WorldWideScience

Sample records for current research issues

  1. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  2. Current dialectological research in Serbian linguistics and language contact issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Examined in this paper is the attitude of current Serbian dialectology towards phenomena that are the subject matter of contact linguistics. The aim of the study is to show which types of contact situations and their outcomes are investigated by dialectologists and which are, by applying certain methodological procedures, excluded or at least minimised. The survey of the scholarly production in the field reveals that the attention has been given to the dialectal lexical and structural borrowings from the neigh bouring languages, as well as the interdialectal interference, the contact-induced Balkan innovations and analytic tendency in dialects (which are of particular significance for the study of the Balkan Sprachbund, the mutual influences of standard language and dialects, the sociolinguistic factors determining the dialectal variations that result from language contact, urban dialects and even bilingualism. It should be noted that not all issues have been equally addressed: some of them are well established in the field, while the others only give hints of possible future trends within the discipline. The observed changes in the focus as well as in methodology of its investigations make dialectology more open to the issues contact linguistics is interested in.

  3. Special issue on current research in astrophysical magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovichev, Alexander; Lundstedt, Henrik; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Much of what Hannes Alfvén envisaged some 70 years ago has now penetrated virtually all branches of astrophysical research. Indeed, magnetic fields can display similar properties over a large range of scales. We have therefore been able to take advantage of the transparency of galaxies and the interstellar medium to obtain measurements inside them. On the other hand, the Sun is much closer, allowing us to obtain a detailed picture of the interaction of flows and magnetic fields at the surface, and more recently in the interior by helioseismology. Moreover, the solar timescales are generally much shorter, making studies of dynamical processes more direct. This special issue on current research in astrophysical magnetism is based on work discussed during a one month Nordita program Dynamo, Dynamical Systems and Topology and comprises papers that fall into four different categories (A)-(D). (A) Papers on small-scale magnetic fields and flows in astrophysics 1. E M de Gouveia Dal Pino, M R M Leão, R Santos-Lima, G Guerrero, G Kowal and A Lazarian Magnetic flux transport by turbulent reconnection in astrophysical flows 2. Philip R Goode, Valentyna Abramenko and Vasyl Yurchyshyn New solar telescope in Big Bear: evidence for super-diffusivity and small-scale solar dynamos? 3. I N Kitiashvili, A G Kosovichev, N N Mansour, S K Lele and A A Wray Vortex tubes of turbulent solar convection The above collection of papers begins with a review of astrophysical reconnection and introduces the concept of dynamos necessary to explain the existence of contemporary magnetic fields both on galactic and solar scales (paper 1). This is complemented by observations with the new Big Bear Solar Observatory telescope, allowing us to see magnetic field amplification on small scales (paper 2). This in turn is complemented by realistic simulations of subsurface and surface flow patterns (paper 3). (B) Papers on theoretical approaches to turbulent fluctuations 4. Nathan Kleeorin and Igor

  4. Psychological Issues in Cancer Genetics: Current Research and Future Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Penelope

    1997-01-01

    Data concerning the psychological impact of high risk of cancer are reviewed, including implications of genetic testing, breast screening,and accuracy of women's risk estimates. Work in progress on prophylactic mastectomy and chemoprevention is reviewed. Research on cancer families, and interventions and prevention strategies for high-risk…

  5. CYBERQUEER – MAJOR TOPICS AND ISSUES IN CURRENT RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA RODAT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the opportunities opened by the internet raises also questions of interest for research regarding the extent to which these have an impact on the formations of non heterosexual life and on the experience of marginalised sexual identities. There have been different approaches in this regard and answers vary from optimistic and utopian appraisals concerning cyberspace in the early 90s to the more moderate and sceptic visions in the 2000s. Starting from this framework of debates, the present paper aims to explore the meaning of the term “cyberqueer”, including the theoretical context of its occurrence, to briefly highlight some critical considerations relating to cyberqueer research and to look over the main recurrent themes linked up with this concept, such as queer and cyberqueer identity, body and (disembodied practices and the forthcoming process of blurring the dividing boundaries between real/virtual, online/offline and public/private

  6. Music therapy in cardiac health care: current issues in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Suzanne B

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy is a service that has become more prevalent as an adjunct to medical practice-as its evidence base expands and music therapists begin to join the cardiology team in every phase of care, from the most serious cases to those maintaining good heart health. Although applications of music medicine, primarily listening to short segments of music, are capable of stabilizing vital signs and managing symptoms in the short-term, music therapy interventions by a qualified practitioner are showing promise in establishing deeper and more lasting impact. On the basis of mind-body approaches, stress/coping models, the neuromatrix theory of pain, and entrainment, music therapy capitalizes on the ability of music to affect the autonomic nervous system. Although only a limited number of randomized controlled trials pinpoint the efficacy of specific music therapy interventions, qualitative research reveals some profound outcomes in certain individuals. A depth of understanding related to the experience of living with a cardiovascular disease can be gained through music therapy approaches such as nonverbal music psychotherapy and guided imagery and music. The multifaceted nature of musical responsiveness contributes to strong individual variability and must be taken into account in the development of research protocols for future music therapy and music medicine interventions. The extant research provides a foundation for exploring the many potential psychosocial, physiological, and spiritual outcomes of a music therapy service for cardiology patients.

  7. Microorganisms in metalworking fluids: Current issues in research and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta A. Trafny

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination of water miscible metalworking fl uids (MWFs is a serious problem in metal industry. A good maintenance of MWF re-circulation systems can extend the lifetime of coolants and ensure the quality of the tools produced. In MWFs, as in the other water-based environments, microorganisms usually live in the form of biofi lms, the communities of bacteria and fungi attached to the surface of sumps, metal parts and also to each other. Biofi lms exhibit very high resistance to biocides. The effect of biocides that are used as additives to MWFs to control the growth of the bacterial and fungal microbiomes (microorganisms characteristic to the individual coolant system have become the subject of research only in recent years. There are also only sparse reports on the impact of biocides on microorganisms growing in biofi lms in MWF installations. Fast growing mycobacteria are important members of these biofi lm communities. Their presence has recently been linked with the occurrence of cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a serious respiratory disorder in the metal industry employees. The new, relatively fast and inexpensive techniques to assess the species diversity within MWF microbiomes and their population size should be developed in order to control the microorganisms’ proliferation in MWFs and to diminish the occupational exposure to harmful bioaerosols in metal industry.

  8. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: current research and programmatic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen A; Dickson, Kim E; Agot, Kawango; Hankins, Catherine A

    2010-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that adult male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in men by about 60%. In this article, we review recent data on the association of male circumcision and HIV/sexually transmitted infection in men and women. This includes a summary of data showing some evidence of an effect of male circumcision against genital ulcer disease, HSV-2 infection, human papillomavirus and Trichomonas vaginalis, but not Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoea in men. Longitudinal studies among HIV discordant couples suggest that male circumcision may provide some direct long-term benefit to women, which may start after complete wound healing. Circumcision may also protect against HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM) and those who practice unprotected anal intercourse (either exclusively or predominantly), although these data are not consistent. To date, there is little evidence from the few studies available of either unsafe practices or reported increases in risky behaviour, or adverse changes in sexual satisfaction and function. As countries in southern and eastern Africa scale up services, operational research will likely be useful to iteratively improve programme delivery and impact while identifying the best methods of integrating safe male circumcision services into HIV prevention strategies and strengthening health systems.

  9. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  10. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Current ethical issues in HIV/AIDS research and HIV/AIDS care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlongwa, P

    2016-04-01

    HIV/AIDS is a global public health concern with more than 30 million deaths having been reported. Over 70% of the 35 million people with HIV/AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. The current available antiretroviral treatments are limited because they do not cure but slow the progression of disease. Therefore, care and treatment for HIV/AIDS and its related research, especially in HIV-preventive vaccine trials, require stringent ethical guidelines because of the vulnerability of the affected individuals as it with all clinical trials. These guidelines should incorporate the basic principles in ethics which include autonomy of individuals, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice in the care and participation of individuals in research. With at least one in five African adults infected with the disease living in sub-Saharan Africa, this review will discuss the current ethical issues in HIV care and HIV research based on the South African context as well as exploring some of the issues globally. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Construct validity-Current issues and recommendations for future hand hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    Health care-associated infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is widely regarded as an effective prevention strategy. Often, hand hygiene research is designed and conducted by health care practitioners who may lack formal training in research methods, particularly in the area of social science. In a research context, a construct is a concept that can be measured or observed in some way. A construct can be directly or indirectly measured. For example, height can be directly measured by centimeters, whereas depression can be indirectly measured by a scale of 20 items. Every construct needs to be operationalized by measure(s) to make it a variable. Hence, construct validity refers to the degree of fit between the construct of interest and its operational measure. However, issues with construct validity often weaken the translation from construct to measure(s). This article will (1) describe the common threats to construct validity pertaining to hand hygiene research, (2) identify practical limitations in current research design, and (3) provide recommendations to improve construct validity in future hand hygiene research. By understanding how construct validity may affect hand hygiene research design, there is great potential to improve the validity of future hand hygiene research findings. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called "big data." This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed.

  14. European DHC Research Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, Robin; Williams, Jonathan (Building Research Establishment, BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford (United Kingdom)); Werner, Sven (Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Euroheat and Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues

  15. The obesity epidemic in children and adults: current evidence and research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, K M

    1999-11-01

    The term "epidemic" of obesity implies that obesity is a characteristic of populations, not only of individuals. The purpose of this paper is to review evidence on obesity in populations and to identify future research issues. To examine recent increases in the population prevalence of overweight or obesity, a literature search was undertaken. Trends in overweight or obesity among adults showed considerable variability internationally. Some countries, including Canada, Finland (men), New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Western Samoa showed large increases in prevalence (>5 percentage points), whereas several other countries showed smaller or no increases. Overweight is also increasing among children and adolescents, at least in some countries. It is not clear what the expected prevalence of overweight or obesity might be in the current environment, and these findings may be most usefully viewed as shifts in the distribution of a population characteristic. The reasons for these shifts are not clear. The health implications of these shifts are also not clear, in part because trends in cardiovascular risk factors do not always parallel trends in obesity. Of the classic epidemiologic triad of host, agent, and environment, the environment has often received the least attention. The economic, social, and cultural factors that influence the distribution of body mass index in a population are not well understood. Future research needs include continued monitoring of trends in obesity and in related health conditions and observational studies to examine the causes of these trends. Public health research should aim at defining realistic goals and strategies to improve health in an environment conducive to high levels of overweight and obesity.

  16. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  17. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  18. Mindfulness for Children in Public Schools: Current Research and Developmental Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…

  19. Current research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Cannon, Susan H.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into post-wildfire effects began in the United States more than 70 years ago and only later extended to other parts of the world. Post-wildfire responses are typically transient, episodic, variable in space and time, dependent on thresholds, and involve multiple processes measured by different methods. These characteristics tend to hinder research progress, but the large empirical knowledge base amassed in different regions of the world suggests that it should now be possible to synthesize the data and make a substantial improvement in the understanding of post-wildfire runoff and erosion response. Thus, it is important to identify and prioritize the research issues related to post-wildfire runoff and erosion. Priority research issues are the need to: (1) organize and synthesize similarities and differences in post-wildfire responses between different fire-prone regions of the world in order to determine common patterns and generalities that can explain cause and effect relations; (2) identify and quantify functional relations between metrics of fire effects and soil hydraulic properties that will better represent the dynamic and transient conditions after a wildfire; (3) determine the interaction between burned landscapes and temporally and spatially variable meso-scale precipitation, which is often the primary driver of post-wildfire runoff and erosion responses; (4) determine functional relations between precipitation, basin morphology, runoff connectivity, contributing area, surface roughness, depression storage, and soil characteristics required to predict the timing, magnitudes, and duration of floods and debris flows from ungaged burned basins; and (5) develop standard measurement methods that will ensure the collection of uniform and comparable runoff and erosion data. Resolution of these issues will help to improve conceptual and computer models of post-wildfire runoff and erosion processes.

  20. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  1. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation – ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and

  2. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo J; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2014-08-01

    How has the interface between genetics and assisted reproduction technology (ART) evolved since 2005? The interface between ART and genetics has become more entwined as we increase our understanding about the genetics of infertility and we are able to perform more comprehensive genetic testing. In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and ART and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. An interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies and experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. In March 2012, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the EuroGentest2 Coordination Action Project met to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ART. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognized and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome prior to conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and PGD may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from RCTs to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving, but still remains very

  3. Current issues in neurolaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Shana; Kaplen, Michael V

    2010-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury has received significant attention in recent years. Advances in diagnosis and management have resulted in opportunities to improve patient outcomes; however, controversies in diagnosis and management have resulted in increased interactions between the medical and legal communities. This article highlights some of the areas of controversy in traumatic brain injury litigation with the hope that synchronous resolutions of both legal and medical issues will ultimately benefit patient care. It is imperative that the neuroscience community engage the legal community to facilitate an understanding of the issues and their ramifications. Proactive communication and understanding between medical and legal specialties offer the potential to maximize efficiencies in our health care and legal systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Current Status of Research in Teaching and Learning Evolution: I. Philosophical/Epistemological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship that addresses teaching and learning about evolution has rapidly increased in recent years. This review of that scholarship first addresses the philosophical/epistemological issues that impinge on teaching and learning about evolution, including the proper philosophical goals of evolution instruction; the correlational and possibly…

  5. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  6. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  7. District heating - description of its current status and research issues; Fjaerrvaermens omvaerld - beskrivning av kunskaps- och forskningslaege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Sven; Skoeldberg, Haakan

    2007-07-01

    FVB Sweden and Profu have compiled the current knowledge and possible research issues for the Framework Council of the Swedish District Heating Association concerning major prevailing conditions from the fundamental idea of district heating, the benefits of district heating, and institutional conditions. A short survey of international district heating research is also given. With support from this compilation, the following 9 long term research issues and 5 short term issues for analysis are recommended for further work: Long term research issues: What principles, market values and definition are valid for surplus heat from the energy system? How will the future market for biomass fuels develop in Northern Europe? What are the future heat demands in the Swedish buildings? What are the optimal district heat price with respect to price elasticity, CHP, waste incineration, and industrial surplus heat? What are the overall risks with district heating and how shall these risks be assessed? How shall the energy efficiency for district heating systems be expressed in a simply way? How can the severe electricity dependency be reduced in district heating systems? Consequences and mitigation of really large accidents in district heating systems? What are the combined effects from all energy EC-directives for the Swedish district heating sector? Short term issues for analysis: Elimination of reduction of CHP operation at cold weather? Possible ways of increasing the power-to-heat ratio in existing CHP plants? Which Swedish and international branch rules are used in district heating systems? What are the experiences about tax and market induced incentives from the Swedish district heating systems? What are available knowledge and expectations of third party access in district heating systems?

  8. Housing and health—Current issues and implications for research and programs

    OpenAIRE

    Matte, Thomas D.; Jacobs, David E.

    2000-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which the home environment can affect human health, describes how specific health hazards in housing are related, and considers implications of these concerns for research and programs to address the health-housing connection. The widespread availability of decent housing has contributed greatly to improvements in health status in developed countries through, for example, provision of safe drinking water, proper sewage disposal, and protection ...

  9. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  10. Housing and health--current issues and implications for research and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, T D; Jacobs, D E

    2000-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which the home environment can affect human health, describes how specific health hazards in housing are related, and considers implications of these concerns for research and programs to address the health-housing connection. The widespread availability of decent housing has contributed greatly to improvements in health status in developed countries through, for example, provision of safe drinking water, proper sewage disposal, and protection from the elements. However, a lack of decent housing and homelessness among a significant number of Americans remains a significant public health concern. In addition, a number of specific health hazards can be found even in housing that is in good condition and provides all basic amenities. Specific health hazards related to housing include unintentional injuries, exposure to lead, exposure to allergens that may cause or worsen asthma, moisture and fungi (mold), rodent and insect pests, pesticide residues, and indoor air pollution. A number of these specific hazards share underlying causes, such as excess moisture, and all may be influenced by factors in the community environment or by occupant behaviors. We make recommendations for developing programs and research efforts that address multiple housing problems in an integrated way, rather than categorically, and for closer collaboration between housing and public health programs.

  11. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2008-01-01

     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...

  12. Current issues and future research priorities for health economic modelling across the full continuum of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Anders; Green, Colin; Jones, Roy W; Förstl, Hans; Simsek, Deniz; de Reydet de Vulpillieres, Frederic; Luthman, Stefanie; Adlard, Nicholas; Bhattacharyya, Subrata; Wimo, Anders

    2017-03-01

    Available data and models for the health-economic evaluation of treatment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have limitations causing uncertainty to decision makers. Forthcoming treatment strategies in preclinical or early AD warrant an update on the challenges associated with their economic evaluation. The perspectives of the co-authors were complemented with a targeted review of literature discussing methodological issues and data gaps in AD health-economic modelling. The methods and data available to translate treatment efficacy in early disease into long-term outcomes of relevance to policy makers and payers are limited. Current long-term large-scale data accurately representing the continuous, multifaceted, and heterogeneous disease process are missing. The potential effect of disease-modifying treatment on key long-term outcomes such as institutionalization and death is uncertain but may have great effect on cost-effectiveness. Future research should give priority to collaborative efforts to access better data on the natural progression of AD and its association with key long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethical issues in the translation of social neuroscience: a policy analysis of current guidelines for public dialogue in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emma; Racine, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Social neuroscience and its potential implications create an interesting case study for examining human research ethics policies on the topic of public communication of research. We reviewed mainstream national and international human research ethics guidelines and policies on issues of public communication of research. Our analysis relied on five thematic nets to capture the interactions between research and the public: public understanding, knowledge translation, public participation, social outcomes, and dual use. Coverage of these topics is sparse and inconsistent in mainstream policies and guidelines. We identify three options to address these gaps and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Since STC is a new area, there are limited researches on STC in software engineering projects. This paper ... One of the critical issues in software engineering projects is coordination among developers, a factor that is ..... This research work was supported by Ministry of Education (MOE), Malaysia and.

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... In calculating fixed asset ratio, some of the items reflected in the balance sheet have not been properly recorded by companies or reflected in current assets. The diagnosis of this issue has not been possible for authors. References. 1. Aghayi, M, and Chalaki, P. The investigation of the relationship between ...

  16. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), Moscow, Russia. Published online: 15 May 2016. ABSTRACT. In megacities, exposure to high concentrations of air pollution, as a major concern on public health, is being felt worldwide problem. The issue of particulate matter especially the ...

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... nel. The purpose of this paper is can be used by the Malaysian rugged tablet or any pervasive ations. The system is created to making when facing all ilitary operation location and of knowledge-based with SA on peacekeeping military system development; software. Research Article. Special Issue ...

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical methods (Pearson correlation coefficient, ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue ... institutionalized relationships among those with membership in a group.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons .... Literature review of researches done in and out of country ... In first part, the quality service variable is with components ... aspects of service quality based on the customers' expectations and impression.

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Lumpur, Malaysia. Terengganu, Malaysia for radio astronomical. CDA) coordinatedusing in the Peninsular of ilities with its appropriate resolved, divided into two using Analytical re determined. Therefore, thern part of Peninsular effective procedure for iteria decision analysis;. Research Article. Special Issue ...

  2. Current issues in organophosphate toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G

    2006-04-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are one of the main classes of insecticides, in use since the mid 1940s. OPs can exert significant adverse effects in non-target species including humans. Because of the phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase, they exert primarily a cholinergic toxicity, however, some can also cause a delayed polyneuropathy. Currently debated and investigated issues in the toxicology of OPs are presented in this review. These include: 1) possible long-term effects of chronic low-level exposures; 2) genetic susceptibility to OP toxicity; 3) developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity; 4) common mechanism of action; 5) mechanisms of delayed neurotoxicity; and 6) possible additional OP targets. Continuing and recent debates, and molecular advances in these areas, and their contributions to our understanding of the toxicology of OPs are discussed.

  3. EDITORIAL: MUSLIM WORLD CURRENT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has proofed its self as a very spectacular phenomenon until no one may deny its impacts, but on the other hand, it reflexively suggests localization of the global. In this context, religion is not exclusion. It remains believed however, that religion still has its formula for solving the problems that emerged from globalisation. Scholars have devoted attempts to propose new ideas for this challenge. Local interpretations of symbols representing “global” Islam, for instance, increasingly grow in line with the growth of Islamic revival. This has drawn very much attention and responses from Muslims, whether to protest against or support for the new idea. The present edition of the journal is designed to more deeply explore the current issues from Muslim world, whether as very local phenomena or in a more global context.

  4. Current bioethical issues in parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E

    2008-09-01

    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... (Alizadeh and Rabi'ee, 2004:77). In the current study, part of remote-sensing which deals with the photographical images has been the focus of the attention by the researcher. Aerial photos: Aerial photo is a very important and functional component of the remote-sensing science which plays a significant ...

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... 1Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tg Malim,. Perak, Malaysia. 2Faculty of Sports Science and Recreation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Arau, Perlis,. Malaysia ..... [28] Swaminathan, S., & Schellenberg, E., G. Current Emotion Research in Music Psychology. Emotion ...

  7. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders: a survey of the presentations at the ISSPD anniversary congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-10-01

    The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current trends in research and clinical interests in personality disorders. The keynote video presentations, invited symposia, and slide presentations are freely available at www.isspd2013.com.

  8. Preface. Current Issues in Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holy-Luczaj Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary volume consist of papers on various problems in contemporary ethics. It presents the following issues: equalizing the level of positive liberty, the phenomenon of human cooperation, ethical questions related to artificial intelligence, extending ethical obligations toward artifacts, and soteriological threads of alienation criticism of religion.

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... Article 238 of the Penal Code and the laws of the years 1933, and later 1954 on check was studied. Keywords: Check ... implementing the practice of issuing overdrawn checks compliance with this Act has sever negative ... obviously, if the complainant had to check compliance with the eligibility issue in the.

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a ... this issue in accounting and financial literature is earnings ..... Jensen M-C, “Agency Costs of the Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance and Takeovers”,.

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    NonCommercial ... human health. In Malaysia, air pollution had been constantly an overwhelming issue for legislators, aviation industry and the citizens. It is constantly making headlines in major newspapers and subsequently ...

  12. [Current issues in functional dyspepsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Kyu; Huh, Kyu Chan; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Hyuk; Yoon, Young Hoon; Song, Kyung Ho; Min, Byung Hoon; Choi, Kee Don

    2014-09-25

    Functional dyspepsia is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders encountered in clinical practice. Functional dyspepsia is currently defined by Rome III criteria as the chronic dyspeptic symptoms (postprandial fullness, early satiety, epigastric pain or burning) in the absence of underling structural or metabolic disease that readily explain the symptoms. According to the Rome III consensus, functional dyspepsia can be subdivided into postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). Although the Rome III criteria have been published more than 8 years ago, not much effort has been put into validating these criteria and direct scientific evidence supporting the validity of the subdividing functional dyspepsia into PDS and EPS are lacking. This article is intended to review the validity of the Rome III criteria on the subdivisions of functional dyspepsia, i.e. PDS and EPS. The impact of sleep disorder, Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia, and the emerging drug therapies in functional dyspepsia will also be discussed in this article.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

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    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... ARCH PRODUCTS: INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVES. S. Zaini, N. Ismail* and S. Sidek logy Management and Technopreneurship, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia. Melaka, 75300 Melaka, Malaysia .... From the perspective of industrialist, three main issues which hinder the partnership between industrialist and ...

  14. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... Electronic service quality is a determinant in the effectiveness of e-commerce, and thus studying customers' assessment of the quality of the Internet services and quality dimensions that are more important to them become a significant issue. In the banking industry, e-banking and providing services through ...

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    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... interview sessions with three industrialists we issues arise in partnership between industria products. ... NonCommercial 4.0 category. OMMERCIALIZING ersiti Teknikal Malaysia in Malaysia is still not at between industrialist and er aims to reduce the gap roducts. For this purpose, per found three important.

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    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Until now, the discourse on zakat payment and zakat in general have been progressively extending throught ... only handles financial reporting issues regarding the zakat of a corporation [2]. Other ... Regarding the purpose of developing an Islamic capital structure, this study employs the original model ...

  17. Research Article Special Issue

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    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... students' academic performance and those who arecommitted to spiritual activities show excellent academic performance [2][3].In the interim, there is also some evidence which stating that the lack of spirituality among students has caused many unfavourable academic issues, such as the lack of interest in ...

  18. Research Article Special Issue

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    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... number of 222 students from primary and secondary schools around Kuala Lumpur are obese. [8]. It is also ... and secondary schools in Malaysia explained the issue of NPFStests implementation is due to the irregular ... increase in the flexibility component among secondary school students [10]. Through ...

