WorldWideScience

Sample records for current research outlook

  1. Urbanization and the carbon cycle: Current capabilities and research outlook from the natural sciences perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutyra, Lucy R.; Duren, Riley; Gurney, Kevin R.; Grimm, Nancy; Kort, Eric A.; Larson, Elisabeth; Shrestha, Gyami

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores the urban carbon cycle from the natural sciences perspective, identifying key knowledge gaps and priority areas for future research. The combination of large, concentrated carbon fluxes and rapid change makes cities key elements of the carbon cycle and offers the potential for them to serve as "first responders" for climate action. Estimates of urban-scale carbon fluxes are significantly more uncertain than at larger spatial scales, in part because past studies have mostly avoided local/urban scales where the mix of anthropogenic and natural fluxes is complex and difficult to observationally isolate. To develop effective emission reduction policies, we need to understand emission sources and how they may be changing. Such improved quantification and understanding of underlying processes at the urban scale will not only provide policy-relevant information and improve the understanding of urban dynamics and future scenarios, but will also translate into better global-scale anthropogenic flux estimates, and advance our understanding of carbon cycle and climate feedbacks across multiple scales. Understanding the relationship between urbanization and urban carbon flows requires intellectual integration with research communities beyond the natural sciences. Cities can serve as interdisciplinary process laboratories that are sufficiently constrained in both spatial and governance scale to support truly integrated research by the natural sciences, social sciences, and engineering. A thoughtfully crafted science research agenda that is grounded in sustained, dense observations relevant to estimating urban carbon fluxes and their controlling processes and is focused on a statistically significant sample of cities will advance our understanding of the carbon cycle.

  2. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine in Iran: Current State of Research and Future Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Sahba; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Moshiri, Ali; Kazemnejad, Somaieh

    2015-07-01

    During two decades ago, Iran has exhibited remarkable increase in scientific publication in different aspects including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). The field of TERM in Iran dates comes back to the early part of the 1990 and the advent of stem cell researches. Nowadays, Iran is one of the privileged countries in stem cell therapy in the Middle East. The next major milestone in TERM was application and fabrication of scaffolds for tissue engineering in the early 2000s with a focus on engineering bone and cartilage tissue. A good amount of thoughtful works has also yielded prototypes of other tissue substitutes such as nerve conduits, liver, and even heart. However, forward movement to clinical application of these products is still far from offering clinically acceptable solutions. In this study, we have presented a comprehensive review on the efforts of Iranian scientists in different issues of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine field.

  3. Current outlook of ethics in research with human subjects Panorama atual da ética em pesquisa em seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marystella Tomoe Takahashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, medical care has been increasingly permeated by the concept of evidence-based-medicine, in which clinical research plays a crucial role in establishing diagnostic and treatment. Following the improvements in clinical research, we have a growing concern and understanding that some ethical issues must be respected when the subjects are human beings. Research with human subjects relies on the principles of autonomy, beneficence, no maleficence and justice. Ordinance 196/96 from the National Health Board adds to the Brazilian legislation such renowned bioethical principles. AIM: Discuss the main ethical aspects involved in research with human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Critical analysis of Ordinance 196/96 and related literature. CONCLUSION: Ordinance 196/96 rules research with human subjects; nevertheless, it requires more in-depth discussions regarding the informed consent, use of placebo, research with vulnerable populations and research in developing countries.Nas últimas décadas, a medicina tem sido cada vez mais permeada pelo conceito de medicina baseada em evidências, na qual a pesquisa clínica possui papel crucial no estabelecimento de diretrizes diagnósticas e terapêuticas. Com o avanço da pesquisa clínica, surgiu a preocupação e o entendimento que certos padrões éticos devam ser obedecidos quando o objeto de estudo é o ser humano. A pesquisa em seres humanos baseia-se nos princípios da autonomia, beneficência, não maleficência e justiça. A Resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde incorpora à legislação brasileira tais princípios bioéticos consagrados. OBJETIVO: Discutir os principais aspectos éticos envolvidos na pesquisa em seres humanos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Análise crítica da Resolução 196/96 do CNS e literatura correlata. CONCLUSÃO: A Resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde regulamenta a experimentação em seres humanos, no entanto necessita de discussões mais

  4. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology institutions and the stumbling blocks in developing the Malaysian biotechnology industry. This paper identifies three main impediments in the current Malaysian biotechnology, namely lack of skilled human capital; weak industrial base; and lack of commercialization effort. Besides, a set of strategies are discussed with aim to further improve and strengthen the Malaysian biotechnology industry. In general, the arguments are presented by mapping out the symbiotic relationship between data from elite interviews, archival data and observations.

  5. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR; Ravi MAHALINGAM

    2010-01-01

    .... Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities...

  6. CURRENT STATUS AND OUTLOOK OF RENEWABLE ENERGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 80% of the current Nigerian primary energy consumption is met by petroleum. ... energy resources in Nigeria, namely; biomass, hydropower, solar and wind energy. ... The data presented in this paper is a crucial eye-opener for relevant ...

  7. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR; Mahalingam, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology in...

  8. Chinese Soybean Industry: Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachuan Liu; Shaojun Tian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybeanresources and their industry development inChina. Due to the high demand in domesticmarket, it is necessary to expand the cultivationarea and improve the production yields.Meanwhile, to inc e the export of soybeansfrom overseas is also important. China has along history in producing traditional soyfoods. After recent fifty years, the developmentof Chinese soybean industry has reached to areasonable level. The current status of Chinesesoybean industry has been included in thepaper. It has been expected that in next fiveyears, there will be a rapid increase in theprocessing of soybeans; it will become morereasonable in the scale and distribution ofsoybean oil factories. Emphasis will be put onthe improvement of the functionalities ofsoybean products. Different kinds of functionalsoybean foods, especially the soybean proteinsfor particular uses will be developed by the useof modification technologies. Concern is alsogiven to the multi -utilizn of soybeanresources, which not only the extractionof oil from soybean and the processingof protein products from the meal; but alsoincludes the recovery of the naturalchemicals from soybeans which could then beexploited to novel products with more profits.

  9. Battelle Research Outlook, Volume 2 Number 2. The Schools: Organizing for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Arthur B., Ed.

    "Outlook" publications focus on areas of science and technology in which research can be valuable to industry, government, and society as a whole. Their purpose is to point up significant current problems in those areas and to suggest effective research approaches to their solution. This issue, dealing with changes taking place in our schools and…

  10. Mapping of zebrafish research: a global outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinth, Priyamvadah; Mahesh, Gopalakrishnan; Panwar, Yatish

    2013-12-01

    On the basis of analysis of 17,151 records on zebrafish identified from Zebrafish Information Network: the zebrafish model organism database and Web of Science, the research performance on this model organism has been evaluated. The earliest research work on zebrafish as reflected in the databases goes back to 1951. After a rather slow growth till the 1980s, research on zebrafish gained momentum in the 1990s. Analysis shows a rapid and consistent increase in the publication output with 226 publications in the year 1996, to 1929 publications in the year 2012. The prominent areas of zebrafish research, journals, and leading authors as reflected from the research output have been identified. USA is the most productive country with 8196 articles. The most frequently used keywords were also determined to gain insights about the research trends and some of the commonly used keywords other than zebrafish and Danio rerio are development, retina, and gene expression.

  11. Power Line Communication (PLC) in Space - Current Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Power Line Communication (PLC) technology as known from various terrestrial applications, e.g. in building automation, in the automotive sector and on aircraft, appears to be a promising technology for the use on spacecraft. Starting from a critical overview on existing terrestrial PLC applications with their pros and cons, the paper gives a motivation for the introduction of the PLC technology on spacecraft, discusses the potential areas where it can be applied and is highlighting the potential problem areas. A short overview of on-going ESA PLC activities is provided and an outlook is given.

  12. Astroparticles in Latin America: current status and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Sidelnik, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The successful installation and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astroparticle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO project, begun in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). This observatory consists of different arrays of water-Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latinoamericano de Experimentos Subterr\\'{a}neos). This organization promotes ...

  13. Outlook on Research in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasel, Cornelia; Bormann, Inka; Schutte, Kerstin; Trempler, Kati; Fischbach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). It shows a lack of correspondence between ESD research and recent debates in educational research. Research on ESD has established as a field of research with insufficient relations to other fields in educational research. Based on the overview…

  14. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  15. Chinese Soybean Industry:Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DachuanLiu; ShaojunTian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybean resources and their industry development in China.Due to the high demand in domestic market,it is necessary to expand the cultivation area and improve the production yields.Meanwhile,to increase the export of soybeans from overseas is also important.China has a long history in producing traditional soybean foods.After recent fifty years,the development of Chinese soybean industry has reached to a reasonable level.The current status of Chinese soybean industry has been included in the paper.It has been expected that in next five years,there will be a rapid increase in the processing of soybeans;it will become more reasonable in the scale and distribution of soybean oil factories.Emphasis will be put on the improvement of the functionalities of soybean products.Different kinds of functional soybean foods,especially the soybean proteins for particular uses will be developed by the use of modification technologies.Concern is also given to the multi-utilization of soybean resources,which not only covers the extraction of oil from soybean seeds and the processing of protein products from the meal;but also includes the recovery of the natural phyto-chemicals from soybeans which could then be exploited to novel products with more profits.

  16. The latest results from source term research. Overview and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, Luis E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Haste, Tim [Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, Paul-Lez-Durance (France). Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN); Kaerkelae, Teemu [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    Source term research has continued internationally for more than 30 years, increasing confidence in calculations of the potential radioactive release to the environment after a severe reactor accident. Important experimental data have been obtained, mainly under international frameworks such as OECD/NEA and EURATOM. Specifically, Phebus FP provides major insights into fission product release and transport. Results are included in severe accident analysis codes. Data from international projects are being interpreted with a view to further improvements in these codes. This paper synthesizes the recent main outcomes from source term research on these topics, and on source term mitigation. It highlights knowledge gaps remaining and discusses ways to proceed. Aside from this further knowledge-driven research, there is consensus on the need to assess the source term predictive ability of current system codes, taking account of scale-up from experiment to reactor conditions.

  17. Battelle Research Outlook, Volume 2 Number 3. Cleaning Up the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Arthur B., Ed.

    "Outlook" publications focus on areas of science and technology in which research can be valuable to industry, government, and society as a whole. This issue deals with the problems of air pullution and air quality control. The first of six essays,". . . This Most Excellent Canopy, the Air," prognosticates the surge in atmospheric pollution and…

  18. Current status and future outlook for bonded neodymium permanent magnets (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croat, J. J.

    1997-04-01

    Bonded neodymium magnets can provide significant size and weight reduction and/or performance enhancement over sintered and, particularly, bonded ferrite permanent magnets and, moreover, provide these benefits at reasonable cost. Primarily for these reasons, these bonded magnets are now used in a wide and growing range of computer peripheral, office automation, and consumer electronic applications and now constitute the fastest growing segment of the permanent magnet market. The current status of these materials will be reviewed. Included is a brief overview of the manufacture of these magnetically isotropic magnets and a discussion of their unique properties and features from the perspective of both bonded magnet producer and user. Major applications are discussed as are some of the factors that will drive the market for these materials in the future. New technical developments, including the status and outlook for anisotropic bonded materials, high remanance isotropic materials and high temperature bonded magnets will also be discussed.

  19. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  20. PROBLEMS AND OUTLOOK OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botagoz Turdalieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of scientific work on regional and individual levels can be achieved by the using scientometric methods of a quantitative analysis of bibliographic information available in such databases as Science Citation Index (SCI. Unfortunately, Kazakhstan scientific journals have not been included yet in the Thomson Reuters Corp. register of periodicals, that substantially distorts the actual national scientometric indexes. The analysis of Database “National Citation Reports” (Kazakhstan, which correlated with a contribution of Kazakhstan into the world science development, has shown the low level of research activities of Kazakhstan scientists on international arena. So, the share of international publications of Kazakhstan in the global flow is equal to 0,021 % (1044 doc. that corresponds to the 87th place in the general list of countries of 177 names. Subject to the ranking of countries into groups by the number of the published works, Kazakhstan is referring to the group of 46 countries having 1000-10000 publications over 5 years, of which 8,6% in  medicine. In this article the use of statistics and appropriate software by the authors of original articles in such journals as recommended by the Kazakh National Centre for Scientific & Technical Expertise (NCSTE and included in the Database еlibrary.kz was evaluated. Research was conducted according to Research Report, due to which a research design and statistical analysis methods were estimated.  In the rating of the research design, the authors of articles mostly used as follows: description of a series of cases–63,2%, description of the individual cases -27,1%, and description of specific cases–9,1%. A scope of selection in Section “Research Methods” was only calculated in 21,8% of cases, and in 63,9% of cases there was no description how the selection was carried out. Methods of analytical statistics were used in the 46,0% of cases. And there were references to

  1. Current Status and Outlook of Researches on E-waste Logistics Management%电子废弃物物流管理问题研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,on the basis of a literature review,we analyzed the current studies concerning e-waste logistics management from the angles of legislation,recycling management,reverse logistics network,and agent activity of the recycling system,etc.%在文献梳理的基础上,从电子废弃物立法政策制度、回收管理模式、逆向物流网络、回收系统主体行为几方面对目前有关电子废弃物物流管理问题的研究进行了分析与展望.

  2. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  3. Research and development with regard to severe accidents in pressurised water reactors: Summary and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document reviews the current state of research on severe accidents in France and other countries. It aims to provide an objective vision, and one that's as exhaustive as possible, for this innovative field of research. It will help in identifying R and D requirements and categorising them hierarchically. Obviously, the resulting prioritisation must be completed by a rigorous examination of needs in terms of safety analyses for various risks and physical phenomena, especially in relation to Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments. PSA-2 should be sufficiently advanced so as not to obscure physical phenomena that, if not properly understood, might result in substantial uncertainty. It should be noted that neither the safety analyses nor PSA-2 are presented in this document. This report describes the physical phenomena liable to occur during a severe accident, in the reactor vessel and the containment. It presents accident sequences and methods for limiting impact. The corresponding scenarios are detailed in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with in-vessel accident progression, examining core degradation (3.1), corium behaviour in the lower head (3.2), vessel rupture (3.3) and high-pressure core meltdown (3.4). Chapter 4 focuses on phenomena liable to induce early containment failure, namely direct containment heating (4.1), hydrogen risk (4.2) and steam explosions (4.3). The phenomenon that could lead to a late containment failure, namely molten core-concrete interaction, is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 focuses on problems related to in-vessel and ex-vessel corium retention and cooling, namely in-vessel retention by flooding the primary circuit or the reactor pit (6.1), cooling of the corium under water during the corium-concrete interaction (6.2), corium spreading (6.3) and ex-vessel core catchers (6.4). Chapter 7 relates to the release and transport of fission products (FP), addressing the themes of in-vessel FP release (7.1) and ex-vessel FP release (7

  4. Lexical knowledge sources for cartography and GIS - development, current status and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wolf Günther

    2016-12-01

    Lexical knowledge sources are indispensable for research, education and general information. The transition of the reference works to the digital world has been a gradual one. This paper discusses the basic principles and structure of knowledge presentation, as well as user access and knowledge acquisition with specific consideration of contributions in German. The ideal reference works of the future should be interactive, optimally adapted to the user, reliable, current and quotable.

  5. Online-coupled meteorology and chemistry models: history, current status, and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The climate-chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation feedbacks are important processes occurring in the atmosphere. Accurately simulating those feedbacks requires fully-coupled meteorology, climate, and chemistry models and presents significant challenges in terms of both scientific understanding and computational demand. This paper reviews the history and current status of the development and application of online-coupled meteorology and chemistry models, with a focus on five representative models developed in the US including GATOR-GCMOM, WRF/Chem, CAM3, MIRAGE, and Caltech unified GCM. These models represent the current status and/or the state-of-the science treatments of online-coupled models worldwide. Their major model features, typical applications, and physical/chemical treatments are compared with a focus on model treatments of aerosol and cloud microphysics and aerosol-cloud interactions. Aerosol feedbacks to planetary boundary layer meteorology and aerosol indirect effects are illustrated with case studies for some of these models. Future research needs for model development, improvement, application, as well as major challenges for online-coupled models are discussed.

  6. 绿色建筑当前的发展与展望%CURRENT DEVELOPMENT AND OUTLOOK OF GREEN BUILDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐至钧; 赵尧钟

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept and current development of green building, significance of green building design is introduced, design content and characteristics of low-carbon energy-saving green residential building are described in details. Domestic winning green building projects of recent two years are listed. Wide and bright development outlook of green building are discussed on the aspects of existing problems and development trend of green building.%从绿色建筑的概念与当前发展入手,介绍绿色建筑设计的内涵,详细介绍了绿色低碳节能住宅设计的内容和特点,列举了我国近两年评选的绿色建筑项目,最后从绿色建筑存在问题和发展趋势论证了绿色建筑广阔的发展前景.

  7. Current outlook for the study of human rights since its dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Giovanna Vivas Barrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shows a overview of a state of art about the relationships between ontological, epistemological and sociological dimension of human rights. In this research we seek to identify central problems and the methodologies used in such dimensions. In this way, we expose the conceptual framework and tree topics in the research problem: (i constitutional theory; (ii constitutional procedural law, and (iii international systems of human rights protection. This work present the problems found in scientifically articles available in expert databases such as Proquest, Ebsco, Dialnet and Redalyc.

  8. Current Status and Future Outlook of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuro; Yoshii, Ryosuke

    2007-07-01

    For Japan, a country poor in natural resources, in light of the tough energy situation in recent times, a National Energy Strategy with energy security at its core was established in May 2006. The key point of the Strategy is nuclear power generation, and the aim is to ensure that nuclear power generation continues to account for 30 to 40 percent or more of total electricity generated even after 2030. The first step to achieving this goal is to make maximum use of existing plants (55 plants, 49580MWe), and the aim is to achieve a 60-year service life by making improvements to plant operation and maintenance, such as extending current monitoring and maintenance of plant condition, and the implementation of plant aging management. In Japan, plant construction has been continuous since the 1970s. The current new plant construction plan (13 plants, 17230MWe) is to be achieved with a concerted, cohesive national effort. In addition, in order to complete the nuclear fuel cycle, a reprocessing plant is being constructed strictly for peaceful use, and construction of a site for disposing of high-level radioactive waste is also proceeding. Development of the next generation light water reactors and fast breeder reactor cycle is also underway. (auth)

  9. Current status and outlook in the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been currently recognized as one group of the most potential feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high productivity potential, efficient biosynthesis of lipids and less competition with food production. Moreover, utilization of microalgae with environmental purposes (CO2 fixation, NOX and wastewater treatment and biorefinery have been reported. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure stable large-scale production with positive net energy balance. This review gives an overview of the current status of the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection. The practical problems not only facing the microalgae biodiesel production but also associated with microalgae application for environmental pollution control, in particular biological fixation of greenhouse gas (CO2 and NOX and wastewater treatment are described in detail. Notably, the synergistic combination of various applications (e.g. food, medicine, wastewater treatment and flue gas treatment with biodiesel production could enhance the sustainability and economics of the algal biodiesel production system.

  10. Quality management of eLearning for medical education: current situation and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusch, Jasmin; Marienhagen, Jörg; Böckers, Anja; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2008, the German Council of Science had advised universities to establish a quality management system (QMS) that conforms to international standards. The system was to be implemented within 5 years, i.e., until 2014 at the latest. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a QMS suitable for electronic learning (eLearning) domain of medical education to be used across Germany has meanwhile been identified. Methods: We approached all medical universities in Germany (n=35), using an anonymous questionnaire (8 domains, 50 items). Results: Our results (response rate 46.3%) indicated very reluctant application of QMS in eLearning and a major information deficit at the various institutions. Conclusions: Authors conclude that under the limitations of this study there seems to be a considerable need to improve the current knowledge on QMS for eLearning, and that clear guidelines and standards for their implementation should be further defined. PMID:26038685

  11. Online coupled meteorology and chemistry models: history, current status, and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The climate-chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation feedbacks are important processes occurring in the atmosphere. Accurately simulating those feedbacks requires fully-coupled meteorology, climate, and chemistry models and presents significant challenges in terms of both scientific understanding and computational demand. This paper reviews the history and current status of development and application of online coupled models. Several representative online coupled meteorology and chemistry models developed in the U.S. such as GATOR-GCMOM, WRF/Chem, CAM3, MIRAGE, and Caltech unified GCM are included along with case studies. Major model features, physical/chemical treatments, as well as typical applications are compared with a focus on aerosol microphysics treatments, aerosol feedbacks to planetary boundary layer meteorology, and aerosol-cloud interactions. Recommendations for future development and improvement of online coupled models are provided.

  12. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  13. Progress of information technology in healthcare, current state, outlook toward future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dvořák

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brief summary of reasons for development of Hospital Information Systems (HIS is described. We mention different concepts of HIS development. Primary negative attitude of physicians to the invasion of information technology to hospitals has been slowly changed. Extended teaching of fundamentals of computer science at medical universities is very important for a new generation of physicians. Modern methods of e‑learning allow using websites and medical atlases including presentations of surgical interventions in different branches of surgical medicine, physiotherapeutic methods, etc. Medical staff in hospitals may also profit from electronic tools used for education in medical informatics or for obligatory postgraduate courses. Software producing companies are obliged to teach potential users how to use implemented information systems effectively. E-learning is a good method how to teach new employees who need to start using the system. Telematics in health service and use of Internet data storages may be a trend in future development of information systems. Large amount of patient data in current databases is a big encouragement for expanded use of data mining and application of artificial intelligence methods in medical expert systems.

  14. Sugar transporters in efficient utilization of mixed sugar substrates: current knowledge and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojima, Toru; Omumasaba, Crispinus A; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in production of transportation fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, most desirably through biological fermentation. Considerable effort has been expended to develop efficient biocatalysts that convert sugars derived from lignocellulose directly to value-added products. Glucose, the building block of cellulose, is the most suitable fermentation substrate for industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Other sugars including xylose, arabinose, mannose, and galactose that comprise hemicellulose are generally less efficient substrates in terms of productivity and yield. Although metabolic engineering including introduction of functional pentose-metabolizing pathways into pentose-incompetent microorganisms has provided steady progress in pentose utilization, further improvements in sugar mixture utilization by microorganisms is necessary. Among a variety of issues on utilization of sugar mixtures by the microorganisms, recent studies have started to reveal the importance of sugar transporters in microbial fermentation performance. In this article, we review current knowledge on diversity and functions of sugar transporters, especially those associated with pentose uptake in microorganisms. Subsequently, we review and discuss recent studies on engineering of sugar transport as a driving force for efficient bioconversion of sugar mixtures derived from lignocellulose.

  15. Current Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    Biological oceanography, marine food chain dynamics, carbon cycling in the ocean. Martin, Seelye,Ph.D., Johns Hopkins. Geophysical fluid dynamics...currently under investigation, (Ahmed, Packard) 8. Amylase studies An assay for amylase activity has been adapted to measure zooplankton grazing. This...as a function of available food and of the biomass of copepods, was prescribed by sixteen equations: five, corresponding to copepodite stages (I to V

  16. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  17. Coal in India: current status and outlook - Panorama 2008; Le charbon en Inde: etat des lieux et perspectives - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The world cannot do without coal. This energy source covers more than one-quarter (28.4% in 2006) of all primary energy consumption and is used to generate nearly 40% of all electricity consumed worldwide. All scenarios and forecasts agree that coal consumption will be growing substantially, driven mostly by China and India. According to the IEA reference scenario (World Energy Outlook 2007), these two countries are expected to account for 82% of the increase in global coal demand by 2030. The outlook for India gives cause for concern: despite a strong domestic coal industry, it could eventually become a major importer. If so, what will the economic, industrial and environmental consequences be?.

  18. Five-year science outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Research on water quality, on solar activity's possible link to earth climate, and on potential resource deposits will be among the top scientific and technological problems to be tackled during the next 5 years, according to a National Research Council (NRC) report, ‘Outlook for Science and Technology: The Next Five Years.’ Written and reviewed by more than 200 scientists, the report is the second in a series describing current research trends; the first report was issued in 1979. The NRC report also offers a concise overview and comparison of the research environments in the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, and France. In addition, the report identifies prospects for new technologies in seven fields with emerging technologies or emerging situations that rely heavily on technology. The fields discussed are recombinant DNA, superconductivity, medical technology, energy storage, potential new resource deposits, the space shuttle and the space telescope, and information processing.

  19. [Comorbidities with autism spectrum disorders - present state of research and future outlook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinzig, Judith; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2011-03-01

    Numerous somatic and psychopathological disorders occur parallel with autism spectrum disorders. It is presently being discussed whether other co-occurring psychopathological symptoms should constitute a categorical comorbid disorder on their own right and be diagnosed as such; or whether they should be understood as part of the autistic disorder itself. Based on the situation with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the current state of research and our own research results are used as examples to demonstrate which prerequisites must be fulfilled for a comorbid disorder. Furthermore, based on neurobiological findings from the areas of molecular biology, neuropsychology, and imaging we show which requirements emerge for the aetiology, early detection, pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment, course of illness, and the categorical classification approach.

  20. Waste management outlook for mountain regions: Sources and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semernya, Larisa; Ramola, Aditi; Alfthan, Björn; Giacovelli, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Following the release of the global waste management outlook in 2015, the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), through its International Environmental Technology Centre, is elaborating a series of region-specific and thematic waste management outlooks that provide policy recommendations and solutions based on current practices in developing and developed countries. The Waste Management Outlook for Mountain Regions is the first report in this series. Mountain regions present unique challenges to waste management; while remoteness is often associated with costly and difficult transport of waste, the potential impact of waste pollutants is higher owing to the steep terrain and rivers transporting waste downstream. The Outlook shows that waste management in mountain regions is a cross-sectoral issue of global concern that deserves immediate attention. Noting that there is no 'one solution fits all', there is a need for a more landscape-type specific and regional research on waste management, the enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks, and increased stakeholder engagement and awareness to achieve sustainable waste management in mountain areas. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of the Outlook and highlights aspects that need further research. These are grouped per source of waste: Mountain communities, tourism, and mining. Issues such as waste crime, plastic pollution, and the linkages between exposure to natural disasters and waste are also presented.

  1. Current issues with research support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  2. Social networks user: current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1 social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality; 2 personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem. The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connected with socio-demographic and personality characteristics

  3. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  4. A review and outlook of terrestrial and insular vegetation classification research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanhong; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Yongjie; Ye, Ran

    2017-04-01

    The terrestrial vegetation classification in China has attained significant development on the basis of the field investigation and its related research during the past century. Lacking of the observation data, the research situation of insular vegetation classification is diametrical. This article is aiming to fill the vacancy by the conclusive research. Firstly, the article reviews the research experience of Chinese terrestrial vegetation classification and regionalization. Taking the islands of Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province as example, it comes up with the exploration of the relationship between insular vegetation classification and climatic limitation factors, and the approach of researching insular vegetation types and its distribution. Secondly, according to the theory of terrestrial classification, the article discusses the possible vegetation types of the islands of Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province, and make sure that insular vegetation type should be in the range of terrestrial vegetation. Finally, based on the integrative analysis, a new approach of insular vegetation classification is proposed. Starting from the climatic limitation factors distributions, the vegetation types and their distribution have been being deduced, in consideration of the relationship between vegetation and climatic limitation factors, which differ from method of the land vegetation classification.

  5. An outlook of heavy ion driven plasma research at IMP-Lanzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongtao; Xiao, Guoqing; Xu, Hushan; Zhao, Hongwei; Xia, Jiawen; Jin, Genming; Ma, Xinwen; Liu, Yong; Yang, Zhihu; Zhang, Pengming; Wang, Yuyu; Li, Deihui; Zhao, Huanyu; Zhan, Wenlong; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhao, Di; Li, Fuli; Chen, Ximeng

    2009-01-01

    Since the successful completion of the cooling storage ring (CSR) project in China at the end of 2007, high qualitative heavy ion beams with energy ranging from keV to GeV/u have been available at the Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou (HIRFL). More than 10 9 1 GeV/u C 6+ particles or 10 8 235 MeV/u Xe particles can be stored in the CSR main-ring and extracted within hundred nano-seconds during the test running, the beam parameters will be improved in the coming years so that high energy density (HED) conditions could be achieved and investigated there. Recent scientific results from the experiments relevant to plasma research on HIRFL are summarized. Dense plasma research with intense heavy ion beams of CSR is proposed here.

  6. RSM Outlook Summer 2010 : Management Research: Shaping the future of business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Investing in new knowledge production (Catherine Walker) The meteoric rise of the Erasmus Research Institute of Management, or ERIM, would make many a company envious. In a mere ten years it has tripled in size. It has risen from relative obscurity to become one of the top thre

  7. Researches on nuclear wastes: results and outlooks; Recherches sur les dechets nucleaires: resultats et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the CEA is engaged in the design, evaluation and development of new fuels and in the research process on radioactive wastes management. This paper gathers the CEA actions in the domain giving general information on the radioactive wastes nature and management, the wastes sorting to reduce the toxicity, the wastes conditioning and the packages long-dated behavior and the wastes storage and disposal. (A.L.B.)

  8. Disposal of irradiated fuel elements from German research reactors. Status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamm, G. [Central Research Reactor and Nuclear Operations Division, Research Centre Juelich, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    There will be a quantity of highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel (snf) from German research reactors amounting to about 9.1 t by the end of the next decade, which has to be disposed of. About 4.1 t of this quantity are intended to be returned to the USA. The remaining approximately 5 t can be loaded into approximately 30 CASTOR-2 casks and will be stored in a central German dry interim store for about 30 to 50 years (first step of the domestic disposal concept). Of course, snf arising from the operation of research reactors beyond 2010 has to be disposed of in the same way (3 MTR-2 casks every two years for BER-II and FRM-II). It is expected that snf from the zero-power facilities probably will be recycled for reusing the uranium. Due to the amendment of the German Atomic Energy Act intended by the new Federal German Government, the interim dry storage of snf from power reactors in central storage facilities like Ahaus or Gorleben will be stopped and the power reactors have to store snf at their own sites. Although the amendment only concerns nuclear power reactors, it could not be excluded that snf from research reactors, too, cannot be stored at Ahaus or Gorleben at present. (author)

  9. National Energy Outlook Modelling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkers, C.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    For over 20 years, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has been developing the National Energy Outlook Modelling System (NEOMS) for Energy projections and policy evaluations. NEOMS enables 12 energy models of ECN to exchange data and produce consistent and detailed results.

  10. Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020 Retrospective and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Roco, Mihail C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a comprehensive perspective on the global scientific, technological, and societal impact of nanotechnology since 2000, and explores the opportunities and research directions in the next decade to 2020.  The vision for the future of nanotechnology presented here draws on scientific insights from U.S. experts in the field, examinations of lessons learned, and international perspectives shared by participants from 35 countries in a series of high-level workshops organized by Mike Roco of the National Science Foundation (NSF), along with a team of American co-hosts that includes Chad Mirkin, Mark Hersam, Evelyn Hu, and several other eminent U.S. scientists.  The study performed in support of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) aims to redefine the R&D goals for nanoscale science and engineering integration and to establish nanotechnology as a general-purpose technology in the next decade. It intends to provide decision makers in academia, industry, and government with a n...

  11. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  12. International energy outlook 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  13. International energy outlook 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  14. Les piles à combustible. Bilan des travaux de recherches. Perspectives Fuel Cells. Review of Research. Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breelle Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point, sous forme résumée, des travaux de recherches et de développement menés par l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP depuis vingt ans dans le domaine des piles à combustible : sélection des filières directes conduisant au choix de la pile hydrogène-air basse température à électrolyte basique, mise au point des générateurs à hydrogène alimentés en méthanol. On présente les résultats obtenus et les conclusions des enquêtes effectués dans le domaine des groupes électrogènes et des applications spéciales, dans celui de la traction automobile et dans celui de la production massive d'électricité. This article reviews and sums up the research and development done by Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP in the last 20 years in the field of fuel cells, including the selection of direct methods leading to the choice of low-temperature basic-electrolyte hydrogen/air cells and the development of methanol-powered hydrogen generators. The results obtained are desceibed along with the conclusions of surveys made in the field of electric generators and special applications in the fields of automotive traction and massive electricity production.

  15. Cloudy Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Amid uncertainties facing the world economy,one thing is clear: There's no easy way out of the current global predicament.While the European debt crisis calls global recovery into question,woes on the employment front continue to stretch the nerves of policymakers.

  16. Outlook for the use of microsecond plasma opening switches to generate high-power nanosecond current pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgachev, G. I.; Maslennikov, D. D.; Ushakov, A. G.

    2006-12-01

    An analysis is made of the current break process in microsecond plasma opening switches and their possible application in high-current generators. Necessary conditions are determined for generating megavolt pulses in the erosion mode of a plasma opening switch with the gap insulated by an external magnetic field. Under these conditions, efficient sharpening of high-power submegampere current pulses can be achieved. The possibility of using plasma opening switches operating at voltages of 5 6 MV to generate X-ray and gamma emission is discussed. The main operating and design parameters of a six-module plasma opening switch with a current pulse amplitude of 3.7 MA and voltage of 4 6 MV for use in the MOL generator, which is the prototype of one of the 24 modules of the projected Baikal multimegajoule generator, are estimated by using the available scalings.

  17. Lightning current parameters according to IEC 62305. Background, experience and outlook; Blitzstromparameter nach IEC 62305. Hintergrund, Erfahrung und Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidler, Fridolin [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung

    2009-01-15

    Lightning protection measures are specified in the international standard series IEC 62305, which were integrated in European and German standards immediately upon publication in early 2006. The German version is the DIN EN 62 305 (VDE 0185-305). Investigations have shown that lightning currents present the biggest hazard. It is therefore the main danger at which all protective measures of the IEC 62305 standard series are aimed. The lightning current parameters to which the standards refer are based on long-term measurements carried out by Prof. Karl Berger on two telecommunication towers on San Salvatore mountain, Switzerland. (orig.)

