueing.

  8. Focused ultrasound as a tool to input sensory information to humans (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, L. R.; Tsirulnikov, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This review is devoted to the analysis of studies and implementations related to the use of focused ultrasound for functional effects on neuroreceptor structures. Special attention was paid to the stimulation of neuroreceptor structures in order to input sensory information to humans. This branch of medical and physiological acoustics appeared in Russia in the early 1970s and was being efficiently developed up to the late 1980s. Then, due to lack of financial support, only individual researchers remained at this field and, as a result, we have no full- fledged theoretical research and practical implementations in this area yet. Many promising possibilities of using functional effects of focused ultrasound in medicine and physiology have remained unimplemented for a long time. However, new interesting ideas and approaches have appeared in recent years. Very recently, very questionable projects have been reported related to the use of ultrasound for targeted functional effects on the human brain performed in some laboratories. In this review, the stages of the development of scientific research devoted to the functional effects of focused ultrasound are described. By activating the neuroreceptor structures of the skin by means pulses of focused ultrasound, one can cause all the sensations perceived by human beings through the skin in everyday life, such as tactile sensations, thermal (heat and cold), tickling, itching, and various types of pain. Stimulation of the ear labyrinth of humans with normal hearing using amplitude-modulated ultrasound causes auditory sensations corresponding to an audio modulating signal (pure tones, music, speech, etc.). Activation of neuroreceptor structures by means of focused ultrasound is used for the diagnosis of various neurological and skin diseases, as well as hearing disorders. It has been shown that the activation is related to the mechanical action of ultrasound, for example, by the radiation force, as well as to the direct

  9. Residential cogeneration systems: review of the current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onovwiona, H.I.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing potential for the use of micro-cogeneration systems in the residential sector because they have the ability to produce both useful thermal energy and electricity from a single source of fuel such as oil or natural gas. In cogeneration systems, the efficiency of energy conversion increases to over 80% as compared to an average of 30-35% for conventional fossil fuel fired electricity generation systems. This increase in energy efficiency can result in lower costs and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the conventional methods of generating heat and electricity separately. Cogeneration systems and equipment suitable for residential and small-scale commercial applications like hospitals, hotels or institutional buildings are available, and many new systems are under development. These products are used or aimed for meeting the electrical and thermal demands of a building for space and domestic hot water heating, and potentially, absorption cooling. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the various cogeneration technologies suitable for residential applications. The paper considers the various technologies available and under development for residential, i.e. single-family ( e ) and multi-family (10-30kW t ) applications, with focus on single-family applications. Technologies suitable for residential cogeneration systems include reciprocating internal combustion engine, micro-turbine, fuel cell, and reciprocating external combustion Stirling engine based cogeneration systems. The paper discusses the state of development and the performance, environmental benefits, and costs of these technologies. (author)

  10. Market review - Market values summary/July market review/current market data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This article is the July 1995 uranium market review. Data for current uranium market is presented, and a summary of recent transactions is also given. During this reporting period, there was one concentrate deal, two transactions in the long-term natural uranium market and conversion market, and three spot market transactions in the enrichment market. Active uranium supply fell, as did demand, and prices in all sectors were relatively stable

  11. Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Kazakhstan: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Marat; Islam, Tofazzal; Salnikov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    Kazakhstan has abundant natural resources. The country has enough coal to supply its energy needs for the next 150 years, and has the world's largest deposits of uranium, substantial quantities of natural gas and petroleum deposits. However, despite such energy riches, due to the size of the territory, its geography, and the country's economic structure, distribution of electricity in Kazakhstan is not uniform. As a result, Kazakhstani rural and remote areas suffer from serious electricity deficits. According to the latest estimates from the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies, about 25-30% of the Kazakhstani population lives in rural communities, where access to affordable energy (for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household as well as IT use) is limited. Furthermore, with the main electricity production infrastructure concentrated in the main urban areas, a high amount of electricity is therefore lost during transmission. Moreover, the consumption of poor quality coal as the main source of power generation creates a significant amount of environmental pollution. To illustrate this development, fuel combustion from coal has produced around 75% of carbon dioxide emissions in Kazakhstan. Thus, in order to address the country's electricity and environmental challenges, the Kazakhstani government is taking initiatives to promote renewable energy resources. However, so far, the outcome of these initiatives remains negligible. The current contribution of renewable energy to the total energy consumption is less than 1% (with 90% provided by hydropower) despite the significant potential for renewable energy in the country. As yet, no comprehensive study has been published on the energy scenario and on the potential for renewable energy resources in Kazakhstan. This comprehensive review aims to present an overview of the country's energy resources, supply and demand as the current energy scenario, while discussing the potential for renewable

  12. Current and Under Development Treatment Modalities of Psoriasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaghdadi, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic and complex autoimmune inflammatory skin disease that affects over 125 million people worldwide. It can exhibit at any age, in spite of the fact that children are less normally influenced than adults. It is characterized by distinct erythematous plaques shielded with conspicuous silvery scales that shows up in different areas of the skin. Knowledge of pathophysiology, especially the pathogenesis of psoriasis, has significantly progressed in the recent decade. Advancement in molecular knowledge leads to better understanding of the disease, thus influencing the development of efficient treatment modalities. However, even with the availability of various options of treatment most of the efficient treatment modalities are costly. Expenses of health care bring about major financial weight to the patients as well as to health care systems. Thus, it was important to review the available current treatment options and those which are under development, in terms of efficacy, safety and cost to assist in selecting the most appropriate treatment for psoriasis patients. Literatures were searched by using key words psoriasis, topical treatment, systemic treatment, biologics and phototherapies, on Embase, Medline, Jstor, Cochrane and Merck Index databases. Life-style choices such as smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and stress are recognised as risk factors and triggers associated with psoriasis. Psoriasis poses psycho-social and economic burden on affected patients that sometimes leads to depression, reduced social interaction and suicidal tendencies in patients. Depending on the type, severity and extent of the disease, comorbidities, patient preference, efficacy and safety profile, numerous treatment modalities and therapeutic agents are available such as topical, systemic, biologic and phototherapeutic treatments. However, it was found that among all the current available treatments for psoriasis, biologic agents and phototherapeutic modalities are

  13. Postural Control Impairments in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Critical Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Ghanouni, Parisa; Shayestehfar, Monir; Ghaheri, Banafsheh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Motor impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been frequently reported. In this review, we narrow our focus on postural control impairments to summarize current literature for patterns, underlying mechanisms, and determinants of posture in this population. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was conducted through Medline, ISI web of Knowledge, Scopus and Google Scholar to include studies between 1992 and February 2013. Results: Individuals with ASD have problems in maintaining postural control in infancy that well persists into later years. However, the patterns and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Conclusions: Examining postural control as an endophenotype or early diagnostic marker of autism is a conceptual premise which should be considered in future investigations. At the end of the review, methodological recommendations on the assessment of postural control have also been provided. PMID:25520765

  14. Cognitive distortions as a component and treatment focus of pathological gambling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Erica E; Goodie, Adam S

    2012-06-01

    The literature on the role of cognitive distortions in the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling (PG) is reviewed, with sections focusing on (a) conceptual underpinnings of cognitive distortions, (b) cognitive distortions related to PG, (c) PG therapies that target cognitive distortions, (d) methodological factors and outcome variations, and (e) conclusions and prescriptive recommendations. The conceptual background for distortions related to PG lies in the program of heuristics and biases (Kahneman & Tversky, 1974) as well as other errors identified in basic psychology. The literature has focused on distortions arising from the representativeness heuristic (gambler's fallacy, overconfidence, and trends in number picking), the availability heuristic (illusory correlation, other individuals' wins, and inherent memory bias), and other sources (the illusion of control and double switching). Some therapies have incorporated cognitive restructuring within broader cognitive-behavioral therapies, with success. Other therapies have focused more narrowly on correcting distorted beliefs, more often with limited success. It is concluded that the literature establishes the role of cognitive distortions in PG and suggests therapies with particularly good promise, but is in need of further enrichment.

  15. Interventional Therapies for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Focused Review (Efficacy and Outcomes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram B.; Wasserman, Ronald; Imani, Farnad

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower back pain is considered to be one of the most common complaints that brings a patient to a pain specialist. Several modalities in interventional pain management are known to be helpful to a patient with chronic low back pain. Proper diagnosis is required for appropriate intervention to provide optimal benefits. From simple trigger point injections for muscular pain to a highly complex intervention such as a spinal cord stimulator are very effective if chosen properly. The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive reading for treatment of lower back pain using interventional modalities. Evidence Acquisition: Extensive search for published literature was carried out online using PubMed, Cochrane database and Embase for the material used in this manuscript. This article describes the most common modalities available to an interventional pain physician along with the most relevant current and past references for the treatment of lower back pain. All the graphics and images were prepared by and belong to the author. Results: This review article describes the most common modalities available to an interventional pain physician along with the most relevant current and past references for the treatment of lower back pain. All the graphics and images belong to the author. Although it is beyond the scope of this review article to include a very detailed description of each procedure along with complete references, a sincere attempt has been made to comprehensively cover this very complex and perplexing topic. Conclusion: Lower back pain is a major healthcare issue and this review article will help educate the pain practitioners about the current evidence based treatment options. PMID:26484298

  16. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  17. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  18. Malignant struma ovarii: the west Scotland experience and review of literature with focus on postoperative management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Raj K.; Shaikh, Ghazia; Reed, Nick S.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant struma ovarii is an extremely rare ovarian tumour containing malignant thyroid carcinoma within differentiated thyroid tissue, as the predominant tissue type. Surgery for suspected ovarian tumour and incidental pathological diagnosis is the most common presentation. Evidence supporting any particular approach to the clinical management of this condition is limited, mainly consisting of case reports, small series or pathological case series. There is no randomised evidence for postoperative management in view of the rarity of this condition. The opinion is divided between conservative management versus total thyroidectomy and radio-iodine ablation. We carried out a retrospective review of our series with focus on postoperative management of this rare condition. A review of existing literature was also carried out. Six patients with a median age of 52 years presented with various symptoms of abdominal pain, pressure or menstrual problems. After the initial gynaecological resection and specialised pathology review, they were subsequently treated with total thyroidectomy and administration of radioactive iodine. All of these six patients are in remission at a median follow up of 60 months. We favour aggressive postoperative management with total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine, and long-term follow up of these patients.

  19. THE INCLUSION OF / FOCUS ON CHILDREN IN FAMILY MEDIATION: A REVIEW OF STUDIES AND FUTURE PROPOSALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rodríguez-Domínguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is an established model for conflict resolution, backed by the international community in relation to family law, to help parents seeking solutions to family problems in child custody cases. The aim of this article is to review the advantages and/or disadvantages presented in the studies with child-inclusive or child-focused interventions in family mediation processes. In the present research, we carry out a review of studies realised in Australia, New Zealand, some counties in the US and in Europe; meta-analysis and review studies of 'child inclusive' investigations, international guidelines that support listening to children and also studies that criticise it. While mediation has existed for four decades in other countries, in Spain it has only arisen since the enactment of Law (1/2001 of Family Mediation in Catalonia, followed by other local regulations, which explains why sufficient studies might not yet exist. In some countries a new paradigm is emerging, aimed at the inclusion of children due to the favourable findings in family mediation processes, although a multiple and flexible approach in the field of family mediation intervention is necessary.

  20. Current status and prospect on the radioactive waste management program in the Republic of Korea. Focusing on recent development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun-Soo; Chang, In-Soon

    1996-01-01

    Since its first commercial operation at Kori near the city of Pusan in 1978, nuclear energy has become one of the prime resources for the electricity. However, proper treatment of its byproducts, radioactive wastes, has been the national concern. Despite vigorous effort by the Korean Government and NEMAC(Nuclear Environment Management Center), the series of attempts for the site selection to build the national radioactive waste complex has been ruined. After the failure at Guleop Island, the Government recently amended its policy so that the major tasks on the management program of radioactive wastes shall be transferred to KEPCO(Korea Electric Power Corporation), sole national electric utility, while the current authority, KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute)/NEMAC is limited to focus on the research and development in the safe management of spent fuels. Detailed plan to support the Government redirection is under discussion among concerned institutes. (author)

  1. Current status and a short history of grey literature. Focusing on the international conference on grey literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    'Grey literature' is a loosely defined term whose application is rather complex, but it is also an important source of information for academic researchers. Today, the spread of the Internet has led to changes not only in the circulation but also in the role and definition of 'grey literature'. This article therefore presents a short history of the definition of 'grey literature', with central focus on topics discussed by the International Conference on Grey Literature. After this, the current status and future prospects of 'grey literature' in the digital society are described. Finally, the article introduces the JAEA Library's activities on 'grey literature', particularly the acquisition of proceedings and the editing and dissemination of the JAEA Reports (technical reports of JAEA). (author)

  2. Clinical review: Current state and future perspectives in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Wiebke; Allolio, Bruno

    2012-10-01

    The differential diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI) is often challenging but essential, because treatment may vary substantially. This article analyzes the database and performance of currently used differential diagnostic tests for DI and discusses future perspectives for diagnostic improvement. A review of electronic and print data comprising original and review articles retrieved from the PubMed or Cochrane Library database up to January 2012 was conducted. The search term "polyuria polydipsia syndrome" was cross-referenced with underlying forms of disease and associated clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic MeSH terms. In addition, references from review articles and textbook chapters were screened for papers containing original data. Search results were narrowed to articles containing primary data with a description of criteria for the differential diagnosis of DI. Fifteen articles on differential diagnosis of DI were identified, mainly consisting of small series of patients, and mostly covering only part of the differential diagnostic spectrum of DI. Test protocols differed, and prospective validation of diagnostic criteria was consistently missing. Inconsistent data were reported on the diagnostic superiority of direct plasma arginine vasopressin determination over the indirect water deprivation test. Both test methods revealed limitations, especially in the differentiation of disorders with a milder phenotype. The available data demonstrate limitations of current biochemical tests for the differential diagnosis of DI, potentially leading to incorrect diagnosis and treatment. The newly available assay for copeptin, the C terminus of the vasopressin precursor, holds promise for a higher diagnostic specificity and simplification of the differential diagnostic protocol in DI.

  3. Does Contralateral Delay Activity Reflect Working Memory Storage or the Current Focus of Spatial Attention within Visual Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-12-01

    During the retention of visual information in working memory, event-related brain potentials show a sustained negativity over posterior visual regions contralateral to the side where memorized stimuli were presented. This contralateral delay activity (CDA) is generally believed to be a neural marker of working memory storage. In two experiments, we contrasted this storage account of the CDA with the alternative hypothesis that the CDA reflects the current focus of spatial attention on a subset of memorized items set up during the most recent encoding episode. We employed a sequential loading procedure where participants memorized four task-relevant items that were presented in two successive memory displays (M1 and M2). In both experiments, CDA components were initially elicited contralateral to task-relevant items in M1. Critically, the CDA switched polarity when M2 displays appeared on the opposite side. In line with the attentional activation account, these reversed CDA components exclusively reflected the number of items that were encoded from M2 displays, irrespective of how many M1 items were already held in working memory. On trials where M1 and M2 displays were presented on the same side and on trials where M2 displays appeared nonlaterally, CDA components elicited in the interval after M2 remained sensitive to a residual trace of M1 items, indicating that some activation of previously stored items was maintained across encoding episodes. These results challenge the hypothesis that CDA amplitudes directly reflect the total number of stored objects and suggest that the CDA is primarily sensitive to the activation of a subset of working memory representations within the current focus of spatial attention.

  4. Review of Ghana's water resources: the quality and management with particular focus on freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeleliere, E.; Cobbina, S. J.; Duwiejuah, A. B.

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater resources are continually decreasing in quality and quantity. Approximately, 1% of this freshwater is accessible in lakes, river channels and underground for domestic use. The study reviewed literature on water resources with focus on freshwater, the quality of our freshwater in terms of physical, chemical and biological variables, the main mechanisms of management, and the challenges associated with these mechanisms as well as blending integrated water management with the indigenous or traditional management of water resources for sustainable development and peaceful co-existence. Also the review offered potent recommendations for policy makers to consider sustainable management of freshwater resources. A total of 95 articles were downloaded from Google scholar in water-related issues. The search took place from June to September 2017, and research articles from 1998 to 2018 were reviewed. Basically Ghana is made up of three discharge or outlet systems, namely the Coastal River Systems which is the least and Volta constituting the largest and with the South-Western been the intermediate. Also, freshwater resources usage can be put into two main categories, namely ex situ (withdrawal use) and in situ or in-stream use, and could also be referred to as the consumptive and non-consumptive use, respectively. With the exception of localised pollution engineered by illegal mining and other nuisance perpetuated by indigenes, the quality of water (surface and groundwater) in Ghana is generally better. The review outlined high microbial contamination of water as almost all surface waters are contaminated with either E. coli, faecal coliforms or total coliforms or all. However, these contaminations were more prevalent in surface water than groundwater.

  5. UK DTI wind programme area - review and current priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Wind Energy programme commenced in 1979 initially to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the technology. Since that time the programme has progressed from research, development and assessment to commercial deployment. It now provides a technology push to complement the market pull created by the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). Over 280 MW of capacity has now been commissioned. The wind energy programme, is based upon a five year strategy in common with other DTI renewable energy technologies, which were outlined in Energy Paper 62. The programme has four key aims: 1. To encourage the uptake of wind energy. 2. To encourage internationally competitive industries to develop and utilise capabilities for the domestic and export markets. 3. To quantify environmental improvements and disbenefits associated with wind energy. 4. To manage the programme effectively. During the mid 1980s and early 1990s the programme concentrated on technology development and demonstration, which has helped to establish UK expertise in wind energy. Non-technical barriers such as planning have been addressed but are now largely for the industry to resolve. The development of wind turbine technology and related components is aimed at meeting the challenge of both the domestic and world markets. The ability of the DTI programme to meet these challenges is partly dependent on the technical ability and commercially acumen of British companies and partly on the level of support offered by Government. The programme budget has fallen from Pound8.7M/year in 1992/93 to current level of Pound1.4M/year and is yet to fall further. It should be stressed that the decline in budgets followed a review of the Renewables Programme in 1995 which affected all technologies. The wind programme budget was reduced substantially at that time which resulted in a revision of priorities. Continued support for market enablement measures was reduced partly because the industry, supported by the NFFO

  6. Focused transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates specific domains of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripfl, Jürgen; Lamm, Claus

    2015-02-01

    Recent neuroscience theories suggest that different kinds of self-regulation may share a common psychobiological mechanism. However, empirical evidence for a domain general self-regulation mechanism is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether focused anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), facilitating the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), acts on a domain general self-regulation mechanism and thus modulates both affective and appetitive self-regulation. Twenty smokers participated in this within-subject sham controlled study. Effects of anodal left, anodal right and sham tDCS over the dlPFC on affective picture appraisal and nicotine craving-cue appraisal were assessed. Anodal right tDCS over the dlPFC reduced negative affect in emotion appraisal, but neither modulated regulation of positive emotion appraisal nor of craving appraisal. Anodal left stimulation did not induce any significant effects. The results of our study show that domain specific self-regulation networks are at work in the prefrontal cortex. Focused tDCS modulation of this specific self-regulation network could probably be used during the first phase of nicotine abstinence, during which negative affect might easily result in relapse. These findings have implications for neuroscience models of self-regulation and are of relevance for the development of brain stimulation based treatment methods for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with self-regulation deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Focus group reflections on the current and future state of cognitive assessment tools in geriatric health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead JC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jocelyne C Whitehead,1 Sara A Gambino,1 Jeffrey D Richter,2 Jennifer D Ryan1,3,41Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, 2Independent Human Factors Consultant, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaObjective: This study provides insight into the thoughts and opinions of geriatric health-care professionals toward cognitive assessments and the use of emerging technologies, such as eye-tracking, to supplement current tools.Methods: Two focus group sessions were conducted with nurses and physicians who routinely administer neurocognitive assessments to geriatric populations. Video recordings of the focus group sessions were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed.Results: Participants reported the need for assessment and diagnostic tools that are accessible and efficient, and that are capable of accommodating the rapid growth in the aging population. The prevalence of more complex ailments experienced by older adults has had repercussions in the quality of care that the clients receive, and has contributed to lengthy wait times and resource shortages. Health-care professionals stated that they are hampered by the disjointed structure of the health-care system and that they would benefit from a more efficient allocation of responsibilities made possible through tools that did not require extensive training or certification. Eyetracking-based cognitive assessments were thought to strongly complement this system, yet it was thought that difficulty would be faced in gaining the support and increased uptake by health-care professionals due to the nonintuitive relationship between eyetracking and cognition.Conclusion: The findings suggest that health-care professionals are receptive to the use of eyetracking technology to assess for cognitive health as it would conserve resources by allowing frontline staff to administer assessments with minimal training

  8. Periodic Safety Review in Interim Storage Facilities - Current Regulation and Experiences in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neles, Julia Mareike; Schmidt, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Periodic safety reviews in nuclear power plants in Germany have been performed since the end of the 1980's as an indirect follow-up of the accident in Chernobyl and, in the meantime, are formally required by law. During this process the guidelines governing this review were developed in stages and reached their final form in 1996. Interim storage facilities and other nuclear facilities at that time were not included, so the guidelines were solely focused on the specific safety issues of nuclear power plants. Following IAEA's recommendations, the Western European Nuclear Regulator Association (WENRA) introduced PSRs in its safety reference levels for storage facilities (current version in WGWD report 2.1 as of Feb 2011: SRLs 59 - 61). Based on these formulations, Germany improved its regulation in 2010 with a recommendation of the Nuclear Waste Management Commission (Entsorgungskommission, ESK), an expert advisory commission for the federal regulatory body BMU. The ESK formulated these detailed requirements in the 'ESK recommendation for guides to the performance of periodic safety reviews for interim storage facilities for irradiated fuel elements and heat-generating radioactive waste'. Before finalization of the guideline a test phase was introduced, aimed to test the new regulation in practice and to later include the lessons learned in the final formulation of the guideline. The two-year test phase started in October 2011 in which the performance of a PSR will be tested at two selected interim storage facilities. Currently these recommendations are discussed with interested/concerned institutions. The results of the test phase shall be considered for improvements of the draft and during the final preparation of guidelines. Currently the PSR for the first ISF is in an advanced stage, the second facility just started the process. Preliminary conclusions from the test phase show that the implementation of the draft guideline requires interpretation. The aim of a

  9. Scapulothoracic bursitis and snapping scapula syndrome: a critical review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Ryan J; Spiegl, Ulrich J; Millett, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic scapulothoracic disorders, such as painful scapular crepitus and/or bursitis, are uncommon; however, they can produce significant pain and disability in many patients. To review the current knowledge pertaining to snapping scapula syndrome and to identify areas of further research that may be helpful to improve clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. Systematic review. We performed a preliminary search of the PubMed and Embase databases using the search terms "snapping scapula," "scapulothoracic bursitis," "partial scapulectomy," and "superomedial angle resection" in September 2013. All nonreview articles related to the topic of snapping scapula syndrome were included. The search identified a total of 167 unique articles, 81 of which were relevant to the topic of snapping scapula syndrome. There were 36 case series of fewer than 10 patients, 16 technique papers, 11 imaging studies, 9 anatomic studies, and 9 level IV outcomes studies. The level of evidence obtained from this literature search was inadequate to perform a formal systematic review or meta-analysis. Therefore, a critical review of current evidence is presented. Snapping scapula syndrome, a likely underdiagnosed condition, can produce significant shoulder dysfunction in many patients. Because the precise origin is typically unknown, specific treatments that are effective for some patients may not be effective for others. Nevertheless, bursectomy with or without partial scapulectomy is currently the most effective primary method of treatment in patients who fail nonoperative therapy. However, many patients experience continued shoulder disability even after surgical intervention. Future studies should focus on identifying the modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes after operative and nonoperative management for snapping scapula syndrome in an effort to improve clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. © 2014 The Author(s).

  10. Working and caring for a child with chronic illness: A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, A M; Newcombe, P A; Haslam, D M

    2018-05-01

    Advances in medical knowledge have contributed to the increase in the number of children living with some form of long-term chronic illness or condition. As a consequence of these advancements, treatments that are more accessible and easier to administer, usually within a child's home, have been developed. However, this may mean that parents take on greater treatment responsibility and require extra time and energy to meet these tasks, additional to other responsibilities. This review paper aims to summarize and critique existing literature on working parents of children with a chronic condition, by focusing on patterns of parent work, the challenges experienced, and the flow-on consequences to well-being. Employing a narrative, meta-synthesis of the current literature, this review identified 3 key themes related to working parents of children with chronic illness. The paper first identifies that although employment is less common, these parents are not necessarily nonworking. Second, these parents experience numerous challenges including balancing work and family, time constraints, stress, and feelings of "doing it all." And third, the above challenges lead to additional impacts on parental quality of life. This review summarizes what is currently known about work patterns, challenges, and consequences in parents of children with chronic conditions. Employment is clearly impacted for these parents. Although workplace challenges have been extensively researched, other challenges (eg, personal and family) and impacts on their well-being have not. This review discusses the present standing of this research. It outlines the strengths and limitations of the current literature, makes recommendations for future research, and suggests theoretical and practical implications of the further findings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pathophysiology of primary burning mouth syndrome with special focus on taste dysfunction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkka-Palomaa, M; Jääskeläinen, S K; Laine, M A; Teerijoki-Oksa, T; Sandell, M; Forssell, H

    2015-11-01

    Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral condition characterized by burning pain often accompanied with taste dysfunction and xerostomia. The most compelling evidence concerning BMS pathophysiology comes from studies on the somatosensory system using neurophysiologic or psychophysical methods such as blink reflex, thermal quantitative sensory testing, as well as functional brain imaging. They have provided convincing evidence for neuropathic involvement at several levels of the somatosensory system in BMS pain pathophysiology. The number of taste function studies trying to substantiate the subjective taste disturbances or studies on salivary factors in BMS is much more limited, and most of them suffer from definitional and methodological problems. This review aims to critically evaluate the existing literature on the pathophysiology of BMS, paying special attention to the correctness of case selection and the methodology used in published studies, and to summarize the current state of knowledge. Based on the recognition of several gaps in the current understanding of the pathophysiology of BMS especially as regards taste and pain system interactions, the review ends with future scenarios for research in this area. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Spontaneous and persistent currents in superconductive and mesoscopic structures (Review Article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, I.O.

    2004-01-01

    We briefly review aspects of superconductive persistent currents in Josephson junctions of the S/I/S, S/O/S and S/N/S types, focusing on the origin of jumps in the current versus phase dependences, and discuss in more detail the persistent as well as 'spontaneous' currents in the Aharonov-Bohm mesoscopic and nanoscopic (macromolecular) structures. A fixed-number-of-electrons mesoscopic or macromolecular conducting ring is shown to be unstable against structural transformation removing spatial symmetry (in particular, azimuthal periodicity) of its electron- lattice Hamiltonian. In case when the transformation is blocked by strong coupling to an external azimuthally symmetric environment, the system becomes bistable in its electronic configuration at certain number of electrons. At such a condition, the persistent current has a nonzero value even at the (almost) zero applied Aharonov-Bohm flux, and results in very high magnetic susceptibility dM/dH at small nonzero fields, followed by an oscillatory dependence at larger fields. We tentatively assume that previously observed oscillatory magnetization in cyclic metallo-organic molecules by Gatteschi et al. can be attributed to persistent currents. If this proves correct, it may open an opportunity (and, more generally, macromolecular cyclic structures may suggest the possibility) of engineering quantum computational tools based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect in ballistic nanostructures and macromolecular cyclic aggregates

  13. Review of mercury pollution in South Africa: current status

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a review on the status of mercury (Hg) as a pollutant in South African aquatic ecosystems. Spatial patterns of Hg distribution and bioaccumulation in water resources were investigated by collecting and analyzing multimedia...

  14. Current and future state of FDA-CMS parallel reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, D A; Tunis, S R

    2012-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) recently proposed a partial alignment of their respective review processes for new medical products. The proposed "parallel review" not only offers an opportunity for some products to reach the market with Medicare coverage more quickly but may also create new incentives for product developers to conduct studies designed to address simultaneously the information needs of regulators, payers, patients, and clinicians.

  15. Workplace Hazards Faced by Nursing Assistants in the United States: A Focused Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie Lee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Nursing assistants (NAs) make up a large share of the healthcare provider workforce and their numbers are expected to grow. NAs are predominantly women who earn a low wage and report financial, work, and family demands. Working as a NA is hazardous; this manuscript specifically examines the biological/infectious, chemical, enviromechanical, physical and psychosocial hazards that appear in the literature to date. A focused search strategy was used to review literature about hazards that fell into each of the five aforementioned domains. While some hazards that were documented were clear, such as exposure to influenza because of close contact with patients (biological/infectious), or exposure to hazardous drugs (chemical), literature was limited. The majority of the literature we reviewed fell into the domain of psychosocial hazards and centered on stress from workplace organization issues (such as mandatory overtime, lack of managerial support, and feeling rushed). More research is needed to understand which hazards NAs identify as most concerning and tailored interventions are needed for risk mitigation. PMID:28534859

  16. Workplace Hazards Faced by Nursing Assistants in the United States: A Focused Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie Lee; Rogers, Bonnie

    2017-05-19

    Nursing assistants (NAs) make up a large share of the healthcare provider workforce and their numbers are expected to grow. NAs are predominantly women who earn a low wage and report financial, work, and family demands. Working as a NA is hazardous; this manuscript specifically examines the biological/infectious, chemical, enviromechanical, physical and psychosocial hazards that appear in the literature to date. A focused search strategy was used to review literature about hazards that fell into each of the five aforementioned domains. While some hazards that were documented were clear, such as exposure to influenza because of close contact with patients (biological/infectious), or exposure to hazardous drugs (chemical), literature was limited. The majority of the literature we reviewed fell into the domain of psychosocial hazards and centered on stress from workplace organization issues (such as mandatory overtime, lack of managerial support, and feeling rushed). More research is needed to understand which hazards NAs identify as most concerning and tailored interventions are needed for risk mitigation.

  17. Workplace Hazards Faced by Nursing Assistants in the United States: A Focused Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnMarie Lee Walton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nursing assistants (NAs make up a large share of the healthcare provider workforce and their numbers are expected to grow. NAs are predominantly women who earn a low wage and report financial, work, and family demands. Working as a NA is hazardous; this manuscript specifically examines the biological/infectious, chemical, enviromechanical, physical and psychosocial hazards that appear in the literature to date. A focused search strategy was used to review literature about hazards that fell into each of the five aforementioned domains. While some hazards that were documented were clear, such as exposure to influenza because of close contact with patients (biological/infectious, or exposure to hazardous drugs (chemical, literature was limited. The majority of the literature we reviewed fell into the domain of psychosocial hazards and centered on stress from workplace organization issues (such as mandatory overtime, lack of managerial support, and feeling rushed. More research is needed to understand which hazards NAs identify as most concerning and tailored interventions are needed for risk mitigation.