  19. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Keywords: Outcome analysis; phast software; accident modeling; risk assessment; safety. 1. INTRODUCTION. Decision about the economical investment for safe process is one of important issues in the safety of process industries. ... idual and collective risks can be calculated in an area affected by a.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

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    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... student satisfaction factors with e-learning such as design clarity, interaction with the instructors and active discussion on the course [34]. Issues in most universities whom implement e-learning are reluctant of use among certain staffs and students. Many reasons contribute to the scenario, therefore, it is ...

  1. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Oil and gas from the early days of their eruptions have served as a driving force to lead the society to progress and development. The scarcity of resources, the environment, and its protection are among the most important issues facing the human community and in particular developing ...

  2. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... development of tourism in most countries of the world is to create economical interests and freedom from the single-product economy and reaching growth and development. Although the impacts of tourism on various economical, social and cultural domains are seen, but this issue, more than anything ...

  3. Research Article Special Issue

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    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... (9). 2.1.5 Proposed Log-Normal Evolutionary Programming to solve ED Problem. Log-Normal EP (LNEP) is proposed to improve the Classical EP (CEP) to address the ED issues. The algorithm is presented in the form of flow chart as shown in Figure 2. The mutation process has been improved by applying ...

  4. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... and organizational effectiveness, as a staff with high power in a dynamic organization has more efficiency than staff with low ... considered as a major issue at all organizational analyses (Zheng, 2010). Organizations are ..... Transformational Leadership and Organizational Climate. Capella University.

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    ) of the ..... of active magnetic bearing system: A frequency-domain approach. In 11th IEEE International ... nonlinear auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (NARX) of direct current motor. Songklanakarin Journal of ...

  6. Research Article Special Issue

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    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... proper design of the system. The researchers had developed analytical design tool and software using MATLAB tool boxes such as “Fsolve‟ routine and the GUI can effectively use to predict the performance of SEIG with different types of prime movers. Meanwhile in [5], the researchers used MATLAB and ...

  7. Research Article Special Issue

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    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... roving the scale development and validation of MPCL .... Research Design. This study employed a quantitative research approach and survey technique using a questionnaire developed by Mooney and ..... instrument validation and biasness when items that exhibit extreme levels of DIF are identified. Thus ...

  8. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... constant communication with others. Based on this research, there is same physiologic basis between drug addiction and behavioral addictions. Even researchers believe that turning off the mobile phone cause anxiety, allergies, sleep disorders and insomnia, shivering and digestive problems for mobile ...

  9. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. This research studies adoption of innovation in information technology. New technologies have numerous advantages for companies and can be considered as competitive advantage that cause to efficacy and development in these companies. The research aims is to investigate the effective.

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Iran. 3. Department of Anesthesiology, Medical Ethics Research Center, Medical Sciences University of. Jahrom, Iran. 4. Masters of philosophy of ethics, medical ethics Research Center, Medical Sciences University of ..... Evaluation of relation between the components of Islamic self-evaluation and Islamic.

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Nanotechnology has developed in all fields of human life and many research institutes and universities teach this major in their departments. The aim of this research was to design the educational objects and contents about identifying and characterization of nanomaterials by electron ...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-07-16

    . Regarding to the importance and necessity of increasing the capacity of innovation in organization, there are significant experiential and theoretical evidences supporting that the main research focuses on the identification of ...

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    2016-05-15

    Lian et al., 2000). Hamada .... plot, respectively. Before doing the research, three samples from 0 to 30 cm of soil using a cylindrical core .... rate, and respiration airways raise this assumption that salicylic acid maybe affect other.

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    2017-11-10

    contact sports among Perak. SUKMA athletes. The data from this injury is examined based on the five research questions which are nature of injury, body part, severity of injury (mild, moderate, severe), types of injury (acute or ...

  15. Research Article Special Issue

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    2017-09-10

    26] .... inflatable structures in collaboration with NASA and other research institutions has done a review of different ..... exploration aircraft to be used in Mars need a very large wing to provide enough lift [21, 58]. However, large ...

  16. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... information and research on the topic, this study aimed to study the knowledge and the use of psychological .... (2010) entitled “anger management (case study: nurses working in ..... wards: A benchmarking study. J Psychiatr ...

  17. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-07-18

    Jul 18, 2016 ... Department of Management, Faculty of Humanities, Abhar branch, Islamic Azad University, .... 6. Governmentalinvolvement prevents the appropriate implementation of social security act. Theoretical model. According to the presented definitions, the researchers provided the following conceptual model.

  18. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between participation and ... And scientists welcome to partnership management after ... Result of research show important role on other human resources variables.

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Student Research Committee, Jahrom University of Medical ... students with severity indicators of psychological distress, stress ..... 37-Richard S., (1991), Religious devoutness in college students: relation with emotional.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

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    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. In this paper a current mode full wave rectifie circuit is implemented utilizing a floating c minimum component full wave rectifier util diodes and two grounded resistors. The e frequency operation and provides both i simultaneously. The rectifier system can work distortion. The circuit exhibits low ...

  1. Research Article Special Issue

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    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... The effectiveness in decolorization is a challenge for industries wastewater treatment systems. Current physico-chemical treatment methods such as adsorption, chemical degradation, photo-catalysis and ozonation are not effective in removal of low concentration colored pollutant and expensive. There is a ...

  2. Current Research in Learning Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    This is a preprint of the introductory paper of the special issue of the journal Educational Technology & Society that will be published at the end of 2005. Please cite the original publication: Koper, R. (2005). Current Research in Learning Design. Educational Technology & Society, 9 (1), 13-22.

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... study combining the compound artocarpus altilis and the ethod for maximum HeLa cancer cell anti-proliferation activity. Arto wn as sukun, is a natural compound, which has the capability to treat liferation effect in cancerous cells. Hence, in this current work, v. V/cm, 400V/cm, 600V/cm, 800V/cm, 100V/cm ...

  4. Research Article Special Issue

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    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... 3Centre for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti. Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. Published online: 10 November ..... year of weight loss therapy in both metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome groups. It was also evident that the level of adiponectin, which ...

  5. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... International License. Libraries Resour. EFFECTS OF PALM POLLEN ON. TREATMENT WITH CYCL. H. K. Jashn. Research center for non.Commu. Sci. Published ... License. Libraries Resource Directory. ..... level (MAD) which is one of the main indicators of lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue. (19).20).

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    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations ... the evolution of the system's state based on the previous evolution [18]. Examples of discipline that have deterministic .... corresponding value is the final indicator of the chaos behavior. If the median is approaching. 1 then the ...

  7. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. THE CONTENT ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONING LEVEL AT P4C CLASSROOM.

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    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 2012, 11(1):75-84. [16] Yue W S, Zin N A M. usabilty evaluation for history educational games. In 2nd. International Conference on Interaction Sciences: Information Technology, Culture and. Human, 2012,pp. 1019-1025. How to cite this article: Ramli R.Z ...

  9. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... We are listed under Research Associations category. COPRECIPITATION SYNTHESIS OF ZINC FERRIT (FE2O3/ZNO). NANOPARTICLES PREPARED BY CTAB SURFACTANT. F. Hoseini, M. Farahamndjou. * and T. P. Firoozabadi. Department of Physics, Varamin Pishva Branch, Islamis Azad University, ...

  10. Research Article Special Issue

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    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... In IEEE 8th. International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications, 2012, pp. 232-235. [9] Zawawi N A, Ismail A, Abdan K, Mahdi M A. From waste to electronics: printed circuit boards using renewable resources of oil palm empty fruit bunch. Advanced Materials. Research, 2012, 567:263-266.

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Studying the concept and importance of social capital, this research evaluated the extent of ... In the approach of Capital based urban development, all the social capital of local community. (including corporal ... social capital on economic growth, higher education, financial extension, innovation, general.

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    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... 1. INTRODUCTION. Wireless Sensor Network technology had contributed mainly in the field of monitoring such ... Previous research stated that CDMA has the advantages to support the applications withstrict .... The wireless sensor network node deployment separated into two type of topologies such as.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... become carriers through human-to-human transmission of resistant bacteria or via the environment, enriching the resistance ..... What's more, the long-term impact of decolonization regimens on the gut microbiota may lead to the emergence of colistin resistant strains (29). Our research has some limitation.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

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    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... In this paper, a performance enhancement was echanism was identified as the wer generated from engine and hydraulic motor. Research Article ... hydraulic power and when the pressure in high-pressure accumulator almost depleted, the ..... e channel to one of the shaft connected to spider gear.

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... research community. The questionnaire Moqimi participatory management, empowerment, ... Also positively impact organizational commitment and increased its predicted path. (Beta=0.157, P<.01) ... ability level, organizational commitment and job statification of Chinese nurses and study relation between ...

  16. Research Article Special Issue

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    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... Published onli. ABSTRACT. Programming is a core subject in many e pedagogy is an active research area with. This paper presents some findings on Elec programming subject that they have tak discover the programming background exp subject and their opinions on how the subj paper will be used to ...

  17. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... gluten-free number, protein and Ddzlny) Rheological (water absorption, resistance, expansion, loss after 10 and 20 minutes, tensile .... RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. Farinograph test to check the ..... (2010), ComGIS-Based. Water Resources Management Decision Support System, Intelligent Systems and ...

  18. Research Article Special Issue

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    Professor of geography and urban planning, Natural Disasters Engineering Research Institute. Index, Isfahan. Published online: 16 July 2016 ... developing countries, particularly in Latin America, which shows the vision of poverty, informal settlements, illegal uses of land in the urban peripheries, and severe lack of ...

  19. Research Article Special Issue

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    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... THE EFFECT OF NATURE ON SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN URBAN ... using descriptive analytical design and through library research method, it was proved that ... interaction and increase of these factors improve urban spaces. ... andto increase vitality and enhance the quality of these spaces and ...

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-18

    Jul 18, 2016 ... Moradi, A, 1388, Eviews applications in econometrics, The University of Tehran Branch. 26. Mehregan N, 1388, a guide of Eviews 6 in econometrics, spreading the light of knowledge. 27. Namari M, Shooshtarian Z, 1375, the stock market performance of securities, Journal of. Financial Research, No.

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... JFL while holding a badminton racquet using their dominant hand. For both dominant ... now, lack of research existed on kinetics data of both dominant and non-dominant limb in both main protocols of ..... [5] Hughes, M. and G. Bopf, Relationships between performance in jump tests and speed tests in elite ...

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... interview using a standardized Medical Research Clinical Questio. 86 and spirometer method for lung function tests. ontrol agents (RCAs); confined gas mask facility; forced volume ca iratory volume (FEV1); chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) mail: vikneswaran@upnm.edu.my org/10.4314/jfas.v9i3s.

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... transformer tap setting may affect high pow the tap changing, the system can avoid research demonstrated through numerica. Engineering (PSS. TM. E) Software and Pyth generate the load profile for time series b every minute. It is taking about 1440 times test bus system. The integrated simulation.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Introduction: The aim of study was to evaluate the psychometric indices Sternberg love scale on married men and women in Iranian society. Methods: The study type is correlation (factor analysis). In this research factor analysis was used that is an exploratory and confirmatory technique to ...

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... during disaster and post-disaster. Therefore, this review will further provide information for the policy makers, responsible personnel as well as researchers on the vulnerability of the communication systems during disaster and the future direction of effective communication system in Malaysia. Keywords: ...

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... engineer for reading sensors and processing the evaluated data, i.e. plotting, control, saving and manipulating the data. In this research, six numbers of 350B03 PCB piezoelectric accelerometer which were named as ACC1, ACC2, ACC3, ACC4, ACC5 and ACC6 were deployed to record the dynamic data.

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... ... under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. SUPPLIER-RETAILER RELATIONAL SATISFACTION IN THE CHICKEN. INDUSTRY: RHETORIC OR REALITY. Z. Zainuddin*, J. Zuraini, ...

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International ... In this research, two questionnaires of knowledge management and employees' empowerment were used ... If trend of knowledge change is not evaluated precisely, the ...

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... portfolios or not? Problem Statement. The researchers conducted different investments in the global stocks and founded that some approaches can be used for investment to obtain some returns over the. Conventional returns of the market and lower risk was incurred in this regard. Markowitz proposed a ...

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... one of the most important and invisible nature of the e the existence of Ozone ith the aim to assess and two chosen locations in ata visualization analytics ent Analysis (PCA). The n occurrence with several o provides strong insights tion severity compared to data analytics; principal. Research Article. Special ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. Information can be quickly transmitted w using social media. From this recruit new members in a faster and effectiv. 500 Facebook accounts that being used to numbers of individuals willing to be new government. The aim of this research is to effective recruitment pages and profiles of stem the ...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... topics in computer vision and has been applied in many areas such as public transportation, airport, railway .... Recently, an increasing number of computer vision research majoring in suspicious behaviour detection have ..... In Workshops at the 25th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence,. 2011, pp.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. Since most researchers working algorithm for their specific optimization p extending codes from rapid software framew enables design and codes reuse meta-heuristics. This paper presents a review meta-heuristics and summarize some importa about a new software framework based on.

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... itectural design; knowledge management; experience factory; wor. ; cloud automation. mail: rusli@upm.edu.my org/10.4314/jfas.v9i4s.12 gement (KM) for software development (SD) has emerged since th ous researches have been established since then. Due to the nature knowledge intensive activities ...

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... http://www.jfas.info mental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. T OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT (ACL) DIAGNOSIS. SYSTEM USING IMAGE PROCESSING.

  16. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... with herbs, spices and perfumes [8]. The report from previous research on essential oil showed its function as antimicrobial, antifungal, molluscicidal, nematicidal, antioxidant andantiflatoxigenic activities [9]. Terpenoids such as citral, geraniol, limonene, pinene, citronellol, citronellal and linalool was the ...

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... With this mobile invention the learning process became attractive and. Children. This research produce an apps known as CinTA acronym from ..... children and young adults: Three independent neuropsychological syndromes.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 2008, 17(2):150-163.

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... developing new numerical methods which in turn enable researchers to study more complex. PDE problems [1]. This paper considers the application of the Newton-Successive Over Relaxation. (Newton-SOR) iterative method for solving the two-dimensional porous medium equation. (2D PME) under the ...

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    Published online: 10 November 2017. ABSTRACT. Based on emerge obese problem among Malaysian, this research is formulated to validate published tests among healthy female adult. Selected test namely; 20 meter multi-stage shuttle run, 2.4km run test, 1 mile walk test and Harvard Step test were correlated with ...

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... Institute Mathematical Research, Univ. Published onli. ABSTRACT. The existence of generalized projective chaotic systems is investigated. The synchr one 4D system to show the generalized pro can be well implemented with non synchronization are also derived accordi simulations show the effectiveness ...

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... UniversitiSains Malaysia, M. 3School of Health Science, UniversitiSain. 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radioth. Malaysia, KubangKer. 5Science and Engineering Research Center, U. Nibong. 6School of Physics, UniversitiSains M. Published online: ABSTRACT. Some of the commercial solid phantoms.

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. Capability Based Planning (CBP) is a type adapted from strategic planning concept. terms of future force planning, which focus. Forces (MAF) have implemented CBP sinc understood. In this study, the methodolog future capabilities is proposed to be bas. Operations Research (OR) approach ...

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... amount of information available to the safety researchers. Other than that, occurrence crashes of over-height trucks with overpasses and tunnels have been continuously reported over the years [10]. Even though the frequency of this crash might not be thought significant, the costs they involve are very high.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... by investigate the relationship of socio and technical dependencies on oftware engineering project. This paper outline related research, literatur od used to conduct the study. echnical congruence; actual coordination; coordination requirements software quality. mail: shukorsanim@perlis.uitm.edu.my.

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... developer which is coordinated through communication will determine the quality of software integration [1]. Previous research implies that the greater the geographic distribution, lessen the performance of the team [3]. Thus, under those circumstances, developer coordination is facilitated through activity ...

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... 2Medical ethic research center, jahrom university of medical sciences,jahrom, Iran. 3Educator, Dept of Nursing. ... prepares us to face the potential dangers around. It has harmful effects on .... some different underlying factors and conditions affecting the relations between nurses and physicians and patients ...

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Islamic Azad university ,Science and Research branch, Tehran,Iran. 3. Professor, Health .... In relation to age, the minimum age of 25 years and maximum age of 55 years The mean (SD) age of 6/68 ± 33/77 and ..... program of the health centers who helped us gather the required data . 7. REFERENCES.

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... [19] Chedraui P, Pérez-López F R, Escobar G S, Palla G, Montt-Guevara M, Cecchi E,. Genazzani A R, Simoncini T, Research Group for the Omega Women's Health Project. Circulating leptin, resistin, adiponectin, visfatin, adipsin and ghrelin levels and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women with and ...

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... To deal with these problems, this research aims to develop an innovative optimization model which is ... These cases of rail service disruption have caused a wide range of mathematical model being formulated to ..... computational tests were run on a 2.20GHz Intel (R) Core (TM) i5 CPU with 4Gb RAM. 5.

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... dimensions and the kinematic movement of the body.The part of the body involved which is the shoulder, elbow and the wrist positions including the velocities of the movement are in a manner consistent with the task kinematics when the external focus of attention are implemented.Other researchers also ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... Libraries Resour. EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF F. DIRECTORS ON PROFIT MANAG. DICHEV" AND. M. Fall. Department of Accounting, Yazd B. Published o. ABSTRACT. The main purpose of this research is to ev management in the listed companies on th profit management is considered as the dep.

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... Available online at http://www.jfas.i ndamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research ... On the other hand, in [16] investigates the indoor air quality in the underground shopping mall at Chongqing, China.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... predicting future perception and events [1]. SA can be mapped to many different areas ... reduce the risk in the mission. The advancement of technology nowadays .... The Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) model will be used in this research. The model comprises of 6 phases ...

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. One of the basic criteria for evaluating the performance of a stock portfolio is taking into account the return on investment with the rate of their risk. In this research, efficiency of 50 active companies of Tehran Stock Exchangeevaluated by moving average method with their appropriate risk.

  15. Special issue of photosynthetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Melvin; Wraight, Colin A; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2014-05-01

    This Special Issue of Photosynthesis Research honors Louis M. N. Duysens, Roderick K. Clayton, and George Feher, three pioneering researchers whose work on bacterial photosynthesis laid much of the groundwork for our understanding of the role of the reaction center in photosynthetic light energy conversion. Their key discoveries are briefly summarized and an overview of the special issue is presented.

  16. Special issue of photosynthetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamura, M.; Wraight, C.A.; van Grondelle, R.

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Photosynthesis Research honors Louis M. N. Duysens, Roderick K. Clayton, and George Feher, three pioneering researchers whose work on bacterial photosynthesis laid much of the groundwork for our understanding of the role of the reaction center in photosynthetic light energy

  17. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  18. Spanish-English Bilingual Education in the U.S.: Current Issues, Resources, and Research Priorities. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Manuel; And Others

    This report is the result of an investigation conducted to identify the current issues, resources, and funding priorities in Spanish-English bilingual education in the United States. Although it deals solely with Spanish-English bilingualism, a great deal of the material should prove to be relevant to other bilingual situations in the United…

  19. Research Issues in Distributed Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; van Renesse, R.; Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoogland, W.

    1986-01-01

    As distributed computing becomes more widespread, both in high-energy physics and in other applications, centralized operating systems will gradually give way to distributed ones. In this paper the authors discuss some current research on five issues that are central to the design of distributed

  20. Current health issues in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Hong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the adolescent period, they experience rapid physical, emotional, cognitive developments while they establish their lifestyle and habitual routines that strongly influence adult health and life. Recent rapid economic growth in Korea, and the earlier onset of physical, sexual, and psychological maturation of adolescents, has resulted in changes in the health status of adolescents from many years ago. Risk-taking behaviors such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and sexual experiences are critical issues that affect the health of, adolescents. Therefore, it is important for pediatricians to note the that risk-taking behaviors of adolescents in Korea that are caused by individual psychosocial factors. This review article illustrates the current health status of Korean adolescents and provides an overview of risktaking behaviors, to inform pediatricians about some of the key issues.

  1. Electronics goes green: Current and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevels, A. [Design for Sustainability Lab. Fac. IO, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Griese, H. [Dept. Environmental Engineering, Fraunhofer IZM, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the form of fourteen propositions, current and future issues for electronics to be really green are discussed. These propositions include four items about Eco Design (energy, materials, design, performance measurement, integration in product creation procedures), four about management of environment in industrial organizations (supply chain, green marketing and sales, management of internal value chains, measurement of performance), four about stakeholders management (eco-efficiency as a guiding principle, external value chains, legal compliance, the demand side) and two about the role of the environmental manager and the real significance of environmental considerations respectively. (orig.)

  2. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  3. Field primatology of today: current ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, K C; Riley, E P

    2010-09-01

    As members of professional organizations such as American Society of Primatologists (ASP) and the International Primatological Society (IPS), primatologists must adhere to a set of nonhuman primate-focused principles outlined in resolutions and policy statements on, for example, the ethical treatment of nonhuman primates. Those of us that work in the field must also address issues such as the protection of primate health in the wild and the conservation of wild primate populations. Moreover, we increasingly find ourselves in complex situations where we must balance human and nonhuman primate needs and interests. The selection of commentary pieces in this edition of the American Journal of Primatology originated from presentations given in the symposium, Field Primatology of Today: Navigating the Ethical Landscape, held at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) in September 2009. The goals of that symposium and these resulting commentary pieces are threefold: (1) to revive a discussion of key contemporary ethical issues faced by field primatologists, (2) to highlight the need for centrally placed ethical considerations in various facets of our professional lives, particularly research and teaching, and (3) to consider what a comprehensive ethical code that addresses all of these issues might look like. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Cooperatives in Serbia: Evolution and current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Chroneos-Krasavac Biljana; Petković Goran

    2015-01-01

    Cooperatives in Serbia have long history, evolving from big traditional families to the contemporary social networked organizations and even private companies acting like coops. Current legal framework, on one side, enables many possibilities, but on the other side prevents further development of cooperatives. An interview of key players in the coop sector was one of the research methods. Other methods include historical method, comparative analysis method and case study method. In conclusion...

  5. [Methodological currents in research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerami, E L

    1989-01-01

    Believing that research is the academic activity which gives support to assistance and teaching in nursing and this activity represents a process of knowledge construction which follows determined patterns, the authors try to enhance reflection on the importance of methodology matters to nursing. The study proposes three patterns of contact between subject and object: the positivist approach, the comprehensive approach and the dialectical approach, most frequent philosophical streams in health studies.

  6. Exploring Current Issues through the Hot Topics Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbett, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a research paper and poster assignment used in an undergraduate leisure and human behavior course. The intent of this learning activity is to increase student knowledge of current issues within the industry as well as to enhance students' professional communication skills. A description of the assignment is shared along with…

  7. Gratitude: A Current Issue in Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kardas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the emphasis on the positive feelings and strengths of individuals in the mental health by the emergence of positive psychology approach. Positive psychology approach points to the potential of positive emotions contributing to clients' well-being, and various studies in this framework show that gratitude as a positive feeling has become one of the tools used to improve clients’ mental health. In this review study, the concept of gratitude, which is quite old in various fields but is a current topic in the field of psychology, is handled in various dimensions and some suggestions are given for practitioners and researchers in this framework.

  8. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  9. Cooperatives in Serbia: Evolution and current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chroneos-Krasavac Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives in Serbia have long history, evolving from big traditional families to the contemporary social networked organizations and even private companies acting like coops. Current legal framework, on one side, enables many possibilities, but on the other side prevents further development of cooperatives. An interview of key players in the coop sector was one of the research methods. Other methods include historical method, comparative analysis method and case study method. In conclusion, the major obstacle for the further coops development in Serbia is legal status of ownership. Other obstacles are: the level of state interference, the loyalty of primary producers and participants, the average land size per households, etc. The paper includes three parts: historical evolution, successful case study and framework for future development.

  10. Ethical issues in stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay

    2009-05-01

    Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogramming of somatic cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells avoids the ethical problems specific to embryonic stem cell research. In any hSC research, however, difficult dilemmas arise regarding sensitive downstream research, consent to donate materials for hSC research, early clinical trials of hSC therapies, and oversight of hSC research. These ethical and policy issues need to be discussed along with scientific challenges to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. This article provides a critical analysis of these issues and how they are addressed in current policies.

  11. Major current issues impacting government contracting and acquisition.

    OpenAIRE

    McKelvey, Chris Robert

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The main objective of this research was to assemble and review those issues currently affecting the acquisition process in Federal Government, with emphasis on the Department of Defense. The individual topics discussed are: The Acquisition Process, Competition in Acquisition, The Federal Acquisition Regulation, and The Weapon System Warranty. In addition, a chapter is dedicated to conclusions and recommendations re...