  18. Development of a Pilot Data Management Infrastructure for Biomedical Researchers at University of Manchester – Approach, Findings, Challenges and Outlook of the MaDAM Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meik Poschen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Management and curation of digital data has been becoming ever more important in a higher education and research environment characterised by large and complex data, demand for more interdisciplinary and collaborative work, extended funder requirements and use of e-infrastructures to facilitate new research methods and paradigms. This paper presents the approach, technical infrastructure, findings, challenges and outlook (including future development within the successor project, MiSS of the ‘MaDAM: Pilot data management infrastructure for biomedical researchers at University of Manchester’ project funded under the infrastructure strand of the JISC Managing Research Data (JISCMRD programme. MaDAM developed a pilot research data management solution at the University of Manchester based on biomedical researchers’ requirements, which includes technical and governance components with the flexibility to meet future needs across multiple research groups and disciplines.

  19. HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants: Review and Outlook of Current Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm; Zeni, Lorenzo; Gryning, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    these challenges through three coordinated PhD projects in close collaboration with leading academia within the field. The overall goal of these projects is to acquire indepth knowledge of relevant operating phenomena in the offshore OWPP grid, rich with power electronics devices (PEDs) such as the HVDC...... of the projects will be developed and validated models of e.g. the HVDC system, methodologies for assessment of control system stability and fault identification in implemented control system....

  20. HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants: Review and Outlook of Current Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob; Zeni, Lorenzo; Gryning, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    these challenges through three coordinated PhD projects in close collaboration with leading academia within the field. The overall goal of these projects is to acquire in-depth knowledge of relevant operating phenomena in the offshore OWPP grid, rich with power electronics devices (PEDs) such as the HVDC...... of the projects will be developed and validated models of e.g. the HVDC system, methodologies for assessment of control system stability and fault identification in implemented control system....

  1. HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants: Review and Outlook of Current Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob; Zeni, Lorenzo; Gryning, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on grid integration of large offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) using high voltage direct voltage (HVDC) for grid connection. The paper describes in detail selected challenges hereto and presents how DONG Energy Wind Power (DEWP) is addressing...... and the PED widely used in the wind turbine generators (WTGs). Challenges hereto include PED control system interaction (from a stability point of view), assessment of the quality of vendor supplied control systems and their robustness against e.g. short circuits and load rejection. Furthermore, the outcome...

  2. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  3. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices World Health Organization: Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones International Agency for Research on Cancer Press ...

  4. Current concepts in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kok Seng Yap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer research is an extremely broadtopic covering many scientific disciplines includingbiology (e.g. biochemistry and signal transduction,chemistry (e.g. drug discover and development,physics (e.g. diagnostic devices and even computerscience (e.g. bioinformatics. Some would argue thatcancer research will continue in much the same wayas it is by adding further layers of complexity to thescientific knowledge that is already complex and almostbeyond measure. But we anticipate that cancer researchwill undergo a dramatic paradigm shift due to therecent explosion of new discoveries in cancer biology.This review article focuses on the latest horizons incancer research concerning cancer epigenetics, cancerstem cells, cancer immunology and cancer metabolism.

  5. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1989-01-01

    Summaries of six language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include English as the instructional medium, teacher's use of language, Tamil language management, standardizing texts, cross-cultural business negotiations, and assessment of English language needs in computer science. (LB)

  6. Current Research Status of Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD JUNAEDI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The term of allelopathy refers to chemical interactions (inhibitory or stimulatory between plants, between plants and microorganisms, and between microorganisms. The wealth of information on the processes, procedures, and practices of allelopathy has contributed to understanding this field of science. Recently, researches of allelopathy have been conducted in laboratory, greenhouse, and field with multifaceted standpoint in some concerning area: (i allelochemicals identifications and screening test; (ii ecological and physiological aspects of allelopathy; (iii genetic studies and the possibilities of using plant breeding or genetic manipulation to enhance allelopathic varieties; (iv the use of allelopathic potential in the biological control, including as natural pesticide, of weeds and plant diseases as eco-friendly approach for sustainable agriculture scheme.

  7. Current Research on Antiepileptic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xi Wei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy affects about 1% of the world’s population. Due to the fact all antiepileptic drugs (AEDs have some undesirable side effects and about 30% of epileptic patients are not seizure-free with the existing AEDs, there is still an urgent need for the development of more effective and safer AEDs. Based on our research work on antiepileptic compounds and other references in recent years, this review covers the reported work on antiepileptic compounds which are classified according to their structures. This review summarized 244 significant anticonvulsant compounds which are classified by functional groups according to the animal model data, although there are some limitations in the data. This review highlights the properties of new compounds endowed with promising antiepileptic properties, which may be proven to be more effective and selective, and possibly free of unwanted side effects. The reviewed compounds represent an interesting possibility to overcome refractory seizures and to reduce the percentage of patients with a poor response to drug therapy.

  8. Current Researches on the Methods of Diagnosing Sasang Constitution: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Woo Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitution diagnosis has traditionally been conducted by a Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM doctor who examines the external appearance, temperament and various symptoms of an individual and then collectively analyzes this information to determine their own constitutions. However, because this process is subjective and not quantitative, many researchers have been attempting to develop objective and reasonable methods of determining constitutions. In Korea, even though a wide range of research regarding SCM has been conducted, most of the work has not been revealed internationally. So in this review, the authors have searched the Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, as well as other Korean domestic journal databases and Pubmed for research regarding modernized constitution diagnosis methods so to provide the understanding of current research state and outlook for future research.

  9. Current challenges in dedifferentiated fat cells research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mickey; George, Richard L; Evancho-Chapman, M Michelle; Zhang, Ge

    2016-07-02

    Dedifferentiated fat cells show great promises as a novel cell source for stem cell research. It has many advantages when used for cell-based therapeutics including abundance, pluripotency, and safety. However, there are many obstacles researchers need to overcome to make the next big move in DFAT cells research. In this review, we summarize the current main challenges in DFAT cells research including cell culture purity, phenotypic properties, and dedifferentiation mechanisms. The common methods to produce DFAT cells as well as the cell purity issue during DFAT cell production have been introduced. Current approaches to improve DFAT cell purity have been discussed. The phenotypic profile of DFAT cells have been listed and compared with other stem cells. Further studies on elucidating the underlying dedifferentiation mechanisms will dramatically advance DFAT cell research.

  10. Current research on aviation weather (bibliography), 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, B. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The titles, managers, supporting organizations, performing organizations, investigators and objectives of 127 current research projects in advanced meteorological instruments, forecasting, icing, lightning, visibility, low level wind shear, storm hazards/severe storms, and turbulence are tabulated and cross-referenced. A list of pertinent reference material produced through the above tabulated research activities is given. The acquired information is assembled in bibliography form to provide a readily available source of information in the area of aviation meteorology.

  11. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  12. 俄罗斯情报学研究中的情报过程观%Information Process Outlook in Russia Information Science Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪艳

    2012-01-01

    阐述了俄罗斯情报学界的情报过程观,概括了情报过程角度的俄罗斯情报学研究框架。文章分别从这样几个方面进行了探讨:情报系统中的情报过程;生物界、人类社会和技术领域的情报过程;人类生活中的情报过程;管理过程就是纯粹的情报过程。%The paper discusses the information process outlook in information community of Russian, summarized the information science research framework of Russia in the information process. The paper discusses separately from such several aspects: the information process of information system; the information process of the Nature, the human society and the technology; the information process of the Human life; the management process is pure intormation process.

  13. The Making of National Seasonal Wildfire Outlooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Brown, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bridging the gap between research-based experiments and fully operational products has been likened to crossing the valley of death. In this talk, we document the development of pre-season fire potential outlooks, informed by seasonal climate predictions, through a long-term collaboration between NOAA RISA teams, the Program for Climate, Ecosystem and Fire Applications (Desert Research Institute), the National Interagency Fire Center's Predictive Services program and multiple collaborators. To transition experimental outlooks into a sustained, monthly operational product, we co-developed a temporary institution, the National Seasonal Assessment Workshops, as a platform for cross-disciplinary knowledge exchange, training, and experimentation in consensus forecast processes and product development. In our retrospective evaluation of the process, we identified several factors that supported the transition from research to operations. These include: the development of new institutions; focus on a geographic scale commensurate with the needs of federal and state land management agencies; participatory and deliberative engagements; cooperation by many partners with perspectives on the connections between climate and wildland fire management; and iterative engagement sustained by funding and human resource commitments from the key partners. Through co-production of the outlooks and the institution, we created a cross-disciplinary community of practice, thus, increasing the capacity of fire management practitioners to use climate information in decision making. This experiment in developing a collaborative climate service was not an unqualified success. For example, while practitioners almost always *consult* official probabilistic climate forecasts, based on the output from dynamical and statistical models, they sometimes *act* on information from self-constructed forecasts, based on analysis of analogue years. We recommend research to further examine the distribution and

  14. Nuclear energy - status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger; MacDonald, Alan

    2007-07-01

    Rising expectations best characterize the current prospects of nuclear power in a world that is confronted with a burgeoning demand for energy, higher energy prices, energy supply security concerns and growing environmental pressures. It appears that the inherent economic and environmental benefits of the technology and its excellent performance record over the last twenty years are beginning to tilt the balance of political opinion and public acceptance in favour of nuclear power. Nuclear power is a cost-effective supply-side technology for mitigating climate change and can make a substantial contribution to climate protection. This paper reviews the current status of nuclear power and its fuel cycle and provides an outlook on where nuclear power may be headed in the short-to-medium run (20 to 40 years from now). (auth)

  15. Review and Outlook of Comparative Higher Education Research in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    福留, 東土

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the progress of comparative higher education research and reveals related issues that have been previously discussed. In addition, it notes research trends found in the literature as well as papers written during the past decade.   In the past ten years, there have been more than one hundred and fifty individual pieces of published literature or research papers introduced at major academic journals. The United States has remained to be the primary target area of rese...

  16. International energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  17. Current research of hepatic cirrhosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xian Yao; Shu-Lin Jiang; Dong-Mei Yao

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is a common disease that poses a serious threat to public health, and is characterized by chronic,progressive and diffuse hepatic lesions preceded by hepaticfibrosis regardless of the exact etiologies. In recent years,considerable achievements have been made in China in research of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and especially the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in much improved prognosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this paper, the authors review the current status of research in hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and their major complications.

  18. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities ...

  19. Integrated fundamental research on current collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Doris; Tran, Leo

    1993-06-01

    The aim of our research was to add to the basic understanding in the area of current collection with particular emphasis on topics likely to benefit practical objectives. Under sponsorship of this contract, 23 papers were published in the international literature. Additionally, 13 invited lectures and 11 contributed lectures on various aspects of this research were delivered at universities, research laboratories, and international conferences by the principal investigator and co-workers. The development of a novel metal fiber material for sliding electrical contacts was continued with much success. This is expected to become very useful for making metal fiber brushed for homopolar motors/generators, as well as for EML armatures. Included in this report are title pages (and abstracts) for the 23 published papers.

  20. Research on Deans of Schools in Universities:Retrospection and Outlook%Journal of Higher Education Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬红

    2016-01-01

    院长作为大学二级学院的行政负责人,作为学科方向的引领者及人、财、物等相应资源的整合者及配置者,对于学院乃至学校发展发挥着不可替代的作用。我国大学及学者对院长群体的关注和研究还很不够,文章尝试梳理国内外院长研究相关文献,旨在为我国本土相关研究提供基础资料与方向参考。从国内外相关文献来看,学界未来需要强化微观、质性研究,加强院长工作的情境研究。%As the chief executive of a school in a university and the leading person of discipline orienta-tion as well as the integrator and distributor of personnel,finance and material,the dean plays an irre-placeable role for the development of schools and universities.However,the research on deans is in-sufficient.The article attempts to make a literature review on the role and leadership of deans at home and aboard,and provide basic information and direction for the research field in China.Based on the review,it could be concluded that micro,qualitative and context research should be strengthened.

  1. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  2. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1972-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  3. 无机材料研究工作展望%Outlook of the Research for Inorganic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海春

    2000-01-01

    无机材料在国民经济和国防建设中占据重要地位。此文以盐湖资源为依托,以市场为导向,综合和展望固体电解质、复合氧化物敏感材料与化学传感器、晶体材料、特种精细化学品和功能化合物的研究与应用开发。%Inorganic materials play a big role in the domestic economy and national defense.Based on salt lake resources and with the guidance of the market,this paper made a comprehensive summarization and estimation of the research and application of solid electrolytes,sensitive materials of oxide compounds and chemical transducers,crystalline materials,special fine chemicals and functionel materials,and so on.

  4. Retrospect and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese economy owes its success and survival from the economic meltdown to the series of responsive Central Government stimulus projects initiated in 2009. And as the new year progresses,the government’s responses in the past year can be used to cast a positive outlook for the Chinese economy in 2010. Zheng Xinli,Vice Chairman of the China Center for International Economic Exchanges,offered his insights at the First Annual Meeting of the Chinese Economy held on January 17 in Beijing. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. Retrospect and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Chinese economy owes its success and survival from the economic meltdown to the series of responsive Central Government stimulus projects initiated in 2009.And as the new year progresses,the government's responses in the past year can be used to cast a positive outlook for the Chinese economy in 2010.Zheng Xinli,Vice Chairman of the China Center for International Economic Exchanges,offered his insights at the First Annual Meeting of the Chinese Economy held on January 17 in Beijing.Edited excerpts follow:

  6. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  7. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandel M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1 high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2 research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3 measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE, which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  8. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  9. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 22, 2003 update no. 19; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 decembre 2003, no. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, the means of transport, the hydrogen production and with the different new other energies. Their different titles are given below : 1)gas turbine/fuel cell arrangement 2)design and fabrication of a SOFC by CERAMIC FUEL CELLS 3)a 'microbial' fuel cell able of converting glucose in electricity with high yields and velocity 4)a hybrid system: combined cycle gas turbine - multi-stage SOFC 5)a SOFC as auxiliary generator of electricity in an aircraft 6)recent development results of fuel in the Juelich research center 7)state of development of the SOFC at Haldor Topsoe/Risoe 8)a cost/advantage analysis of 'clean cars': methodology and applications to the electric cars 9)the generation of current and heat in a aerostat 10)hydrogen free from CO, produced from bio-ethanol steam reforming on cobalt catalysts supported on ZnO. Effect of the metallic precursor 11)device and method based on the cyclic auto-thermal reforming 12)the ammonia, source of hydrogen for a hybrid system: alkaline fuel/battery 13)effect of the Nafion on the activity of Pt-Ru electrocatalysts for the methanol electro-oxidation 14)'VISION 21': an integration of systems based on coal. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  10. Research on Henry David Thoreau ’ s Outlook of Nature:A Supplement%梭罗自然思想研究补遗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘略昌

    2016-01-01

    Henry David Thoreau not only produced a large quantity of nature writings , but also actively pondered on the scientific development , the education system , and the stereotyping of American Indian image in the mid-19 th century , all of which were closely related to his outlook of nature .Thoreau conducted the sci-entific research in a transcendental way , which made a significant contribution to American natural history and the development of biology .Thoreau’ s notion of making nature the classroom and learning by doing coincided with the idea of the later progressive education movement .Thoreau held that the ideal human being was the A-merican Indian who could perfectly correspond with nature .When illustrating the notion of nature , education system, science development and American Indian image , Thoreau actually betrayed the same concern:peo-ple should lead a meaningful spiritual life rather than a life of quiet desperation .%梭罗不仅著有大量自然文学作品,而且还对19世纪中期美国的科学发展、教育体制及印第安人的刻板塑造等诸多问题给予了深入思考,这些现实思考与其自然思想息息相关。梭罗主张进行超验的科学研究,他对美国自然史、生物学等领域的发展做出了重要贡献。梭罗“以大自然为课堂”和“从做中学”的理念与后来进步教育运动的理念不谋而合。梭罗理想的人类是能与自然完美感应的印第安人。无论是对自然观的阐发,还是对教育观、科学观和印第安人观的论述,梭罗最终的目标都指向了同一个方向,那就是希望摆脱当时大多数人所过的静静的绝望生活,而去追求一种有意义的精神生活。

  11. World energy outlook 2014

    CERN Document Server

    International Energy Agency. Paris

    2014-01-01

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

  12. Current research directions definition of economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Falovych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article features the topical issue of the established level of the enterprise's economic security. The objective of this article is to research, to base and to supplement the tendency for generalization of the categorical system in order to clarify the matter meaning of the enterprise's economic security. The systematized analyses of the matter meaning of the enterprise's economic security were done by domestic and foreign scientists-economists. The results of the study were expounded and also some vital approaches to the definition of the enterprise's economic security were presented and proved particularly: strategically, resource-functional, marketable, combined, deductive, systematic and criminal.Based on the analyzed content-conceptual interpretations and detailed characteristics of each approach to the definition of this meaning, there was proposed its own meaning of the interpretation of the enterprise's economic security. A systematic approach was adopted due to the matters concerning enterprise's economic security. As in this approach the vital economic interests of thee enterprise were stipulated, also gained the topicality in the current crisis economic conditions

  13. CURRENT ANSTO RESEARCH ON WASTEFORM DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, E.R.; Perera, D.S.; Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Carter, M.L.; Day, R.A.; Moricca, S.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Hanna, J.V.

    2003-02-27

    Current ANSTO scientific research on wasteform development for mainly high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications. Titanate wasteform products we have developed or are developing are aimed at immobilization of: (a) tank wastes and sludges; (b) U-rich wastes from radioisotope production from reactor irradiation of UO2 targets; (c) Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels; (d) 99Tc; (e) high- Mo wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels and (f) partitioned Cs-rich wastes. Other wasteforms include encapsulated zeolites or silica/alumina beads for immobilization of 129I. Wasteform production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting. In addition, building on previous work on speciation and leach resistance of Cs in cementitious products, we are studying geopolymers. Although we have a strong focus on candidate wasteforms for actual wastes, we have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the wasteforms in regard to crystal chemistry, their dissolution behavior in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and processing techniques.

  14. Research Progress and Outlook of Speech Processing Algorithms for Digital Hearing Aids%数字助听器语音处理算法研究进展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹采荣; 梁瑞宇; 谢跃

    2016-01-01

    As the world populatian aging ,hearing impairments become a high incidence chronic disease . Hearing aids is one of the most effective means of hearing intervention and hearing rehabilitation for pres‐bycusis hearing patients .Various techniques of hearing aids have advanced significantly over the past dec‐ades ,primarily thanks to the maturing of signal processing technology and electronic technology .Among these technologies ,sound classfication ,filter decomposition ,noise suppression and echo cancellation are four basic algorithms for hearing aids .Based on deep understanding ,we elaborate the algorithms in terms of aspects :the basic principles ,the current research status ,features and problems .In addition , by analyzing the current problems of hearing aids ,three new research direction ,auditory bionics ,audito‐ry cognition and selffitting hearing aids ,are outlooked and briefly introduced .%全球老龄化使听力障碍成为高发性慢性疾病,而佩戴助听器是老年性聋患者听力干预和康复最有效的手段之一。随着数字信号处理技术和电子技术的飞速进步,近年来应用于数字助听器的各种算法和技术得到了显著的发展。其中声场景分类、滤波器分解、噪声抑制和回声消除是助听器的4个基本算法。基于对这些算法的研究,本文从算法基本原理、当前研究现状、算法特点以及存在的问题进行分析介绍。此外,通过分析现阶段数字助听器算法中存在的问题,介绍了3个助听器信号处理方面的最新研究方向———听觉仿生、听觉认知和自验配助听器。本文最后对未来研究进行了展望。

  15. Visual Landscape Research-Overview and Outlook%视觉景观研究——回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    埃卡特·兰格; 伊泽瑞尔·勒格瓦伊拉; 刘滨谊; 唐真

    2012-01-01

    阐述了视觉景观研究的回顾与展望.在2个对立学派的基础上形成视觉景观质量评估.客观主义者或物理学派(基于专家的方式方法)认为视觉景观质量是其自身物质特性的内在表现.主观主义者或心理学派(基于个人的方式方法)认为景观美是客体或视觉媒介和观察者的相互作用.如照片、草图、模型、三维可视化等景观表达可以协助实施现场或遥感评估.评估方法包括例如明智的配对比较法、分类法,还有其他分级或排序法.大多数的研究脱离现实环境而实施,容易忽视人们动态地感知世界.在虚拟现实影院里,景观身临其境的体验为观众提供了自由探索这个虚拟环境的机会.移动增强现实技术的最新发展进一步提供了这种可能:现存环境的影像与被数字可视化的未来变化影像相叠合,如同现场体验一般,从而提供了全方位的感官体验,这将为景观评估提供新的途径.%This paper provides an overview and outlook of research on the visual landscape. The quality of the visual landscape is approached on the basis of two contrasting paradigms. The objectivist or physical paradigm (expert based approach) assumes that visual landscape quality is inherent in its physical characteristics. The subjectivist or psychological paradigm (lay person based approach) regards landscape beauty as a function of the object or the visual stimulus and the observer. Assessments can be carried out on-site or remotely; assisted by representations of the landscape, e.g. Photographs, sketches, models, 3D-visualisations, etc. Assessment methods include e.g. Pair-wise comparisons, sorting techniques as well as other rating or ranking techniques. Most research is carried out detached from the actual environment and tends to neglect that humans perceive the world dynamically. The immersive experience of landscape in a virtual reality theatre provides the viewer with the opportunity to

  16. Current Research on Effective Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    This presentation provides an overview of research on classroom management, emphasizing results from a program of research conducted at the Research and Development Center for Teacher Education (University of Texas) during the last 5 years. These studies, along with others, provide a basis for describing important dimensions of teacher behavior…

  17. Current trends in free software research

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Bosch, Ramon; Vila Marta, Sebastià

    2009-01-01

    This report analyzes how scientific research is studying free software. We find which research is being done on free software by looking into scientific journals and conferences publications. The data thus obtained is analized and the most salient trends related to free software discovered. We also reviewed the main works published in each free software research area.

  18. Statistics used in current nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Kathleen; Boerst, Connie J; Tabb, Wil

    2007-02-01

    Undergraduate nursing research courses should emphasize the statistics most commonly used in the nursing literature to strengthen students' and beginning researchers' understanding of them. To determine the most commonly used statistics, we reviewed all quantitative research articles published in 13 nursing journals in 2000. The findings supported Beitz's categorization of kinds of statistics. Ten primary statistics used in 80% of nursing research published in 2000 were identified. We recommend that the appropriate use of those top 10 statistics be emphasized in undergraduate nursing education and that the nursing profession continue to advocate for the use of methods (e.g., power analysis, odds ratio) that may contribute to the advancement of nursing research.

  19. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  20. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  1. EMSL Outlook Review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Allison A.

    2005-04-01

    The William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is a national user facility that contains state-of-the-art instrumentation and expert resources available for use by researchers from academia, industry, and the national laboratory system. The facility is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research Program, but the research conducted within the facility benefits many funding agencies, including other branches of DOE, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Department of Defense. EMSL requires the continued funding and support of its stakeholders and clients to continue to grow its mission, build its reputation as a sought-after national user facility with cutting-edge capabilities, and attract high-profile users who will work to solve the most critical scientific challenges that affect DOE and the nation. In this vein, this document has been compiled to provide these stakeholders and clients with a review document that provides an abundance of information on EMSL’s history, current research activities, and proposed future direction.

  2. International energy outlook 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  3. World Energy Outlook 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Industry and government decision-makers and others with a stake in the energy sector all benefit from the contents of World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2012. It presents authoritative projections of energy trends through to 2035 and insights into what they mean for energy security, environmental sustainability and economic development. Oil, coal, natural gas, renewables and nuclear power are all covered, together with an update on climate change issues. Global energy demand, production, trade, investment and carbon dioxide emissions are broken down by region or country, by fuel and by sector. Special strategic analyses cover: What unlocking the purely economic potential for energy efficiency could do, country by country and sector by sector, for energy markets, the economy and the environment; The Iraqi energy sector, examining both its importance in satisfying the country’s own needs and its crucial role in meeting global oil and gas demand; The water-energy nexus, as water resources become increasingly stressed and access more contentious; Measures of progress towards providing universal access to modern energy services. There are many uncertainties, but many decisions cannot wait. The insights of this publication are invaluable to those who must shape our energy future.

  4. World Energy Outlook 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In a world where big differences in regional energy prices impact competitiveness, who are the potential winners and losers? Huge volumes of oil are needed to meet growing demand and offset declines in existing fields. Where will it all come from? What could trigger a rapid convergence in natural gas prices between Asia, Europe and North America, and how would it affect energy markets? Is the growth in renewable energy self-sustaining and is it sufficient to put us on track to meet global climate goals? How much progress is being made in phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies and expanding access to modern energy services to the world’s poor? The answers to these and many other questions are found in WEO-2013, which covers the prospects for all energy sources, regions and sectors to 2035. Oil is analysed in-depth: resources, production, demand, refining and international trade. Energy efficiency – a major factor in the global energy balance – is treated in much the same way as conventional fuels: Its prospects and contribution are presented in a dedicated chapter. And the report examines the outlook for Brazil's energy sector in detail and the implications for the global energy landscape.

  5. APEC's greener energy outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, A. M.; Samuelson, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    The APEC member economies combined accounts for more than 50% of the world's GDP and consume almost 60% of the world's energy. Under the 2011 Honolulu Declaration, APEC Leaders have set an aspirational goal to reduce APEC's aggregate energy intensity by 45 percent by 2035, compared to 2005 levels. This article summarises the results from an APEC-wide study on APEC energy demand and supply outlook from 2010 to 2035. Our business-as-usual projections show that by 2035, APEC energy demand will have increased by 40% of 2010 levels. We also found that historical trends for declining energy intensity will continue and that APEC will likely achieve its aspirational intensity reduction goal. However, our results also suggest that CO2 emissions will continue to rise and energy security will become less assured. Recognizing these vulnerabilities, APEC has already initiated a broad range of activities to achieve its 'green growth' objectives. While these have been fairly successful in guiding APEC economies towards a path of more sustainable development, these efforts will need to be intensified further to avoid serious environmental degradation.

  6. Some Current Themes in Functional Analysis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Smith, Richard G.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses clinical application of functional analysis in developmental disabilities, reviewing issues related to treatment logic and development. The article then approaches functional analysis as a research method, reviewing three areas of research: analysis of diverse response topographies, analysis of basic behavioral processes,…

  7. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  8. Status Transitions and Future Outlook as Determinants of Conflict: The Caregiver's and Care Receiver's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    Examined status transitions, future outlook, and conflict from perspective of caregivers and care receivers (n=117 pairs). Future outlook had powerful association with dyadic conflict. Other strong predictors of conflict were current happiness and relationship changes over three years (for care receivers) and care receivers' lack of social…

  9. Outlooks on Children and Media: Child Rights, Media Trends, Media Research, Media Literacy, Child Participation, Declarations. Children and Media Violence Yearbook, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Feilitzen, Cecilia; Bucht, Catharina

    Focusing on media literacy, this yearbook compiles information on recent and current trends in media effects, including research on children and media, declarations related to the area, and a selection of relevant organizations and Web sites. The report first delineates children's rights as stipulated in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the…

  10. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries.

  11. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge pert

  12. Current trends in chloroplast genome research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... organization and promising ability for transgenic expression. Therefore, cpDNA ... highly conserved in size, structure and gene content. (Olmstead and ... contain only 10% of the genes required for fully functional organelle whereas the ... concept (McFadden, 1999; Maliga, 2003; Howe, 2008). Currently 170 ...

  13. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  14. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge pert

  15. World Energy Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-09

    The world appears to be emerging from the worst economic crisis in decades. Many countries have made pledges under the Copenhagen Accord to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Commitments have also been made by the G-20 and APEC to phase out inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies. Are we, at last, on the path to a secure, reliable and environmentally sustainable energy system? Updated projections of energy demand, production, trade and investment, fuel by fuel and region by region to 2035 are provided in the 2010 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO). It includes, for the first time, a new scenario that anticipates future actions by governments to meet the commitments they have made to tackle climate change and growing energy insecurity. WEO-2010 shows: what more must be done and spent to achieve the goal of the Copenhagen Accord to limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. C and how these actions would impact on oil markets; how emerging economies -- led by China and India -- will increasingly shape the global energy landscape; what role renewables can play in a clean and secure energy future; what removing fossil-fuel subsidies would mean for energy markets, climate change and state budgets; the trends in Caspian energy markets and the implications for global energy supply; the prospects for unconventional oil; and how to give the entire global population access to modern energy services. With extensive data, projections and analysis, this publication provides invaluable insights into how the energy system could evolve over the next quarter of a century. The book is essential reading for anyone with a stake in the energy sector.

  16. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). December 7, 2001 update, no. 3; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 7 decembre 2001, no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage, and of renewable energies in general: studies of the humidification of PEMFCs; chemical engineering in the automotive industry; environmental impact of the manufacturing of tubular and planar SOFCs; fullerenes for portable fuel cells; hydrogen fuel produced from the gasification of solid municipal fuels; required electric power for a large-scale production of hydrogen for vehicles; hydrogen produced from methane decomposition: an application for the decarbonization of fossil fuels; production of synthesis gas from ethanol vapo-reforming; electrochemical characterization of the hydrogen adsorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electric arc and laser ablation techniques; hydrogen storage in ultrasound wave processed carbonized materials; hydrogen storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles; year 2000 status of renewable energies in France; renewable energy sources: too insufficient efforts made in the UK; wind turbine in the country of wind mills (Netherlands); a research institute for wind energy in the Netherlands; feasibility study of underwater CO{sub 2} storage. (J.S.)

  17. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). December 7, 2001 update, no. 3; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 7 decembre 2001, no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage, and of renewable energies in general: studies of the humidification of PEMFCs; chemical engineering in the automotive industry; environmental impact of the manufacturing of tubular and planar SOFCs; fullerenes for portable fuel cells; hydrogen fuel produced from the gasification of solid municipal fuels; required electric power for a large-scale production of hydrogen for vehicles; hydrogen produced from methane decomposition: an application for the decarbonization of fossil fuels; production of synthesis gas from ethanol vapo-reforming; electrochemical characterization of the hydrogen adsorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electric arc and laser ablation techniques; hydrogen storage in ultrasound wave processed carbonized materials; hydrogen storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles; year 2000 status of renewable energies in France; renewable energy sources: too insufficient efforts made in the UK; wind turbine in the country of wind mills (Netherlands); a research institute for wind energy in the Netherlands; feasibility study of underwater CO{sub 2} storage. (J.S.)

  18. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). August 8, 2002 update, no. 7; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 8 aout 2002, no. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: characteristics of a PEM fuel cell submitted to a transient increase of CO concentration; perspectives of the different fuel cell technologies in transport applications; development of a portable fuel cell system for the soldier's equipment; direct 2-propanol low temperature fuel cell; a fuel cell system quasi-directly supplied with methanol and based on a mixture of electrolytic polymers; catalysis in low temperature fuel cells (part.1: the cathode stakes); manufacturing and performance of the new multi-layer cathodes for SOFCs; patent about intermediate plates for the limitation of the movement of the bolts used for the fastening of a fuel cell core; the Paul Sherrer institute is testing a zinc and synthetic gas production process that use solar energy, natural gas and zinc oxide; experimental evaluation of a combined plasma/catalyst system for the production of hydrogen from the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons; hydrogen production using a new chemo-organo-trophic bacteria: Citrobacter sp. Y19; hydrogen as energy vector: competition or complementarity with fossil fuels; hydrogen storage in general and in light monocrystalline metal hydrides in particular; the nuclear option for the production of hydrogen as energy of the future. (J.S.)

  19. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). January 31, 2002 update, no. 5; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 31 janvier 2002, no. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: fuel cells and fuel cell systems with a non-aqueous electrolyte; the co-development of a fuel cell electrode by Mitsubishi Materials, Kansai Electric Power and Fine Ceramics; a tubular fuel cell under development at the Japan national institute of advanced industrial sciences and technologies (AIST); a patent for an essential component (electro-catalyst) of Medis Technologies' fuel cells; a SOFC with good performances; influence of CO concentration and gas pressure on the performances of a PAFC-type cell; analysis of the life cycle of hydrogen fuel: a methodology for a strategic approach of decision; R and D of a clean hydrogen-based energy system; Teledyne Energy Systems proposes a new hydrogen production system; green alga: still more hydrogen; thermodynamic study and optimization of the hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes; large-scale hydrogen production from hydrocarbons; comparative study of fuels for the production of hydrogen on-board of fuel cell powered vehicles; hydrogen storage in carbon nano-structures; fundamental aspects of the Ti-H system: theoretical and experimental behaviour. (J.S.)

  20. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). October 23, 2001 update, no. 2; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 23 octobre 2001, no. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, transportation systems, hydrogen production and energy in general: Japan foresees 10 million of clean vehicles from now to 2010; the fuel cell: a new clean and efficient energy source; development of biogas production units for fuel cells; thermodynamic analysis of an hydrogen-supplied proton conductive SOFC; materials for the high temperature reduction of oxygen in a SOFC; stability of of SOFC components; LaSrMnO metal interface for SOFCs; oxygen ion transport in SOFCs; test of a fuel cell-powered bus in 2002; comparative study of fuels for the on-board hydrogen production; electricity and hydrogen cogeneration from natural gas without emission; solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas; IFC patent: self-thermal reformer of gas fuel for a fuel cell system; some considerations about water electrolysis from a solution of sodium hydroxide; hydrogen production from high temperature water; a more compact and efficient wind turbine. (J.S.)

  1. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). September 23, 2003 update no. 16; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 23 septembre 2003, no. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the behaviour of the electrode potential in direct hydrazine fuels 2)a device of desalination fed with a fuel cell 3)experiment in the field of residential fuel cell systems at ECN (Energy Research Center) 4)'design of a divided feeding' for SOFC with an internal reforming system 5)water management and thermal management in a fuel cell vehicle fed with hydrogen extracted from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) 6)a mathematical model of propulsion systems by PEMFC for mobile applications 7)assessment of the feasibility of a DMFC containing an alkaline membrane 8)semi-empirical assessment model of the performance of a DMFC, first part: development of the model and validation 9)PEMFC and the challenge of CO 10)materials for SOFC 11)natural gas and LPG desulfurization for fuel cells reformers 12)heat exchangers for reforming techniques 13)desulfurization of a fuel for fuel cell system 14)hydrogen production from solar thermal reactor 15)hydrogen physico-chemical storage: nano-structured storage materials having modified covalent bonds sp2. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  2. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). June 15, 2001 update, no. 0; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 15 juin 2001, no. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: effect of hydrogen on the magnetic properties of iron nano-crystalline particulates; smaller fuel cells; development of a 1 kW PEMFC; materials for low temperature SOFCs; development and operation of a 150 W DMFC; materials science and engineering: a key-technology for the commercialization of fuel cells; chemical and electrochemical behaviour of Ni-Ti in cathodic conditions as used in a MCFC; patent for stainless steel bipolar plates; development of proton conductive membranes for PEMFCs and DMFCs; development and characterization of acid-doped polymer mixtures (poly-benzimidazole/sulfonated poly-sulfone) used as fuel cell electrolyte; modification of a proton conductive membrane for the reduction of methanol diffusion in a DMFC; DMFC based on a new low cost nano-porous membrane; method for controlling the connexion between a fuel cell and a power grid; steam reforming of biomass-derived ethanol for hydrogen production devoted to fuel cells; hydrogen production by catalytic decomposition of methane; hydrogen storage. (J.S.)