  18. Praxis induction. Definition, relation to epilepsy syndromes, nosological and prognostic significance. A focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Wolf, Peter

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing awareness that reflex epileptic mechanisms provide unique insight into ictogenesis in human epilepsies. Several of the described triggers have in common that they imply complex visuomotor coordination and decision-making; they are today regarded as variations of one principle, i.e. praxis induction (PI). This focused review considers PI from the aspects of history and delineation, clinical and electroencephalographic presentation, syndromatic relations, prevalence, mechanisms of ictogenesis and nosological implications, treatment and prognosis. We reviewed a series of published articles and case reports on PI in order to clarify clinical and electroencephalographic findings, treatment and outcome. Findings of both induction and inhibition by the same stimuli suggest widening the reflex epilepsy concept into a broader one of epilepsies with exogenous modification of ictogenesis. PI is closely related to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) where hyperexcitability and hyperconnectivity of the entire network of visuomotor coordination seem to provide the precondition for eliciting reflex myocloni in the musculature active in the precipitating task. The conclusions on ictogenesis derived from PI support the concept of JME as a system disorder of the brain. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation (KT) in Pediatric Pain: Focus on Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle M; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Hampton, Amy J D; Stinson, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Pain is inadequately managed in pediatric populations across health care settings. Although training programs to improve health care provider knowledge and skills have been developed and evaluated, clinical practices have not always kept pace with advancing knowledge. Consequently, the goal of this review was to systematically examine the pediatric pain literature of knowledge translation (KT) programs targeting health care providers. Systematic searches of PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were undertaken. KT initiatives directed toward health care providers and in which the primary focus was on pediatric pain were included. Primary outcomes, intervention characteristics, and risk of bias were examined across studies. Study outcomes were conceptually organized and a narrative synthesis of results was conducted. A total of 15,191 abstracts were screened for inclusion with 98 articles retained on the basis of predetermined criteria. Across studies, KT approaches varied widely in format and focus. Knowledge-level changes and self-reported increases in comfort or confidence in skills/knowledge were consistently achieved. Practice-level changes were achieved in many areas with varying success. Design and reporting issues were identified in the majority of studies. Examination of patient-related outcomes and of the long-term impact of pediatric pain KT programs was limited across studies. KT programs vary in quality and impact. Although several successful programs have been developed, many studies include a high risk of bias due to study quality. Evidence-based KT program implementation and a focus on sustainability of outcomes must be given greater consideration in the field of pediatric pain.

  20. Effectiveness of culturally focused interventions in increasing the satisfaction of hospitalized Asian patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Millicent; Ubogaya, Karolina; Chen, Xing; Wint, Diana; Worral, Priscilla Sandford

    2016-08-01

    Patient satisfaction is a driving force for healthcare organizations to enhance patient services. As the Asian population in the United States is increasing at a significant rate, it is important to understand the needs of this population to implement culturally focused services that will lead to increased Asian in-patient satisfaction. The objective of the systematic review was to identify the best available evidence on the effectiveness of culturally focused interventions in increasing satisfaction of hospitalized adult Asian patients. This review considered studies that included Asian adults, 18 years of age and older, who were admitted to acute-care hospitals in countries where Asians are a minority culture. This review considered studies that included any intervention or sets of interventions implemented by hospitals for the purpose of making the hospital experience consistent with the cultural preferences of adult Asian in-patients. Satisfaction of adult Asian hospitalized patients as measured by self-report satisfaction scales or tools considered by accrediting and/or governing bodies to be acceptable sources of evidence of patients' perceptions of their care. This review first considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs and quasi-experimental studies. As no RCTs or quasi-experimental studies were found, the reviewers also considered before and after studies, cohort studies and case-control studies for inclusion. This review also considered for inclusion descriptive study designs including case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies related to the adult Asian population in acute-care hospital settings. Three descriptive studies were selected in the review. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies in English and Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) languages. A search of MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Educational Research

  1. Common Ice Hockey Injuries and Treatment: A Current Concepts Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenthal, William; Kim, Michael; Holzshu, Robert; Hanypsiak, Bryan; Athiviraham, Aravind

    Injuries are common in ice hockey, a contact sport where players skate at high speeds on a sheet of ice and shoot a vulcanized rubber puck in excess of one hundred miles per hour. This article reviews the diagnoses and treatment of concussions, injuries to the cervical spine, and lower and upper extremities as they pertain to hockey players. Soft tissue injury of the shoulder, acromioclavicular joint separation, glenohumeral joint dislocation, clavicle fractures, metacarpal fractures, and olecranon bursitis are discussed in the upper-extremity section of the article. Lower-extremity injuries reviewed in this article include adductor strain, athletic pubalgia, femoroacetabular impingement, sports hernia, medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, skate bite, and ankle sprains. This review is intended to aid the sports medicine physician in providing optimal sports-specific care to allow their athlete to return to their preinjury level of performance.

  2. Systematic review of restraint interventions for challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities: focus on experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. Heyvaert et al. focused on the effectiveness of restraint interventions (RIs) for reducing challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities) in the first article. In this second article, Heyvaert et al. focus on experiences with RIs for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. A mixed methods research synthesis involving statistical meta-analysis and qualitative meta-synthesis techniques was applied to synthesize 76 retrieved articles. This second article reports on the qualitative meta-synthesis of 17 articles on experiences with RIs for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. The 17 included articles report on important variables relating to the persons receiving RIs, to the persons giving RIs and to their interactions and relationship, as well as variables situated at the meso- and macro-level. The developed model can assist in reflecting on and improving of current RI practices among people with intellectual disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human-predator relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, S; Barua, M; Beinart, W; Dickman, A; Holmes, G; Lorimer, J; Loveridge, A J; Macdonald, D W; Marvin, G; Redpath, S; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Zimmermann, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2017-06-01

    In a world of shrinking habitats and increasing competition for natural resources, potentially dangerous predators bring the challenges of coexisting with wildlife sharply into focus. Through interdisciplinary collaboration among authors trained in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, we reviewed current approaches to mitigating adverse human-predator encounters and devised a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating such encounters. Limitations to current approaches to mitigation include too much focus on negative impacts; oversimplified equating of levels of damage with levels of conflict; and unsuccessful technical fixes resulting from failure to engage locals, address hidden costs, or understand cultural (nonscientific) explanations of the causality of attacks. An emerging interdisciplinary literature suggests that to better frame and successfully mitigate negative human-predator relations conservation professionals need to consider dispensing with conflict as the dominant framework for thinking about human-predator encounters; work out what conflicts are really about (they may be human-human conflicts); unravel the historical contexts of particular conflicts; and explore different cultural ways of thinking about animals. The idea of cosmopolitan natures may help conservation professionals think more clearly about human-predator relations in both local and global context. These new perspectives for future research practice include a recommendation for focused interdisciplinary research and the use of new approaches, including human-animal geography, multispecies ethnography, and approaches from the environmental humanities notably environmental history. Managers should think carefully about how they engage with local cultural beliefs about wildlife, work with all parties to agree on what constitutes good evidence, develop processes and methods to mitigate conflicts, and decide how to monitor and evaluate these. Demand for

  4. Anaerobic digestion of food waste: A review focusing on process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Peng, Xuya; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Di

    2018-01-01

    Food waste (FW) is rich in biomass energy, and increasing numbers of national programs are being established to recover energy from FW using anaerobic digestion (AD). However process instability is a common operational issue for AD of FW. Process monitoring and control as well as microbial management can be used to control instability and increase the energy conversion efficiency of anaerobic digesters. Here, we review research progress related to these methods and identify existing limitations to efficient AD; recommendations for future research are also discussed. Process monitoring and control are suitable for evaluating the current operational status of digesters, whereas microbial management can facilitate early diagnosis and process optimization. Optimizing and combining these two methods are necessary to improve AD efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the

  6. Current status of achalasia management: a review on diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuason, Joshua; Inoue, Haruhiro

    2017-04-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder that is characterized by loss of peristalsis and failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), particularly during swallowing. This review focuses on the diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders as defined by the Chicago Classification ver 3.0, and presents management options with regard to per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) as the treatment of choice. A concise review of literature was performed for articles related to the management of achalasia, and this was contrasted with our institution's current practice. Achalasia is still incompletely understood, and management is focused on establishing a proper diagnosis, and relieving the obstructive symptoms. Achalasia should be considered when dysphagia is present, and not otherwise caused by an obstruction or inflammation, and when criteria is met as per the Chicago Classification ver 3.0. Lowering LES tone and disruption of LES can be accomplished by various methods, most notably pneumatic balloon dilatation and surgical myotomy. POEM has been gaining momentum as a first line therapy for achalasia symptoms, and can be considered an important tool for motility disorders of the esophagus.

  7. A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antarctic Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 0 A Review of Atmospheric ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the...4. TI TLE (Pit 5,1tlfie) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PFRIOO COVERED A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current THESIS/DA/;J.At1AAU00 Thinking on the Antartic ...THESIS A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole by Randolph Antoine Fix Master of Science in Atmospheric Science

  8. The critical current of superconductors: an historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew-Hughes, D.

    2001-01-01

    The most important practical characteristic of a superconductor is its critical current density. This article traces the history, both of the experimental discoveries and of the development of the theoretical ideas that have lead to the understanding of those factors that control critical current densities. These include Silsbee's hypothesis, the Meissner effect, London, Ginsburg-Landau and Abrikosov theories, flux pinning and the critical state, and the control of texture in high temperature superconductors

  9. A review of the health and economic implications of patent protection, with a specific focus on Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Inthira; Smith, Richard D

    2012-08-01

    Although it has been two decades since the Thai Patent Act was amended to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), there has been little emphasis given to assessing the implications of this amendment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the health and economic impact of patent protection, with a focus on the experience of Thailand. A review of national and international empirical evidence on the health and economic implications of patents from 1980 to 2009 was undertaken. The findings illustrate the role of patent protection in four areas: price, present access, future access, and international trade and investment. Forty-three empirical studies were found, three of which were from Thai databases. Patenting does increase price, although the size of effect differs according to the methodology and country. Although weakening patent rights could increase present access, evidence suggests that strengthening patenting may benefit future access; although this is based on complex assumptions and estimations. Moreover, while patent protection appears to have a positive impact on trade flow, the implication for foreign direct investment (FDI) is equivocal. Empirical studies in Thailand, and other similar countries, are rare, compromising the robustness and generalizability of conclusions. However, evidence does suggest that patenting presents a significant inter-temporal challenge in balancing aspects of current versus future access to technologies. This underlines the urgent need to prioritize health research resources to assess the wider implications of patent protection.

  10. Physical therapy with drug treatment in Bell palsy: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Margarida; Marques, Elisa E; Duarte, José A; Santos, Paula C

    2015-04-01

    The physical therapy (PT) associated with standard drug treatment (SDT) in Bell palsy has never been investigated. Randomized controlled trials or quasirandomized controlled trials have compared facial PT (except treatments such as acupuncture and osteopathic) combined with SDT against a control group with SDT alone. Participants included those older than 15 yrs with a clinical diagnosis of Bell palsy, and the primary outcome measure was motor function recovery by the House-Brackmann scale. The methodologic quality of each study was also independently assessed by two reviewers using the PEDro scale. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three trials indicate that PT in association with SDT supports higher motor function recovery than SDT alone between 15 days and 1 yr of follow-up. On the other hand, one trial showed that electrical stimulation added to conventional PT with SDT did not influence treatment outcomes. The present review suggests that the current practice of Bell palsy treatment by PT associated with SDT seems to have a positive effect on grade and time recovery compared with SDT alone. However, there is very little quality evidence from randomized controlled trials, and such evidence is insufficient to decide whether combined treatment is beneficial in the management of Bell palsy.

  11. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa‑associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the ...

  12. A review of the current literature on management of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour, emanating from the oral cavity. In approximately 80% of all cases, halitosis is caused by microbial degradation of oral organic substrates. Major degradation products are volatile sulphur-containing compounds. In this review, the available management

  13. Coherent control of single electrons: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuerle, Christopher; Glattli, D. Christian; Meunier, Tristan; Portier, Fabien; Roche, Patrice; Roulleau, Preden; Takada, Shintaro; Waintal, Xavier

    2018-05-01

    In this report we review the present state of the art of the control of propagating quantum states at the single-electron level and its potential application to quantum information processing. We give an overview of the different approaches that have been developed over the last few years in order to gain full control over a propagating single-electron in a solid-state system. After a brief introduction of the basic concepts, we present experiments on flying qubit circuits for ensemble of electrons measured in the low frequency (DC) limit. We then present the basic ingredients necessary to realise such experiments at the single-electron level. This includes a review of the various single-electron sources that have been developed over the last years and which are compatible with integrated single-electron circuits. This is followed by a review of recent key experiments on electron quantum optics with single electrons. Finally we will present recent developments in the new physics that has emerged using ultrashort voltage pulses. We conclude our review with an outlook and future challenges in the field.

  14. A review of current investigations and treatment modalities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility of the couple is a major health problem in Africa, affecting between 37- 66% of women of childbearing age in some regions of the continent. Because of the high cost of evaluation, a good history and thorough physical examination will narrow the investigations necessary for treatment. This paper briefly reviews the ...

  15. Improving menstrual hygiene management in emergency contexts: literature review of current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanLeeuwen C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crystal VanLeeuwen, Belen Torondel Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Abstract: Management of menstruation in contexts of humanitarian emergencies can be challenging. A lack of empirical research about effective interventions which improve menstrual hygiene management (MHM among female populations in humanitarian emergencies and a lack of clarity about which sectors within a humanitarian response should deliver MHM interventions can both be attributable to the lack of clear guidance on design and delivery of culturally appropriate MHM intervention in settings of humanitarian emergencies. The objective of this review was to collate, summarize, and appraise existing peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes the current scenario of MHM in emergency contexts in order to describe the breadth and depth of current policies, guidelines, empirical research, and humanitarian aid activities addressing populations’ menstrual needs. A structured-search strategy was conducted for peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify studies, published reports, guidelines, and policy papers related to menstrual response in emergency humanitarian contexts. Of the 51 articles included in the review, 16 were peer-reviewed papers and 35 were gray literature. Most of the literature agreed that hardware interventions should focus on the supply of adequate material (not only absorbent material but also other supportive material and adequate sanitation facilities, with access to water and private space for washing, changing, drying, and disposing menstrual materials. Software interventions should focus on education in the usage of materials to manage menstruation hygienically and education about the female body’s biological processes. There was clear agreement that the needs of the target population should be assessed before designing any intervention. Although there is insight about which factors should be

  16. 77 FR 4366 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Current...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... with disabilities for employment; the work history, barriers to employment, and workplace... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Current Population Survey Disability Supplement ACTION: Notice... information collection request (ICR) proposal titled, ``Current Population Survey Disability Supplement,'' to...

  17. Cholesterol Point-of-Care Testing for Community Pharmacies: A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Lauren; Tran, Deanna

    2017-08-01

    To summarize the literature on cholesterol point-of-care tests (POCTs). This article would serve as a resource to assist community pharmacists in developing cholesterol point-of-care (POC) pharmacy services. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database using the following medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: point-of-care test, cholesterol, blood chemical analysis, rapid testing, collaborative practice, community pharmacy, and ambulatory care. Additional resources including device manufacturer web sites were summarized to supplement the current literature. All human research articles, review articles, meta-analyses, and abstracts published in English through September 1, 2014, were considered. A total of 36 articles were applicable for review. Information was divided into the following categories to be summarized: devices, pharmacists' impact, and operational cost for the pharmacy. The current literature suggests that POCTs in community pharmacies assist with patient outcomes by providing screenings and referring patients with dyslipidemia for further evaluation. The majority of studies on cholesterol POC devices focused on accuracy, revealing the need for further studies to develop best practices and practice models with successful reimbursement. Accuracy, device specifications, required supplies, and patient preference should be considered when selecting a POC device for purchase.

  18. 'Focus on feet'--the effects of systemic lupus erythematosus: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A E; Crofts, G; Teh, L S

    2013-09-01

    The manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) vary between individuals, from the severe and life-threatening renal and central nervous system involvement, to the involvement of skin, musculoskeletal and vascular system, and the complications of infection influencing the quality of life. However, as specific manifestations affecting the lower limb are perceived as receiving little focus, the purpose of this narrative literature review is to identify the specific factors associated with SLE that may have implications for lower limb and foot morbidity. A structured search of databases was conducted. The inclusion was restricted to publications in the English language, those that specifically investigate the feet as affected with SLE. No restriction on year of publication was imposed to reduce publication bias and to capture as many publication in relation to feet. Eleven papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were seven additional papers that made observations related to the articular or vascular complications of the feet. This narrative review provides some information on how SLE affects the lower limb and foot in relation to the musculoskeletal and vascular systems. However, there is a lack of literature that specifically focuses on all the manifestations of SLE and the complications associated with its management. There are indications that SLE affects lower limb and foot morbidity but the scale of these problems is unclear and this is partly because of the absence of research and the lack of a 'gold standard' framework for the assessment of the lower limb and foot. In addition to clinical foot health assessment, ultrasonography may be a useful alternative to plain film radiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in capturing the extent of articular and extra-articular manifestations. Further, the Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) may be useful in identifying those with atherosclerosis and ischaemia. There are indications that SLE affects

  19. Mobile Health Technology in Late-Life Mental Illness: A Focused Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Yara; Mahdanian, Artin A; Yu, Ching; Segal, Marilyn; Looper, Karl J; Vahia, Ipsit V; Rej, Soham

    2017-08-01

    In an era of rising geriatric mental health care needs worldwide, technological advances can help address care needs in a cost-effective fashion. Our objective in this review was to assess whether mobile health technology, such as tablets and smartphones, are feasible to use in patients with late-life mental and cognitive disorders, as well as whether they were generally reliable modes of mental health/cognitive assessment. We performed a focused literature review of MEDLINE, PsychInfo, and Embase databases, including papers specifically assessing the implementation of mobile health technologies: electronic tablets (e.g., iPad), smartphones, and other mobile computerized equipment in older adults (age ≥65 years) diagnosed with or at risk of a mental and/or cognitive disorder. A total of 2,079 records were assessed, of which 7 papers were of direct relevance. Studies investigated a broad variety of mobile health technologies. Almost all examined samples with dementia/cognitive dysfunction or at risk for those disorders. All studies exclusively examined the use of mobile health technologies for the assessment of cognitive and or mental illness symptoms or disorders. None of the studies reported participants having any difficulties using the mobile health technology assessments and overall reliability was similar to paper-and-pencil modes of assessment. Overall, mobile health technologies were found to be feasible by patients and had promising reliability for the assessment of cognitive and mental illness domains in older adults. Future clinical trials will be necessary to assess whether portable communication interventions (e.g., symptom tracking) can improve geriatric mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of physiotherapy and conductive education interventions in children with cerebral palsy: a focused review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Heidi; Suoranta, Jutta; Malmivaara, Antti

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a criteria-based appraisal of systematic reviews on the effectiveness of physiotherapy and conductive education interventions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Computerized bibliographic databases were searched without language restriction up to August 2007. Reviews on trials...... physiotherapy and occupational therapy interventions. Conclusions in the other reviews should be interpreted cautiously, although, because of the poor quality of the primary studies, most reviews drew no conclusions on the effectiveness of the reviewed interventions. Reviews on complex interventions...

  1. Measurement of Drug Craving in Persian Speaking Subjects; a Review on Current Experiences and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Maarefvand

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug craving is considered as one of the main cores of drug dependency and addiction. Multidimensionality of drug craving, its cultural-bounded features and its intra individual rapidly changing nature makes it difficult to be measured. Nowadays, regarding different psychometric approaches, there are various instruments available for measurement of different aspects of drug craving but mainly for Latin-based languages in North America and European countries. High prevalence and special conditions, and unique subcultures in substance abuse and addiction in many countries, like Iran, make the design of culturally validated instruments for drug craving assessment priority. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive review on drug craving measurement instruments for Persian speaking subjects have been performed by searching in databases (ELSEVIER, Science Direct and Scientific Information Database (SID and investigating of related documents on regional experiences. Results: In this article seven main categories of drug craving instruments have been reviewed focusing on validated versions in Persian language including: self-reports, reinforcement “proxies”, drug self administration, psycho physiological responding, neurobiological responding, cognitive processing and expressive methods. Conclusion: Reviewing on weak and strength points of each instrument group and national and regional experiences shows that designing and validating a new series of ecologically-validated instruments for multidimensional measurement of drug craving in different addiction subcultures should be prioritized to cover current methodological gaps in substance abuse studies in Iran.

  2. Medical Consequences of Marijuana Use: A Review of Current Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Adam J.; Conley, James W.; Gordon, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational purposes, and the increase use of marijuana, healthcare providers will be increasingly confronted with marijuana users as patients in clinical environments. While there is vast literature regarding the societal and mental health harms associated with marijuana use, there is a paucity of reviews of the potential consequences of marijuana use on physical health or medical conditions. We examine the recent literature on ...

  3. Review of current therapies for secondary hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sheila; Hojjati, Mehrnaz

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a disabling condition that may occur secondarily to primary lung cancer. It is characterized by digital clubbing, arthralgia/arthritis, and periostosis of the tubular bones. The pain associated with HOA can be disabling and often refractory to conventional analgesics. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using the PubMed database on treatment modalities available for HOA. We found 52 relevant articles-40 case reports, six case series, two review papers, and four combined case series and review papers. There were no randomized controlled trials reported. We then classified treatments used for HOA into two categories: (1) treatment of primary cause (i.e., resection of tumor, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, treatment of infection, etc.) and (2) symptomatic treatments (i.e., bisphosphonates, octreotide, NSAIDs, vagotomy, etc.). Subsequently, we summarized the main findings for each treatment. Although the clinical diagnosis of HOA has existed for over 100 years, the pathogenesis mechanism has not yet been elucidated, and treatment options for this condition remain experimental. Primary treatment is the most widely reported modality to be efficacious. In cases which primary therapy is not possible, several symptomatic treatment modalities are suggested, with various degree of success. Further research is needed to clarify the pathophysiological mechanism of HOA as to appropriately direct therapy.

  4. A review of the current state of antimicrobial susceptibility test methods for Brachyspira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Rubin, J E

    2017-06-01

    The re-emergence of swine dysentery (Brachyspira-associated muco-haemorrhagic colitis) since the late 2000s has illuminated diagnostic challenges associated with this genus. The methods used to detect, identify, and characterize Brachyspira from clinical samples have not been standardized, and laboratories frequently rely heavily on in-house techniques. Particularly concerning is the lack of standardized methods for determining and interpreting the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. The integration of laboratory data into a treatment plan is a critical component of prudent antimicrobial usage. Therefore, the lack of standardized methods is an important limitation to the evidence-based use of antimicrobials. This review will focus on describing the methodological limitations and inconsistencies between current susceptibility testing schemes employed for Brachyspira, provide an overview of what we do know about the susceptibility of these organisms, and suggest future directions to improve and standardize diagnostic strategies.

  5. Parent-Focused Childhood and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity eHealth Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Megan L; Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D

    2016-07-21

    Effective broad-reach interventions to reduce childhood obesity are needed, but there is currently little consensus on the most effective approach. Parental involvement in interventions appears to be important. The use of eHealth modalities in interventions also seems to be promising. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reviews that have specifically investigated the effectiveness of parent-focused eHealth obesity interventions, a gap that this systematic review and meta-analysis intends to address. The objective of this study was to review the evidence for body mass index (BMI)/BMI z-score improvements in eHealth overweight and obesity randomized controlled trials for children and adolescents, where parents or carers were an agent of change. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted, which conforms to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Seven databases were searched for the period January 1995 to April 2015. Primary outcome measures were BMI and/or BMI z-score at baseline and post-intervention. Secondary outcomes included diet, physical activity, and screen time. Interventions were included if they targeted parents of children and adolescents aged 0-18 years of age and used an eHealth medium such as the Internet, interactive voice response (IVR), email, social media, telemedicine, or e-learning. Eight studies were included, involving 1487 parent and child or adolescent dyads. A total of 3 studies were obesity prevention trials, and 5 were obesity treatment trials. None of the studies found a statistically significant difference in BMI or BMI z-score between the intervention and control groups at post-intervention, and a meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the effects of parent-focused eHealth obesity interventions compared with a control on BMI/BMI z-score (Standardized Mean Difference -0.15, 95% CI -0.45 to 0.16, Z=0.94, P=.35). Four of seven studies that reported on

  6. Experimental typography : reviewing the modernist and the current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Makal, Eray

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Graphic Design and Institute of Fine Arts, Bilkent Univ., 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 65-66. The intention of this study is to evaluate the experimental typography within the history of graphic design by taking in consideration of two epochs. The Modernist and The Current. Makal, Eray M.S.

  7. Abnormal compression wood in Pinus taeda : a review of current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abnormal compression wood in P. taeda stands was first discovered in the early 1980s. Since then several research projects and surveys have been carried out in order to develop a better understanding of the problem and to try to find a solution. Currently a large proportion of the sawmill intake of logs in the Mpumalanga ...

  8. Stuttering in relation to anxiety, temperament, and personality: review and analysis with focus on causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Per A

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety and emotional reactions have a central role in many theories of stuttering, for example that persons who stutter would tend to have an emotionally sensitive temperament. The possible relation between stuttering and certain traits of temperament or personality were reviewed and analyzed, with focus on temporal relations (i.e., what comes first). It was consistently found that preschool children who stutter (as a group) do not show any tendencies toward elevated temperamental traits of shyness or social anxiety compared with children who do not stutter. Significant group differences were, however, repeatedly reported for traits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which is likely to reflect a subgroup of children who stutter. Available data is not consistent with the proposal that the risk for persistent stuttering is increased by an emotionally reactive temperament in children who stutter. Speech-related social anxiety develops in many cases of stuttering, before adulthood. Reduction of social anxiety in adults who stutter does not in itself appear to result in significant improvement of speech fluency. Studies have not revealed any relation between the severity of the motor symptoms of stuttering and temperamental traits. It is proposed that situational variability of stuttering, related to social complexity, is an effect of interference from social cognition and not directly from the emotions of social anxiety. In summary, the studies in this review provide strong evidence that persons who stutter are not characterized by constitutional traits of anxiety or similar constructs. This paper provides a review and analysis of studies of anxiety, temperament, and personality, organized with the objective to clarify cause and effect relations. Readers will be able to (a) understand the importance of effect size and distribution of data for interpretation of group differences; (b) understand the role of temporal relations for interpretation

  9. Nurse-family interaction in Malaysian palliative care settings: a focused literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Pathma; O Connor, Margaret; Barnett, Tony; Lee, Susan; Peters, Louise

    2011-10-01

    Palliative care in Malaysia developed in the 1990s to improve the quality of life of people with advanced cancer. Like many other countries, Malaysia faces its own challenges in providing palliative care to patients and their families. In Malaysian culture, families play a significant part in providing care to the dying. Connecting with families in patient care is therefore important. This paper reports a focused literature review evaluating studies on the care of the families of terminally ill people in palliative care environments in Malaysia. The search engines CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were searched for literature published from January 2000 to April 2010 relating to family care in palliative care environments. Due to a paucity of research on family care in Malaysia, the search was broadened to include relevant studies on family care internationally. Four themes were identified: delivering palliative care in Malaysia, communicating with families, crossing cultural boundaries, and the caring experience of nurses. The studies indicate the importance of the nurse-family interaction in providing optimal and culturally appropriate palliative care. This paper emphasizes the need for research into the nurse's role in family care and for developing a theory appropriate to the Malaysian culture and other countries with cultural diversity.

  10. Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate – A review focusing on chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Geyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET is of crucial importance, since worldwide amounts of PETwaste increase rapidly due to its widespread applications. Hence, several methods have been developed, like energetic, material, thermo-mechanical and chemical recycling of PET. Most frequently, PET-waste is incinerated for energy recovery, used as additive in concrete composites or glycolysed to yield mixtures of monomers and undefined oligomers. While energetic and thermo-mechanical recycling entail downcycling of the material, chemical recycling requires considerable amounts of chemicals and demanding processing steps entailing toxic and ecological issues. This review provides a thorough survey of PET-recycling including energetic, material, thermo-mechanical and chemical methods. It focuses on chemical methods describing important reaction parameters and yields of obtained reaction products. While most methods yield monomers, only a few yield undefined low molecular weight oligomers for impaired applications (dispersants or plasticizers. Further, the present work presents an alternative chemical recycling method of PET in comparison to existing chemical methods.

  11. A Review on Hemeoxygenase-2: Focus on Cellular Protection and Oxygen Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Muñoz-Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemeoxygenase (HO system is responsible for cellular heme degradation to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide. Two isoforms have been reported to date. Homologous HO-1 and HO-2 are microsomal proteins with more than 45% residue identity, share a similar fold and catalyze the same reaction. However, important differences between isoforms also exist. HO-1 isoform has been extensively studied mainly by its ability to respond to cellular stresses such as hemin, nitric oxide donors, oxidative damage, hypoxia, hyperthermia, and heavy metals, between others. On the contrary, due to its apparently constitutive nature, HO-2 has been less studied. Nevertheless, its abundance in tissues such as testis, endothelial cells, and particularly in brain, has pointed the relevance of HO-2 function. HO-2 presents particular characteristics that made it a unique protein in the HO system. Since attractive results on HO-2 have been arisen in later years, we focused this review in the second isoform. We summarize information on gene description, protein structure, and catalytic activity of HO-2 and particular facts such as its cellular impact and activity regulation. Finally, we call attention on the role of HO-2 in oxygen sensing, discussing proposed hypothesis on heme binding motifs and redox/thiol switches that participate in oxygen sensing as well as evidences of HO-2 response to hypoxia.

  12. Critical review of the current radiation protection quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1998-01-01

    Examples exist in dosimetry and radiation protection where primary attention was focused on the unit rather than the corresponding quantity. Another difficulty arises from the fact that quantities in this field cannot be considered as pure physical quantities, they are rather biophysical quantities. There are too many quantities (e. g. 17 quantities based on the dose equivalent), with differences in numerical values of 'similar' quantities, not always satisfactory approximations of virtually unmeasurable quantities by measurable quantities, inconsistency in definitions and interpretations of quantities of some international expert bodies, and problems of weighting and conversion factors. (M.D.)

  13. Decentralization and health system performance - a focused review of dimensions, difficulties, and derivatives in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Bhuputra; Thakur, Harshad P

    2016-10-31

    One of the principal goals of any health care system is to improve health through the provision of clinical and public health services. Decentralization as a reform measure aims to improve inputs, management processes and health outcomes, and has political, administrative and financial connotations. It is argued that the robustness of a health system in achieving desirable outcomes is contingent upon the width and depth of 'decision space' at the local level. Studies have used different approaches to examine one or more facets of decentralization and its effect on health system functioning; however, lack of consensus on an acceptable framework is a critical gap in determining its quantum and quality. Theorists have resorted to concepts of 'trust', 'convenience' and 'mutual benefits' to explain, define and measure components of governance in health. In the emerging 'continuum of health services' model, the challenge lies in identifying variables of performance (fiscal allocation, autonomy at local level, perception of key stakeholders, service delivery outputs, etc.) through the prism of decentralization in the first place, and in establishing directed relationships among them. This focused review paper conducted extensive web-based literature search, using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. After screening of key words and study objectives, we retrieved 180 articles for next round of screening. One hundred and four full articles (three working papers and 101 published papers) were reviewed in totality. We attempted to summarize existing literature on decentralization and health systems performance, explain key concepts and essential variables, and develop a framework for further scientific scrutiny. Themes are presented in three separate segments of dimensions, difficulties and derivatives. Evaluation of local decision making and its effect on health system performance has been studied in a compartmentalized manner. There is sparse evidence about innovations

  14. Decentralization and health system performance – a focused review of dimensions, difficulties, and derivatives in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuputra Panda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One of the principal goals of any health care system is to improve health through the provision of clinical and public health services. Decentralization as a reform measure aims to improve inputs, management processes and health outcomes, and has political, administrative and financial connotations. It is argued that the robustness of a health system in achieving desirable outcomes is contingent upon the width and depth of ‘decision space’ at the local level. Studies have used different approaches to examine one or more facets of decentralization and its effect on health system functioning; however, lack of consensus on an acceptable framework is a critical gap in determining its quantum and quality. Theorists have resorted to concepts of ‘trust’, ‘convenience’ and ‘mutual benefits’ to explain, define and measure components of governance in health. In the emerging ‘continuum of health services’ model, the challenge lies in identifying variables of performance (fiscal allocation, autonomy at local level, perception of key stakeholders, service delivery outputs, etc. through the prism of decentralization in the first place, and in establishing directed relationships among them. Methods This focused review paper conducted extensive web-based literature search, using PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. After screening of key words and study objectives, we retrieved 180 articles for next round of screening. One hundred and four full articles (three working papers and 101 published papers were reviewed in totality. We attempted to summarize existing literature on decentralization and health systems performance, explain key concepts and essential variables, and develop a framework for further scientific scrutiny. Themes are presented in three separate segments of dimensions, difficulties and derivatives. Results Evaluation of local decision making and its effect on health system performance has been

  15. Osteoarthritis: A review of old myths and current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiology is dependent on an accurate understanding of the pathological process. This review of primary osteoarthritis identifies eight areas in which widely held concepts are either demonstrably false or fall short of proof. In some, the concepts have been disproved by the gradual accumulation of evidence. In others, the error is due to readiological misinterpretation while in a third group, the evidence is not in dispute, but the logical framework used in its assessment is flawed. Awareness of these deficiencies simplifies radiological interpretation and clarifies research objectives. (orig.)