  12. Engaging Children: Research Issues around Participation and Environmental Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert; Scott, William

    2007-01-01

    In this article we explore a number of issues arising from the papers in this special issue of "Environmental Education Research." The papers focus on current examples of childhood environment research in the UK together with research reviews from the UK, the US and Australia. In order to provide a framework for considering and…

  13. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Current Research Results Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... health problems and exposure to radiofrequency fields via cell phone use? The results of most studies conducted to ...

  14. Current issues in pediatric ambulatory anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, Semyon; Litman, Ronald S

    2003-06-01

    This article summarizes current guidelines in pediatric ambulatory anesthesia and surgery. The reader is provided with our department's current outpatient guidelines at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the rationale behind them. Whenever possible, the differences in anesthetic management for the freestanding surgicenter will be discussed. Appropriate patient and procedure selection, preoperative assessment, intraoperative and postoperative considerations, and protocols for follow-up are discussed.

  15. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  16. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  17. Facial transplants: current situation and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2015-01-01

    The first transplantation of a face from a cadaver was performed in 2005, since when about thirty have been performed globally. The technique is now beginning to appear in Italy. Face transplants are performed exclusively on persons who have suffered devastating lesions to the face. The ethical problems involved are very considerable, particularly where personal identity is concerned. The case records reveal surprisingly positive outcomes regarding both clinical follow-up and functional recovery, as well as psychological aspects and social integration. Thus, while early documents addressing the ethical issues involved in facial transplants were somewhat cautious or even unfavourable on the subject of this technique, a positive approach is now more prevalent.

  18. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    Etiologic research in psychiatry relies on an objectivist epistemology positing that human cognition is specified by the "reality" of the outer world, which consists of a totality of mind-independent objects. Truth is considered as some sort of correspondence relation between words and external...... objects, and mind as a mirror of nature. In our view, this epistemology considerably impedes etiologic research. Objectivist epistemology has been recently confronting a growing critique from diverse scientific fields. Alternative models in neurosciences (neuronal selection), artificial intelligence...

  19. Stem Cells and Ethics: Current Issues

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Jennifer Blair; Huso, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has recently turned to the promise and potential of human stem cells in therapeutic applications for the repair of cardiac tissue. The advances being made in the laboratory are exciting, and the pace at which research using human stem cells is moving from bench to bedside is extraordinary. The social, ethical, and policy considerations embedded within this area of research also require a large amount of attention and deliberation so that the scientific progress is able to succe...

  20. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    Etiologic research in psychiatry relies on an objectivist epistemology positing that human cognition is specified by the "reality" of the outer world, which consists of a totality of mind-independent objects. Truth is considered as some sort of correspondence relation between words and external...... objects, and mind as a mirror of nature. In our view, this epistemology considerably impedes etiologic research. Objectivist epistemology has been recently confronting a growing critique from diverse scientific fields. Alternative models in neurosciences (neuronal selection), artificial intelligence....... The distinction between mind and body or organism and environment is a matter of observational perspective. These models from empirical sciences are compatible with fundamental tenets of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics. They imply consequences for research in psychopathology: symptoms cannot...

  1. Current Issues in Social Work Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of doctoral programs in social work is to prepare research-scientists who contribute to knowledge that guides professional practice and educators competent to teach new cohorts of social work practitioners. In grooming stewards of the profession, doctoral programs also must prepare their graduates to support the larger contemporary…

  2. Sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy: Current issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillidis, John K; Merikas, Emmanuel; Nikolakis, Dimitrios; Papalois, Apostolos E

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can successfully be performed by applying moderate (conscious) sedation. Moderate sedation, using midazolam and an opioid, is the standard method of sedation, although propofol is increasingly being used in many countries because the satisfaction of endoscopists with propofol sedation is greater compared with their satisfaction with conventional sedation. Moreover, the use of propofol is currently preferred for the endoscopic sedation of patients with advanced liver disease due to its short biologic half-life and, consequently, its low risk of inducing hepatic encephalopathy. In the future, propofol could become the preferred sedation agent, especially for routine colonoscopy. Midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. Among opioids, pethidine and fentanyl are the most popular. A number of other substances have been tested in several clinical trials with promising results. Among them, newer opioids, such as remifentanil, enable a faster recovery. The controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an experienced nurse, as well as the optimal staffing of endoscopy units, continues to be a matter of discussion. Safe sedation in special clinical circumstances, such as in the cases of obese, pregnant, and elderly individuals, as well as patients with chronic lung, renal or liver disease, requires modification of the dose of the drugs used for sedation. In the great majority of patients, sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist remains the standard practice worldwide. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge concerning sedation during digestive endoscopy will be provided based on the data in the current literature. PMID:23382625

  3. Research Management Issues in the Arab Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Nabiel A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines research management, particularly within higher education institutions, in 21 Arab countries including, research and current trends in knowledge production, institutional aspects, research funding, and good practice in research management. (EV)

  4. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  5. Current issues in the analysis of consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    The Total Food Quality Model is used as a framework for highlighting a number of issues of current concern in understanding consumer food choice, and where promising avenues for research are seen. Consumer food choice is seen as a process where consumers form expectations about product quality...... before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...

  6. Telerehabilitation: Policy Issues and Research Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine D. Seelman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehomecare, Telepsychiatry, Telepractice

  7. Telerehabilitation: policy issues and research tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Hartman, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR) policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors.

  8. Evaluation of body composition. Current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, V H

    1996-09-01

    In the selection of body composition field methods and prediction equations, exercise and health practitioners must consider their clients' demographics. Factors, such as age, gender, level of adiposity, physical activity and ethnicity influence the choice of method and equation. Also, it is important to evaluate the relative worth of prediction equations in terms of the criterion method used to derive reference measures of body composition for equation development. Given that hydrodensitometry, hydrometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are subject to measurement error and violation of basic assumptions underlying their use, none of these should be considered as a 'gold standard' method for in vivo body composition assessment. Reference methods, based on whole-body, 2-component body composition models, are limited, particularly for individuals whose fat-free body (FFB) density and hydration differ from values assumed for 2-component models. Use of field method prediction equations developed from 2-component model (Siri equation) reference measures of body composition will systematically underestimate relative body fatness of American Indian women, Black men and women, and Hispanic women because the average FFB density of these ethnic groups exceeds the assumed value (1.1 g/ml). Thus, some researchers have developed prediction equations based on multicomponent model estimates of body composition that take into account interindividual variability in the water, mineral, and protein content of the FFB. One multicomponent model approach adjusts body density (measured via hydrodensitometry) for total body water (measured by hydrometry) and/or total body mineral estimated from bone mineral (measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry). Skinfold (SKF), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) are 3 body composition methods used in clinical settings. Unfortunately, the overwhelming majority of field method prediction equations

  9. Hidden Curriculum as One of Current Issue of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2015-01-01

    There are several issues in the education system, especially in the curriculum field that affect education. Hidden curriculum is one of current controversial curriculum issues. Many hidden curricular issues are the result of assumptions and expectations that are not formally communicated, established, or conveyed within the learning environment.…

  10. Current Issues in Teacher Education: History, Perspectives, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassonde, Cynthia A.; Michael, Robert J.; Rivera-Wilson, Jerusalem

    2008-01-01

    In this edited volume by experts in the field of teacher education, Current Issues in Teacher Education combines forces from the United States and Canada to present and discuss positions on current topics and concerns in the field of teacher education. It provides an overview and multiple perspectives of issues rather than one authority's position…

  11. Ethical Issues in Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…

  12. Research Issues on Educational Aid Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Masafumi

    1999-01-01

    This paper represents an attempt to elaborate research issues on aid evaluation in the field of education. It does so on the basis of a review of existing research, coupled with the consideration of practical issues involved in the administration of aid evaluation by the government aid agencies in Japan. Evaluation of educational aid is made difficult owing to particular characteristics of educational programs and projects, such as long lead time needed for educational investments and inc...

  13. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  14. Volume 8, Issue2 (April/June 2005)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleBeyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2005-04-01

    It is widely recognised that public acceptability often poses a barrier towards renewable energy development. This article reviews existing research on public perceptions of wind energy, where opposition is typically characterized by the NIMBY (not in my back yard) concept. The objectives of the article are to provide a critical assessment of past research and an integrated, multidimensional framework to guide future work. Six distinct strands of research are identified, summarized and critiqued: public support for switching from conventional energy sources to wind energy; aspects of turbines associated with negative perceptions; the impact of physical proximity to turbines; acceptance over time of wind farms; NIMBYism as an explanation for negative perceptions; and, finally, the impact of local involvement on perceptions. Research across these strands is characterized by opinion poll studies of general beliefs and case studies of perceptions of specific developments. In both cases, research is fragmented and has failed to adequately explain, rather than merely describe, perceptual processes. The article argues for more theoretically informed empirical research, grounded in social science concepts and methods. A multidimensional framework is proposed that goes beyond the NIMBY label and integrates previous findings with social and environmental psychological theory. Copyright

  15. Research in Rural Issues: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Warren, Ed.

    To facilitate research on rural issues, a task force composed of prominent rural residents and experts from universities in Illinois prepared this bibliography. Several thousand books, research reports, commission papers, government reports, and journal articles--most published after 1980--are listed in this bibliography. While focused on…

  16. Ethical Issues in Teaching about Research Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Keith B.; Lidstone, John G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethical dilemma these reactions have created for teachers…

  17. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  18. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  19. Issues in mounting randomized experiments in educational research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the field of education becomes increasingly complex and demanding, researchers more than ever before need to work at the frontiers of knowledge in order to understand the current global issues and problems of education. This calls for rigorous research whose findings are to inform government decision and policy.

  20. issues in mounting randomized experiments in educational research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    As the field of education becomes increasingly complex and demanding, researchers more than ever before need to work at the frontiers of knowledge in order to understand the current global issues and problems of education. This calls for rigorous research whose findings are to inform government decision and policy.

  1. Quota sampling in internet research: practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2011-07-01

    Quota sampling has been suggested as a potentially good method for Internet-based research and has been used by several researchers working with Internet samples. However, very little is known about the issues or concerns in using a quota sampling method in Internet research. The purpose of this article was to present the practical issues using quota sampling in an Internet-based study. During the Internet study, the research team recorded all recruitment issues that arose and made written notes indicating the possible reasons for the problems. In addition, biweekly team discussions were conducted for which written records were kept. Overall, quota sampling was effective in ensuring that an adequate number of midlife women were recruited from the targeted ethnic groups. However, during the study process, we encountered the following practical issues using quota sampling: (1) difficulty reaching out to women in lower socioeconomic classes, (2) difficulty ensuring authenticity of participants' identities, (3) participants giving inconsistent answers for the screening questions versus the Internet survey questions, (4) potential problems with a question on socioeconomic status, (5) resentment toward the research project and/or researchers because of rejection, and (6) a longer time and more expense than anticipated.

  2. Ethical issues in palliative care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Raeve, L

    1994-10-01

    Much has been written about the ethics of experimental research upon human subjects, particularly where such subjects can be said to be in a vulnerable position in relation to the researcher. This paper attempts to address such questions with reference to people who are dying. A case is made to defend the view that no research is morally justifiable with this client group. Less extreme views are also explored. One justification for such research activity comes from a rights-based perspective and another from the weighing of benefits and harms. In the process of exploring these issues, the author attempts to demonstrate that no research methodology can be said to be benign.

  3. Ethical issues in research on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Slađana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical issues that appear in researching children are the subject matter of relatively rich scientific literature, as well as a multitude of national and professional ethical codices. The broad thematization of ethical principles is indeed instigated by the rise of awareness of the seriousness of this problem, as well as by growing fears of potential abuse of children in contemporary research projects. General assertion that children are a vulnerable category of subjects that require special attention and protection from misuse in research projects prevails in literature. The main objective of this paper is to present general ethical issues that various areas of expertise researchers face when children and youth are the subjects of their studies. The principle of voluntary participation, the principle of balanced researcher - respondent relationship, and the principles of privacy, confidentiality and anonymity in studies of children are particularly presented.

  4. Request for comments on research issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    The past year has witnessed an intensifying discussion about the process of research funding in the United States, with issues including big science, little science, directed research, undirected research, centers of excellence, individual initiative, the relative merits of all these, and their relation to one another. Closely coupled to this debate is a perception that U.S. research capabilities are eroding in spite of substantive increases in the research budget. This discussion has primarily occurred through the media, individual letters, and anecdotes and only rarely through specialized reports such as the Lederman Report.The National Academy of Science'National Research Council Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) and Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) are jointly undertaking a study of these issues as they affect solar, solar-terrestrial, and space physics research. As part of the study, the CSTR/CSSP is assembling a data base of grant programs and science projects conducted over the past decade by the main funding sources for these communities, allowing a framework within which to view the many sides of the issues.

  5. Research issues: A prospectus for agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W.T.

    1989-04-01

    Considerable progress is visible in both the concepts and practice of agroforestry projects, over the past few decades. In such circumstances, what might be a useful approach to structure further research or investigations At least three characteristics come to mind that merit consideration: complexity of the phenomena, criteria for priorities, and choices constrained by resource scarcity. In the next few paragraphs, these three topics will briefly examined. Significant research issues for agroforestry remain urgent, but they tend to be generally site-specific in nature in comparison with other disciplines of field-related research. This site-specific characteristic tends to Balkanize scientific attention, so that choices for research effort reflect local perceptions, and perhaps dilute attention to the overall importance of agroforestry as an investigative disciplines. Furthermore, these issues are notorious for their ecological complexity, so this aspect will be the first to be examined. 23 refs.

  6. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects......, and the interval between test sessions, also influence test results and must be considered when designing and interpreting POCD data....

  7. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  8. Ethics in Psychiatric Research: Issues and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Shobhit; Kuppili, Pooja Patnaik; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric research has increased remarkably over recent decades to help in understanding the current trends and better therapeutic options for illness. On the other hand, there is also a trend toward higher rates of retraction of published papers in the recent years. Ethics is required to maintain and increase the overall quality and morality of research. Psychiatric research faces several unique ethical challenges. Ethical guidelines are very important tool of research which safeguards par...

  9. Critical issues in clinical periodontal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preshaw, Philip M

    2012-06-01

    As periodontal researchers and clinicians, we are challenged every day to make decisions relating to the clinical management of our patients and about how best to conduct clinical periodontal research. This volume of Periodontology 2000 addresses some of the critical issues in contemporary clinical periodontics and periodontal research that are of direct relevance to clinicians, researchers, teachers and students. The 11 review articles in this volume of Periodontology 2000 focus on aspects of periodontal research methodology and clinical periodontology. In terms of research methodology, the articles aim to inform the reader on topics relating to randomized controlled trials in periodontal research, evidence-based dentistry, calibration of clinical examiners and statistics relevant to periodontal research. The clinical periodontology articles address issues relating to decisions on retaining periodontally compromised teeth or replacing them with implants, periodontal management in the patient with osteoporosis, surgical approaches for root coverage and the emerging science of advanced regenerative technologies, including the use of stem cells, for periodontal regeneration. It is hoped that these critical reviews will address many of the dilemmas that confront us on a regular basis and provide practical guidance to those engaged in both clinical periodontology and clinical periodontal research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Current status and future directions of research on facial attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the perception of facial attractiveness and to assess the opportunity for research on poorly explored issues regarding facial preferences...

  11. Ethical issues in research with abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinard, E M

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses sensitive ethical issues encountered in conducting research with abused children and the potential consequences of various methods of handling these dilemmas. Important ethical questions arise at three stages of the research: (1) obtaining consent for participation in the research; (2) conducting interviews with or administering tests to the subjects; and (3) providing information about test results to parents or others outside the research team. Concern with children's rights has been extended to the question of who can give consent for children to participate in research. In the case of abused children, the consent issue is complicated by the potential adversarial relationship between abusing parent and abused child. Procedures for interviewing or testing abused children must include provisions for three special situations: (1) when a child is distressed by the interviewing or testing; (2) when a child's answers or test results indicate emotional problems; and (3) when a child's answers or comments indicate that the child is being abused. Decisions concerning whether to inform parents or others about an individual child's answers must balance the parents' right to know against the child's right to privacy. All these circumstances require serious deliberation concerning the role and responsibility of the research investigator.

  12. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  13. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle impairment of memory, concentration, and speed of information processing. It is a frequent complication following surgery and can have a debilitating effect on patients' recovery and future prognosis. Neuropsychological testing is needed...... to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  14. Eating Disorders among Athletes: Theory, Issues, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David R., Ed.

    Eating disorders among athletes has become an important topic both nationally and internationally. This volume of empirically focused articles presents theory, issues, and the latest research in a concise form for a variety of audiences. The 11 chapters are: (1) "Eating Disorders among Athletes: Current Perspective" (D. R. Black); (2)…

  15. Research issues in the automated testing of Ajax applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Deursen, A.; Mesbah, A.

    2009-01-01

    Note: This paper is a pre-print of: Arie van Deursen and Ali Mesbah. Research Issues in the Automated Testing of Ajax Applications. In Proceedings 36th International Conference on Current Trend in Theory and Practice of Computer Science (SOFSEM), pp. 16-28. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5901,

  16. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  17. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS ISSUES FOR RESEARCH TOOLS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Chaturvedi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research tools refer to the resources researchers need to use in experimental work. In Biotechnology, these can include cell lines, monoclonal antibodies, reagents, animal models, growth factors, combinatorial chemistry libraries, drug and drug targets, clones and cloning tools (such as PCR, method, laboratory equipment and machines, database and computer software. Research tools therefore serve as basis for upstream research to improve the present product or process. There are several challenges in the way of using patented research tools. IP issues with regard to research tools are important and may sometime pose hindrance for researchers. Hence in the case of patented research tools, IPR issues can compose a major hurdle for technology development. In majority instances research tools are permitted through MTAs for academic research and for imparting education. TRIPS provides a provision for exception to patent rights for experimental use of patented technology in scientific research and several countries including India have included this provision in their patent legislation. For commercially important work, licensing of research tools can be based on royalty or one time lump sum payment. Some patent owners of important high-end research tools for development of platform technology create problems in licensing which can impede research. Usually cost of a commercially available research tool is built up in its price.

  18. Internet governance origins, current issues, and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Balleste, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Internet Governance: Origins, Current Issues, and Future Possibilities provides an introductory, multidisciplinary account of the forces at work in the evolving concept of internet governance and includes computer history, Internet beginnings, institutions and stakeholders, proposed models of governance, and human rights.

  19. Exploring Current Issues in Teacher Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao

    2005-01-01

    Teachers have had a long-honored standing in Chinese history. Yet the formal education of teachers is a relatively new development. This article reviews the historical development of teacher education in modern China and its current provisions. A number of issues pertaining to the preparation of teachers for both adults and children are examined.…

  20. Current Issues for Higher Education Information Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Current issues that are important for the future of information resources management in higher education are presented. They include: integrating planning for information resources within institution-wide strategic planning; reengineering fundamental services; change management; distributed computing support; networking; the changing communication…

  1. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  2. Current approaches to norms research

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Heywood

    2000-01-01

    The dialogue session was a continuation of a debate about norms and the application of normative standards to wilderness management that has taken place throughout the 1990s at national meetings and in the research literature. Researchers who have made significant contributions to the normative approach to wilderness recreation management presented three approaches to...

  3. Animal-cell culture media: History, characteristics, and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tatsuma; Asayama, Yuta

    2017-04-01

    Cell culture technology has spread prolifically within a century, a variety of culture media has been designed. This review goes through the history, characteristics and current issues of animal-cell culture media. A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar between 1880 and May 2016 using appropriate keywords. At the dawn of cell culture technology, the major components of media were naturally derived products such as serum. The field then gradually shifted to the use of chemical-based synthetic media because naturally derived ingredients have their disadvantages such as large batch-to-batch variation. Today, industrially important cells can be cultured in synthetic media. Nevertheless, the combinations and concentrations of the components in these media remain to be optimized. In addition, serum-containing media are still in general use in the field of basic research. In the fields of assisted reproductive technologies and regenerative medicine, some of the medium components are naturally derived in nearly all instances. Further improvements of culture media are desirable, which will certainly contribute to a reduction in the experimental variation, enhance productivity among biopharmaceuticals, improve treatment outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies, and facilitate implementation and popularization of regenerative medicine.

  4. Special issue on exercise immunology: Current perspectives on aging, health and extreme performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, R.J.; Bosch, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to highlight outstanding exemplars of empirical research and review papers that reflect the breadth of current developments in exercise immunology. The contributions to this issue are categorized according to four major themes: (1) exercise and immune-aging; (2) the

  5. [Current challenges for the pharmaceutical research industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalchat, B

    1993-01-01

    The Research Pharmaceutical Industry is currently facing a number of increasingly complex challenges. Today indeed, the discovery and marketing of innovative medicines is linked: not only to Compagnies' abilities to solve relatively basic and traditional difficulties which have deeply changed over the past few years, for instance: the regulatory constraints, the dramatic increase in development costs, the critical mass required for investments, the development time periods and the protection of innovation, human resources and organization; but also to the acceptance of recent factors which the Research Pharmaceutical Industry must imperatively overcome, such as: the new Research channels and namely biotechnologies, the building of a pharmaceutical Europe and the internationalization of molecules, the needs of the third world, the innovation financing and the control of Health expenditures, the public opinion's shift in expectations regarding ethical and environmental issues. The Pharmaceutical Industry is currently in a shake-up phase during which it will undergo deep changes, with regard both to its activities and in relations with its environment.

  6. Gender issues in the university research environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, E.; Hari, A.; Kambouri, M.; Ahearn, A. L.

    2010-05-01

    Recruiting and retaining females within science, engineering and technology continues to challenge many European higher education institutions. This study looks at female self-perceptions relating to effective research work and career progression. Focus groups are used to examine the attitudes and experiences of females and a questionnaire is used to explore perceptions in four main skills areas: group work; communication; personal awareness; project planning and management. The study indicates consistent female concerns on issues pertaining to effective female role models, negative work-role stereotypes and the work-life balance of an academic career. For all four skills areas, the average confidence scores of the female participants fell below those of males, but these differences were only statistically significant for perceptions on group work and communication skills and prior to an intense skills development course. Based on these findings, a student workshop on gender issues has been developed, an outline of which is presented.

  7. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  8. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  9. Muscle dysmorphia: methodological issues, implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffolk, Mark T; Dovey, Terence M; Goodwin, Huw; Meyer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is a male-dominated, body image-related psychological condition. Despite continued investigation, contention surrounds the nosological status of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review the literature on muscle dysmorphia to provide a qualitative account of methodological issues that may inhibit our understanding. Key areas relating to non-standardized participant groups, measuring instruments, and terminology were identified as potentially inhibiting symptom coherence and diagnostic reliability. New measuring instruments validated with clinical samples and carefully described participant groups, standardized terminology, and a greater emphasis on prospective longitudinal research with specific sub groups of the weight training community would be of interest to the field.

  10. Current Research Status of Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD JUNAEDI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The term of allelopathy refers to chemical interactions (inhibitory or stimulatory between plants, between plants and microorganisms, and between microorganisms. The wealth of information on the processes, procedures, and practices of allelopathy has contributed to understanding this field of science. Recently, researches of allelopathy have been conducted in laboratory, greenhouse, and field with multifaceted standpoint in some concerning area: (i allelochemicals identifications and screening test; (ii ecological and physiological aspects of allelopathy; (iii genetic studies and the possibilities of using plant breeding or genetic manipulation to enhance allelopathic varieties; (iv the use of allelopathic potential in the biological control, including as natural pesticide, of weeds and plant diseases as eco-friendly approach for sustainable agriculture scheme.

  11. Issues in Research on Aging and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-01-01

    Late-life suicide is a complex clinical and public health problem. In this article, some of the key complexities inherent in studying late-life suicide are discussed in the service of promoting high quality late-life suicide prevention science. We discuss the following research issues: the relatively greater lethality of suicidal behavior in later life (compared to younger ages); the lack of data on whether thoughts of death in later life are indicators of suicide risk; the fact that older adults do not tend to seek specialty mental health care, necessitating moving research into primary care clinics and the community; the lack of theory-based research in late-life suicide; the unclear role of cognitive impairment; and the promise of taking a “patient centered” and “participatory research” approach to late-life suicide research efforts. We believe that these perspectives are too often not capitalized upon in research on suicide prevention with older adults and that voice of the older person could contribute much to our understanding of why older adults think about and act on suicidal thoughts, as well as the most acceptable ways to reach and intervene with those at risk. PMID:26179380

  12. AGRICULTURAL DYNAMICS IN PAKISTAN: CURRENT ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is heavily contributing towards the economy of Pakistan. Water deficiency and drought conditions, long duration load shedding issue, poor extension services, absence of land reforms, absence of distribution of certified varieties, high price of fertilizers, deliberate use of adulterated, non-recommended and expired insecticides, non utilization of cultivable waste land, conventional farming practices, indirect access of farmer to main market, absence of ecological based cropping pattern, smuggling of agricultural inputs and outputs, lack of cooperation between agricultural research, education & extension services, absence of crop insurance, depletion of forests, lack of modern post-harvest technologies and disease outbreaks of poultry birds are some of the key issues that are playing a negative role in demotion of agricultural sector in Pakistan. The review article will briefly discuss above mentioned issues and some of the possible remedies under the environment of Pakistanand their adoption to improve the agricultural productivity in the country.