  3. CURRENT STATE OF HISTORIC AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magsumov Timur Albertovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the results of development of national historic and educational research at the turn of the XXth century; pinpoint obvious success and indicate problems and contradictory areas; give grounding to the development model of the XXth century Russian pedagogy; make suggestions on the strategy and tactics of further development of historic and educational science and suggest areas for further research. They are ‘new social history’ of education, professional education and teacher training, personified microhistory and history of local educational environment, genesis of didactic principles, ethno-pedagogy, country school, pedagogical diagnostics, Orthodox religious education, contemporary history of foreign pedagogy, pedagogical futurology. We prove the need in reassessment of certain studies’ viability. We draw the conclusion that historic and educational knowledge determines areas and instruments to understand the problems of educational issues, their roots and realize the existence of ways to solve them.

  4. Current clinical research in orthodontics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon

    2006-10-01

    This essay explores briefly the approach of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory to the systematic and rigorous investigation of the usual outcome of orthodontic treatment in the practices of experienced clinicians. CRIL's goal is to produce a shareable electronic database of reliable, valid, and representative data on clinical practice as an aid in the production of an improved environment for truly evidence-based orthodontic treatment.

  5. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  6. Sustainability in facilities management: an overview of current research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Sarasoja, Anna-Liisa; Ramskov Galamba, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    the emerging sub-discipline of sustainable facilities management (SFM) on research, an overview of current studies is needed. The purpose of this literature review is to provide exactly this overview. Design/methodology/approach: This article identifies and examines current research studies on SFM through...... indicated that the current research varies in focus, methodology and application of theory, and it was concluded that the current research primary addresses environmental sustainability, whereas the current research which takes an integrated strategic approach to SFM is limited. The article includes lists...... of reviewed journals and articles to support the further development of SFM in research and practice. Research limitations/implications: The literature review includes literature from 2007 to 2012, to manage the analytical process within the project period. However, with the current categorisation...

  7. The Evolution of Charles Dickens' Humanitarian Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆华

    2001-01-01

    Charles Dickens, as an important English novelist, criticised the English society of the Victorian Age,which reflects his humanitarian outlook. His humanitarian outlook includes his early optimism and mature satire as well as sentiment during the climax of his creation and his late years. Furthermore, Dickens' life experience as a man which helped to form his humanitarian outlook provided him with boundless writing resources, and then, he produced many excellent works.key words: Charles Dickens; the Victorian Age; Humanitarian Outlook; Evolution.

  8. Intelligent multimedia surveillance current trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Atrey, Pradeep K; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent multimedia surveillance concerns the analysis of multiple sensing inputs including video and audio streams, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and depth data. These data are processed for the automated detection and tracking of people, vehicles, and other objects. The goal is to locate moving targets, to understand their behavior, and to detect suspicious or abnormal activities for crime prevention. Despite its benefits, there is societal apprehension regarding the use of such technology, so an important challenge in this research area is to balance public safety and privacy.

  9. The current status of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tri Wulan Tjiptono; Syarip

    1998-10-01

    The Kartini reactor reached the first criticality on January 25, 1979. In the first three years, the reactor power is limited up to 50 kW thermal power and on July 1, 1982 has been increased to 100 kW. It has been used as experiments facility by researcher of Atomic Energy National Agency and students of the Universities. Three beam tubes used as experiments facilities, the first, is used as a neutron source for H{sub 2}O-Natural Uranium Subcritical Assembly, the second, is developed for neutron radiography facility and the third, is used for gamma radiography facility. The other facilities are rotary rack and two pneumatic transfer systems, one for delayed neutron counting system and the other for the new Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) facility. The rotary rack used for isotope production for NAA purpose (for long time irradiation), the delayed neutron counting system used for analysis the Uranium contents of the ores and the new NAA is provided for short live elements analysis. In the last three years the Reactor Division has a joint use program with the Nuclear Component and Engineering Center in research reactor instrumentation and control development. (author)

  10. T2* mapping of articular cartilage: current status of research and first clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreisek, Gustav; Weiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    T2* mapping is a relatively new method for the compositional assessment of the articular cartilage. Typically, a multigradient echo or an ultrashort echo time imaging technique with a range of short and very short echo times is used. In most studies, imaging is performed at a high field strength, that is, 3 and 7 T. Postprocessing includes exponential fitting of relaxation decay and manual region-of-interest-based measurements of T2* times on T2* maps. Detailed analyses of T2* times of articular cartilage have shown distinct T2* components with shorter and longer T2* times. Moreover, there is a zonal distribution with a significant depthwise gradient of T2*, with relatively short times near the osteochondral junction and relatively long times at the cartilage's surface. T2* times of normal articular cartilage at the knee are, when averaged over the whole cartilage thickness and using monoexponential fitting, approximately 20 milliseconds. The results of recent studies have shown a good test-retest as well as interreader and intrareader reliabilities for T2* mapping. This article provides a descriptive review of the current literature, briefly discusses the technique itself, and provides an outlook on future research questions and possible clinical applications.

  11. Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  12. A SURVEY OF CURRENT RESEARCH ON CAPTCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Khalifa Abdullah Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been playing an increasingly important role in our daily life, with the availability of many web services such as email and search engines. However, these are often threatened by attacks from computer programs such as bots. To address this problem, CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart was developed to distinguish between computer programs and human users. Although this mechanism offers good security and limits automatic registration to web services, some CAPTCHAs have several weaknesses which allow hackers to infiltrate the mechanism of the CAPTCHA. This paper examines recent research on various CAPTCHA methods and their categories. Moreover it discusses the weakness and strength of these types.

  13. Vietnam anthracite - current situation and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan van Kien [Vietnam National Coal Corporation (Vietnam)

    2004-07-01

    A resume is given of Vietnam's resources of anthracite, sub-bituminous coal, peat, coking coal and brown coal. Details are given of anthracite produced by the Vietnam National Coal Corporation (VINACOAL). Sales, coal quality and markets are discussed. Markets include the steel, non-ferrous metal and cement industries, power generation, water treatment and electrode and calcium carbide manufacture. VINACOAL is aiming to increase anthracite production especially for PCI, and is investing in coal mining and coal preparation plants and expansion of Cam Pha port. A series of eight slides/overheads accompanies the presentation (file Doan van Kien.pdf).

  14. A Future with Hope :China Agriculture Outlook 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's macro economy has remained in a good and stable condition overall, experiencing an annual GDP growth of over 10% for several consecutive years. Under this basic condition,the main focus of the Outlook was China's current grain and oil supply, and the demand market with its probable future prices.

  15. RSM Outlook Autumn 2005 : Branding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Contents The inaugural issue of RSM Outlook from autumn 2005 includes the opening of the new T-building, and how RSM celebrated its 35th birthday with a wine-tasting session. There are also articles on Professor Cees van Riel and reputation management, the re-branding of the ci

  16. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  17. Death Outlook and Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, Herman; Schag, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that there is a relationship between outlook on death and orientation toward mercy killing, abortion, suicide, and euthanasia. Some relationships between death attitudes and perspectives on the social issues emphasized the need to consider specific circumstances as well as abstract concepts. (Author)

  18. Frozen heat: Global outlook on methane gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudoin, Yannick; Solgaard, Anne

    2010-09-15

    The United Nations Environment Programme via its collaborating center in Norway, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, is undertaking an assessment of the state of the knowledge of methane gas hydrates. The Global Outlook on Methane Gas Hydrates seeks to bridge the gap between the science, research and development activities related to this potential large scale unconventional source of natural gas and the needs of decision makers and the general public to understand the underlying societal and environmental drivers and impacts. The Outlook aims to provide credible and unbiased information sourced from stakeholders representing the environment, government, industry and society.

  19. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  20. Marketing library and information services II a global outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Dinesh K; Massisimo, Angels

    2013-01-01

    With contributions from library and information professionals (practitioners, researchers, faculty members, consultants, and others), Marketing Library and Information Services: A Global Outlook highlights a variety of exemplary LIS marketing practices and efforts from around the globe. The following broad topics are explored: changing marketing concepts; marketing library

  1. Outlook The FDI Kick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuHongqi

    2003-01-01

    The war in Iraq and its consequences are by and large the single most important factor in determining the results of the world economy in the current year. Those who predicted a relatively short and painless campaign have been proved-literally speakingdeadly wrong.

  2. Current status and future directions of research on facial attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the perception of facial attractiveness and to assess the opportunity for research on poorly explored issues regarding facial preferences...

  3. Current Research on the Relative Effectiveness of Selected Media Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    The literature of research and theory on media, the psychology of learning, and the technology of instruction is reviewed. The focus is on discovering what is currently known about the intersection of these fields. Current thoughts and discoveries about brain structure and processing are discussed. The management of learning as a system is another…

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  5. Multicaloric effect: An outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopson, Melvin M.

    2017-05-01

    In 2017 the scientific community celebrates 100 years since Weiss and Piccard made the first observation of a caloric effect in magnetic materials, when studying temperature changes in Nickel subjected to applied magnetic fields near the Curie transition temperature [1]. The effect was called the magneto-caloric effect. A thermodynamic formulation of the adiabatic magneto-caloric refrigeration was given independently by Debye [2] and Giauque [3] in 1920s, followed by the first experimental confirmation of adiabatic refrigeration in 1933 [4]. Since then, the research field has expanded considerably and other interesting caloric effects have been discovered in materials displaying different forms of ferroic order.

  6. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  7. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  8. Current status and future research in motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  9. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  10. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  11. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  12. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  13. Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, Shing Chyi; Oh, Tick Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Goh, Wei Wei [Foundation Studies and Extension Education, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

  14. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby A. Goodrum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR: text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  15. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abby A. Goodrum

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR): text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  16. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C L; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K J; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-09-01

    To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Australia. Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.

  17. Green Energy Outlook in Europe. Strategic prospects to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    As the successor to last years' report The Green Energy Outlook 2001 by Reuters Business Insight, this new report focuses on the opportunities that are opening across Europe. In particular the report evaluates the implications of trading in a harmonised green energy market and how certification and labelling will affect trading strategies. Renewable energy is rapidly becoming an important commodity. The report forecasts a green certificate market of over 20 to 30 billion Euro in 2010, largely driven by environmental policy and the increasing viability of green technologies. The impact of new policies and key issues such as certification and labeling are significant factors of the current European renewable energy market. This report evaluates the current market and identifies the main areas for growth and development to 2010. The latest market research and analysis, detailed country profiles, key players' strategies and recommendations for success in the expanding and evolving market make this report a must for every company and government with interest in the renewable energy market.

  18. Research Reproducibility in Geosciences: Current Landscape, Practices and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, An

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility of research can gauge the validity of its findings. Yet currently we lack understanding of how much of a problem research reproducibility is in geosciences. We developed an online survey on faculty and graduate students in geosciences, and received 136 responses from research institutions and universities in Americas, Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. This survey examined (1) the current state of research reproducibility in geosciences by asking researchers' experiences with unsuccessful replication work, and what obstacles that lead to their replication failures; (2) the current reproducibility practices in community by asking what efforts researchers made to try to reproduce other's work and make their own work reproducible, and what the underlying factors that contribute to irreproducibility are; (3) the perspectives on reproducibility by collecting researcher's thoughts and opinions on this issue. The survey result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing. Only one third of the respondents received helpful feedbacks when they contacted the authors of a published study for data, code, or other information. The primary factors that lead to unsuccessful replication attempts are insufficient details of instructions in published literature, and inaccessibility of data, code and tools needed in the study. Our findings suggest a remarkable lack of research reproducibility in geoscience. Changing the incentive mechanism in academia, as well as developing policies and tools that facilitate open data and code sharing are the promising ways for geosciences community to alleviate this reproducibility problem.

  19. Current states and perspectives of Czech educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Janík

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review study is to evaluate the current state of Czech educationalresearch and to offer possibilities of its further development. The paper has threeparts. In the first part, the author presents the context of the topic: the current changesin the financing of research and development in the Czech Republic; the avoiding ofthe term (social science is discussed along with the issue of institutional financing ofresearch and the various presently up-to-date methodologies of quality assessment inresearch. In the second part, the author analyses the current state of Czech educationalresearch – previous analyses of J. Pr°ucha, J. Mareš and E. Walterová and those carriedout by the Educational Research Centre are briefly summarised. In the third part, possibilitiesof further development of Czech educational research are offered. Developinga knowledge base of educational sciences is used as an example. First the nature andsubject of knowledge that is produced by research is analysed, then the difference betweenpedagogical research and research in education is discussed. Towards the end,relevant approaches are discussed along with research areas and types of knowledgeacquired by research.

  20. Agriculture for improved nutrition: the current research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachel; Hawkes, Corinna; Jeff, Waage; Ferguson, Elaine; Haseen, Farhana; Homans, Hilary; Hussein, Julia; Johnston, Deborah; Marais, Debbi; McNeill, Geraldine; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-12-01

    Concern about food security and its effect on persistent undernutrition has increased interest in how agriculture could be used to improve nutritional outcomes in developing countries. Yet the evidence base for the impact of agricultural interventions targeted at improved nutrition is currently poor. To map the extent and nature of current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition in order to identify gaps where more research might be useful. The research, which was conducted from April to August 2012, involved developing a conceptual framework linking agriculture and nutrition, identifying relevant research projects and programs, devising and populating a "template" with details of the research projects in relation to the conceptual framework, classifying the projects, and conducting a gap analysis. The study identified a large number of research projects covering a broad range of themes and topics. There was a strong geographic focus on sub-Saharan Africa, and many studies were explicitly concerned with nutritional impacts on women and children. Although the study revealed a diverse and growing body of research, it also identified research gaps. Few projects consider the entire evidence chain linking agricultural input or practice to nutritional outcomes. There is comparatively little current research on indirect effects of agriculture on nutrition, or the effect of policies or governance, rather than technical interventions. Most research is focused on undernutrition and small farmer households, and few studies target consumers generally, urban populations, or nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. There is very little work on the cost-effectiveness of agricultural interventions. On the basis of these findings, we make suggestions for research investment and for broader engagement of researchers and disciplines in developing approaches to design and evaluate agricultural programs for improved nutrition.

  1. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    will be willing to make investments themselves or to attract sufficient capital to keep up the necessary pace of investment. Upstream investment has been rising rapidly in the last few years, but much of the increase is due to surging costs. Expanding production in the lowest-cost countries - most of them in OPEC - will be central to meeting the world's oil needs at reasonable cost. The prospect of accelerating declines in production at individual oilfields is adding to these uncertainties. The findings of an unprecedented field-by-field analysis of the historical production trends of 800 oilfields indicate that decline rates are likely to rise significantly in the long term, from an average of 6.7% today to 8.6% in 2030. WEO-2008 also analyses policy options for tackling climate change after 2012, when a new global agreement - to be negotiated at the UN Conference of the Parties in Copenhagen next year - is due to take effect. This analysis assumes a hybrid policy approach, comprising a plausible combination of cap-and-trade systems, sectoral agreements and national measures. On current trends, energy-related CO2 emissions are set to increase by 45% between 2006 and 2030, reaching 41 Gt. Three-quarters of the increase arises in China, India and the Middle East, and 97% in non-OECD countries as a whole. Stabilising greenhouse gas concentration at 550 ppm of CO2-equivalent, which would limit the temperature increase to about 3 deg C, would require emissions to rise to no more than 33 Gt in 2030 and to fall in the longer term. The share of low-carbon energy - hydropower, nuclear, biomass, other renewables and fossil-fuel power plants equipped with carbon capture and storage (CCS) - in the world primary energy mix would need to expand from 19% in 2006 to 26% in 2030. This would call for $4.1 trillion more investment in energy-related infrastructure and equipment than in the Reference Scenario - equal to 0.2% of annual world GDP. Most of the increase is on the demand

  2. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    will be willing to make investments themselves or to attract sufficient capital to keep up the necessary pace of investment. Upstream investment has been rising rapidly in the last few years, but much of the increase is due to surging costs. Expanding production in the lowest-cost countries - most of them in OPEC - will be central to meeting the world's oil needs at reasonable cost. The prospect of accelerating declines in production at individual oilfields is adding to these uncertainties. The findings of an unprecedented field-by-field analysis of the historical production trends of 800 oilfields indicate that decline rates are likely to rise significantly in the long term, from an average of 6.7% today to 8.6% in 2030. WEO-2008 also analyses policy options for tackling climate change after 2012, when a new global agreement - to be negotiated at the UN Conference of the Parties in Copenhagen next year - is due to take effect. This analysis assumes a hybrid policy approach, comprising a plausible combination of cap-and-trade systems, sectoral agreements and national measures. On current trends, energy-related CO2 emissions are set to increase by 45% between 2006 and 2030, reaching 41 Gt. Three-quarters of the increase arises in China, India and the Middle East, and 97% in non-OECD countries as a whole. Stabilising greenhouse gas concentration at 550 ppm of CO2-equivalent, which would limit the temperature increase to about 3 deg C, would require emissions to rise to no more than 33 Gt in 2030 and to fall in the longer term. The share of low-carbon energy - hydropower, nuclear, biomass, other renewables and fossil-fuel power plants equipped with carbon capture and storage (CCS) - in the world primary energy mix would need to expand from 19% in 2006 to 26% in 2030. This would call for $4.1 trillion more investment in energy-related infrastructure and equipment than in the Reference Scenario - equal to 0.2% of annual world GDP. Most of the increase is on the demand

  3. FAPRI 2006 U.S. and World Agricultural Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The FAPRI 2006 U.S. and World Agricultural Outlook presents projections of world agricultural production, consumption, and trade under average weather patterns, existing farm policy, and policy commitments under current trade agreements and custom unions. Despite continued high energy prices, world economic growth is expected to remain strong in the coming decade, above 3% per annum. Other major drivers of the 2006 baseline include new bio-energy policies in several large countries, EU sugar ...

  4. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe......The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer...... to a special descriptive, empirical, experimental approach to translation studies based on close, technology-supported observation of translational (micro)behaviour. Fundamentally, TPR is based on software which logs a translator’s keystrokes on a computer keyboard in time in combination with an eyetracker...

  5. Curating research data a handbook of current practice

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Lisa R

    2017-01-01

    Curating Research Data, Volume Two: A Handbook of Current Practice guides you across the data lifecycle through the practical strategies and techniques for curating research data in a digital repository setting. The data curation steps for receiving, appraising, selecting, ingesting, transforming, describing, contextualizing, disseminating, and preserving digital research data are each explored, and then supplemented with detailed case studies written by more than forty international practitioners from national, disciplinary, and institutional data repositories. The steps in this volume detail the sequential actions that you might take to curate a data set from receiving the data (Step 1) to eventual reuse (Step 8). Data curators, archivists, research data management specialists, subject librarians, institutional repository managers, and digital library staff will benefit from these current and practical approaches to data curation.

  6. NP2010: An Assessment and Outlook for Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, James [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2014-05-22

    This grant provided partial support for the National Research Council’s (NRC) decadal survey of nuclear physics. This is part of NRC’s larger effort to assess and discuss the outlook for different fields in physics and astronomy, Physics 2010, which takes place approximately every ten years. A report has been prepared as a result of the study that is intended to inform those who are interested about the current status of research in this area and to help guide future developments of the field. A pdf version of the report is available for download, for free, at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13438. Among the principal conclusions reached in the report are that the nuclear physics program in the United States has been especially well managed, principally through a recurring long-range planning process conducted by the community, and that current opportunities developed pursuant to that planning process should be exploited. In the section entitled “Building the Foundation for the Future,” the report notes that attention needs to be paid to certain elements that are essential to the continued vitality of the field. These include ensuring that education and research at universities remain a focus for funding and that a plan be developed to ensure that forefront-computing resources, including exascale capabilities when developed, be made available to nuclear science researchers. The report also notes that nimbleness is essential for the United States to remain competitive in a rapidly expanding international nuclear physics arena and that streamlined and flexible procedures should be developed for initiating and managing smaller-scale nuclear science projects.

  7. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  8. The OrbitOutlook Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, M.; Shilliday, A.; LoFaso, N.; Dipon, A.; Van Brackle, D.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we describe and depict the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)'s OrbitOutlook Data Archive (OODA) architecture. OODA is the infrastructure that DARPA's OrbitOutlook program has developed to integrate diverse data from various academic, commercial, government, and amateur space situational awareness (SSA) telescopes. At the heart of the OODA system is its world model - a distributed data store built to quickly query big data quantities of information spread out across multiple processing nodes and data centers. The world model applies a multi-index approach where each index is a distinct view on the data. This allows for analysts and analytics (algorithms) to access information through queries with a variety of terms that may be of interest to them. Our indices include: a structured global-graph view of knowledge, a keyword search of data content, an object-characteristic range search, and a geospatial-temporal orientation of spatially located data. In addition, the world model applies a federated approach by connecting to existing databases and integrating them into one single interface as a "one-stop shopping place" to access SSA information. In addition to the world model, OODA provides a processing platform for various analysts to explore and analytics to execute upon this data. Analytic algorithms can use OODA to take raw data and build information from it. They can store these products back into the world model, allowing analysts to gain situational awareness with this information. Analysts in turn would help decision makers use this knowledge to address a wide range of SSA problems. OODA is designed to make it easy for software developers who build graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and algorithms to quickly get started with working with this data. This is done through a multi-language software development kit that includes multiple application program interfaces (APIs) and a data model with SSA concepts and terms such as: space

  9. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  10. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics,both conceptually and technologically.It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology,the large genomic database,and bioinformatic power in the immunology research.The fast development in the fields of basic immunology,clinical immunology(tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy.We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  11. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaoWen; LI dinZhi; ZHAO GuoPing; WANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  12. Changing Currents in Second Language Writing Research: A Colloquium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei; Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Harklau, Linda; Hyland, Ken; Warschauer, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on an invited colloqium on second language (L) writing presented at the 200 meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. The colloquium featured five second language writing researchers two discussed some of the important currents that have shaped the field of second language writing. (Author/VWL)

  13. Current Status and Advancements in Research of Plantation Nutrient Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; ZHANG Changshun; SUN Yongyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts and current research status of plantation nutrients cyclings, and analyzes main contents of plantation nutrients cycling as nutrients contents, accumulation and distribution of nutrients elements, understory species and forest litter. At the same time, the paper summarizes the problems in plantation nutrients cycling and its prospects.

  14. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  15. Lubbock Gin Lab - Current Research and Leaf Grade Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation was given to a group of cotton gin managers and allied industry reps. Approximately 100 attendees were in the audience. A discussion of the current research conducted at the USDA ARS CPPRU Ginning Laboratory in Lubbock, TX was given along with a discussion of leaf grade issues and ...

  16. Cheerleading and Cynicism of Effective Mentoring in Current Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Paul A.; Naseem, Samina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of current empirical research of effective practices in teacher mentoring. Compiling literature published since 2000 in peer-reviewed journals, we examine arguments for mentoring practices to improve teacher candidate and novice teacher experiences and skills. The emergent "effective"…

  17. A Study on Current Situation of College Students’Value Outlook and the Path of Socialist Core Value Outlook Education---Investigation and Reflection on College Students’Idol Worship%大学生价值观现状及社会主义核心价值观教育途径研究--对大学生偶像崇拜的调查与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙睿赟

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary college students’value outlook is upward in general,but their value orientation is diversified,their value outlook is unstable and has the tendency of utilitarianism and individualism.The main reasons for the formation of the college students’ value outlook are changes in the interests pattern at the social transition period,the penetration of western value outlook in the global era,the impact of multiple cultures in the multi-media age and so on.We can promote the socialist core value outlook education from the following aspects:boosting the work of “Three Enters”,making the traditional culture play a role in the socialist core value outlook education,paying attention to the inclusion of multivariate value outlook under the guidance of unitary value outlook,making use of new media to spread socialist core value view and so on.%当代大学生价值观总体积极向上,但价值取向多元化,价值观不稳定,存在个人主义、功利主义的倾向。影响大学生价值观形成的原因主要有社会转型时期利益格局的变化,全球化时代西方价值观念的渗透,多媒体时代多元文化的冲击等。推进社会主义核心价值观教育可从以下几方面入手:推进“三进”工作,发挥传统文化教育的作用,重视“一元”价值观主导下对“多元”价值观的包容,利用新媒体传播社会主义核心价值观等。

  18. The current status of research on resources recycling in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-31

    The current domestic research status for resources recycling has been reviewed by surveying the technical and review papers reported to some academic journals. The surveyed articles were classified based upon several categories, including recycling fields according to the kinds of recyclable materials, applied recycling technologies, organizations where the research was conducted, and references according to publication year and region. The survey showed that the recycling of metallurgical waste is being studied most actively. Also, the investigation of fly ash recycling is surveyed to be actively conducted. In the aspect of recycling technologies, chemical technologies are shown to be more widely applied than physical ones. For research-conducting organizations, academic institutes have been more active in the research of recycling field compared with national/private research institutes and industries. In the reference survey, English-written articles and the articles published between 1991-1995 period are shown to be most referred. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-07-27

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Animal models of frailty: current applications in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Alice E; Hilmer, Sarah N; Mach, John; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Howlett, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The ethical, logistical, and biological complications of working with an older population of people inherently limits clinical studies of frailty. The recent development of animal models of frailty, and tools for assessing frailty in animal models provides an invaluable opportunity for frailty research. This review summarizes currently published animal models of frailty including the interleukin-10 knock-out mouse, the mouse frailty phenotype assessment tool, and the mouse clinical frailty index. It discusses both current and potential roles of these models in research into mechanisms of frailty, interventions to prevent/delay frailty, and the effect of frailty on outcomes. Finally, this review discusses some of the challenges and opportunities of translating research findings from animals to humans.

  1. Conference on researches and industrial outlooks on fuel cell and hydrogen; Recherches et perspectives industrielles sur la pile a combustible et l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference aimed at presenting a panorama concerning the research and development of fuel cells and hydrogen and the associated regulation landscape. The first sessions concerned the industrial offer: the strategic advantages as a vehicle fuel, the equipment and the technology, the micro-cell. The second part of the conference concerned the society demand, the difficulties and the research and development programs: the parliamentary offer for the scientific and technological choices evaluation, the energy vector choice, the experiments in particular in Germany, the regulations. (A.L.B.)

  2. E-mail: Outlook Express

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Bakri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu layanan Internet yang sangat penting adalah electronic mail atau sering hanya disebut sebagai e-mail. Untuk menggunakan e-mail, diperlukan piranti lunak khusus supaya pengguna dapat mengirim dan menerima e-mail. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail diantaranya adalah Outlook Express yang merupakan satu paket yang didistribusikan bersama Internet Explorer versi 4. Piranti lunak ini dijalankan pada PC yang mempunyai sistem operasi Windows 95 atau 98. Jenis piranti lunak e-mail yang lain adalah Eudora, Pegasus dan sebagainya. Bahkan ada yang diintegrasikan dengan Web Browser (alat untuk menelusuri situs Web misalnya IE,dan Netscape.Sebagai layaknya pelayanan pos, maka setiap pengguna e-mail mempunyai alamat tertentu yang tidak mungkin dipunyai oleh pengguna lainnya diseluruh dunia. Untuk keperluan pendistribusian, maka e-mail mempunyai semacam kantor pos yang ditempatkan dalam sebuah komputer server (mail server atau sering disebut sebagai host. 

  3. Annual outlook for US electric power, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-04-24

    This document includes summary information on the ownership structure of the US electric utility industry, a description of electric utility regulation, and identification of selected factors likely to affect US electricity markets from 1985 through 1995. This Outlook expands upon projections first presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1985, offering additional discussion of projected US electricity markets and regional detail. It should be recognized that work on the Annual Energy Outlook 1985 had been completed prior to the sharp reductions in world oil prices experienced early in 1986.

  4. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  5. Research Status and Outlook of Microgravity Combustion in Space Station%空间站微重力燃烧研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 刘迎春

    2015-01-01

    The strategic plans of foreign space microgravity combustion science in recent ten years were reported .The microgravity combustion experiments conducted on the International Space Sta-tion were reviewed .The significance of the experiments and achievement such as the generation of cool-flame were analyzed and the impending experiments were summarized .Based on the full ac-count of China's national conditions , research foundations and research features , the key scientific problems and the development strategies were put forward .They targeted the needs of space projects and considered the scientific research on the basic process and law of combustion .The application of basic research directly related to fire safety in manned spacecraft was emphasized and the applied re -search and related energy conservation were focused upon .%报告了近十年国外针对空间微重力燃烧科学的战略规划,综述了在国际空间站上已经进行的微重力燃烧实验内容,分析了实验的意义和取得的成果,例如冷焰的产生. 概述了即将开展的实验. 最后考虑我国国情和研究基础,提出了我国微重力燃烧科学的关键问题及发展方向:以解决航天工程的重大需求为目标,兼顾对燃烧基本过程和规律的科学研究;注重与载人航天器防火安全直接相关的应用基础研究,注重与节能减排相关的应用研究.

  6. A review on Bacopa monniera: Current research and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohil Kashmira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the use of herbal products has increased tremendously in the western world as well as in developed countries. Lately, one of the outstandingly important medicinal plants, widely used therapeutically in the orient and becoming increasingly popular in the west is Bacopa monniera, a well-known nootropic. The present review summarizes our current knowledge of pharmacological actions, preclinical and clinical studies, major bioactives, reported mechanisms of actions, clinical efficacy, safety and the possibility of interactions of the herb with the conventional drugs. Simultaneously, research updates as well as avenues for further research are also mentioned concerning the plant.

  7. SYRUPS: COMPOSITION, TECHNOLOGY, CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview data for the syrups formulation, including syrups for children, with synthetic substances were represented: assortment, composition, technological approach. The advantages and disadvantages of this dosage form were described. Details considered flavoring agents and other auxiliaries (stabilizers, preservatives, thickeners comprising syrups were closely examined. The issues of current research state of syrups for children were described.

  8. Research on scheme of applying ASON to current networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y. F.; Li, J. R.; Deng, L. J.

    2008-10-01

    Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON) is currently a new and hot research subject in the world. It can provide high bandwidth, high assembly flexibility, high network security and reliability, but with a low management cost. It is presented to meet the requirements for high-throughput optical access with stringent Quality of Service (QoS). But as a brand new technology, ASON can not be supported by the traditional protocol software and network equipments. And the approach to build a new ASON network on the basis of completely abandoning the traditional optical network facilities is not desirable, because it costs too much and wastes a lot of network resources can also be used. So how to apply ASON to the current networks and realize the smooth transition between the existing network and ASON has been a serious problem to many network operators. In this research, the status in quo of ASON is introduced first and then the key problems should be considered when applying ASON to current networks are discussed. Based on this, the strategies should be complied with to overcome these key problems are listed. At last, the approach to apply ASON to the current optical networks is proposed and analyzed.

  9. How much, how fast?: A science review and outlook for research on the instability of Antarctica's Thwaites Glacier in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambos, T. A.; Bell, R. E.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Bromwich, D. H.; Brunt, K.; Christianson, K.; Creyts, T.; Das, S. B.; DeConto, R.; Dutrieux, P.; Fricker, H. A.; Holland, D.; MacGregor, J.; Medley, B.; Nicolas, J. P.; Pollard, D.; Siegfried, M. R.; Smith, A. M.; Steig, E. J.; Trusel, L. D.; Vaughan, D. G.; Yager, P. L.

    2017-06-01

    Constraining how much and how fast the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) will change in the coming decades has recently been identified as the highest priority in Antarctic research (National Academies, 2015). Here we review recent research on WAIS and outline further scientific objectives for the area now identified as the most likely to undergo near-term significant change: Thwaites Glacier and the adjacent Amundsen Sea. Multiple lines of evidence point to an ongoing rapid loss of ice in this region in response to changing atmospheric and oceanic conditions. Models of the ice sheet's dynamic behavior indicate a potential for greatly accelerated ice loss as ocean-driven melting at the Thwaites Glacier grounding zone and nearby areas leads to thinning, faster flow, and retreat. A complete retreat of the Thwaites Glacier basin would raise global sea level by more than three meters by entraining ice from adjacent catchments. This scenario could occur over the next few centuries, and faster ice loss could occur through processes omitted from most ice flow models such as hydrofracture and ice cliff failure, which have been observed in recent rapid ice retreats elsewhere. Increased basal melt at the grounding zone and increased potential for hydrofracture due to enhanced surface melt could initiate a more rapid collapse of Thwaites Glacier within the next few decades.

  10. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research.

  11. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  12. Total workday control using Microsoft Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Linenberger, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Total Workday Control Using Microsoft Outlook is a book for the over-extended office worker whose workday feels out of control. It shows how to regain command of an over-committed workday and an overflowing, unmanaged e-mail in box. It does this by teaching the author's system of time, task, and e-mail management, and it shows how to implement the system in Microsoft Outlook.