  16. Equestrian sport-related injuries: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, Heather S

    2010-01-01

    Equestrian sports continue to grow in popularity in the Unites States and abroad, with an estimated 30 million people riding horses annually in the United States alone. Approximately one in five of these riders will suffer a serious injury during their riding career, requiring medical care and potentially hospitalization. Riding carries with it an implicit risk of injury associated with the unpredictability of the animals, the rider's head being positioned approximately 9 feet off the ground, and traveling unrestrained at speeds up to 40 mph. This article reviews common equestrian injuries, epidemiology, mechanism of injury, risk factors, and prevention strategies, with an emphasis on the more dangerous aspects of the sport.

  17. Review of lower hybrid wave heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1986-01-01

    Interaction of Lower Hybrid waves and plasmas is a very versatile method which has proven to be effective in a large range of applications: bulk ion heating, bulk electron heating, non inductive current drive. If the ratio between the mean velocity of HF induced fast particles and the thermal velocity of the bulk population is relatively small, effective bulk ion heating or bulk electron heating can occur via collisional transfer. If the above ratio is too large, fast ions, which have mainly a perpendicular energy, are poorly confined. Moreover they can be harmful for the discharge (impurities, etc...) since they are lost on the walls. In contrast, HF induced fast electrons gain essentially a parallel momentum from the wave. If unidirectional waves are launched, the dissymetry in electron distribution result in the obtention of an effective non inductive current

  18. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a review of current diagnostic strategies concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Frías-Ordoñez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a state of carbohydrate intolerance that is first recognized during pregnancy. The initial criteria for diagnosis were established more than 50 years ago by O’Sullivan & Mahan, and since then, some modifications have been made. Currently, diagnosis considers two methods: the onestep approach, consisting of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for 2 hours with 75g of glucose, and the two-step approach, which involves an initial screening test with 50g of glucose and OGTT with 100g of glucose if screening is positive. Both diagnostic approaches have been justified by expert consensus; however, an absolute concept about the method to be applied has not been established yet. To select a method, the clinician must take into account various factors. This paper proposes a historical overview and the presentation of the current status of GDM diagnosis.

  19. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Zika Virus, a Special Focus on Intervention Approaches against Vector Mosquitoes—Current Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is the most recent intruder that acquired the status of global threat creating panic and frightening situation to public owing to its rapid spread, attaining higher virulence and causing complex clinical manifestations including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain Barré Syndrome. Alike other flaviviruses, the principal mode of ZIKV transmission is by mosquitoes. Advances in research have provided reliable diagnostics for detecting ZIKV infection, while several drug/therapeutic targets and vaccine candidates have been identified recently. Despite these progresses, currently there is neither any effective drug nor any vaccine available against ZIKV. Under such circumstances and to tackle the problem at large, control measures of which mosquito population control need to be strengthened following appropriate mechanical, chemical, biological and genetic control measures. Apart from this, several other known modes of ZIKV transmission which have gained importance in recent past such as intrauterine, sexual intercourse, and blood-borne spread need to be checked and kept under control by adopting appropriate precautions and utmost care during sexual intercourse, blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The virus inactivation by pasteurization, detergents, chemicals, and filtration can effectively reduce viral load in plasma-derived medicinal products. Added to this, strengthening of the surveillance and monitoring of ZIKV as well as avoiding travel to Zika infected areas would aid in keeping viral infection under check. Here, we discuss the salient advances in the prevention and control strategies to combat ZIKV with a focus on highlighting various intervention approaches against the vector mosquitoes of this viral pathogen along with presenting an overview regarding human intervention measures to counter other modes of ZIKV transmission and spread. Additionally, owing to the success of vaccines for a number of infections

  20. Magnetic spectrograph with a semicircular focusing for studies on the energy distribution of a high-current relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosteva, T.S.; Zablotskaya, G.R.; Ivanov, B.A.; Kolyubakin, S.A.; Chernobrovin, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    Specific features of a magnetic spectrograph with a semicircular focusing are described; the spectrograph has been designed to study, using the REP-5 pulsed accelerator, the energy spectra of electrons with a current of 50 kA, pulse duration of 20 ns in the energy range 0.2 to 3 MeV. The beam has been transported in a drift chamber where the air pressure varies from 10 -3 to 40 torr. The chamber is 50 cm long and 12 cm in diameter. The spectrograph vacuum chamber is made in the form of a plane rectangular box with a degassing fitting. The uniform magnetic field in the spectrograph gap is provided with permanent magnets (ferrite-barium plates). The collimator and the chamber walls on which the magnets are located, are made of low-carbon electrotechnical steel. The diameters of the collimator entrance and exit windows are 2 and 0.2 mm, respectively. To screen the photofilm in the spectrograph chamber from x-radiation, there are three disks on the spectrograph flange on the part of the drift chamber, they are made of lead, steel, and aluminium. The steel disk, besides, screens the space in front of the collimator entrance window from the scattered magnetic field. During the experiments the pressure in the spectrograph chamber has varied from 7x10 -3 to 10 -1 torr. Electrons are registered using the RT-1 and RT-5 x-ray films 1x18 cm in size. The spectrograph described makes it possible to have well-resolved electron spectrum during a pulse. The electron spectra obtained by means of the spectrograph at a pressure of 4.10 -1 torr in the drift chamber and a charge voltage of 3.2 MV in the line, are shown [ru

  1. Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    transport, (3) the process of wave transition in shallow water in the presence of strong alongshore currents, (4) the interaction between oblique...conducted in relatively deep water with bottom sediment comprised mostly of silt. One of the earlier studies for a wide shallow shelf was conducted off...wave asymmetry in combined flows and how this drives mass transport, (3) the process of wave transition in shallow water in the presence of strong

  2. ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS: REVIEW OF THE CURRENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Stanev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current situation of the data on the highest energy particles in the Universe – the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The new results in the field come from the Telescope Array experiment in Utah, U.S.A. For this reason we concentrate on the results from these experiments and compare them to the measurements of the other two recent experiments, the High Resolution Fly’sEye and the Southern Auger Observatory.

  3. Transdisciplinarity: A Review of Its Origins, Development, and Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hillel Bernstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinarity originated in a critique of the standard configuration of knowledge in disciplines in the curriculum, including moral and ethical concerns. Pronouncements about it were first voiced between the climax of government-supported science and higher education and the long retrenchment that began in the 1970s. Early work focused on questions of epistemology and the planning of future universities and educational programs. After a lull, transdisciplinarity re-emerged in the 1990s as an urgent issue relating to the solution of new, highly complex, global concerns, beginning with climate change and sustainability and extending into many areas concerning science, technology, social problems and policy, education, and the arts. Transdisciplinarity today is characterized by its focus on “wicked problems” that need creative solutions, its reliance on stakeholder involvement, and engaged, socially responsible science. In simultaneously studying multiple levels of, and angles on, reality, transdisciplinary work provides an intriguing potential to invigorate scholarly and scientific inquiry both in and outside the academy.

  4. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  5. A review of current sleep screening applications for smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Domingos, João S; Gederi, Elnaz; Clifford, Gari D

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem and contribute to a wide range of healthcare issues. The societal and financial costs of sleep disorders are enormous. Sleep-related disorders are often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or sleep study involving the measurement of brain activity through the electroencephalogram. Other parameters monitored include oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, cardiac activity (through the electrocardiogram), as well as video recording, sound and movement activity. Monitoring can be costly and removes the patients from their normal sleeping environment, preventing repeated unbiased studies. The recent increase in adoption of smartphones, with high quality on-board sensors has led to the proliferation of many sleep screening applications running on the phone. However, with the exception of simple questionnaires, no existing sleep-related application available for smartphones is based on scientific evidence. This paper reviews the existing smartphone applications landscape used in the field of sleep disorders and proposes possible advances to improve screening approaches. (topical review)

  6. A review of current treatment strategies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi W Kelley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 90% of diabetes cases in pregnant women are considered gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. It is well known that uncontrolled glucose results in poor pregnancy outcomes in both the mother and fetus. Worldwide there are many guidelines with recommendations for appropriate management strategies for GDM once lifestyle modifications have been instituted and failed to achieve control. The efficacy and particularly the safety of other treatment modalities for GDM has been the source of much debate in recent years. Studies that have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of both glyburide and metformin in the management of patients with GDM will be reviewed. There is a lack of evidence with other oral and injectable non-insulin agents to control blood glucose in GDM. The role of insulin will be discussed, with emphasis on insulin analogs. Ideal patient characteristics for each treatment modality will be reviewed. In addition, recommendations for postpartum screening of patients will be described as well as recommendations for use of agents to manage subsequent type 2 diabetes in patients who are breastfeeding.

  7. Nursing philosophy: A review of current pre registration curricula in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh-Franklin, Carolyn

    2016-02-01

    Nursing in the UK has been subject to criticism for failing to provide care and compassion in practice, with a series of reports highlighting inadequacies in care. This scrutiny provides nursing with an ideal opportunity to evaluate the underpinning philosophy of nursing practice, and for nurse educators to use this philosophy as the basis for programmes which can inculcate neophyte student nurses with a fundamental understanding of the profession, whilst providing other health care professionals and service users with a clear representation of professional nursing practice. The key word philosophy was used in a systematic stepwise descriptive content analysis of the programme specifications of 33 current undergraduate programme documents, leading to an undergraduate award and professional registration as a nurse. The word philosophy featured minimally in programme specification documents, with 12 (36%) documents including it. Its use was superficial in 3 documents and focused on educational philosophy in a further 3 documents. 2 programme specifications identified their philosophy as the NMC (2010) standards for pre-registration nurse education. 2 programme specifications articulated a philosophy specific to that programme and HEI, focusing on caring, and 2 made reference to underpinning philosophies present in nursing literature; the Relationship Centred Care Approach, and The Humanising Care Philosophy. The philosophy of nursing practice is not clearly articulated in pre-registration curricula. This failure to identify the fundamental nature of nursing is detrimental to the development of the profession, and given this lack of direction it is not surprising that some commentators feel nursing has lost its way. Nurse educators must review their current curricula to ensure that there is clear articulation of nursing's professional philosophical stance, and use this as the framework for pre-registration curricula to support the development of neophyte nursing

  8. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  9. Breast cancer treatment: historical review and current approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, A.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution and development of opinions on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer since Galen to present time is presented. The concept of breast cancer as a local disease has been replaced by the understanding of its systemic character. On this background described are the methods of surgical treatment beginning from early - supraradical, to present -conservative approaches. The ''milestones'' in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer of the last 40 years are presented. Current methods of breast cancer management include correct diagnosis (clinical examination, mammography, ultrasound, fine needle aspiration biopsy), TNM staging, adequate loco-regional therapy, systemic therapy, rehabilitation, reconstruction and careful follow-up. (author)

  10. Current Trends on Lean Management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabeena Begam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All manufacturing industry has put in continuous efforts for its survival in the current impulsive and competitive economy. In order to handle the critical situation, manufacturers are trying to implement new and innovative techniques in their manufacturing process by making it more effective and efficient. A detailed literature survey has been conducted to identify the lean practices in various manufacturing industry. The results revealed that the status of Lean Manufacturing (LM implementation in still in thriving stage. This paper will further assist the organizations to improve its process, align it to the requirements of its customers and relentless contribution to manufacturing sector to enhance productivity, quality and competitiveness is immense.

  11. Review. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-10-12

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation ('wanting') for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive sensitization occur in human addicts? Is the development of addiction-like behaviour in animals associated with sensitization? What is the best way to model addiction symptoms using animal models? And, finally, what are the roles of affective pleasure or withdrawal in addiction?

  12. Filtered neutron beams at the FMRB - review and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.

    1987-12-01

    A review is presented of our experience with filtered neutron beams installed in beam tubes of the Research and Measurement Reactor Braunschweig since 1976: Desing of the filters and measurement of the beam parameters are reported and an outline of the research work done with the beams is given. The present status of the irradiation facility, which consists of 5 beams (144 keV, 24.5 keV, 2 keV, 0.2 keV and thermal neutrons), is described in some detail to allow understanding of the physical as well as the technical prerequisites for performing calibrations of neutron measuring instruments. An appendix contains the actual beam parameters. (orig.) [de

  13. A review of current sleep screening applications for smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Domingos, João S; Gederi, Elnaz; Clifford, Gari D

    2013-07-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem and contribute to a wide range of healthcare issues. The societal and financial costs of sleep disorders are enormous. Sleep-related disorders are often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or sleep study involving the measurement of brain activity through the electroencephalogram. Other parameters monitored include oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, cardiac activity (through the electrocardiogram), as well as video recording, sound and movement activity. Monitoring can be costly and removes the patients from their normal sleeping environment, preventing repeated unbiased studies. The recent increase in adoption of smartphones, with high quality on-board sensors has led to the proliferation of many sleep screening applications running on the phone. However, with the exception of simple questionnaires, no existing sleep-related application available for smartphones is based on scientific evidence. This paper reviews the existing smartphone applications landscape used in the field of sleep disorders and proposes possible advances to improve screening approaches.

  14. Review of the Current Management of Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Tatiana V.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2018-01-01

    Significance: The incidence of pressure ulcers is increasing due to our aging population and the increase in the elderly living with disability. Learning how to manage pressure ulcers appropriately is increasingly important for all professionals in wound care. Recent Advances: Many new dressings and treatment modalities have been developed over the recent years and the goal of this review is to highlight their benefits and drawbacks to help providers choose their tools appropriately. Critical Issues: Despite an increased number of therapies available on the market, none has demonstrated any clear benefit over the others and pressure ulcer treatment remains frustrating and time-consuming. Future Directions: Additional research is needed to develop products more effective in prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. PMID:29392094

  15. Current Status of Simulation in Otolaryngology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musbahi, Omar; Aydin, Abdullatif; Al Omran, Yasser; Skilbeck, Christopher James; Ahmed, Kamran

    Otolaryngology is a highly technical and demanding specialty and the requirements for surgical trainees to acquire proficiency remains challenging. Simulation has been purported to be an effective tool in assisting with this. The aim of this systematic review is to identify the available otolaryngology simulators, their status of validation, and evaluation the level of evidence behind each training model and thereby establish a level of recommendation. PubMed, ERIC, and Google Scholar databases were searched for articles that described otolaryngology simulators or training models between 1980 and April 2016. Any validation studies for simulators were also retrieved. Titles and abstracts were screened for relevance using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Level of evidence (LoE) and Level of recommendation (LoR) was awarded to each study and model, respectively. A total of 70 studies were identified describing 64 simulators. Out of these, at least 54 simulators had 1 validation study. Simulators for the ear and temporal bone surgery were the most common (n = 32), followed by laryngeal and throat (n = 20) and endoscopic sinus surgery (n = 12). Face validity was evaluated by 29 studies, 20 attempted to show construct, 20 assessed content, 20 transfer, and only 2 assessed concurrent validity. Of the validation assessments, 2 were classified as Level 1b, 10 Level 2a, and 48 Level 2b. No simulators received the highest LoR, but 8 simulators received a LoR of 2. Despite the lack of evidence in outcome studies and limited number of high-validity otolaryngology simulators, the role of simulation continues to grow across surgical specialties Hence, it is imperative that the simulators are of high validity and construct for trainees to practice and rehearse surgical skills to develop confidence. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decision support systems and applications in ophthalmology: literature and commercial review focused on mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martínez-Pérez, Borja; López-Coronado, Miguel; Díaz, Javier Rodríguez; López, Miguel Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    The growing importance that mobile devices have in daily life has also reached health care and medicine. This is making the paradigm of health care change and the concept of mHealth or mobile health more relevant, whose main essence is the apps. This new reality makes it possible for doctors who are not specialist to have easy access to all the information generated in different corners of the world, making them potential keepers of that knowledge. However, the new daily information exceeds the limits of the human intellect, making Decision Support Systems (DSS) necessary for helping doctors to diagnose diseases and also help them to decide the attitude that has to be taken towards these diagnoses. These could improve the health care in remote areas and developing countries. All of this is even more important in diseases that are more prevalent in primary care and that directly affect the people's quality of life, this is the case in ophthalmological problems where in first patient care a specialist in ophthalmology is not involved. The goal of this paper is to analyse the state of the art of DSS in Ophthalmology. Many of them focused on diseases affecting the eye's posterior pole. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a literature review and commercial apps analysis will be done. The used databases and systems will be IEEE Xplore, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, and PubMed. The search is limited to articles published from 2000 until now. Later, different Mobile Decision Support System (MDSS) in Ophthalmology will be analyzed in the virtual stores for Android and iOS. 37 articles were selected according their thematic (posterior pole, anterior pole, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), cloud, data mining, algorithms and structures for DSS, and other) from a total of 600 found in the above cited databases. Very few mobile apps were found in the different stores. It can be concluded that almost all existing mobile apps are focused on the eye's posterior

  17. The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in Florida with a focus on prominent species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ENGEMAN, Elliott JACOBSON, Michael L. AVERY

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Florida, along with Hawaii, has among the two worst invasive species problems in the USA, and the state is especially susceptible to establishment by alien reptiles. Besides the large numbers of established non-native reptile species in Florida, many of these species present novel difficulties for management, or have other characteristics making effective management extremely challenging. Moreover, initiation of management action requires more than recognition by experts that a potentially harmful species has become established. It also requires the political will along with concomitant resources and appropriate personnel to develop effective methods and apply them. We review the situation in Florida, including assessment of risk for establishment, and we use a subset of prominent species to illustrate in more detail the array of invasive reptile species circumstances in Florida, including routes of introduction, impacts, and potential and implemented management actions. These examples not only highlight the severity of the invasive reptile problems in the state, but they also show the diversity in resolve and response towards them and the motivating factors [Current Zoology 57 (5: 599–612, 2011].

  18. Amphibian chytridiomycosis: a review with focus on fungus-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Pascale; Martel, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2015-11-25

    Amphibian declines and extinctions are emblematic for the current sixth mass extinction event. Infectious drivers of these declines include the recently emerged fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Chytridiomycota). The skin disease caused by these fungi is named chytridiomycosis and affects the vital function of amphibian skin. Not all amphibians respond equally to infection and host responses might range from resistant, over tolerant to susceptible. The clinical outcome of infection is highly dependent on the amphibian host, the fungal virulence and environmental determinants. B. dendrobatidis infects the skin of a large range of anurans, urodeles and caecilians, whereas to date the host range of B. salamandrivorans seems limited to urodeles. So far, the epidemic of B. dendrobatidis is mainly limited to Australian, neotropical, South European and West American amphibians, while for B. salamandrivorans it is limited to European salamanders. Other striking differences between both fungi include gross pathology and thermal preferences. With this review we aim to provide the reader with a state-of-the art of host-pathogen interactions for both fungi, in which new data pertaining to the interaction of B. dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans with the host's skin are integrated. Furthermore, we pinpoint areas in which more detailed studies are necessary or which have not received the attention they merit.

  19. The use of psychiatry-focused simulation in undergraduate nursing education: A systematic search and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandyk, Amanda D; Lalonde, Michelle; Merali, Sabrina; Wright, Erica; Bajnok, Irmajean; Davies, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Evidence on the use of simulation to teach psychiatry and mental health (including addiction) content is emerging, yet no summary of the implementation processes or associated outcomes exists. The aim of this study was to systematically search and review empirical literature on the use of psychiatry-focused simulation in undergraduate nursing education. Objectives were to (i) assess the methodological quality of existing evidence on the use of simulation to teach mental health content to undergraduate nursing students, (ii) describe the operationalization of the simulations, and (iii) summarize the associated quantitative and qualitative outcomes. We conducted online database (MEDLINE, Embase, ERIC, CINAHL, PsycINFO from January 2004 to October 2015) and grey literature searches. Thirty-two simulation studies were identified describing and evaluating six types of simulations (standardized patients, audio simulations, high-fidelity simulators, virtual world, multimodal, and tabletop). Overall, 2724 participants were included in the studies. Studies reflected a limited number of intervention designs, and outcomes were evaluated with qualitative and quantitative methods incorporating a variety of tools. Results indicated that simulation was effective in reducing student anxiety and improving their knowledge, empathy, communication, and confidence. The summarized qualitative findings all supported the benefit of simulation; however, more research is needed to assess the comparative effectiveness of the types of simulations. Recommendations from the findings include the development of guidelines for educators to deliver each simulation component (briefing, active simulation, debriefing). Finally, consensus around appropriate training of facilitators is needed, as is consistent and agreed upon simulation terminology. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Learning-performance distinction and memory processes for motor skills: a focused review and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Shailesh S; Winstein, Carolee J

    2012-03-01

    Behavioral research in cognitive psychology provides evidence for an important distinction between immediate performance that accompanies practice and long-term performance that reflects the relative permanence in the capability for the practiced skill (i.e. learning). This learning-performance distinction is strikingly evident when challenging practice conditions may impair practice performance, but enhance long-term retention of motor skills. A review of motor learning studies with a specific focus on comparing differences in performance between that at the end of practice and at delayed retention suggests that the delayed retention or transfer performance is a better indicator of motor learning than the performance at (or end of) practice. This provides objective evidence for the learning-performance distinction. This behavioral evidence coupled with an understanding of the motor memory processes of encoding, consolidation and retrieval may provide insight into the putative mechanism that implements the learning-performance distinction. Here, we propose a simplistic empirically-based framework--motor behavior-memory framework--that integrates the temporal evolution of motor memory processes with the time course of practice and delayed retention frequently used in behavioral motor learning paradigms. In the context of the proposed framework, recent research has used noninvasive brain stimulation to decipher the role of each motor memory process, and specific cortical brain regions engaged in motor performance and learning. Such findings provide beginning insights into the relationship between the time course of practice-induced performance changes and motor memory processes. This in turn has promising implications for future research and practical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Current concepts of contrast-induced nephropathy: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Fu Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN is a common hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. Published studies on this condition have dramatically increased in recent years. This article aims to provide a brief literature review. English articles published from 1983 to 2012 were retrieved from PubMed by searching using the term “contrast-induced nephropathy.” Patients with CIN were associated with increased resource utilization, prolonged hospital stay, and increased long-term mortality. CIN is defined as a ≥0.5 mg/dL rise in serum creatinine or a 25% increase, assessed within 48–72 hours after administration of contrast medium (CM. All patients receiving CM should be evaluated for their CIN risk, especially preexisting kidney disease. The CM should be prewarmed to 37 °C and injected at the lowest possible dose. Repeat injection within 72 hours should be avoided. Either iso-osmolar CM or low-osmolar CM, except ioxaglate or iohexol, can be used in all patients. Iso-osmolar CM iodixanol may be a better choice for high-risk patients with chronic kidney disease requiring intra-arterial administration. Nephrotoxic drugs should be stopped 2 days prior to when the patient undergoes a procedure. All patients receiving CM should be at an optimal volume status. Parenteral isotonic saline without any diuretic should be started 12 hours prior to CM at a rate of 1 mL/kg/h and continued for 24 hours if there is no contraindication. In patients who require shorter volume supplement periods or are at a higher risk, bicarbonate infusion (154 mEq/L, 3 mL/kg/h for 1 hour bolus prior to CM, followed by 1 mL/kg/h for 6 hours may be used as an alternative to isotonic saline. Oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg bid, starting on the day prior to the procedure together with parenteral hydration is suggested for patients at risk. Hemodialysis/hemofiltration is only considered in chronic kidney disease stage 4/5 patients when an access is available. The other medications

  2. Current Status of Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Spiliopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major public health problem and its management requires a significant amount of health care resources. Even with administration of the best available medical treatment, the mortality associated with the disease remains high. As therapeutical strategies for heart failure have been refined, the number of patients suffering from the disease has expanded dramatically. Although heart transplantation still represents the gold standard therapeutical approach, the implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs evolved to a well-established management for this disease. The limited applicability of heart transplantation caused by a shortage of donor organs and the concurrent expand of the patient population with end-stage heart failure led to a considerable utilization of MCSDs. This paper outlines the current status of mechanical circulatory support.

  3. Radiation and breast cancer: a review of current evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronckers, Cécile M; Erdmann, Christine A; Land, Charles E

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes current knowledge on ionizing radiation-associated breast cancer in the context of established breast cancer risk factors, the radiation dose–response relationship, and modifiers of dose response, taking into account epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Available epidemiological data support a linear dose–response relationship down to doses as low as about 100 mSv. However, the magnitude of risk per unit dose depends strongly on when radiation exposure occurs: exposure before the age of 20 years carries the greatest risk. Other characteristics that may influence the magnitude of dose-specific risk include attained age (that is, age at observation for risk), age at first full-term birth, parity, and possibly a history of benign breast disease, exposure to radiation while pregnant, and genetic factors

  4. Current management of parainfluenza pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falsey AR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ann R FalseyUniversity of Rochester, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, NY, USAAbstract: Parainfluenza viruses (PIV are common respiratory viruses that belong to the Paramyxoviridae family. PIV infection can lead to a wide variety of clinical syndromes ranging from mild upper respiratory illness to severe pneumonia. Severe disease can be seen in elderly or chronically ill persons and may be fatal in persons with compromised immune systems, particularly children with severe combined immunodeficiency disease syndrome and hematopathic stem cell transplant recipients. At present, there are no licensed antiviral agents for the treatment of PIV infection. Aerosolized or systemic ribavirin in combination with intravenous gamma globulin has been reported in small, uncontrolled series and case reports of immunocompromised patients. A number of agents show antiviral activity in vitro and in animals, but none are currently approved for human use.Keywords: parainfluenza virus, antiviral agents, immunocompromised host

  5. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A.Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization and monitoring are important parts of environmental remediation of contaminated sites by the Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The actual remediation process often cannot begin or even be planned until characterization is complete. Monitoring is essential to verify the progress of remediation and of the waste stream. However, some contaminated sites are difficult, costly, or have a high exposure risk to personnel to characterize or monitor using the baseline technology or current practice. Therefore, development of new characterization and monitoring technologies is time-critical to remediate these sites. The main task of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to develop and deploy innovative characterization and monitoring technologies that improve performance and reduce personnel exposure, cost, and detection limits. However, to evaluate different proposals for new technologies to decide which ones to develop or deploy, it is necessary to compare their cost and performance to the baseline technology. The goal of this project is to facilitate the direct comparison of new technologies to the baseline technology by documenting the current practices for site characterization and monitoring at DOE sites and by presenting the information in an easy-to-use, concise database. The database will assist the CMST-CP and others in evaluating or designing new technologies by identifying the baseline technologies and describing their performance and cost. The purpose of this document is to report on the completion of this project and to describe the database. Section 2.0 describes the data assessment methodology. Section 3.0 presents the database and serves as a user manual. Section 4.0 lists the references used for each baseline technology in the database. The full references can be found in the Appendix.

  6. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Characterization and monitoring are important parts of environmental remediation of contaminated sites by the Department of Energy--Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The actual remediation process often cannot begin or even be planned until characterization is complete. Monitoring is essential to verify the progress of remediation and of the waste stream. However, some contaminated sites are difficult, costly, or have a high exposure risk to personnel to characterize or monitor using the baseline technology or current practice. Therefore, development of new characterization and monitoring technologies is time-critical to remediate these sites. The main task of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to develop and deploy innovative characterization and monitoring technologies that improve performance and reduce personnel exposure, cost, and detection limits. However, to evaluate different proposals for new technologies to decide which ones to develop or deploy, it is necessary to compare their cost and performance to the baseline technology. The goal of this project is to facilitate the direct comparison of new technologies to the baseline technology by documenting the current practices for site characterization and monitoring at DOE sites and by presenting the information in an easy-to-use, concise database. The database will assist the CMST-CP and others in evaluating or designing new technologies by identifying the baseline technologies and describing their performance and cost. The purpose of this document is to report on the completion of this project and to describe the database. Section 2.0 describes the data assessment methodology. Section 3.0 presents the database and serves as a user manual. Section 4.0 lists the references used for each baseline technology in the database. The full references can be found in the Appendix

  7. Review of Current FFAG Lattice Studies in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J. Scott; Plamer, Robert; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Trbojevic, Dejan; Keil, Eberhard; Johnstone, Carol; Sessler, Andrew; Koscielniak, Shane Rupert; Craddock, Michael

    2004-01-01

    There has been a revival of interest in the use of fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAGs) for many applications, including muon accelerators, high-intensity proton sources, and medical applications. The original FFAGs, and those recently built in Japan, have been based on a so-called scaling FFAG design, for which tunes are constant and the behavior in phase space is independent of energy with the exception of a scaling factor. Activity in the US and Canada has instead mostly focused on nonscaling designs, which, while having the large energy acceptance that characterizes an FFAG, do not obey the scaling relations of the scaling FFAG. Most of these designs have been based on magnets with a linear midplane field profile. A great deal of analysis, both theoretically and numerically, has occurred on these designs, and they are very well understood at this point. Some more recent work has occurred on designs with a nonlinear field profile. Since no non-scaling FFAG has ever been built, there is interest in building a small model which would accelerate electrons and demonstrate our understanding of non-scaling FFAG design

  8. Liquid phase microextraction of pesticides: a review on current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Sorouraddin, Saeed Mohammad; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2014-01-01

    Liquid phase microextraction (LPME) enables analytes to be extracted with a few microliters of an organic solvent. LPME is a technique for sample preparation that is extremely simple, affordable and virtually a solvent-free. It can provide a high degree of selectivity and enrichment by eliminating carry-over between single runs. A variety of solvents are known for the extraction of the various analytes. These features have led to the development of techniques such as single drop microextraction, hollow fiber LPME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and others. LPME techniques have been applied to the analysis of pharmaceuticals, food, beverages, and pesticides. This review covers the history of LPME methods, and then gives a comprehensive collection of their application to the preconcentration and determination of pesticides in various matrices. Specific sections cover (a) sample treatment techniques in general, (b) single-drop microextraction, (c) extraction based on the use of ionic liquids, (d) solidified floating organic drop microextraction, and various other techniques. (author)

  9. Ebola Virus Shedding and Transmission: Review of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Pauline; Fischer, William A; Schibler, Manuel; Jacobs, Michael; Bausch, Daniel G; Kaiser, Laurent

    2016-10-15

     The magnitude of the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented, with >28 500 reported cases and >11 000 deaths. Understanding the key elements of Ebola virus transmission is necessary to implement adequate infection prevention and control measures to protect healthcare workers and halt transmission in the community.  We performed an extensive PubMed literature review encompassing the period from discovery of Ebola virus, in 1976, until 1 June 2016 to evaluate the evidence on modes of Ebola virus shedding and transmission.  Ebola virus has been isolated by cell culture from blood, saliva, urine, aqueous humor, semen, and breast milk from infected or convalescent patients. Ebola virus RNA has been noted in the following body fluids days or months after onset of illness: saliva (22 days), conjunctiva/tears (28 days), stool (29 days), vaginal fluid (33 days), sweat (44 days), urine (64 days), amniotic fluid (38 days), aqueous humor (101 days), cerebrospinal fluid (9 months), breast milk (16 months [preliminary data]), and semen (18 months). Nevertheless, the only documented cases of secondary transmission from recovered patients have been through sexual transmission. We did not find strong evidence supporting respiratory or fomite-associated transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Patellofemoral Arthroplasty: Current Concepts and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Gabriele; Rosso, Federica; Bertolo, Corrado; Dettoni, Federico; Blonna, Davide; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Rossi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) can be associated with anterior knee pain, stiffness, and functional impairment. Some authors report that PFOA affects approximately 9% of patients older than 40 years with a greater prevalence in females. Etiology of PFOA is multifactorial and is related to the presence of abnormal stresses at the PF joint due to knee- and patient-related factors. The need for a joint preserving treatment by isolated replacement of the injured compartment of the knee led to the development of PF arthroplasty (PFA). When a correct PF replacement is performed, PFA preserves physiologic tibiofemoral joint, thus allowing patients for a rapid recovery with a high satisfaction. The outcomes for PFA are quite variable with a trend toward good to excellent results, mainly owing to the improvement in surgical techniques, patient selection, and implant design. The development of the second generation of PFA improved the outcomes, which is attributed to the different trochlear designs. Recently, encouraging results have been provided by the association of PFA and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). In many studies, the main cause of PFA failure is progression of tibiofemoral OA. The aim of this brief review of literature is to summarize the clinical features, indications and contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and outcomes of PFA. PMID:29270562

  11. Plasmablastic Lymphoma: A Review of Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Elyamany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL, which frequently arises in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. PBL shows diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling B-immunoblasts/plasmablasts, or with plasmacytic features and an immunophenotype of plasma cells. PBL remains a diagnostic challenge due to its peculiar morphology and an immunohistochemical profile similar to plasma cell myeloma (PCM. PBL is also a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course characterized by a high rate of relapse and death. There is no standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment of PBL. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP or CHOP-like regimens have been the backbone while more intensive regimens such as cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC, or dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (DA-EPOCH are possible options. Recently, a few studies have reported the potential value of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and thalidomide in PBL patients. The introduction of genes encoding artificial receptors called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs and CAR-modified T cells targeted to the B cell-specific CD19 antigen have demonstrated promising results in multiple early clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in epidemiology; pathophysiology; clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics; therapy; and outcome in patients with PBL.