  13. Editor's Note The current issue — Vol. 3. No.1, of the Contemporary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The current issue — Vol. 3. No.1, of the Contemporary Journal of African Studies (CJAS), is the fifth in the series under this title, the successor to the Research Review of the Institute of African Studies. It may be recalled that responding to suggestions from the research fellowship of the Institute of African Studies for a ...

  14. Internet research and ethics: transformative issues in nursing education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Pamela Young

    2014-01-01

    As practice in the educational and clinical settings seeks to be evidence based, faculty are increasingly required to conduct research and publish the results to advance the science of our profession. The purpose of this article is to discuss transformative research ethics because Internet use is an increasing component of current research studies. How nurse educators can engage in research-utilizing methodologies inclusive of technology while adhering to ethical standards developed before the advance of the Internet is reviewed. Recommendations are cited to address the new questions that arise at institutional review board meetings resulting from potential ethical implications of using students or research participants in cyber space. © 2014.

  15. [History and current issues of anesthesia in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Woon; Higa, Yuki; Higa, Kazuo

    2010-11-01

    We report the history and current issues of anesthesia in Korea. Korean medical doctors have to take 1-year internship and 4-year residency to be qualified to take the national examination for a board-certified anesthesiologist. The national examination began in 1963, and there were 3,050 board-certified anesthesiologists as of 2006. The calculated patients who were managed by a board-certified anesthesiologist were 5.8 patients a day. The Korean government adopted nurse-anesthetists in 1973 because of shortage of board-certified anesthesiologists. The Korean Society of Anesthesiologists is now demanding its amendment.

  16. Serbian theolinguistics today: Research issues and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končarević Ksenija J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay gives a survey of basic research directions in Serbian theolinguistics (in the fields of general linguistics, Serbian studies, Slavic studies and foreign philology, and presents the most important achievements in the fundamental and applicative fields of the study of the sacral language (from the synchronic perspective which are presented in monographs, papers published in thematic anthologies, proceedings of scientific conferences and scientific journals in Serbia, Montenegro and the Republic of Srpska (with bibliographic references for the 2000-2013 period. Serbian theolinguistics, although in the stage of scientific constitution, potentially has a wide range of fundamental areas of study (some of the main issues from 2000 to 2013 were theoretical and methodological basis of theolinguistics, modern functioning of liturgical languages, confessional markedness of language levels, functional stylistics, genology and stylistics of resources, discourse theory and spheres of application (lexicography, traductology, linguodidactics. Its perspective in the forthcoming period lies in strengthening the ties with leading centres of theolinguistics in the Slavic world and the integration of researchers of philological and theological profiles in order to further its development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 179078: Srpska teologija u XX veku: fundamentalne pretpostavke teoloških disciplina u evropskom kontekstu – istorijska i savremena perspektiva

  17. Research issues: the food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    "Research Issues: The Food Environment and Obesity" is an article series commissioned by the American Society for Nutrition and The Obesity Society in an attempt to consider the state of understanding on this topic and identify key knowledge gaps. Roberts and Karl focus on the role of energy density in the regulation of energy intake and body weight and offer recommendations for prioritizing research. Finkelstein et al examine food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes and conclude that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. Pereira points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. Johnson and Wardle review the effects of palatability and variety on eating behavior and weight. Livingstone and Pourshahidi examine the impact of portion size manipulations on energy intake and weight management and find that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. Kant focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulation for body weight management and finds that such manipulation has consistently yielded null results. Finally, Gordon-Larsen identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Some Issues in Liquid Metals Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Caturla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ten articles [1–10] included in this Special Issue on “Liquid Metals” do not intend to comprehensively cover this extensive field, but, rather, to highlight recent discoveries that have greatly broadened the scope of technological applications of these materials. Improvements in understanding the physics of liquid metals are, to a large extent, due to the powerful theoretical tools in the hands of scientists, either semi-empirical [1,5,6] or ab initio (molecular dynamics, see [7]. Surface tension and wetting at metal/ceramic interfaces is an everlasting field of fundamental research with important technological implications. The review of [2] is broad enough, as the work carried out at Grenoble covers almost all interesting matters in the field. Some issues of interest in geophysics and astrophysics are discussed in [3]. The recently discovered liquid–liquid transition in several metals is dealt with in [4]. The fifth contribution [5] discusses the role of icosahedral superclusters in crystallization. In [6], thermodynamic calculations are carried out to identify the regions of the ternary phase diagram of Al-Cu-Y, where the formation of amorphous alloys is most probable. Experimental data and ab initio calculations are presented in [7] to show that an optimal microstructure is obtained if Mg is added to the Al-Si melt before than the modifier AlP alloy. Shock-induced melting of metals by means of laser driven compression is discussed in [8]. With respect to recent discoveries, one of the most outstanding developments is that of gallium alloys that are liquid at room temperature [9], and that, due to the oxide layer that readily cover their surface, maintain some “stiffness”. This has opened the possibility of 3D printing with liquid metals. The last article in this Special Issue [10] describes nano-liquid metals, a suspension of liquid metal and its alloy containing nanometer-sized particles. A room-temperature nano-liquid metal

  19. Physical punishment, culture, and rights: current issues for professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Joan E

    2008-02-01

    Once considered a legitimate parenting tool, physical punishment is increasingly being redefined as a developmental risk factor by health professionals. Three forces that have contributed to this significant social change are the evolution of pediatric psychology, increasing understanding of the dynamics of parental violence, and growing recognition of children as rights bearers. However, despite the consistency of research findings demonstrating the risks of physical punishment, some practitioners still struggle with the question of whether physical punishment is an appropriate practice among some cultural or ethnic groups. This issue is explored through an analysis of studies examining cultural differences and similarities in physical punishment's effects, as well as legal decisions made throughout the world. Despite practitioners' awareness of the prevalence and impact of parental violence, some still struggle with deciding where to "draw the line" in advising parents about spanking. This issue is addressed through an examination of the role that physical punishment plays in child maltreatment. Finally, the human rights perspective on physical punishment is offered as a new lens through which practitioners may view physical punishment to clarify the fuzzy issues of cultural relativity and the punishment-abuse dichotomy.

  20. Current role of research ethics committees in health research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current role of research ethics committees in health research in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria: A qualitative study. ... South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home ... To document the current role of HRECs in the ethical practice of health research in Nigeria, 4 years after the establishment of the NHREC.

  1. Urban science education: examining current issues through a historical lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions. When the findings from these urban science education studies were consolidated with the historical overview provided, it was revealed that the basic design and regulatory policies of urban schools have not substantively changed since their establishment in the nineteenth century. Teachers in urban science classrooms continue to face issues of inequality, poverty, and social injustice as they struggle to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population. Furthermore, persistent concerns of conflicting Discourses, cultural dissonance, and oppression create formidable barriers to science learning. Despite the many modifications in structure and organization, urban students are still subjugated and marginalized in systems that emphasize control and order over high-quality science education.

  2. UNDERSTANDING AND REFLECTION OF ISSUES IN LANGUAGE EDUCATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Jazadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses issues in social sciences research which serveas an introductory framework of understanding and reflectionespecially for beginning researchers in the field of English languageeducation. It commences by addressing choices, decisions andfactors involved when doing research. These include such variablesas power relations, ethical issues, research design, claims to truth inresearch, and methodological considerations in research. The articleends with the reflection on these issues for carrying out research inIndonesian English language teaching context.

  3. A Review of Current Issues Underlying Colon Cleansing before Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Hookey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines four current issues related to the efficacy, patient tolerance and safety of the following bowel cleansing agents: oral sodium phosphate (NaP, polyethylene glycol (PEG and magnesium citrate (Pico-Salax, Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc, Canada, an agent recently made available in Canada. MedLine and PubMed databases were systematically searched to identify studies related to the efficacy of altered PEG solutions combined with adjunct treatments; the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Pico-Salax; the association between nephrocalcinosis, and chronic renal failure and oral NaP use; and the role of diet. Although lower volume PEG solutions combined with adjuvant agents were generally associated with better patient tolerance, their efficacy was varied and interpretation of this end point is complicated by study design issues. There are very few reported studies of Pico-Salax, and as a result, there are insufficient data to draw conclusions about the efficacy of this agent. The available data suggest that Pico-Salax may be better tolerated by patients, than oral NaP and PEG solutions. There is a paucity of hemodynamic monitoring data pre- and postadministration, but the available data suggests that this small-volume osmotic agent could cause subclinical contraction of the intravascular space. Recent case reports suggest an association between nephrocalcinosis and oral NaP ingestion, but to date, these reports have been confined to a single centre. Preliminary studies suggest that this is not a widespread problem, but more studies are needed. There are only a few studies examining diet and patient tolerability, but they do suggest that diet may be liberalized with some cleansing regimens to enhance tolerability without decreasing efficacy. The present review highlights current controversies and advances in colon cleansing before colonoscopy, and also identifies areas for further study.

  4. Predictive data mining in clinical medicine: current issues and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Zupan, Blaz

    2008-02-01

    The widespread availability of new computational methods and tools for data analysis and predictive modeling requires medical informatics researchers and practitioners to systematically select the most appropriate strategy to cope with clinical prediction problems. In particular, the collection of methods known as 'data mining' offers methodological and technical solutions to deal with the analysis of medical data and construction of prediction models. A large variety of these methods requires general and simple guidelines that may help practitioners in the appropriate selection of data mining tools, construction and validation of predictive models, along with the dissemination of predictive models within clinical environments. The goal of this review is to discuss the extent and role of the research area of predictive data mining and to propose a framework to cope with the problems of constructing, assessing and exploiting data mining models in clinical medicine. We review the recent relevant work published in the area of predictive data mining in clinical medicine, highlighting critical issues and summarizing the approaches in a set of learned lessons. The paper provides a comprehensive review of the state of the art of predictive data mining in clinical medicine and gives guidelines to carry out data mining studies in this field. Predictive data mining is becoming an essential instrument for researchers and clinical practitioners in medicine. Understanding the main issues underlying these methods and the application of agreed and standardized procedures is mandatory for their deployment and the dissemination of results. Thanks to the integration of molecular and clinical data taking place within genomic medicine, the area has recently not only gained a fresh impulse but also a new set of complex problems it needs to address.

  5. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  6. UNDERSTANDING AND REFLECTION OF ISSUES IN LANGUAGE EDUCATION RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Jazadi

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues in social sciences research which serveas an introductory framework of understanding and reflectionespecially for beginning researchers in the field of English languageeducation. It commences by addressing choices, decisions andfactors involved when doing research. These include such variablesas power relations, ethical issues, research design, claims to truth inresearch, and methodological considerations in research. The articleends with the reflection on these ...

  7. Physician participation in clinical research and trials: issues and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sayeeda; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim; Shaban, Sami F; Rahman, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Moslehuddin; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; D'Souza, Urban Ja

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system-or organization-related as well as research-and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teaching-learning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a 'student-focused teaching-learning and research culture'. This article examines the barriers to and benefits of physician participation in clinical research as well as interventions needed to increase their participation, including the specific role of undergraduate medical education. The main challenge is the unwillingness of many physicians and patients to participate in clinical trials. Barriers to participation include lack of time, lack of resources, trial-specific issues, communication difficulties, conflicts between the role of clinician and scientist, inadequate research experience and training for physicians, lack of rewards and recognition for physicians, and sometimes a scientifically uninteresting research question, among others. Strategies to encourage physician participation in clinical research include financial and nonfinancial incentives

  8. Consent Issues in Genetic Research: Views of Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Deborah; Johnson, Catherine O.; Wenzel, Lari; Bowen, Deborah; Condit, Celeste; Edwards, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background With the arrival of large-scale population-based genomic research studies, such as the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), the question of how to best consent participants is significant, and in an era of patient-centered research, few studies have evaluated participants’ preferences about re-consent and broad consent. Using quantitative methods, this study evaluates participants’ views regarding the acceptability of re-consent and broad consent in subjects from the Participant Issues Project. Methods 450 participants were recruited from a cancer genetics registry, including cancer patients, their relatives, and controls. Participants completed a secure online survey. Results Most participants endorsed re-consent when investigating an unrelated health condition or sharing their de-identified data with an investigator at a different institution. Notification rather than re-consent was preferred when studying a different gene but the same disease. Over 80% of respondents endorsed re-consent when parents of a child gave the original consent and the child has now reached adulthood. Preferences for some scenarios varied by history of cancer at baseline, gender, stage of cancer, or case versus control group. The large majority of participants preferred the option to select broad consent categories of research. Conclusion Understanding research participants’ preferences, including their views on the need for re-consent, are critical to the success of the PMI. PMID:27376949

  9. Issues to consider when planning and conducting educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Kevin W

    2004-03-01

    This article is intended to provide students and clinicians aspiring to perform educational research with some background information pertaining to many of the issues inherent in performing research within this domain. It is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of the quantitative methods one might adopt, nor will it fully reflect all of the debate that currently exists within the educational research community. Rather, it is intended to offer an overview of issues and controversies within the field that will hopefully provide a starting point from which interested individuals can begin to engage in the study of educational effectiveness. Using investigations of the efficacy of problem-based learning as background, the article represents an attempt to guide new researchers through the process of generating and refining scientific research questions, identifying appropriate outcome measures, and selecting or adapting the optimal research design for the questions to be addressed. The article focuses on quantitative methods in general with particular attention paid to experimental designs.

  10. Current State and Issues of Logistics Cost Accounting and Management in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariah, Sahidah; Pyeman, Jaafar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Logistics cost is an important factor affecting the competitiveness on both macro (national) and micro level (firms). Logistics cost indicates the performance of logistics industry, efficiency level and its competitiveness. Research Problem: Despite of its significance, current state of logistics cost accounting and management in Malaysia has not properly addressed and the issues surround logistics cost measurement remains incoherent. Aim of research: The purpose o...

  11. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  12. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  13. Some current issues in the design of HIV noninferiority trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandre, Philippe

    2014-08-24

    Since the introduction of protease inhibitors and their combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in tri-therapy, there has been a continuous improvement in the efficacy of antiretroviral treatments. Such combinations have been rendered even more effective by the introduction of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and, more recently, integrase inhibitors. This progress has led to a move away from superiority designs towards noninferiority designs for randomized clinical trials for HIV. Noninferiority trials aim to demonstrate that a new regimen is no worse than the current standard. The methodological issues associated with such designs have been discussed, but recent HIV trials provide us with an opportunity to consider the choice of hypotheses. Recent HIV trials have been overpowered, due to the assumption of lower success rates than observed and the enrollment of a large number of patients. The use of stratified statistical methods for primary endpoint analysis, with sample size calculated by classical methods (without stratification), also increases the statistical power. Some HIV trials have a statistical power close to 99%. Surprisingly, the results of some previous studies or phase II trials are not taken into account when designing the corresponding phase III trials. We discuss alternative hypotheses and designs.

  14. Ethical Issues in Bereavement Research: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alicia Skinner

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for the conduct of ethical research are reviewed and applied to the field of thanatology. Unique aspects of bereavement studies are identified and are discussed in the context of socially sensitive research. Topics include: freedom for subjects to withdraw from research, consideration of risks and benefits, and the qualifications of…

  15. Survey Research: Methods, Issues and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Wang, Victor C. X.

    2015-01-01

    Survey research is prevalent among many professional fields. Both cost effective and time efficient, this method of research is commonly used for the purposes of gaining insight into the attitudes, thoughts, and opinions of populations. Additionally, because there are several types of survey research designs and data collection instruments, the…

  16. Students' Involvement in Faculty Research: Ethical and Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Ferguson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faculty who engage students as participants in their qualitative research often encounter methodological and ethical problems. Ethical issues arise from the fiduciary relationship between faculty and their students, and violations of that relationship occur when the educator has a dual role as researcher with those students. Methodological issues arise from research designs to address these ethical issues. This conflict is particularly evident in faculty research on pedagogy in their own disciplines, for which students are necessary as participants but are captive in the relationship. In this article, the authors explore the issues of double agency when faculty involve students as participants in their research.

  17. Data Analysis and Data Mining: Current Issues in Biomedical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Diomidous, Marianna; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Ziegler, Andreas; McCray, Alexa T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Medicine and biomedical sciences have become data-intensive fields, which, at the same time, enable the application of data-driven approaches and require sophisticated data analysis and data mining methods. Biomedical informatics provides a proper interdisciplinary context to integrate data and knowledge when processing available information, with the aim of giving effective decision-making support in clinics and translational research. Objectives To reflect on different perspectives related to the role of data analysis and data mining in biomedical informatics. Methods On the occasion of the 50th year of Methods of Information in Medicine a symposium was organized, that reflected on opportunities, challenges and priorities of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care. The contributions of experts with a variety of backgrounds in the area of biomedical data analysis have been collected as one outcome of this symposium, in order to provide a broad, though coherent, overview of some of the most interesting aspects of the field. Results The paper presents sections on data accumulation and data-driven approaches in medical informatics, data and knowledge integration, statistical issues for the evaluation of data mining models, translational bioinformatics and bioinformatics aspects of genetic epidemiology. Conclusions Biomedical informatics represents a natural framework to properly and effectively apply data analysis and data mining methods in a decision-making context. In the future, it will be necessary to preserve the inclusive nature of the field and to foster an increasing sharing of data and methods between researchers. PMID:22146916

  18. Oxidative stress and life histories: unresolved issues and current needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Blount, Jonathan D; Bronikowski, Anne M; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E; Beaulieu, Michaël; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K; Christensen, Louise L; Cochemé, Helena M; Cram, Dominic L; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J P; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns aspects of investment in the soma that influence survival, understanding the physiological basis of life histories is related, but not identical, to understanding the process of aging. One idea from the field of aging that has gained considerable traction in the area of life histories is that life-history trade-offs may be mediated by free radical production and oxidative stress. We outline here developments in this field and summarize a number of important unresolved issues that may guide future research efforts. The issues are as follows. First, different tissues and macromolecular targets of oxidative stress respond differently during reproduction. The functional significance of these changes, however, remains uncertain. Consequently there is a need for studies that link oxidative stress measurements to functional outcomes, such as survival. Second, measurements of oxidative stress are often highly invasive or terminal. Terminal studies of oxidative stress in wild animals, where detailed life-history information is available, cannot generally be performed without compromising the aims of the studies that generated the life-history data. There is a need therefore for novel non-invasive measurements of multi-tissue oxidative stress. Third, laboratory studies provide unrivaled opportunities for experimental manipulation but may fail to expose the physiology underpinning life-history effects, because of the benign laboratory environment. Fourth, the idea that oxidative stress might underlie life-history trade-offs does not make specific enough predictions that are amenable to testing. Moreover, there is a paucity of good alternative theoretical models on which contrasting

  19. Researching with Families: Ethical Issues and Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob; Kearney, Emma; Hampshire, Anne; Mason, Jan; Schmied, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on an Australian project engaging with families with complex support needs as their children start school. The project itself is focused on developing collaborative research relationships between families, community support agencies and researchers with the aim of investigating what happens for families during the transition to…

  20. Doing better than the media: ethical issues in trauma research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raftery, J

    1997-01-01

    .... Our search for understanding through research also requires us to explore the experience of the event and its consequences. But what are the ethical issues of getting involved? Do we have any clear guidelines to follow in research and clinical practice? This paper addresses briefly the ethical issues in researching the effects of traumatic events. ( author abstract)

  1. e-Learning research: emerging issues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Beetham

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available e-Learning research is an expanding and diversifying field of study. Specialist research units and departments proliferate. Postgraduate courses recruit well in the UK and overseas, with an increasing focus on critical and research-based aspects of the field, as well as the more obvious professional development requirements. Following this year's launch of a National e-Learning Research Centre, it is timely to debate what the field of study should be prioritising for the future. This discussion piece suggests that the focus should fall on questions that are both clear and tractable for researchers, and likely to have a real impact on learners and practitioners. Suggested questions are based on early findings from a series of JISC-funded projects on e-learning and pedagogy.

  2. Research Issues in Clinical Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    1998-01-01

    to data warehousing technologies, over those posed by conventional data warehouse applications. This article presents a number of exciting new research challenges posed by clinical applications, to be met by the database research community. These include the need for complex-data modeling features......, advanced temporal support, advanced classification structures, continuously valued data, dimensionally reduced data, and the integration of very complex data. In addition, the support for clinical treatment protocols and medical research are interesting areas for research.......Medical informatics has been an important area for the application of computing and database technology for at least four decades. This area may benefit from the functionality offered by data warehousing. However, the special nature of clinical applications poses different and new requirements...

  3. Secure coprocessing applications and research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.W.

    1996-08-01

    The potential of secure coprocessing to address many emerging security challenges and to enable new applications has been a long-standing interest of many members of the Computer Research and Applications Group, including this author. The purpose of this paper is to summarize this thinking, by presenting a taxonomy of some potential applications and by summarizing what we regard as some particularly interesting research questions.

  4. Protecting Earth from comet/asteroid impacts through international cooperation: Issues & current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, W.

    1994-05-01

    Compelling evidence of a catastrophic asteroid impact on Earth 65 million years ago has given rise to international discussions about the probability, consequences, and prevention of future impacts. Because asteroid and comet impacts pose a grave danger to all humanity, preventive defensive measures should appropriately be based on international cooperation and action. Action may consist of detection research, experimentation to prevent the impact, public education on the issues, emergency planning, and actual protection if required. This paper provides background information on the threat posed by Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) and discusses associated technical and geopolitical issues and the current status of some related international activities.

  5. Special Issue: Research in economics and sport management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Galvez-Ruiz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The sport currently represents one of the most deeply rooted social phenomena, which also have a high capacity for mobilization. It has a social significance and also an important economic dimension that is difficult to quantify accurately, but is considered an engine of development, which implye indirectly to a large number of different activities that include other industries, taking in this regard an important crosscutting. In this context, Intangible Capital Journal launches this monograph in which research from diverse perspectives of the economy of sport is included, thus highlighting the importance and impact it has on different sectors are integrated. Therefore, the objective of this issue is to advance in the study of sports economics by joining forces and bringing new products through research.

  6. The NIMH Research Domain Criteria Initiative: Background, Issues, and Pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Michael J; Cuthbert, Bruce N

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. The description includes background, rationale, goals, and the way the initiative has been developed and organized. The central RDoC concepts are summarized and the current matrix of constructs that have been vetted by workshops of extramural scientists is depicted. A number of theoretical and methodological issues that can arise in connection with the nature of RDoC constructs are highlighted: subjectivism and heterophenomenology, desynchrony and theoretical neutrality among units of analysis, theoretical reductionism, endophenotypes, biomarkers, neural circuits, construct "grain size," and analytic challenges. The importance of linking RDoC constructs to psychiatric clinical problems is discussed. Some pragmatics of incorporating RDoC concepts into applications for NIMH research funding are considered, including sampling design. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Issues in using methodological triangulation in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Dympna; Murphy, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how methodological triangulation was used in two nursing research studies. The literature identified a number of principles in reporting studies that used triangulation, including giving the rationale for using triangulation, detailing the process used to assist with triangulation and explaining how rigour was maintained. A brief review of triangulated studies revealed that few adhered fully to these principles. A 'within method' and an 'across method' study are used to illustrate how methodological triangulation was used, and the ways in which rigour was addressed are also described. In addition, the different contributions of triangulation to nursing research are highlighted.

  8. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanica...

  9. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.

  10. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  11. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Budd Russo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issue in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirement for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration Botanical Guidance. The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety and public health issues remain.

  12. Mainstreaming gender issues in livestock research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Read more about how to mainstream gender considerations into livestock development projects in the Gender Responsive Livestock Research brief (PDF, 613KB, available in English only). This document summarizes findings presented in the book “Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the ...