  13. Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-25

    This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

  14. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  15. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  16. Current frontiers and future directions of telecoupling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The world has been increasingly interconnected over long distances though processes such as international trade, migration, telecommunication, and disease spread. However, previous studies often focused on socioeconomic or environmental issues of distant processes. While these studies have generated useful information for individual disciplines, integrating socioeconomic and environmental information is essential for holistic understanding of complex global challenges and unbiased decision making to address the challenges. To advance integrated research, the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) has been developed to explicitly address both socioeconomic and environmental issues simultaneously. Although the framework is relatively new, it has already been applied to tackle a variety of globally important issues, such as food security, water resources, energy sustainability, land use, international trade (e.g., food, forest products, energy, wildlife, industrial products), species invasion, investment, ecosystem services, conservation, information dissemination, and tourism. These applications have identified many important research gaps (e.g. spillover systems) and hidden linkages (e.g. feedbacks) among distant areas of the world with profound implications for sustainable development, ecosystem health, and human well-being. While working with telecoupling presents more challenges than focusing only on disciplinary issues, support from funding agencies has helped accelerate research on telecoupling and more efforts are being aimed at framework quantification and operationalization. The presenter will provide an overview of the current frontiers, discuss future research directions, and highlight emerging opportunities and challenges in telecoupling research and governance.

  17. Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haiming, E-mail: haiming.yu@buaa.edu.cn [Fert Beijing Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, BDBC, Beihang University (China); Brechet, Sylvain D. [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland); Ansermet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.ansermet@epfl.ch [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland)

    2017-03-03

    Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal

  18. Current research in child and adolescent bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Christine A; Townsend, Lisa D; Wilson, Michael; Findling, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Although recently more research has considered children with bipolar disorder than in the past, much controversy still surrounds the validity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, questions remain as to whether or not childhood expressions of bipolarity are continuous with adult manifestations of the illness. In order to advance current knowledge of bipolar disorders in children, researchers have begun to conduct phenomenological, longitudinal, treatment, and neuroimaging studies in youths who exhibit symptoms of bipolar illness, as well as offspring of parents with bipolar disorders. Regardless of the differences between research groups regarding how bipolar disorder in children is defined, it is agreed that pediatric bipolarity is a serious and pernicious illness. With early intervention during the period of time in which youths are exhibiting subsyndromal symptoms of pediatric bipolarity, it appears that the progression of the illness to the more malignant manifestation of the disorder may be avoided. This paper will review what is currently known and what still is left to learn about clinically salient topics that pertain to bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

  19. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  20. Android移动恶意代码检测的研究概述与展望%Research Review and Outlook on Android Mobile Malware Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡林; 陈铁明

    2016-01-01

    With the wide spread of Android-based mobile applications, the problem of information security in Android system is increasingly serious . Although Android operating system adopted independent virtual memory space to guarantee the reliability of its kernel , because of calls and association between various events in application , it will lead to private data leakage , unauthorized operation procedures, attacks to run out the battery , malicious processes interact and other mobile security events. Therefore , Android malware detection techniques become a hot topic in the domain of mobile application security. In this paper, the application requirements and environments for Android malware detection are ifrstly described, and then the diversity malware detection methods are surveyed which include dynamic and static methods, machine learning-based schemes, formal method-based software engineering techniques. Finally, the research direction to initiate a comprehensive static detection framework by integrating machine learning and software engineering is proposed, with some key challenges concomitantly analyzed, which can be valuable reference both for academic communities and industrial products.%随着Android系统在移动智能终端的应用越来越广,Android系统的信息安全问题也日趋严重。尽管Android操作系统的进程采用了独立的虚拟内存空间保障其程序内核的可靠性,但由于应用程序各种事件之间的调用和关联,导致隐私数据泄露、程序越权操作、电池耗尽攻击、恶意进程交互等手机安全事件频繁涌现。因此Android恶意代码检测技术成为移动应用安全防护的一个研究热点。文章从Android恶意代码检测的应用需求和背景出发,概述了动态检测和静态检测方法、基于机器学习的智能检测方法、基于形式化的软件工程方法等各个方面的研究进展,最后提出了融合机器学习和软件工程方法的综合静

  1. Electricity energy outlook in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. S.; Maragatham, K.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Population and income growth are the key drivers behind the growing demand for energy. Demand for electricity in Malaysia is always growing in tandem with its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The growth for electricity in Malaysia forecasted by Economic Planning Unit (EPU) has shown an increase of 3.52% in 2012 compared to 3.48% in 2011. This growth has been driven by strong demand growth from commercial and domestic sectors. The share of electricity consumption to total energy consumption has increased from 17.4% in 2007 to 21.7% in 2012. The total electricity production was reported at 122.12TWh in 2012, where gas is still the major fuel source contributing to 52.7% of the total generation fuel mix of electricity followed by Coal, 38.9%, hydro, 7.3%, oil, 1% and others, 0.2%. This paper aims to discuss the energy outlook particularly the electricity production and ways toward greener environment in electricity production in Malaysia

  2. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  3. On Unsaturated Soil Mechanics - Personal Views on Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, G. N.; Pietruszczak, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the authors' personal views on current research being conducted by various research groups around the world in the broad area of mechanics of unsaturated geomaterials in general and soils in particular. The topic is of interest to a wide spectrum of scientists and engineers working in diverse areas such as geology and geophysics, powder technology, agricultural, petroleum, chemical, geotechnical, civil, environmental and nuclear engineering. Even if we restrict ourselves to civil, geotechnical and environmental engineering, it is noted that a plethora of hypotheses as well as a number of empirical and semi-empirical relations have been introduced for describing the mechanics of unsaturated porous media. However, many of these proposed advances as well as methods of testing may lack sound theoretical basis.

  4. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  5. Bulk Glassy Alloys: Historical Development and Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Inoue

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of current research in bulk glassy alloys by focusing on the trigger point for the synthesis of the first bulk glassy alloys by the conventional mold casting method. This review covers the background, discovery, characteristics, and applications of bulk glassy alloys, as well as recent topics regarding them. Applications of bulk glassy alloys have been expanding, particularly for Fe-based bulk glassy alloys, due to their unique properties, high glass-forming ability, and low cost. In the near future, the engineering importance of bulk glassy alloys is expected to increase steadily, and continuous interest in these novel metallic materials for basic science research is anticipated.

  6. On Unsaturated Soil Mechanics – Personal Views on Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande G.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the authors’ personal views on current research being conducted by various research groups around the world in the broad area of mechanics of unsaturated geomaterials in general and soils in particular. The topic is of interest to a wide spectrum of scientists and engineers working in diverse areas such as geology and geophysics, powder technology, agricultural, petroleum, chemical, geotechnical, civil, environmental and nuclear engineering. Even if we restrict ourselves to civil, geotechnical and environmental engineering, it is noted that a plethora of hypotheses as well as a number of empirical and semi-empirical relations have been introduced for describing the mechanics of unsaturated porous media. However, many of these proposed advances as well as methods of testing may lack sound theoretical basis.

  7. Astrobites: Engaging Undergraduate Science Majors with Current Astrophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Michael; Astrobites

    2017-01-01

    Astrobites is a graduate-student organization that publishes an online astrophysical literature blog (astrobites.com). The purpose of the site is to make current astrophysical research accessible to and exciting for undergraduate physical science majors and astronomy enthusiasts, and the site now hosts an archive of over 1300 posts summarizing recent astrophysical research. In addition, Astrobites presents posts on career guidance, practical 'how-to' articles, conference summaries, and astronomy news. Astrobites has an average of more than 1000 pageviews per day and reaches not only its target audience of undergraduates, but also graduate students and professionals within astronomy, astronomy enthusiasts, and educators. As we enter our seventh year of successful blogging, we share here the most up-to-date summary of our organization, readership, and growth.

  8. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  9. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Current research projects 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In 1986 SKB decided to construct the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in order to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed underground rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The focus of current and future work is on development and testing of site characterization methods, verification of models describing the function of the natural and engineered barriers and development, testing, and demonstration of repository technology. The program has been organised so that all important steps in the development of a repository are covered, in other words the Aespoe HRL constitutes a `dress rehearsal` for the Swedish deep geological repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began in 1986. Aespoe was selected as the site for the laboratory in 1988. Construction of the facility, which reaches a depth of 460 m below the surface, began in 1990 and was completed in 1995. A major milestone had been reached in 1996 with the completion of the pre-investigation and construction phases of the Aespoe HRL. The comprehensive research conducted has permitted valuable development and verification of site characterization methods applied from the ground surface, boreholes, and underground excavations. The results of this research are summarised in the book `Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - 10 years of Research` published by SKB in 1996. The Operating Phase of the Aespoe HRL began in 1995 and is expected to continue for 15-20 years, that is until the first stage of the development of the Swedish deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is expected to be completed. A number of research projects were initiated at the start of the Operating Phase. Most of these projects have made substantial progress since then and important results have been obtained. The purpose of this brochure is to provide a brief presentation of the

  10. Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-guo WANG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the international definition of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, the current researches on diagnosis and therapy, and proposed that we should not only pay attention to pathogenesis and treatment, but also to sepsis prevention in sepsis researches, and we should try to find out the breakthrough in the interaction and dynamic balance between human being and pathogenic factors. Researches on the strategies to revert strong toxicity of infectious agents to non-toxic or weak pathogenic factors, and to conduct further research concerning biological characteristics of microorganisms and mechanism of drug resistance in order to render them to lose the drug resistance ability, or to increase its sensitivity to the drugs. The above suggested approaches might form the future strategies for preventing and controlling sepsis.

  11. Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiming; Brechet, Sylvain D.; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated.

  12. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Mamadou S.; Fromer, Neil A.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth's global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development.

  13. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: mdiallo@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of); Fromer, Neil A. [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Jhon, Myung S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth’s global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development.

  14. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  15. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  16. The current status of environmental health research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane

    2012-01-01

    At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.

  17. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  18. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  19. Translational research in infectious disease: current paradigms and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Judith M; Alexander, Elizabeth; Salvatore, Mirella

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technologic evolution after the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biology to the "holistic" approach of broadmindedly examining the globally interacting elements of biological systems. The emergence of this new way of thinking has brought about a scientific revolution in which genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other "omics" have become the predominant tools by which large amounts of data are amassed, analyzed, and applied to complex questions of biology that were previously unsolvable. This enormous transformation of basic science research and the ensuing plethora of promising data, especially in the realm of human health and disease, have unfortunately not been followed by a parallel increase in the clinical application of this information. On the contrary, the number of new potential drugs in development has been decreasing steadily, suggesting the existence of roadblocks that prevent the translation of promising research into medically relevant therapeutic or diagnostic application. In this article, we will review, in a noninclusive fashion, several recent scientific advancements in the field of translational research, with a specific focus on how they relate to infectious disease. We will also present a current picture of the limitations and challenges that exist for translational research, as well as ways that have been proposed by the National Institutes of Health to improve the state of this field. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T F

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  1. Current Debates in Corporate Social Responsibility: An Agenda for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crowther

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR has a particular prominence at this point in time, featuring heavily in the discourses of both academe and business. The understanding of what is meant by CSR continues to evolve as a consensus is reached. Nevertheless some important debates continue – or are commencing – which need to be resolved. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight these as some of the current debates within the CSR community – and hence form a significant part of an agenda for research in the area. Specifically we focus upon three key areas for the management of business, namely setting standards for reporting, identifying and implementing sustainable practice, and the management of risk.

  2. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries.

  3. [Video game and internet addiction. The current state of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, F; Mößle, T; Arnaud, N; Rumpf, H-J

    2013-05-01

    The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In DSM-5, nine criteria are proposed for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder. The focus is currently on video games as most studies have been done in this field. Prevalence estimations are difficult to interpret due to the lack of standard diagnostic measures and result in a range of the frequency of Internet addiction between 1 % and 4.2 % in the general German population. Rates are higher in younger individuals. For computer game addiction prevalence rates between 0.9 % and 1.7  % can be found in adolescents. Despite substantial comorbidity among those affected current research points to addictive media use as a stand-alone disorder.

  4. Collaborative Research in Childhood Cancer Survivorship: The Current Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Smita; Armenian, Saro H; Armstrong, Gregory T; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Hawkins, Michael M; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Olsen, Jørgen H; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M

    2015-09-20

    Survivors of childhood cancer carry a substantial burden of morbidity and are at increased risk for premature death. Furthermore, clear associations exist between specific therapeutic exposures and the risk for a variety of long-term complications. The entire landscape of health issues encountered for decades after successful completion of treatment is currently being explored in various collaborative research settings. These settings include large population-based or multi-institutional cohorts and single-institution studies. The ascertainment of outcomes has depended on self-reporting, linkage to registries, or clinical assessments. Survivorship research in the cooperative group setting, such as the Children's Oncology Group, has leveraged the clinical trials infrastructure to explore the molecular underpinnings of treatment-related adverse events, and to understand specific complications in the setting of randomized risk-reduction strategies. This review highlights the salient findings from these large collaborative initiatives, emphasizing the need for life-long follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer, and describing the development of several guidelines and efforts toward harmonization. Finally, the review reinforces the need to identify populations at highest risk, facilitating the development of risk prediction models that would allow for targeted interventions across the entire trajectory of survivorship.

  5. FES in Europe and Beyond: Current Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Christine Azevedo; Mayr, Winfried; Bijak, Manfred; Musarò, Antonio; Carraro, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES) is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators). Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS) conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies. PMID:28078074

  6. FES in Europe and beyond: Current Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.

  7. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue

    2008-09-01

    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  8. Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu; Hong, Zhen; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Wen, Guoqiang; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains.

  9. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  10. The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover,…

  11. A Bayesian Network-Based Probabilistic Framework for Drought Forecasting and Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yae Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable drought forecasting is necessary to develop mitigation plans to cope with severe drought. This study developed a probabilistic scheme for drought forecasting and outlook combined with quantification of the prediction uncertainties. The Bayesian network was mainly employed as a statistical scheme for probabilistic forecasting that can represent the cause-effect relationships between the variables. The structure of the Bayesian network-based drought forecasting (BNDF model was designed using the past, current, and forecasted drought condition. In this study, the drought conditions were represented by the standardized precipitation index (SPI. The accuracy of forecasted SPIs was assessed by comparing the observed SPIs and confidence intervals (CIs, exhibiting the associated uncertainty. Then, this study suggested the drought outlook framework based on probabilistic drought forecasting results. The overall results provided sufficient agreement between the observed and forecasted drought conditions in the outlook framework.

  12. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Jaume; Petrov, Dmitry; Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Elena; García, M. Luisa; Olloquequi, Jordi; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Auladell, Carme; Camins, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a) to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b) to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC). PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease. PMID:26881137

  13. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Folch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC. PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5. Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  14. Current status of auditory aging and anti-aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Ruxin; Yu, Zhuowei

    2014-01-01

    The development of presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The auditory periphery exhibits a progressive bilateral, symmetrical reduction of auditory sensitivity to sound from high to low frequencies. The central auditory nervous system shows symptoms of decline in age-related cognitive abilities, including difficulties in speech discrimination and reduced central auditory processing, ultimately resulting in auditory perceptual abnormalities. The pathophysiological mechanisms of presbycusis include excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, aging and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage that results in apoptosis in the auditory pathway. However, the originating signals that trigger these mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, it is still unknown whether insulin is involved in auditory aging. Auditory aging has preclinical lesions, which manifest as asymptomatic loss of periphery auditory nerves and changes in the plasticity of the central auditory nervous system. Currently, the diagnosis of preclinical, reversible lesions depends on the detection of auditory impairment by functional imaging, and the identification of physiological and molecular biological markers. However, despite recent improvements in the application of these markers, they remain under-utilized in clinical practice. The application of antisenescent approaches to the prevention of auditory aging has produced inconsistent results. Future research will focus on the identification of markers for the diagnosis of preclinical auditory aging and the development of effective interventions.

  15. Current pathways for epidemiological research in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTOR-LITVAK, PAM; AL-CHALABI, AMMAR; ASCHERIO, ALBERTO; BRADLEY, WALTER; CHÍO, ADRIANO; GARRUTO, RALPH; HARDIMAN, ORLA; KAMEL, FREYA; KASARSKIS, EDWARD; MCKEE, ANN; NAKANO, IMAHARU; NELSON, LORENE M.; EISEN, ANDREW

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease. The current status of the epidemiology, challenges to its study, and novel study design options are discussed in this paper. We focus on recent results from large-scale population based prospective studies, case-control studies and population based registries, risk factors, and neuropathologic findings in chronic traumatic encephalomyelopathy. We identify areas of interest for future research, including time-trends in the incidence and prevalence of ALS; the meaning of lifetime risk; the phenotypic description of ALS; the definition of familial versus sporadic ALS, syndromic aspects of ALS; specific risk factors such as military service, life style factors such as smoking, the use of statins, and the presence of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), an excitotoxic amino acid derivative possibly produced by cyanobacteria found in almost every terrestrial and aquatic habitat; the emergence and disappearance of an endemic ALS in areas of the Pacific; and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of ALS. To move the epidemiology forward, we suggest using well-characterized cohorts of newly diagnosed ALS patients to identify risk and prognostic factors; storing biological material for future studies; building on the National ALS Registry as a resource of future studies; working in multidisciplinary consortia; and addressing the possible early life etiology of ALS. PMID:23678878

  16. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  17. Alcohol and NMDA Receptor: Current research and future direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman eChandrasekar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by NMDA receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadapation is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism.

  18. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism.

  19. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Ross; Meyer, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled 'Rethinking Cancer', which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Cagan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled ‘Rethinking Cancer’, which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials.

  1. Mathematics and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on mathematics and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, actuaries,…

  2. Engineering and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on engineering and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include aerospace engineers, agricultural…

  3. Motor Vehicle and Machinery Repairers. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on motor vehicle and machinery repairers, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile body repairers,…

  4. The Outlook for the Child With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eys, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this discussion of the prognosis of cancer-infected children, focus is upon the child and the impact of his disease on his relationship to the world, including the definition of "cure," physical and emotional costs of therapy, and the outlook for children with cancer. (MB)

  5. Employment and Large Cities: Problems and Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, Paul

    1982-01-01

    This article traces the history of the emergence of large cities and examines the outlook for the future. It then answers questions about the effects of city size on general living conditions and on the various aspects of employment and the ways in which it might develop. (CT)

  6. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Overview of recent and current research on the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Codathe TCV Team

    2013-10-01

    Through a diverse research programme, the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) addresses physics issues and develops tools for ITER and for the longer term goals of nuclear fusion, relying especially on its extreme plasma shaping and electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) launching flexibility and preparing for an ECRH and NBI power upgrade. Localized edge heating was unexpectedly found to decrease the period and relative energy loss of edge localized modes (ELMs). Successful ELM pacing has been demonstrated by following individual ELM detection with an ECRH power cut before turning the power back up to trigger the next ELM, the duration of the cut determining the ELM period. Negative triangularity was also seen to reduce the ELM energy release. H-mode studies have focused on the L-H threshold dependence on the main ion species and on the divertor leg length. Both L- and H-modes have been explored in the snowflake configuration with emphasis on edge measurements, revealing that the heat flux to the strike points on the secondary separatrix increases as the X-points approach each other, well before they coalesce. In L-mode, a systematic scan of the auxiliary power deposition profile, with no effect on confinement, has ruled it out as the cause of confinement degradation. An ECRH power absorption observer based on transmitted stray radiation was validated for eventual polarization control. A new profile control methodology was introduced, relying on real-time modelling to supplement diagnostic information; the RAPTOR current transport code in particular has been employed for joint control of the internal inductance and central temperature. An internal inductance controller using the ohmic transformer has also been demonstrated. Fundamental investigations of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) seed island formation by sawtooth crashes and of NTM destabilization in the absence of a sawtooth trigger were carried out. Both stabilizing and destabilizing agents

  8. CURRENT APPROACHES FOR RESEARCH OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current data concerning features of multiple sclerosis (MS etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment of disease indicate the necessity of personalized approach to the management of MS patients. These features are the variety of possible etiological factors and mechanisms that trigger the development of MS, different courses of disease, and significant differences in treatment efficiency. Phenotypic and pathogenetic heterogeneity of MS requires, on the one hand, the stratification of patients into groups with different treatment depending on a number of criteria including genetic characteristics, disease course, stage of the pathological process, and forms of the disease. On the other hand, it requires the use of modern methods for assessment of individual risk of developing MS, its early diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis of the disease course and the treatment efficiency. This approach is based on the identification and determination of biomarkers of MS including the use of systems biology technology platforms such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics. Research and practical use of biomarkers of MS in clinical and laboratory practice requires the use of a wide range of modern medical and biological, mathematical and physicochemical methods. The group of "classical" methods used to study MS biomarkers includes physicochemical and immunological methods aimed at the selection and identification of single molecular biomarkers, as well as methods of molecular genetic analysis. This group of methods includes ELISA, western blotting, isoelectric focusing, immunohistochemical methods, flow cytometry, spectrophotometric and nephelometric methods. These techniques make it possible to carry out both qualitative and quantitative assay of molecular biomarkers. The group of "classical methods" can also include methods based on polymerase chain reaction (including multiplex and allele-specific PCR and genome sequencing

  9. Current status of NADPH oxidase research in cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiño-Janeiro BK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro,1,2 Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro,1 María Isabel Castiñeiras-Landeira,1 Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín,1,3 José R González-Juanatey,1,3,4 Ezequiel Álvarez1,4 1Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble, France; 3Cardiology Department, University Clinic Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Medicine Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Abstract: The implications of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease have been known for some decades. Rationally, therapeutic antioxidant strategies combating oxidative stress have been developed, but the results of clinical trials have not been as good as expected. Therefore, to move forward in the design of new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease based on prevention of production of reactive oxygen species, steps must be taken on two fronts, ie, comprehension of reduction-oxidation signaling pathways and the pathophysiologic roles of reactive oxygen species, and development of new, less toxic, and more selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase inhibitors, to clarify both the role of each NADPH oxidase isoform and their utility in clinical practice. In this review, we analyze the value of NADPH oxidase as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease and the old and new pharmacologic agents or strategies to prevent NADPH oxidase activity. Some inhibitors and different direct or indirect approaches are available. Regarding direct NADPH oxidase inhibition, the specificity of NADPH oxidase is the focus of current investigations, whereas the chemical structure-activity relationship studies of known inhibitors have provided pharmacophore models with which to search for new molecules. From a general point of view, small-molecule inhibitors are preferred because of their hydrosolubility

  10. Summary of current research on Central Asian vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Mei YANG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian vortex (CAV is an important synoptic-scale system that causes rainstorms, short-term heavy precipitation, hail, and sustained low temperatures in Xinjiang. This paper summarizes the current research conducted on the CAV since the 1960s. The objective definition of the CAV has been revised and a deep and shallow CAV classification proposed. Two high-frequency areas of deep CAV activity are the Kazakhstan hills (Sayan mountains and the eastern area of the Aral Sea (Tashkent; events mostly occur in summer and 40% cause strong rainfall. In addition, two high-frequency activity areas of the shallow CAV are located in the west and south of the Pamirs Plateau and mostly occur in spring; 23.2% of occurrences cause strong rainfall. The western and eastern water vapor transport relates to westerlies and a strong low-level easterly jet stream (LLEJ extending from Gansu to Xinjiang, respectively, and water vapor over the Tibetan Plateau transports even more northwards and enters Xinjiang. The deep CAV has an obvious cold core structure down to 300 hPa. The conversion terms from eddy available potential energy (AE to eddy kinetic energy (KE and eddy kinetic energy inflow (BKE from the open atmospheric region boundaries are the main sources of KE which cause rapid development of the CAV. The anomalous anti-cyclone center over the northeast Atlantic is the fountain of Rossby wave energy dispersion; Rossby waves propagate from the northeast Atlantic to eastern Europe (Urals (EEU, and then continuously propagate to Central Asia causing development of the CAV. The CAV requires further study to characterize the meso-scale system structure and evolution characteristics. In addition, physical modeling of the severe convective weather occurring under the CAV is required to determine the critical impacts of this severe convective weather and enable forecasting and early-warning indexes.

  11. Fifth ASTROD Symposium and Outlook of Direct Gravitational-Wave Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Arun, K G; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2012-01-01

    From July 11 to July 13, 2012, Raman Research Institute (Bangalore, India) hosted the Fifth International ASTROD Symposium on Laser Astrodynamics, Space Test of Relativity and Gravitational-Wave Astronomy. This is a report on the symposium with an exposition of the outlook of direct gravitational-wave detection.

  12. International Inventory of Current Mexico-Related Research. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Ricardo Anzaldua, Ed.; And Others

    The fourth annual research inventory describes 728 Mexican-related research projects being conducted in 1984 or to begin in 1985 in 14 countries. Data come from questionnaires sent during 1984 to more than 1,800 individual researchers and 650 institutions around the world. Each project description provides names and addresses of principal and…

  13. Current developments in environmental psychology : topics and researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Muinos, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to bring the work of early-career researchers in environmental psychology to the spotlight. These young researchers come from different countries and cultures, have their own theoretical approaches and employ different research methods to increase knowledge on the re

  14. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  15. Bibliometric Analysis of Current Web Survey Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; SHAO Peiji; FANG Jiaming

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with the advancement of information technology and its application in survey activities, web surveys have not only greatly developed, but have also encountered many problems in China. An analysis of domestic research is important for better understanding of web surveys, to guide further research and application. This paper gives a bibliometric analysis of 120 domestic articles on web surveys from 1998 to 2006, on publication growth, author and organization distribution, journal distribution, and research subjects. Research on web surveys in China should make progress comparable with research abroad in comparative studies, specific studies, and technical application studies.

  16. Research and design of a novel current mode charge pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianrui, Li; Xinquan, Lai; Yushan, Li; Qiang, Ye

    2009-10-01

    To meet the demands for a number of LEDs, a novel charge pump circuit with current mode control is proposed. Regulation is achieved by operating the current mirrors and the output current of the operational transconductance amplifier. In the steady state, the input current from power voltage retains constant, so reducing the noise induced on the input voltage source and improving the output voltage ripple. The charge pump small-signal model is used to describe the device's dynamic behavior and stability. Analytical predictions were verified by Hspice simulation and testing. Load driving is up to 800 mA with a power voltage of 3.6 V, and the output voltage ripple is less than 45 mV. The output response time is less than 8 μs, and the load current jumps from 400 to 800 mA.

  17. Research and design of a novel current mode charge pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xianrui; Lai Xinquan; Li Yushan; Ye Qiang, E-mail: lixianrui4213@126.co [Research Institute of Design Circuit, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2009-10-15

    To meet the demands for a number of LEDs, a novel charge pump circuit with current mode control is proposed. Regulation is achieved by operating the current mirrors and the output current of the operational transconductance amplifier. In the steady state, the input current from power voltage retains constant, so reducing the noise induced on the input voltage source and improving the output voltage ripple. The charge pump small-signal model is used to describe the device's dynamic behavior and stability. Analytical predictions were verified by Hspice simulation and testing. Load driving is up to 800 mA with a power voltage of 3.6 V, and the output voltage ripple is less than 45 mV. The output response time is less than 8 {mu}s, and the load current jumps from 400 to 800 mA.

  18. Research and design of a novel current mode charge pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xianrui; Lai Xinquan; Li Yushan; Ye Qiang

    2009-01-01

    To meet the demands for a number of LEDs, a novel charge pump circuit with current mode control is proposed. Regulation is achieved by operating the current mirrors and the output current of the operational transcon ductance amplifier. In the steady state, the input current from power voltage retains constant, so reducing the noise induced on the input voltage source and improving the output voltage ripple. The charge pump small-signal model is used to describe the device's dynamic behavior and stability. Analytical predictions were verified by Hspice sim ulation and testing. Load driving is up to 800 mA with a power voltage of 3.6 V, and the output voltage ripple is less than 45 mV. The output response time is less than 8 μs, and the load current jumps from 400 to 800 mA.

  19. Current status of research on biophysical effects of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, S B; ter Haar, G R; Ziskin, M C; Nyborg, W L; Maeda, K; Bang, J

    1994-01-01

    This overview of bioeffects of ultrasound presents some key aspects of selected papers dealing with biophysical end-points. Its purpose is to establish a basis for exposure and dosimetric standards for medical ultrasonic equipment. It is intended to provide essential background resource material for the medical/scientific community, and more specifically for scientific working groups. This document was prepared by members of the Safety Committee of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. It was produced as a resource document in response to a request for information by Working Group 12 (Ultrasound exposure parameters) of the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 87, Ultrasonics. IEC TC 87, WG12 is the working group responsible for generating international standards for the classification of equipment by its acoustic fields based on safety thresholds. Our paper is intended to update and supplement information on the thermal mechanism provided in the publication, "WFUMB Symposium on Safety and Standardisation in Medical Ultrasound: Issues and Recommendations Regarding Thermal Mechanisms for Biological Effects of Ultrasound" (WFUMB 1992). It also provides an overview of trends in research into nonthermal mechanisms as a preliminary to the next WFUMB Symposium on Safety of Medical Ultrasound when this subject will be examined in detail by a select group of international experts. The WFUMB-sponsored workshop will take place in Utsunomiya, Japan during 11-15th July, 1994. The purpose of the meeting is to evaluate the scientific literature and to formulate internationally accepted recommendations on the safe use of diagnostic ultrasound that may be endorsed as official policy of the WFUMB. It should be noted that the current publication is not intended for review or endorsement as an official WFUMB document. It is produced as a scientific paper by individuals who are members of the WFUMB Safety Committee, and it therefore

  20. The effect of proximity to hurricanes Katrina and Rita on subsequent hurricane outlook and optimistic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Lueck, Michelle; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated how individuals living on the Gulf Coast perceived hurricane risk after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. It was hypothesized that hurricane outlook and optimistic bias for hurricane risk would be associated positively with distance from the Katrina-Rita landfall (more optimism at greater distance), controlling for historically based hurricane risk and county population density, demographics, individual hurricane experience, and dispositional optimism. Data were collected in January 2006 through a mail survey sent to 1,375 households in 41 counties on the coast (n = 824, 60% response). The analysis used hierarchal regression to test hypotheses. Hurricane history and population density had no effect on outlook; individuals who were male, older, and with higher household incomes were associated with lower risk perception; individual hurricane experience and personal impacts from Katrina and Rita predicted greater risk perception; greater dispositional optimism predicted more optimistic outlook; distance had a small effect but predicted less optimistic outlook at greater distance (model R(2) = 0.21). The model for optimistic bias had fewer effects: age and community tenure were significant; dispositional optimism had a positive effect on optimistic bias; distance variables were not significant (model R(2) = 0.05). The study shows that an existing measure of hurricane outlook has utility, hurricane outlook appears to be a unique concept from hurricane optimistic bias, and proximity has at most small effects. Future extension of this research will include improved conceptualization and measurement of hurricane risk perception and will bring to focus several concepts involving risk communication. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. The current status of nuclear research reactor in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittichai, C.; Kanyukt, R.; Pongpat, P. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1998-10-01

    Since 1962, the Thai Research Reactor has been serving for various kinds of activities i.e. the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and research and development on nuclear science and technology, for more than three decades. The existing reactor site should be abandoned and relocated to the new suitable site, according to Thai cabinet`s resolution on the 27 December 1989. The decommissioning project for the present reactor as well as the establishment of new nuclear research center were planned. This paper discussed the OAEP concept for the decommissioning programme and the general description of the new research reactor and some related information were also reported. (author)

  2. Current Research in Lidar Technology Used for the Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerón, Adolfo; Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Rodríguez-Gómez, Alejandro; Sicard, Michaël

    2017-06-20

    Lidars are active optical remote sensing instruments with unique capabilities for atmospheric sounding. A manifold of atmospheric variables can be profiled using different types of lidar: concentration of species, wind speed, temperature, etc. Among them, measurement of the properties of aerosol particles, whose influence in many atmospheric processes is important but is still poorly stated, stands as one of the main fields of application of current lidar systems. This paper presents a review on fundamentals, technology, methodologies and state-of-the art of the lidar systems used to obtain aerosol information. Retrieval of structural (aerosol layers profiling), optical (backscatter and extinction coefficients) and microphysical (size, shape and type) properties requires however different levels of instrumental complexity; this general outlook is structured following a classification that attends these criteria. Thus, elastic systems (detection only of emitted frequencies), Raman systems (detection also of Raman frequency-shifted spectral lines), high spectral resolution lidars, systems with depolarization measurement capabilities and multi-wavelength instruments are described, and the fundamentals in which the retrieval of aerosol parameters is based is in each case detailed.

  3. Urban tourism research : Recent progress and current paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, Gregory; Page, Stephen J.

    Urban tourism has remained a consistent theme in the expansion of tourism research since the 1980s and several seminal papers (e.g. Ashworth, 1989, 2003) have reviewed the state of research and its progress towards a greater recognition. This Progress in Tourism Management review article moves our

  4. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  5. Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Critical Review of Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallin, Antoinette; Nayar, Shoba

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the funding and delivery of research programmes at the university level have, in recent years, resulted in significant changes to research supervision. This paper critically reviews key influences effecting postgraduate supervision. Analysis draws on literature spanning 2000-2010 to determine the appropriateness of traditional models of…

  6. Urban tourism research : Recent progress and current paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, Gregory; Page, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Urban tourism has remained a consistent theme in the expansion of tourism research since the 1980s and several seminal papers (e.g. Ashworth, 1989, 2003) have reviewed the state of research and its progress towards a greater recognition. This Progress in Tourism Management review article moves our u

  7. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  8. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-17

    The Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 is a companion document to the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO). Supplement tables provide the regional projections underlying the national data and projections in the AEO. The domestic coal, electric power, commercial nuclear power, end-use consumption, and end-use price tables present AEO forecasts at the 10 Federal Region level. World coal tables provide data and projections on international flows of steam coal and metallurgical coal, and the oil and gas tables provide the AEO oil and gas supply forecasts by Oil and Gas Supply Regions and by source of supply. All tables refer to cases presented in the AEO, which provides a range of projections for energy markets through 2010.

  9. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This section of the Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 present the major assumptions of the modeling system used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). In this context, assumptions include general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are most significant in formulating the model results. Detailed documentation of the modeling system is available in a series of documentation reports listed in Appendix B. A synopsis of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), the model components, and the interrelationships of the modules is presented. The NEMS is developed and maintained by the office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide projection of domestic energy-economy markets in the midterm time period and perform policy analyses requested by various government agencies and the private sector.