  12. Current status of robotic bariatric surgery: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment to obtain weight loss in severely obese patients. The feasibility and safety of bariatric robotic surgery is the topic of this review. Methods A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, BioMed Central, and Web of Science. Results Twenty-two studies were included. Anastomotic leak rate was 8.51% in biliopancreatic diversion. 30-day reoperation rate was 1.14% in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 1.16% in sleeve gastrectomy. Major complication rate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass resulted higher than in sleeve gastrectomy ( 4,26% vs. 1,2%). The mean hospital stay was longer in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (range 2.6-7.4 days). Conclusions The major limitation of our analysis is due to the small number and the low quality of the studies, the small sample size, heterogeneity of the enrolled patients and the lack of data from metabolic and bariatric outcomes. Despite the use of the robot, the majority of these cases are completed with stapled anastomosis. The assumption that robotic surgery is superior in complex cases is not supported by the available present evidence. The major strength of the robotic surgery is strongly facilitating some of the surgical steps (gastro-jejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy anastomosis in the robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or the vertical gastric resection in the robotic sleeve gastrectomy). PMID:24199869

  13. Conversion disorder: A systematic review of current terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Juen Mei; Kanaan, Richard Antony Alexander

    It has been argued that the label given to unexplained neurological symptoms is an important contributor to their often poor acceptance, and there has been recent debate on proposals to change the name from conversion disorder. There have been multiple studies of layperson and clinician preference and this article aimed to review these. Multiple databases were searched using terms including "conversion disorder" and "terminology", and relative preferences for the terms extracted. Seven articles were found which looked at clinician or layperson preferences for terminology for unexplained neurological symptoms. Most neurologists favoured terms such as "functional" and "psychogenic", while laypeople were comfortable with "functional" but viewed "psychogenic" as more offensive; "non-epileptic/organic" was relatively popular with both groups. "Functional" is a term that is relatively popular with both clinicians and the public. It also meets more of the other criteria proposed for an acceptable label than other popular terms - however the views of neither psychiatrists nor actual patients with the disorder were considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurofeedback for Tinnitus Treatment - Review and Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntensperger, Dominik; Thüring, Christian; Meyer, Martin; Neff, Patrick; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    An effective treatment to completely alleviate chronic tinnitus symptoms has not yet been discovered. However, recent developments suggest that neurofeedback (NFB), a method already popular in the treatment of other psychological and neurological disorders, may provide a suitable alternative. NFB is a non-invasive method generally based on electrophysiological recordings and visualizing of certain aspects of brain activity as positive or negative feedback that enables patients to voluntarily control their brain activity and thus triggers them to unlearn typical neural activity patterns related to tinnitus. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss previous findings of neurofeedback treatment studies in the field of chronic tinnitus. In doing so, also an overview about the underlying theories of tinnitus emergence is presented and results of resting-state EEG and MEG studies summarized and critically discussed. To date, neurofeedback as well as electrophysiological tinnitus studies lack general guidelines that are crucial to produce more comparable and consistent results. Even though neurofeedback has already shown promising results for chronic tinnitus treatment, further research is needed in order to develop more sophisticated protocols that are able to tackle the individual needs of tinnitus patients more specifically.

  15. Neurofeedback for Tinnitus Treatment – Review and Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Güntensperger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective treatment to completely alleviate chronic tinnitus symptoms has not yet been discovered. However, recent developments suggest that neurofeedback (NFB, a method already popular in the treatment of other psychological and neurological disorders, may provide a suitable alternative. NFB is a non-invasive method generally based on electrophysiological recordings and visualizing of certain aspects of brain activity as positive or negative feedback that enables patients to voluntarily control their brain activity and thus triggers them to unlearn typical neural activity patterns related to tinnitus. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss previous findings of neurofeedback treatment studies in the field of chronic tinnitus. In doing so, also an overview about the underlying theories of tinnitus emergence is presented and results of resting-state EEG and MEG studies summarized and critically discussed. To date, neurofeedback as well as electrophysiological tinnitus studies lack general guidelines that are crucial to produce more comparable and consistent results. Even though neurofeedback has already shown promising results for chronic tinnitus treatment, further research is needed in order to develop more sophisticated protocols that are able to tackle the individual needs of tinnitus patients more specifically.

  16. Neurofeedback for Tinnitus Treatment – Review and Current Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntensperger, Dominik; Thüring, Christian; Meyer, Martin; Neff, Patrick; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    An effective treatment to completely alleviate chronic tinnitus symptoms has not yet been discovered. However, recent developments suggest that neurofeedback (NFB), a method already popular in the treatment of other psychological and neurological disorders, may provide a suitable alternative. NFB is a non-invasive method generally based on electrophysiological recordings and visualizing of certain aspects of brain activity as positive or negative feedback that enables patients to voluntarily control their brain activity and thus triggers them to unlearn typical neural activity patterns related to tinnitus. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss previous findings of neurofeedback treatment studies in the field of chronic tinnitus. In doing so, also an overview about the underlying theories of tinnitus emergence is presented and results of resting-state EEG and MEG studies summarized and critically discussed. To date, neurofeedback as well as electrophysiological tinnitus studies lack general guidelines that are crucial to produce more comparable and consistent results. Even though neurofeedback has already shown promising results for chronic tinnitus treatment, further research is needed in order to develop more sophisticated protocols that are able to tackle the individual needs of tinnitus patients more specifically. PMID:29249959

  17. Review of current status of LWR safety research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tasaburo; Mishima, Yoshitsugu; Ando, Yoshio; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Takashima, Yoichi.

    1977-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission has exerted efforts on the research of the safety of nuclear plants in Japan, and ''Nuclear plant safety research committees'' was established in August 1974, which is composed of the government and the people. The philosophy of safety research, research and development plan, the forwarding procedure of the plan, international cooperation, for example LOFT program, and the effective feed back of the experimental results concerning nuclear safety are reviewed in this paper at first. As for the safety of nuclear reactors the basic philosophy that radio active fission products are contained in fuel or reactors with multiple barriers, (defence in depth) and almost no fission product is released outside reactor plants even at the time of hypothetical accident, is kept, and the research and development history and the future plan are described in this paper with the related technical problems. The structural safety is also explained, for example, on the philosophy ''leak before break'', pipe rupture, pipe restraint and stress analysis. The release of radioactive gas and liquid is decreased as the philosophy ''ALAP''. And probability safety evaluation method, LOCA, reactivity, accident and aseismatic design in nuclear plants in Japan are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  18. Current nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nahid; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2012-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative joint disease that has a major impact on joint function and quality of life. Nutraceuticals and dietary supplements derived from herbs have long been used in traditional medicine and there is considerable evidence that nutraceuticals may play an important role in inflammation and joint destruction in OA. We review the biological effects of some medicinal fruits and herbs - pomegranate, green tea, cat's claw, devil's claw, ginger, Indian olibaum, turmeric and ananas - in an attempt to understand the pivotal molecular targets involved in inflammation and the joint destruction process and to summarize their toxicities and efficacy for OA management. So far there is insufficient reliable evidence on the effectiveness of ginger, turmeric and ananas. Pomegranate and green tea only have preclinical evidence of efficacy due to the lack of clinical data. In vivo and clinical studies are required to understand their targets and efficacy in OA. Limited in vitro and in vivo evidence is available for cat's claw and Indian olibaum. More extensive studies are required before long-term controlled trials of whole cat's claw and Indian olibaum extracts, or isolated active compounds, are carried out in patients with OA to determine their long-term efficacy and safety. Devil's claw has not been rigorously tested to determine its antiarthritic potential in in vitro and in vivo models. There is strong clinical evidence of the effectiveness of devil's claw in pain reduction. However, high-quality clinical trials are needed to determine its effectiveness. No serious side effects have been reported for any fruits and herbs. Overall, these studies identify and support the use of nutraceuticals to provide symptomatic relief to patients with OA and to be used as adjunct therapy for OA management. More high-quality trials are needed to provide definitive answers to questions related to their efficacy and safety for OA prevention and

  19. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-09-01

    Neutron detectors are used in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutron detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.

  20. Scrap automotive electronics: A mini-review of current management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life vehicles, together with waste from electric and electronic equipment, are known as an important source of secondary raw materials. For many years, their recovery has allowed the restoring of great amounts of metals for new cars production. This article provides a comprehensive mini-review on the end-of-life vehicles recycling topic between 2000 and 2014, with a particular focus on automotive electronics recycling. In fact, in the last years, experts focused their attention on a better exploitation of automotive shredder residue fraction, but not sufficiently on eventual electronic scraps embedded in it. Hence, studies assessing the value embedded in these scraps are rarely available in literature, causing an important gap in both recycling policies and research. The fact that, at present, the management of electronic control units (the most valuable component among automotive electronic equipment) is, as yet, off the radar in both end-of-life vehicles and waste from electric and electronic equipment Directives demonstrates the theory. Of course, their recycling would not contribute in a relevant way to reach the weighted-based recycling and recovery targets characterising current regulations, but would be very important under a critical raw materials recovery view. Results coming from the literature analysis confirm these assumptions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, D

    2014-01-01

    The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a resounding military success for coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion. The medical legacy we have from the conflict is the poorly understood, yet remarkable, phenomenon of Gulf War Syndrome, which surfaced soon after. Epidemiological research has proven beyond doubt that Gulf War veterans report a wide variety of symptoms, in excess of appropriately matched control subjects, and experience worse general health. Numerous toxic environmental hazards have been suggested as causes of Gulf War Syndrome, yet exhaustive scientific study has failed to provide conclusive proof of any link. No novel or recognised disease has been found to account for the symptomatic burden of veterans, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain. This understanding can be added to from an anthropological perspective, where the narratives of those afflicted provide further insight. The nature of military life was changing at the time of the Gulf War, challenging the identity and beliefs of some veterans and causing socio-cultural distress. The symptomatic presentation of Gulf War Syndrome can be considered an articulation of this disharmony. Gulf War Syndrome can also be considered within the group of post-combat disorders such as shellshock, the like of which have occurred after major wars in the last century. With the current withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Defence Medical Services (DMS) should heed the lessons of history.

  2. Haemodialysis at home: review of current dialysis machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Sabrina; Davenport, Andrew

    2018-04-26

    Only a minority of patients with chronic kidney disease treated by hemodialysis are currently treated at home. Until relatively recently, the only type of hemodialysis machine available for these patients was a slightly smaller version of the standard machines used for in-center dialysis treatments. Areas covered: There are now an alternative generation of dialysis machines specifically designed for home hemodialysis. The home dialysis patient wants a smaller machine, which is intuitive to use, easy to trouble shoot, robust and reliable, quick to setup and put away, requiring minimal waste disposal. The machines designed for home dialysis have some similarities in terms of touch-screen patient interfaces, and using pre-prepared cartridges to speed up setting up the machine. On the other hand, they differ in terms of whether they use slower or standard dialysate flows, prepare batches of dialysis fluid, require separate water purification equipment, or whether this is integrated, or use pre-prepared sterile bags of dialysis fluid. Expert commentary: Dialysis machine complexity is one of the hurdles reducing the number of patients opting for home hemodialysis and the introduction of the newer generation of dialysis machines designed for ease of use will hopefully increase the number of patients opting for home hemodialysis.

  3. A review of current challenges for the identification of gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigley, James E.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of treated and synthetic gem materials are encountered today in the jewelry marketplace in increasing quantities. Although normally entering into the market with correct information, in some cases these materials are sold with incorrect or inaccurate information on their identity. In some cases, they exhibit appearances that correspond closely to those of valuable untreated, natural gemstones. Although they can display certain distinctive gemological characteristics, some treated and synthetic gem materials can be difficult for jewelers to recognize, especially when these individuals lack gemological training and access to standard gem-testing methods and equipment. In such instances, testing by a professional gemological laboratory may be required. Accurate gem identification and complete information disclosure are essential in the jewelry trade to maintain both the commercial value of natural gemstones and the confidence among consumers who are considering gemstone purchases. The goal of most current gemological research is to provide practical means of gem identification for jewelers and gemologists to help insure integrity in the international gemstone trade. To support this goal, research on gem materials increasingly relies upon characterization with modern analytical tools such as chemical analysis, various spectroscopy methods, and other scientific techniques.

  4. Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding the aetiology of adult disease, and there is now significant evidence that links patterns of infant feeding to differences in health outcomes, both in the short and longer term. Breastfeeding is associated with lower rates of infection in infancy; in high-income populations, it is associated with reductions in blood pressure and total blood cholesterol, and lower risks of obesity and diabetes in adult life. Breastfeeding rates are suboptimal in many countries, and strategies to promote breastfeeding could therefore confer important benefits for health at a population level. However, there are particular challenges in defining nutritional exposures in infancy, including marked social gradients in initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In recent studies of low and middle-income populations of children and young adults, where the influences on infant feeding practice differ, beneficial effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, BMI and risk of diabetes have not been confirmed, and further information is needed. Little is currently known about the long-term consequences of differences in the timing and nature of the weaning diet. Future progress will depend on new studies that provide detailed prospective data on duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding together with appropriate characterisation of the weaning diet.

  5. Metal-enhanced luminescence: Current trend and future perspectives- A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Esimbekova, Elena N.; Kirillova, Maria A.; Kratasyuk, Valentina A.

    2017-01-01

    Optically enhanced biosensing strategies are prerequisites for developing miniature and highly sensitive multiplexed analytical platforms. Such smart biosensing systems are highly promising for use in the fields of biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Optical signal enhancement during bioassays is attributed to the complex opto-electronic interactions of incoming photonic signals at the nanomaterial interface. Research on the use of metals other than gold and silver for such purposes tends to extend the spectral window to observe luminescence enhancement effects. Such manifold increase in luminescence may be explained by the principles of plasmon coupling, directional emission led high collection efficiency, Rayleigh scattering and related opto-electronic events. The present review begins with a mechanistic description of important phenomena associated with metal-induced luminescence enhancement, particularly focusing on the origin of metal-enhanced luminescence. This review further analyses the hybrid nanostructure capabilities responsible for maintaining unique opto-electronic properties during bio-functionalisation. Current research trends in this area, future scope of this field for designing useful bioassays and concluding remarks are then discussed. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials significantly differ from their bulk counterparts. • Strong and pronounced photophysical effects at the metal surface provide opportunities for designing novel biosensors. • Metal-enhanced luminescence increases the quantum yield of luminescent reactions. • Under optimal conditions, plasmon coupling enhances the optical effects at the nanometal surface.

  6. Metal-enhanced luminescence: Current trend and future perspectives- A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Rajeev [Laboratory of Bioluminescent Biotechnologies, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Esimbekova, Elena N., E-mail: esimbekova@yandex.ru [Laboratory of Bioluminescent Biotechnologies, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS”, Akademgorodok 50/50, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Kirillova, Maria A. [Laboratory of Bioluminescent Biotechnologies, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Kratasyuk, Valentina A. [Laboratory of Bioluminescent Biotechnologies, Department of Biophysics, Institute of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology, Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS”, Akademgorodok 50/50, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-08

    Optically enhanced biosensing strategies are prerequisites for developing miniature and highly sensitive multiplexed analytical platforms. Such smart biosensing systems are highly promising for use in the fields of biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Optical signal enhancement during bioassays is attributed to the complex opto-electronic interactions of incoming photonic signals at the nanomaterial interface. Research on the use of metals other than gold and silver for such purposes tends to extend the spectral window to observe luminescence enhancement effects. Such manifold increase in luminescence may be explained by the principles of plasmon coupling, directional emission led high collection efficiency, Rayleigh scattering and related opto-electronic events. The present review begins with a mechanistic description of important phenomena associated with metal-induced luminescence enhancement, particularly focusing on the origin of metal-enhanced luminescence. This review further analyses the hybrid nanostructure capabilities responsible for maintaining unique opto-electronic properties during bio-functionalisation. Current research trends in this area, future scope of this field for designing useful bioassays and concluding remarks are then discussed. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials significantly differ from their bulk counterparts. • Strong and pronounced photophysical effects at the metal surface provide opportunities for designing novel biosensors. • Metal-enhanced luminescence increases the quantum yield of luminescent reactions. • Under optimal conditions, plasmon coupling enhances the optical effects at the nanometal surface.

  7. A Technological Review of the Instrumented Footwear for Rehabilitation with a Focus on Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maculewicz, Justyna; Kofoed, Lise; Serafin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize systems for gait rehabilitation based on instrumented footwear and present a context of their usage in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients’ auditory and haptic rehabilitation. We focus on the needs of PD patients, but since only a few systems were made with this......In this review article, we summarize systems for gait rehabilitation based on instrumented footwear and present a context of their usage in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients’ auditory and haptic rehabilitation. We focus on the needs of PD patients, but since only a few systems were made...

  8. Oral health and orofacial pain in older people with dementia: a systematic review with focus on dental hard tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwel, Suzanne; Binnekade, Tarik T; Perez, Roberto S G M; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Scherder, Erik J A; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a systematic overview including a quality assessment of studies about oral health and orofacial pain in older people with dementia, compared to older people without dementia. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. The following search terms were used: dementia and oral health or stomatognathic disease. The quality assessment of the included articles was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The search yielded 527 articles, of which 37 were included for the quality assessment and quantitative overview. The median NOS score of the included studies was 5, and the mean was 4.9 (SD 2.2). The heterogeneity between the studies was considered too large to perform a meta-analysis. An equivalent prevalence of orofacial pain, number of teeth present, decayed missing filled teeth index, edentulousness percentage, and denture use was found for both groups. However, the presence of caries and retained roots was higher in older people with dementia than in those without. Older people with dementia have worse oral health, with more retained roots and coronal and root caries, when compared to older people without dementia. Little research focused on orofacial pain in older people with dementia. The current state of oral health in older people with dementia could be improved with oral care education of caretakers and regular professional dental care.

  9. Energy conversion and concentration in a high-current gaseous discharge: Dense plasma spheromak in plasma focus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.; Terentiev, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which verify the possibility of the self-generated transformation of the magnetic field in plasma focus discharges to give a closed, spheromak-like magnetic configuration (SLMC). The energy conversion mechanism suggests a possibility of further concentrating the plasma power density by means of natural compressing the SLMC-trapped plasma by the residual magnetic field of the plasma focus discharge

  10. Nuclear power systems: Their safety. Current issue review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1994-04-01

    Human beings utilize energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. A number of countries have chosen nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy system. At the end of 1992, there were 419 power reactors operating in 29 countries, accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, 13 countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with Lithuania leading at just over 78%, followed closely by France at 72%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 53 power reactors are under construction in 14 countries outside the former USSR. Within the ex-USSR countries, six new reactors are currently under construction. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether of not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986 in the then Soviet Union, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. Subsequent opening of the ex-Soviet nuclear power program to outside scrutiny has done little to calm people's concerns about the safety of nuclear power in that part of the world. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents that have occurred to date, as well as more recent, less dramatic events touching on the safety issue. (author). 7 refs

  11. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics.

  12. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolyniak MJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Wolyniak,1 Lynne T Bemis,2 Amy J Prunuske2 1Department of Biology, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney, VA, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. Keywords: genetics education, medical genetics, pedagogical practice, active learning, problem-based learning

  13. Improving medical students’ knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student’s critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. PMID:26604852

  14. A review of mild traumatic brain injury diagnostics: current perspectives, limitations, and emerging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Glen A; Hawley, Jason S

    2014-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a common battlefield and in-garrison injury caused by transmission of mechanical forces to the head. The energy transferred in such events can cause structural and/or functional changes in the brain that manifest as focal neurological, cognitive, or behavioral dysfunction. Current diagnostic criteria for mTBI are highly limited, variable, and based on subjective self-report. The subjective nature of the symptoms, both in quantity and quality, together with their large overlap in other physical and behavioral maladies, limit the clinician's ability to accurately diagnose, treat, and make prognostic decisions after such injuries. These diagnostic challenges are magnified in an operational environment as well. The Department of Defense has invested significant resources into improving the diagnostic tools and accuracy for mTBI. This focus has been to supplement the clinician's examination with technology that is better able to objectify brain dysfunction after mTBI. Through this review, we discuss the current state of three promising technologies--soluble protein biomarkers, advanced neuroimaging, and quantitative electroencephalography--that are of particular interest within military medicine. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Intercultural Communicative Competence: A Brief Review of Current Thinking and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kermani Kojour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to review current thinking and understanding of the issue of Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC especially in foreign language education contexts. There are serious stances on the part of scholars in foreign language contexts, which must be given some serious thinking and consideration in order to uncover the hidden agendas regarding ICC. After all, it seems still unclear in English as a Foreign Language (EFL contexts whether to try to improve the way of thinking regarding the perspective of current intercultural communicative competence, whether there should be a separation of the cultural values from the target language and only integrate language learners’ native culture with the target language. Given the development of technology and globalization, what is the right thing to do? This is a serious issue which needs much attention and contemplation by the interested scholars. By presenting the existing gaps in the literature, the paper maneuvers on the challenging notes on benefiting from culture in English Language Teaching (ELT and, on the other hand, dividing language and culture by merely elaborating on the communicative aspect of language learning and teaching. The study puts the audience into question that although recent views are focusing on taking English as an international means of communication, there exist serious beliefs regarding the separation of language and culture, which demands more thinking and probably serious revisions.

  16. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  17. Cost estimation for decommissioning: a review of current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; Pescatore, C.

    2009-01-01

    inventory, decontamination and waste disposal. Several countries look for cost reduction possibilities through waste minimization processes. Consideration should be given to developing upgraded decommissioning management systems to deal with latest developments, data quality, completeness and safety, while offering flexibility in data processing and cost calculations. Regular interaction between system developers and users is necessary to develop the inventory and maintain user friendliness. Current good practices include the use of a standardised list of decommissioning activities, a strong quality-assurance programme, use of a dedicated decommissioning core group during the planning phase of decommissioning, and involvement of regulators and stakeholders in the drafting of decommissioning plans

  18. Breaking the Mold: A Review of Mucormycosis and Current Pharmacological Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Treavor T; Muzny, Christina A; Swiatlo, Edwin; Legendre, Davey P

    2016-09-01

    To review the current literature for the pathogenesis of mucormycosis, discuss diagnostic strategies, and evaluate the efficacy of polyenes, triazoles, and echinocandins as pharmacological treatment options. An electronic literature search was conducted in PubMed using the MESH terms Rhizopus, zygomycetes, zygomycosis, Mucorales and mucormycosis, with search terms amphotericin B, micafungin, anidulafungin, caspofungin, extended infusion amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, combination therapy, triazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, diagnosis, and clinical manifestations. Studies written in the English language from January 1960 to March 2016 were considered for this review article. All search results were reviewed, and the relevance of each article was determined by the authors independently. Mucormycosis is a rare invasive fungal infection with an exceedingly high mortality and few therapeutic options. It has a distinct predilection for invasion of endothelial cells in the vascular system, which is likely important in dissemination of disease from a primary focus of infection. Six distinct clinical syndromes can occur in susceptible hosts, including rhino-orbital-cerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cutaneous, widely disseminated, and miscellaneous infection. Diagnosis of mucormycosis is typically difficult to make based on imaging studies, sputum culture, bronchoalveolar lavage culture, or needle aspirate. Surgical debridement prior to dissemination of infection improves clinical outcomes. Surgery combined with early, high-dose systemic antifungal therapy yields greater than a 1.5-fold increase in survival rates. The Mucorales are inherently resistant to most widely used antifungal agents. Amphotericin B is appropriate for empirical therapy, whereas posaconazole and isavuconazole are best reserved for de-escalation, refractory cases, or patients intolerant to amphotericin B. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Oral hygiene and oral health in older people with dementia: a comprehensive review with focus on oral soft tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delwel, S.; Binnekade, T.T.; Perez, Roberto; Hertogh, Cees M. P. M.; Scherder, Erik; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of older people with dementia and a natural dentition is growing. Recently, a systematic review concerning the oral health of older people with dementia with the focus on diseases of oral hard tissues was published. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive literature overview

  20. Expanding Capacity and Promoting Inclusion in Introductory Computer Science: A Focus on Near-Peer Mentor Preparation and Code Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon-Barry, Heather; Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; St. John, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    A dilemma within computer science departments is developing sustainable ways to expand capacity within introductory computer science courses while remaining committed to inclusive practices. Training near-peer mentors for peer code review is one solution. This paper describes the preparation of near-peer mentors for their role, with a focus on…

  1. Obesity: a systematic review on parental involvement in long-term European childhood weight control interventions with a nutritional focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruk, Joke; Kortekaas, F.; Lucas, Cees; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood

  2. Experiments investigating the effects of the accelerating gap voltage pulse on the ion focused (IFR) high current electron recirculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Bennett, L.F.; Olson, W.R.; Turman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Wells, J.

    1991-01-01

    The lifetime of the Ion Focusing Regime (IFR) channel following the pulsing of the post-accelerating gaps is critical for an open-ended, spiral recirculating electron linear accelerator. It dictates the number of allowable beam recirculations through the gap. In the case of a racetrack configuration, it is significant but not as critical, since the presence of the electron beam focuses the ions and lengthens the lifetime of the ion channel. It was established that pulsing the accelerating gap perturbs the IFR channel. However, for the parameters studied, the lifetime is long enough to allow at least four beam recirculations in a spiral device. In addition, cusp fields positioned upstream and downstream from the gap prevent it from perturbing the IFR channel. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Experiments investigating the effects of the accelerating gap voltage pulse on the ion focused (IFR) high current electron recirculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Bennett, L.F.; Olson, W.R. Turnman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Wells, J.

    1991-01-01

    The lifetime of the Ion Focusing Regime (IFR) channel following the pulsing of the post-accelerating gaps is critical for an open-ended, spiral recirculating electron linear accelerator. It dictates the number of allowable beam recirculations through the gap. In the case of a racetrack configuration, its is significant but not as critical, since the presence of the electron beam focuses the ions and lengthens the lifetime of the ion channel. It was established that pulsing the accelerating gap perturbs the IFR channel. However, for the parameters studied, the lifetime is long enough to allow at least four beam recirculations in a spiral device. In addition, cusp fields positioned upstream and downstream from the gap prevent it from perturbing the IFR channel

  4. Novel methods to optimize the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a systematic review of transcranial direct current stimulation patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavera, Alejandra; Vasquez, Alejandra; Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that has been extensively studied. While there have been initial positive results in some clinical trials, there is still variability in tDCS results. The aim of this article is to review and discuss patents assessing novel methods to optimize the use of tDCS. A systematic review was performed using Google patents database with tDCS as the main technique, with patents filling date between 2010 and 2015. Twenty-two patents met our inclusion criteria. These patents attempt to address current tDCS limitations. Only a few of them have been investigated in clinical trials (i.e., high-definition tDCS), and indeed most of them have not been tested before in human trials. Further clinical testing is required to assess which patents are more likely to optimize the effects of tDCS. We discuss the potential optimization of tDCS based on these patents and the current experience with standard tDCS.

  5. Fundamental principles in bacterial physiology—history, recent progress, and the future with focus on cell size control: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Suckjoon; Si, Fangwei; Pugatch, Rami; Scott, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    Bacterial physiology is a branch of biology that aims to understand overarching principles of cellular reproduction. Many important issues in bacterial physiology are inherently quantitative, and major contributors to the field have often brought together tools and ways of thinking from multiple disciplines. This article presents a comprehensive overview of major ideas and approaches developed since the early 20th century for anyone who is interested in the fundamental problems in bacterial physiology. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part (sections 1–3), we review the first ‘golden era’ of bacterial physiology from the 1940s to early 1970s and provide a complete list of major references from that period. In the second part (sections 4–7), we explain how the pioneering work from the first golden era has influenced various rediscoveries of general quantitative principles and significant further development in modern bacterial physiology. Specifically, section 4 presents the history and current progress of the ‘adder’ principle of cell size homeostasis. Section 5 discusses the implications of coarse-graining the cellular protein composition, and how the coarse-grained proteome ‘sectors’ re-balance under different growth conditions. Section 6 focuses on physiological invariants, and explains how they are the key to understanding the coordination between growth and the cell cycle underlying cell size control in steady-state growth. Section 7 overviews how the temporal organization of all the internal processes enables balanced growth. In the final section 8, we conclude by discussing the remaining challenges for the future in the field.