  13. Gender Issues in the University Research Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, E.; Hari, A.; Kambouri, M.; Ahearn, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining females within science, engineering and technology continues to challenge many European higher education institutions. This study looks at female self-perceptions relating to effective research work and career progression. Focus groups are used to examine the attitudes and experiences of females and a questionnaire is used…

  14. The Sampling Issues in Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delice, Ali

    2010-01-01

    A concern for generalization dominates quantitative research. For generalizability and repeatability, identification of sample size is essential. The present study investigates 90 qualitative master's theses submitted for the Primary and Secondary School Science and Mathematics Education Departments, Mathematic Education Discipline in 10…

  15. Current Issues in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Evaluation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon disease most often associated with occupational asbestos exposure and is steadily increasing in worldwide incidence. Patients typically present at an older age, with advanced clinical stage and other medical comorbidities, making management quite challenging. Despite great efforts, the prognosis of MPM remains poor, especially at progression after initial treatment. Macroscopic complete resection of MPM can be achieved through extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or extended (ie, radical) pleurectomy (e-P/D) in selected patients and can result in prolonged survival when incorporated into a multimodality approach. Given the morbidity associated with surgical resection of MPM, optimizing identification of appropriate patients is essential. Unfortunately, most patients are not candidates for EPP or e-P/D due to advanced stage, age, and/or medical comorbidity. Pemetrexed and platinum combination chemotherapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for patients with unresectable disease because the combination is associated with improved survival and quality of life in treated patients. However, MPM eventually becomes resistant to initial therapy, and benefit to further lines of therapy has not been substantiated in randomized clinical trials. Translational research has provided exciting insights into tumorigenesis, biomarkers, and immune response in MPM, leading to the development of multiple novel therapeutic agents that are currently in clinical trials. These advances hold the promise of a new era in the treatment of MPM and suggest that this disease will not be left behind in the war on cancer. PMID:25061089

  16. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals Matthew C. Weed Specialist in Foreign...Policy Legislation January 15, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43760 A New Authorization for Use of Military Force...about the President’s authority to use military force against the Islamic State. Some efforts began near the end of the 113 th Congress to consider

  17. Current issues of RNAi therapeutics delivery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussecker, D

    2014-12-10

    the applications of RNAi therapeutics are rather limited. This is largely based on the observation that the biodistribution of RNAi formulations is typically more limited compared to small molecules and oral administration is not possible with current technologies. Similarly, the utility of a given RNAi formulation is limited to a few cell types and tissues at most and a universal delivery strategy should remain elusive for the foreseeable future. Therefore, to further expand on the therapeutic utility and patient convenience of RNAi, it is important to overcome a number of delivery-related technical and scientific challenges which will be discussed in this presentation. For systemic applications, these include the necessity for extended blood circulation times, vascular escape (probably the most rewarding inquiry currently), tissue penetration, cellular uptake, and escape into the cytoplasm. In terms of safety, it is important that these formulations do not accumulate in the body, do not cause excessive off-targeting due to 'chemical stickiness' (often useful for purposes of biodistribution), and overcome the physical/biological barriers in a controlled manner. The time for realizing the therapeutic potential of RNAi has come. At the same time, it is important to lay the foundations for the next leg of value creation by overcoming the challenges of delivering RNAi to new cell types. Based on results from exploratory research, the renewed interest in RNAi therapeutics and capital infusion, there is a reason to be optimistic that this can be achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethical Issues of Behavior Modification Research in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Susan G.; O'Leary, K. Daniel

    1977-01-01

    In order to foster the responsible use of behavior modification procedures in the schools on a practical as well as a research basis, this article discusses ethical issues being considered by researchers and the involved public. (Author)

  19. Issues to consider when planning and conducting educational research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eva, Kevin W

    2004-01-01

    This article is intended to provide students and clinicians aspiring to perform educational research with some background information pertaining to many of the issues inherent in performing research within this domain...

  20. Neuroimaging Research with Children: Ethical Issues and Case Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna

    2007-01-01

    There are few available resources for learning and teaching about ethical issues in neuroimaging research with children, who constitute a special and vulnerable population. Here, a brief review of ethical issues in developmental research, situated within the emerging field of neuroethics, highlights the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of…

  1. Current frontiers and future directions of telecoupling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The world has been increasingly interconnected over long distances though processes such as international trade, migration, telecommunication, and disease spread. However, previous studies often focused on socioeconomic or environmental issues of distant processes. While these studies have generated useful information for individual disciplines, integrating socioeconomic and environmental information is essential for holistic understanding of complex global challenges and unbiased decision making to address the challenges. To advance integrated research, the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) has been developed to explicitly address both socioeconomic and environmental issues simultaneously. Although the framework is relatively new, it has already been applied to tackle a variety of globally important issues, such as food security, water resources, energy sustainability, land use, international trade (e.g., food, forest products, energy, wildlife, industrial products), species invasion, investment, ecosystem services, conservation, information dissemination, and tourism. These applications have identified many important research gaps (e.g. spillover systems) and hidden linkages (e.g. feedbacks) among distant areas of the world with profound implications for sustainable development, ecosystem health, and human well-being. While working with telecoupling presents more challenges than focusing only on disciplinary issues, support from funding agencies has helped accelerate research on telecoupling and more efforts are being aimed at framework quantification and operationalization. The presenter will provide an overview of the current frontiers, discuss future research directions, and highlight emerging opportunities and challenges in telecoupling research and governance.

  2. SYRUPS: COMPOSITION, TECHNOLOGY, CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview data for the syrups formulation, including syrups for children, with synthetic substances were represented: assortment, composition, technological approach. The advantages and disadvantages of this dosage form were described. Details considered flavoring agents and other auxiliaries (stabilizers, preservatives, thickeners comprising syrups were closely examined. The issues of current research state of syrups for children were described.

  3. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities ...

  4. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-01-01

    This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP) of the National Health Council (CNS). It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL) 200/2015 of the Senate,...

  5. Methodological issues in identifying sexuality for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, S Lee; Topp, Robert; Frost, Karen L

    2007-03-01

    Sexuality is a complex concept that can be measured based on various aspects. Depending on the variable of interest, investigators may wish to focus on sexual behavior (activity), sexual orientation (attraction to a particular gender), or sexual identity (self-identification with a particular group of people). Further complicating the process is the fact that these aspects of sexuality are not always congruent with one another. Lesbian, gay, and bisexuals (LGB) are sexual minorities that have been identified as one of several groups that experience health disparities. For researchers working with the LGB population, properly identifying and defining which aspect of sexuality is of interest to the investigator is paramount in obtaining accurate outcomes.

  6. Spain: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... The United States and Spain have generally enjoyed good relations. However, problems have arisen in recent years over such issues as the war in Iraq, promoting democracy in Latin America, and the tactics to be used in fighting the war on terrorism...

  7. Current issues in libraries, information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Woodsworth, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This volume is unusual in that the theme is quite broad in scope yet focused on a specific topic; innovations and boundary-pushing studies in areas not usually found in library literature. It examines the periphery of the field surveyed in previous volumes. The chapters are grouped in two categories: professional issues and transforming services.

  8. Theological education, considered from South Africa: Current issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-04

    Feb 4, 2016 ... Taking into review the newly published series of substantial multi-authored volumes on ecumenical theological education internationally, this article identifies, from the author's own experience in ecumenical theological education and from his publications in this field, the central issue of specificity, locality ...

  9. Family Counseling in Malaysia: Current Issues and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    The study is carried out to explore the issues and practices in family counselling among the family counsellors at few counseling centres in Malaysia. Qualitative approach of single case embedded units was used for the study. Data collection was done using in-depth interview, observation and document analysis with 12 family counsellors. The data…

  10. Current Legislative and Policy Issues Related to School Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Thomas J.

    Recently American schools have attempted to provide more family-oriented services. As school psychologists expand their roles to include home-school consultation in the treatment of students' educational and psychological problems, they must understand the legislation related to various policy issues in public schools. School psychologists must be…

  11. Theological education, considered from South Africa: Current issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-04

    Feb 4, 2016 ... central issue of specificity, locality and context in theological education. This takes place within two broadly ... a few churches, and doing so within the university's local and the country's legal parameters.2 .... theological, ethical, political, social and other contentious matters, the case for diversity speaks ...

  12. Theological education, considered from South Africa: Current issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking into review the newly published series of substantial multi-authored volumes on ecumenical theological education internationally, this article identifies, from the author's own experience in ecumenical theological education and from his publications in this field, the central issue of specificity, locality and context in ...

  13. Covering the Desegregation Story: Current Experiences and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Meyer, Ed.; Martin, Gertrude, Ed.

    This book arose from a 1976 conference on school desegregation and the mass media. In it participants address critical legal and political issues and explore aspects of the coverage of desegregation by the news media. Five desegregation specialists describe and analyze court decisions, congressional actions, studies, plans and changes which have…

  14. Research Practice in Research Assistantships: Introducing the Special Issue on Research Assistantships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K. McGinn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea for this special issue came from our mutual interest in research education and the development of future researchers. Our shared program of research has led us to discover the potentials, complexities, and dilemmas associated with research assistantships where newcomers assist more experienced researchers to conduct research projects. We considered a wide range of proposals and papers addressing different aspects of research assistantships. The resulting collection includes self-studies and analyses of others, as well as policy reviews and recommendations. The pieces consider research assistantships involving bachelor's, master's, and doctoral students in four different countries (Canada, Denmark, South Africa, United States and across a range of disciplines.

  15. Reshoring: implementation issues and research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocicka Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, we continuously observe shifts in supply chains configurations caused by differentiate trends in turbulent environment. The remarkable number of companies restructure supply chains in search for competitiveness and innovation on global market. On the one hand, some labour-intensive industries are moving out of China to the next low-cost countries, on the other hand, some high-tech and innovative manufacturing companies are returning to the developed countries. The scientific purpose of the article is to set out the potential impact of reshoring on value creation in supply chains and to outline research opportunities in this field. Literature review and results of the questionnaire-survey on the Total Cost of Acquisition analysis are guidelines for considerations. Based on the analysis of reshoring drivers and benefits, it is clear that this strategy might have positive influence on the value creation in international and global supply chains management considering three dimensions of the value: economic, social and environmental from perspective of different stakeholders.

  16. Current Issues in NEO Detection and Threat Mitigations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2009-12-01

    last resort, using a Nuclear Device in the very unlikely case that a large, >1 km NEA must be deflected to prevent a civilization-threatening impact. While civil defense measures (e.g. warning and evacuation; response and recovery) have long been considered as elements of mitigation, if deflection is not possible or fails or if an impact happens without warning, the lesson of TC3 is that proactive civil defense (e.g. evacuation of ground zero) will be a much more likely scenario than long-term planning for a spacecraft deflection mission. This is because small, yet potentially dangerous NEAs (tens of m size) impact much more frequently than larger NEAs, and the existing and future search efforts have a good chance of predicting such an impact before it occurs...but generally with no time to mount a deflection mission. Infrastructure that connects astronomers with the emergency management community is currently lacking, at both the national and international level. Once the National Research Council’s recommendations are delivered to Congress at the end of 2009, there will be a new opportunities for the U.S. and the international community to develop search, reporting, warning, and short- and long-term mitigation procedures that can protect people from the most likely threats from the cosmos.

  17. Special issue on exercise immunology: current perspectives on aging, health and extreme performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard J; Bosch, Jos A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this special issue is to highlight outstanding exemplars of empirical research and review papers that reflect the breadth of current developments in exercise immunology. The contributions to this issue are categorized according to four major themes: (1) exercise and immune-aging; (2) the effects of acute exercise on cellular shifts and gene expression; (3) the effects of exercise on immune regulation during stress and disease; and (4) extreme performance and the impact of dietary counter measures on immunity. We discuss the papers appearing in this issue, in accordance with these major themes, and summarize their important contributions to this exciting and expanding field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethical Issues and Best Practice Considerations for Internet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jan; Lanigan, Jane

    2005-01-01

    With rapidly increasing public use of the Internet and advances in Web technologies, family and consumer sciences researchers have the opportunity to conduct Internet-based research. However, online research raises critical ethical issues concerning human subjects that have an impact on research practices. This article provides a review of the…

  19. Ethical Issues in Radiology Journalism, Peer Review, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Douglas S; Gardner, James B; Hoffmann, Jason C; Patlas, Michael N; Bhargava, Puneet; Moshiri, Mariam; Remer, Erick M; Gould, Elaine S; Smith, Stacy

    2016-08-17

    Although some research and publication practices are clearly unethical, including fraud and plagiarism, other areas of research and publication, such as informed consent and conflicts of interest, fall into grayer areas. The purposes of this article are, therefore, to review a variety of relevant ethical issues in radiology-related journalism, peer review, and research; to review the radiology literature to date that has addressed these issues; and to present position statements and potential solutions to these problems.

  20. Challenges and research issues from the Italian Hearing Voices Network.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardano, Mario; Fornace, Gino; Macario, Marcello; Pezzano, Roberto; Piona, Glenda; Poobello, Raffaella; Santoni, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The Association "Rete Italiana Noi e le Voci" (Italian Hearing Voices Network, IHVN) is characterized by the active collaboration between voice hearers, mental health professionals and researchers. Goal of this presentation is to share two network challenges and research issues: (1) Psychiatric drugs: Based on the insights gained from Robert Whitaker's meta-analysis on the development of psychiatric drugs use and its effects, the study on this issue has become a priority in our research agend...

  1. Current states and perspectives of Czech educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Janík

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review study is to evaluate the current state of Czech educationalresearch and to offer possibilities of its further development. The paper has threeparts. In the first part, the author presents the context of the topic: the current changesin the financing of research and development in the Czech Republic; the avoiding ofthe term (social science is discussed along with the issue of institutional financing ofresearch and the various presently up-to-date methodologies of quality assessment inresearch. In the second part, the author analyses the current state of Czech educationalresearch – previous analyses of J. Pr°ucha, J. Mareš and E. Walterová and those carriedout by the Educational Research Centre are briefly summarised. In the third part, possibilitiesof further development of Czech educational research are offered. Developinga knowledge base of educational sciences is used as an example. First the nature andsubject of knowledge that is produced by research is analysed, then the difference betweenpedagogical research and research in education is discussed. Towards the end,relevant approaches are discussed along with research areas and types of knowledgeacquired by research.

  2. ECONOMICS OF HAPPINESS: CURRENT RESEARCH AND DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinakova N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the origin and development of the «economics of happiness», exploring how the subjective well-being depends on the income level. The paper presents various ways to measure of subjective well-being, the laws and relationships identified through an analysis opinion polls, presented the main conclusions obtained by different research teams. The centerpiece of the article covers the analysis of the debate around the Easterlin’s happiness-income paradox. The main purpose of the paper is to designate questions and discussion of current research topics in «economics of happiness», to identify gaps in approaches to research that gave rise to the debate around the happiness-income paradox. The main result is the identification of differences in the approaches to research that lead different groups of scientists to contradictory conclusions about the happiness-income relationship in the long term. The result can be used both in educational process and in research and development.

  3. Current Research of Trichinellosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Xiaolei; Tang, Bin; Liu, Mingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Trichinellosis, caused by Trichinella, is an emerging or re-emerging zoonotic parasitic disease, which is distributed worldwide with major socio-economic importance in some developing countries. In particular, it has been calculated that more than 40 million people are at risk of Trichinella infection in China. This review summarizes the current information on the epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis and vaccines of trichinellosis in China. Moreover, study of the treatment potential of using Trichinella for immune-related diseases and cancer, as well as the transcription and post-transcription modification of Trichinella were also collected, providing viewpoints for future investigations. Current advances in research will help us to develop new strategies for the prevention and control of trichinellosis and may potentially yield biological agents for treating other diseases. PMID:28824597

  4. Cloud portability and interoperability issues and current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Di Martino, Beniamino; Esposito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a quick, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most important methodologies, technologies, APIs and standards related to the portability and interoperability of cloud applications and services, illustrated by a number of use cases representing a variety of interoperability and portability scenarios. The lack of portability and interoperability between cloud platforms at different service levels is the main issue affecting cloud-based services today. The brokering, negotiation, management, monitoring and reconfiguration of cloud resources are challenging tasks

  5. Sovereignty: analysis of its current issues in certain countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Koščo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The purpose of my article work is analyzing of the issue of sovereignty in international law. Originality of my article is that events described in the text are for people little known. Method: In the text I used to describe the method. Result: I evaluated the most important facts and influences for States Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Tibet and South Sudan. Society: The lives of people in the above countries, the history and present. Limitation: I clarified the important facts and dates, also bring comparison between past and the future.

  6. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1972-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  7. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP of the National Health Council (CNS. It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL 200/2015 of the Senate, which proposes flexibilities in Brazilian legislation and concluded that the requested changes should be discussed in depth by bioethicists, scientists and Brazilian lawyers with extended discussion to society.

  8. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  9. Urban vulnerability and displacement: a review of current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantuliano, Sara; Metcalfe, Victoria; Haysom, Simone; Davey, Eleanor

    2012-07-01

    Urban displacement is frequently portrayed as a new and unfamiliar dilemma for the humanitarian sector, yet broad awareness of its characteristics and challenges has been developing since the 1970s. In the past decade, however, there has been greater attention to, and recognition of, the implications of rapid urbanisation in the developing world. This has led to some policy development and a mounting body of NGO (non-governmental organisation) and think-tank literature on the topic. Assuming displacement to be a key lens on urban vulnerability more broadly, this paper presents an overview of the historical development of debates on urban displacement since the 1970s. Drawing examples from the contributions in this special issue of Disasters, as well as from other sources of information on recent humanitarian responses in various contexts, it assesses the ramifications of urban vulnerability for humanitarian practitioners. The paper contends that the humanitarian sector has failed to galvanise on the issue, and has struggled therefore to employ existing knowledge and to adapt practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  10. Neurobiology of Consciousness: Current Research and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płonka Beata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific, objective approach to consciousness has allowed to obtain some experimental data concerning brain activity, ignoring, however, the longstanding philosophical tradition. Spectacular development of neuroscience which has been observed recently made this dissonance particularly noticeable. The paper addresses the main problems of discrepancy between neurobiological research and philosophical perspective. Current opinions concerning neural correlates and models of consciousness are discussed, as well as the problems of working memory, attention, self, and disorders of consciousness. A new neurobiological approach to describe brain function in terms of brain connectivity (so-called connectome is also presented. Finally, the need to introduce at least some aspects of philosophical approach directly into neurobiological research of consciousness is postulated.

  11. Current issues regarding treatment of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Bastin, Jean; Gillingham, Melanie; Morris, Andrew; Wijburg, Frits; Wilcken, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    Treatment recommendations in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects are diverse. With implementation of newborn screening and identification of asymptomatic patients, it is necessary to define whom to treat and how strictly. We here discuss critical questions that are currently under

  12. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  13. Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankovic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

  14. [Leadership behaviour and health - current research state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, S; Kuhnert, S; Zimber, A; Nienhaus, A

    2011-01-01

    The link between leaders' behaviour and health has only recently been the focus of scientific research and the results which already exist on this topic have, to date, not been systematically evaluated or summarized. The objective of this article is to make an attempt to provide a summarised overview of the current state of research. Subject-related databases list 42 publications dealing with the relationship between leaders' behaviour and the state of health and well-being of their employees. The literature discusses leaders' behaviour as being both a stressor (source of stress) and a resource. The publications discussed here also provide the first empirical evidence on the influence of various leadership styles on the health of the employees. In particular, transformational and employee-orientated leadership are considered to be beneficial to health. But the question of how leaders' behaviour influences health has not been satisfactorily explained. In most of the publications included, a direct link was assumed and, in the majority of cases, confirmed empirically. In addition, it also appears that there may be an indirect influence which may be moderated or mediated by, e. g., working conditions or the personality of the individual. The relatively small number of research examinations into the influence of leaders' behaviour on the health and well-being of their staff shows that there is a need for additional research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Research Issues in Evaluating Learning Pattern Development in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    This article concludes the special issue of "Studies in Educational Evaluation" concerned with "Evaluating learning pattern development in higher education" by discussing research issues that have emerged from the previous contributions. The article considers in turn: stability versus variability in learning patterns; old versus new analytic…

  16. An online forum as a qualitative research method: practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2006-01-01

    Despite the positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known on the practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. The aim of this study was to describe the practical issues encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranging from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of the discussions were reviewed and analyzed using content analysis. Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: (a) a high response and retention rate and (b) automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants' forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

  17. The Commercialisation of University Research in Australia: Issues and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fiona Q.

    1992-01-01

    Identifies administrative, ethical, and pedagogical issues raised by policies which encourage the commercialization of the academic research enterprise, with particular reference to Australian higher education. Provides examples of recent government initiatives which encourage cooperation between universities and industry. Discusses issues related…

  18. Current ethical issues in child and adolescent psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascherman, Lee I; Rubin, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    Core ethical principles for the conduct of psychotherapy with children and adolescents transcend times, trends, and jurisdictions. Advances in technology, variations in state law, and the evolution of federal law should stimulate consideration of how these ethical principles apply to new situations; however, the guiding compass remains the psychotherapist's obligation to create and protect the integrity of the psychotherapeutic space to provide the child or adolescent the freedom to identify, examine, explore, and hopefully resolve the issues that bring one to treatment. Boundaries, privacy, confidentiality, and the patient's autonomy are components of this space. Together, they reflect a basic respect for the patient central to professional conduct and essential to any effective treatment process.

  19. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ethical Issues in Proprietary Restrictions on Research Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Alan H.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the value issues raised by the commercial ties formed between university scientists and commercial corporations. Presents arguments for and against patents on the results of university research. Compares cases involving an independent inventor, groups of industrial researchers, and university researchers. (ML)

  1. Ethical Issues in the Use of Humans for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, W. L.

    The APA Ethical Principles, the University of Georgia policy, standard research texts, and research literature on specific methodologies, all in relation to ethical issues in human research, are discussed. The 10 APA principles state, in essence, that the investigator is responsible for what happens, that confidentiality and the protection of the…

  2. Mixed Methods Research: What Are the Key Issues to Consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajashi

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is increasingly becoming a popular methodological approach in several fields due to the promise it holds for comprehensive understanding of complex problems being researched. However, researchers interested in MMR often lack reference to a guide that can explain the key issues pertaining to the paradigm wars…

  3. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control...employment and social spending, and cutting corruption through a new government procurement law. Revenue increases are also envisioned, including ending tax ... evasion schemes and other frauds. Naftogaz’s deficit (7.5% of GDP in 2012) is targeted for elimination by 2018, partly by reforming the company

  4. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Terry E.; Berridge, Kent C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  5. Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria. ... like sexual mores and sexuality requires much more than a straightjacket social science method, such as simply doing a cross-section study and/or using interview schedule.

  6. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  7. Ethics in research with human beings: some issues about Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Koller,Sílvia Helena

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.

  8. Ethics in research with human beings: some issues about psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.

  9. Physician participation in clinical research and trials: issues and approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami F Shaban

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sayeeda Rahman1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sami F Shaban2, Nuzhat Rahman3, Moslehuddin Ahmed4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, Urban JA D’Souza61Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 3Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Department of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Post Graduate Studies, School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MalaysiaAbstract: The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system- or organization-related as well as research- and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teaching–learning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a ‘student-focused teaching–learning and

  10. Review. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry E; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-10-12

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation ('wanting') for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive sensitization occur in human addicts? Is the development of addiction-like behaviour in animals associated with sensitization? What is the best way to model addiction symptoms using animal models? And, finally, what are the roles of affective pleasure or withdrawal in addiction?

  11. Spirituality and religion in recovery: some current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallot, Roger D

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses current perspectives on the roles of spirituality and religion in recovery from serious mental health problems. Drawing on a variety of discussion groups and consultations in addition to the published literature, consumer perceptions as well as those of mental health and religious professionals are reviewed. Consumers note both potentially supportive and burdensome roles of religion and spirituality in recovery. Professionals report both hope for, and discomfort with, these domains in the context of mental health services. From each perspective emerge key recommendations regarding the appropriate place of spirituality and religion in psychiatric rehabilitation and related supports.

  12. Transdisciplinarity: A Review of Its Origins, Development, and Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Hillel Bernstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinarity originated in a critique of the standard configuration of knowledge in disciplines in the curriculum, including moral and ethical concerns. Pronouncements about it were first voiced between the climax of government-supported science and higher education and the long retrenchment that began in the 1970s. Early work focused on questions of epistemology and the planning of future universities and educational programs. After a lull, transdisciplinarity re-emerged in the 1990s as an urgent issue relating to the solution of new, highly complex, global concerns, beginning with climate change and sustainability and extending into many areas concerning science, technology, social problems and policy, education, and the arts. Transdisciplinarity today is characterized by its focus on “wicked problems” that need creative solutions, its reliance on stakeholder involvement, and engaged, socially responsible science. In simultaneously studying multiple levels of, and angles on, reality, transdisciplinary work provides an intriguing potential to invigorate scholarly and scientific inquiry both in and outside the academy.