  10. Incorporating current research into formal higher education settings using Astrobites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan E.; Kohler, Susanna; Faesi, Chris; Villar, Ashley; Zevin, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A primary goal of many undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in the physical sciences is to prepare students to engage in scientific research or to prepare students for careers that leverage skillsets similar to those used by research scientists. Even for students who may not intend to pursue a career with these characteristics, exposure to the context of applications in modern research can be a valuable tool for teaching and learning. However, a persistent barrier to student participation in research is familiarity with the technical language, format, and context that academic researchers use to communicate research methods and findings with each other: the literature of the field. Astrobites, an online web resource authored by graduate students, has published brief and accessible summaries of more than 1300 articles from the astrophysical literature since its founding in 2010. This article presents three methods for introducing students at all levels within the formal higher education setting to approaches and results from modern research. For each method, we provide a sample lesson plan that integrates content and principles from Astrobites, including step-by-step instructions for instructors, suggestions for adapting the lesson to different class levels across the undergraduate and graduate spectrum, sample student handouts, and a grading rubric.

  11. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  12. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  13. [Current situation and development trend of Chinese medicine information research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Cui, Meng

    2013-04-01

    Literature resource service was the main service that Chinese medicine (CM) information offered. But in recent years users have started to request the health information knowledge service. The CM information researches and application service mainly included: (1) the need of strength studies on theory, application of technology, information retrieval, and information standard development; (2) Information studies need to support clinical decision making, new drug research; (3) Quick response based on the network monitoring and support to emergency countermeasures. CM information researches have the following treads: (1) developing the theory system structure of CM information; (2) studying the methodology system of CM information; (3) knowledge discovery and knowledge innovation.

  14. Current research trends in mountain biodiversity in NW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, Risto A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on four themes in relation to biodiversity (vegetation science, keystone grazers, long-term studies and protected areas, a synthesis of current research in the mountain areas of Fennoscandia, Iceland and Scotland is presented. Recent relevant advances in vegetation science include classifications of mountain habitats which together with species distribution maps offer new possibilities for analysis. Generalisations emerging from comparisons of the ecology and ecophysiology of plants between different mountain areas are greatly needed. Further studies on the ecological impacts of keystone grazers are urgently required because of the alarming rate of degradation of mountain habitats. The topics highlighted from northern Fennoscandia include (i the effect of overgrazing by reindeer on the cover of foliose lichens and on the regeneration of mountain birch, (ii the ecological interactions between the autumnal moth and mountain birch, and (Hi the effect of rodents on vegetation. Long-term studies of slow processes to capture rare but important events are needed to better understand the functioning of mountain ecosystems. Examples of such studies are presented for (i the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum as an indicator of airborne nitrogen pollution, (ii research based on cyclic oscillations of vole numbers, and (Hi the application of breeding birds in environmental assessment. The conservation of appropriate areas is important for mountain biodiversity. Mountain habitats have been protected extensively in northern Europe. The evaluation of how representative the existing areas are and how to use them for research need international co-ordination.

    [fr] On présente une synthèse de la recherche actuelle dans les régions de montagne de la Scandinavie, l'Islande et l'Ecosse, centrée sur quatre sujets autour de la biodiversité (science de la végétation, herbivores principaux, études à long terme et zones protégées. Les r

  15. International energy outlook 1995, May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1995 (IEO95) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the international energy market outlook through 2010. The report is an extension of the EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95), which was prepared using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). US projections appearing in the IEO95 are consistent with those published in the AEO95. IEO95 is provided as a statistical service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projects are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Department of energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 295(c). The IEO95 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1994. IEO95 displays projections according to six basic country groupings. The regionalization has changed since last year`s report. Mexico has been added to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and a more detailed regionalization has been incorporated for the remainder of the world, including the following subgroups: non-OECD Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China is included in non-OECD Asia. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are combined in the EE/FSU subgroup.

  16. International energy outlook 1995, May 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1995 (IEO95) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the international energy market outlook through 2010. The report is an extension of the EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95), which was prepared using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). US projections appearing in the IEO95 are consistent with those published in the AEO95. IEO95 is provided as a statistical service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projects are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Department of energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 295(c). The IEO95 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1994. IEO95 displays projections according to six basic country groupings. The regionalization has changed since last year's report. Mexico has been added to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and a more detailed regionalization has been incorporated for the remainder of the world, including the following subgroups: non-OECD Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China is included in non-OECD Asia. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are combined in the EE/FSU subgroup.

  17. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  1. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  2. MicroRNA Detection: Current Technology and Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Eric A.; Broyles, David; Head, Trajen; Deo, Sapna K.

    2015-07-01

    The relatively new field of microRNA (miR) has experienced rapid growth in methodology associated with its detection and bioanalysis as well as with its role in -omics research, clinical diagnostics, and new therapeutic strategies. The breadth of this area of research and the seemingly exponential increase in number of publications on the subject can present scientists new to the field with a daunting amount of information to evaluate. This review aims to provide a collective overview of miR detection methods by relating conventional, established techniques [such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), microarray, and Northern blotting (NB)] and relatively recent advancements [such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), highly sensitive biosensors, and computational prediction of microRNA/targets] to common miR research strategies. This should guide interested readers toward a more focused study of miR research and the surrounding technology.

  3. Neuroeconomics: cross-currents in research on decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanfey, A.G.; Loewenstein, G.; McClure, S.M.; Cohen, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite substantial advances, the question of how we make decisions and judgments continues to pose important challenges for scientific research. Historically, different disciplines have approached this problem using different techniques and assumptions, with few unifying efforts made. However, the

  4. Symposium: Organizational Health Intervention Research: Current Empirical Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jenny, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    This symposium is one of three symposia submitted by the "International organizational health intervention research partnership". The aim of this symposium is to present new empirical developments based on participatory intervention models. All five studies have developed and applied intervention...

  5. Current research situation of titanium alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys possess excellent comprehensive properties, and they are widely used in many fields. China pays great attentions to the research on new titanium alloys. This paper mainly reviews the research on new Ti alloys in China, for example, high strength and high toughness Ti alloys, burn resistant Tialloys, high temperature Ti alloys, low cost Ti alloys and so on.New basic theories on Ti alloys developed in China in recent years are also reviewed.

  6. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations......, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical...

  7. Development and Outlook of Insulating Materials for High Voltage Direct Current Cables%高压直流电缆绝缘材料的发展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翀; 查俊伟; 王思蛟; 巫运辉; 闫轰达; 李维康; 陈新; 党智敏

    2016-01-01

    针对高压直流电缆的发展历史,介绍了高压直流电缆的基本原理、应用现状以及技术瓶颈,指出我国研发高压直流电缆的必要性和紧迫性,并对未来高压直流电缆的发展方向进行了展望.%The basic principle, application status, and technical bottlenecks of high voltage direct current (HVDC) cables were introduced according to the history of HVDC cables, and the necessity and urgency for developing HVDC cables were pionted out in China. The future development direction of HVDC cables was prospected.

  8. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  9. 2002–2012: 10 Years of Research Progress in Horizontal-Axis Marine Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wern Ng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in marine current energy, including tidal and ocean currents, has undergone significant growth in the past decade. The horizontal-axis marine current turbine is one of the machines used to harness marine current energy, which appears to be the most technologically and economically viable one at this stage. A number of large-scale marine current turbines rated at more than 1 MW have been deployed around the World. Parallel to the development of industry, academic research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines has also shown positive growth. This paper reviews previous research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines and provides a concise overview for future researchers who might be interested in horizontal-axis marine current turbines. The review covers several main aspects, such as: energy assessment, turbine design, wakes, generators, novel modifications and environmental impact. Future trends for research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines are also discussed.

  10. Research Diagnostic criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: current status & future relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, S F

    2010-10-01

    The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), published in 1992, was based on international expert recommendations and available empirical data. The major rationale was to offer a putative diagnostic and classification system whose reliability, validity and clinical usefulness for TMD diagnosis and classification could be scientifically evaluated and then revised using an evidence-based model for successive iterations. The present journal issue attests to the accomplishment of that major objective: the RDC/TMD has been translated into 18 languages and used very extensively in international research. One important component of that research has been to yield reliable and valid data resulting in an evidence-based revision of the RDC/TMD now available for continuing research and clinical application. The present article offers recommendations and speculations regarding how the RDC/TMD may continue to serve the function of guiding future research and, most importantly, serve as an evidence-based diagnostic and classification system to aid in the rational choice of clinical care for TMD sufferers around the world.

  11. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  12. Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G

    2017-06-01

    For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand's consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  14. Current research activity in the measurement of thorium and the identification of future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M A; Howe, A M; Rosen, P; Holmes, L

    2001-01-01

    A pre-requisite in the setting and enforcement of regulatory limits for exposure to thorium in the workplace is that thorium and its progeny can be accurately measured. Literature surveys have shown that the majority of thorium measurements were performed using either a radiochemical technique, such as alpha or gamma spectroscopy, or ICP-MS. For many methods. there was a separation step to isolate and pre-concentrate thorium from the sample matrix. Thorium was most commonly measured in geological matrices and industrial materials. A survey of current research activity was performed through distribution of a questionnaire to laboratories and national centres. From the rcsponses, four areas of current activity were identified: (i) development of methods for low level thorium determination, (ii) biological monitoring and metabolism of thorium, (iii) environmental monitoring for thorium, and (iv) health risks from X ray contract media. Two key areas for priority research were identified by the thorium Thematic Network: namely sample preparation methods and for traceable standards and reference materials for thorium analysis.

  15. Research on Predicting Drive Current of Shipborne Satcom Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the effect of antenna wind load on servo system precisely is meaningful to ensure the safety of satcom antenna on operation, which can avoid overload operation. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics is used to proceed numerical computation on the pressure distribution of the reflector and torque of drive shaft under different wind speed, windward angle and angle of pitch of the antenna. The simulation model is built under MATLAB/Simulink simulation environment, and the drive current of the antenna servo system is analyzed under wind load effect and ship swing. Then, a method of predicting drive current of antenna servo system according to the wind speed, wind direction and attitude of the antenna is concluded. And this method is verified by simulation at last.

  16. Research on current e-commerce of tourism in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of e-commerce in China has been accompanied by a similar development in tourism-based e-commerce. Taking the network as the medium, e-commerce has already become the new model for tourism transactions in the information age: By building one convenient bridge between tourism-based enterprises and tourists, can directly influence the profitability of enterprises. The paper will introduce the current development of tourism-based e-commerce websites, by firstly examining...

  17. Current trends in safety testing and toxicological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, G.

    1982-06-01

    The paper reviews current concepts of toxicological evaluation of new drugs and other chemicals. Instead of completing a predetermined check-list toxicologists now consider the potential adverse effects of the substances under actual conditions of use. They then design experimental models which have a high probability to predict the toxic effects. Moreover, the enhanced susceptibilities of special risk populations is more and more taken into consideration.

  18. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  19. Research on Low Power Marine Current Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkai Peng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a simple topological structure and power control method for a small scale stand alone marine current system, in which a diode rectifier, DC/DC boost converter for the maximum power control, battery as a storage element and a single phase inverter to link with load. The study establishes the steady-state mathematical model of marine current power generation system and derives the formula between the maximum power point and dc battery voltage. Then use the measurements of DC voltage and DC current to obtain Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT by controlling the duty cycle of the boost converter switch in order to simplify the system structure and the control strategies. In this case, the hill climbing searching algorithm is employed to get maximum power point and the double closed loops control strategy is used to improve the dynamic and static performance of single phase inverter. The simulation model is developed in MATLAB/Simulink. And the control method is executed in dSPACE1104 real-time platform. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed control strategies.

  20. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  1. Talent management : Current theories and future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Ariss, A.; Cascio, W.F.; Paauwe, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on Talent Management (TM) has been lagging behind businesses in offering vision and leadership in this field. After sketching a comprehensive outline of knowledge about TM, theoretical as well as practical, we introduce the papers in this special issue and their important contributions.

  2. Applying Current Theory and Research in Career Exploration to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Provides selected review of two lines of recent research on career exploration (identifying antecedents of exploratory activity and application of information processes biases to career exploration), with specific focus on applications for counseling practice. Describes relevant counseling interventions and concludes with summary of six goals to…

  3. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  4. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  5. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  6. Behavioral Marital Therapy: Current Trends in Research, Assessment and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.

    1980-01-01

    Behavioral Marital Therapy (BMT) is clinically useful because it includes elaborating procedures, modifying the spouse's self-defeating cognitions, and moving toward early intervention and prevention. Each article in this issue of American Journal of Family Therapy focuses on innovations in BMT, either in research or practice. (Author/NRB)

  7. Dyslexia and the Brain: What Does Current Research Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Roxanne F.; High, Leslie; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Dyslexia is a disorder of the language-processing systems in the brain. It is a specific learning disability in reading that often affects spelling as well. This article describes: (1) Common characteristics experienced by people with dyslexia or reading disabilities; (2) Common misconceptions about dyslexia; (3) What brain research tell us about…

  8. Current Relevance of Zetetics to Library Research and Library Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marta A.; Davis, Harry O.

    1996-01-01

    Explains zetetics which involve theories of research and epistemology and discusses its relevance to library science. Topics include library literacy, and the use of an information matrix to help library patrons understand what information they have and what they need to find. (Author/LRW)

  9. Materials for hydrogen storage: current research trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Annemieke W C; Areán, Carlos Otero

    2008-02-14

    Storage and transport of hydrogen constitutes a key enabling technology for the advent of a hydrogen-based energy transition. Main research trends on hydrogen storage materials, including metal hydrides, porous adsorbents and hydrogen clathrates, are reviewed with a focus on recent developments and an appraisal of the challenges ahead. .

  10. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  11. Business model innovation: Past research, current debates, and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mokter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide state-of-the-art knowledge about business model innovation (BMI) and suggest avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic literature review approach was adopted with thematic analysis being conducted on 92 articles...

  12. Current research in Spain on walnut for wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neus Alet& #224; Neus NO-VALUE

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Mediterranean Trees at the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA) in Spain initiated a research program in 1993 to examine the variability among walnut species for wood production and to establish orchards with improved selections. The main objective of the programme is to obtain superior Persian walnut (Juglans regia...

  13. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  14. Solidification modeling: Status and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzig, J. A.

    2000-12-01

    Solidification modeling is a complex and highly advanced field. This article examines the state of the art in solidification modeling, including physical phenomena of solidification such as heat extraction, transport processes within a casting, and dimensional changes in the casting and mold during solidification. Also examined are current efforts to model these phenomena and the strengths and weaknesses of these efforts. Finally, obstacles to solidification modeling, such as speed and cost of the process, are considered, along with the likelihood those obstacles will be overcome.

  15. Researches on regenerative medicine——current state and prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo; XIAO Kai

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980s,the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed regenerative medicine to a new fastigium,and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine.In China,about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year,while the number is much larger in the world.Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients.Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine.The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine.In accord with this strategy,the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD)for the research on regenerative medicine.In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward - from bench to bedside,a strategic alliance has been established.and it includes 27 top-level research institutes,medical institutes,colleges,universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine.Recently the journal,Science,has published a special issue-Regenerative Medicine in China,consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration,tissue engineering and regeneration,trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine.It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years).

  16. Controle biológico de helmintos parasitos de animais: estágio atual e perspectivas futuras Biological control of helminth parasites of animals: current stage and future outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Mota

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O controle biológico é um método desenvolvido para diminuir uma população de parasitas pela utilização de antagonista natural. A administração de fungos nematófagos aos animais domésticos é considerada uma promissora alternativa na profilaxia das helmintíases gastrintestinais parasitárias. Os fungos nematófagos desenvolvem estruturas em forma de armadilhas, responsáveis pela captura e destruição dos estágios infectantes dos nematóides. Os fungos dos gêneros Arthrobotrys, Duddingtonia e Monacrosporium têm demonstrado eficácia em experimentos laboratoriais e no campo no controle de parasitos de bovinos, eqüinos, ovinos e suínos. Diversas formulações fúngicas têm sido avaliadas, no entanto, ainda não há nenhum produto comercial disponível. A associação dos grupos de pesquisa e o envolvimento das indústrias poderão colaborar para o sucesso na implementação desta forma de controle.Biological control is a non-chemical alternative method with its main goal to reduce the amount of parasite population using natural antagonists. The administration of nematophagous fungi to animals has been considered an alternative in gastrointestinal helminthiasis prophylaxis. The nematophagous fungi produce trap-shaped structures, which are responsible for capturing and destroying the free-living stages of nematodes. The genera Arthrobotrys, Duddingtonia and Monacrosporium has been shown efficacy in laboratory and field experiments against cattle, equine, ovine and swine parasites. Several fungi formulations have been evaluated, but there is so far no commercial product available. The association of research groups with industry could improve the successful implementation of this control method.

  17. Icing Branch Current Research Activities in Icing Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Current development: A grid block transformation scheme which allows the input of grids in arbitrary reference frames, the use of mirror planes, and grids with relative velocities has been developed. A simple ice crystal and sand particle bouncing scheme has been included. Added an SLD splashing model based on that developed by William Wright for the LEWICE 3.2.2 software. A new area based collection efficiency algorithm will be incorporated which calculates trajectories from inflow block boundaries to outflow block boundaries. This method will be used for calculating and passing collection efficiency data between blade rows for turbo-machinery calculations.

  18. Nanomaterials in Lubricants: An Industrial Perspective on Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zhmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations. The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and greases are discussed. Results of numerous studies combined with formulation experience of the authors strongly suggest that nanomaterials do indeed have potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties, yet there is a long way to go before balanced formulations are developed.

  19. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  20. Conceptual knowledge representation: A cross-section of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T; Wolmetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors.

  1. [Musculoskeletal shock wave therapy--current database of clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompe, J D; Buch, M; Gerdesmeyer, L; Haake, M; Loew, M; Maier, M; Heine, J

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade application of extracorporal shock waves became an established procedure for the treatment of various musculoskeletal diseases in Germany. Up to now the positive results of prospective randomised controlled trials have been published for the treatment of plantar fasciitis, lateral elbow epicondylitis (tennis elbow), and of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Most recently, contradicting results of prospective randomised placebo-controlled trials with adequate sample size calculation have been reported. The goal of this review is to present information about the current clinical database on extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT).

  2. Current research on drugs and vaccines for fighting bird flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-12-01

    Bird flu, or avian flu, caused by the H5N1 virus, is of concern worldwide. The antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir have been used to treat human cases, and resistance has been reported. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of antiviral resistance are needed to understand the problem and to aid future drug development. Control of a major outbreak would require a vaccine, but current manufacturing technology is not adequate to support influenza vaccine production in the event of an avian influenza outbreak.

  3. Incredible Years parenting interventions: current effectiveness research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty

    2017-06-01

    The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Current electroconvulsive therapy practice and research in the geriatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Nancy; Prudic, Joan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is utilized worldwide for various severe and treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. Research studies have shown that ECT is the most effective and rapid treatment available for elderly patients with depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis. For patients who suffer from intractable catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, ECT can be life saving. For elderly patients who cannot tolerate or respond poorly to medications and who are at a high risk for drug-induced toxicity or toxic drug interactions, ECT is the safest treatment option. Organic causes are frequently associated with late-life onset of neuropsychiatric conditions, such as parkinsonism, dementia and stroke. ECT has proven to be efficacious even when these conditions are present. During the next decade, research studies should focus on the use of ECT as a synergistic therapy, to enhance other biological and psychological treatments, and prevent symptom relapse and recurrence. PMID:24778709

  5. Opening the "black box" of current creativity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann Birk, Rasmus; Ernø, Steffen

    value" or none at all. Creativity was mostly measured with different types of divergent thinking tests. There appears to be a lack of deeper theoretical and methodological discussions of creativity in the literature, which creates a disconnection between definitions, methodologies and the interpretation......This presentation aims to problematise the ways in which creativity is defined and measured in recent studies on the topic. For this purpose, we analyzed 58 articles on creativity, selected from within the sub-fields of neuropsychology, psychometrics and developmental psychology published from 2009......-2012. The sub-fields were chosen because of their prominence in psychological research and research on creativity. The articles were procured from the PsycINFO database, with selection criteria being that they must be peer-reviewed and empirical studies. Typical definitions of creativity were "novelty plus...

  6. CYBERQUEER – MAJOR TOPICS AND ISSUES IN CURRENT RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA RODAT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the opportunities opened by the internet raises also questions of interest for research regarding the extent to which these have an impact on the formations of non heterosexual life and on the experience of marginalised sexual identities. There have been different approaches in this regard and answers vary from optimistic and utopian appraisals concerning cyberspace in the early 90s to the more moderate and sceptic visions in the 2000s. Starting from this framework of debates, the present paper aims to explore the meaning of the term “cyberqueer”, including the theoretical context of its occurrence, to briefly highlight some critical considerations relating to cyberqueer research and to look over the main recurrent themes linked up with this concept, such as queer and cyberqueer identity, body and (disembodied practices and the forthcoming process of blurring the dividing boundaries between real/virtual, online/offline and public/private

  7. AAS Nova and Astrobites: Making current astronomy research accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2016-10-01

    AAS Nova and Astrobites are two resources available for astronomers, astronomy students, and astronomy enthusiasts to keep up with some of the most recent research published across the field of astronomy. Both supported by the AAS, these two daily astrophysical literature blogs provide accessible summaries of recent publications on the arXiv and in AAS journals. We present the goals, content, and readership of AAS Nova and Astrobites, and discuss how they might be used as tools in the undergraduate classroom.

  8. Current Status and Trend of Forest Hydrological Services Market Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Of the many services that forests provide, hydrological services are among the most valuable, and it becomes more scarce with the growing demands by human beings. As a kind of incentive measure for protecting forest, forest hydrological services markets have been developed in many countries around the world and some valuable experiences have been achieved. The paper reviews the experiments carried out in the world and their research findings on forest hydrological services market, and presents the issues to...

  9. Ubiquitous Wireless Computing: Current Research Progress, Challenging, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Elyas, Palantei

    2014-01-01

    - The aggressive research activities and generous studies focusing on the ubiquitous mobile computing carried-out during the last two decades have gained very tremendous outcomes to apply in broad areas of modern society lives. In the near future, the computing technology application is highly possible to emerge as the dominant method to connect any objects to the global ICT infrastructure, the internet. This talk mainly discusses several R&D achievements performed during the last five yea...

  10. Music therapy in cardiac health care: current issues in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Suzanne B

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy is a service that has become more prevalent as an adjunct to medical practice-as its evidence base expands and music therapists begin to join the cardiology team in every phase of care, from the most serious cases to those maintaining good heart health. Although applications of music medicine, primarily listening to short segments of music, are capable of stabilizing vital signs and managing symptoms in the short-term, music therapy interventions by a qualified practitioner are showing promise in establishing deeper and more lasting impact. On the basis of mind-body approaches, stress/coping models, the neuromatrix theory of pain, and entrainment, music therapy capitalizes on the ability of music to affect the autonomic nervous system. Although only a limited number of randomized controlled trials pinpoint the efficacy of specific music therapy interventions, qualitative research reveals some profound outcomes in certain individuals. A depth of understanding related to the experience of living with a cardiovascular disease can be gained through music therapy approaches such as nonverbal music psychotherapy and guided imagery and music. The multifaceted nature of musical responsiveness contributes to strong individual variability and must be taken into account in the development of research protocols for future music therapy and music medicine interventions. The extant research provides a foundation for exploring the many potential psychosocial, physiological, and spiritual outcomes of a music therapy service for cardiology patients.

  11. The Communication Research in Spain. Historical evolution and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Manuel Martínez Nicolás - manuel.martinez.nicolas@urjc.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper an approach to the history of Communication Research in Spain, taking into account the scientific production and the structure and historical context in which the scientific community interested in this field have performed their work. For this task we have established a temporary frame beginning from the moment communication became an autonomous field of research and education in Spain, during the mid-sixties, until present time. This period has been divided into three stages, typically defined as emergence, consolidation and development (or maturing of communication studies in Spain. In each of these stages, the scientific community interested in communication research have worked in different social, academic and epistemic or scientific contexts. These particular conditions contribute to understanding the different orientations which have inspired historical communication research in Spain (research objects, theoretical and methodological approaches, contributions and limitations.Traducción supervisada por la Dda. María Teresa Durán Sánchez (ULPGC.En este trabajo se propone una aproximación a la historia de la investigación sobre comunicación en España poniendo en relación la producción científica con las características, estructura y condiciones históricas en las que ha desempeñado su trabajo la comunidad científica interesada en este ámbito. Para ello, se establece un marco temporal que arranca en el momento de la constitución de la comunicación como campo de investigación (y de docencia autónomo, a mediados de la década de los sesenta, y llega hasta la actualidad. Consideramos que en el curso de este periodo pueden distinguirse no menos de tres etapas, que convencionalmente se han denominado de emergencia, consolidación y desarrollo (o maduración de los estudios sobre comunicación en España. En cada una de estas etapas, la comunidad científica interesada en la investigación comunicativa

  12. Alaskan Peninsula Cenozoic stratigraphy: stratigraphic sequences and current research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, R.C.; Armentrout, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    Geology of the Alaska Peninsula-Island Arc and Continental Margin, by C.A. Burk, is the principal reference for stratigraphic studies on the Alaska Peninsula. Burk mapped the Phanerozoic stratigraphy and provided a geologic history and structural interpretation of the area between Wide Bay and Unimak Island. Cenozoic rocks were mapped as three unconformity-bounded sequences. Recognition of specific formations was difficult due to similarity of lithofacies, isolated outcrops, rapid facies changes, and alteration and burial by young volcanics. Consequently, megafossil assemblages were relied upon to facilitate correlations between study areas. The three unconformity-bounded Cenozoic sequences are: (1) the Paleogene Beaver Bay Group consisting of three formations: the dominantly nonmarine Tolstoi Formation, the dominantly marine Stepovak Formation, and the volcanic Meshik Formation. Current work suggests these units are at least in part coeval facies of late Paleocene through Oligocene age. (2) The Neogene Bear Lake Formation consisting of the lower Unga Conglomerate Member and an unnamed upper member. Rapid facies changes and incorrect reports of fossil occurrence have resulted in confusion of stratigraphic relationships within this sequence of middle to late Miocene age. (3) A late Neogene informally defined upper sequence consisting of interbedded marginal marine, coastal-plain, and volcanic facies. Current work suggests this sequence is Pliocene through Pleistocene in age.

  13. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  14. Jet modification in the next decade: A pedestrian outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Majumder

    2015-05-01

    In this review, we recount the current status of the theory of jet modification in dense matter. We commence with an outline of the ‘traditional’ observables which may be calculated without recourse to event generators. These include single- and double-hadron suppression, nuclear modification factor vs. reaction plane etc. All these measurements are used to justify both the required underlying physical picture of jet modification as well as the final obtained values of jet transport coefficients. This is followed by a review of the more modern observables which have arisen with the ability to reconstruct full jets, and the challenges faced therein. This is followed by a preview of upcoming theoretical developments in the field and an outlook on how the interface between these developments, phenomenological improvements, and upcoming data will allow us to quantitatively determine properties of the medium which effect the modification of hard jets.

  15. Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Greg; Davison, Richard; Jeukendrup, Asker; Passfield, Louis

    2003-09-01

    In this holistic review of cycling science, the objectives are: (1) to identify the various human and environmental factors that influence cycling power output and velocity; (2) to discuss, with the aid of a schematic model, the often complex interrelationships between these factors; and (3) to suggest future directions for research to help clarify how cycling performance can be optimized, given different race disciplines, environments and riders. Most successful cyclists, irrespective of the race discipline, have a high maximal aerobic power output measured from an incremental test, and an ability to work at relatively high power outputs for long periods. The relationship between these characteristics and inherent physiological factors such as muscle capilliarization and muscle fibre type is complicated by inter-individual differences in selecting cadence for different race conditions. More research is needed on high-class professional riders, since they probably represent the pinnacle of natural selection for, and physiological adaptation to, endurance exercise. Recent advances in mathematical modelling and bicycle-mounted strain gauges, which can measure power directly in races, are starting to help unravel the interrelationships between the various resistive forces on the bicycle (e.g. air and rolling resistance, gravity). Interventions on rider position to optimize aerodynamics should also consider the impact on power output of the rider. All-terrain bicycle (ATB) racing is a neglected discipline in terms of the characterization of power outputs in race conditions and the modelling of the effects of the different design of bicycle frame and components on the magnitude of resistive forces. A direct application of mathematical models of cycling velocity has been in identifying optimal pacing strategies for different race conditions. Such data should, nevertheless, be considered alongside physiological optimization of power output in a race. An even distribution

  16. Ecosystem services – current challenges and opportunities for ecological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eBirkhofer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem services was originally developed to illustrate the benefits that natural ecosystems generate for society and to raise awareness for biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. In this article we identify major challenges and opportunities for ecologists involved in empirical or modeling ecosystem service research. The first challenge arises from the fact that the ecosystem service concept has not been generated in the context of managed systems. Ecologists need to identify the effect of anthropogenic interventions in order to propose practices to benefit service-providing organisms and associated services. The second challenge arises from the need to evaluate relationships between indicators of ecosystem services that are collected in ecological studies while accounting for uncertainties of ecological processes that underlie these services. We suggest basing the assessment of ecosystem services on the utilization of sets of indicators that cover aspects of service-providing units, ecosystem management and landscape modification. The third challenge arises from our limited understanding of the nature of relationships between services and a lack of a general statistical framework to address these links. To manage ecosystem service provisioning, ecologists need to establish whether services respond to a shared driver or if services are directly linked to each other. Finally, studies relating biodiversity to ecosystem services often focus on services at small spatial or short temporal scales, but research on the protection of services is often directed towards services providing benefits at large spatial scales. Ecological research needs to address a range of spatial and temporal scales to provide a multifaceted understanding of how nature promotes human well-being. Addressing these challenges in the future offers a unique opportunity for ecologists to act as promoters for the understanding about how to conserve benefits

  17. Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Background The Internet has revolutionized the health world, enabling self-diagnosis and online support to take place irrespective of time or location. Alongside the positive aspects for an individual’s health from making use of the Internet, debate has intensified on how the increasing use of Web technology might have a negative impact on patients, caregivers, and practitioners. One such negative health-related behavior is Munchausen by Internet. Objective Munchausen by Internet occurs when medically well individuals fake recognized illnesses in virtual environments, such as online support groups. This paper focuses on the aspect of Munchausen by Internet in which individuals actively seek to disrupt groups for their own satisfaction, which has not yet been associated with the wider phenomena of Internet trolls (users who post with the intention of annoying someone or disrupting an online environment). Methods A wide-ranging review was conducted to investigate the causes and impacts of online identity deception and Munchausen by Internet drawing on academic research and case studies reported online and in the media. Results The limited research relating to motivation, opportunity, detection, effects, and consequences of Munchausen by Internet is highlighted and it is formally linked to aspects of trolling. Case studies are used to illustrate the phenomenon. What is particularly worrying is the ease with which the deception can be carried out online, the difficulty in detection, and the damaging impact and potential danger to isolated victims. Conclusions We suggest ways to deal with Munchausen by Internet and provide advice for health group facilitators. We also propose that Munchausen by Internet and Munchausen by Internet trolling should be formally acknowledged in a revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-5. This will assist in effectively identifying and minimizing the growth of this behavior as more people seek reassurance and support

  18. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

    2003-03-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10{sup 13} - 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  19. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  20. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. Current status, research progress and future plan of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardjono, Y.; Syarip; Tjiptono, T.W. [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Batan (Indonesia)

    1999-10-01

    The current status, research progress and future plan of the Kartini Research Reactor (KRR) is presented. The measurements of axial burn-up distributions for each fuel element by gamma scanning techniques, core axial power distribution display, fuel management for safeguards purpose as well as some research progress activities i.e.; utilization of beamport for: neutron radiography, application neutron activation analysis and history record of KRR power operations is also presented. The KRR is 100 kW pool water reactor type which uses natural circulation and provided by: five beamports in which one of them already coupled with natural uranium subcritical assembly, two thermalizing columns in which one of them is prepared for developing Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), two rabbit systems utilized for special analysis uranium ore by delayed neutron counting techniques, one center timbre and 40 irradiation rack (lazy susan) for neutron activation analysis. The KRR was constructed as a second research reactor in Indonesia with special purpose for training and education, high safety margin with involve in high negative temperature coefficient which achieved its first criticality on January 25, 1979. The maximum power level on first criticality is 50 kW and since August 1981 up to now is operating 100 kW. Base on the KRR design limit, it is planned to increase the power level up to 250 kW in the future plan. The preliminary activities such as Non Destructive Testing (NDT) for some reactor components especially water tank and thermal column should be done before decided to increase power level. (author)

  2. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to integrate genomics into public health research, policy,...

  3. Strength and conditioning in tennis: current research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Machar; Schneiker, Knut

    2008-06-01

    Virtually all professional tennis players are in continuous pursuit of enhanced performance. With the modern game becoming increasingly dynamic and tournament schedules no less demanding, the importance of physical fitness is well accepted. Indeed, most professional tennis players resource strength and conditioning specialists on a full- or part-time basis. As tennis play is characterised by intricate bio-energetics, planning specific strength and conditioning interventions represents a significant challenge for the specialist. Further, where game physiology and mechanics have been described extensively, critiques of the efficacy of different training initiatives are far less common. This review therefore considers the current scientific, tennis-specific fitness training evidence base in light of contemporary conditioning, and more particularly resistance training, practices.

  4. Caffeine and cardiovascular diseases: critical review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulli, Anthony; Smith, Renee M; Kubatka, Peter; Novak, Jan; Uehara, Yoshio; Loftus, Hayley; Qaradakhi, Tawar; Pohanka, Miroslav; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Zagatina, Angela; Klimas, Jan; Hayes, Alan; La Rocca, Giampiero; Soucek, Miroslav; Kruzliak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a most widely consumed physiological stimulant worldwide, which is consumed via natural sources, such as coffee and tea, and now marketed sources such as energy drinks and other dietary supplements. This wide use has led to concerns regarding the safety of caffeine and its proposed beneficial role in alertness, performance and energy expenditure and side effects in the cardiovascular system. The question remains "Which dose is safe?", as the population does not appear to adhere to the strict guidelines listed on caffeine consumption. Studies in humans and animal models yield controversial results, which can be explained by population, type and dose of caffeine and low statistical power. This review will focus on comprehensive and critical review of the current literature and provide an avenue for further study.