  6. Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg Evelyne, C. C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light

  7. Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

  8. Response to 'Comment on 'Pinch current limitation effect in plasma focus'' [Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 076101 (2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Saw, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    The main point of the comment [Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 076101 (2009)] is that Eq. (2) and consequentially Eq. (3) of the commented paper [Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021503 (2008)] require correction. The alternative equation suggested in the comment is derived using Kirchhoff's voltage rule. The comment consider only the energy distribution in the inductive components and the resultant equation confirms a progressive lowering of the I pinch /I peak ratio as the static inductance L 0 is reduced, lowering from 0.87 to 0.31 as L 0 is reduced from 100 to 5 nH according to the revised formula corresponding to Eq. (3), compared to 0.63-0.25 according to Eq. (3). This progressive lowering of the ratio I pinch /I peak due to the inductive energy distribution is one of two factors responsible for the pinch current limitation. The other factor is the progressive reduction in the L-C interaction time compared to the current dip duration denoted by δ cap in Eq. (2). The comment does not deal with δ cap at all; hence, its conclusion based on inductive energy distribution only is not useful, since in the low L 0 region when pinch current limitation begins to manifest, δ cap becomes more and more the dominant factor. In any case, the results of the paper do not depend on Eqs. (2) and (3), which are used in the paper only for illustrative purposes

  9. L5 spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis: a comprehensive review with an anatomic focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Paul; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Watanabe, Koichi; Conklin, Michael; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-02-01

    Spondylolysis is most commonly observed in the lumbar spine, particularly L5, and is associated with spondylolisthesis, or anterior "slippage" of a vertebra in relation to an adjacent vertebra. Isthmic spondylolisthesis is the result of a pars interarticularis defect and will be the only type of spondylolisthesis addressed in this review. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis represent a relatively common cause of low back pain, especially in young athletes, and a less common cause of neurologic compromise. When discovered in a symptomatic patient with corroborating imaging findings, early intervention provides an excellent prognosis. Herein, we review the anatomy and pathology of spondylosis and spondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra.

  10. Cultural and Ethnic Bias in Teacher Ratings of Behavior: A Criterion-Focused Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin A.; Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Ney, Emilie A.

    2014-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are indirect measures of emotional and social functioning used for assessment purposes. Rater bias is systematic error that may compromise the validity of behavior rating scale scores. Teacher bias in ratings of behavior has been investigated in multiple studies, but not yet assessed in a research synthesis that focuses on…

  11. A Comparative Review of a Dozen National Energy Plans. Focus on Renewable and Efficient Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); James, Ted L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Dozens of groups have submitted energy, environmental, and economic recovery plans for consideration by the Obama administration and the 111th Congress. This report provides a comparative analysis of 12 national proposals, focusing especially on energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) market and policy issues.

  12. Comparative Review of a Dozen National Energy Plans: Focus on Renewable and Efficient Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; James, T. L.

    2009-03-01

    Dozens of groups have submitted energy, environmental, and economic recovery plans for consideration by the Obama administration and the 111th Congress. This report provides a comparative analysis of 12 national proposals, focusing especially on energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) market and policy issues.

  13. Enhancing Breastfeeding Rates Among African American Women: A Systematic Review of Current Psychosocial Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601

  14. Psychosocial factors and their role in chronic pain: A brief review of development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes Stanley I

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The belief that pain is a direct result of tissue damage has dominated medical thinking since the mid 20th Century. Several schools of psychological thought proffered linear causal models to explain non-physical pain observations such as phantom limb pain and the effects of placebo interventions. Psychological research has focused on identifying those people with acute pain who are at risk of transitioning into chronic and disabling pain, in the hope of producing better outcomes. Several multicausal Cognitive Behavioural models dominate the research landscape in this area. They are gaining wider acceptance and some aspects are being integrated and implemented into a number of health care systems. The most notable of these is the concept of Yellow Flags. The research to validate the veracity of such programs has not yet been established. In this paper I seek to briefly summarize the development of psychological thought, both past and present, then review current cognitive-behavioural models and the available supporting evidence. I conclude by discussing these factors and identifying those that have been shown to be reliable predictors of chronicity and those that may hold promise for the future.

  15. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  17. Review and Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection at the Community Level in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn; Kompor, Ponthip; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Norkaew, Jun; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Rujirakul, Ratana; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Pholsripradit, Poowadol; Eksanti, Thawatchai; Phatisena, Tanida; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is remains a public health problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions which have the highest incidences of chonalgiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini causes the disease opithorchiasis, and its has been classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen. Humans, dogs, and cats become infected with O. viverrini by ingesting raw or undercooked fish containing infective metacercariae. The first human cases of O. viverrini infection were reported in Thailand 100 years ago, and it's still a problem at the community level. Based on data for the year 2009, more than 6 million people were infected with O. viverrini. Associated medical care and loss of wages in Thailand costs about $120 million annually. This review highlights the current status of O. viverrini infection in communities of Thailand through active surveillance for the five years period from 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 community-based surveys were conducted, most in the northeast region. Some 7 surveys demonstrated a high prevalence over 20%, and the highest was 45.7%. Most commonly infection was found in age group of 35 years and older, males, and agricultural workers. Although, the national prevalence may be decreasing but the results show that the O. viverrini infection is still high in communities of the northeast region. Therefore, the focus in populations living in northeast Thailand should be screening of infection and changing their eating behavior.

  18. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  19. Review: Animal model and the current understanding of molecule dynamics of adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, C F; Duarte, M S; Guimarães, S E F; Verardo, L L; Wei, S; Du, M; Jiang, Z; Bergen, W G; Hausman, G J; Fernyhough-Culver, M; Albrecht, E; Dodson, M V

    2016-06-01

    Among several potential animal models that can be used for adipogenic studies, Wagyu cattle is the one that presents unique molecular mechanisms underlying the deposit of substantial amounts of intramuscular fat. As such, this review is focused on current knowledge of such mechanisms related to adipose tissue deposition using Wagyu cattle as model. So abundant is the lipid accumulation in the skeletal muscles of these animals that in many cases, the muscle cross-sectional area appears more white (adipose tissue) than red (muscle fibers). This enhanced marbling accumulation is morphologically similar to that seen in numerous skeletal muscle dysfunctions, disease states and myopathies; this might indicate cross-similar mechanisms between such dysfunctions and fat deposition in Wagyu breed. Animal models can be used not only for a better understanding of fat deposition in livestock, but also as models to an increased comprehension on molecular mechanisms behind human conditions. This revision underlies some of the complex molecular processes of fat deposition in animals.

  20. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applied to hepato-bilio-pancreatic and the digestive system—current state of the art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Michele; Schiraldi, Luigi; Liu, Yu-Yin; Memeo, Riccardo; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a valid minimally-invasive image-guided treatment of malignancies. We aimed to review to current state of the art of HIFU therapy applied to the digestive system and discuss some promising avenues of the technology. Methods Pertinent studies were identified through PubMed and Embase search engines using the following keywords, combined in different ways: HIFU, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, colon, rectum, and cancer. Experimental proof of the concept of endoluminal HIFU mucosa/submucosa ablation using a custom-made transducer has been obtained in vivo in the porcine model. Results Forty-four studies reported on the clinical use of HIFU to treat liver lesions, while 19 series were found on HIFU treatment of pancreatic cancers and four studies included patients suffering from both liver and pancreatic cancers, reporting on a total of 1,682 and 823 cases for liver and pancreas, respectively. Only very limited comparative prospective studies have been reported. Conclusions Digestive system clinical applications of HIFU are limited to pancreatic and liver cancer. It is safe and well tolerated. The exact place in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) management algorithm remains to be defined. HIFU seems to add clear survival advantages over trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) alone and similar results when compared to radio frequency (RF). For pancreatic cancer, HIFU achieves consistent cancer-related pain relief. Further research is warranted to improve targeting accuracy and efficacy monitoring. Furthermore, additional work is required to transfer this technology on appealing treatments such as endoscopic HIFU-based therapies. PMID:27500145

  1. Application of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Writing Assignments to Enhance Experiments with an Environmental Chemistry Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Lawrence D.; Gulsrud, Maren; Manlapez, Ronald; Rebong, Rachelle; Love, Austin

    2007-01-01

    The browser-based software program, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) developed by the Molecular Science Project enables instructors to create structured writing assignments in which students learn by writing and reading for content. Though the CPR project covers only one experiment in general chemistry, it might provide lab instructors with a method…

  2. A review of factors explaining variability in fentanyl pharmacokinetics; focus on implications for cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuip, E.J.M.; Zandvliet, M.L.; Koolen, S.L.; Mathijssen, R.H.; Rijt, C.C. van der

    2017-01-01

    Fentanyl is a strong opioid that is available for various administration routes, and which is widely used to treat cancer-related pain. Many factors influence the fentanyl pharmacokinetics leading to a wide inter- and intrapatient variability. This systematic review summarizes multiple studied

  3. Reviewing Employee Turnover: Focusing on Proximal Withdrawal States and an Expanded Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Peter W.; Mitchell, Terence R.; Lee, Thomas W.; Griffeth, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    We reconceptualize employee turnover to promote researchers' understanding and prediction of why employees quit or stay in employing institutions. A literature review identifies shortcomings with prevailing turnover dimensions. In response, we expand the conceptual domain of the turnover criterion to include multiple types of turnover (notably,…

  4. Applications of Temperament: A Review of Caregiver-Focused Temperament-Driven Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Sydney L.; Gartstein, Maria A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Temperament, often defined in terms of reactive and regulatory tendencies, has been shown to predict child outcomes over and above other risk factors and represents a critical aspect of social-emotional development. The present article is a systematic review of temperament-based interventions targeting caregivers, wherein the…

  5. Polysomnographic sleep disturbances in nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and cannabis use: A focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexandra N; Salloum, Ihsan M

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, approximately 60 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders and about 22 million Americans report substance dependence or use disorders annually. Sleep disturbances are common consequences of substance use disorders and are likely found in primary care as well as in specialty practices. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of the most frequently used substances-nicotine, alcohol, opioids, cocaine, caffeine, and cannabis-have on sleep parameters measured by polysomnography (PSG) and related clinical manifestations. We used electronic databases such as PubMED and PsycINFO to search for relevant articles. We only included studies that assessed sleep disturbances using polysomnography and reviewed the effects of these substances on six clinically relevant sleep parameters: Total sleep time, sleep onset latency, rapid-eye movement, REM latency, wake after sleep onset, and slow wave sleep. Our review indicates that these substances have significant impact on sleep and that their effects differ during intoxication, withdrawal, and chronic use. Many of the substance-induced sleep disturbances overlap with those encountered in sleep disorders, medical, and psychiatric conditions. Sleep difficulties also increase the likelihood of substance use disorder relapse, further emphasizing the need for optimizing treatment interventions in these patients. Our review highlights the importance of systematically screening for substance use in patients with sleep disturbances and highlights the need for further research to understand mechanisms underlying substances-induced sleep disturbances and on effective interventions addressing these conditions. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, K., E-mail: karol.malinowski@ncbj.gov.pl; Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in “sandwiches” of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The “sandwiches” were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  7. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    O?Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Background The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic...

  8. Preconception care of women with diabetes: a review of current guideline recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazza Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM continues to rise worldwide. More women from developing countries who are in the reproductive age group have diabetes resulting in more pregnancies complicated by T2DM, and placing both mother and foetus at higher risk. Management of these risks is best achieved through comprehensive preconception care and glycaemic control, both prior to, and during pregnancy. The aim of this review was to compare the quality and content of current guidelines concerned with the preconception care of women with diabetes and to develop a summary of recommendations to assist in the management of diabetic women contemplating pregnancy. Methods Relevant clinical guidelines were identified through a search of several databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS and The Cochrane Library and relevant websites. Five guidelines were identified. Each guideline was assessed for quality using the AGREE instrument. Guideline recommendations were extracted, compared and contrasted. Results All guidelines were assessed as being of high quality and strongly recommended for use in practice. All were consistent in counselling about the risk of congenital malformation related to uncontrolled blood sugar preconceptionally, ensuring adequate contraception until glycaemic control is achieved, use of HBA1C to monitor metabolic control, when to commence insulin and switching from ACE inhibitors to other antihypertensives. Major differences were in the targets recommended for optimal metabolic control and opinion regarding the usage of metformin as an adjunct or alternative treatment before or during pregnancy. Conclusions International guidelines for the care of women with diabetes who are contemplating pregnancy are consistent in their recommendations; however some are more comprehensive than others. Having established current standards for the preconception care of diabetic women, there is now a need to focus on guideline

  9. Should We Formulate an Incentivized Model Facilitating Kidney Donation from Living Donors? A Focus on Turkey's Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ercan

    2018-04-23

    Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations. In this view, the aim of this paper is to examine kidney trafficking in the scope of Turkey's current organ donation system and propose a new model, named the Incentivized Kidney Donation Model (IKDM), to increase kidney donation from living donors. The model encompasses the following benefits offered to kidney donors; lifetime health insurance, exemptions from copayments/contribution shares, priority when receiving an organ, priority when finding a job, income tax exemptions for salaried employees, and free or discounted public utilities. This normative model has the potential to promote donors' altruistic acts as well as the solidarity and loyalty among members of a society without violating ethical values and internationally accepted principles. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A study on the continuing education of radiologic technologists: Focused on current status and satisfaction of continuing education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Hye Lim; Choi, In Seok; Nam, So Ra; Kim, Hyun Ji; Yoon, Yong Su; Her, Jae; Han, Seong Gyu; Kim, Jung Min; Ahn, Duck Sun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we surveyed the current status, satisfaction and demand of radiologic technologist continuing education for 93 radiologic technologists who participated in the continuing education. To understand the current status and general evaluation and to find out the improvement direction, survey was conducted on 3 categories: participation, satisfaction and demand of continuing education. In addition, we analyzed the continuing education implementation status and the management system by collecting related regulations. As a result, the education completion rates of radiologic technologists from 2010 to 2012 were respectively 42.6%, 43.4% and 34.2%; the rates were similar to other medical technician’s average education completion rates. According to the survey, in case of participation, the most frequent answer was ‘more than five times less than 10 times per year’ with 48.4% and in satisfaction section, the most common answer was ‘Average(3)’ with 34.4%. In demand of continuing education section, 32.8% of the respondents chose ‘Clinical skill training in major field’. In the results of this research, continuing education needs to be managed in the direction of helping radiologists improve their personal ability and self development. Furthermore, to meet the demand of radiologists, the quality of continuing education should be improved to satisfy the educatee

  11. Compression of Morbidity 1980–2011: A Focused Review of Paradigms and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, James F.; Bruce, Bonnie; Chakravarty, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    The Compression of Morbidity hypothesis—positing that the age of onset of chronic illness may be postponed more than the age at death and squeezing most of the morbidity in life into a shorter period with less lifetime disability—was introduced by our group in 1980. This paper is focused upon the evolution of the concept, the controversies and responses, the supportive multidisciplinary science, and the evolving lines of evidence that establish proof of concept. We summarize data from 20-year...

  12. Obesity: a systematic review on parental involvement in long-term European childhood weight control interventions with a nutritional focus

    OpenAIRE

    Kruk, J J; Kortekaas, F; Lucas, C; Jager-Wittenaar, H

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood weight control interventions. We include European Union studies targeting parents in order to improve children's weight status in multi-component (parental, behaviour change and nutrition) health promo...

  13. Technologies for production of biodiesel focusing on green catalytic techniques: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helwani, Z.; Othman, M.R.; Aziz, N.; Fernando, W.J.N.; Kim, J.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid technological reforms in industries and academia. This has become more obvious and relevant since the recent increase in the petroleum prices and the growing awareness relating to the environmental consequences of the fuel overdependency. In this paper, various technological methods to produce biodiesel being used in industries and academia are reviewed. Catalytic transesterification, the most common method in the production of biofuel, is emphasized in the review. The two most common types of catalysts; homogeneous liquids and heterogeneous solids, are discussed at length in the paper. Two types of processes; batch and continuous processes, are also presented. Although batch production of biodiesel is favored over continuous process in many laboratory and larger scale efforts, the latter is expected to gain wider acceptance in the near future, considering its added advantages associated with higher production capacity and lower operating costs to ensure long term supply of biodiesel. (author)

  14. Focused Review of Perioperative Care of Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension and Proposal of a Perioperative Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppan, Jochen; Diaz-Rodriguez, Natalia; Barodka, Viachaslau M; Nyhan, Daniel; Pullins, Erica; Housten, Traci; Damico, Rachel L; Mathai, Stephen C; Hassoun, Paul M; Berkowitz, Dan E; Maxwell, Bryan G; Kolb, Todd M

    2018-01-15

    Morbidity and mortality risk increase considerably for patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Unfortunately, there are no comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for perioperative evaluation and management of these patients. We present a brief review of the literature on perioperative outcomes for patients with PH and describe the implementation of a collaborative perioperative management program for these high-risk patients at a tertiary academic center.

  15. Rotary science and its impact on instrument separation: A focused review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kar, Prem Prakash; Kamal, Apoorva; Patil, Jayaprakash D.

    2018-01-01

    Efficient endodontic treatment demands thorough debridement of the root canal system with minimal procedural errors. The inherent weakness of nickel–titanium alloys is their unexpected breakage. Modifications in the design, manufacturing, thermomechanical and surface treatment of alloys and advancements in movement kinetics have shown to improve the fatigue properties of the alloys, reducing the incidence of separation. This review enlightens the impact of these factors on fatigue properties of the alloy. PMID:29674810

  16. A Review of Particulate Matter and Health: Focus on Developing Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Panyacosit

    2000-01-01

    The burden of ill human health attributable to particulate air pollution is a critical problem of growing concern. In developing countries it is not uncommon to experience today the same particulate matter levels that characterized the devastating "London fog episodes" of the 1950s which resulted in over 4000 cases of premature mortality and countless cases of exacerbated morbidity related health endpoints. This literature review gives an overview of the situation in developing countries...

  17. Anti-thymocyte globulins in kidney transplantation: focus on current indications and long-term immunological side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamoulid, Jamal; Staeck, Oliver; Crépin, Thomas; Halleck, Fabian; Saas, Philippe; Brakemeier, Susanne; Ducloux, Didier; Budde, Klemens

    2017-10-01

    Antithymocyte globulins (ATGs) are part of the immunosuppression arsenal currently used by clinicians to prevent or treat acute rejection in solid organ transplantation. ATG is a mixture of non-specific anti-lymphocyte immunoglobulins targeting not only T cell subsets but also several other immune and non-immune cells, rendering its precise immunoglobulin composition difficult to appreciate or to compare from one preparation to another. Furthermore, several mechanisms of action have been described. Taken together, this probably explains the efficacy and the side effects associated with this drug. Recent data suggest a long-term negative impact on allograft and patient outcomes, pointing out the need to better characterize the potential toxicity and the benefit-risk balance associated to this immunosuppressive therapy within large clinical trials. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. The regulatory review: general comments, current status of review, identification of critical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigfusson, J.; Franck, E.

    2004-01-01

    Typically, a lot of interesting and important details add up to give a coherent and convincing picture of a safe repository. A good portion of these details must be studied and the scientific basis of the system must be clearly understood by the reviewing authority in order to be able to pass a judgement on the safety case. HSK has already received a large part of the documentation relating to the project, including the three high level documents that summarize the synthesis of the geological information, the demonstration of repository design and construction feasibility and the safety case. After a first look at the contents of the documentation we would like to complement Nagra on the maturity and clarity of the presentation in these reports. At this early stage, we shall not present any review judgements. The reviewer usually is dependent upon having not only the high level documents but also all the detailed reference reports in front of him in order to do his job, and HSK is still receiving very relevant documents. Thus we are still at the very beginning of our review. Here, we offer some comments of general nature about the review process and mention a few points that seem to be uppermost in our mind at this stage. (author)

  19. Communication and decision-making in mental health: A systematic review focusing on Bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alana; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Kiln, Felicity; Juraskova, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    To systematically review studies of communication and decision-making in mental health-based samples including BP patients. Qualitative systematic review of studies using PsychINFO, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and EMBASE (January 2000-March 2015). One author assessed study eligibility, verified by two co-authors. Data were independently extracted by two authors, and cross-checked by another co-author. Two independent raters assessed eligible studies using a validated quality appraisal. Of 519 articles retrieved, 13 studies were included (i.e., 10 quantitative/1 qualitative/1 mixed-methods). All were cross-sectional; twelve were rated good/strong quality (>70%). Four inter-related themes emerged: patient characteristics and patient preferences, quality of patient-clinician interactions, and influence of SDM/patient-centred approach on patient outcomes. Overall BP patients, like others, have unmet decision-making needs, and desire greater involvement. Clinician consultation behaviour influenced patient involvement; interpersonal aspects (e.g., empathy, listening well) fostered therapeutic relationships and positive patient outcomes, including: improved treatment adherence, patient satisfaction with care, and reduced suicidal ideation. This review reveals a paucity of studies reporting bipolar-specific findings. To inform targeted BP interventions, greater elucidation of unmet decision-making needs is needed. Eliciting patient preferences and developing a collaborative therapeutic alliance may be particularly important in BP, promoting improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MR-guided focused ultrasound. Current and future applications; MR-gesteuerter fokussierter Ultraschall. Aktuelle und potenzielle Indikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumm, C.G.; Peller, M.; Clevert, D.A.; Stahl, R.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen-Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Napoli, A. [Sapienza Universitaet Rom, Abteilung fuer Radiologie (Department of Radiological Sciences), MRgFUS and Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Rom (Italy); Matzko, M. [Klinikum Dachau, Abteilung fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Dachau (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (synonyms FUS and HIFU) under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance (synonyms MRgFUS and MR-HIFU) is a completely non-invasive technology for accurate thermal ablation of a target tissue while neighboring tissues and organs are preserved. The combination of FUS with MRI for planning, (near) real-time monitoring and outcome assessment of treatment markedly enhances the safety of the procedure. The MRgFUS procedure is clinically established in particular for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, followed by palliative ablation of painful bone metastases. Furthermore, promising results have been shown for the treatment of adenomyosis, malignant tumors of the prostate, breast and liver and for various intracranial applications, such as thermal ablation of brain tumors, functional neurosurgery and transient disruption of the blood-brain barrier. (orig.) [German] MRT-gesteuerter hochintensiver fokussierter Ultraschall (MRgFUS bzw. MR-HIFU) ist ein nichtinvasives Verfahren zur praezisen Thermoablation eines Zielgewebes. Bei dieser Methode werden benachbarte Gewebe und Organe geschont. Die Kombination des fokussierten Ultraschalls (FUS) mit der MRT zwecks Planung und Monitoring (nahezu) in Echtzeit sowie zur Erfolgskontrolle von Behandlungen traegt wesentlich zur Sicherheit dieser Methode bei. MRgFUS ist klinisch v. a. zur Behandlung von symptomatischen Uterusmyomen etabliert, gefolgt von der palliativen Ablation von Knochenmetastasen. Weitere vielversprechende Anwendungsgebiete des MRgFUS sind die Adenomyose des Uterus, die Behandlung von Prostata-, Mamma- und Lebertumoren sowie der intrakranielle Einsatz. (orig.)

  1. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Antiarrhythmic Medications: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Waseem; Qureshi, Waqas; Farooq, Ali; Sohail, Umair; Khatoon, Salma; Pervaiz, Sarah; Narra, Pratyusha; Hasan, Syeda M; Ali, Farman; Ullah, Aman; Guttmann, Steven

    2017-09-03

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are commonly prescribed cardiac drugs. Due to their receptor mimicry with several of the gastrointestinal tract receptors, they can frequently lead to gastrointestinal side effects. These side effects are the most common reasons for discontinuation of these drugs by the patients. Knowledge of these side effects is important for clinicians that manage antiarrhythmic drugs. This review focuses on the gastrointestinal side effects of these drugs and provides a detailed up-to-date literature review of the side effects of these drugs. The review provides case reports reported in the literature as well as possible mechanisms that lead to gastrointestinal side effects.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of human-environment systems : A review focused on industrial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Wenjie; Heijungs, Reinout; Huppes, Gjalt

    2012-01-01

    The term Anthropocene, which is used by many scientists to refer to the current era, reflects various environmental issues caused by anthropogenic activities. The energy flows and conversions in the anthroposphere and the anthropogenic impacts on the ecosphere, as two major aspects of the physical

  3. The link between motor and cognitive development in children born preterm and/or with low birth weight : A review of current evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Mulder, Hanna; Jongmans, Marian J.; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The current review focuses on evidence for a link between early motor development and later cognitive skills in children born preterm or with Low Birth Weight (LBW). Studies with term born children consistently show such a link. Motor and cognitive impairments or delays are often seen in children

  4. Quality and integration of public health information systems: A systematic review focused on immunization and vital records systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R; Kirk, Hilary M; Issel, L Michele

    2012-01-01

    Public health professionals rely on quantitative data for the daily practice of public health as well as organizational decision making and planning. However, several factors work against effective data sharing among public health agencies in the US. This review characterizes the reported barriers and enablers of effective use of public health IS from an informatics perspective. A systematic review of the English language literature for 2005 to 2011 followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) format. The review focused on immunization information systems (IIS) and vital records information systems (VRIS). Systems were described according to the structural aspects of IS integration and data quality. Articles describing IIS documented issues pertaining to the distribution of the system, the autonomy of the data providers, the heterogeneous nature of information sharing as well as the quality of the data. Articles describing VRIS were focused much more heavily on data quality, particularly whether or not the data were free from errors. For state and local practitioners to effectively utilize data, public health IS will have to overcome the challenges posed by a large number of autonomous data providers utilizing a variety of technologies.

  5. Healing of Achilles tendon partial tear following focused shockwave: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu YC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Chun Hsu,1,* Wei-Ting Wu,2,* Ke-Vin Chang,2–4 Der-Sheng Han,2–4 Li-Wei Chou5–7 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Community and Geriatric Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, 3National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Community and Geriatric Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei, 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, 6Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, 7Department of Rehabilitation, Asia University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Achilles tendinopathy is a common cause of posterior heel pain and can progress to partial tendon tear without adequate treatment. Effects of traditional treatments vary, and many recent reports focus on the use of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT for Achilles tendinopathy but not for Achilles tendon partial tear. Here, we report the case of a 64-year-old female suffering from severe left heel pain for half a year. All treatment and rehabilitation were less effective until ESWT was applied. Each course of focused shockwave therapy included 2500 shots with energy flux density from 0.142 mJ/mm2 to 0.341 mJ/mm2. The visual analog scale decreased from nine to one degree. High-resolution musculoskeletal ultrasonography was performed before and 1 month after the treatment, which revealed healing of the torn region and decrease in inflammation. ESWT had shown to be an alternative treatment for Achilles tendon partial tear under safety procedure and ultrasound observation. Keywords: focused shockwave, Achilles tendon, partial tear, ultrasonography

  6. A Review of Current Machine Learning Techniques Used in Manufacturing Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ademujimi , Toyosi ,; Brundage , Michael ,; Prabhu , Vittaldas ,

    2017-01-01

    Part 6: Intelligent Diagnostics and Maintenance Solutions; International audience; Artificial intelligence applications are increasing due to advances in data collection systems, algorithms, and affordability of computing power. Within the manufacturing industry, machine learning algorithms are often used for improving manufacturing system fault diagnosis. This study focuses on a review of recent fault diagnosis applications in manufacturing that are based on several prominent machine learnin...

  7. Current problems in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer: focus on the role of docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Montemurro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, both from a clinical and a biological point of view. Despite being still incurable, the expanding therapeutic repertoire has determined a progressive increase in median survival. We describe the clinical course of a 67-year-old woman with a locally advanced, hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with synchronous liver metastases. Single-agent docetaxel at the dose of 100 mg/m2 for 8 cycles determined a pathological complete remission in the breast and a near complete remission of liver metastases. After more than 4 years from diagnosis, the patient is alive and without signs of tumour progression. Based on this clinical case, we discuss management issues like the choice of the initial treatment, the use of monochemotherapy vs polychemotherapy, the worth of surgery of the primary tumour in patients with stage IV disease, and the issue of maintenance endocrine therapy. Furthermore, we reviewed the pivotal role of docetaxel in the management of advanced breast cancer. Whether monochemotherapy or polychemotherapy is felt to be an adequate choice in the clinical practice, docetaxel qualifies as one of the most active and manageable agents. Single agent activity ranging from 20-48% in terms of response rate has been reported in several clinical trials in patients treated in various clinical settings. Docetaxel-based combinations with other cytotoxic agents have become established in the first line treatment both in patients with anthracycline-resistant and anthracycline-sensitive metastatic breast cancer. Finally, docetaxel has been shown to be an optimal companion drug for biologically targeted agents like trastuzumab or bevacizumab, resulting in further treatment options.

  8. A Review of the Research in Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Stephanie A; Johnson, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples (EFT) is a brief evidence-based couple therapy based in attachment theory. Since the development of EFT, efficacy and effectiveness research has accumulated to address a range of couple concerns. EFT meets or exceeds the guidelines for classification as an evidence-based couple therapy outlined for couple and family research. Furthermore, EFT researchers have examined the process of change and predictors of outcome in EFT. Future research in EFT will continue to examine the process of change in EFT and test the efficacy and effectiveness of EFT in new applications and for couples of diverse backgrounds and concerns. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. THE CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTUREPERSPE C TIVES OF ARABINOXYLANS PREBIOTICS RESEARCH: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. ZHURLOVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of new physiologically functional ingredients allows us to expand the range of these additives and to attract additional non-traditional sources of raw materials. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth of probiotic microorganisms in the gastro-intestinal tract. The chemical nature of the most prebiotics are carbohydrates nature polymers: dietary fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides. Among non-starch polysaccharides, arabinoxylan (AX, arabinogalactan (AG, and β-glucan are of paramount importance. Arabinoxylans are mainly found in cereals grains, for example, wheat, rye, barley, oat, rice, and sorghum. The current study is a review of literature and authors' own research on biosynthesis, chemical structure, production, physicochemical and physiological properties of arabinoxylans. The structure and molecular weight of AX are vital determinants of their physicochemical, technological and physiological properties. In the article is illustrated in detail the biosynthesis of arabinoxylan in a plant tissue, which makes it possible to understand the formation mechanism of complex structure of these polysaccharides. The main part of cereal grains arabinoxylans are contained mainly in the cell walls of starchy endosperm and the aleurone layer, in the bran tissues, and in the husk of some cereals. The amount of arabinoxylans in a particular tissue depends on the genus and species. However, the degree of branching was found to be lower in arabinoxylans from aleurone than in that from original bran. The molecular structure of arabinoxylans from wheat, rye, and barley is less complex than that from rice, sorghum, finger millet, and maize bran, since their side branches contain, besides the arabinose residues, small amounts of xylopyranose, galactopyranose, and α-Dglucuronic acid or 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic residues.  In the review analyzed methods of obtaining water-soluble and water-unsoluble AX

  10. Evidence-based Peer Review for Radiation Therapy - Updated Review of the Literature with a Focus on Tumour Subsite and Treatment Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, M; Gorayski, P; Poulsen, M; Thompson, K; Pinkham, M B

    2017-10-01

    Technological advances in radiation therapy permit steep dose gradients from the target to spare normal tissue, but increase the risk of geographic miss. Suboptimal target delineation adversely affects clinical outcomes. Prospective peer review is a method for quality assurance of oncologists' radiotherapy plans. Published surveys suggest it is widely implemented. However, it may not be feasible to review every case before commencement of radiation therapy in all departments. The rate of plan changes following peer review of cases without a specific subsite or modality is typically around 10%. Stereotactic body radiation therapy, head and neck, gynaecological, gastrointestinal, haematological and lung cases are associated with higher rates of change of around 25%. These cases could thus be prioritised for peer review. Other factors may limit peer review efficacy including organisational culture, time constraints and the physical environment in which sessions are held. Recommendations for peer review endorsed by the American Society for Radiation Oncology were made available in 2013, but a number of relevant studies have been published since. Here we review and update the literature, and provide an updated suggestion for the implementation of peer review to serve as an adjunct to published guidelines. This may help practitioners evaluate their current processes and maximise the utility and effectiveness of peer review sessions. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of The Corporate Effective Tax Rate in Brazil: A study focusing on ETR and Current ETR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Otávio Monteiro Guimarães

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effective tax rate of public companies operating in stock market in Brazil over a period between 2003 and 2013, both to the total effective tax rate (ETRt as the curren (ETRc, seeking to verify evidence of the presence of tax management. This analysis consists of (i to assess whether average tax burden is upper, equal or less than the statutory rate of 34%; (ii verify that the ETR suffered influence of RTT adjustments arising from the introduction of IFRS; (iii identify proxies (size; profitability; inventory; properties, plants and equipment; debt; and deferred tax expenses which may explain the variation in ETR. The results showed that: (i companies have a significantly lower ETR than the statutory tax rate; (ii companies reported a lower ETR on the full adoption of IFRS period; (iii the ETR has relation to size (negative, debt (positive and components of assets (positive; and (iv there are deferral strategies considering the negative sign of deferred taxes in relation to the current ETR. The results confirm the practice of tax management and also demonstrate that the resulting RTT adjustments resulted in a lower tax burden, confirming previous studies that estimated less conservative earnings after the beginning of the convergence process. Finally, we observed that larger companies have a lower tax burden and that in general companies adopt choices that allow the deferral of taxes on income.