  13. [Current trends in gamete donation - psychosocial and ethical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpíková, T; Oborná, I; Konečná, H

    2017-01-01

    To overview contemporary knowledge of legal and psychosocial rules in gamete donation. Previously, anonymous donation was preferred and recommended by experts but currently, with respect to the right to know the genetic origin of individuals, the relation to donor anonymity was reconsidered in many countries. There is a growing tendency to introduce the open identity system in gamete donation. Such system may guarantee that the child born after gamete donation may have receive the identification data of the donor of gametes. A review. Clinic of Reproductive Medicine and Gynecology Zlin. An overview of recent literature evaluating the influence of donor anonymity vs. open identity on psychosocial development of children born after gamete donation as well as on the quality of the relationship between parents and children in such families. New medical technologies usually overtake the developmental speed of ethics and psychology, and their impact on human society. Current trend to open identity is strong but there is no clear evidence that the open identity is of real importance for the healthy psychosocial development of a child born after gamete donation. Furthermore, there is no evidence that anonymity and secrecy of the gamete donation is harmful. In case of the consideration of the change in legal regulation in anonymity/open identity in gamete donation we would suggest the thorough consideration of all consequences.

  14. Human papillomavirus: current status and issues of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Heena; Khan, Fahim H; Ahsan, Haseeb

    2014-02-01

    An association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical cancer was initially suggested over 30 years ago, and today there is clear evidence that certain subtypes of HPV are the causative agents of such malignancies. Papillomaviruses make up a vast family that comprises hundreds of different viruses. These viruses infect epithelia in humans and animals and cause benign hyperproliferative lesions, commonly called warts or papillomas, which can occasionally progress to squamous cell cancer. HPV infections are considered the most common among sexually transmitted diseases. One of the most prevalent cancer types induced by HPV (mostly types 16 and 18) is cervical cancer. Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing this infectious disease. These prophylactic vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs), are extremely effective in providing protection from infection in almost 100 % of cases. VLP vaccines of HPV are subunit vaccines consisting only of the major viral capsid protein of HPV. There are two types of vaccine available: bivalent vaccine (against HPV-16/18) and quadrivalent vaccine (against HPV-6/11/16/18). Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines, currently in clinical trials, may hold several merits over the current bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines, such as protection against additional oncogenic HPV types, less dependence on cold-chain storage and distribution, and non-invasive methods of delivery.

  15. Predictive data mining in clinical medicine: Current issues and guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Bellazzi, Riccado; Zupan, Blaz

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread availability of new computational methods and tools for data analysis and predictive modeling requires medical informatics researchers and practitioners to systematically select the most appropriate strategy to cope with clinical prediction problems. In particular, the collection of methods known as 'data mining' offers methodological and technical solutions to deal with the analysis of medical data and construction of prediction models. A large variety of these met...

  16. A Synthesis of Current Issues in the Labour Regulatory Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Bhorat; Carlene van der Westhuizen

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a selection of research papers, in the main written by labour law experts, have provided critical input and guidance on the nature of the debate around the efficiency of the labour regulatory environment in South Africa. In November 2007, key stakeholders from government, labour and business attended a workshop on the Labour Regulatory Environment in South Africa at the Mount Grace Hotel, Magaliesberg, where the results of the aforementioned studies were presented and de...

  17. Current issues in the design of running and court shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinschmidt, C; Nigg, B M

    2000-09-01

    This review paper focuses on the three most important functional design factors for sport shoes: injury prevention, performance and comfort. Concepts for these design factors are discussed for running and court shoes. For running shoes, pronation control and cushioning are still considered to be the key concepts for injury prevention despite the fact that conclusive clinical and epidemiological evidence is missing to show the efficacy of these design strategies. Several design features have been proposed to be effective in controlling the amount of pronation. However, the kinematic effects of such features seem to be subject-specific and rather small especially when looking at the actual skeletal motion. Recent running shoe research suggests that cushioning may not or only marginally be related to injuries and that cushioning during the impact phase of running may be more related to aspects such as comfort, muscle tuning or fatigue. For court shoes, lateral stability, torsional flexibility, cushioning and traction control appear to be important design strategies to decrease the risk of injury. With respect to running performance, the shoe concepts of weight reduction, efficiency and energy return are discussed. The concept of energy return does not seem to be a feasible concept whereas concepts which aim to minimize energy loss appear to be more promising and successful, e.g. weight reduction, reduction of muscle energy required for stabilization. For court shoes, optimal traction seems to be the key factor for performance. Research in the area of shoe comfort is still sparse. Cushioning, fitting and climate concepts appear to improve the comfort of both running and court shoes. Many investigations in the area of sport shoe research have shown that subject-specific responses can be expected. Different groups of athletes may require different types of shoes. The definition of these grouping characteristics and their design needs seem to be the most important

  18. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jong

    2016-10-01

    % growth in the same period, with two consecutive years of decline between 2012 and 2014. This steady upward trend of publication output from developing countries shows that researchers are becoming increasingly aware of the values of evidence-based research, without which would limit funding opportunities and restrict international collaborations, as well as partnerships.Advances in Modern Oncology Research is an Open Access journal aimed at increasing the accessibility of peer-reviewed information among researchers worldwide. The journal emphasizes on equal opportunity in scientific publishing, and is committed towards bridging the existing knowledge gap in cancer research between developed and developing countries. AMOR is keen to highlight the current challenges and opportunities of cancer research in developing countries, and the creation of a special issue dedicated to this subject is especially relevant and urgent to the broad community of cancer researchers because:(i It provides a much-needed platform to clinicians and researchers from developing countries to share important region-specific data, statistics, observations, and findings with the international community. This will not only improve the visibility of researchers from developing countries, but also enrich existing medical literature with updated information on the progress of cancer research in the developing world.(ii It gives clinicians, researchers, and policy makers from developed nations the opportunity to assess the existing and projected capability of developing countries in coping with the disease burden of cancer. Moreover, it is expected to equip stakeholders with key data and information to better manage vital resources, i.e. the allocation of funding and creation of knowledge transfer programs, moving forward.It takes collective efforts to address the escalating threat of cancer mortality and morbidity in the developing world. In order to introduce effective long-term solutions, it is

  19. Current research in cavitating fluid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, D. E. (Editor); Ball, J. H. (Editor); Khonsari, M. M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A review of the current research of cavitation in fluid films is presented. Phenomena and experimental observations include gaseous cavitation, vapor cavitation, and gas entrainment. Cavitation in flooded, starved, and dynamically loaded journal bearings, as well as squeeze films are reviewed. Observations of cavitation damage in bearings and the possibility of cavitation between parallel plates with microasperities were discussed. The transcavity fluid transport process, meniscus motion and geometry or form of the film during rupture, and reformation were summarized. Performance effects were related to heat transfer models in the cavitated region and hysteresis influence on rotor dynamics coefficients. A number of cavitation algorithms was presented together with solution procedures using the finite difference and finite element methods. Although Newtonian fluids were assumed in most of the discussions, the effect of non-Newtonian fluids on cavitation was also discussed.

  20. [Current issues of assisted reproduction in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventruba, P; Žáková, J; Trávník, P; Crha, I; Mrázek, M; Rumpík, D; Štěpán, J; Režábek, K; Mardešić, T; Malenovská, A; Veselá, K; Brandejská, M

    2013-08-01

    Participants of the lunch table discussion held during the 22nd symposium of assisted reproduction in Brno discussed some current topics of assisted reproduction. DISCUSSED TOPICS: More than 150 participants at round tables discussed 10 topics: 1. IVF in native AR cycle,2. observation of the embryo development dynamics, 3. evaluation and support of endometrial receptivity,4. increased number of elective single embryo transfers (eSET), 5. transport of gametes and embryos in the Czech Republic and between the Czech Republic and abroad, 6. National registry of assisted reproduction,7. new view on sperm pathology, 8. problems with the SAR membership records, 9. surogacy motherhood and 10. preimplantation genetic diagnosis and preimplantation genetic screening. All findings were presented in the afternoon session. Some of the topics brought concrete results. Some topics could not be clearly concluded and will be the subject of further discussions. A brief summary of those discussion conclusions presents this paper.

  1. [Hormonal contraception for men: still a current issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, M

    2010-01-01

    The current status of hormonal contraception in men involves the principle of suppression of gonadotropins, LH, and FSH. This must be achieved as completely as possible to facilitate cessation of spermatogenesis and, thus, reach azoospermia. Simultaneously testosterone has to be replaced. Exogenous testosterone administration achieves the goal of gonadotropin suppression, but needs in addition the supplementation of a gestagen to fully suppress secretion of LH and FSH. Suppression of gonadotropins by steroids requires constant serum concentrations of sex steroids; hence, attempts using daily oral or transdermal preparations were, so far, unsuccessful. Thus, the immediate prospect for male contraception is not a"pill" itself but a regimen of combined injectable steroids, which are in advanced clinical testing.

  2. Methodological issues in cross-cultural and multicultural rorschach research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James; Dana, Richard H

    2004-04-01

    Hermann Rorschach researched the utility of his inkblot experiment to understand psychopathology and cultural differences. Contemporary research with the Rorschach has evaluated its utility as a test, although it may more properly represent a clinical method with somewhat different evaluation criteria. Recent controversy regarding the adequacy of the Rorschach as a test and the adequacy of its normative data has at times distorted and oversimplified important methodological issues inherent in the study of cultural difference. Cultural processes remain a central and inadequately examined variable in Rorschach research; an important emergent area of inquiry is the Rorschach's clinical utility as a cross-cultural assessment instrument. We review multicultural and cross-cultural methodological issues intrinsic to contemporary Rorschach research here. Consideration of cultural issues enlarges and enriches the Rorschach clinical utility debate and suggests underexplored research strategies that can contribute to its resolution.

  3. CHILD’S EYE HEALTH PREVENTION IN BULGARIA - CURRENT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Popova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The care for children`s eyesight protection and keeping is a part of the strategy for the children n` health protection. Child`s excellent vision is extremely important for his or her good physical and psychical development, social adaptation, formation of the entire personality. The purpose of this study is parents` health culture necessary for keeping the children`s sight in a good state. The object of this study is how to provide health education. A thorough analysis has been made on the literature ranging over that problem using the sociological research methods, as following: documentary and inquiry ones; a comparative analysis method. The inquiry was conducted in the month of March - April in 2016. The participants in that research were some accidentally selected parents in the Region of Burgas and parents of pupils attending Mihail Lakatnik Primary Base School in the town of Burgas. The results obtained from the above said inquiry defined negative health behaviors on the part of the predominant group of parents towards the preventive cares for children`s eye health protection. Regardless of the existing Vision 2020 – The Right to Sight Program, a lack of an adequate collaboration has been evidenced among parents, outpatients` assistance specialist, ophthalmologists, health care professionals, teachers. The analysis of the results obtained by the research have demonstrated the necessity to improve parents awareness and raise their responsibility towards children`s eyesight protection and to plan and conduct a series of preventive activities with the purpose of non admission of eye diseases development and traumatic lesions occurrence.

  4. Martial arts sports medicine: current issues and competition event coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishime, Robert S

    2007-06-01

    More sports medicine professionals are becoming actively involved in the care of the martial arts athlete. Although there are many different forms of martial arts practiced worldwide, certain styles have shown a potential for increased participation in competitive-type events. Further research is needed to better understand the prevalence and profiles of injuries sustained in martial arts full-contact competitive events. Breaking down the martial art techniques into basic concepts of striking, grappling, and submission maneuvers, including choking and joint locking, may facilitate better understanding and management of injuries. This article outlines this approach and reviews the commonly encountered injuries and problems during martial arts full-contact competitions.

  5. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  6. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandel M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1 high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2 research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3 measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE, which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  7. NON-TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION: CURRENT ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Saraiva Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInnovationcan be considered to be a complex phenomenon including technical andnon-technical aspects. A remarkable increase in the interdisciplinary attention devoted to innovation has been noticed over the recent decades but the formal technological and economic aspects of innovation have received much more attention and have been taken into account in a far greater number of analyses, despite the great importance of the non-technological dimension of innovation.This paper attempts a review on the important subject of non-technological innovation. The main ideas on the non-technological dimension of innovation research will be highlighted, followed by an attempt to integrate diverse and disparate perspectives on the subject, to present evidence on possible generalizations and to discuss eventual research gaps and opportunities for further studies. The relationship between technological and non-technological innovation is complex and not fully understood. Among several aspects that will be covered in this paper, two specific ones will receive special attention in this brief analysis: the evidence on the impacts of non-technological innovation, and the measurements efforts that have been made concerning this phenomenon.

  8. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  9. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  10. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  11. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  12. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  13. Ethical issues in stem cell research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nancy Mp; Perrin, Jacob

    2014-07-07

    Rapid progress in biotechnology has introduced a host of pressing ethical and policy issues pertaining to stem cell research. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant issues with which the stem cell research community should be familiar. We draw on a sample of the bioethics and scientific literatures to address issues that are specific to stem cell research and therapy, as well as issues that are important for stem cell research and therapy but also for translational research in related fields, and issues that apply to all clinical research and therapy. Although debate about the moral status of the embryo in human embryonic stem cell research continues to have relevance, the discovery of other highly multipotent stem cell types and alternative methods of isolating and creating highly multipotent stem cells has raised new questions and concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise, but care is needed to ensure their safety in translational clinical trials, despite the temptation to move quickly from bench to bedside. A variety of highly multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, or urine - present the opportunity for widespread biobanking and increased access. With these increased opportunities, however, come pressing policy issues of consent, control, and justice. The imperatives to minimize risks of harm, obtain informed consent, reduce the likelihood of the therapeutic misconception, and facilitate sound translation from bench to bedside are not unique to stem cell research; their application to stem cell research and therapy nonetheless merits particular attention. Because stem cell research is both scientifically promising and ethically challenging, both the application of existing ethical frameworks and careful consideration of new ethical implications are necessary as this broad and diverse field moves forward.

  14. Surveying clinicians by web: current issues in design and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykema, Jennifer; Jones, Nathan R; Piché, Tara; Stevenson, John

    2013-09-01

    The versatility, speed, and reduced costs with which web surveys can be conducted with clinicians are often offset by low response rates. Drawing on best practices and general recommendations in the literature, we provide an evidence-based overview of methods for conducting online surveys with providers. We highlight important advantages and disadvantages of conducting provider surveys online and include a review of differences in response rates between web and mail surveys of clinicians. When administered online, design-based features affect rates of survey participation and data quality. We examine features likely to have an impact including sample frames, incentives, contacts (type, timing, and content), mixed-mode approaches, and questionnaire length. We make several recommendations regarding optimal web-based designs, but more empirical research is needed, particularly with regard to identifying which combinations of incentive and contact approaches yield the highest response rates and are the most cost-effective.

  15. Current issues in the design of clinical trials in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagan, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Although the randomized controlled trial has become the standard for regulatory approval of new drugs and devices in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the components of effective trial design and implementation are still evolving. While induction and maintenance of remission are the ultimate goals in the treatment of IBD, the conduct of trials intended to measure these outcomes has varied substantially over time, as have the definitions of disease remission. Significant progress has been made in recent years towards understanding patient- and disease-related factors that are essential considerations in clinical trial design. However, questions remain regarding the best methods for assessing disease activity, and importantly for establishing trial end points that are clinically relevant and likely to affect meaningful long-term improvements in disease outcomes. This chapter will discuss the current 'best methods' in IBD trial design and introduce potential future concepts for improving the efficiency of clinical trials as well as their utility to inform clinical practice management. 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T4 or free T4. This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  17. Current Issues in Histology, Biology and Prognosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Goran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High risk Hodgkin lymphoma patients may occasionally have borderline characteristics similar to gray zone lymphomas and T-cell/histiocyte rich B cell lymphomas. These entities require different and more aggressive treatment modalities. Aggressive behavior is often associated with disturbances caused by Epstein Barr virus, or immune evasion caused by overexpression of check point inhibitors PDL-1 and PDL-2 coupled with the lack of expression of Class I and II MHC molecules. Galectin-1, TARC, sCD163 and other surrogate markers of immunosuppression in Hodgkin lymphoma may be useful for the assessment of treatment response. The improvements in lymphoma management diminished the importance of prognostic factors unified in the International Prognostic Scoring system, reducing them from 7 to 3 factors that remained relevant. Interim PET analysis is the only method able to identify resistant patients while chemotherapy is ongoing, thus enabling adjustment of treatment according to the treatment response. Efforts for stratification of patients according to disease histology, biology, microenvironment, clinical scoring systems and PET scan are ongoing. Current breakthroughs have set strong background for novel therapies with monoclonal antibodies and check point inhibitors that will result in improvement of management of high risk patients.

  18. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  19. Maori responsiveness in health and medical research: key issues for researchers (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporle, Andrew; Koea, Jonathan

    2004-08-06

    Application for contestable government-research funding and ethical approval requires researchers to outline how their intended research project contributes to Maori development or advancement. When formulating their research proposals, the key issues for researchers are research utility, defining Maori, informed consent, confidentiality, issues with human tissues and genetic material, participant remuneration and recognition (koha), intellectual property, and involvement of local Maori health or social services. The most common Maori responsiveness issues in research applications can be readily approached by researchers who address straightforward methodological concerns, by working through precedents established by peers and colleagues, as well as by working with end-users of their research.

  20. Ethical Issues in Qualitative E-Learning Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Kanuka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 1980s education researchers began exploring the use of the Internet within teaching and learning practices, now commonly referred to as e-learning. At the same time, many e-learning researchers were discovering that the application of existing ethical guidelines for qualitative research was resulting in confusion and uncertainty among both researchers and ethics review board members. Two decades later we continue to be plagued by these same ethical issues. On reflection on our research practices and examination of the literature on ethical issues relating to qualitative Internet- and Web-based research, the authors conclude that there are three main areas of confusion and uncertainty among researchers in the field of e-learning: (a participant consent, (b public versus private ownership, and (c confidentiality and anonymity.

  1. Viral meningitis: current issues in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Fiona; Griffiths, Michael J; Solomon, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of viral meningitis and then focus in on some of the areas of uncertainty in diagnostics, treatment and outcome. Bacterial meningitis has been declining in incidence over recent years. Over a similar time period molecular diagnostics have increasingly been used. Because of both of these developments viral meningitis is becoming relatively more important. However, there are still many unanswered questions. Despite improvements in diagnostics many laboratories do not use molecular methods and even when they are used many cases still remain without a proven viral aetiology identified. There are also no established treatments for viral meningitis and the one potential treatment, aciclovir, which is effective in vitro for herpes simplex virus, has never been subjected to a clinical trial. Viruses are in increasingly important cause of meningitis in the era of declining bacterial disease. The exact viral aetiology varies according to age and country. Molecular diagnostics can not only improve the rate of pathogen detection but also reduce unnecessary antibiotics use and length of hospitalization. Further research is required into treatments for viral meningitis and the impact in terms of longer term sequelae.

  2. Researching the Theatre in the Third World: Issues and Insights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, therefore, examines the issue of research in the African theatre. Particular reference is made to Nigeria, a third world country. The survey method of research was adopted for this study. Subsequently, the final population for this study consisted of 90 well-administered questionnaires in 11 Universities in Nigeria, ...

  3. A perspective on methodological issues in research on adult student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A perspective on methodological issues in research on adult student attrition rates in distance learning. JC Welman, ESG Greyling, GP de Bruin. Abstract. The important role of analytical thinking is demonstrated in this article by means of examples of research on student attrition rates. The article shows how various points of ...

  4. Adolescent Sex Offenders: Issues in Research and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otey, Emeline M., Ed.; Ryan, Gail D., Ed.

    This document contains an introduction by Richard D. Krugman and five papers from the Adolescent Sex Offender Work Group meeting, which provide an overview of the present status of treatment programs for adolescent sexual offenders, methodological and ethical issues in research on etiology and treatment, and perspectives on research from those…

  5. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  6. Information technology research and development critical trends and issues

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Information Technology Research and Development: Critical Trends and Issues is a report of the Office of Technology Assessment of the United States Government on the research and development in the area of information technology. The report discusses information technology research and development - its goals, nature, issues, and strategies; environment and its changes; the roles of the participants; and the health of its field. The book then goes on to four selected case studies in information technology: advanced computer architecture; fiber optic communications; software engineering; and ar

  7. The US Opioid Crisis: Current Federal and State Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Cobin D; Brown, Raeford E; Du Vivier, Derick; Meyer, John E; Ramachandran, Banu K

    2017-11-01

    The United States is in the midst of a devastating opioid misuse epidemic leading to over 33,000 deaths per year from both prescription and illegal opioids. Roughly half of these deaths are attributable to prescription opioids. Federal and state governments have only recently begun to grasp the magnitude of this public health crisis. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released their Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. While not comprehensive in scope, these guidelines attempt to control and regulate opioid prescribing. Other federal agencies involved with the federal regulatory effort include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), and the Department of Justice. Each federal agency has a unique role in helping to stem the burgeoning opioid misuse epidemic. The DEA, working with the Department of Justice, has enforcement power to prosecute pill mills and physicians for illegal prescribing. The DEA could also implement use of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), currently administered at the state level, and use of electronic prescribing for schedule II and III medications. The FDA has authority to approve new and safer formulations of immediate- and long-acting opioid medications. More importantly, the FDA can also ask pharmaceutical companies to cease manufacturing a drug. Additionally, state agencies play a critical role in reducing overdose deaths, protecting the public safety, and promoting the medically appropriate treatment of pain. One of the states' primary roles is the regulation of practice of medicine and the insurance industry within their borders. Utilizing this authority, states can both educate physicians about the dangers of opioids and make physician licensure dependent on registering and using PDMPs when prescribing controlled substances. Almost every state has implemented a PDMP to some degree; however, in addition to mandating their use, increased interstate

  8. Ethics in family violence research: cross-cultural issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, L A

    1998-01-01

    This article examines ethical issues in cross-cultural research on family violence. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and avoid abuses of power. Special attention to informed consent, definition of the sample, composition of the research team, research methods, and potential harm and benefit are considered key to designing ethical cross-cultural research. The discussion is illustrated with examples from the literature and from the author's experiences conducting research on sexual abuse in a shanty town in Chile and with Puerto Ricans in the U.S.

  9. Internet Medical Usage in Japan: Current Situation and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Hiroaki; Haruki, Yasuo; Ogushi, Youichi

    2001-01-01

    Internet use by physicians and patients has become very popular in Japan. Fifty percent of physicians use the Internet to search for medical and other information. Over the past year, 22% of patients used the Internet to obtain medical information. Because there are no restrictions within Japan on using Web sites to advertise medical treatment, information can be freely sent out, and over the past two or three years this practice has increased dramatically. Internet medical information provides information about illnesses and medications, and it helps improve the quality of life of patients and families. Yet, depending on the content of the information provided and the way this information is used, there is a potential negative side as well. On principle, users are responsible for the way information is used, but there is a need for information providers to consider users' safety and to make the information effective for use. Because there is no absolute standard for evaluating the value of medical information, it is necessary to establish a system that opens a dialogue with society and that continuously accumulates high-quality information through the collection of various evaluations, rather than rely on an established authority. For industries and organizations related to commercial pursuits, in particular, it is most effective to establish their own codes for ethical conduct, rather than rely on governmental regulations. At the same time, it is important to have a confirmation function to evaluate how goals set by the outside are being implemented. Aiming at establishing a framework for the Internet medical usage, the Japan Internet Medical Association (JIMA) was founded in 1998 by medical professionals, lawyers, researchers, consumer representatives, patients and their families. We propose a system that would combine feedback from users, who would take on the role of evaluators of the implementation of an ethical code, with a displayed mark that verifies the

  10. Safeguarding children's rights in psychopharmacological research: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölch, Michael; Ludolph, Andrea G; Plener, Paul L; Fangerau, Heiner; Vitiello, Benedetto; Fegert, Joerg M

    2010-01-01

    Research on psychopharmacological treatment in children and adolescents is the subject of ongoing ethical discussion, as minors with mental disorders constitute a vulnerable patient group. Considering the important legislative changes in pediatric research over the past decade in both the US and Western Europe, there is a need to review recent developments in this area. Based on a systematic literature review, a hermeneutical analysis focusing the main issues of ethics in child and adolescent psychopharmacology is provided. Legal and regulatory aspects of psychopharmacological research in children are compared between the US and Europe. Relevant issues were informed assent and consent to research participation, minimal risk and burden of research, ethics of pharmacogenetics, research on "me-too" medications, and justice in global research. Additionally, the concern about undue influence of financial interests in research is also addressed. Incentives for the conduct of clinical trials with children comparable to those contained in US legislation are now provided in the EU. Research to develop "me-too" preparations may have no significant benefit for children, but can cause research burden and detract from clinically more important projects by utilizing limited investigator time and patient resources. Thus far, pharmacogenetic studies may bring more individualized treatment approaches into child psychiatry but they remain at present a promise for the future. Finally, the issues of avoiding undue influence from funders and conflicts of interest remain a prominent concern which can be solved by declaring conflicts and publishing all results of studies extensively.