  5. [Organ cryopreservation: current status of research carried out in Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, J L; Payen, E; Rambeaud, J J; Peuridieu, J F; Baudot, A; Odin, J; Mazuer, J; Boutron, P; Delon-Martin, C; Dupeyre, R

    1995-12-01

    After discussing the problem of organ cryopreservation and reviewing the current data available on this subject, the Grenoble project is presented. Physical and biological studies have been combined with experimentation of autologous renal transplantation in rabbits to assess the functional value of the retransplanted organ after treatment and cooling. Renal resistances are measured during perfusion of the kidney with the cryoprotective solution. In order to verify the homogeneity of the cryoprotector concentration in the organ, on NMR spectral imaging test has been developed. A new rapid imaging method now allows real time monitoring of concentration variations during perfusion. In addition to concentration and homogeneity, analysis of local spectra also provides information about the local temperature de the kidney.

  6. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  7. 年级之间学业情绪与学业成绩的研究成果及展望%Research Achievements and Outlooks on the Correlation between Academic Emotions and Academic Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维维; 黄丽婷; 梁源; 蒋莎莎

    2013-01-01

      学业情绪是影响学生学业成绩的非智力的重要因素之一,研究两者之间的关系对教学有重大的意义。通过对不同年级学业情绪与学业成绩的研究成果进行分析和对比,探究不同阶段间两者相互关系存在的普遍性以及特殊性,为更好地改善教学方式,真正做到因材施教提供依据,并由此展望学业情绪未来的发展趋向。%  Academic emotion is one of the important non-intelligent factors influencing students’ academic performance. The correlation between academic emotion and students’ academic performance is analyzed between different grades, so as to investigate their universality and particularity, and to provide reference for teaching in accordance with students’ aptitude, as well as for the prediction on the outlook of students’ academic emotional tendency.

  8. Sediment pollution of the Elbe River side structures - current research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupova, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír

    2016-04-01

    The contribution brings the summarized results of a long-term research on sediment pollution of side structures of the Elbe River over the last 14 years. The investigation has been focused on old anthropogenic pollution of sediment cores taken from fluvial lakes and floodplain, as the sampling of deeper sediments outside the riverbed is not a part of systematic monitoring of sediment pollution of the Elbe. The Elbe River floodplain has been influenced by human activities since the Middle Ages, but the main anthropogenic pollution have been produced in the 20th century. The studied localities were chosen with the respect to the distance from the source of industrial pollution, the intensity of hydrological communication with the river and the surrounding landuse to determine the extend and the level of anthropogenic contamination in the Elbe River floodplain ecosystem. Apart from bathymetric measurements, observation of the hydrological regime in several fluvial lakes or water quality sampling at some localities, the research was focused above all on determination of metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn) in all taken sediment cores, specific organic compounds (PCBs, DDT, HCH, HCB, PAHs etc.), total organic carbon at some localities and grain structure analyses. The data were also compared with the results of systematic sediment monitoring from the nearest riverbed sampling stations on the Elbe River. The highest concentrations of metals and specific organic compounds were determined in the sediments taken from fluvial lakes and floodplain (Zimní přístav PARAMO, Rosice fuvial Lake, Libiš pool etc.) situated in the vicinity of the main Elbe River polluters - Synthesia chemical plant and PARAMO refinery in Pardubice or Spolana chemical plant near Neratovice. However, there was also determined a significant role of the hydrological communication with the river proved with lower sediment pollution in separated localities. The realization of the

  9. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    which simultaneously tracks the translator’s eye movements across a screen displaying both a source text and the translator’s emerging translation. This research method was developed as a means of qualifying and strengthening translation process hypotheses based on verbal reports by providing additional...... remains inaccessible to outside observation. What mental processes underlie measurable (micro)behaviour can only be inferred. A multi-methodological approach is clearly called for in order to capture the full complexity of translation, and translation studies must be open to extend its curiosity beyond...... itself, into regions like cognitive psychology, psycho- and neurolinguistics, and neuroscience, where the interest in what goes on in our heads is also very strong....

  10. Microarrays—Current and Future Applications in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Certa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Microarrays covers research where microarrays are applied to address complex biological questions. This new open access journal publishes articles where novel applications or state-of-the art technology developments in the field are reported. In addition, novel methods or data analysis algorithms are under the scope of Microarrays. This journal will serve as a platform for fast and efficient sharing of data within this large user community. As one of the first microarray users in Europe back in 1996, I am proud to serve as Editor-in-Chief and I believe we have assembled a highly proficient Editorial Board, responsible for a fair and fast peer-review of articles.

  11. Current Status of Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Oki, Riko; Kubota, Takuji; Masaki, Takeshi; Kida, Satoshi; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is a mission led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under collaboration with many international partners, who will provide constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM Core Observatory, which carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) developed by JAXA and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) developed by NASA. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled to be launched in early 2014. JAXA also provides the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) 1st - Water (GCOM-W1) named "SHIZUKU," as one of constellation satellites. The SHIZUKU satellite was launched in 18 May, 2012 from JAXA's Tanegashima Space Center, and public data release of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) on board the SHIZUKU satellite was planned that Level 1 products in January 2013, and Level 2 products including precipitation in May 2013. The Japanese GPM research project conducts scientific activities on algorithm development, ground validation, application research including production of research products. In addition, we promote collaboration studies in Japan and Asian countries, and public relations activities to extend potential users of satellite precipitation products. In pre-launch phase, most of our activities are focused on the algorithm development and the ground validation related to the algorithm development. As the GPM standard products, JAXA develops the DPR Level 1 algorithm, and the NASA-JAXA Joint Algorithm Team develops the DPR Level 2 and the DPR-GMI combined Level2 algorithms. JAXA also develops the Global Rainfall Map product as national product to distribute hourly and 0.1-degree horizontal resolution rainfall map. All standard algorithms including Japan-US joint algorithm will be reviewed by the Japan-US Joint

  12. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  13. Research on Field Emission and Dark Current in ILC Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kexin; Li, Yongming; Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli

    2013-09-01

    Field emission and dark current are issues of concern for SRF cavity performance and SRF linac operation. Complete understanding and reliable control of the issue are still needed, especially in full-scale multi-cell cavities. Our work aims at developing a generic procedure for finding an active field emitter in a multi-cell cavity and benchmarking the procedure through cavity vertical test. Our ultimate goal is to provide feedback to cavity preparation and cavity string assembly in order to reduce or eliminate filed emission in SRF cavities. Systematic analysis of behaviors of field emitted electrons is obtained by ACE3P developed by SLAC. Experimental benchmark of the procedure was carried out in a 9-cell cavity vertical test at JLab. The energy spectrum of Bremsstrahlung X-rays is measured using a NaI(Tl) detector. The end-point energy in the X-ray energy spectrum is taken as the highest kinetic electron energy to predict longitudinal position of the active field emitter. Angular location of the field emitter is determined by an array of silicon diodes around irises of the cavity. High-resolution optical inspection was conducted at the predicted field emitter location.

  14. International Energy Outlook 2016 With Projections to 2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, John [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Biofuels Analysis; Holtberg, Paul [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Analysis Integration Team; Diefenderfer, Jim [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis; LaRose, Angelina [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Integrated and International Energy Analysis; Turnure, James T. [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis; Westfall, Lynn [USDOE Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Markets and Financial Analysis

    2016-05-01

    The International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) presents an assessment by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2040. U.S. projections appearing in IEO2016 are consistent with those published in EIA’s Annual Energy Outlook 2015 (AEO2015). IEO2016 is provided as a service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projections are used by international agencies, federal and state governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO2016 energy consumption projections are divided according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development members (OECD) and nonmembers (non-OECD). OECD members are divided into three basic country groupings: OECD Americas (United States, Canada, and Mexico/Chile), OECD Europe, and OECD Asia (Japan, South Korea, and Australia/New Zealand). Non-OECD countries are divided into five separate regional subgroups: non-OECD Europe and Eurasia (which includes Russia); non-OECD Asia (which includes China and India); Middle East; Africa; and non-OECD Americas (which includes Brazil). In some instances, the IEO2016 energy production models have different regional aggregations to reflect important production sources (for example, Middle East OPEC is a key region in the projections for liquids production). Complete regional definitions are listed in Appendix M. IEO2016 focuses exclusively on marketed energy. Nonmarketed energy sources, which continue to play an important role in some developing countries, are not included in the estimates. The IEO2016 projections are based on existing U.S. and foreign government laws and regulations. In general, IEO2016 reflects the effects of current policies—often stated through regulations—within the projections. EIA analysts attempt to interpret the

  15. Rice crop growth and outlook monitoring using SAR in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, K.; Sobue, S.; Oyoshi, K.; Ikehata, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The Asia-RiCE initiative (http://www.asia-rice.org) has been organized to enhance rice production estimates through the use of Earth observation satellites data, and seeks to ensure that Asian rice crops are appropriately represented within GEO Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEO-GLAM) to support FAO Agriculture Market Information System (FAO-AMIS). Asia-RiCE is composed of national teams that are actively contributing to the Crop Monitor for AMIS and developing technical demonstrations of rice crop monitoring activities using both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data (Radarsat-2 from 2013; Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 from 2015; TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed, RISAT, and others) and optical imagery (such as from MODIS, SPOT-5, Landsat, and Sentinel-2) for 100x100km Technical Demonstration Sites (TDS) as a phase 1 (2013-2015) in Asia. with satellite -based cultivated area and growing stage map. The Asia-RiCE teams are also developing satellite-based agro-met information for rice crop outlook, crop calendars and damage assessment in cooperation with ASEAN food security information system (AFSIS) for selected countries (currently Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippine, and Japan; http://www.afsisnc.org/blog), using JAXA's Satellite-based MonItoring Network system as a contribution to the FAO AMIS outlook (JASMIN) with University of Tokyo (http://suzaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/cgi-bin/gcomw/jasm/jasm_top.cgi). Because of continous El Nino in South East Asia, there are less precipitation and rain fall pattern change in South East Asia, crop pattern has been changed and production may be decreased, especially for dry season crop. JAXA provides drought index (KBDI) and accumulated precipitation of Tak province, Thailand where main reservior is located, to AFSIS and national experts to assess rice crop outlook and NDVI time seriese to Ang Tong province where is main rice production area in downstream area of that reservior.From 2016 as a phase 2, Asia-RiCE initiative deploy up-scaling activity

  16. Neutrino oscillations: Present status and outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas Schwetz

    2009-01-01

    The status of neutrino oscillations from global data is summarized, with the focus on the three-flavour picture. The status of sterile neutrino oscillation interpretations of the LSND anomaly in the light of recent MiniBooNE results is also discussed. Further-more, an outlook on the measurement of the mixing angle 13 in the near term future, as well as prospects to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillations and to determine the type of the neutrino mass ordering by long-baseline experiments in the long term future are given.

  17. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  18. The INCA project: present status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Ammosov, V.V.; Chechin, V.A.; Chubenko, A.P.; Erlykin, A.D.; Ladygin, E.A.; Merzon, G.I.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.; Murashov, V.N.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Ryabov, V.A.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Saito, T.; Sobolevskii, N.M.; Shchepetov, A.L.; Starkov, N.I.; Trostin, I.S.; Tsarev, V.A.; Wolfendale, A.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhdanov, G.B.; Zhukov, A.P

    2002-12-01

    Scientific objectives, foundations, status, and outlook of the INCA Project are presented. Fundamentally new technique based on the ionization-neutron calorimeter (INCA) and designed to study local nearby sources of high-energy cosmic rays by direct measuring the spectrum and composition of the nuclear component in the 'knee' region and the spectrum of primary electrons in the energy range 0.1-10 TeV with the proton-background suppression factor up to 10{sup 7} is discussed. Experimental data on exposition of the INCA prototypes to electron, pion, and proton beams at various energies and corresponding simulation results are presented. Prospects are considered.

  19. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  20. [Magnetoreception systems in birds: a review of current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishkinev, D A; Chernetsov, N S

    2014-01-01

    Currently at least two independent systems of magnetoreception are believed to exist in birds, based on different biophysical principles, located in different parts of their bodies, and having different innervation. One magnetoreceptory system is located in the retina and may be based on photo-induced biradical chemical reactions on the basis of cryptochrome. Information from these receptors is processed in a specialized part of visual Wulst, the so-called Cluster N. There are good reasons to believe that this visual magnetoreceptor processes compass magnetic information which is necessary for migratory orientation. The second magnetoreceptory system is probably iron-based (biogenic magnetite), is located somewhere in the upper beak (its exact location and ultrastructure of receptors remain unknown), and is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve. It cannot be ruled out that this system participates in spatial representation and helps forming either a kind of map or more primitive signposts, based on regular spatial variation of the geomagnetic field. The magnetic map probably governs navigation of migrating birds across hundreds and thousands of kilometers. Apart from these two systems whose existence may be considered to be convincingly shown (even if their details are not yet fully clear), there are data on the existence of magnetoreceptors based on the vestibular system. It cannot be ruled out that iron-based magnetoreception takes place in lagena (a structure homologous to cochlea of marsupials and eutherians), and the information perceived is processes in vestibular nuclei. The very existence of this magnetoreception system needs verification, and its function remains completely open.

  1. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    currently under development.

  2. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minori, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice), the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far. PMID:28210503

  3. Microorganisms in metalworking fluids: Current issues in research and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta A. Trafny

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination of water miscible metalworking fl uids (MWFs is a serious problem in metal industry. A good maintenance of MWF re-circulation systems can extend the lifetime of coolants and ensure the quality of the tools produced. In MWFs, as in the other water-based environments, microorganisms usually live in the form of biofi lms, the communities of bacteria and fungi attached to the surface of sumps, metal parts and also to each other. Biofi lms exhibit very high resistance to biocides. The effect of biocides that are used as additives to MWFs to control the growth of the bacterial and fungal microbiomes (microorganisms characteristic to the individual coolant system have become the subject of research only in recent years. There are also only sparse reports on the impact of biocides on microorganisms growing in biofi lms in MWF installations. Fast growing mycobacteria are important members of these biofi lm communities. Their presence has recently been linked with the occurrence of cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a serious respiratory disorder in the metal industry employees. The new, relatively fast and inexpensive techniques to assess the species diversity within MWF microbiomes and their population size should be developed in order to control the microorganisms’ proliferation in MWFs and to diminish the occupational exposure to harmful bioaerosols in metal industry.

  4. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in case fatality rate over time. Increase in cases of canine diabetes worldwide is attributed to awareness amongst pet owners, better veterinary health facilities, breed preferences by dog owners, increase dependence on commercial feeds, obesity, etc. Diabetes in most dogs is immune mediated and insulin dependent. Breed predisposition in canine is attributed to dog leukocyte antigen gene pool encoding form major histocompatibility complex-II molecules, however research is still underway. Diagnosis of diabetes still relies on blood sugar evaluation for screening of canine population, though many other diagnostic methods have shown promising benefits including measurement of fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin. Management of diabetes in dog is based on insulin therapy, diet modification and exercise. Use of oral anti-diabetics drugs in canine is limited though experimental studies have shown promising results. Alternative therapies have been explored, but only a few approaches have shown promise for clinical application.

  5. Vitamin K metabolism: current knowledge and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David J; Gorska, Renata; Cutler, Jacky; Harrington, Dominic J

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin K is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient that is required for the post-translational γ-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues in hepatic and extra-hepatic proteins involved in blood coagulation and preventing cartilage and vasculature calcification. In humans, sources of vitamin K are derived from plants as phylloquinone and bacteria as the menaquinones. Menadione is a synthetic product used as a pharmaceutical but also represents an intermediate in the tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, which preferentially resides in tissues such as brain. Research into vitamin K metabolism is essential for the understanding of vitamin K biology in health and disease. Progress in this area, driven by knowledge of vitamin K and the availability of markers of vitamin K status, has already proved beneficial in many areas of medicine and further opportunities present themselves. Areas of interest discussed in this review include prophylactic administration of vitamin K1 in term and preterm neonates, interactions between vitamins K and E, the industrial conversion of vitamin K to dihydro-vitamin K in foods, tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, the biological activity of the five and seven carbon metabolites of vitamin K and circadian variations.

  6. Current development of acupuncture research in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bai-Yun; Salvage, Sarah; Jenner, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease. The etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms that cause PD are still not fully understood. The available treatments to PD are only symptomatic relief. Acupuncture is used to treat many medical conditions for 1000 years in China and has gained wider and increasing acceptance within both public and medical profession because it has been a very safe and well-tolerated treatment. In this chapter, we reviewed relevant laboratory findings regarding acupuncture mechanism on Parkinson's. We showed that acupuncture stimulation in Parkinson's models had generated valuable mechanistic insight of Parkinson's and showed that acupuncture treatment is in fact a neuroprotective therapy that increase the release of various neuroprotective agents such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and cyclophilin A. In addition, acupuncture therapy slows cell death process and attenuates oxidative stress to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Further, acupuncture therapy modulates neuronal activity of the basal ganglia output structures. These results suggest that early application of acupuncture therapy to Parkinson's patients may be helpful for the best efficacy of acupuncture treatment. It is hopeful that translation of achievement in acupuncture research in Parkinson's models will maximize the potentials of acupuncture treatment.

  7. Current Challenges and Prospective Research for Upscaling Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Spencer T; Rajagopal, Adharsh; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2016-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photovoltaics (PSCs) are poised to push toward technology translation, but significant challenges complicating commercialization remain. Though J-V hysteresis and ecotoxicity are uniquely imposing issues at scale, CH3NH3PbI3 degradation is by far the sharpest limitation to the technology's potential market contribution. Herein, we offer a perspective on the practical market potential of PSCs, the nature of fundamental PSC challenges at scale, and an outline of prospective solutions for achieving module scale PSC production tailored to intrinsic advantages of CH3NH3PbI3. Although integrating PSCs into the energy grid is complicated by CH3NH3PbI3 degradation, the ability of PSCs to contribute to consumer electronics and other niche markets like those organic photovoltaics have sought footing in rests primarily upon the technology's price point. Thus, slot die, roll-to-roll processing has the greatest potential to enable PSC scale-up, and herein, we present a perspective on the research necessary to realize fully printable PSCs at scale.

  8. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Tiago; Minori, Karen; Ueta, Marlene; Miguel, Danilo Ciccone; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice), the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far.

  9. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice, the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far.

  10. Ovarian aging and menopause: current theories, hypotheses, and research models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Julie M; Zelinski, Mary B; Ingram, Donald K; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2005-12-01

    Aging of the reproductive system has been studied in numerous vertebrate species. Although there are wide variations in reproductive strategies and hormone cycle components, many of the fundamental changes that occur during aging are similar. Evolutionary hypotheses attempt to explain why menopause occurs, whereas cellular hypotheses attempt to explain how it occurs. It is commonly believed that a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is responsible for the onset of menopause. Data exist to demonstrate that the first signs of menopause occur at the level of the brain or the ovary. Thus, finding an appropriate and representative animal model is especially important for the advancement of menopause research. In primates, there is a gradual decline in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis ultimately resulting in irregularities in menstrual cycles and increasingly sporadic incidence of ovulation. Rodents also exhibit a progressive deterioration in HPG axis function; however, they also experience a period of constant estrus accompanied by intermittent ovulations, reduced progesterone levels, and elevated circulating estradiol levels. It is remarkable to observe that females of other classes also demonstrate deterioration in HPG axis function and ovarian failure. Comparisons of aging in various taxa provide insight into fundamental biological mechanisms of aging that could underlie reproductive decline.

  11. Asthma in the Elderly: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Nicola A.; King, Monroe J.; Braman, Sidney S.; Saltoun, Carol; Wise, Robert A.; Enright, Paul; Falsey, Ann A; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ramsdell, Joe W.; Rogers, Linda; Stempel, David A.; Lima, John J.; Fish, James E.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Boyd, Cynthia; Patel, Kushang V.; Irvin, Charles G.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Halm, Ethan A; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Sands, Mark F.; Ershler, William B.; Ledford, Dennis K.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in the elderly (AIE) is under diagnosed and under treated and there is a paucity of knowledge. The National Institute on Aging convened this workshop to identify what is known, what gaps in knowledge remain and suggest research directions needed to improve the understanding and care of AIE. Asthma presenting at an advanced age often has similar clinical and physiologic consequences as seen with younger individuals but co-morbid illnesses and the psychosocial effects of aging may affect the diagnosis, clinical presentation and care of asthma in this population. At least two phenotypes exist among elderly asthma; those with long-standing asthma have more severe airflow limitation and less complete reversibility than those with late-onset asthma. Many challenges exist in the recognition and treatment of asthma in the elderly. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIE are likely to be different from those seen in young asthmatics and these differences may influence the clinical course and outcomes of asthma in this population. PMID:21872730

  12. Current progress in epigenetic research for hepato-carcinomagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main type of primary liver cancer,and also one of the most malignant tumors.At present,the pathogenesis mechanisms of liver cancer are not entirely clear.It has been shown that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes play a significant role in carcinogenesis,caused by the genetic and epigenetic aberrance.In the past,people generally thought that genetic mutation is a key event of tumor pathogenesis,and somatic mutation of tumor suppressor genes is in particular closely associated with oncogenesis.With deeper understanding of tumors in recent years,increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic silencing of those genes,as a result of aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoters and histone modification,is essential to carcinogenesis and metastasis.The term epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression caused by regulation mechanisms,other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence.Specific epigenetic processes include DNA methylation,genome imprinting,chromotin remodeling,histone modification and microRNA regulations.This paper reviews recent epigenetics research progress in the hepatocellular carcinoma study,and tries to depict the relationships between hepatocellular carcinomagenesis and DNA methylation as well as microRNA regulation.

  13. Current progress in epigenetic research for hepato-carcinomagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main type of primary liver cancer, and also one of the most malignant tumors. At present, the pathogenesis mechanisms of liver cancer are not entirely clear. It has been shown that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes play a significant role in carcinogenesis, caused by the genetic and epigenetic aberrance. In the past, people generally thought that genetic mutation is a key event of tumor pathogenesis, and somatic mutation of tumor suppressor genes is in particular closely associated with oncogenesis. With deeper understanding of tumors in recent years, increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic silencing of those genes, as a result of aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoters and histone modification, is essential to carcinogenesis and metastasis. The term epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression caused by regulation mechanisms, other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Specific epi-genetic processes include DNA methylation, genome imprinting, chromotin remodeling, histone modi-fication and microRNA regulations. This paper reviews recent epigenetics research progress in the hepatocellular carcinoma study, and tries to depict the relationships between hepatocellular carci-nomagenesis and DNA methylation as well as microRNA regulation.

  14. Fermilab’s Accelerator Complex: Current Status, Upgrades and Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convery, M. E. [Fermilab

    2016-10-31

    We report on the status of the Fermilab accelerator complex, including recent performance, upgrades in progress, and plans for the future. Beam delivery to the neutrino experiments surpassed our goals for the past year. The Proton Improvement Plan is well underway with successful 15 Hz beam operation. Beam power of 700 kW to the NOvA experiment was demonstrated and will be routine in the next year. We are also preparing the Muon Campus to commission beam to the g-2 experiment.

  15. Rigid Biobased Building Blocks: Current Developments and Outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, van D.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this perspectives paper we will look at the state-of-the-art in rigid renewable building blocks for biobased materials, with a focus on two types of carbohydrate-based difunctional monomers, i.e.,isohexides and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA).

  16. Rehabilitation for Parkinson's disease: Current outlook and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Marchese, Roberta; Avanzino, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation is considered as an adjuvant to pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) to maximize functional ability and minimize secondary complications. Originally, approaches were based on empirical experience, but growing evidence suggests that exercise-dependent plasticity constitutes the main mechanism underlying the effects of physiotherapy. Exercise increases synaptic strength and influences neurotransmission, thus potentiating functional circuitry in PD. In addition, exercise is a pivotal element of motor learning. PD patients retain a sufficient capacity of motor learning, though learning rates and performance are reduced in comparison to normal controls. Recent meta-analyses demonstrated that rehabilitation could induce short-lasting, but clinically important benefits, particularly for gait and balance. However, the interventions are largely heterogeneous (stretching, muscle strengthening, balance, postural exercises, occupational therapy, cueing, treadmill training), and there is still no consensus about the optimal approach. Innovative techniques have been recently proposed: virtual reality and exergaming, motor imagery and action observation, robot-assisted physiotherapy and non-conventional therapies (e.g.: dance, martial arts). The rehabilitative program for PD should be "goal-based" (targeted to practicing and learning specific activities in the core areas), but a number of practice variables (intensity, specificity, complexity) need to be identified and the program should tailored to the individual patients' characteristics.

  17. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field conditions, since it minimizes working time, hence cuts the costs related to the expensive ship time. One of the major factors of success is the development of a reliable pop-up mechanism, which includes not only unfailing hydro-acoustic communication, but also a reliable disconnector, both electrochemical and mechanical that could be used in salt and sweet waters. The extensive operational experience helped us to determine the reasons for non-emersion of the stations. The main problem was a sucking of instruments by muddy bottom sediments, and a simple spring assembly can release the station from the anchor with high probability Secondly, the newly developed software provides the great opportunity to reduce considerably the processing and interpretation time cycle. The calculation of forward kinematic problems can be performed on the notebook in seconds. Visualization tools render color images of gathers with various processing parameters. All mentioned above are proved by real data acquired by GNS during active and passive seismic surveys in deep and shallow waters. GNS has the pool of 65 OBS for large scale crustal 2D/3D active or passive experiments in any part World Ocean.

  18. Raptor electrocution on power lines: Current issues and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Electrocution on power lines is one of many human-caused mortality factors that affect raptors. Cost-effective and relatively simple raptor-safe standards for power line modification and construction have been available for over 25 years. During the 1970s and early 1980s, electric industry efforts to reduce raptor electrocutions were very coordinated and proactive, but predictions about resolving the problem were overly optimistic. Today, raptors continue to be electrocuted, possibly in large numbers. The electrocution problem has not been resolved, partly because of the sheer number of potentially lethal power poles in use and partly because electrocution risks may be more pervasive and sometimes less conspicuous than once believed. Also, responses to the problem by individual utilities have not been uniform, and deregulation of the electric industry during the 1990s may have deflected attention from electrocution issues. To control raptor electrocutions in the future, the industry must increase information sharing and technology transfer, increase efforts to retrofit lethal power poles, and above all ensure that every new and replacement line constructed incorporates raptor-safe standards at all phases of development. Finally, responsibility for the electrocution problem must be shared. Federal, state, and local governments, academic institutions, the conservation community, and the consumer all can play critical roles in an effort that will, by necessity, extend well into the new century.

  19. Outlook for Detecting Gravitational Waves with Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Though the recent discovery of GW150914 is a thrilling success in the field of gravitational-wave astronomy, LIGO is only one tool the scientific community is using to hunt for these elusive signals. After 10 years of unsuccessful searching, how likely is it that pulsar-timing-array projects will make their own first detection soon?Frequency ranges for gravitational waves produced by different astrophysical sources. Pulsar timing arrays such as the EPTA and IPTA are used to detect low-frequency gravitational waves generated by the stochastic background and supermassive black hole binaries. [Christopher Moore, Robert Cole and Christopher Berry]Supermassive BackgroundGround-based laser interferometers like LIGO are ideal for probing ripples in space-time caused by the merger of stellar-mass black holes; these mergers cause chirps in the frequency range of tens to thousands of hertz. But how do we pick up the extremely low-frequency, nanohertz background signal caused by the orbits of pairs of supermassive black holes? For that, we need pulsar timing arrays.Pulsar timing arrays are sets of pulsars whose signals are analyzed to look for correlations in the pulse arrival time. As the space-time between us and a pulsar is stretched and then compressed by a passing gravitational wave, the pulsars pulses should arrive a little late and then a little early. Comparing these timing residuals in an array of pulsars could theoretically allow for the detection of the gravitational waves causing them.Globally, there are currently four pulsar timing array projects actively searching for this signal, with a fifth planned for the future. Now a team of scientists led by Stephen Taylor (NASA-JPL/Caltech) has estimated the likelihood that these projects will successfully detect gravitational waves in the future.Probability for SuccessExpected detection probability of the gravitational-wave background as a function of observing time, for five different pulsar timing arrays. Optimistic

  20. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  1. The Current State of Research on Networks in China’s Business System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Meuer (Johannes); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of the paper is to assess the current state of network research in China’s business system. Research on networks has developed significantly during the last decades in regards to analytic techniques, number of research projects, and accumulated findings. While research on net

  2. The Current State of Research on Networks in China’s Business System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Meuer (Johannes); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of the paper is to assess the current state of network research in China’s business system. Research on networks has developed significantly during the last decades in regards to analytic techniques, number of research projects, and accumulated findings. While research on net

  3. The Research on the implementation of National Intellectual Property Strategy Under Scientific Outlook on Development%科学发展观与国家知识产权战略实施机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德桥

    2012-01-01

    国家知识产权战略的实施应该坚持以科学发展观为指导。国家知识产权战略的实施机制可以划分为战略层面、内部运行机制层面和外部环境层面。战略层面主要解决的是国家知识产权战略的根本目的、基本手段和宏观定位的问题。内部运行机制层面重点关注知识产权的创造、运用、管理和保护的制度建设。知识产权人才的培养、市场经济的完善和知识产权文化的培育是国家知识产权战略推进实施不可或缺的外部环境。%The implementation of the national intellectual property strategy should adhere to the guidance of scientific outlook on development. The implementation mechanism of the National Intellectual Property Strategy can be divided into strategic level, the internal operational level and external environmental dimensions. The main task of the strategic level is to make clear the fundamental purpose, the basic means and macro-orientation of the national intellectual property strategy. The internal operational level focuses on the creation, utilization, management and protection of the intellectual property rights, while talented persons, sound market economy and a rich culture are the indispensable external environmental dimensions.

  4. Current research and future directions in pattern identification: Results of an international symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Ju Ah; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Goto, Hirozo; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kao, Shung-Te; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Bongki; Park, Kyung-Mo; You, Sooseong; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-12-01

    A symposium on pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) on October 2, 2013, in Daejeon, South Korea. This symposium was convened to provide information on the current research in PI as well as suggest future research directions. The participants discussed the nature of PI, possible research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research. With eight presentations and an extensive panel discussion, the symposium allowed participants to discuss research methods in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented the topic, 'Clinical pattern differentiation and contemporary research in PI.' Two speakers presented current trends in research on blood stasis while the remaining five other delegates discussed the research methods and future directions of PI research. The participants engaged in in-depth discussions regarding the nature of PI, potential research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research.

  5. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  6. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  7. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  8. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  9. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  10. A Sustainable Model for Integrating Current Topics in Machine Learning Research into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulos, M.; DeMara, R. F.; Gonzalez, A. J.; Wu, A. S.; Mollaghasemi, M.; Gelenbe, E.; Kysilka, M.; Secretan, J.; Sharma, C. A.; Alnsour, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated research and teaching model that has resulted from an NSF-funded effort to introduce results of current Machine Learning research into the engineering and computer science curriculum at the University of Central Florida (UCF). While in-depth exposure to current topics in Machine Learning has traditionally occurred…

  11. A Sustainable Model for Integrating Current Topics in Machine Learning Research into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulos, M.; DeMara, R. F.; Gonzalez, A. J.; Wu, A. S.; Mollaghasemi, M.; Gelenbe, E.; Kysilka, M.; Secretan, J.; Sharma, C. A.; Alnsour, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated research and teaching model that has resulted from an NSF-funded effort to introduce results of current Machine Learning research into the engineering and computer science curriculum at the University of Central Florida (UCF). While in-depth exposure to current topics in Machine Learning has traditionally occurred…

  12. Current Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mary Alice

    1981-01-01

    Describes a doctoral dissertation entitled "World-Future Images in Childrens Literature" which analyzed books on science fiction or utopian fiction by 43 authors of children's literature to determine whether presentations were optimistic or pessimistic. Results indicating generally optimistic stories are discussed, as well as strengths and…

  13. Aluminum, Iron and Steel, and Foundry Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the various metal industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the aluminum…

  14. Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Martín, S.

    2013-01-01

    The "Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis" reflects a collaborative research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC), the Centro Superior para la Enseñanza Virtual (CSEV), the Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de Control at the Universidad Nacional de Educación a…

  15. Research on How Volunteer Service Enhances the Youth’s Confidence of Socialist Core Value Outlook%志愿服务增强青年价值观自信研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓红; 苏超莉

    2016-01-01

    价值观自信是中国人民对社会主义核心价值观所持的积极肯定的态度。志愿服务的内在价值追求和外在实践形式,使其与价值观自信具有很大的内在契合度和关联性。志愿服务是教育青年、引导青年的载体,是青年增长才干、提升自我的平台,是青年了解中国、认识世界的窗口,因此是增强青年价值观自信的有力抓手。基于志愿服务增强青年群体价值观自信,就必须进一步重视志愿服务、弘扬志愿精神,延伸志愿服务的广度和深度,构建志愿服务的长效体制机制。%The confidence of socialist core value outlook is the Chinese’s positive attitude to socialist core values.The form of volun-teer service’s intrinsic value and extrinsic practice leads to the relevance between volunteer service and socialist core values.Volunteer Service is the approach to educating the youth,the platform for their self-improvement,and the window of the understanding of the world,so it’s a strong handle of enhancing the youth’s confidence of socialist core values.Based on this,we must pay more attention to volunteer service and promote the volunteerism,extend the breadth and depth of volunteer service,and build a long-term institutional mechanism for volunteer service.

  16. Current Practice in Measuring the Quality of Conceptual Models:Challenges and Research%Current Practice in Measuring the Quality of Conceptual Models:Challenges and Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; WU Yu-feng; LI Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    How to measure the quality of conceptual models is an important issue in the IS field and related research. This paper conducts a review of research in measuring conceptual model quality and identifies the major theoretical and practical issues that need to be addressed in future studies. We review current classification frameworks for conceptual model quality and practice of measuring conceptual model quality. Based on the review, challenges for studies of measuring the quality of conceptual models are proposed and these challenges are also research points which should be strengthened in future studies.