  12. Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karbaschian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied.

  13. Market review - Market values summary/August market review/current market data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This article is the August 1995 uranium market review. During this reporting period, there were three transactions in the long-term concentrates sector, no transactions in the UF6 market, and limited activity in the spot conversion market and the enrichment services market. Active supply rose, as did active demand. Prices were stable to slightly increasing

  14. A review on stem cell therapy for multiple sclerosis: special focus on human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized with axonal loss underlying long-term progressive disability. Currently available therapies for its management are able to slow down the progression but fail to treat it completely. Moreover, these therapies are associated with major CNS and cardiovascular adverse events, and prolonged use of these treatments may cause life-threatening diseases. Recent research has shown that cellular therapies hold a potential for CNS repair and may be able to provide protection from inflammatory damage caused after injury. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) transplantation is one of the promising cell therapies; hESCs play an important role in remyelination and help in preventing demylenation of the axons. In this study, an overview of the current knowledge about the unique properties of hESC and their comparison with other cell therapies has been presented for the treatment of patients with MS.

  15. Dynamics of 120 and 20 kV plasma focus devices with respect to density and current distribution, neutron and X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.; Nahrath, B.; Oppenlaender, T.; Pross, G.; Rueckle, B.; Schmidt, H.; Shakhatre, M.; Trunk, M.

    1976-01-01

    Our experiments have aimed at two goals: 1) better understanding of the dynamics and neutron production of the focus phase and 2) improved scaling of the neutron yield by operating a high voltage focus. 1) For the first goal, experiments with a 30 kJ/ 16 kV plasma focus of the Mather type (NESSI) were performed. The simultaneously applied diagnostics include interferometry, X-ray photography with channel plates, magnetic probes and neutron emission. In the established chronology we can distinguish 5 phases in the development of the plasma focus: a compression phase is followed by a short (8 ns) very dense phase, where the density peaks at a minimum radius (t = 0 in our chronology). The plasma cylinder expands to a relatively long lasting (30 to 70 ns) quiescent phase before instabilities occur. This short unstable phase is followed by a decay phase during which the neutron emission peaks. Important correlations between the plasma parameters and the neutron emission are discussed. 2) Under the assumption that the neutron yield scales with a high power of the current, we concluded that a high voltage focus could result in higher neutron yield as compared with a lower voltage device of the same energy. The proper adjustments of the discharge parameters necessary due to the very short current risetime have been investigated. (orig.) [de

  16. Dynamics of 120 and 20 kV plasma focus devices with respect to density and current distribution, and neutron and X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.; Nahrath, B.; Oppenlaender, T.; Pross, G.; Rueckle, B.; Schmidt, H.; Shakhatre, M.; Trunk, M.

    1977-01-01

    The experiments had two goals: (1) Better understanding of the dynamics and neutron production of the focus phase and (2) improved scaling of the neutron yield by operating a high-voltage focus. For the first goal, experiments with a 30-kJ/16-kV plasma focus of the Mather type (NESSI) were performed. The simultaneously applied diagnostics include interferometry, X-ray photography with channel plates, magnetic probes and scintillator/photomultiplier detectors for measuring hard X-ray and neutron emission. In the established chronology one can distinguish five phases in the development of the plasma focus: A compression phase is followed by a short (8 ns) very dense phase, where the density peaks at a minimum radius (t=0, authors' chronology). The plasma cylinder expands to a relatively long-lasting (30 to 70 ns) quiescent phase before instabilities occur. This short unstable phase is followed by a decay phase during which the neutron emission peaks. Important correlations between the plasma parameters and the neutron emission are discussed. Secondly, on the assumption that the neutron yield scales with a high power of the current, it was concluded that a high-voltage focus could result in higher neutron yield as compared with a lower voltage device of the same energy. The proper adjustments of the discharge parameters necessary due to the very short current risetime were investigated. (author)

  17. Spatial and Time Dynamics of Non-Linear Vortices in Plasma Lens for High-Current Ion Beam Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexei A.; Maslov, Vasyl I.; Onishchenko, Ivan N.; Tretyakov, Vitalij N.

    2002-11-01

    It is known from numerical simulation (see, for example, [1]) and from experiments (see, for example, [2]), that an electron density bunches as discrete vortices are long - living structures in vacuum. However, in laboratory experiments [2] it has been shown that the vortices are changed faster, when they are submersed in electrons, distributed around them. The charged plasma lens intended for a focussing of high-current ion beams, has the same crossed configuration of a radial electrical and longitudinal magnetic field [3], as only electron plasma. In this lens the vortical turbulence is excited [3]. The vortex - bunch and vortex - hole are rotated in the inverse directions in system of their rest. The instability development in initially homogeneous plasma causes that the vortices are excited by pairs. Namely, if the vortex - bunch of electrons is generated, near the vortex - hole of electrons is also generated. It is shown, that in nonuniform plasma the vortices behave is various in time. Namely, the vortex - bunch goes to area of larger electron density, and the vortex - hole goes to area of smaller electron density. The speed of the vortex - hole is less than speed of the vortex - bunch. It is shown, that the electron vortices, generated in the plasma lens, can result in to formation of spiral distribution of electron density. The physical mechanism of coalescence of electron vortices - bunches is proposed. 1.Driscoll C.F. et al. Plasma Phys. Contr. Fus. Res. 3 (1989) 507. 2.Kiwamoto Y. et al. Non-neutral plasma physics. Princeton. 1999. P. 99-105. 3.Goncharov A. et al. Plasma Phys. Rep. 20 (1994) 499.

  18. Supplier Relationship Management: a review focused on Logistics and Production integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele da Silva Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrating information regarding planning, decisions and processes within a focal company and between companies is a primary challenge for many organizations. Both internal (among business functions and external (between suppliers and customers integration aim to maximize the value added to customers and to minimize the required efforts involved in integration. However, identifying which activities demand a higher level of integration among business functions and what the possible results are is not always easy to understand, both within the organization and among their relationships. The purpose of this paper is therefore to understand the integration between Logistics and Production in supplier relationship management (SRM by performing a systematic literature review. A systematic literature review was conducted as a research method of this paper, followed by a critical analysis of the selected works in order to thoroughly identify how these functions participate in the main activities of the SRM process. As a result, it was realized that integrating Logistics and Production may contribute to supplier relationship management by sharing information on strategic supply specifications (time and sequence and also by improving the flow of information/materials to meet quality, quantity, cost and time requirements for the customer.

  19. Anthropogenic radioactivity in aerosol. A review focusing on studies during the 2000s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale injection of huge amounts of any pollutant into the atmosphere has health and environmental impacts, but also provides an opportunity for understanding associated bio-geochemical cycles. Radiologically important, long-lived radionuclides emitted by atmospheric nuclear tests, such as 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and plutonium isotopes, are good examples. These radionuclides remain in the biosphere, although dilution and radioactive decay have mitigated their radiation impact, which is at present negligible compared with natural radiation. Nevertheless, the study of their redistribution over the Earth's surface can enhance understanding of various environmental processes. In this review, available up-to-date information on the source, transport, and deposition of these radionuclides in the atmosphere is collected and these aspects of radionuclides in various global regions are reviewed. In regions adjacent to arid or semi-arid lands, aeolian dust is likely the dominant source of these radionuclides, whereas in northern regions adjacent to contaminated boreal forests, forest fires are a more important source, especially of 137 Cs in air. Understanding of the atmospheric processes responsible for the redistribution of these radionuclides can improve forecast models in various environmental research fields. Future tasks include continued long-term monitoring and data integration with global data consistency and data analysis with modern chemical transport models. (author)

  20. Information Technology in New Zealand: Review of Emerging Social Trends, Current Issues, and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Emre; Fail, Derwyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the general state of information technology in New Zealand society, current issues, and policies. It is a qualitative study that reviews recent scholarly articles, periodicals, and surveys in order to create an understanding of some of the information technology issues and trends in New Zealand. After reviewing previous research, it assesses the potential existence and nature of a 'digital divide' in New Zealand society whilst also evaluating possible strategic responses ...

  1. Alzheimer's Disease Assessment: A Review and Illustrations Focusing on Item Response Theory Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsis, Steve; Choudhury, Tabina K; Geraci, Lisa; Benge, Jared F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects neurological, cognitive, and behavioral processes. Thus, to accurately assess this disease, researchers and clinicians need to combine and incorporate data across these domains. This presents not only distinct methodological and statistical challenges but also unique opportunities for the development and advancement of psychometric techniques. In this article, we describe relatively recent research using item response theory (IRT) that has been used to make progress in assessing the disease across its various symptomatic and pathological manifestations. We focus on applications of IRT to improve scoring, test development (including cross-validation and adaptation), and linking and calibration. We conclude by describing potential future multidimensional applications of IRT techniques that may improve the precision with which AD is measured.

  2. Review of results from the FN-2 dense plasma focus machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, J.J.E.; Castillo, F.; Gamboa, I.; Rangel, J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Golzarri, J.I.; Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The FN-II is a small dense plasma focus (4.8 kJ at 36 kV), operating at the University of Mexico. Substantial effort has been dedicated to the study of the anisotropy in the neutron, proton and hard X-ray radiation. Concerning the neutron, it has been observed that there is an anisotropic distribution superposed on a far larger isotropic one. These clearly separated effects can be interpreted as the consequence of two different neutron emission mechanisms. The shape of the proton distribution is very similar to the neutron one. The angular distribution of hard X-rays and ions is also studied within the chamber with TLD and CR-39 detectors respectively. Two maxima are found around the axis of the device for X rays within the 20-200 keV range. (authors)

  3. Gene therapy as a potential tool for treating neuroblastoma-a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M D; Dravid, A; Kumar, A; Sen, D

    2016-05-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor caused by rapid division of undifferentiated neuroblasts, is the most common childhood malignancy affecting children aged genes is restored to normalcy. Gene therapy is a powerful tool with the potential to inhibit the deleterious effects of oncogenes by inserting corrected/normal genes into the genome. Both viral and non-viral vector-based gene therapies have been developed and adopted to deliver the target genes into neuroblastoma cells. These attempts have given hope to bringing in a new regime of treatment against neuroblastoma. A few gene-therapy-based treatment strategies have been tested in limited clinical trials yielding some positive results. This mini review is an attempt to provide an overview of the available options of gene therapy to treat neuroblastoma.

  4. Suicide Risk Assessment and Prevention: A Systematic Review Focusing on Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Heidi D; Denneson, Lauren M; Low, Allison R; Bauer, Brian W; O'Neil, Maya; Kansagara, Devan; Teo, Alan R

    2017-10-01

    Suicide rates in veteran and military populations in the United States are high. This article reviews studies of the accuracy of methods to identify individuals at increased risk of suicide and the effectiveness and adverse effects of health care interventions relevant to U.S. veteran and military populations in reducing suicide and suicide attempts. Trials, observational studies, and systematic reviews relevant to U.S. veterans and military personnel were identified in searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, and Cochrane databases (January 1, 2008, to September 11, 2015), on Web sites, and in reference lists. Investigators extracted and confirmed data and dual-rated risk of bias for included studies. Nineteen studies evaluated accuracy of risk assessment methods, including models using retrospective electronic records data and clinician- or patient-rated instruments. Most methods demonstrated sensitivity ≥80% or area-under-the-curve values ≥.70 in single studies, including two studies based on electronic records of veterans and military personnel, but specificity varied. Suicide rates were reduced in six of eight observational studies of population-level interventions. Only two of ten trials of individual-level psychotherapy reported statistically significant differences between treatment and usual care. Risk assessment methods have been shown to be sensitive predictors of suicide and suicide attempts, but the frequency of false positives limits their clinical utility. Research to refine these methods and examine clinical applications is needed. Studies of suicide prevention interventions are inconclusive; trials of population-level interventions and promising therapies are required to support their clinical use.

  5. Informal electronic waste recycling: a sector review with special focus on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y L; Reuter, Markus A

    2011-04-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Informal electronic waste recycling: A sector review with special focus on China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y.L.; Reuter, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector.

  7. Emerging role of HPV self-sampling in cervical cancer screening for hard-to-reach women: Focused literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzima, Tina R; Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha

    2017-08-01

    To provide a focused critical review of the literature on the acceptability, feasibility, and uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling among hard-to-reach women. A focused search to obtain relevant literature published in English between 1997 and 2015 was done using PubMed and EMBASE using search terms including HPV self-test or HPV self-sample or HPV kit in combination with acceptability or feasibility . Only studies that focused on never-screened or underscreened populations were included in this review. Human papillomavirus self-sampling was found to be highly acceptable and feasible among these hard-to-reach women across most studies. Mailing of self-sampling kits has been shown to increase participation among hard-to reach women. Some concerns remain regarding adherence to further follow-up among high-risk women with positive test results for HPV after screening. There is a strong body of evidence to support the usefulness of HPV self-sampling in increasing participation of hard-to-reach women in screening programs (level I evidence). Convenience, privacy, ease of use, and, likely, cost-effectiveness of HPV self-sampling are driving forces in its emerging role in cervical cancer screening among hard-to-reach women. Key barriers to participation could be addressed by overcoming disparities in HPV-related knowledge and perceptions about cervical cancer screening. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  8. Educational approaches focusing on the quality of life of people with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cezar Beraldo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on the quality of life of patients receiving hemodialysis is widely studied. Despite the vast amount of literature on the topic, it is still important to investigate the educational approaches related to this population’s quality of life, evolution, and treatment. Objective: To systematically review the literature on educational approaches focusing on people with CKD receiving hemodialysis. Methods: An integrative systematic review of studies published between 2010 and 2015 was conducted using the PubMed, LILACS, PROQUEST, SCIENCEDIRECT, and SciELO databases using the keywords “quality of life and hemodialysis and adults”, with their translation equivalents in Portuguese and Spanish. Results: The studies included in this review investigated biological conditions, treatment adherence, psychosocial conditions, and even spiritual influence. These studies unanimously recognized the validity of educational approaches, be it for treatment adherence, actor´s empowerment, or self-knowledge, as well as the importance of addressing a wider patient view and participatory therapy planning. Conclusion: The quality of life of people with CKD is a widely and differently studied topic, but the number of educational approaches focusing on this group of patients is modest and poorly represented in the existing literature. The few studies that address this topic are in complete agreement about the importance and relevance of educational approaches for people with CKD. We conclude that patient adherence, participation, and empowerment should be considered and encouraged.

  9. Monitoring and evaluation of mental health and psychosocial support programs in humanitarian settings: a scoping review of terminology and focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinavicius, Jura L; Greene, M Claire; Lakin, Daniel P; Tol, Wietse A

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programs is critical to facilitating learning and providing accountability to stakeholders. As part of an inter-agency effort to develop recommendations on MHPSS monitoring and evaluation, this scoping review aimed to identify the terminology and focus of monitoring and evaluation frameworks in this field. We collected program documents (logical frameworks (logframes) and theories of change) from members of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Reference Group on MHPSS, and systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature across five databases. We included program documents and academic articles that reported on monitoring and evaluation of MHPSS in low- and middle-income countries describing original data. Inclusion and data extraction were conducted in parallel by independent reviewers. Thematic analysis was used to identify common language in the description of practices and the focus of each monitoring and evaluation framework. Logframe outcomes were mapped to MHPSS activity categories. We identified 38 program documents and 89 peer-reviewed articles, describing monitoring and evaluation of a wide range of MHPSS activities. In both program documents and peer-reviewed literature there was a lack of specificity and overlap in language used for goals and outcomes. Well-validated, reliable instruments were reported in the academic literature, but rarely used in monitoring and evaluation practices. We identified six themes in the terminology used to describe goals and outcomes. Logframe outcomes were more commonly mapped to generic program implementation activities (e.g. "capacity building") and those related to family and community support, while outcomes from academic articles were most frequently mapped to specialized psychological treatments. Inconsistencies between the language used in research and practice and discrepancies in measurement have broader implications for monitoring and

  10. A review of safety-focused mechanical modeling of commercial lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Juner; Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Li, Wei

    2018-02-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point in the adoption of electric vehicles on the roads. All major automotive companies are having well-funded plans for mass market affordable branded EV product line models, which can open the floodgates. A rapid growth of battery energy density, accompanied by an aggressive progress of reduction of costs of lithium-ion batteries, brings safety concerns. While more energy stored in the battery pack of an EV translates to a longer range, the downside is that accidents will be more violent due to battery inevitable explosion. With today's technology, severe crashes involving intrusion into the battery pack will potentially result in a thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. Most of research on lithium-ion batteries have been concerned with the electrochemistry of cells. However, in most cases failure and thermal runaway is caused by mechanical loading due to crash events. There is a growing need to summarize the already published results on mechanical loading and response of batteries and offer a critical evaluation of work in progress. The objective of this paper is to present such review with a discussion of many outstanding issues and outline of a roadmap for future research.

  11. Arachidonic acid in health and disease with focus on hypertension and diabetes mellitus: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undurti N. Das

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid (AA 20:4n-6 is an essential component of cell membranes and modulates cell membrane fluidity. AA is metabolized by cyclo-oxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 enzymes to form several metabolites that have important biological actions. Of all the actions, role of AA in the regulation of blood pressure and its ability to prevent both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus seems to be interesting. Studies showed that AA and its metabolites especially, lipoxin A4 (LXA4 and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs, potent anti-inflammatory metabolites, have a crucial role in the pathobiology of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. AA, LXA4 and EETs regulate smooth muscle function and proliferation, voltage gated ion channels, cell membrane fluidity, membrane receptors, G-coupled receptors, PPARs, free radical generation, nitric oxide formation, inflammation, and immune responses that, in turn, participate in the regulation blood pressure and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. In this review, role of AA and its metabolites LXA4 and EETs in the pathobiology of hypertension, pre-eclampsia and diabetes mellitus are discussed. Based on several lines of evidences, it is proposed that a combination of aspirin and AA could be of benefit in the prevention and management of hypertension, pre-eclampsia and diabetes mellitus. Keywords: Arachidonic acid, Lipoxin A4, Hypertension, Pre-eclampsia, Diabetes mellitus, Inflammation, Cytokines, Free radicals, Nitric oxide

  12. Drug utilisation review (DUR) of the third generation cephalosporins. Focus on ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, A; Armour, C L

    1995-09-01

    Six parenteral third generation cephalosporins have been introduced into clinical use in the past 10 years. The 3 most frequently available agents are cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. These 3 third generation cephalosporins are characterised by a broad spectrum of activity and increased stability to beta-lactamases compared with the first and second generation cephalosporins. However, there are growing numbers of reports of resistance to these agents with increasing use. The major differences in the properties of the 3 agents are the long half-life of ceftriaxone and its dual route of elimination. Ceftazidime is best restricted to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections where other agents are contraindicated or ineffective. Cefotaxime and ceftriaxone can be used in nosocomial Gram-negative infections where P. aeruginosa can be ruled out. The types and incidences of adverse drug reactions are not different for the 3 agents. A number of drug utilisation review (DUR) studies of these agents in the hospital setting have reported a considerable incidence of inappropriate use and substantial avoidable costs. There are methodological problems with most of the DUR studies, especially the criteria and the methods of cost estimation. The use of pharmacoeconomic methodology could ensure more realistic cost estimation; however, outcome data are, in most cases, not available.

  13. Intraosseous infusions: a review for the anesthesiologist with a focus on pediatric use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Joseph D; Ross, Allison Kinder

    2010-02-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is used most frequently for emergency care of critically ill infants and children when IV access cannot be rapidly achieved. Despite its efficacy in such situations, applications outside of the emergency room or resuscitation scenario have been limited. Furthermore, although the technique is emphasized in the teaching of those caring for critically ill infants and children in the emergency room or critical care setting, there is limited emphasis on its potential use in the perioperative setting. When peripheral venous access cannot be achieved in the operating room, alternative means of securing vascular access such as central line placement or surgical cutdown are generally successful; however, these techniques may be time consuming. Anyone providing anesthesia care for infants and children may want to become facile with the use of IO infusions for selected indications. We present the history of IO infusions, review the anatomy of the bone marrow space, discuss the potential role of IO infusions in the perioperative period, and analyze its adverse effect profile.

  14. A Simplified Nitrogen Assessment in Tagus River Basin: A Management Focused Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia M. d. S. Cordovil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interactions among nitrogen (N management and water resources quality are complex and enhanced in transboundary river basins. This is the case of Tagus River, which is an important river flowing from Spain to Portugal in the Iberian Peninsula. The aim was to provide a N assessment review along the Tagus River Basin regarding mostly agriculture, livestock, and urban activities. To estimate reactive nitrogen (Nr load into surface waters, emission factor approaches were applied. Nr pressures are much higher in Spain than in Portugal (~13 times, which is mostly because of livestock intensification. Some policy and technical measures have been defined aiming at solving this problem. Main policy responses were the designation of Nitrate Vulnerable and Sensitive Zones, according to European Union (EU directives. Nitrate Vulnerable Zone comprise approximately one third of both territories. On the contrary, Sensitive Zones are more extended in Spain, attaining 60% of the watershed, against only 30% in Portugal. Technical measures comprised advanced urban and industrial wastewater treatment that was designed to remove N compounds before discharge in the water bodies. Given this assessment, Tagus River Basin sustainability can only be guaranteed through load inputs reductions and effective transnational management processes of water flows.

  15. Salt sensitivity: a review with a focus on non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Safiya I.; Freedman, Barry I.; Ellison, David H.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information regarding salt sensitivity particularly as it relates to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics and to clarify possible etiologies, especially those that might shed light on potential treatment options. In non-Hispanic blacks, there is evidence that endothelial dysfunction, reduced potassium intake, decreased urinary kallikrein excretion, upregulation of sodium channel activity, dysfunction in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) production, and APOL1 gene nephropathy risk variants may cause or contribute to salt sensitivity. Supported treatment avenues include diets high in potassium and soybean protein, the components of which stimulate nitric oxide production. Racial heterogeneity complicates the study of salt sensitivity in Hispanic populations. Caribbean Hispanics, who have a higher proportion of African ancestry, may respond to commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive agents in a way that is characteristic of non-Hispanic black hypertensives. The low-renin hypertensive phenotype commonly seen in non-Hispanic blacks has been linked to salt sensitivity and may indicate an increased risk for salt sensitivity in a portion of the Hispanic population. In conclusion, increased morbidity and mortality associated with salt sensitivity mandates further studies evaluating the efficacy of tailored dietary and pharmacologic treatment in non-Hispanic blacks and determining the prevalence of low renin hypertension and salt sensitivity within the various subgroups of Hispanic Americans. PMID:23428408

  16. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  17. Market review: Market values summary July market review/current market data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market is provided. Recent transactions are tabulated, including uranium sales, natural uranium loans, conversion sales, and enrichment sales. A market values summary and long-term price indicators are also provided. The July 1996 market review data includes summaries of near-term uranium sales, near-term supply/demand, NUEXCO values, USEC prices, and calculated worth of enriched uranium. Active projects in uranium, conversion, and separative work supply and demand are listed. International market values are tabulated for 22 selected currencies

  18. Current Techniques of Teaching and Learning in Bariatric Surgical Procedures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Mirjam; van Ramshorst, Gabrielle; van Wagensveld, Bart; Pierie, Jean-Pierre

    The gastric sleeve resection and gastric bypass are the 2 most commonly performed bariatric procedures. This article provides an overview of current teaching and learning methods of those techniques in resident and fellow training. A database search was performed on Pubmed, Embase, and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) to identify the methods used to provide training in bariatric surgery worldwide. After exclusion based on titles and abstracts, full texts of the selected articles were assessed. Included articles were reviewed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. In total, 2442 titles were identified and 14 full text articles met inclusion criteria. Four publications described an ex vivo training course, and 6 focused on at least 1 step of the gastric bypass procedure. Two randomized controlled trials (RCT) provided high-quality evidence on training aspects. Surgical coaching caused significant improvement of Bariatric Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (BOSATS) scores (3.60 vs. 3.90, p = 0.017) and reduction of technical errors (18 vs. 10, p = 0.003). A preoperative warm-up increased global rating scales (GRS) scores on depth perception (p = 0.02), bimanual dexterity (p = 0.01), and efficiency of movements (p = 0.03). Stepwise education, surgical coaching, warming up, Internet-based knowledge modules, and ex vivo training courses are effective in relation to bariatric surgical training of residents and fellows, possibly shortening their learning curves. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TU-CD-BRD-02: Henry Ford Hospital System Experience, with Focus On Motivating and Reviewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  20. TU-CD-BRD-02: Henry Ford Hospital System Experience, with Focus On Motivating and Reviewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B. [Henry Ford Health System (United States)

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  1. Panacea seed “Nigella”: A review focusing on regenerative effects for gastric ailments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida A. Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (NS or black cumin is a dark, thin, and crescent-shaped, seeded shrub belonging to the Ranunculaceae family commonly growing on Mediterranean coasts in Saudi Arabia, northern Africa and Asia. They have amazing curative and therapeutic features that make them one of the most popular, safe, non-detrimental, and cytoprotective medicinal plant that can be used for prevention and treatment of many complicated diseases. Originally, N. sativa was used to treat migraines and allergy, and researches have shown its effectiveness in destroying cancer cells as well. The gastro protective effect of NS oil and its constituents has also been reported earlier; however, the complete perception on etiology and pathogenesis of gastric ulcer is not yet clear. Herein, we attempt to unveil some of the potential mechanisms exhibited by NS in preventing problems related to gastric ulcers. Gastric ailments like ulcers and tumors are the most common disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract in the present day life of the industrialized world. Gastric ulcer being a multifaceted problem exhibits complex etiology and is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. Drug interactions and toxicity are the main hindrances in chemotherapy. The existing merits and demerits of modern-day drugs make us turn toward the plant kingdom which may provide a valuable resource of novel potent natural compounds for pharmaceuticals or alternately, as dietary supplements. In this context, the revered phytotherapeutic N. sativa comes as a promising savior in today’s times. This review aims to summarize, both the functional and disease-related effects in the area of gastroenterology.

  2. Hair Analysis in Forensic Toxicology: An Updated Review with a Special Focus on Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    The detection of drugs in hair analysis has progressively emerged as a consequence of the enhanced sensitivity of analytical techniques used in forensic toxicology; a greater advantage in using this matrix with respect to classical ones (i.e. urine and blood) is an easier and non-invasive sample collection, even when the careful supervision of law enforcement officers is required to avoid the risk that the sample may be adulterated or replaced. Moreover, according to the length of the hair, the history of drug exposure can be retrospectively monitored from few weeks up to months or years since sample collection. Through a detailed revision of the existent literature, this manuscript provides information on the proper sample collection, preparation and analysis, as well as pitfalls in forensic hair analysis, and summarizes the wide range of application of this technology, including excessive alcohol drinking, doping, child abuse, and offences linked to drug use. Verification of history of psychotropic drugs, alcohol and doping agents use by hair analysis, hair testing for driving license regranting and drug facilitated crimes, and testing for drugs in hair of children have been reviewed together with recent trends in hair contamination and possibility to disclose use of new psychoactive substances by hair analysis. Hair analysis in forensic toxicology has been quickly emerged and improved in recent years; a deeper knowledge of advantages and limitations of this unique matrix is necessary for a better use in forensic caseworks. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Caribbean nurses migrating to the UK: a gender-focused literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A D; Bifulco, A; Gabe, J

    2009-09-01

    International nurse recruitment is an integral part of government health care strategy in many countries. However, the gendered implications of nurse migration have been little explored despite the fact that the nursing workforce is predominantly made up of women. Based on the migration of nurses from the English-speaking Caribbean region to the UK, this paper explores the significance of gender at both the macro and micro levels. Four strands of inquiry were explored: nurse migration, impact on development, work experiences and family life. Key terms were used to search the electronic databases SSCI, EBSCO and JSTOR. An interpretative framework based on the feminist theory of intersectionality was used to systematically review the 15 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Gender issues are significant across all aspects of the migratory process. Migrant nurses contribute to social progress through remittances and knowledge gained abroad although overall, nurse migration negatively impacts development and there are hidden implications for women. For some Caribbean nurses, migration reflects increased economic freedom; however, for others, gender inequality lies at the centre of the decision to relocate. Gender inequality also permeates the lives of many migrant nurses even in countries where economic and work conditions are improved. The ramifications of nurse migration cannot be fully understood without attention to gender inequalities and the specific socio-economic contexts in which they exist. There is need for a gender-centred approach to international nursing recruitment policy that takes account not only of the impact on developing countries, but also of the well-being of migrant nurses themselves.