  11. Issues for cross-cultural psychiatric research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, L

    1985-03-01

    South Africa's heterogenous society offers many opportunities for cross-cultural psychiatric research, but researchers in the country are subject to a number of restraints. Apart from legally enforced segregation, there are strict censorship laws and restricted access to certain types of information. The issues surrounding categorization of cultures and factors affecting publishing research from South Africa have important implications for the type of work that is done. It is a central argument of this article that the issues affecting research in South Africa are relevant to other countries as well, and parallels between the local and international context are drawn. The South African experience suggests that analysis of the research enterprise itself is a useful part of the business of cross-cultural psychiatric research.

  12. DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and Covey-based TQM: A historical perspective on current issues in research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1994-06-01

    Three years ago there were no standards or published guidelines for quality in research environments. Today, one standard has been published, and three guidelines documents are in final draft form and about to be published. In this paper, I describe the events that led to the writing of DOE 5700.6C, 10CFR830.120, and DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, focusing on the cultural barriers that arose (largely in the community of quality assurance professionals) during this process. I go on to describe why I believe that implementing DOE 5700.6C and 10CFR830.120 must be pushed even further toward an approach that embodies the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and why even this is not far enough. The reason is because the most crucial aspect of successfully implementing a quality initiative is to base it on a cohesive, unified foundation of organizational and individual values and beliefs. Stephen Covey`s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People and Principle Centered Leadership provide such a foundations.

  13. CURRENT ANSTO RESEARCH ON WASTEFORM DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, E.R.; Perera, D.S.; Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Carter, M.L.; Day, R.A.; Moricca, S.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Hanna, J.V.

    2003-02-27

    Current ANSTO scientific research on wasteform development for mainly high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications. Titanate wasteform products we have developed or are developing are aimed at immobilization of: (a) tank wastes and sludges; (b) U-rich wastes from radioisotope production from reactor irradiation of UO2 targets; (c) Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels; (d) 99Tc; (e) high- Mo wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels and (f) partitioned Cs-rich wastes. Other wasteforms include encapsulated zeolites or silica/alumina beads for immobilization of 129I. Wasteform production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting. In addition, building on previous work on speciation and leach resistance of Cs in cementitious products, we are studying geopolymers. Although we have a strong focus on candidate wasteforms for actual wastes, we have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the wasteforms in regard to crystal chemistry, their dissolution behavior in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and processing techniques.

  14. NASA Iced Aerodynamics and Controls Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Gene

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the state of current research in the area of aerodynamics and aircraft control with ice conditions by the Aviation Safety Program, part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC). Included in the presentation is a overview of the modeling efforts. The objective of the modeling is to develop experimental and computational methods to model and predict aircraft response during adverse flight conditions, including icing. The Aircraft icing modeling efforts includes the Ice-Contaminated Aerodynamics Modeling, which examines the effects of ice contamination on aircraft aerodynamics, and CFD modeling of ice-contaminated aircraft aerodynamics, and Advanced Ice Accretion Process Modeling which examines the physics of ice accretion, and works on computational modeling of ice accretions. The IRAC testbed, a Generic Transport Model (GTM) and its use in the investigation of the effects of icing on its aerodynamics is also reviewed. This has led to a more thorough understanding and models, both theoretical and empirical of icing physics and ice accretion for airframes, advanced 3D ice accretion prediction codes, CFD methods for iced aerodynamics and better understanding of aircraft iced aerodynamics and its effects on control surface effectiveness.

  15. Ethical issues in the collection, storage, and research use of human biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, Eric M; Quaid, Kimberly A

    2004-11-01

    Human biological materials (HBMs) are samples of blood, DNA, organs and tissues commonly obtained during routine surgical procedures or through direct donation by an individual. This article reviews four of the most pressing issues arising from the collection, storage, and use of HBMs in research: current regulations governing research with human subjects, misuse of genetic information, economic factors, and public knowledge.

  16. Ethical issues in action-oriented research in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawaty, Rini

    2017-09-01

    Action-oriented research is one of the most frequent research types implemented to transform community health in Indonesia. Three researchers and 11 graduate students from a developed country in East Asia conducted a fieldwork program in a remote area in South Sulawesi Province. Although the project was completed, whether or not the international standards for human subject research were applied into that study remains unclear. This study aimed to examine ethical issues raised from that case, analyze constraints to the problems, and recommend alternatives to protect vulnerable populations from being exploited by local/international researchers. A problem-solving approach was used in this study. It began with problem identification, evaluation of the action-oriented research goal, investigation of the constraints to the problem, and recommendation of some relevant alternatives to address the central issue. Ethical Consideration: The approval for conducting the action-oriented research that being investigated in this work was only obtained from the Head of local district. Some ethical issues were found in this case. No special protection for this population, no informed consent was obtained from the participants, exposure to social and economic risks, no future benefits for the subjects, and conflict of interests. Lack of control from the local research ethics committee and lack of competence of local researchers on human subject research were considered as the constraints to the problems. Creating an independent research ethics committee, providing research ethics training to the local researchers, obtaining written/video consents from underserved populations, and meeting local health needs were recommended alternatives to solve these problems. Indonesian government bodies should reform their international collaborative system on research involving human subjects. Exploitation may not occur if all participants as well as all local and national governing bodies

  17. [Mental issues of clinical research interviews in an intercultural context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M-S; Derivois, D

    2013-10-01

    39-year-old Korean woman living in Paris illustrates this intersubjective dimension. The analysis of the relationship between the researcher and his object of research will argue the projective dimension. In the quoted research, the researcher is facing a situation in which the participant's problems remind him of his own questionings. The work of analysis, with hindsight and in the after fact, on the position of the researcher and his subjective implication, is necessary to avoid the possible risk of subjectivation. The group dimension has several levels: institutional, national, international or even worldwide. Thus, the intercultural aspect is particularly highlighted in an attempt to present the complexity of the process. The idea of the interculturality awareness at several levels was highlighted in particular by taking the institutional transference/counter-transference movement into consideration. The transfer mezo level revealed itself as one of the analyzers of the group dimension, such as the motivation for accepting the participation in our investigation. In other words, it requires understanding both the relationship conducted by each individual with the institution, and that conducted by two subjects met within the institution. In the current world marked by globalization, "the geohistory of the clinical encounter" (Derivois, 2010) becomes an interesting tool to understand the complexity of the encounter issues arising from the clinical consultation. Copyright © 2012 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodologic issues in research on religion and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Strock, Adrienne L

    2004-12-01

    This study examines several methodologic issues in research on religion and health, including the measurement of the concept of religion, research designs, sampling, and statistical controls for assessing the "net" effects of religion on health outcomes. It briefly discusses differences in analytical perspectives that have contributed to the debate about the effects of religion on health. The authors review some of the methodologic problems of past research in this area of study and address what needs to be done to enhance the quality of the research. The authors conclude that the research methodology used in studies of religion and health has improved over time and that it continues to do so.

  19. Ethical issues in qualitative health research with homeless youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Josephine

    2003-07-01

    There is a need for increased guidance for the ethical conduct of qualitative research with vulnerable populations such as homeless youths. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the main ethical challenges of conducting qualitative research with homeless youths and to propose possible solutions to these challenges. This paper was informed by a review of professional guidelines for the ethical conduct of adolescent health research, national (US) and international bioethics bibliographical searches, and personal experience with qualitative research with homeless youths. The main ethical challenges of conducting qualitative research with homeless youths include establishing and maintaining healthy researcher roles and boundaries, addressing the risks of researcher burn-out and safety issues, assuring optimal confidentiality, and avoiding sensationalism and voyeurism. It is important for qualitative researchers who work with vulnerable populations to ensure that research is conducted in the most ethical way possible.

  20. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  1. Critical Issues in Research Design in Action Research in an SME Development Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…

  2. HIV prevention research ethics: an introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B

    2014-02-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics represents a sampling of projects fostered through the NIDA-funded Fordham University HIV Prevention Research Ethics Institute. The first three articles employ processes of co-learning to give voice to the experiences of individuals recovering from substance abuse and engaged in sex work who have participated in HIV prevention studies in the United States, India, and the Philippines. The fourth article describes a unique community-based approach to the development of research ethics training modules designed to increase participation of American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribal members as partners in research on health disparities. The last two articles focus a critical scholarly lens on two underexamined areas confronting IRB review of HIV research: The emerging and continuously changing ethical challenges of using social media sites for recruitment into HIV prevention research, and the handling of research-related complaints from participants involving perceived research harms or research experiences that do not accord with their initial expectations. Together, the articles in this special issue identify key ethical crossroads and provide suggestions for best practices that respect the values and merit the trust of research participants.

  3. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental justice (EJ research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1 documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children’s obesity and academic performance; (2 promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3 clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.

  4. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 251

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, 2007

    2007-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  5. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 244

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  6. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 255

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  7. ARL: A Bimonthly Report on Research Library Issues and Actions from ARL, CNI, and SPARC. Number 254

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, G. Jaia, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    ARL is the bimonthly report on research library issues and actions from ARL (Association of Research Libraries), CNI (Coalition of Networked Information), and SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition). ARL reports on current issues of interest to academic and research library administrators, staff, and users; higher education…

  8. Active management of labour: current knowledge and research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J. G.; Lilford, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review the evidence that the package of labour interventions collectively called "active management"--namely, strict diagnostic criteria for labour, early amniotomy, early use of oxytocin, and continuous professional support--reduce rates of caesarean sections and operative vaginal delivery in first labours. DESIGN--Review of observational data, supplemented by evidence from four separate overviews of relevant randomised trials previously published as part of the Cochrane Collaboration pregnancy and childbirth database. RESULTS--Observational data do not permit a clear conclusion. There have been no randomised trials of the total package of active management or of the use of strict diagnostic criteria alone, but trials of early amniotomy, early oxytocin, and these interventions combined do not suggest that these interventions are effective in reducing rates of caesarean sections or operative vaginal deliveries. In contrast, the provision of continuous professional support in labour seems to reduce both types of operative delivery, although the effect on caesarean sections is confined to those settings where non-professional companions are not normally present in labour. CONCLUSIONS--Delivery units should endeavour to provide continuous professional support in labour, but routine use of amniotomy and early oxytocin is not recommended. PMID:8081133

  9. Book Review Tour Guiding Research Insights, Issues and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    The book Tour guiding research – insights, issues and implications by Betty Weiler and Rosemary Black is a most welcome contribution to the specific research field of guided tours within tourism studies. It sets forth to “give an authoritative state-of-art review of the scholarly literature on tour...... guiding theory and practice to stimulate further research […] and to foster quality tour guiding” (p. 177). The authors provide an excellent review, and the book is a must read for researchers and academic practitioners, for whom it will become a necessary point of reference...

  10. Current trends in free software research

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Bosch, Ramon; Vila Marta, Sebastià

    2009-01-01

    This report analyzes how scientific research is studying free software. We find which research is being done on free software by looking into scientific journals and conferences publications. The data thus obtained is analized and the most salient trends related to free software discovered. We also reviewed the main works published in each free software research area.

  11. Research Leads: Current Practice, Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggall, Anna; Singer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This report was conceived as one of three publications that collectively provide a commentary on research awareness and research use within schools in England. This third report in the series presents findings from a small-scale, detailed study of teachers who are operating as their school's Research Lead. The small scale of the study is…

  12. Methadone Diversion: Experiences and Issues. Services Research Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciardi, James A.

    This report is a description of the phenomenon of methadone diversion as it exists now and places it in the context of prior research in this area. The intent here is to clarify issues around methadone diversion and to provide guidance to treatment administrators and program planners regarding efforts they can initiate to monitor this significant…

  13. Temporal issues in e-learning research: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbera, Elena; Gros, Begona; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Barbera, E., Gros, B., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Temporal issues in e-learning research: A literature review. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(2), E53-E55. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01255.x.

  14. Instructional Applications of Hypermedia: Functional Features, Limitations, and Research Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ok-choon

    1992-01-01

    Defines hypermedia and describes the structure and functional requirements of a hypermedia program. Potentials of hypermedia for instructional delivery, idea generation and organization, file storage and organization, and development of computer-based instruction materials are discussed. Several research issues related to instructional…

  15. Research with Children: Methodological Issues and Innovative Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargas-Malet, Montserrat; McSherry, Dominic; Larkin, Emma; Robinson, Clive

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades, a growing body of literature examining children's perspectives on their own lives has developed within a variety of disciplines, such as sociology, psychology, anthropology and geography. This article provides a brief up-to-date examination of methodological and ethical issues that researchers may need to consider when…

  16. Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    and sensitive issues like sexual mores and sexuality requires much more than a straightjacket social science method, such as simply doing a cross-section study .... between the quantum of social research on the behavioural factors that are driving the ..... Fatalism/the denial of AIDS. 8. Condom use. 9. Alcohol use. 10.

  17. Cultural Issues in the Communication of Research on Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; Martignone, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    It might be trite to observe that every research study is framed within a cultural background. In this paper we argue that the description of the cultural background is important for discussing, evaluating and exploiting internationally the findings of local educational studies. This issue is fundamental in every study in mathematics education…

  18. Dual-Career Couples: Research, Assessment, and Public Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Nancy Felipe

    1987-01-01

    Advocates need for more research on dual career families, dealing with power, role specialization, ethnicity, race, social class, sexual preference, sources of satisfaction, spouse support, coping strategies and spouse communication. Examines issues regarding equity and power in a relationship and sex and family roles. Religious and moral values…

  19. Examining Role Issues in Inclusive Classrooms through Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Wanda E.

    2012-01-01

    This participatory action research study engaged classroom teachers, special education teachers, teacher assistants, and a principal in examining and resolving role issues within inclusive classrooms. Analysis of data from multiple sources revealed three predominant findings: (a) when teachers were confronted with role problems, they identified an…

  20. Philosophy Pursued through Empirical Research: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.; Santoro, Doris A.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have pursued philosophical inquiry through empirical research. These empirical projects have been shaped--to varying degrees and in different ways--by philosophical questions, traditions, frameworks and analytic approaches. This issue explores the methodological challenges and opportunities involved in these kinds of projects. In…

  1. Wicked Issues in Situating Theory in Close-Up Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Paul

    2012-01-01

    "Wicked" issues are one-off problems that have no algorithms to follow to solutions. They are ill-understood or understood in multiple, perhaps conflicting, ways and are fundamentally complex in character. This paper argues that the term is an apt one to describe many aspects of the relationship between theory and data in educational research, and…

  2. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  3. Issues and special features of animal health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance, the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  4. What is special about the ethical issues in online research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgesem, Dag

    2002-01-01

    In the analysis of the ethical problems of online research, there is much to be learned from the work that has already been done on research ethics in the social sciences and the humanities. I discuss the structure of norms in the Norwegian ethical guidelines for research in the social sciences with respect to their relevance for the ethical issues of Internet research. A four-step procedure for the ethical evaluation of research is suggested. I argue that even though, at one level, the problems of online research are very similar to those we find in traditional areas of scientific research, there still are some issues that are unique to research online. A general model for the analysis of privacy and data protection is suggested. This model is then used to characterize the special problems pertaining to the protection of privacy in online contexts, and to argue that one cannot assume a simple distinction between the private and the public when researching in such contexts.

  5. Current Issues with Environmental Barrier Coatings for Ceramics and Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2004-01-01

    The environmental barrier coating (EBC) for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 ceramics is an emerging field as the application of silicon-based ceramics in the gas turbine engine hot section is on the horizon, both for aero and industrial gas turbines. EBC is an enabling technology for silicon-based ceramics because these materials without an EBC cannot be used in combustion environments due to rapid surface recession. Significant progress in EBC development has been made during the last decade through various government-sponsored programs. Current EBCs are based on silicon, mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and BSAS (barium strontium aluminum silicate with celsian structure). Volatility of BSAS, BSAS-silica chemical reaction, and low melting point of silicon limit temperature capability of current EBCs to about 1350 C for long-term applications. There is a need for higher temperature EBCs as the temperature capability of silicon-based ceramics continue to increase. Therefore, research is underway to develop EBCs with improved temperature capability compared to current EBCs. The current status and issues with the advanced EBC development efforts will be discussed.

  6. Integrated Fundamental Research on Current Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    were published in the international literature. Additionally, 13 invited lectures and 11 contributed lectures on various aspects of this research were...Additionally, thirteen invited lectures and eleven contributed lectures on various aspects of this research were delivered at Universities, Research...Ces parois accommodent les d6sorientations du reseau . qui risultent du glissement sur des combinaisons de diffirents systemes de glissement au voisinage

  7. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  8. Ethical and regulatory issues arising from proteomic research and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Marc A; Steinert, Ralf; Eder, Frank; Lippert, Hans

    2003-08-01

    Over the last two decades, medical research has begun to make extensive use of products of human origin in therapeutics, oncology, and most recently, in genetic diseases. This has raised many ethical issues involving patient rights, including issues of consent. Besides informed consent, researchers should address several topics when designing studies using human tissues. Reward for the patient should be kept minimal. Sample transfer should be organized along non-profit lines, at least in Europe. Sampling procedures should be at no risk for human volunteers, and at minimal risk for patients. Biosafety aspects should be addressed, in particular when international collaborations are intended or when collaboration is existing between academia and industry. Regulations on importation and exportation of human tissues should be observed. Data acquisition and storage should be addressed in accordance with national data protection regulations, in particular when using computerized databases. If follow-up information is to be taken, the authorization for such information should be requested. The right for patient's information (or for no information) on the research results should also be addressed. The issues of validation and patenting should be also solved, usually by informing the patient that he/she will have no commercial rights on potential research results. The patient should be told if the samples are transferred to another research laboratory or private company. Samples and related data should be destroyed on request at any time point during the course of the study. If possible, traceability of the donor should be ensured.

  9. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  10. Wireless networks and security issues, challenges and research trends

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib

    2013-01-01

     “Wireless Networks and Security” provides a broad coverage of wireless security issues including cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, epidemics, security performance analysis, security issues in applications. The contributions identify various vulnerabilities in the physical layer, MAC layer, network layer, transport layer, and application layer, and focus on ways of strengthening security mechanisms and services throughout the layers. This carefully edited monograph is targeting  for researchers, post-graduate students in universities, academics, and industry practitioners or professionals.  

  11. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  12. An Investigation of the Perceived Quality of Digital Media: Research and Research Design Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Misanchuk, Earl R.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on three experiments that tested the perceived quality of digital images, and discusses issues about conducting research into questions about technical quality in multimedia. Issues regarding conducting this type of research include contextualization versus decontextualization, selection of variables and their values, and presentation…

  13. Theory, Research, and Application: Some Critical Issues for Thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates current status of thanatological research by examining the most popular line of empirical investigation (death anxiety as assessed by self-report scales) and the most sweeping theoretical approach yet proposed (Freud's death instinct). Notes that the most popular vein of research and most spectacular theory have almost no relationship…

  14. Student Voice as a Methodological Issue in Academic Literacies Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Moragh

    2012-01-01

    Academic literacies research has been identified as an emerging but significant field in higher education. This article extends the discussions around methodology in academic literacies research by drawing on the current text and context debates in sociolinguistics and linguistic ethnography. It uses illustrations from a recent academic literacies…

  15. Soil ecotoxicology in Latin America: Current research and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; Chelinho, Sónia; Sousa, José Paulo

    2017-07-01

    Soils from some Latin American countries support the highest biodiversity levels on the planet and simultaneously have some of the most serious environmental impacts attributed to both historical and current agricultural practices and industrial activities. Soil contamination has resulted from intensive use of pesticides, extensive mining and other industrial activities, and uncontrolled management of waste within inappropriate regulatory frameworks. The present study presents an overview of the scientific research on soil ecotoxicology conducted in Latin America, summarizing the recent advances and highlighting the needs for further refinements in this research field. Most of the contributions to the scientific literature have been from Brazil. The most investigated issue is the ecotoxicity of pesticides and earthworms, which were the organisms most frequently used as test species. Needs identified by Latin American researchers include methods and procedures for: 1) identifying and collecting natural soils to be used as reference test-substrates in tests, 2) identifying and discerning the range of sensitivities of native test species to soil contaminants, 3) developing environmental guidelines applicable to tropical/subtropical conditions, and 4) developing methods and procedures for higher tier testing for full development and implementation of environmental risk assessment schemes. The protection of Latin American soils, including provision of goods and services, is currently framed in legislation and other regulations, but implementation requires significant improvement and additional training programs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1795-1810. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner Allan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cluster randomized trial (CRT is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster trials. Here we have outlined a series of six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation: 1. Who is a research subject? 2. From whom, how, and when must informed consent be obtained? 3. Does clinical equipoise apply to CRTs? 4. How do we determine if the benefits outweigh the risks of CRTs? 5. How ought vulnerable groups be protected in CRTs? 6. Who are gatekeepers and what are their responsibilities? Subsequent papers in this series will address each of these areas, clarifying the ethical issues at stake and, where possible, arguing for a preferred solution. Our hope is that these papers will serve as the basis for the creation of international ethical guidelines for the design and conduct of cluster randomized trials.

  17. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  18. International trade in health services and the GATS: current issues and debates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blouin, Chantal; Smith, Richard; Drager, Nick

    2006-01-01

    ...: Review of Current Trends and Policy Issues Chantal Blouin, Jens Gobrecht, Jane Lethbridge, Didar Singh, Richard Smith, David Warner 8 Trade in Health Services and the GATS: What Next? Richard Smith...

  19. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  20. The Spanish inquisition. Current research in perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dedieu, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    International audience; An historiographical global overview of the research on the Spanish Inquisition from 1998 to 2008. The paper laments the fact that the Spanish research failed to take into account the groundbreaking conclusions of recent Italian historiography.; Vue d'ensemble de l'historiographie espagnole concernant l'Inquisition de 1998 à 2008. Le texte regrette l'incapacité qu'a montré la recherche espagnole à prendre en compte les conclusions innovantes de l'historiographie italie...

  1. Research on the professional ethics issues of CPA in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, auditing collusion cases have occured frequently, reducing the integrity degree of CPA. Of all reasons, we should pay attention to professional ethics issues most. Because of professional ethics issues, the public have lost confidence in the industry of CPA. The industry of CPA is faced with serious crisis. In the circumstance, this paper researched professional ethics issues of CPA. Firstly, it explained the connotation of professional ethics, emphasized the importance. Secondly, through real cases, this paper analyzed the present situation of professional ethics of CPA, explained the lack of professional ethics. Finally, for solving the problem, this paper proposed the countermeasures to enhance the standards of professional ethics of CPA from the external and internal practice environment.

  2. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  3. Research trends and issues in informal science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinthong, Tanwarat; Faikhamta, Chatree

    2018-01-01

    Research in informal science education (ISE) become more interesting area in science education for a few decades. The main purpose of this research is to analyse research articles in 30 issues of top three international journals in science education; Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, and the International Journal of Science Education. The research articles during 2007 and 2016 were reviewed and analysed according to the authors' nationality, informal science education's research topics, research paradigms, methods of data collection and data analysis. The research findings indicated that there were 201 published papers related to informal science education, successfully submitted by 469 authors from 27 different countries. In 2008, there was no article related to informal science education. Statistical analyses showed that authors from USA are the most dominant, followed by UK and Israel. The top three ISE's research topics most frequently investigated by the researchers were regarding students' informal learning, public understanding in science, and informal perspectives, policies and paradigms. It is also found that theoretical framework used in informal science education which is becoming more strongly rooted is in a mix of the sociocultural and constructivist paradigms, with a growing acceptance of qualitative research methods and analyses.

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Five Important Issues We Aren’t Discussing (But Probably Should Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Cooney Horvath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a neuromodulatory device often publicized for its ability to enhance cognitive and behavioral performance. These enhancement claims, however, are predicated upon electrophysiological evidence and descriptions which are far from conclusive. In fact, a review of the literature reveals a number of important experimental and technical issues inherent with this device that are simply not being discussed in any meaningful manner. In this paper, we will consider five of these topics. The first, inter-subject variability, explores the extensive between- and within-group differences found within the tDCS literature and highlights the need to properly examine stimulatory response at the individual level. The second, intra-subject reliability, reviews the lack of data concerning tDCS response reliability over time and emphasizes the importance of this knowledge for appropriate stimulatory application. The third, sham stimulation and blinding, draws attention to the importance (yet relative lack of proper control and blinding practices in the tDCS literature. The fourth, motor and cognitive interference, highlights the often overlooked body of research that suggests typical behaviors and cognitions undertaken during or following tDCS can impair or abolish the effects of stimulation. Finally, the fifth, electric current influences, underscores several largely ignored variables (such as hair thickness and electrode attachments methods influential to tDCS electric current density and flow.Through this paper, we hope to increase awareness and start an ongoing dialogue of these important issues which speak to the efficacy, reliability, and mechanistic foundations of tDCS.