  17. Navigation Hydraulics Research Program: Evaluation of Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute Physical Model Current Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    readout circuit CURRENT VELOCITY / DIRECTION SENSOR A mini-servomotor and a piece of fibre optic rod are installed at the base. The rod is turned by...34Description. of The Fibre - Optic Type Miniature Propetler Velocity Meter" for detal Is) THE OPERATION OF THE COMBINED CURRENT VELOCITY ’ DIRECTION METER 1. Plug...of The Fibre - Optic Type Miniature propeller Velocity Meter" for details. Front Panel: Ma /jj (tPj ) Current Direction Readout (Degree) Sensitivity

  18. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This report is a companion document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94), (DOE/EIA-0383(94)), released in Jan. 1994. Part I of the Supplement presents the key quantitative assumptions underlying the AEO94 projections, responding to requests by energy analysts for additional information on the forecasts. In Part II, the Supplement provides regional projections and other underlying details of the reference case projections in the AEO94. The AEO94 presents national forecasts of energy production, demand and prices through 2010 for five scenarios, including a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices. These forecasts are used by Federal, State, and local governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers in the public and private sectors.

  19. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. November 15, 2004 update no. 28; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 15 novembre 2004, no. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)commercialization of fuel cells: technical and economical difficulties to the development of a hydrogen basic equipment 2)public directives to promote the acceptance of fuel cells for automotive industry 3)direct alcohol SOFC: current - voltage characteristics and composition of the fuel gas 4)control by the fuzzy logic method of an autonomous or connected to the electric system SOFC 5)determination of the energetic yield of a DMFC by a fuel circulation system 6)an hybrid system SOFC-Stirling motor of 5 kW 7)control system of PEM type APU feed with gasoline 8)development of a DMFC generator of 2W 8)analysis of the life cycle of the hydrogen production processes 9)hydrogen production for fuel cells by ethanol catalytic steam reforming 10)methanol production from coal: what are the aims of the research? 11)application of a membrane electrochemical reactor to the hydrogen production process by iodine-sulfur thermochemical cycles 12)hydrogen storage in carbonated nano-materials: possibilities and challenges. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  20. Annual energy outlook 1999, with projections to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 1999 (AEO99) presents midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2020 prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The projections are based on results from EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The report begins with an Overview summarizing the AEO99 reference case. The next section, Legislation and Regulations, describes the assumptions made with regard to laws that affect energy markets and discusses evolving legislative and regulatory issues. Issues in Focus discusses current energy issues--the economic decline in East Asia, growth in demand for natural gas, vehicle emissions standards, competitive electricity pricing, renewable portfolio standards, and carbon emissions. It is followed by the analysis of energy market trends. The analysis in AEO99 focuses primarily on a reference case and four other cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. Forecast tables for these cases are provided in Appendixes A through C. Appendixes D and E present a summary of the reference case forecasts in units of oil equivalence and household energy expenditures. The AEO99 projections are based on Federal, State, and local laws and regulations in effect on July 1, 1998. Pending legislation and sections of existing legislation for which funds have not been appropriated are not reflected in the forecasts. Historical data used for the AEOI99 projections were the most current available as of July 31, 1998, when most 1997 data but only partial 1998 data were available.

  1. Therapeutic potential and outlook of alternative medicine for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Qian; Tjhioe, William; Zhao, Jinmin; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge; Tan, Renxiang; Zhou, Mengyu; Xu, Jiake; Feng, Haotian

    2017-03-21

    Osteoporosis, a bone disease resulting in loss of bone density and microstructure quality, is often associated with fragility fractures, and the latter imposes a great burden on the patient and society. Although there are several different treatments available for osteoporosis such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, Denosumab, and parathyroid hormone some concern has been raised regarding the inherent side effects of their long term use. It would be of great relevance to search for alternative natural compounds, which could complementarily overcome the limitations of the currently available therapy. Herein, we review current literature on natural compounds that might have therapeutic values for osteoporosis. Search terms included bone resorption, bone density, osteoporosis, postmenopausal, osteoporosis or bone density conservation agents, and any of the terms related to traditional, herbal, natural therapy, natural health, diet, or phytoestrogens. All the compounds and herbs included in the review are naturally bioactive or are used in folk herbal medicine and have been reported to be capable of attenuating osteopenia or osteoporosis in vivo or in vitro, through various mechanisms - estrogen-like activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, or by modulating the key signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Through our assessment of the therapeutic potential and outlook of alternative medicine, we aim to provide an appealing perspective for the consideration of the application of a complementary anti-osteoporotic treatment option and prevention strategy for osteoporosis or osteolytic bone disorders.

  2. Review and Outlook of 2007 China RE Market (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ⅱ. Outlook of rare earth market Chinese government strengthens macro control to high energy consumption, high pollution and resources products and stresses highly on safety and environment issues of mines and smelting plants in recent years.

  3. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Monthly Drought Outlook (MDO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A CPC forecaster (from a rotating schedule of 5 as of August 2013) creates the Monthly Drought Outlook map and narratives. The map, produced using GIS, shows where...

  4. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S. Hazards Outlook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center releases a US Hazards Outlook daily, Monday through Friday. The product highlights regions of anticipated hazardous weather during the...

  5. Fast-food Culture and Americans’Outlooks on Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易婧

    2014-01-01

    Fast-food is always the one of the main culture in America just like it has been known. It is not only very important in Americans’lives, but can reflect some of their outlooks on life. This thesis gives an analysis of reflection of Americans ’out-looks on life in fast-food culture. Five types of Americans’outlooks on life have been surveyed:working hard and playing hard, optimism and open-mindedness, treating the time as the life, self-independence and believing the equality. Beginning with the introduction of the emergence and development of fast-food culture in America, the thesis brings why the fast-food can be pop-ularized among Americans to light. Consequently, we can find that some of the Americans ’outlooks on life can be consistent with their fast-food culture.This thesis will be divided into four parts. The first part is the introduction and the last conclusion. The focus of this thesis is laid on the two middle parts which first display the five types of Americans ’outlooks on life, then give the analysis of the reflection in fast-food culture. This thesis attempts to explore the Americans ’outlooks on life. Although by the thesis we can not learn about a nation completely, we still know some aspects of their outlooks on life from fast-food culture.

  6. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  7. Research of resisting of the biological active point for constant and alternative current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Peregudov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Is conducted research of resistance of biologically active point (BAT on a direct and variable current. Research results are presented. The estimation of intercommunication between resistance of skin and by an electromagnetic radiation in BAT is done. Is shown possibility of the use of experimental information for diagnostics of the state of human to the organism.

  8. Mindfulness for Children in Public Schools: Current Research and Developmental Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…

  9. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  10. Current research trends and perspectives on materials-based hydrogen storage solutions: A critical review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective hydrogen storage solutions have been pursued for decades, and materials-based hydrogen storage is a research frontier of much current interest. Yet, no researched materials to date have come close to the DOE 2020 targets for hydrogen...

  11. The Focus of Current HCI Research in Usability Evaluation and Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a systematic literature study of the research on usability evaluation and feedback. The literature study covers the papers published from five key human-computer interaction journals for a period of four years, and depicts the most current research within...

  12. Academic training lectures | The outlook for energy supply and demand | 14 - 16 September

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on the 14, 15 and 16 September. The lectures will be given by by Chris Llewellyn Smith (Director of Energy Research, University of Oxford, President of SESAME Council). The Outlook for Energy Supply and Demand (1/3) on Monday, 14 September from 11.00 a.m. to 12.00 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/388334/ Can Future Energy Needs be Met Sustainably? (2/3) on Tuesday, 15 September from 4.30 p.m. to 5.30 p.m.  (CERN Colloquium) https://indico.cern.ch/event/388335/ The Outlook for Energy Supply and Demand (3/3) on Wednesday, 16 September from 11.00 a.m to 12.00 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/388336/ at CERN, Main Auditorium, in Building 500-1-001. Description: These lectures will review the challenges facing energy policy, the outlook for different sources of primary energy (fossil and renewable), how energy is used, and prospects for improved energy efficiency. A colloquium ‘Can Future Energy Needs be Met ...

  13. Current Research Activities in Drive System Technology in Support of the NASA Rotorcraft Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Drive system technology is a key area for improving rotorcraft performance, noise/vibration reduction, and reducing operational and manufacturing costs. An overview of current research areas that support the NASA Rotorcraft Program will be provided. Work in drive system technology is mainly focused within three research areas: advanced components, thermal behavior/emergency lubrication system operation, and diagnostics/prognostics (also known as Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS)). Current research activities in each of these activities will be presented. Also, an overview of the conceptual drive system requirements and possible arrangements for the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft program will be reviewed.

  14. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment.

  15. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 with Projections to 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    The projections in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2011 (AEO2011) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2011 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies. But AEO2011 is not limited to the Reference case. It also includes 57 sensitivity cases (see Appendix E, Table E1), which explore important areas of uncertainty for markets, technologies, and policies in the U.S. energy economy. Key results highlighted in AEO2011 include strong growth in shale gas production, growing use of natural gas and renewables in electric power generation, declining reliance on imported liquid fuels, and projected slow growth in energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions even in the absence of new policies designed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. AEO2011 also includes in-depth discussions on topics of special interest that may affect the energy outlook. They include: impacts of the continuing renewal and updating of Federal and State laws and regulations; discussion of world oil supply and price trends shaped by changes in demand from countries outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or in supply available from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; an examination of the potential impacts of proposed revisions to Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for light-duty vehicles and proposed new standards for heavy-duty vehicles; the impact of a series of updates to appliance standard alone or in combination with revised building codes; the potential impact on natural gas and crude oil production of an expanded offshore resource base

  16. INSTITUTIONALISM AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: CURRENT STATE OF THE ART AND POSITION OF FRENCH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolande Marciniak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The various currents of institutionalism are used in management science, particularly in the area of information systems. Richard Scott's global model is a fertile framework for the analysis of institutional research. First, we will study the contributions of French research to institutionalism. Then, returning to the fundamentals of information systems (IS, we will show that the interaction between institutions and IS can be analysed via the notion of formal and informal rules. Research carried out at the University of Paris

  17. Reprioritizing current research trends in medical education: a reflection on research activities in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Akef S; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous national efforts to determine and develop research priorities of medical education in Saudi Arabia. These priorities were first proposed in 2010 by "Dr Al-Khuli's Chair for Developing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia". The proposed priority domains were: curriculum, students, faculty, and quality assurance and accreditation. To investigate publications in medical education at the national and international levels in areas relating to these proposed priorities. Electronic search within PubMed database for papers relating to each domain of priority was conducted at national and international levels in the last three years, using the same keywords as the priority domains, but only confined to undergraduate medical education. Out of 3145 articles retrieved when searching with keyword as broad as "undergraduate medical curriculum" only 81 articles worldwide and 3 articles from Saudi Arabia were dealing with curriculum related issues as a whole. Further search on the sub-domains "effective strategies to manage undergraduate curriculum" and "undergraduate medical education models", resulted in the retrieval of few articles worldwide and none from Saudi Arabia. At the national level, there were 63 publications from Saudi Arabia that were either course (topic)-specific or could not be classified under the four domains specified by Dr Al-Khuli's Chair. Research activities in medical education in Saudi Arabia in the last 3 years showed diversity and lack of focus in the research priorities. Efforts of academic and research centers should continue to monitor and encourage these activities toward achieving the recommended priorities.

  18. Current and Planned Cochlear Implant Research at New York University Laboratory for Translational Auditory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirsky, Mario A.; Fitzgerald, Matthew B.; Neuman, Arlene; Sagi, Elad; Tan, Chin-Tuan; Ketten, Darlene; Martin, Brett

    2013-01-01

    The Laboratory of Translational Auditory Research (LTAR/NYUSM) is part of the Department of Otolaryngology at the New York University School of Medicine and has close ties to the New York University Cochlear Implant Center. LTAR investigators have expertise in multiple related disciplines including speech and hearing science, audiology, engineering, and physiology. The lines of research in the laboratory deal mostly with speech perception by hearing impaired listeners, and particularly those who use cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). Although the laboratory's research interests are diverse, there are common threads that permeate and tie all of its work. In particular, a strong interest in translational research underlies even the most basic studies carried out in the laboratory. Another important element is the development of engineering and computational tools, which range from mathematical models of speech perception to software and hardware that bypass clinical speech processors and stimulate cochlear implants directly, to novel ways of analyzing clinical outcomes data. If the appropriate tool to conduct an important experiment does not exist, we may work to develop it, either in house or in collaboration with academic or industrial partners. Another notable characteristic of the laboratory is its interdisciplinary nature where, for example, an audiologistandan engineer might work closely to develop an approach that would not have been feasible if each had worked singly on the project. Similarly, investigators with expertise in hearing aids and cochlear implants might join forces to study how human listeners integrate information provided by a CI and a HA. The following pages provide a flavor of the diversity and the commonalities of our research interests. PMID:22668763

  19. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  20. Sea Ice Outlook for September 2015 June Report - NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Keppenne, Christian L.; Marshak, Jelena; Pawson, Steven; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Vernieres, Guillaume; Zhao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The recent decline in perennial sea ice cover in Arctic Ocean is a topic of enormous scientific interest and has relevance to a broad variety of scientific disciplines and human endeavors including biological and physical oceanography, atmospheric circulation, high latitude ecology, the sustainability of indigenous communities, commerce, and resource exploration. A credible seasonal prediction of sea ice extent would be of substantial use to many of the stakeholders in these fields and may also reveal details on the physical processes that result in the current trends in the ice cover. Forecasts are challenging due in part to limitations in the polar observing network, the large variability in the climate system, and an incomplete knowledge of the significant processes. Nevertheless it is a useful to understand the current capabilities of high latitude seasonal forecasting and identify areas where such forecasts may be improved. Since 2008 the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) has conducted a seasonal forecasting contest in which the average Arctic sea ice extent for the month of September (the month of the annual extent minimum) is predicted from available forecasts in early June, July, and August. The competition is known as the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) but recently came under the auspices of the Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), and multi-agency funded project to evaluate the SIO. The forecasts are submitted based on modeling, statistical, and heuristic methods. Forecasts of Arctic sea ice extent from the GMAO are derived from seasonal prediction system of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS 5) coupled atmosphere and ocean general circulation model (AOGCM). The projections are made in order to understand the relative skill of the forecasting system and to determine the effects of future improvements to the system. This years prediction is for a September average Arctic ice extent of 5.030.41 million km2.

  1. Research on Digital Output Verification Technology of Electronic DC Current Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanjie; Wang, Bin; Hu, Haoliang; Xiong, Qianzhu; Yang, Chunyan

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the error of calibration system when conducting field calibration by electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system, an electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system based on protocol conversion is proposed and researched. Data frames outputted from merging unit are collected and converted by the system, the digital synchronization is realized by using the synchronous clock device to trigger the second pulse, and it is verified by the virtual instrument design software. The field calibration is conducted to some converter station digital dc current transformer under the rated current of 500A by using the calibration system. By calibrating and analyzing errors, the error is less than 0.075% when tested current is more than 40% of the rated current. According the standard in literature[1], performance of the calibration system is perfect, measured results perfectly meet the requirements of design, and the calibration system has great practical application value.

  2. Fracture detection and mapping for geothermal reservoir definition: an assessment of current technology, research, and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1984-11-01

    The detection and mapping of fractures and other zones of high permeability, whether natural or manmade, has been a subject of considerable economic and scientific interest to the pertroleum industry and to the geothermal community. Research related to fractured geothermal reservoirs has been conducted under several past DOE geothermal energy development programs. In this paper we review the present state of technology in fracture detection and mapping. We outline the major problems and limitations of the ''conventional'' techniques, and current research in new technologies. We also present research needs.

  3. Maritime Indonesia and the Archipelagic Outlook; Some reflections from a multidisciplinary perspective on old port cities in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Multamia RMT Lauder

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reflects on Indonesia’s status as an archipelagic state and a maritime nation from a historical perspective. It explores the background of a multi-year research project into Indonesia’s maritime past currently being undertaken at the Humanities Faculty of Universitas Indonesia. The multidisciplinary research uses toponymy, epigraphy, philology, and linguistic lines of analysis in examining old inscriptions and manuscripts and also includes site visits to a number of old port cities across the archipelago. We present here some of the core concepts behind the research such as the importance of the ancient port cities in a network of maritime trade and diplomacy, and link them to some contemporary issues such as the Archipelagic Outlook. This is based on a concept of territorial integrity that reflects Indonesia’s national identity and aspirations. It is hoped that the paper can extend the discussion about efforts to make maritime affairs a strategic geopolitical goal along with restoring Indonesia’s identity as a maritime nation.

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and

  5. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulato

  6. Data standards for clinical research data collection forms: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richesson, Rachel L; Nadkarni, Prakash

    2011-05-01

    Case report forms (CRFs) are used for structured-data collection in clinical research studies. Existing CRF-related standards encompass structural features of forms and data items, content standards, and specifications for using terminologies. This paper reviews existing standards and discusses their current limitations. Because clinical research is highly protocol-specific, forms-development processes are more easily standardized than is CRF content. Tools that support retrieval and reuse of existing items will enable standards adoption in clinical research applications. Such tools will depend upon formal relationships between items and terminological standards. Future standards adoption will depend upon standardized approaches for bridging generic structural standards and domain-specific content standards. Clinical research informatics can help define tools requirements in terms of workflow support for research activities, reconcile the perspectives of varied clinical research stakeholders, and coordinate standards efforts toward interoperability across healthcare and research data collection.

  7. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version.

  8. Research on Measurement of Bed Shear Stress Under WaveCurrent Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华; 夏云峰; 张世钊马炳和; 郝思禹; 杜德军

    2015-01-01

    The movement of sediment in estuary and on coast is directly restricted by the bed shear stress. Therefore, the research on the basic problem of sediment movement by the bed shear stress is an important way to research the theory of sediment movement. However, there is not a measuring and computing method to measure the bed shear stress under a complicated dynamic effect like wave and current. This paper describes the measurement and test research on the bed shear stress in a long launder of direct current by the new instrument named thermal shearometer based on micro-nanotechnology. As shown by the research results, the thermal shearometer has a high response frequency and strong stability. The measured results can reflect the basic change of the bed shear stress under wave and wave-current effect, and confirm that the method of measuring bed shear stress under wave-current effect with thermal shearometer is feasible. Meanwhile, a preliminary method to compute the shear stress compounded by wave-current is put forward according to the tested and measured results, and then a reference for further study on the basic theory of sediment movement under a complicated dynamic effect is provided.

  9. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Transcendental Meditation: Current State of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Holt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the current state of meditation research, specifically focusing on mindfulness-based stress reduction and transcendental meditation. Despite significant methodological problems with the studies reported to date on the subject, there is consistent evidence that meditation can produce changes in the nervous system and physiology of the meditator, and can help with various psychological markers of well-being. Regarding improvement in specific clinical diseases, research is generally mixed and preliminary. Strong recommendations cannot be made based on current evidence, and further studies are needed. In general, there is a stronger body of evidence supporting mindfulness-based stress reduction than for transcendental meditation.

  10. 国内语际语用学近十年研究述评%The Review of Ten-year Inter-language Pragmatics Research Methods and Its Outlook in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娟

    2016-01-01

    The present research reviews the research fruits of inter‐language pragmatics during 2004 to 2014 in the national key journals and investigates the theory and empirical research methods .On one hand , theory research methods involves history ,theory and methodology ,prospects of inter‐language pragmat‐ics ,pragmatic competence and its influencing factors ,pragmatic failure ,pragmatics and teaching ,prag‐matics and translation ,cognitive research of inter‐language pragmatics .On the other hand ,empirical re‐search deals with the speech of target language ,use and acquisition of discourse markers ,conversation a‐nalysis and deixis acquisition in second language acquisition ,pragmatic failure and transfer ,inter‐language competence ,pragmatics and foreign language teaching .The research aims to predict the future inter‐lan‐guage research methods .%回顾了国内外语核心期刊2004-2014年发表的语际语用学研究成果,调研了语际语用学理论研究和实证研究的方法,理论研究涉及到语际语用学发展的历史研究、理论基础和方法及其发展前景,语用能力、影响语用能力的各种因素、语用失误、语用与教学、语用与翻译、语际语用学的认知研究;实证研究涉及到目标语言语行为、话语标记语的使用与习得法、二语习得中的会话分析、二语中指示语的习得、语用失误和语用迁移、语际语用能力、语用学与外语教学这七各方面。基于这十年的研究成果展望未来的语际语用学研究方法。

  11. Research on the induction motor current signature for centrifugal pump at cavitation condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a major undesirable phenomenon for centrifugal pump because it can cause hydraulic performance deterioration, pump damage by pitting and material erosion, and structural vibration and noise. Cavitation can appear within the entire range of the operating conditions; therefore, it must be prevented by all means. Sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature analysis is non-intrusive and economic for monitoring motor-driven equipment. Thus, this technology is suitable for centrifugal pump systems. The motor current signature for centrifugal pump load at the cavitation condition is the basis of this technology. However, systematic research is lacking on sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature. As a result, the tentative exploration for motor current signature at cavitation load was conducted in this study. The results show that the stator current is still a sinusoidal alternating current strictly to the law of sine. Moreover, the root mean square of the current fluctuates because of different flow regimes in the cavitation progress and decreases because vapor density is smaller than water density when cavitation is fully formed. For the stator current spectrum, the noise level, noise distribution, rotation speed, and vane pass frequency components show features in the cavitation process. These indicator indexes change according to the stage of cavitation development. Thus, the motor current signature analysis is found to be a feasible and cost-effective method for the stages of cavitation condition.

  12. Retrospectives, current valences and prospective dimensions of research at the Academy of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel SÎMBOTEANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to identify the social determinants, which initiated and facilitated the content and evolution of the scientific research of the administrative phenomenon in the Republic of Moldova after the declaration of independence. It also elucidates the current valences and perspectives of this activity in the context of the provisions of the recently adopted Research Strategy of the Academy of Public Administration for the period 2016-2020.

  13. Lymphatic filariasis in Brazil: epidemiological situation and outlook for elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes Gilberto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the World Health Assembly’s (Resolution WHA 50.29, 1997 call for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, most of the endemic countries identified have established programmes to meet this objective. In 1997, a National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Plan was drawn up by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, creating local programs for the elimination of Bancroftian filariasis in areas with active transmission. Based on a comprehensive bibliographic search for available studies and reports of filariasis epidemiology in Brazil, current status of this parasitic infection and the outlook for its elimination in the country were analysed. From 1951 to 1958 a nationwide epidemiological study conducted in Brazil confirmed autochthonous transmission of Bancroftian filariasis in 11 cities of the country. Control measures led to a decline in parasite rates, and in the 1980s only the cities of Belém in the Amazonian region (Northern region and Recife (Northeastern region were considered to be endemic. In the 1990s, foci of active transmission of LF were also described in the cities of Maceió, Olinda, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, and Paulista, all in the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Data provide evidence for the absence of microfilaremic subjects and infected mosquitoes in Belém, Salvador and Maceió in the past few years, attesting to the effectiveness of the measures adopted in these cities. Currently, lymphatic filariasis is a public health problem in Brazil only in four cities of the metropolitan Recife region (Northeastern coast. Efforts are being concentrated in these areas, with a view to eliminating the disease in the country.

  14. The Research Progress and Outlook of Myocardial Proteome after Excercise of Differentially Expressed Influence%运动对心肌蛋白质组差异表达影响的研究进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勇; 史绍蓉; 黄思敏

    2013-01-01

    A cell expresses all kinds of protein in a particular physiological or pathological condition which is called proteome. If you apply the proteomics research method and theory, You can study the differences expression influence of myocardial protein after excercise from the whole, Dynamic perspective. This paper summarizes the excercise myocardial proteomics research and development present situation at home and abroad in recent years, Prospects this topic research direction in the future will mainly focus on the database establishment of excercise myocardial proteomics, The further confirmed of Protein point ,The interaction between protein point and Protein modification;The further research of excercise myocardial proteomics will provide new theoretical basis and new research ideas which will help to further illustrate the movement heart remodeling mechanism research and the process of movement cardiac remodeling gene regulation, protein modification and the change mechanism research; Which will promote the development of the overall fitness movement and bring new visual Angle in the movement of chronic cardiovascular disease rehabilitation research.%一个细胞在特定生理或病理状态下表达的所有种类蛋白质称为蛋白质组。应用蛋白质组学的研究方法和理论,可以从整体、动态的角度来研究运动对心肌蛋白质的差异表达的影响。本文在综述了近年来国内外运动心肌蛋白质组学研究发展现状的基础上,展望了未来这一专题的研究方向将主要集中在:运动心脏蛋白质组学数据库的建立、蛋白质点的进一步确证、蛋白质点之间的相互作用以及蛋白质的修饰;深入运动心脏蛋白质组学的研究,将为进一步阐明运动心脏的重塑机制的研究以及运动心脏重塑过程中的基因调控、蛋白质修饰、变化机理的研究提供新的理论依据和新的研究思路;将为促进全面健身运动的开展以及慢性

  15. Neonatal research in India: current status, challenges, and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shuchita; Chaurasia, Suman; Sankar, M Jeeva; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2014-11-01

    The present article systematically reviews the current status of neonatal research in India by examining the research articles published by Indian authors in the last 10 years. It also enlists the major challenges and proposes a few potential solutions to improve the status of neonatal research in the country. The systematic review of 574 eligible articles indicates that majority of the studies were observational in nature, facility-based, and primarily investigator-driven with no external funding, had small sample size, and were published in journals with low impact factor. Only a few select government and non-government academic institutions contributed to most studies. The major challenges include shortage of faculty, no provision for dedicated research time, inadequate knowledge/skills in research methods, lack of funding opportunities, limited access to literature, non-existence of research administrative cell, inappropriately low perks to research staff, and poor support for data management and statistical analysis. The recently revised guidelines on clinical trials involving drugs have further increased the researcher's dilemma. The potential solutions are to increase the faculty strength in medical colleges, allow dedicated research time to them, appoint dedicated research cadre with emoluments at par with clinical faculty, initiate formal training in research methods, create nationwide free portal for access to literature, facilitate development of good protocols through technical guidance at all stages, make the process of funding quick and transparent, and to promote collaborative trans-disciplinary research. Experts from different domains should come together and formulate evidence based research priorities. Regulatory mechanisms should be kept proportionate to plausible risks of research, and detailed ethical guidelines for research in children should be formulated. And last but not least, harnessing postgraduate thesis potential to answer simple and

  16. The Review and Outlook of Research Achievements in Acupuncture Point Discipline during "the 11 th Five -Year"%腧穴学科“十一五”研究成果回顾及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉祁; 李春华; 苑鸿雯; 张鹏; 辛思源; 李静; 朱江; 程凯

    2012-01-01

    目的:回顾总结腧穴学科“十一五”期间(2006 ~ 2010年)取得的主要研究成果,并对腧穴研究未来的发展进行展望.方法:检索国家奖励办等相关网站及中国学术期刊网络出版总库发布或刊载的在研究立项等方面与腧穴研究相关的重要成果.结果:2项研究被列入国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划),8项成果分获中国针灸学会和中华中医药学会科学技术奖,3项国家标准和1项国际标准确立,“经穴效应具有特异性”等一些新学术观点受到国内外学术界关注,23项专利获国家授权,多项新技术得以应用,《针灸单穴临床研究》等多部学术专著出版.结论:基于以上研究成果,腧穴研究将以提高临床疗效和阐释科学内涵为根本目的,在“十二五”期间取得新的更重要成果.%Objective:To review and summarize the main research achievements during "the 1.1th Five - Year" and look into the future of research developments in the acupuncture point discipline. Methods: Several websites (like National Office for Science and Technology Awards) were searched for important acupuncture point results focusing on research project establishing, and so on. Results:There were many significant gains in the acupuncture point discipline. Two research projects included in the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) ; Eight achievements received science and technology awards from China Association of Acupuncture - Moxibustion and China Association of Chinese Medicine; Three national and one international standards established, and some new scientific viewpoints attracted attentions globally like "the acupuncture point was specific" ; Twenty - three patent applications were approved by National Office for Science and Technology Awards; Several new techniques were applied; And many academic works were published like Acupuncture - Moxibustion Single Point Research. Conclusion: Based on the achievements

  17. Evolutionary multi-objective optimization: some current research trends and topics that remain to be explored

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos A. COELLO COELLO

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a short review of some of the main topics in which the current research in evolutionary multi-objective optimization is being focused. The topics discussed include new algorithms, efficiency, relaxed forms of dominance, scalability, and alternative metaheuristics. This discussion motivates some further topics which,from the author's perspective, constitute good potential areas for future research, namely, constraint-handling techniques,incorporation of user's preferences and parameter control,This information is expected to be useful for those interested in pursuing research in this area.

  18. A few perspectives of solar physics research in China - current status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxiu; Ding, Mingde; Ji, Haisheng; Deng, Yuanyong; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zhong; Qu, Zhongquan; Wang, Huaning; Xia, Lidong; Yan, Yihua

    2016-07-01

    Solar physics research as an important discipline in astrophysics in China aims at improving the understanding of origin and variation of solar magnetic field and magnetic activity, and founding the basis for forecast of disastrous space weather. The current review is focused on the solar physics research in China in recent three years. Highlights in scientific research in solar magnetism, magnetic activity, coronal plasma, and space weather forecast are briefly summarized. Key advances in instrument development are reported in some necessary details. Future tendency and working direction are considered and discussed.

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) One Month Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a probabilistic one-month precipitation outlook for the United States twice a month. CPC issues an initial monthly outlook...

  20. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NWS NCEP Significant Weather Outlooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps of the latest NOAA/NWS Outlooks for Severe Thunderstorms (Convective Outlooks) and Critical...

  1. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) One Month Probabilistic Temperature Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a probabilistic one-month temperature outlook for the United States twice a month. CPC issues an initial monthly outlook...

  2. Review of Current Status and Research Approaches to Nitrogen Pollution in Farmlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Sheng-wei; GAO Wang-sheng; CHEN Yuan-quan; SUI Peng; A Egrinya Eneji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the history, current status, and research approaches to nitrogen pollution were reviewed using systems analysis and deductions. The seriousness of N pollution world-wide was highlighted and recommendations were made to address the situation. A new hypothesis based on phytoremediation, which means the use of plants to directly or indirectly degrade or remove contaminats from soil and water, was proposed.

  3. Gravitational radiation theory. M.A. Thesis - Rice Univ.; [survey of current research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    A survey is presented of current research in the theory of gravitational radiation. The mathematical structure of gravitational radiation is stressed. Furthermore, the radiation problem is treated independently from other problems in gravitation. The development proceeds candidly through three points of view - scalar, rector, and tensor radiation theory - and the corresponding results are stated.

  4. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  5. Current status and progress of research on the management of bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ©2000 National Agricultural Research Organisation. Current status ... Them a in ohj ective of this study was to identify control measures that can reduce the disease on ... practices in controlling root rot was carried out in 1997 for two seasons ...

  6. First Language Transfer in Second Language Writing: An Examination of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Khaled; Nassaji, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    First language (L1) transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA), and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1…

  7. Fusarium mycotoxins: Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the health and economic costs of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, there is a compelling need for improved understanding of these fungi, from across diverse perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit addresses Fusarium mycotoxin...

  8. The emergence and current performance of a health research system: lessons from Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Maarten O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how health research systems (HRS in low-income countries emerge and evolve over time, and how this process relates to their performance. Understanding how HRSs emerge is important for the development of well functioning National Health Research Systems (NHRS. The aim of this study was to assess how the HRS in Guinea Bissau has emerged and evolved over time and how the present system functions. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the emergence and current performance of the HRS, using the NHRS framework. We reviewed documents and carried out 39 in-depth interviews, ranging from health research to policy and practice stakeholders. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Results The research practices in Guinea Bissau led to the emergence of a HRS with both local and international links and strong dependencies on international partners and donors. The post-colonial, volatile and resource-dependent context, changes in donor policies, training of local researchers and nature of the research findings influenced how the HRS evolved. Research priorities have mostly been set by 'expatriate' researchers and focused on understanding and reducing child mortality. Research funding is almost exclusively provided by foreign donors and international agencies. The training of Guinean researchers started in the mid-nineties and has since reinforced the links with the health system, broadened the research agenda and enhanced local use of research. While some studies have made an important contribution to global health, the use of research within Guinea Bissau has been constrained by the weak and donor dependent health system, volatile government, top-down policies of international agencies, and the controversial nature of some of the research findings. Conclusions In Guinea Bissau a de facto 'system' of research has emerged through research practices and co

  9. Statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet:Cluster observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.REME; E.LUCEK

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the flapping motion of the earth’s magnetotail current sheet is one of the most important problems in the magnetotail dynamics.Using Cluster data,we make a statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet of 2001 and 2003.We calculate the velocities of the magnetotail current sheet using new methods and obtain the distribution of the magnetotail current sheet velocities in the X-Y plane in GSE coordinate system.Our results show that although most of the current sheets were propagating toward the tail flanks and those of the exceptions lay in dusk side,which is consistent with previous studies,the proportions of the current sheet which were propagating toward midnight (where |YGSE|=0) were higher than those in previous studies.Motions of the current sheet in the middle area (|YGSE|<8 Re) of the magnetotail are investigated.Relatively high value of the Z component of the velocity further confirms that the middle area of the magnetotail might be a source region for the motion of the current sheets which were propagating towards the tail flanks.According to our case studies,the way the current sheets propagated toward midnight area differs significantly from that toward dusk and dawn side,from which we infer that there might be two different kinds of current sheet motions originated from different sources.The statistical results of this paper may give some clues for further studies on the origin of the flapping motion of the magnetotail current sheet.

  10. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. May 18, 2004 update no. 24; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 18 mai 2004, no. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)comparison of the costs between the electric-powered vehicles and the fuel cell vehicles 2)fuel savings of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles 3)direct formic acid fuel cells producing high current density 4)use of biogas in a SOFC 5)test unit for the determination of the seasonal performance of fuel cell residential systems 6)new management technique of fuel cells for optimizing the output power and the fuel use yield 7)SOFC/micro-turbines systems: current progress achieved and future development 8)advances in the field of the PEMFC 9)advances in the field of new materials for PEMFC 10)hybridization of fuel cell vehicles: an accessible solution for efficient traction systems 11)exergy life cycle analysis of systems of production and storage of hydrogen for mobile application 12)hydrogen and electric power production from coal with CO{sub 2} sequestration 13)H{sub 2}S low temperature removal with ZnO in gas mixtures containing vapor for applications in fuel cells 1-ZnO particles and extruded compounds 14)catalytic nano-composite membranes for CO abatement in fuel cell applications 15)activity and stability of Cu-CeO catalysts in the water-gas conversion for fuel cell applications 16)hydrogen production for fuel cell by ethanol partial oxidation on a nickel based catalyst 17)micro-reactor for hydrogen production in micro-fuel cell applications 18)hydrogen storage capacity and electrochemical properties of the electrode material La{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}Ni{sub 3.825}Co{sub 0.675}Mn{sub x}(A) 19)hydrogen storage and desorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  11. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed.