  4. Inflammasomes in neuroinflammation and changes in brain function: a focused review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav eSinghal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature has pointed to the existence of inflammasome-mediated inflammatory pathways in central nervous system disorders and associated changes in behavior. Neuroinflammation, which is an innate immune response in the central nervous system against harmful and irritable stimuli such as pathogens and metabolic toxic waste, as well as to chronic mild stress, is mediated by protein complexes known as inflammasomes. Inflammasomes activate pro-inflammatory caspases 1 and 5, which then cleave the precursor forms of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-33 into their active forms. These pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to promote a variety of innate immune processes associated with infection, inflammation and autoimmunity, and thereby play an instrumental role in the instigation of neuroinflammation during old age and subsequent occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive impairment and dementia. In particular, NLRP inflammasomes may also have a role in the etiologies of depression, Alzheimer’s disease and in metabolic disorders, such as Type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases that have been shown to be co-morbid with psychiatric illnesses. It has been reported that while these inflammasomes may be activated through TNF-α dependent pathways, other cytokines, like IFN-γ, may assist in inhibiting their activation and thus delay disease progression. Furthermore some other cytokines, including IL-6, may not have a direct role in inflammasome-mediated diseases. An array of recent research suggests that NLRP inflammasomes targeted therapies could be used for alleviating neuroinflammation and for treatment of associated psychiatric illnesses, although this still remains a challenge and necessitates further extensive research. This review examines the complex inflammatory signaling pathways involved in the activation of NLRP inflammasomes and the role they play in promoting neuroinflammation and subsequent

  5. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: A systematic review of current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tony Wing Chung; Lee, Janet Fung Yee; Futaba, Kaori; Hon, Sophie Sok Fei; Ngo, Dennis Kwok Yu; Ng, Simon Siu Man

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To give a comprehensive review of current literature on robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of current literature via PubMed and Embase search engines was performed to identify relevant articles from january 2007 to november 2013. The keywords used were: “robotic surgery”, “surgical robotics”, “laparoscopic computer-assisted surgery”, “colectomy” and “rectal resection”. RESULTS: After the initial screen of 380 articles, 20 papers were selected for review. A total of 1062 patients (male 64.0%) with a mean age of 61.1 years and body mass index of 24.9 kg/m2 were included in the review. Out of 1062 robotic-assisted operations, 831 (78.2%) anterior and low anterior resections, 132 (12.4%) intersphincteric resection with coloanal anastomosis, 98 (9.3%) abdominoperineal resections and 1 (0.1%) Hartmann’s operation were included in the review. Robotic rectal surgery was associated with longer operative time but with comparable oncological results and anastomotic leak rate when compared with laparoscopic rectal surgery. CONCLUSION: Robotic colorectal surgery has continued to evolve to its current state with promising results; feasible surgical option with low conversion rate and comparable short-term oncological results. The challenges faced with robotic surgery are for more high quality studies to justify its cost. PMID:24936229

  6. Head in the Clouds: A Review of Current and Future Potential for Cloud-Enabled Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the research on the disruptive and transformative potential of newly-emerging cloud-based pedagogies. It takes into consideration the extent to which Cloud Computing can be leveraged to disseminate and scale web-based applications within and across learning contexts. It examines ideas from current literature in Web 2.0- and…

  7. Mentoring and New Teacher Induction in the United States: A Review and Analysis of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, current practices were reviewed in mentoring and induction across three large states--New York, Texas, and California--and one small state, Utah. Patterns and trends are described in the United States, program results and evolving views of mentoring are discussed, gaps in the research literature are identified, and the future of…

  8. Astigmatism treatment during phacoemulsification: a review of current surgical strategies and their rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano de Oliveira Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preexisting corneal astigmatism, present at the time of cataract surgery, is reviewed in detail throughout this article on its most important aspects such as occurrence rates, clinical relevance and current treatment options. Special emphasis is given to the latter aspect. Each method's rationale, advantage and limitation ishigh lightened. Comparisons between treatment options, whenever possible, are also provided.

  9. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work reviews the current knowledge of aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. DATA: Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour emanating from the breath. The condition is multifactorial and may involve both oral and non-oral conditions. SOURCES: A private, monthly with

  10. Cesium removal from liquid acidic wastes with the primary focus on ammonium molybdophosphate as an ion exchanger: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    Many articles have been written concerning the selective removal of cesium from both acidic and alkaline defense wastes. The majority of the work performed for cesium removal from defense wastes involves alkaline feed solutions. Several different techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions have been evaluated such as precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review various techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions. The main focus of the review will be on ion exchange techniques, particularly those involving ammonium molybdophosphate as the exchanger. The pertinent literature sources are condensed into a single document for quick reference. The information contained in this document was used as an aid in determining techniques to evaluate cesium removal from the acidic Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste matrices. 47 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Cancer Patients in Malaysia: A review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husna Ahmad Ainuddin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring quality of life provides information helpful for cancer patients. However, facts about the quality of life and its associated factors among cancer patients in Malaysia are inconclusive. The aim of this review of literature is to evaluate the quality of life of cancer patients and its associated factors. Based on this review of the literature, it identified 24 studies. Associated factors effecting quality of life of cancer patients include socio-demographic, health related, psychological and cancer treatment. In conclusion, there is a need for further research to focus on developing effective interventions to enhance the patients' quality of life.

  12. How do laboratory embryo transfer techniques affect IVF outcomes? A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalos, George; Triantafyllidou, Olga; Vlahos, Nikos

    2017-04-01

    Over the last few years, many studies have focused on embryo selection methods, whereas little attention has been given to the standardization of the procedure of embryo transfer. In this review, several parameters of the embryo transfer procedure are examined, such as the: (i) culture medium volume and loading technique; (ii) syringe and catheters used for embryo transfer; (iii) viscosity and composition of the embryo transfer medium; (iv) environment of embryo culture; (v) timing of embryo transfer; (vi) and standardization of the embryo transfer techniques. The aim of this manuscript is to review these factors and compare the existing embryo transfer techniques and highlight the need for better embryo transfer standardization.

  13. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Pregnancy: Focus on Biologics. An Updated and Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Esteve-Valverde, Enrique; Ferrer-Oliveras, Raquel; Llurba, Elisa; Gris, Josep Maria

    2017-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a central regulator of inflammation, and TNF-α antagonists may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders in which TNF-α plays a major pathogenic role. TNF-α has also been associated with inflammatory mechanisms related to implantation, placentation, and pregnancy outcome. TNF-α is secreted by immune cells and works by binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2 cell receptors. TNF-α is also related to JAK/STAT pathways, which opens up hypothetical new targets for modifying. The accurate balance between Th1 cytokines, mainly TNF-α, Th17, and Th2, particularly IL-10 is essential to achieve good obstetric outcomes. TNF-α targeted therapy could be rational in treating women with obstetric complication related to overproduction of TNF-α, such as recurrent pregnancy loss, early and severe pre-eclampsia, and recurrent implantation failure syndrome, all "idiopathic" or related to aPL positivity. Along the same lines, Th1 cytokines, mainly TNF- α, play a leading pathogenic role in rheumatic and systemic autoimmune diseases occurring in women and, to a lesser extent, in men of reproductive age. These disorders have to be clinically silent before pregnancy can be recommended, which is usually only possible to achieve after intensive anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment, TNF-α blockers included. Physicians should be aware of the theoretic potential but low embryo-fetal toxicity risk of these drugs during pregnancy. From an updated review in May 2016, we can conclude that TNF-α blockers are useful in certain "refractory" cases of inflammatory disorders related to poor obstetric outcomes and infertility. Furthermore, TNF-α blockers can be safely used during the implantation period and pregnancy. Breastfeeding is also permitted with all TNF-α inhibitors. Since data on the actual mechanism of action of JAK-STAT in inflammatory obstetric disorders including embryo implantation are scarce, for the time being, therapeutic

  15. NRC Consultation and Monitoring at the Savannah River Site: Focusing Reviews of Two Different Disposal Actions - 12181

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridge, A. Christianne; Barr, Cynthia S.; Pinkston, Karen E.; Parks, Leah S.; Grossman, Christopher J.; Alexander, George W. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for certain non-high level waste determinations. The NDAA also requires NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions related to those determinations. In Fiscal Year 2011, the NRC staff reviewed DOE performance assessments for tank closure at the F-Tank Farm (FTF) Facility and salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of consultation and monitoring, respectively. Differences in inventories, waste forms, and key barriers led to different areas of focus in the NRC reviews of these two activities at the SRS. Because of the key role of chemically reducing grouts in both applications, the evaluation of chemical barriers was significant to both reviews. However, radionuclide solubility in precipitated metal oxides is expected to play a significant role in FTF performance whereas release of several key radionuclides from the SDF is controlled by sorption or precipitation within the cementitious wasteform itself. Similarly, both reviews included an evaluation of physical barriers to flow, but differences in the physical configurations of the waste led to differences in the reviews. For example, NRC's review of the FTF focused on the modeled degradation of carbon steel tank liners while the staff's review of the SDF performance included a detailed evaluation of the physical degradation of the saltstone wasteform and infiltration-limiting closure cap. Because of the long time periods considered (i.e., tens of thousands of years), the NRC reviews of both facilities included detailed evaluation of the engineered chemical and physical barriers. The NRC staff reviews of residual waste disposal in the FTF and salt waste disposal in the SDF focused on physical barriers to flow and chemical barriers to

  16. Inclusion as a focus of employment-related research in intellectual disability from 2000 to 2010: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Rosemary; Cobigo, Virginie; Hamilton, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a scoping review of the research literature on community-based employment for individuals with intellectual disabilities from 2000 to 2010. The review examined the variables studied in each paper, and considered the degree to which elements of social inclusion were addressed. The search strategy identified a total of 245 articles, the total pool of which was reduced to 42 following abstract and text review. Two researchers reviewed the final set of articles and extracted information relevant to the study goals. Independent and dependent measures used in the studies were categorized relative to a conceptual model of social inclusion. The frequency with which each aspect of inclusion was addressed in the studies was totalled, and the resulting pattern analyzed qualitatively. The analysis revealed that the majority of papers identified the work role achieved (i.e. employment and pay rates, job titles) as the primary construct of interest, while fewer than 5 articles focused on central aspects of inclusion, such as sense of belonging, reciprocity, and need fulfillment. This study profiles the evidence base relative to inclusive employment for people with intellectual disabilities. The lack of evidence on the degree to which social inclusion is being achieved through community-based employment highlights a critical area requiring attention.

  17. POSSIBILITIES OF CURRENT CELLULAR TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR (ANALYTICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Bozhokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wide variety of surgical procedures utilized in clinical practice for treatment of articular cartilage lesions, the search for other options of articular reconstruction remains a relevant and open issue at the current stage of medicine and biotechnologies development. The recent years demonstrated a strong belief in cellular methods of hyaline cartilage repair such as implantation of autologous chondrocytes (ACI or cultures of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC including techniques for genetic modification of cells.The purpose of presented review is to summarize the published scientific data on up to date results of perspective cellular technologies for articular cartilage repair that are being developed. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation originally performed by Swedish researchers in 1987 is considered the first clinically applied technique for restoration of hyaline cartilage using cellular technologies. However, the transplanted cell culture featured low proliferative capacity and inability to form a regenerate resistant to high physical activity. Another generation of methods originated at the turn of the century utilized mesenchymal stem cells instead of autologous chondrocytes. Preparation of MSCs is a less invasive procedure compared to chondrocytes harvesting and the culture is featured by a higher proliferative ability. Researchers use various biodegradable carriers (matrices to secure cell fixation. Despite good clinical mid-term outcomes the transplanted tissue-engineering structures deteriorate with time due to cellular de-differentiation. Next generation of techniques being currently under pre-clinical studies is featured by the preliminary chondrogenic modification of transplanted cell culture. Usage of various growth factors, modified cell product and gene-activated matrices allow to gain a stable regulatory and key proteins synthesis and achieve a focused influence on regenerate's chondrogenic proliferation and in result

  18. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  19. What is a pilot or feasibility study? A review of current practice and editorial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper Cindy L; Campbell Michael J; Arain Mubashir; Lancaster Gillian A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2004, a review of pilot studies published in seven major medical journals during 2000-01 recommended that the statistical analysis of such studies should be either mainly descriptive or focus on sample size estimation, while results from hypothesis testing must be interpreted with caution. We revisited these journals to see whether the subsequent recommendations have changed the practice of reporting pilot studies. We also conducted a survey to identify the methodologic...

  20. Parent-only vs. parent-child (family-focused) approaches for weight loss in obese and overweight children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, A; Chen, R

    2013-09-01

    Families are recommended as the agents of change for weight loss in overweight and obese children; family approaches are more effective than those that focus on the child alone. However, interventions that focus on parents alone have not been summarized. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of interventions that compared a parent-only (PO) condition with a parent-child (PC) condition. Four trials using a similar between-group background approaches to overweight and obese children's weight loss met the inclusion criteria, but only one trial reported sufficient data for meta-analysis. Further information was obtained from authors. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference in z-BMI from baseline to end of treatment between the conditions (three trials) or to end of follow up (two trials). The trials were at risk of bias and no single trial was at lower risk of bias than others. There is an absence of high quality evidence regarding the effect of parent-only interventions for weight loss in children compared to parent-child interventions, but current evidence suggests the need for further investigation. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. a Review of Late Holocene Fluvial Systems in the Karst Maya Lowlands with Focus on the Rio Bravo, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, T.; Luzzadder-Beach, S.; Krause, S.; Doyle, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Maya Lowlands is mostly an internally draining karst region with about 400 m of regional relief. Fluvial and fluviokarst systems drain the edges of this landscape either from low limestone uplands or igneous and metamorphic complexes. Thus far most fluvial research has focused around archaeology projects, and here we review the extant research conducted across the region and new research on the transboundary Rio Bravo watershed of Belize and Guatemala. The Rio Bravo drains a largely old growth tropical forest today, but was partly deforested around ancient Maya cities and farms from 3,000 to 1000 BP. Several studies estimate that 30 to 40 percent of forest survived through the Maya period. Work here has focused on soils and sediment movement along slope catenas, in floodplain sites, and on contributions from groundwater with high dissolved loads of sulfate and calcium. We review radiocarbon dates and present new dates and soil stratigraphy from these sequences to date slope and floodplain movement, and we estimate ancient land use from carbon isotopic and pollen evidence. Aggradation in this watershed occurred by flooding, gypsum precipitation, upland erosion, and ancient Maya canal building and filling for wetland farming. Soil erosion and aggradation started at least by 3,000 BP and continued through the ancient Maya period, though reduced locally by soil conservation, post urban construction, and source reduction, especially in Maya Classic period from 1700 to 1000 BP.

  2. The quality of Australian Indigenous primary health care research focusing on social and emotional wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Maree; Fernando, Jamie K; Gwynn, Josephine D; Glozier, Nick; Hackett, Maree L

    2017-10-11

    Objectives and importance of the study: Primary health care research focused on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) people is needed to ensure that key frontline services provide evidence based and culturally appropriate care. We systematically reviewed the published primary health care literature to identify research designs, processes and outcomes, and assess the scientific quality of research focused on social and emotional wellbeing. This will inform future research to improve evidence based, culturally appropriate primary health care. Systematic review in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Four databases and one Indigenous-specific project website were searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method published research. Studies that were conducted in primary health care services and focused on the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous people were included. Scientific quality was assessed using risk-of-bias assessment tools that were modified to meet our aims. We assessed community acceptance by identifying the involvement of community governance structures and representation during research development, conduct and reporting. Data were extracted using standard forms developed for this review. We included 32 articles, which reported on 25 studies. Qualitative and mixed methods were used in 18 studies. Twelve articles were judged as high or unclear risk of bias, four as moderate and five as low risk of bias. Another four studies were not able to be assessed as they did not align with the risk-of-bias tools. Of the five articles judged as low risk of bias, two also had high community acceptance and both of these were qualitative. One used a phenomenological approach and the other combined participatory action research with a social-ecological perspective and incorporated 'two-way learning' principles. Of the 16 studies where a primary outcome was identified, eight aimed to identify perceptions or experiences. The

  3. The quality of Australian Indigenous primary health care research focusing on social and emotional wellbeing: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farnbach

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and importance of the study: Primary health care research focused on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous people is needed to ensure that key frontline services provide evidence based and culturally appropriate care. We systematically reviewed the published primary health care literature to identify research designs, processes and outcomes, and assess the scientific quality of research focused on social and emotional wellbeing. This will inform future research to improve evidence based, culturally appropriate primary health care. Study type: Systematic review in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Methods: Four databases and one Indigenous-specific project website were searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method published research. Studies that were conducted in primary health care services and focused on the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous people were included. Scientific quality was assessed using risk-of-bias assessment tools that were modified to meet our aims. We assessed community acceptance by identifying the involvement of community governance structures and representation during research development, conduct and reporting. Data were extracted using standard forms developed for this review. Results: We included 32 articles, which reported on 25 studies. Qualitative and mixed methods were used in 18 studies. Twelve articles were judged as high or unclear risk of bias, four as moderate and five as low risk of bias. Another four studies were not able to be assessed as they did not align with the risk-of-bias tools. Of the five articles judged as low risk of bias, two also had high community acceptance and both of these were qualitative. One used a phenomenological approach and the other combined participatory action research with a social–ecological perspective and incorporated ‘two-way learning’ principles. Of the 16 studies where a primary outcome was identified, eight aimed

  4. A study on induced current focusing potential drop (ICFPD) technique. Examination of the sizing accuracy of defects and its frequency dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoon; Shoji, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    Aiming at nondestructive detection and size prediction of defects with high accuracy and resolution, an Induced Current Focusing Potential Drop (ICFPD) technique has been developed. This technique can be applied for determining the location and size of defects in components with not only simple shape such as plain surface but also more complex shape and geometry such as curved surface and dissimilar joint. This paper describes the basic principle of ICFPD and its probe development. In this ICFPD, current was induced in a conductive material by a straight induction wire, which is electrically isolated, placed on it. The benefits of this new technique compared with the conventional ACPD are: (1) Current is induced and focused only at an explorating region. (2) Applicable to defect detection by scanning the sensor probe in an explorating region. (3) Applicable to defect detection in a weld joint of austenitic stainless steel. As the results of the innovation in instrumentation and the improvement in evaluation procedure by use of suitable parameters, the existence of defects is clearly observed as the variation of potential drops, and the nondimensional parameter (V c,max. /V avg. ) has a direct correlation with crack depth. Especially, for the depth less than 5 mm, the ICFPD shows higher sensitivity than the conventional ACPD at the frequencies of 3, 10 and 30 kHz. (author)

  5. An evidence-based review of hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions to address dynamic lower extremity valgus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford KR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kevin R Ford,1 Anh-Dung Nguyen,2 Steven L Dischiavi,1 Eric J Hegedus,1 Emma F Zuk,2 Jeffrey B Taylor11Department of Physical Therapy, High Point University, High Point, NC, USA; 2Department of Athletic Training, School of Health Sciences, High Point University, High Point, NC, USAAbstract: Deficits in proximal hip strength or neuromuscular control may lead to dynamic lower extremity valgus. Measures of dynamic lower extremity valgus have been previously shown to relate to increased risk of several knee pathologies, specifically anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and patellofemoral pain. Therefore, hip-focused interventions have gained considerable attention and been successful in addressing these knee pathologies. The purpose of the review was to identify and discuss hip-focused exercise interventions that aim to address dynamic lower extremity valgus. Previous electromyography, kinematics, and kinetics research support the use of targeted hip exercises with non-weight-bearing, controlled weight-bearing, functional exercise, and, to a lesser extent, dynamic exercises in reducing dynamic lower extremity valgus. Further studies should be developed to identify and understand the mechanistic relationship between optimized biomechanics during sports and hip-focused neuromuscular exercise interventions.Keywords: dynamic lower extremity valgus, hip neuromuscular control, ACL injury rehabilitation, patellofemoral pain, hip muscular activation

  6. Consortia Focused on Photovoltaic R&D, Manufacturing, and Testing: A Review of Existing Models and Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggeshall, C.; Margolis, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program prepares to initiate a new cost-shared research and development (R&D) effort on photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, it is useful to review the experience to date with consortia focused on PV R&D, manufacturing, and testing. Information was gathered for this report by conducting interviews and accessing Web sites of 14 U.S. consortia and four European consortia, each with either a primary focus on or an emerging interest in PV technology R&D, manufacturing, or testing. Additional input was collected from several workshops held by the DOE and National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2009, which examined the practical steps -- including public-private partnerships and policy support -- necessary to enhance the United States' capacity to competitively manufacture photovoltaics. This report categorizes the 18 consortia into three groups: university-led consortia, industry-led consortia, and manufacturing and testing facilities consortia. The first section summarizes the organizations within the different categories, with a particular focus on the key benefits and challenges for each grouping. The second section provides a more detailed overview of each consortium, including the origins, goals, organization, membership, funding sources, and key contacts. This survey is a useful resource for stakeholders interested in PV manufacturing R&D, but should not imply endorsement of any of these groups.

  7. Thermal management issues in a PEMFC stack - A brief review of current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandlikar, Satish G.; Lu Zijie

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermal effects is critical in optimizing the performance and durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A PEMFC produces a similar amount of waste heat to its electric power output and tolerates only a small deviation in temperature from its design point. The balance between the heat production and its removal determines the operating temperature of a PEMFC. These stringent thermal requirements present a significant heat transfer challenge. In this work, the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms at PEMFC component level (including polymer electrolyte, catalyst layers, gas diffusion media and bipolar plates) are briefly reviewed. The current status of PEMFC cooling technology is also reviewed and research needs are identified

  8. Rehabilitation of Motor Function after Stroke: A Multiple Systematic Review Focused on Techniques to Stimulate Upper Extremity Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Samar M.; Saussez, Geoffroy; della Faille, Margaux; Prist, Vincent; Zhang, Xue; Dispa, Delphine; Bleyenheuft, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients' mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training, and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed. At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning, and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:27679565

  9. Rehabilitation of motor function after stroke: a multiple systematic review focused on techniques to stimulate upper extremity recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M Hatem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the leading causes for disability worldwide. Motor function deficits due to stroke affect the patients’ mobility, their limitation in daily life activities, their participation in society and their odds of returning to professional activities. All of these factors contribute to a low overall quality of life. Rehabilitation training is the most effective way to reduce motor impairments in stroke patients. This multiple systematic review focuses both on standard treatment methods and on innovating rehabilitation techniques used to promote upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. A total number of 5712 publications on stroke rehabilitation was systematically reviewed for relevance and quality with regards to upper extremity motor outcome. This procedure yielded 270 publications corresponding to the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. Recent technology-based interventions in stroke rehabilitation including non-invasive brain stimulation, robot-assisted training and virtual reality immersion are addressed. Finally, a decisional tree based on evidence from the literature and characteristics of stroke patients is proposed.At present, the stroke rehabilitation field faces the challenge to tailor evidence-based treatment strategies to the needs of the individual stroke patient. Interventions can be combined in order to achieve the maximal motor function recovery for each patient. Though the efficacy of some interventions may be under debate, motor skill learning and some new technological approaches give promising outcome prognosis in stroke motor rehabilitation.

  10. Clinical utility of anti-p53 auto-antibody: systematic review and focus on colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Aravind; Greenman, John

    2013-08-07

    Mutation of the p53 gene is a key event in the carcinogenesis of many different types of tumours. These can occur throughout the length of the p53 gene. Anti-p53 auto-antibodies are commonly produced in response to these p53 mutations. This review firstly describes the various mechanisms of p53 dysfunction and their association with subsequent carcinogenesis. Following this, the mechanisms of induction of anti-p53 auto-antibody production are shown, with various hypotheses for the discrepancies between the presence of p53 mutation and the presence/absence of anti-p53 auto-antibodies. A systematic review was performed with a descriptive summary of key findings of each anti-p53 auto-antibody study in all cancers published in the last 30 years. Using this, the cumulative frequency of anti-p53 auto-antibody in each cancer type is calculated and then compared with the incidence of p53 mutation in each cancer to provide the largest sample calculation and correlation between mutation and anti-p53 auto-antibody published to date. Finally, the review focuses on the data of anti-p53 auto-antibody in colorectal cancer studies, and discusses future strategies including the potentially promising role using anti-p53 auto-antibody presence in screening and surveillance.

  11. Critical review of complementary and alternative medicine use in menopause: focus on prevalence, motivation, decision-making, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenbo; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David W; Frawley, Jane E

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to undertake the first critical review of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among menopausal women (a term here used to include premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women) by focusing on the prevalence of CAM use and CAM users' characteristics, motivation, decision-making, and communication with healthcare providers. A comprehensive search of 2002-2012 international literature in the Medline, CINAHL, AMED, and SCOPUS databases was conducted. The search was confined to peer-reviewed articles published in English with abstracts and reporting new empirical research findings regarding CAM use and menopause. A considerable level of CAM use was observed among women in menopause. Many menopausal women use CAM concurrently with their conventional medicine. However, communication regarding CAM between menopausal women and healthcare providers seems less than optimal, with a demand for further information on the safety and efficacy of medicines. Existing literature is of variable methodological rigor, often presenting small sample sizes and low-quality data collection. Further rigorous research on this topic-including quantitative and qualitative methods using large national samples, where relevant-is required. The findings of this critical review provide insights for those practicing and managing health care in this area of women's health. Healthcare providers should prepare to inform menopausal women about all treatment options, including CAM, and should be aware of the possible adverse effects of CAM and potential interactions between CAM and conventional medicine among women in menopause who are under their care.

  12. Review of experiments on current drive in tokamaks by means of RF waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooke, W.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results on lower hybrid current drive in tokamak plasmas are reviewed. Pulse lengths of 3.5 seconds and currents above 400 kA have been generated at plasma densities such that the wave frequency is greater than about twice the lower hybrid frequency. Current drive ceases above a critical density, nsub(c). However, nsub(c) increases with wave frequency. So that for f = 4.6 GHz current drive has been seen at n-barsub(e) approx.= 10 14 cm -3 and a density limit has yet to be established. Evidence for a collisional scaling law for current-drive efficiency is summarized. Detailed measurements of bremsstrahlung x-rays show a distribution which is qualitatively similar to that predicted by quasilinear theory. Microwave emission at frequencies less than the plasma frequency may shed light on the current-drive mechanism. Applications of current drive including plasma and current start-up and transformer recharging are discussed. (author)

  13. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhuji Rifai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper.

  14. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Ali, Kharudin; Razali, Ramdan

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper. PMID:26927123

  15. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Eleanor E; Paustian, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystem function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. We conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4) SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5) SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions. (topical review)

  16. Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical practice − a review of their radiological imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesha Naidu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern radiological technology has transformed the way that adrenal lesions are currently investigated. The contemporary radiologist has been catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the increasing use of cross-sectional imaging, adrenal lesions are being serendipitously discovered in radiological studies undertaken for non-adrenal-related conditions – the so-called adrenal ‘incidentaloma’. This review discusses the imaging modalities available for characterising these lesions, highlighting current concepts and controversies in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. The article also provides a brief overview of the spectrum of adrenal pathology commonly encountered in the adult population.

  17. Prehospital Ultrasound in Trauma: A Review of Current and Potential Future Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharwat El Zahran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US is an essential tool for evaluating trauma patients in the hospital setting. Many previous in-hospital studies have been extrapolated to out of hospital setting to improve diagnostic accuracy in prehospital and austere environments. This review article presents the role of prehospital US in blunt and penetrating trauma management with emphasis on its current clinical applications, challenges, and future implications of such use.

  18. Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Office of Management and Budget xviii Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A Review of Policies and Current Practices PSC Product and Service Code...themselves as minority-owned, women-owned, veteran- owned, or small disadvantaged businesses . The resulting database gives sourcing managers a tool for...REPORT DATE 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Small Business and Defense Acquisitions: A

  19. Selective mutism and anxiety: a review of the current conceptualization of the disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, William G; Sherman, Colleen; Gross, Alan M

    2007-01-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare and interesting condition that has been associated with a wide variety of childhood psychiatric conditions. Historically viewed as more of an oddity than a distinct diagnostic entity, early conceptualizations of the condition were based largely on case studies that tended to link SM with oppositional behavior. More recently, controlled studies have enhanced our understanding of SM. This review summarizes the current conceptualization of SM, highlighting evidence supporting the notion that SM is an anxiety-related condition.

  20. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and repor...

  1. Our Approach to Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Review of Current Treatment Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uygur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a clinical entity which has a 30 to 40 % mortality rate, with necrolysis affecting the entire epidermis. Antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anticonvulsants are offender drugs in TEN etiology. A standard treatment protocol with proven efficacy is still lacking. In this study, current treatment practice and our treatment strategy for TEN is discussed and eight patients treated in our clinic between the years 2001 and 2008 are reviewed.

  2. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Tinnitus Patients: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Jin Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has already been used to manage tinnitus patients, paucity of reports and variations in protocols preclude a comprehensive understanding. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis based on systemic review to assess effectiveness of tDCS in tinnitus management and to compare stimulation parameters. PubMed was searched for tDCS studies in tinnitus. For randomized controlled trials (RCTs, a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 17 studies were identified and 6 of them were included in the systemic review and 2 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Overall 39.5% responded to active tDCS with a mean tinnitus intensity reduction of 13.5%. Additionally, left temporal area (LTA and bifrontal tDCS indicated comparable results. Active tDCS was found to be more effective than sham tDCS for tinnitus intensity reduction (Hedges' g=.77, 95% confidence interval 0.23–1.31. The efficacy of tDCS in tinnitus could not be fully confirmed by the current study because of the limited number of studies, but all studies included in the current systemic review and meta-analysis demonstrated significant tinnitus intensity improvement. Therefore, tDCS may be a promising tool for tinnitus management. Future RCTs in a large series regarding the efficacy as well as the comparison between LTA- and bifrontal tDCS are recommended.

  3. The Science of Salt: A focused review on salt-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Briar; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Trieu, Kathy; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Johnson, Claire; Arcand, JoAnne; Webster, Jacqui; McLean, Rachael

    2018-05-02

    The aim of the current review was to examine the scope of studies published in the Science of Salt Weekly that contained a measure of self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) concerning salt. Specific objectives were to examine how KAB measures are used to evaluate salt reduction intervention studies, the questionnaires used, and whether any gender differences exist in self-reported KAB. Studies were reviewed from the commencement of Science of Salt Weekly, June 2013 to the end of August 2017. Seventy-five studies had relevant measures of KAB and were included in this review, 13 of these were salt-reduction intervention-evaluation studies, with the remainder (62) being descriptive KAB studies. The KAB questionnaires used were specific to the populations studied, without evidence of a best practice measure. 40% of studies used KAB alone as the primary outcome measure; the remaining studies used more quantitative measures of salt intake such as 24-hour urine. Only half of the descriptive studies showed KAB outcomes disaggregated by gender, and of those, 73% showed women had more favorable KAB related to salt. None of the salt intervention-evaluation studies showed disaggregated KAB data. Therefore, it is likely important that evaluation studies disaggregate, and are appropriately powered to disaggregate all outcomes by gender to address potential disparities. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Review of Inflammatory Processes of the Breast with a Focus on Diagnosis in Core Biopsy Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. D’Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory and reactive lesions of the breast are relatively uncommon among benign breast lesions and can be the source of an abnormality on imaging. Such lesions can simulate a malignant process, based on both clinical and radiographic findings, and core biopsy is often performed to rule out malignancy. Furthermore, some inflammatory processes can mimic carcinoma or other malignancy microscopically, and vice versa. Diagnostic difficulty may arise due to the small and fragmented sample of a core biopsy. This review will focus on the pertinent clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of the more commonly encountered inflammatory lesions of the breast that can be characterized in a core biopsy sample. These include fat necrosis, mammary duct ectasia, granulomatous lobular mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, and abscess. The microscopic differential diagnoses for these lesions when seen in a core biopsy sample will be discussed.

  5. A review of the effects on IRT item parameter estimates with a focus on misbehaving common items in test equating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis P Michaelides

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of Item Response Theory. Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  6. A Review of the Effects on IRT Item Parameter Estimates with a Focus on Misbehaving Common Items in Test Equating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Michalis P

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the topic of change or drift in item parameter estimates in the context of item response theory (IRT). Content effects, such as instructional variation and curricular emphasis, as well as context effects, such as the wording, position, or exposure of an item have been found to impact item parameter estimates. The issue becomes more critical when items with estimates exhibiting differential behavior across test administrations are used as common for deriving equating transformations. This paper reviews the types of effects on IRT item parameter estimates and focuses on the impact of misbehaving or aberrant common items on equating transformations. Implications relating to test validity and the judgmental nature of the decision to keep or discard aberrant common items are discussed, with recommendations for future research into more informed and formal ways of dealing with misbehaving common items.