  12. The Evolution of Current Research Impact Metrics: From Bibliometrics to Altmetrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joseph S; Kaye, I David; Sebastian, Arjun S; Wagner, Scott C; Morrissey, Patrick B; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-03-23

    The prestige of publication has been based on traditional citation metrics, most commonly journal impact factor. However, the Internet has radically changed the speed, flow, and sharing of medical information. Furthermore, the explosion of social media, along with development of popular professional and scientific websites and blogs, has led to the need for alternative metrics, known as altmetrics, to quantify the wider impact of research. We explore the evolution of current research impact metrics and examine the evolving role of altmetrics in measuring the wider impact of research. We suggest that altmetrics used in research evaluation should be part of an informed peer-review process such as traditional metrics. Moreover, results based on altmetrics must not lead to direct decision making about research, but instead, should be used to assist experts in making decisions. Finally, traditional and alternative metrics should complement, not replace, each other in the peer-review process.

  13. [Pathological gambling and computergame-addiction. Current state of research regarding two subtypes of behavioural addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Müller, K W

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral addictions, like pathological gambling and computer game addiction (or internet addiction), have become a growing concern in research and public interest. Currently similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are controversially discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately a mismatch exists between the large number of people seeking treatment and the small number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and computer game addiction. Prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is estimated to be 0.2-0.5%. These estimations are comparable to prevalence rates reported for drug dependency. Latest research states that about 3% of German adolescents and young adults are believed to suffer from computer game addiction. Therefore, it is important to enhance investigations regarding the clinical and neuroscientific basis of computer game addiction. This review offers a summary of current results of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction. The phenomenological description of these two disorders is meant to allow a deeper understanding of behavioral addictions.

  14. Scientific Outlook on Development and the Question of Peaceful Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jixian

    2008-01-01

    @@ In his Report to the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China(CPC),Hu Jintao,General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPC,pointed out that,"All Party members must fully understand the content and grastp the essence of the Scientific Outlook on Development, be more conscious and determined in applying it, change notions that are not in line with it,work hard to solve major problems that affect or constrain scientific development, direct the whole society's enthusiasm for development to scientific development,and apply this outlook to every aspect of economic and social development."

  15. Experimental Research of Harmonic Spectrum of Currents at Traction Drive with PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the significant results of the experimental research of current harmonic spectrum of traction drive with permanent magnet synchronous motor. The experiments were done on a special workplace with a real traction drive for wheel vehicles. Current harmonic spectrum was analyzed by a specialized device on the base of central measuring station. The knowledge of current marked subharmonic components of stator winding is the most significant finding of experiments. The frequencies of these components are given by multiples of frequency of mechanical speeds. The subharmonic components also pass to input DC current of drive. This fact is important in particular from the point of view of legislative requirements to electromagnetic compatibility of drive with railway interlocking devices.

  16. What do we know about the medical biography of Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)? A summary of the state of knowledge and outlook on relevant issues for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanoglu-Lutz, E Elif; Hot, Inci; Coban, Mustafa

    2013-08-01

    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first President of the Turkish republic, is the subject of many more or less 'heroic' biographies and few critical ones. His anamnesis, however, is only available in fragments. Many books omit details of Atatürk's health and life, for example his bloodline, his illness and eventually his death, his funeral prayer and ceremony and his burial. His liver problem, diagnosed as cirrhosis and said to be the cause of his death, is well described but his general health and other sicknesses are scarcely recorded. This paper provides an overview of his anamnesis as far as it is known, the literature describing it and the level of knowledge generally published, and it also indicates where original research in the archives is needed to complete the picture.

  17. The value of value of information: best informing research design and prioritization using current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Karnon, Jon; Willan, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Value of information (VOI) methods have been proposed as a systematic approach to inform optimal research design and prioritization. Four related questions arise that VOI methods could address. (i) Is further research for a health technology assessment (HTA) potentially worthwhile? (ii) Is the cost of a given research design less than its expected value? (iii) What is the optimal research design for an HTA? (iv) How can research funding be best prioritized across alternative HTAs? Following Occam's razor, we consider the usefulness of VOI methods in informing questions 1-4 relative to their simplicity of use. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI) with current information, while simple to calculate, is shown to provide neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to address question 1, given that what EVPI needs to exceed varies with the cost of research design, which can vary from very large down to negligible. Hence, for any given HTA, EVPI does not discriminate, as it can be large and further research not worthwhile or small and further research worthwhile. In contrast, each of questions 1-4 are shown to be fully addressed (necessary and sufficient) where VOI methods are applied to maximize expected value of sample information (EVSI) minus expected costs across designs. In comparing complexity in use of VOI methods, applying the central limit theorem (CLT) simplifies analysis to enable easy estimation of EVSI and optimal overall research design, and has been shown to outperform bootstrapping, particularly with small samples. Consequently, VOI methods applying the CLT to inform optimal overall research design satisfy Occam's razor in both improving decision making and reducing complexity. Furthermore, they enable consideration of relevant decision contexts, including option value and opportunity cost of delay, time, imperfect implementation and optimal design across jurisdictions. More complex VOI methods such as bootstrapping of the expected value of

  18. Interoperability Outlook in the Big Data Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K. S.; Ramachandran, R.

    2015-12-01

    The establishment of distributed active archive centers (DAACs) as data warehouses and the standardization of file format by NASA's Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) had doubtlessly propelled interoperability of NASA Earth science data to unprecedented heights in the 1990s. However, we obviously still feel wanting two decades later. We believe the inadequate interoperability we experience is a result of the the current practice that data are first packaged into files before distribution and only the metadata of these files are cataloged into databases and become searchable. Data therefore cannot be efficiently filtered. Any extensive study thus requires downloading large volumes of data files to a local system for processing and analysis.The need to download data not only creates duplication and inefficiency but also further impedes interoperability, because the analysis has to be performed locally by individual researchers in individual institutions. Each institution or researcher often has its/his/her own preference in the choice of data management practice as well as programming languages. Analysis results (derived data) so produced are thus subject to the differences of these practices, which later form formidable barriers to interoperability. A number of Big Data technologies are currently being examined and tested to address Big Earth Data issues. These technologies share one common characteristics: exploiting compute and storage affinity to more efficiently analyze large volumes and great varieties of data. Distributed active "archive" centers are likely to evolve into distributed active "analysis" centers, which not only archive data but also provide analysis service right where the data reside. "Analysis" will become the more visible function of these centers. It is thus reasonable to expect interoperability to improve because analysis, in addition to data, becomes more centralized. Within a "distributed active analysis center

  19. Research on resistance characteristics of YBCO tape under short-time DC large current impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Yang, Jiabin; Qiu, Qingquan; Zhang, Guomin; Lin, Liangzhen

    2017-06-01

    Research of the resistance characteristics of YBCO tape under short-time DC large current impact is the foundation of the developing DC superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for voltage source converter-based high voltage direct current system (VSC-HVDC), which is one of the valid approaches to solve the problems of renewable energy integration. SFCL can limit DC short-circuit and enhance the interrupting capabilities of DC circuit breakers. In this paper, under short-time DC large current impacts, the resistance features of naked tape of YBCO tape are studied to find the resistance - temperature change rule and the maximum impact current. The influence of insulation for the resistance - temperature characteristics of YBCO tape is studied by comparison tests with naked tape and insulating tape in 77 K. The influence of operating temperature on the tape is also studied under subcooled liquid nitrogen condition. For the current impact security of YBCO tape, the critical current degradation and top temperature are analyzed and worked as judgment standards. The testing results is helpful for in developing SFCL in VSC-HVDC.

  20. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. April 16, 2004 update no. 23; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 16 avril 2004, no. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the importance of the fuel choice in the efficiency of the SOFC 2)assessment model of a centralized electric power system: SOFC/gas turbine 3)a direct borohydride fuel cell 4)thermodynamic optimization of the internal structure of a fuel cell 5)a SOFC/gas turbine cogeneration system 6)micro-fuel cells for portable applications 7)comparison of performances of direct alcohol fuel cells using different anode catalysts 8)materials and designs for SOFC used in stationary and mobile applications 9)development of measurement techniques for two-phase hydrogen weight flow 10)semi-conductors potentiometric probe for the hydrogen detection in air 11)integration of a fuel cell in an electric system, using a regulator based on the theory of regulation by disturbances accommodation 12)'greening London's black cabs': a study of the use potential of fuel cells cabs in London 13)gasification of leather residues - part 1 - experimental study in a pilot gasifier with a descending current 14)use of composite conducting membranes to produce hydrogen by water dissociation 15)molybdenum carbide based catalyst for the water gas reaction used in fuel cells vehicles applications 16)hydrogen production process from methane hydrates with carbon dioxide hydrates sequestration 17)comparative study between the hydrogen adsorption on super activated carbon and on carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  1. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 14, 2005 update no. 29; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 mars 2005, no. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production. Their different titles are given below: 1)thermodynamic analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol and running in internal reforming mode 2)effect of the methanol and ethanol permeation on the efficiencies of a direct alcohol fuel cell with a PtRu/C anode 3)analysis of an hybrid SOFC micro-turbine micro-generation system 4)dynamic modelling and simulation of a small hybrid wind-fuel cell system 5)simulation of a system combining SOFC and PEMFC 6)assessment of the impacts and of the economical aspects of the fuel cell APU part 1: modelling of the cost and the efficiencies of the system part 2)impacts on the health and on the environment, analysis of the life cycle and optimization 7)efficiencies of vehicles equipped with direct hydrogen or reformed methanol PEMFC 8)methods for supplying fuel cell devices 9)auxiliary fuel cell system 10)analysis of life cycle of maritime applications of fuel cells 11)critical analysis of different hydrogen production and uses ways 12)comparison of the hydrogen and natural gas production processes in a thermodynamical and environmental point of view 13)research and development on the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  2. Fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) phenomena in reactor safety. Current understanding and future research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speis, T.P. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States); Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the current understanding of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) phenomena in the context of reactor safety. With increased emphasis on accident management and with emerging in-vessel core melt retention strategies for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, recent interest in FCI has broadened to include an evaluation of potential threats to the integrity of reactor vessel lower head and ex-vessel structural support, as well as the role of FCI in debris quenching and coolability. The current understanding of FCI with regard to these issues is discussed, and future research needs to address the issues from a risk perspective are identified. (author)

  3. Vitamin D in pregnancy: A metabolic outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila Kaushal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a preventable health problem. Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is frequent in many populations over the world. Research indicates that adequate vitamin D intake in pregnancy is optimal for maternal, fetal and child health. Adverse health outcomes during pregnancy are preeclampsia; gestational diabetes mellitus and caesarean section. Consequences in newborns are low birth weight, neonatal rickets, a risk of neonatal hypocalcaemia, asthma and/or type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is the origin for a host of future perils for the child, especially effect on neurodevelopment and immune system. Some of this damage done by maternal Vitamin D deficiency gets evident after many years. Therefore, prevention of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is essential. The currently recommended supplementation amount of vitamin D is not sufficient to maintain a value of 25 hydroxy vitamin D above 30 ng/ml, during pregnancy. Studies are underway to establish the recommended daily doses of vitamin D in pregnant women. Clearly, further investigation is required into the effects of vitamin D, of vitamin D supplementation, and of vitamin D analogs for improvement in human health generally and mothers and children specifically. This review discusses vitamin D metabolism, dietary requirements and recommendations and implications of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and lactation.

  4. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 14, 2004 update no. 25; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 juin 2004, no. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the American plan of de-regulated electric power production with fuel cells 2)application of single wall carbon nano-tubes in fuel cells 3)scenarios of SOFC introduction on the Japanese market 4)advanced SOFC technology and developments at the Siemens Westinghouse firm 5)manufacture and optimal size of a PEMFC cogeneration system for multi-residential application: application to the decomposition strategy 6)analysis of the life cycle of fuel cells using disposal gas 7)technical and economical analysis of a three-generation SOFC system 8)use of APU-FC for an average class tactical lorry, during a use in partial electric power supply or in condition of a silent stand by 9)modelling of the current supply of a lorry at stop: comparison between a idling engine and a APU 10)production of hydrogen and carbon nano-tubes by methane decomposition in a two-stage fluidized bed reactor 11)hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of gas-oil 12)simulations of cold starting of a gasoline reformer for mobile applications of fuel cells 13)ethanol production by steam reforming on a Pd/{gamma}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trading catalyst 14)control of the CO{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and of the deactivation of the catalyst for the gasoline steam reforming 15)comparison of three integrated processes of partial oxidation producing hydrogen for fuel cells applications 16)search of new methods of the mixture: natural gas/hydrogen production for use in natural gas systems in The Netherlands 17)outline of the energy/hydrogen storage: progress achieved with the different techniques and future prospect of nano-materials 18) hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by solar way 19)forecast and measurement of the limits of the flammability domain of fuel cells. The references of these articles rae detailed. (O.M.)

  5. Humanism in War—Analysis on Pearl S. Buck's War Outlook in Dragon Seed%Humanism in War—Analysis on Pearl S.Buck's War Outlook in Dragon Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷

    2015-01-01

    Pearl S.Buck is a controversial American writer.Dragon Seed is one of her war novels and arouses some readers'mis-understanding because of the vivid description of human loss.This research will focus on the analysis of the characters'person-ality change before and during the enemies'invasion.And then explore Pearl S.Buck's real attitude towards Chinese Anti-Japa-nese War and her buried war outlook.

  6. Improving performance in golf: current research and implications from a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie Evans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGolf, a global sport enjoyed by people of all ages and abilities, involves relatively long periods of low intensity exercise interspersed with short bursts of high intensity activity. To meet the physical demands of full swing shots and the mental and physical demands of putting and walking the course, it is frequently recommended that golfers undertake golf-specific exercise programs. Biomechanics, motor learning, and motor control research has increased the understanding of the physical requirements of the game, and using this knowledge, exercise programs aimed at improving golf performance have been developed. However, while it is generally accepted that an exercise program can improve a golfer's physical measurements and some golf performance variables, translating the findings from research into clinical practice to optimise an individual golfer's performance remains challenging. This paper discusses how biomechanical and motor control research has informed current practice and discusses how emerging sophisticated tools and research designs may better assist golfers improve their performance.

  7. Current thinking in qualitative research: evidence-based practice, moral philosophies, and political struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Christina; Magasi, Susan; Frank, Gelya

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue on current thinking in qualitative research and occupational therapy and science, the authors focus on the importance of rigorous qualitative research to inform occupational therapy practice. The authors chosen for this special issue reflect a "second generation of qualitative researchers" who are critical, theoretically sophisticated, methodologically productive, and politically relevant to show that working with disabled clients is political work. Three themes emerged across the articles included in this special issue: (1) recognizing and addressing social justice issues; (2) learning from clients' experiences; and (3) critically reframing occupational therapy's role. These themes can inform occupational therapy practice, research, and education to reflect a more client-centered and politically engaging approach. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Person-centred health care: a critical assessment of current and emerging research approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carmel M; Félix-Bortolotti, Margot

    2014-12-01

    Person-centred health care is prominent in international health care reforms. A shift to understanding and improving personal care at the point of delivery has generated debates about the nature of the person-centred research agenda. This paper purviews research paradigms that influence current person-centred research approaches and traditions that influence knowledge foundations in the field. It presents a synthesis of the emergent approaches and methodologies and highlights gaps between static academic research and the increasing accessibility of evaluation, informatics and big data from health information systems. Paradigms in health services research range from theoretical to atheoretical, including positivist, interpretive, postmodern and pragmatic. Interpretivist (subjective) and positivist (objectivist) paradigms have been historically polarized. Yet, integrative and pragmatic approaches have emerged. Nevertheless, there is a tendency to reductionism, and to reduce personal experiences to metrics in the positivist paradigm. Integrating personalized information into clinical systems is increasingly driven by the pervasive health information technology, which raises many issues about the asymmetry and uncertainty in the flow of information to support personal health journeys. The flux and uncertainty of knowledge between and within paradigmatic or pragmatic approaches highlights the uncertainty and the 'unorder and disorder' in what is known and what it means. Transdisciplinary, complex adaptive systems theory with multi-ontology sense making provides an overarching framework for making sense of the complex dynamics in research progress. A major challenge to current research paradigms is focus on the individualizing of care and enhancing experiences of persons in health settings. There is an urgent need for person-centred research to address this complex process. A transdisciplinary and complex systems approach provides a sense-making framework. © 2014 John

  9. Outlook and advances in research on miRNAs in cancer%肿瘤 miRNAs 调控机制的研究进展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辰; 刘利英; 倪磊; 宋土生

    2015-01-01

    微小 RNA(micro RNAs,miRNAs)是一类不同于 mRNA 的非蛋白编码的小 RNA,其通过结合靶 mRNA 的3′非翻译区(3′untranslated region,3′UTR),抑制靶 mRNA 的翻译或降解靶 mRNA。miRNA 在肿瘤发生、生长、迁移与侵袭过程中发挥了重要作用。miRNA 的调控与其在肿瘤中的功能密切相关。竞争性内源性 RNA(competing endogenous RNA,ceRNA)、环状 RNA(circular RNA,circRNA)及 RNA 结合蛋白(RNA binding protein,RBP)参与了 miRNA 靶基因的表达调控,可能是 miRNA 在不同肿瘤组织及细胞中功能多样化与复杂化的原因之一。研究miRNA 在特定细胞中网络调控机制的新技术是未来的新方向。%microRNA (miRNA)is a kind of non-protein-coding small RNA that is different from mRNA. miRNAs interact with the 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR )of the target mRNA,resulting in either complete degradation or translational inhibition of the target mRNA.miRNAs play a vital role in tumorigenesis,growth, migration and invasion.The regulation of miRNA is closely related to its function in cancer.Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA),circular RNA (circRNA)and RNA binding protein (RBP)as regulatory molecules are involved in the expression regulation of target genes.It may be one reason why the miRNA has complicated and diversified functions in diverse cancer tissues or cancer cells.The future direction of miRNA research is to study the latest technology to find the network control mechanism of miRNA in the specific cells.

  10. The Declaration of Helsinki in relation to medical research: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B M

    2012-09-01

    Medical research aims at improving diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic measures and understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of diseases in humans, and their application to improve the quality of life and survival. The subjects involved are exposed to hazards inherent to the experiments. In order to protect the human subjects and to maintain high ethical standards, the World Medical Association had adopted the "Declaration of Helsinki" in 1964. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on the historical and current perspectives on the Declaration of Helsinki in relation to medical research on human subjects.

  11. [Current situation of toxicity classification of Chinese materia medica and its research thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.

  12. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X’avia; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-03-17

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been revealed in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been hotspot for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for the disease of interest. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state-of-the-art of the technologies, and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, we will underscore some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research.

  13. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X'avia; Gritsenko, Marina A; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been implicated in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been considered as hotspots for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for diseases of interest. This review highlights recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state of the art of the technologies and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research are underscored.

  14. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: what has been achieved, current clues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, Temitayo A; McMichael, Amy; Olsen, Elise A

    2014-04-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is an inflammatory type of central scalp hair loss seen primarily in women of African descent. The prevalence is unknown, but may vary from 2.7% to 5.7% and increases with age. This review outlines the history and current beliefs and identifies clues for future research for this enigmatic condition. Despite that the cause of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is unknown, research is ongoing. The role of cytokeratins, androgens, genetics, and various possible sources of chronic inflammation in disease pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.

  15. Current Research and Classroom Practice: Toward More Inclusive Approaches to Literacy Development in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Booth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an exploration of current research and related practice in boys’ literacy development, interprets key findings in the literature, and further explores some of the complex dilemmas and debates related to the ‘gender gap’ – i.e., differences between the achievement of boys and girls in this area. In conclusion, the authors suggest that governments, policy-makers, administrators, teachers and parents all need to closely examine and consider available research-based strategies and classroom interventions that can effectively support both boys and girls in their literacy development. 

  16. Research on the Anti-exercise Fatigue Effect of Protein Bar and Market Outlook Analysis%蛋白棒抗运动性疲劳的功效研究及市场前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亚会

    2016-01-01

    In order to study protein bars to alleviate the extent of sports fatigue,we selected 40 swimming Majors as subjects experiment,through research period of three months,the results showed that:the observation group athletes body weight and muscle content than the control group athletes significantly improved(P<0.05),while the percentage of body fat and BMI index were significantly lower than the control group athletes (P<0.05). Through body fluids analysis,we proved the observation group athletes blood fatigue related indicators than the control group athletes changed significantly (P<0.05) after training;urine protein and urobilinogen than the control group decreased significantly (P<0.05) while saliva pH value did not change significantly in the obser-vation group than the control group while the athletes significantly increased(P<0.05). By fatigue experimental analysis,the observation group athletes after training,endurance levels,lung capacity and hemoglobin levels than the control group athletes significantly increased (P<0.05). All subjects were any adverse reactions,pro-tein bars have proved effective to alleviate sports fatigue function,and has broad market prospects.%为了研究蛋白棒对运动员运动性疲劳的缓解程度,我们选取40名体育学院游泳专业大学生作为实验对象进行实验,经过为期3个月的研究,结果表明:观察组运动员体重和肌肉含量较对照组运动员明显提高(P<0.05),而体脂率和BMI指数均显著低于对照组运动员(P<0.05)。通过体液检测分析,证明训练结束后观察组运动员血液中疲劳相关指标较对照组运动员发生显著改变(P<0.05);尿液中的尿蛋白和尿胆原较对照组显著下降(P<0.05),而唾液中的pH值在观察组未发生明显变化,而较对照组运动员显著提高(P<0.05)。通过抗疲劳实验分析,观察组运动员经过训练后,耐力水平,肺活量和血红蛋白含量较对照

  17. Health Occupations. Dental Auxiliaries, Nursing, Therapy and Rehabilitation, Health Services Administration. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental…

  18. Petroleum Refining, Industrial Chemical, Drug, and Paper and Allied Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in refining and industrial chemical, drug, and paper manufacturing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in…

  19. Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

  20. Mandates, needs, equitable resources, and current research in English language teacher education: The case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Cepik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of English language teacher education (ELTE programs has become a major point of consideration; however, such programmatic evaluations are markedly rare. This study utilizes both numeric and interpretive qualitative data in a blended research design. The study addresses, vis-à-vis current research in related fields: What is the current situation of the Turkish ELTE programs in terms of curriculum strength and faculty resources? How do the program directors and teacher candidates envision the situation of their programs in terms of curriculum strength and faculty resources? Data included 45 ELTE curricula, interviews with 24 program directors and pre-service teachers, documents, and test scores. Findings revealed several significant associations between school type (public/private and rank (low/high and the number of faculty with expertise in critical areas in the field. Qualitative critical evaluations suggest both perceptual matches and mismatches between program directors and teacher candidates regarding programmatic strengths and weaknesses.

  1. Regeneration of tissues of the oral complex: current clinical trends and research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thomas T; Mui, Brennan; Mehrabzadeh, Mahsa; Chea, Yannie; Chaudhry, Zoya; Chaudhry, Kamran; Tran, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative therapy in oral health care is limited by both the body's natural capacity for regeneration and the materials and methods currently available. Research on various aspects of regenerative therapy, such as tissue engineering and stem cell and gene therapy, has produced promising results. Compelling advances, ranging from the discovery and characterization of stem cell populations in oral tissue to the engineering and transplantation of whole tooth structures, could result in exciting new treatment methods for clinicians in the near future. In this review, we discuss the limitations of natural healing and regeneration of various tissues of the oral complex, including teeth, periodontium and salivary glands, and summarize current treatment methods for tissue damage as well as research advances in oral tissue regeneration.

  2. Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO2009), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), presents long-term projections of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2030, based on results from EIA’s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). EIA published an “early release” version of the AEO2009 reference case in December 2008.

  3. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  4. Religious Outlook and Students' Attitudes toward the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontakharai, Sunanchai; Koul, Ravinder; Neanchaleay, Jariya

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey study on attitudes towards religion and the environment, carried out with 1000 undergraduate students enrolled in two universities in Bangkok and Chiangmai, Thailand. There is a positive relationship between students' religious outlook and their attitudes towards the environment, a finding that underlines…

  5. Improvement in South African Students' Outlook Due to Music Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael M.; Devroop, Karendra; Getz, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2009, we started a concert band programme at a high school in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In the fall of 2011, we returned to the school to measure the impact of participating in a concert band on the students' attitude and outlook. During our initial and return visits, we measured feelings of self-esteem, optimism, positive…

  6. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2006 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    at the Beginning of the Year Changes to Debt Held by the Public Deficit or surplus (-) CHAPTER ONE THE BUDGET OUTLOOK 21Figure 1-5. Debt Subject to...Standardized- Budget Deficit (-) or Surplusa Deficit (-) or Surplus Debt Held by the Public Deficit (-) or Surplus Debt Held by the Public Standardized

  7. Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology?—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Huumo, Jesse; Ko, Deokyoon; Park, Sooyong; Smolander, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Blockchain is a decentralized transaction and data management technology developed first for Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The interest in Blockchain technology has been increasing since the idea was coined in 2008. The reason for the interest in Blockchain is its central attributes that provide security, anonymity and data integrity without any third party organization in control of the transactions, and therefore it creates interesting research areas, especially from the perspective of technical challenges and limitations. In this research, we have conducted a systematic mapping study with the goal of collecting all relevant research on Blockchain technology. Our objective is to understand the current research topics, challenges and future directions regarding Blockchain technology from the technical perspective. We have extracted 41 primary papers from scientific databases. The results show that focus in over 80% of the papers is on Bitcoin system and less than 20% deals with other Blockchain applications including e.g. smart contracts and licensing. The majority of research is focusing on revealing and improving limitations of Blockchain from privacy and security perspectives, but many of the proposed solutions lack concrete evaluation on their effectiveness. Many other Blockchain scalability related challenges including throughput and latency have been left unstudied. On the basis of this study, recommendations on future research directions are provided for researchers. PMID:27695049

  8. Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology?-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Huumo, Jesse; Ko, Deokyoon; Choi, Sujin; Park, Sooyong; Smolander, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Blockchain is a decentralized transaction and data management technology developed first for Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The interest in Blockchain technology has been increasing since the idea was coined in 2008. The reason for the interest in Blockchain is its central attributes that provide security, anonymity and data integrity without any third party organization in control of the transactions, and therefore it creates interesting research areas, especially from the perspective of technical challenges and limitations. In this research, we have conducted a systematic mapping study with the goal of collecting all relevant research on Blockchain technology. Our objective is to understand the current research topics, challenges and future directions regarding Blockchain technology from the technical perspective. We have extracted 41 primary papers from scientific databases. The results show that focus in over 80% of the papers is on Bitcoin system and less than 20% deals with other Blockchain applications including e.g. smart contracts and licensing. The majority of research is focusing on revealing and improving limitations of Blockchain from privacy and security perspectives, but many of the proposed solutions lack concrete evaluation on their effectiveness. Many other Blockchain scalability related challenges including throughput and latency have been left unstudied. On the basis of this study, recommendations on future research directions are provided for researchers.

  9. Potential of nanotechnology as a delivery platform against tuberculosis: current research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, S; Kusum Devi, V

    2015-03-28

    This review focusses on the current ongoing research in the field of tuberculosis comprising the resistant strains. It specifies a proper data analysis with results in concise form from areas gripping in: diagnostic nanotechnology, vaccine nanotechnology and the prime field of interest i.e., therapeutic nanotechnology. Primarily, therapeutic area recollects the research findings from advanced drug delivery (primary era) to the targeted drug delivery (modern era). The vaccine-based area derives the immune-specific targeting with enhanced emphasis on vaccine extraction and preparation of nanoparticles. Finally, the diagnostic area signifies the imaging techniques that may be employed in the diagnosis of TB. Not only that, there are some researches that emphasized on finding the comparable diagnostic differences between normal and resistant strains. With the advent of carbon nanotubes, metallic NPs, a newer hope has emerged out in diagnostic research, which may extend to therapeutic research applications too. Modifications of natural polymers, least or no use of organic solvents, size controlled NPs, optimized methodology, etc., are fields that need more effort to bypass toxicity. If above desired possibilities get the priority during research, it may lead to shift in the timeline towards much more oriented research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TOR-2015-02548 White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and...voltage phenomena where the verification power level is chosen such that the maximum instantaneous operational voltage in the component is excited . In...analysis methods under investigation for multicarrier excitation threshold prediction based on a survey of the research literature. In general, this

  11. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Psychiatric Conditions: A Review of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mariyah; Sreeram, Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Neural-derived exosomes can be used as diagnostic markers to screen for various psychiatric conditions. These intravenously injected exosomes carry the potential to cross the blood brain barrier and deliver miRNA molecules specifically to neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes in the brain, resulting in specific gene knockdown. Here the authors review and discuss the current research on microRNA molecules and the therapeutic roles they may potentially play in treating depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.

  12. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  13. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called "big data." This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed.

  14. Review of current interest and research in water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarian, R. K.; Balon, J. E.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of activity in the user community for water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment was evaluated. The principal technique used was that of interviewing people who either (1) were known to be engaged in hyacinth research or development or (2) had made inquiry to NASA about hyacinth systems. About 40 non-research organizations and a similar number of research organizations were contacted. As a result of the interviews and a review of the relevant literature, it was concluded that hyacinth systems have the potential for providing a lower cost way for small cities to meet increasingly stringent effluent requirements. A limited amount of full-scale demonstration of hyacinth systems has been carried out during the past two years, but the yield of design data has been small. Several organizations are currently planning construction of experimental full-scale hyacinth-based wastewater treatment systems during 1977-1978.

  15. Attachment among older adults: current issues and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J M; Cafferty, T P

    2001-09-01

    Although John Bowlby conceptualized attachment theory as applicable across the life span, researchers have been relatively slow to examine attachment phenomena specifically among older adults. The present article reviews the extant research applying attachment theory to older populations; preliminary findings suggest that attachment issues hold particular relevance for older adults, given the increased potential for separation, loss and vulnerability associated with aging. Although many of the studies reviewed are somewhat limited methodologically, the overall pattern of results suggests that attachment patterns are associated with a variety of outcomes in later life (such as adaptation to chronic illness and caregiver burden among family members, reactions to the death of a loved one, and general well-being) in a theoretically consistent manner. The implications of and questions raised by current findings are reviewed, and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Unmanned aircraft systems in wildlife research: Current and future applications of a transformative technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Katherine S.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Brown, Casey L.; Hatfield, Michael; Hanson, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) – also called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones – are an emerging tool that may provide a safer, more cost-effective, and quieter alternative to traditional research methods. We review examples where UAS have been used to document wildlife abundance, behavior, and habitat, and illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this technology with two case studies. We summarize research on behavioral responses of wildlife to UAS, and discuss the need to understand how recreational and commercial applications of this technology could disturb certain species. Currently, the widespread implementation of UAS by scientists is limited by flight range, regulatory frameworks, and a lack of validation. UAS are most effective when used to examine smaller areas close to their launch sites, whereas manned aircraft are recommended for surveying greater distances. The growing demand for UAS in research and industry is driving rapid regulatory and technological progress, which in turn will make them more accessible and effective as analytical tools.

  17. Qualitative ergonomics/human factors research in health care: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; McGuire, Kerry Margaret; Rivera, A Joy

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics. Interviews, focus groups, and observations were the most prevalent forms of data collection. Triangulation and data archiving were the dominant approaches to ensuring rigor. Few studies employed a formal approach to qualitative inquiry. Significant opportunities remain to enhance the use of qualitative research to advance systems thinking within health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. National and International Migration:Reflections on Literature and Some Current Research1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicholas Tapp(Wang Fuwen)

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a review on literature and some current research relevant to na-tional and international migration , and examines the connections between such research in a na-tional context , and the research on international migration .The approaches to migration in migra-tion studies are very complex , and the author suggested that we need to pay attention to all three approaches contrasted by Solinger:the one based on rational calculation , the one based on stress-ing the historico-structural conditions and the one based on social networking analysis .The au-thor also stresses the importance of a network approach taken from the sociology of John Urry in the studies of both national and international migration , and the need to see movement as prima-ry, and productive of place , as much recent anthropological literature has stressed .

  19. Pharmacotherapy for the core symptoms in autistic disorder: current status of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey; Grant, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The current review covers extant literature on pharmacotherapy for core symptoms of autism. The core symptoms of autism include impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. There are no known efficacious treatments for the core social symptoms, although effects on repetitive behaviors are indicated with some data. While studies of fenfluramine, secretin, opiates, and mood stabilizers generally find no effect, mixed results suggest more research is needed on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics. Newer lines of research, including cholinergic and glutamatergic agents and oxytocin, will be of considerable interest in the future. However, research on the treatment of core symptoms is plagued by limitations in study design, statistical power, and other issues inherent to the study of treatments for autism (e.g., heterogeneity of the disorder) that continue to prevent the elucidation of efficacious treatments.

  20. Constructed wetlands, 1991-2011: a review of research development, current trends, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wei; Ji, Guodong

    2012-12-15

    This study explores a bibliometric approach to quantitatively evaluate global scientific constructed wetlands research, and statistically assess current trends, and future directions using the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) database from 1991 to 2011. Articles referencing constructed wetlands were analyzed by accessing the following: publication language, output characteristics, publication performance by country and institution, author keywords, title words, and KeyWords Plus. Synthetically analyzing three keyword types, we concluded that the dominant constructed wetlands research hotspots from 1991 to 2011 included water, nutrients, plants, and flow. These four hotspots remained the most dominant research areas throughout our study period, and are predicted to remain the top research emphases in the near future. "Soil" also exhibited a notable increase since 2005, and is likely to become another notable area of research interest in the future. "Phytoremediation" and "horizontal" were not identified in 1991-1995, but exhibited marked increases from 136th (0.5%) and 169th (0.7%) in 1996-2000, to 9th (3.8%) and 11th (4.3%) in 2006-2011, respectively. Therefore, given the heightened attention during the last 15 years, these topics are likely to become a primary research focus in upcoming years.