  7. Microalgae for high-value compounds and biofuels production: a review with focus on cultivation under stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Nerantzis, Elias

    2013-12-01

    Microalgal biomass as feedstock for biofuel production is an attracting alternative to terrestrial plant utilization for biofuels production. However, today the microalgal cultivation systems for energy production purposes seem not yet to be economically feasible. Microalgae, though cultivated under stress conditions, such as nutrient starvation, high salinity, high temperature etc. accumulate considerable amounts (up to 60-65% of dry weight) of lipids or carbohydrates along with several secondary metabolites. Especially some of the latter are valuable compounds with an enormous range of industrial applications. The simultaneous production of lipids or carbohydrates for biofuel production and of secondary metabolites in a biorefinery concept might allow the microalgal production to be economically feasible. This paper aims to provide a review on the available literature about the cultivation of microalgae for the accumulation of high-value compounds along with lipids or carbohydrates focusing on stress cultivation conditions. © 2013.

  8. A Review of Inflammatory Processes of the Breast with a Focus on Diagnosis in Core Biopsy Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Ginter, Paula S; Shin, Sandra J

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory and reactive lesions of the breast are relatively uncommon among benign breast lesions and can be the source of an abnormality on imaging. Such lesions can simulate a malignant process, based on both clinical and radiographic findings, and core biopsy is often performed to rule out malignancy. Furthermore, some inflammatory processes can mimic carcinoma or other malignancy microscopically, and vice versa. Diagnostic difficulty may arise due to the small and fragmented sample of a core biopsy. This review will focus on the pertinent clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of the more commonly encountered inflammatory lesions of the breast that can be characterized in a core biopsy sample. These include fat necrosis, mammary duct ectasia, granulomatous lobular mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, and abscess. The microscopic differential diagnoses for these lesions when seen in a core biopsy sample will be discussed.

  9. A review of global outlook on fluoride contamination in groundwater with prominence on the Pakistan current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Atta; Farooqi, Abida; Xiao, Tangfu; Ali, Waqar; Noor, Sifat; Abiola, Oyebamiji; Ali, Salar; Nasim, Wajid

    2017-12-19

    Several million people are exposed to fluoride (F - ) via drinking water in the world. Current review emphasized the elevated level of fluoride concentrations in the groundwater and associated potential health risk globally with a special focus on Pakistan. Millions of people are deeply dependent on groundwater from different countries of the world encompassing with an elevated level of fluoride. The latest estimates suggest that around 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, are under the dreadful fate of fluorosis. India and China, the two most populous countries of the world, are the worst affected. In Pakistan, fluoride data of 29 major cities are reviewed and 34% of the cities show fluoride levels with a mean value greater than 1.5 mg/L where Lahore, Quetta and Tehsil Mailsi are having the maximum values of 23.60, 24.48, > 5.5 mg/L, respectively. In recent years, however, other countries have minimized, even eliminated its use due to health issues. High concentration of fluoride for extended time period causes adverse effects of health such as skin lesions, discoloration, cardiovascular disorders, dental fluorosis and crippling skeletal fluorosis. This review deliberates comprehensive strategy of drinking water quality in the global scenario of fluoride contamination, especially in Pakistan with prominence on major pollutants, mitigation technologies, sources of pollution and ensuing health problems. Considering these verities, health authorities urgently need to establish alternative means of water decontamination in order to prevent associated health problems.

  10. Ceramic tape casting: A review of current methods and trends with emphasis on rheological behaviour and flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbari, M.; Bulatova, R.; Tok, A.I.Y.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Mitsoulis, E.; Hattel, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Brief review of the tape casting process for ceramics. • Role of fluid flow analysis in tape casting of ceramics. • Rheological classification of common fluids in tape casting. • Review of commonly used rheological behaviour for ceramics in tape casting. - Abstract: Tape casting has been used to produce thin layers of ceramics that can be used as single layers or can be stacked and laminated into multilayered structures. Today, tape casting is the basic fabrication process that provides multilayered capacitors and multilayered ceramic packages. In tape casting the rheological behaviour of the slurry as well as the material flow during casting are of utmost importance since these phenomena to a large extent determine the final properties and hence the quality of the cast product. During the last decades this has led to an increasing number of works in literature within fluid flow analysis of tape casting. In the present paper a review of the development of the tape casting process with particular focus on the rheological classifications as well as modelling the material flow is hence presented and in this context the current status is examined and future potential discussed.

  11. Ceramic tape casting: A review of current methods and trends with emphasis on rheological behaviour and flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbari, M., E-mail: mjab@mek.dtu.dk [Process Modelling Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Bulatova, R. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, Building 779, Roskilde (Denmark); Tok, A.I.Y. [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Bahl, C.R.H. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, Building 779, Roskilde (Denmark); Mitsoulis, E. [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Hattel, J.H. [Process Modelling Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Brief review of the tape casting process for ceramics. • Role of fluid flow analysis in tape casting of ceramics. • Rheological classification of common fluids in tape casting. • Review of commonly used rheological behaviour for ceramics in tape casting. - Abstract: Tape casting has been used to produce thin layers of ceramics that can be used as single layers or can be stacked and laminated into multilayered structures. Today, tape casting is the basic fabrication process that provides multilayered capacitors and multilayered ceramic packages. In tape casting the rheological behaviour of the slurry as well as the material flow during casting are of utmost importance since these phenomena to a large extent determine the final properties and hence the quality of the cast product. During the last decades this has led to an increasing number of works in literature within fluid flow analysis of tape casting. In the present paper a review of the development of the tape casting process with particular focus on the rheological classifications as well as modelling the material flow is hence presented and in this context the current status is examined and future potential discussed.

  12. Investigating the debate of home birth safety: A critical review of cohort studies focusing on selected infant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Heather R; Alio, Amina P; Fisher, Susan G

    2016-07-01

    There is a debate within the medical community regarding the safety of planned home births. The presumption of increased risk of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality at home due to limited access to life-saving interventions is not clearly supported by research. The aim of the present study was to assess strengths and limitations of the methodological approaches of cohort studies that compare home births with hospital births by focusing on selected infant outcomes. Studies were identified that assess the risk for at least one of three infant outcomes (mortality, Apgar score, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]) of home births compared with hospital births. Fifteen cohort studies were included. Two studies of low-risk births and two including higher risk births found home births to be at an increased risk of neonatal mortality. However, mortality is rare in developed nations and may not be the best measure of safety. When studies focused on low-risk pregnancies, planned birth location, and well-trained birth attendants, there was no difference in neonatal morbidity (Apgar score and NICU admission). Many methodological challenges were identified among these studies. This review contributes to the home birth published work by identifying key strengths and limitations that need to be accounted for in the interpretation of study findings and the development of future studies. Based on this review, the key variables that would strengthen future studies are birth attendant identification, documented planned birth location, and specification of the birth risk level. Uniformity of data collection and minimizing missing data are also critical. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  13. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  14. Current status and future therapeutic perspectives of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Komal; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Patel, Seema; Khan, Ishrat; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Akhter, Najeeb; Hassan, Syed Shams Ul

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest form of heterogeneous brain cancer. It affects an enormous number of patients every year and the survival is approximately 8 to 15 months. GBM has driven by complex signaling pathways and considered as a most challenging to treat. Standard treatment of GBM includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and also the combined treatment. This review article described inter and intra- tumor heterogeneity of GMB. In addition, recent chemotherapeutic agents, with their mechanism of action have been defined. FDA-approved drugs also been focused over here and most importantly highlighting some natural and synthetic and novel anti- glioma agents, that are the main focus of researchers nowadays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Flux-lock type of superconducting fault current limiters: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badakhshan, M.; Mousavi G., S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Power systems must be developed and extended to supply the continuous enhancement of demands for electrical energy. This development of systems in addition to the integration of distributed generation (DG) units to the power systems results higher capacity of system. Hence, short circuit current of network is confronted with persistent increasing. Since exploration of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) have attracted a lot of attention all over the world. There are different types of SFCLs. Flux-lock type of SFCL because of its characteristics in fault current limitation is an important category of SFCLs. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review of research activities and applications of Flux-lock type of SFCLs in power systems.

  16. Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome: a review focused on clinical and electrophysiological subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncini, Antonino; Shahrizaila, Nortina; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    In 2016, we have seen a rapid emergence of Zika virus-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) since its first description in a French-Polynesian patient in 2014. Current evidence estimates the incidence of GBS at 24 cases per 100 000 persons infected by Zika virus. This will result in a sharp rise in the number of GBS cases worldwide with the anticipated global spread of Zika virus. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of Zika-associated GBS is crucial to prepare us for the current epidemic. In this review, we evaluate the existing literature on GBS in association with Zika and other flavivirus to better define its clinical subtypes and electrophysiological characteristics, demonstrating a demyelinating subtype of GBS in most cases. We also recommend measures that will help reduce the gaps in knowledge that currently exist. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Maternal arsenic exposure and birth outcomes: a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic literature focused on drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S; Surdu, Simona; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2014-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human toxicant to which populations may be exposed through consumption of geogenically contaminated groundwater. A growing body of experimental literature corroborates the reproductive toxicity of iAs; however, the results of human studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies focused on drinking water iAs exposure and birth outcomes to assess the evidence for causality and to make recommendations for future study. We reviewed 18 English language papers assessing birth weight, gestational age, and birth size. Thirteen of the studies were conducted among populations with frequent exposure to high-level groundwater iAs contamination (>10 μg/L) and five studies were conducted in areas without recognized contamination. Most studies comprised small samples and used cross-sectional designs, often with ecologic exposure assessment strategies, although several large prospective investigations and studies with individual-level measurements were also reported. We conclude that: (1) the epidemiologic evidence for an increased risk of low birth weight (water iAs contamination quality epidemiologic studies are necessary to more definitively assess the risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal models of polycystic ovary syndrome: a focused review of rodent models in relationship to clinical phenotypes and cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Danni; Vine, Donna F

    2012-07-01

    To review rodent animal models of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with a focus on those associated with the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Review. Rodent models of PCOS. Description and comparison of animal models. Comparison of animal models to clinical phenotypes of PCOS. Animals used to study PCOS include rodents, mice, rhesus monkeys, and ewes. Major methods to induce PCOS in these models include subcutaneous injection or implantation of androgens, estrogens, antiprogesterone, letrozole, prenatal exposure to excess androgens, and exposure to constant light. In addition, transgenic mice models and spontaneous PCOS-like rodent models have also been developed. Rodents are the most economical and widely used animals to study PCOS and ovarian dysfunction. The model chosen to study the development of PCOS and other metabolic parameters remains dependent on the specific etiologic hypotheses being investigated. Rodent models have been shown to demonstrate changes in insulin metabolism, with or without induction of hyperandrogenemia, and limited studies have investigated cardiometabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Given the clinical heterogeneity of PCOS, the utilization of different animal models may be the best approach to further our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with the early etiology of PCOS and cardiometabolic risk. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mindfulness, Eating Behaviours, and Obesity: A Review and Reflection on Current Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzios, Michail; Wilson, Janet Clare

    2015-03-01

    Mindfulness and mindful eating have become popular in recent years. In this review, we first explore what mindfulness is in the context of psychological research, and why it offers promise for eating behaviours and weight loss. Second, we review the main empirical findings for weight loss in mindfulness-based intervention programmes. Third, contradictions in the findings are explored in more depth, and suggestions are made regarding why they may be occurring. Fourth, the benefits of adding self-compassion (and compassion) training to mindfulness practise to assist weight loss is discussed. Finally, the limitations of the research literature (and possible solutions) are explored. Overall, it is concluded that while mindfulness meditations that specifically focus on eating may be extremely helpful in promoting better eating behaviours, and assist in weight regulation, work is still needed to make such interventions appeal to a wider audience.

  20. Design and analysis of group-randomized trials in cancer: A review of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David M; Pals, Sherri L; George, Stephanie M; Kuzmichev, Andrey; Lai, Gabriel Y; Lee, Jocelyn A; Myles, Ranell L; Nelson, Shakira M

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current practices for the design and analysis of group-randomized trials involving cancer-related risk factors or outcomes and to offer recommendations to improve future trials. We searched for group-randomized trials involving cancer-related risk factors or outcomes that were published or online in peer-reviewed journals in 2011-15. During 2016-17, in Bethesda MD, we reviewed 123 articles from 76 journals to characterize their design and their methods for sample size estimation and data analysis. Only 66 (53.7%) of the articles reported appropriate methods for sample size estimation. Only 63 (51.2%) reported exclusively appropriate methods for analysis. These findings suggest that many investigators do not adequately attend to the methodological challenges inherent in group-randomized trials. These practices can lead to underpowered studies, to an inflated type 1 error rate, and to inferences that mislead readers. Investigators should work with biostatisticians or other methodologists familiar with these issues. Funders and editors should ensure careful methodological review of applications and manuscripts. Reviewers should ensure that studies are properly planned and analyzed. These steps are needed to improve the rigor and reproducibility of group-randomized trials. The Office of Disease Prevention (ODP) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken several steps to address these issues. ODP offers an online course on the design and analysis of group-randomized trials. ODP is working to increase the number of methodologists who serve on grant review panels. ODP has developed standard language for the Application Guide and the Review Criteria to draw investigators' attention to these issues. Finally, ODP has created a new Research Methods Resources website to help investigators, reviewers, and NIH staff better understand these issues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A Review of Current Machine Learning Methods Used for Cancer Recurrence Modeling and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Geralyn M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Cancer has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease consisting of many different subtypes. The early diagnosis and prognosis of a cancer type has become a necessity in cancer research. A major challenge in cancer management is the classification of patients into appropriate risk groups for better treatment and follow-up. Such risk assessment is critically important in order to optimize the patient’s health and the use of medical resources, as well as to avoid cancer recurrence. This paper focuses on the application of machine learning methods for predicting the likelihood of a recurrence of cancer. It is not meant to be an extensive review of the literature on the subject of machine learning techniques for cancer recurrence modeling. Other recent papers have performed such a review, and I will rely heavily on the results and outcomes from these papers. The electronic databases that were used for this review include PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Query terms used include “cancer recurrence modeling”, “cancer recurrence and machine learning”, “cancer recurrence modeling and machine learning”, and “machine learning for cancer recurrence and prediction”. The most recent and most applicable papers to the topic of this review have been included in the references. It also includes a list of modeling and classification methods to predict cancer recurrence.

  2. Clinical review: Cardiovascular consequences of ovarian disruption: a focus on functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in physically active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Harvey, Paula J

    2011-12-01

    Evidence indicates that hypoestrogenemia is linked with accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Premenopausal women presenting with ovulatory disruption due to functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) are characterized by hypoestrogenemia. One common and reversible form of FHA in association with energy deficiency is exercise-associated amenorrhea (EAA). Articles were found via PubMed search for both original and review articles based on peer review publications between 1974 and 2011 reporting on cardiovascular changes in women with FHA, with emphasis placed on women with EAA. Despite participation in regular exercise training, hypoestrogenic women with EAA demonstrate paradoxical changes in cardiovascular function, including endothelial dysfunction, a known permissive factor for the progression and development of atherosclerosis. Such alterations suggest that the beneficial effects of regular exercise training on vascular function are obviated in the face of hypoestrogenemia. The long-term cardiovascular consequences of altered vascular function in response to ovulatory disruption in women with EAA remain to be determined. Retrospective data, however, suggest premature development and progression of coronary artery disease in older premenopausal women reporting a history of hypothalamic ovulatory disruption. Importantly, in women with EAA, estrogen therapy, folic acid supplementation without change in menstrual status, and resumption of menses restores endothelial function. In this review, we focus on the influence of hypoestrogenemia in association with energy deficiency in mediating changes in cardiovascular function in women with EAA, including endothelial function, regional blood flow, lipid profile, and autonomic control of blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreflex sensitivity. The influence of exercise training is also considered. With the premenopausal years typically considered to be cardioprotective in association with normal ovarian function

  3. 76 FR 4115 - Request for the Technical Review of the Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB): Derivation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... NIOSH-156] Request for the Technical Review of the Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB): Derivation... public review of the draft, Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB): Derivation of Immediately Dangerous to... established and (3) an overview of the analysis applied by NIOSH to develop a scientifically-based approach...

  4. Hepatitis C in Pregnancy: Review of Current Knowledge and Updated Recommendations for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Charlotte M; Hughes, Brenna L; Rhee, Eleanor H J; Kuller, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 1% to 2.5% of pregnant women in the United States are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which carries approximately a 6% risk of mother-to-infant transmission. The aims of this article are to review the current evidence on HCV in pregnancy and to provide updated recommendations for management. Original research articles, review articles, and guidelines on HCV in general and specifically in pregnancy were reviewed, as were drug safety profiles from the Food and Drug Administration. Pregnancy appears to have a beneficial effect on the course of maternal chronic HCV infection. However, it is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including fetal growth restriction and low birth weight, and can be transmitted to the infant in utero or during the peripartum period. No perinatal intervention has been shown to reduce the risk of vertical transmission, but some may increase this risk. To date, no treatment regimens for HCV have been approved for use in pregnancy, but the new ribavirin-free, direct-acting antiviral regimens are being used with high efficacy outside pregnancy. Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnancy generally does not adversely affect maternal well-being but is associated with adverse effects on the fetus because of pregnancy complications and vertical transmission. There are currently no approved treatment regimens for HCV in pregnancy; this should be an active area of research in obstetrics.

  5. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal

    2009-10-01

    To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN). We searched the published English literature and the PubMed(()) for published series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy' (RPN) using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. The search yielded 15 major selected series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy'; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s), as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T(1)) renal neoplasm(s). It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.

  6. Reflecting on the mirror neuron system in autism: a systematic review of current theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2013-01-01

    There is much interest in the claim that dysfunction of the mirror neuron system in individuals with autism spectrum condition causes difficulties in social interaction and communication. This paper systematically reviews all published studies using neuroscience methods (EEG/MEG/TMS/eyetracking/EMG/fMRI) to examine the integrity of the mirror system in autism. 25 suitable papers are reviewed. The review shows that current data are very mixed and that studies using weakly localised measures of the integrity of the mirror system are hard to interpret. The only well localised measure of mirror system function is fMRI. In fMRI studies, those using emotional stimuli have reported group differences, but studies using non-emotional hand action stimuli do not. Overall, there is little evidence for a global dysfunction of the mirror system in autism. Current data can be better understood under an alternative model in which social top-down response modulation is abnormal in autism. The implications of this model and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reviews on current carbon emission reduction technologies and projects and their feasibilities on ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Zhou, Peilin; Wang, Zhongcheng

    2017-06-01

    Concern about global climate change is growing, and many projects and researchers are committed to reducing greenhouse gases from all possible sources. International Maritime (IMO) has set a target of 20% CO2 reduction from shipping by 2020 and also presented a series of carbon emission reduction methods, which are known as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Energy Efficiency Operation Indicator (EEOI). Reviews on carbon emission reduction from all industries indicate that, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an excellent solution to global warming. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review of EEDI and EEOI and CCS is conducted and involves reviewing current policies, introducing common technologies, and considering their feasibilities for marine activities, mainly shipping. Current projects are also presented in this paper, thereby illustrating that carbon emission reduction has been the subject of attention from all over the world. Two case ship studies indicate the economic feasibility of carbon emission reduction and provide a guide for CCS system application and practical installation on ships.

  8. A Systematic Review of Wearable Patient Monitoring Systems - Current Challenges and Opportunities for Clinical Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Moqeem, Aasia A; Mirza, Farhaan; Lindén, Maria

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review is to investigate barriers and challenges of wearable patient monitoring (WPM) solutions adopted by clinicians in acute, as well as in community, care settings. Currently, healthcare providers are coping with ever-growing healthcare challenges including an ageing population, chronic diseases, the cost of hospitalization, and the risk of medical errors. WPM systems are a potential solution for addressing some of these challenges by enabling advanced sensors, wearable technology, and secure and effective communication platforms between the clinicians and patients. A total of 791 articles were screened and 20 were selected for this review. The most common publication venue was conference proceedings (13, 54%). This review only considered recent studies published between 2015 and 2017. The identified studies involved chronic conditions (6, 30%), rehabilitation (7, 35%), cardiovascular diseases (4, 20%), falls (2, 10%) and mental health (1, 5%). Most studies focussed on the system aspects of WPM solutions including advanced sensors, wireless data collection, communication platform and clinical usability based on a specific area or disease. The current studies are progressing with localized sensor-software integration to solve a specific use-case/health area using non-scalable and 'silo' solutions. There is further work required regarding interoperability and clinical acceptance challenges. The advancement of wearable technology and possibilities of using machine learning and artificial intelligence in healthcare is a concept that has been investigated by many studies. We believe future patient monitoring and medical treatments will build upon efficient and affordable solutions of wearable technology.

  9. Artificial Intelligence approaches in hematopoietic cell transplant: A review of the current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Ibrahim N; ElHassan, Tusneem; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2018-06-08

    Currently, the evidence-based literature on healthcare is expanding exponentially. The opportunities provided by the advancement in artificial intelligence (AI) tools i.e. machine learning are appealing in tackling many of the current healthcare challenges. Thus, AI integration is expanding in most fields of healthcare, including the field of hematology. This study aims to review the current applications of AI in the field hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Literature search was done involving the following databases: Ovid-Medline including in-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations and google scholar. The abstracts of the following professional societies: American Society of Haematology (ASH), American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) were also screened. Literature review showed that the integration of AI in the field of HCT has grown remarkably in the last decade and confers promising avenues in diagnosis and prognosis within HCT populations targeting both pre and post-transplant challenges. Studies on AI integration in HCT have many limitations that include poorly tested algorithms, lack of generalizability and limited use of different AI tools. Machine learning techniques in HCT is an intense area of research that needs a lot of development and needs extensive support from hematology and HCT societies / organizations globally since we believe that this would be the future practice paradigm. Key words: Artificial intelligence, machine learning, hematopoietic cell transplant.

  10. Tranexamic acid for the management of uterine fibroid tumors: A systematic review of the current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitsidis, Panagiotis; Koukoulomati, Anna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a detailed systematic review of the current evidence on the administration and efficacy of tranexamic acid in patients with menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search on the following databases PubMed and Medline (1950-2013); (1980-2013); Cochrane library (1993-2013). RESULTS: A total of 36 articles were retrieved after the initial electronic search. Careful assessment of the retrieved studies led to the final selection of 5 articles for inclusion in the review. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid may reduce blood loss perioperatively in myomectomies. It may reduce the menorrhagia in patients with fibroids, however a stratification of fibroids by size and location is required to define the responses. It is safe in general, with mild adverse effects observed in some cases. More studies with a double-blind randomized design and larger numbers of participants are necessary to reach more precise and safe conclusions. PMID:25516866

  11. Comprehensive Review in Current Developments of Benzimidazole-Based Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Rangappa S; Hiremathad, Asha; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Nagaraja, Bhari Mallanna

    2015-07-01

    The properties of benzimidazole and its derivatives have been studied over more than one hundred years. Benzimidazole derivatives are useful intermediates/subunits for the development of molecules of pharmaceutical or biological interest. Substituted benzimidazole derivatives have found applications in diverse therapeutic areas such as antiulcer, anticancer agents, and anthelmintic species to name just a few. This work systematically gives a comprehensive review in current developments of benzimidazole-based compounds in the whole range of medicinal chemistry as anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic agents, anti-HIV, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antidiabetic, antileishmanial, antihistaminic, antimalarial agents, and other medicinal agents. This review will further be helpful for the researcher on the basis of substitution pattern around the nucleus with an aim to help medicinal chemists for developing an SAR on benzimidazole drugs/compounds. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. A critical review of the current knowledge regarding the biological impact of nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endes, C; Camarero-Espinosa, S; Mueller, S; Foster, E J; Petri-Fink, A; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Weder, C; Clift, M J D

    2016-12-01

    Several forms of nanocellulose, notably cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrillated cellulose, exhibit attractive property matrices and are potentially useful for a large number of industrial applications. These include the paper and cardboard industry, use as reinforcing filler in polymer composites, basis for low-density foams, additive in adhesives and paints, as well as a wide variety of food, hygiene, cosmetic, and medical products. Although the commercial exploitation of nanocellulose has already commenced, little is known as to the potential biological impact of nanocellulose, particularly in its raw form. This review provides a comprehensive and critical review of the current state of knowledge of nanocellulose in this format. Overall, the data seems to suggest that when investigated under realistic doses and exposure scenarios, nanocellulose has a limited associated toxic potential, albeit certain forms of nanocellulose can be associated with more hazardous biological behavior due to their specific physical characteristics.

  13. Family Planning Practices, Programmes and Policies in India Including Implants and Injectables with a Special Focus on Jharkhand, India: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya; Dehury, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 clearly delineates that the usage of contraceptive practices has increased considerably but is more inclined toward terminal methods of contraception especially the female sterilization. The fact is also evident from various studies carried out from time to time in different Indian states. Given the context we carried out a short review to understand the family planning practices, programs and policies in India including implants and injectable contraceptives with a special focus on the state of Jharkhand. We found that among the reversible methods IUCD (intra uterine contraceptive devices), OC (oral contraceptive) pills and condoms are the most commonly used methods. In this review, in addition to national picture, we specially focused on the state of Jharkhand owing to its very gloomy picture of family planning practices as per NFHS -3 reports. The current usage of any methods of contraception in Jharkhand is only 35.7% out of which terminal methods especially female sterilization accounts to 23.4% and male sterilization being only 0.4%. Similar picture is also reflected in the conventional methods such as; IUCD-0.6%, oral pill -3.8% and condom-2.7%. Compared to the national figure the unmet need for family planning in Jharkhand is also relatively high for the conventional reversible methods than that of terminal methods which is 11.9 and 11.3 respectively. Injectable contraceptives are available only through private or social marketing channels, because of which their use is limited. The studies carried out in different Indian states show improvement in contraceptive prevalence but the same needs further improvement.

  14. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  15. A review of thiazolidinediones and metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes with focus on cardiovascular complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Molavi; Negah, Rassouli; Suveer, Bagwe; Neda, Rasouli

    2007-01-01

    The rising incidence of obesity and insulin resistance to epidemic proportions has closely paralleled the surge in the prevalence of diabetes and outpaced therapeutic advances in diabetes prevention and treatment. Current evidence points to obesity induced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as the common denominators in the evolution of insulin resistance and diabetes. Of all the hypoglycemic agents in the pharmacological arsenal against diabetes, thiazolidinediones, in particular pioglitazone, as well as metformin appear to have additional effects in ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation; rendering them attractive tools for prevention of insulin resistance and diabetes. In addition to their hypoglycemic and lipid modifying properties, pioglitazone and metformin have been shown to exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in vascular beds, potentially slowing the accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the affected population. The combination of pioglitazone and metformin would thus appear to be an effective pharmacological intervention in prevention and treatment of diabetes. Finally, this review will address the currently available evidence on diabetic cardiomyopathy and the potential role of combination therapy with pioglitazone and metformin. PMID:18200815

  16. Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia do Carmo Silva Parreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Is Kinesio Taping more effective than a sham taping/placebo, no treatment or other interventions in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Is the addition of Kinesio Taping to other interventions more effective than other interventions alone in people with musculoskeletal conditions? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal conditions. Intervention: Kinesio Taping was compared with sham taping/placebo, no treatment, exercises, manual therapy and conventional physiotherapy. Outcome measures: Pain intensity, disability, quality of life, return to work, and global impression of recovery. Results: Twelve randomised trials involving 495 participants were included in the review. The effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping was tested in participants with: shoulder pain in two trials; knee pain in three trials; chronic low back pain in two trials; neck pain in three trials; plantar fasciitis in one trial; and multiple musculoskeletal conditions in one trial. The methodological quality of eligible trials was moderate, with a mean of 6.1 points on the 10-point PEDro Scale score. Overall, Kinesio Taping was no better than sham taping/placebo and active comparison groups. In all comparisons where Kinesio Taping was better than an active or a sham control group, the effect sizes were small and probably not clinically significant or the trials were of low quality. Conclusion: This review provides the most updated evidence on the effectiveness of the Kinesio Taping for musculoskeletal conditions. The current evidence does not support the use of this intervention in these clinical populations. PROSPERO registration: CRD42012003436. [Parreira PdCS, Costa LdCM, Hespanhol Junior LC, Lopes AD, Costa LOP (2014 Current evidence does not support the use of Kinesio Taping in clinical practice: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 31–39

  17. A critical review of sex differences in decision-making tasks: focus on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud; Homberg, Judith; de Visser, Leonie

    2013-02-01

    It has been observed that men and women show performance differences in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a task of decision-making in which subjects through exploration learn to differentiate long-term advantageous from long-term disadvantageous decks of cards: men choose more cards from the long-term advantageous decks than women within the standard number of 100 trials. Here, we aim at discussing psychological mechanisms and neurobiological substrates underlying sex differences in IGT-like decision-making. Our review suggests that women focus on both win-loss frequencies and long-term pay-off of decks, while men focus on long-term pay-off. Furthermore, women may be more sensitive to occasional losses in the long-term advantageous decks than men. As a consequence hereof, women need 40-60 trials in addition before they reach the same level of performance as men. These performance differences are related to differences in activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as well as in serotonergic activity and left-right hemispheric activity. Sex differences in orbitofrontal cortex activity may be due to organisational effects of gonadal hormones early in life. The behavioural and neurobiological differences in the IGT between men and women are an expression of more general sex differences in the regulation of emotions. We discuss these findings in the context of sex differences in information processing related to evolutionary processes. Furthermore we discuss the relationship between these findings and real world decision-making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Review of Current Methods for Analysis of Mycotoxins in Herbal Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Dou, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Cheng; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines is an established problem throughout the entire world. The sensitive and accurate analysis of mycotoxin in complicated matrices (e.g., herbs) typically involves challenging sample pretreatment procedures and an efficient detection instrument. However, although numerous reviews have been published regarding the occurrence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines, few of them provided a detailed summary of related analytical methods for mycotoxin determination. This review focuses on analytical techniques including sampling, extraction, cleanup, and detection for mycotoxin determination in herbal medicines established within the past ten years. Dedicated sections of this article address the significant developments in sample preparation, and highlight the importance of this procedure in the analytical technology. This review also summarizes conventional chromatographic techniques for mycotoxin qualification or quantitation, as well as recent studies regarding the development and application of screening assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, lateral flow immunoassays, aptamer-based lateral flow assays, and cytometric bead arrays. The present work provides a good insight regarding the advanced research that has been done and closes with an indication of future demand for the emerging technologies. PMID:29393905

  19. Current Strategies for the Detoxification of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Taisa G; Hadi, Sámed I I A; Costa Alves, Gabriel S; Mendonça, Simone; De Siqueira, Felix G; Miller, Robert N G

    2018-03-21

    Jatropha curcas is an important oilseed plant, with considerable potential in the development of biodiesel. Although Jatropha seed cake, the byproduct of oil extraction, is a residue rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and carbon, with high protein content suitable for application in animal feed, the presence of toxic phorbol esters limits its application in feed supplements and fertilizers. This review summarizes the current methods available for detoxification of this residue, based upon chemical, physical, biological, or combined processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each process are discussed, and future directions involving genomic and proteomic approaches for advancing our understanding of biodegradation processes involving microorganisms are highlighted.

  20. A review of post-modern management techniques as currently applied to Turkish forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölarslan, Emre Sahin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of six post-modern management concepts as applied to Turkish forestry. Up to now, Turkish forestry has been constrained, both in terms of its operations and internal organization, by a highly bureaucratic system. The application of new thinking in forestry management, however, has recently resulted in new organizational and production concepts that promise to address problems specific to this Turkish industry and bring about positive changes. This paper will elucidate these specific issues and demonstrate how post-modern management thinking is influencing the administration and operational capacity of Turkish forestry within its current structure.