  5. Investigating the Research Approaches for Examining Technology Adoption Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Choudrie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of technology, a research topic within the Information Systems area, is usually studied at two levels: organizational level and user level. This paper examines the range of methods used for studying technology adoption issues at both these levels. The approaches were selected after conducting a review of 48 articles on technology adoption and usage, published in peer reviewed journals between 1985 and 2003. The journals reviewed include the MIS Quarterly, Information Systems Research, European Journal of Information Systems, Information Systems Journal, and other relevant journals in the IS area. The findings suggest that the survey method was used predominantly when investigating the topics of user adoption and the usage of technology. In contrast, the case study method is the most widely used when examining adoption issues at the organizational level.

  6. Overcoming the current deadlock in antibiotic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäberle, Till F; Hack, Ingrid M

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat bacterial infections. The situation is aggravated by the shrinking of the antibiotic development pipeline. To finance urgently needed incentives for antibiotic research, creative financing solutions are needed. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a successful model for moving forward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Soy Saponins: Current Research and Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponins are a biologically active class of triterpenoid phytochemicals found in soybeans at concentrations similar to those of the isoflavones, and the role they may play in nutrition and health is not well understood. Research the functionality of these compounds in animals and humans has been ha...

  8. Current trends in chloroplast genome research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, ..... and Algae, in Biotechnological Applications of Photosynthetic. Proteins: Biochips, Biosensors and Biodevices. Springer US. Ogihara Y, Isono K, Kojima T (2002). Structural features of ...

  9. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates: Current research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as an attractive biopolymer with a wide range of applications have been extensively studied. Many new strategies have been employed to effectively and economically produce PHAs. This mini-review mainly focuses on the research and development of new PHAs-producing strains, utilization ...

  10. Current Research on Englishes in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakir, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Much research on world Englishes (WE) since the 1980s has yet to impact significantly upon recent applied linguistics work in the areas of instruction, curriculum, testing and policy. Much of the received wisdom has been informed by the paradigm established by the earlier study of International English (IE) and its attendant foci in teaching…

  11. Current research trends on coffee wilt disease tracheomycosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can infor...

  13. Design-based researchissues in connecting theory, research and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette

    2015-01-01

    During the last 20 years, design-based research (DBR) has become a popular methodology for connecting educational theory, research and practice. The missing link between educational theory, research and educational practice is an ongoing issue and DBR is seen as an integrated methodology to bridge...... the gap. But is this as easy as it sounds? The purpose of the article is to identify and discuss issues involved in applying DBR. The article is based on methodology chapters and essays from three PhD studies applying the DBR framework to implement problem and project based learning (PBL). The findings...... indicate several key issues at both the scientific and personal level. Scientifically, the main issues are contribution to theory and the role of the researcher. At the personal level, it is an investment beyond normal research procedures to involve yourself as a researcher in curriculum change....

  14. Beyond Digital Natives: European Research on Media Education; Challenges of Technology and Pedagogical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoltella, Pier Cesare

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to map issues of Media Education currently under debate in Europe. It points out three main research trends. The first one concerns digital natives and their skills in media and technologies. Here we have quite a dialectic situation: on the one hand, a lot of scholars and policymakers are sure that digital natives exist, that…

  15. Indigenous Population Mobilities and School Achievement: International Educational Research Itineraries, Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper situates the articles in this special theme issue of the "International Journal of Educational Research" within the broader global literature regarding the educational experiences and opportunities of mobile communities. The paper distils those articles' contributions to extending current understandings about the specific…

  16. Maximizing response rates in survey research: Issues and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Clay Siebert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Collecting accurate data is a challenge for researchers, and securing sufficient response rates can be especially difficult, particularly when asking respondents to reveal sensitive information. This paper will review the relevant literature and illustrate the issues by reporting the methodes used to collect data for Work and Well Being: A Study of North Carolina Social Workers. By following a rigorous protocol, the study achieved a 75% response rate (N=751, a sample that was representative of the population, and minimal response bias. The results highlight the ways in which social work researchers can explore difficult substantive arenas and yet achieve an excellent response.

  17. Ethical Issues and Practical Challenges in Suicide Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Melanie A; Podlogar, Matthew C; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    Research with human subjects represents a critical avenue for suicide prevention efforts; however, such research is not without its ethical and practical challenges. Specifically, given the nature of research with individuals at elevated risk for suicide (e.g., increased concerns regarding participant safety, adverse events, liability, difficulties often arise during the institutional review board (IRB) evaluation and approval process. This paper aims to discuss IRB-related issues associated with suicide prevention research, including researcher and IRB panel member responsibilities, suicide risk assessment and management ethics and procedures, informed consent considerations, preparation of study protocols, and education and training. Points to consider and components to potentially include in an IRB application for suicide-related research are additionally provided. Literature relevant to ethics in suicide research and suicide risk assessment and management was reviewed and synthesized. Suicide research can be conducted in accordance with ethical principles while also furthering the science of suicide prevention. Despite the challenging nature of suicide prevention research, empirically informed solutions exist to address difficulties that may emerge in interfacing with IRBs. There remain areas for improvement in the IRB approval process that warrant further investigation and work.

  18. Ethical Issues in Social Media Research for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Gough, Aisling; O'Kane, Niamh; McKeown, Gary; Fitzpatrick, Aine; Walker, Tom; McKinley, Michelle; Lee, Mandy; Kee, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Social media (SM) offer huge potential for public health research, serving as a vehicle for surveillance, delivery of health interventions, recruitment to trials, collection of data, and dissemination. However, the networked nature of the data means they are riddled with ethical challenges, and no clear consensus has emerged as to the ethical handling of such data. This article outlines the key ethical concerns for public health researchers using SM and discusses how these concerns might best be addressed. Key issues discussed include privacy; anonymity and confidentiality; authenticity; the rapidly changing SM environment; informed consent; recruitment, voluntary participation, and sampling; minimizing harm; and data security and management. Despite the obvious need, producing a set of prescriptive guidelines for researchers using SM is difficult because the field is evolving quickly. What is clear, however, is that the ethical issues connected to SM-related public health research are also growing. Most importantly, public health researchers must work within the ethical principles set out by the Declaration of Helsinki that protect individual users first and foremost.

  19. Current topics on software use in medicinal chemistry: intellectual property, taxes, and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; Patlewicz, Grace; López-Díaz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    In recent times, there has been an increased use of software and computational models in Medicinal Chemistry, both for the prediction of effects such as drug-target interactions, as well as for the development of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships ((Q)SAR). Whilst the ultimate goal of Medicinal Chemistry research is for the discovery of new drug candidates, a secondary yet important outcome that results is in the creation of new computational tools. The adoption of computational tools by medicinal chemists is sadly, and all too often accompanied, by a lack of understanding of the legal aspects related to software and model use, that is, the copyright protection of new medicinal chemistry software and software-mediated discovered products. This article aims to provide a reference to the various legal avenues that are available for the protection of software, and the acceptance and legal treatment of scientific results and techniques derived from such software. An overview of relevant international tax issues is also presented. We have considered cases of patents protecting software, models, and/or new compounds discovered using methods such as molecular modeling or QSAR. This paper has been written and compiled by the authors as a review of current topics and trends on the legal issues in certain fields of Medicinal Chemistry and as such is not intended to be exhaustive.

  20. Issues in the design and implementation of psychoneuroimmunology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F Patrick; Mathews, Herbert L; Witek-Janusek, Linda

    2002-04-01

    Research that uses a psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) framework seeks to determine whether valid associations exist among stress, immune function, and health. These associations are difficult to conclusively determine due to the fact that PNI research is fraught with methodological difficulties. These difficulties arise from the multifaceted and complex nature of the neuro-endocrine-immune network that is the phenomenon of interest in PNI. This article discusses multiple issues of which investigators should be aware when designing and implementing PNI research including (1) the control of potentially immunomodulating variables related to demographics, behavior, and lifestyle; (2) the manner in which stress, endocrine function, immunity, and health outcomes are measured in consideration of the theoretical relevance to the research question, population, or disease entity understudy; (3) the way physiological specimens are procured and stored; and (4) the methods by which assays are performed.

  1. Intelligent multimedia surveillance current trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Atrey, Pradeep K; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent multimedia surveillance concerns the analysis of multiple sensing inputs including video and audio streams, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and depth data. These data are processed for the automated detection and tracking of people, vehicles, and other objects. The goal is to locate moving targets, to understand their behavior, and to detect suspicious or abnormal activities for crime prevention. Despite its benefits, there is societal apprehension regarding the use of such technology, so an important challenge in this research area is to balance public safety and privacy.

  2. Pancreatic cancer: Current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Marco; Kim, Minkyoung; Casari, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Despite the survival rate advancements in different types of cancer in the last 40 years, the perspective for pancreatic cancer patients has seen no substantial changes. Indeed, the five year survival rate remains around 5%. Nevertheless, in the last decade we have witnessed an increased interest in pancreatic cancer biology and this has produced a substantial increment in our knowledge on pancreatic cancer progression. The big challenge is now to translate this knowledge in better outcomes for patients. The aim of this review is to describe the latest discoveries and advancements in pancreatic cancer research and to discuss future directions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The current status of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tri Wulan Tjiptono; Syarip

    1998-10-01

    The Kartini reactor reached the first criticality on January 25, 1979. In the first three years, the reactor power is limited up to 50 kW thermal power and on July 1, 1982 has been increased to 100 kW. It has been used as experiments facility by researcher of Atomic Energy National Agency and students of the Universities. Three beam tubes used as experiments facilities, the first, is used as a neutron source for H{sub 2}O-Natural Uranium Subcritical Assembly, the second, is developed for neutron radiography facility and the third, is used for gamma radiography facility. The other facilities are rotary rack and two pneumatic transfer systems, one for delayed neutron counting system and the other for the new Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) facility. The rotary rack used for isotope production for NAA purpose (for long time irradiation), the delayed neutron counting system used for analysis the Uranium contents of the ores and the new NAA is provided for short live elements analysis. In the last three years the Reactor Division has a joint use program with the Nuclear Component and Engineering Center in research reactor instrumentation and control development. (author)

  4. The Influence of Neurolinguistic Applications on Second Language Research: Reviewing the Issues and Refocusing the Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mahmoodzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of neurolinguistic applications on second language pedagogy has often been a controversial subject of dispute. As such, researchers in this field have faced with some blurred and conflicting views in terms of the pedagogical applicability of neurological discoveries for second language instruction. In light of this research-based concern, the current short paper attempts to review the related issues and refocus the current direction of the neurolinguistic-second language pedagogy debate. The paper also concludes with some suggestions made in favor of an alternative neurolinguistic outlook for L2 researchers.

  5. Human subjects protection issues in QUERI implementation research: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Mona

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Subjects protections approaches, specifically those relating to research review board oversight, vary throughout the world. While all are designed to protect participants involved in research, the structure and specifics of these institutional review boards (IRBs can and do differ. This variation affects all types of research, particularly implementation research. Methods In 2001, we began a series of inter-related studies on implementing evidence-based collaborative care for depression in Veterans Health Administration primary care. We have submitted more than 100 IRB applications, amendments, and renewals, and in doing so, we have interacted with 13 VA and University IRBs across the United States (U.S.. We present four overarching IRB-related themes encountered throughout the implementation of our projects, and within each theme, identify key challenges and suggest approaches that have proved useful. Where applicable, we showcase process aids developed to assist in resolving a particular IRB challenge. Results There are issues unique to implementation research, as this type of research may not fit within the traditional Human Subjects paradigm used to assess clinical trials. Risks in implementation research are generally related to breaches of confidentiality, rather than health risks associated with traditional clinical trials. The implementation-specific challenges discussed are: external validity considerations, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, risk-benefit issues, the multiple roles of researchers and subjects, and system-level unit of analysis. Discussion Specific aspects of implementation research interact with variations in knowledge, procedures, and regulatory interpretations across IRBs to affect the implementation and study of best methods to increase evidence-based practice. Through lack of unambiguous guidelines and local liability concerns, IRBs are often at risk of applying both variable and inappropriate or

  6. Ethical issues and best practice in clinically based genomic research: Exeter Stakeholders Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, D; Bewshea, C; Walker, G; Ahmad, T; Bowen, W; Hall, A; Kelly, S

    2016-09-27

    Current guidelines on consenting individuals to participate in genomic research are diverse. This creates problems for participants and also for researchers, particularly for clinicians who provide both clinical care and research to their patients. A group of 14 stakeholders met on 7 October 2015 in Exeter to discuss the ethical issues and the best practice arising in clinically based genomic research, with particular emphasis on the issue of returning results to study participants/patients in light of research findings affecting research and clinical practices. The group was deliberately multidisciplinary to ensure that a diversity of views was represented. This report outlines the main ethical issues, areas of best practice and principles underlying ethical clinically based genomic research discussed during the meeting. The main point emerging from the discussion is that ethical principles, rather than being formulaic, should guide researchers/clinicians to identify who the main stakeholders are to consult with for a specific project and to incorporate their voices/views strategically throughout the lifecycle of each project. We believe that the mix of principles and practical guidelines outlined in this report can contribute to current debates on how to conduct ethical clinically based genomic research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Nanofluid Technology: Current Status and Future Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Stephen U.-S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Technology Division

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R&D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  8. Intuitive Physics: Current Research and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Holyoak, Keith J; Lu, Hongjing

    2017-10-01

    Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models. We also consider how recent work may be reconciled with earlier findings that favored heuristic models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The 2010 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue and online Database Collection: a community of data resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R; Galperin, Michael Y

    2010-01-01

    The current issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes descriptions of 58 new and 73 updated data resources. The accompanying online Database Collection, available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/a/, now lists 1230 carefully selected databases covering various aspects of molecular and cell biology. While most data resource descriptions remain very brief, the issue includes several longer papers that highlight recent significant developments in such databases as Pfam, MetaCyc, UniProt, ELM and PDBe. The databases described in the Database Issue and Database Collection, however, are far more than a distinct set of resources; they form a network of connected data, concepts and shared technology. The full content of the Database Issue is available online at the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  10. Informing Science Special Issue on Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this Special Issue of Informing Science highlight research areas in the interdisciplinary field of Information Science. Key research problems for Information Science include: (1 how to model and effectively support human information behaviors, including information seeking and use behaviors, and interaction with information retrieval (IR technologies, (2 how information should be organized intellectually in IR technologies for more effective human information retrieval, and (3 the organizational, social and policy implications for the information society of human information behaviors. Information Scientists are concerned with how people's information problems can be resolved. In this way, information science is an important part of the "informing sciences". Information Science has largely borrowed theories and approaches from other disciplines - but is now attracting attention from other disciplines as a generator of theory and models that delineate key areas of human information-related endeavors. As humans struggle to seek and use information within the plethora of information sources increasingly available via the Web, Information Science research is taking center stage. Each paper in this special issue is written by an expert in their area of Information Science research.

  11. Ethical issues and challenges in pressure ulcer research - the research nurses' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jimmy; Blundell, Sally; McGinnis, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    This paper explores the issues faced by research nurses in pressure ulcer research through reflection on our own practice and subsequently addresses these issues through critical appraisal of the existing literature. A critical reflection framework which provided an opportunity for group reflection and reflexivity was adopted to guide our reflection. Focus questions were formulated based on our reflections and used to inform our literature review. Keywords used in the literature review search included 'research nurse', ethical principles, ethical issues and reflection. A formal tool was used to appraise normative ethics articles. Reflection on our practice in pressure ulcer research identified four main issues: informed consent, confidentiality, methodological uncertainties and more generally the ethical dilemma of the conflict between our accountability and responsibility to the patients and obligations to the research studies. The notion of 'power relations' was found to permeate our practice as research nurses at all level. Six normative ethics papers were retrieved and critically appraised to aid our personal and professional learning and development in the conduct of ethical practice as research nurses in pressure ulcer research through the theory of practice which other research nurses and/or nurse researchers used in other disciplines. Four main ethical challenges and the issue of power relation were highlighted. Our reflection and the appraisal of the literature provided us the necessary knowledge and skills to better navigate these ethical challenges in the future. Copyright © 2012 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  13. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  14. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  15. Clinical decision support systems in hospital care using ubiquitous devices: Current issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Moqeem, Aasia A; Mirza, Farhaan; Lindén, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Supporting clinicians in decision making using advanced technologies has been an active research area in biomedical engineering during the past years. Among a wide range of ubiquitous systems, smartphone applications have been increasingly developed in healthcare settings to help clinicians as well as patients. Today, many smartphone applications, from basic data analysis to advanced patient monitoring, are available to clinicians and patients. Such applications are now increasingly integrating into healthcare for clinical decision support, and therefore, concerns around accuracy, stability, and dependency of these applications are rising. In addition, lack of attention to the clinicians' acceptability, as well as the low impact on the medical professionals' decision making, are posing more serious issues on the acceptability of smartphone applications. This article reviews smartphone-based decision support applications, focusing on hospital care settings and their overall impact of these applications on the wider clinical workflow. Additionally, key challenges and barriers of the current ubiquitous device-based healthcare applications are identified. Finally, this article addresses current challenges, future directions, and the adoption of mobile healthcare applications.

  16. Business model innovation: Past research, current debates, and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mokter

    2017-01-01

    in the research Q1 and highlights new directions for research. Research limitations/implications – This study analyzed articles that were found based on a systematic literature review approach. Practical implications – This study identifies some fundamental issues that managers need to understand regarding BMI...

  17. Current developments in environmental psychology : topics and researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Muinos, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to bring the work of early-career researchers in environmental psychology to the spotlight. These young researchers come from different countries and cultures, have their own theoretical approaches and employ different research methods to increase knowledge on the

  18. Current role of research ethics committees in health research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... All authors met the criteria for authorship. Conflict of interest. Research project funded by the International. Development Research Centre (ref. no. 105714 – 001). Acknowledgements. We acknowledge contributions to the con ception and design of the study from Prof. Benjamin Fayomi and Marius Kedote,.

  19. HTGR Dust Safety Issues and Needs for Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul W. Humrickhouse

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of high temperature gas-cooled reactor dust safety issues. It draws upon a literature review and the proceedings of the Very High Temperature Reactor Dust Assessment Meeting held in Rockville, MD in March 2011 to identify and prioritize the phenomena and issues that characterize the effect of carbonaceous dust on high temperature reactor safety. It reflects the work and input of approximately 40 participants from the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Labs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, industry, academia, and international nuclear research organizations on the topics of dust generation and characterization, transport, fission product interactions, and chemical reactions. The meeting was organized by the Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project, with support from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Information gleaned from the report and related meetings will be used to enhance the fuel, graphite, and methods technical program plans that guide research and development under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. Based on meeting discussions and presentations, major research and development needs include: generating adsorption isotherms for fission products that display an affinity for dust, investigating the formation and properties of carbonaceous crust on the inside of high temperature reactor coolant pipes, and confirming the predominant source of dust as abrasion between fuel spheres and the fuel handling system.

  20. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  1. The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wildt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA accounts for a significant fraction of ambient tropospheric aerosol and a detailed knowledge of the formation, properties and transformation of SOA is therefore required to evaluate its impact on atmospheric processes, climate and human health. The chemical and physical processes associated with SOA formation are complex and varied, and, despite considerable progress in recent years, a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation does not exist and therefore represents a major research challenge in atmospheric science. This review begins with an update on the current state of knowledge on the global SOA budget and is followed by an overview of the atmospheric degradation mechanisms for SOA precursors, gas-particle partitioning theory and the analytical techniques used to determine the chemical composition of SOA. A survey of recent laboratory, field and modeling studies is also presented. The following topical and emerging issues are highlighted and discussed in detail: molecular characterization of biogenic SOA constituents, condensed phase reactions and oligomerization, the interaction of atmospheric organic components with sulfuric acid, the chemical and photochemical processing of organics in the atmospheric aqueous phase, aerosol formation from real plant emissions, interaction of atmospheric organic components with water, thermodynamics and mixtures in atmospheric models. Finally, the major challenges ahead in laboratory, field and modeling studies of SOA are discussed and recommendations for future research directions are proposed.

  2. U.S.-Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    renovation ”), loosened many domestic political controls, and began to seek ways to extract itself from Cambodia. U.S.- Vietnam cooperation on the POW/MIA...government officials. Indeed, corruption related to inappropriate land use is one of the most sensitive and problematic issues for Vietnam . In Vietnam , the...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress U.S.- Vietnam Relations in 2011: Current Issues and Implications

  3. Symbolics in control design: prospects and research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders

    1994-01-01

    substantial contributions to future design environments, as it provides flexibility of representation not possible with traditional numerics. Based on the design process, views on research issues in the incorporation of symbolic processing into traditional numerical design environments are given......The symbolic processor is targeted as a novel basic service in computer aided control system design. Basic symbolic tools are exemplified. A design process model is formulated for control design, with subsets manipulator, tools, target and goals. It is argued, that symbolic processing will give...

  4. Issues in revising research instruments for use with Southern populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lorna; Belyea, Michael; Mishel, Merele; Germino, Barbara

    2003-12-01

    Researchers are in the initial stages of developing instruments that give insight into culture. Through these efforts nurses are gaining a more complete picture of the client's perspective on health and response to illness. Little emphasis has been given in the literature to adapting instruments for use with English speaking American sub-cultures. In this manuscript, a process used to revise instruments to capture elements of beliefs about managing uncertainty during treatment for cancer by Southern White and African-American men and women is presented. Bridging the gap in cultural knowledge between the investigators and study population is explored. Issues of instrument reliability and construct validity are addressed.

  5. Virtual Environments: Issues and Opportunities for Researching Inclusive Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron

    This chapter argues that virtual environments offer new research areas for those concerned with inclusive education. Further, it proposes that they also present opportunities for developing increasingly inclusive research processes. This chapter considers how researchers might approach researching some of these affordances. It discusses the relationship between specific features of inclusive pedagogy, derived from an international systematic literature review, and the affordances of different forms of virtual characters and environments. Examples are drawn from research in Second LifeTM (SL), virtual tutors and augmented reality. In doing this, the chapter challenges a simplistic notion of isolated physical and virtual worlds and, in the context of inclusion, between the practice of research and the research topic itself. There are a growing number of virtual worlds in which identified educational activities are taking place, or whose activities are being noted for their educational merit. These encompasses non-themed worlds such as SL and Active Worlds, game based worlds such as World of Warcraft and Runescape, and even Club Penguin, a themed virtual where younger players interact through a variety of Penguin themed environments and activities. It has been argued that these spaces, outside traditional education, are able to offer pedagogical insights (Twining 2009) i.e. that these global virtual communities have been identified as being useful as creative educational environments (Delwiche 2006; Sheehy 2009). This chapter will explore how researchers might use these spaces to investigative and create inclusive educational experiences for learners. In order to do this the chapter considers three interrelated issues: What is inclusive education?; How might inclusive education influence virtual world research? And, what might inclusive education look like in virtual worlds?

  6. Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y; Cochrane, Guy R

    2009-01-01

    The current issue of Nucleic Acids Research includes descriptions of 179 databases, of which 95 are new. These databases (along with several molecular biology databases described in other journals) have been included in the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection, bringing the total number of databases in the collection to 1170. In this introductory comment, we briefly describe some of these new databases and review the principles guiding the selection of databases for inclusion in the Nucleic Acids Research annual Database Issue and the Nucleic Acids Research online Molecular Biology Database Collection. The complete database list and summaries are available online at the Nucleic Acids Research web site (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/).

  7. Methodological Issues in Online Qualitative Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Paunksnienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal and discuss the methodological issues related to online qualitative consumer behavior research. A number of methodological issues are examined, related with the online qualitative research on consumer in-store emotional experience implemented by the authors. It is concluded that the Internet is becoming an increasingly attractive environment for consumer behavior research. A large part of scholars use the Internet as a medium for data collection and analysis. At the same time, researchers study the Internet as a source of information about consumer preferences, their virtual communities, prevailing relationships, traditions and attitudes. The Internet is analyzed as a phenomenon in itself, too. In this article, the Internet is analyzed as a tool for communicating with research participants, and collecting, storing and analyzing data. In general, qualitative inquiry is characterized by contextual and naturalistic approach to the study of objects and processes. Therefore, decision to carry out qualitative study in virtual environment must take additional strategic and tactical solutions. Most often, researchers need to decide about the mode of communication that solves time management, spontaneity and security problems. It is also relevant to sampling and its contents. Different solutions from quantitative studies are required in ensuring the ethics and quality of the study. During the analysis of the qualitative data collected through the Internet, mostly in a form of computer communication language (text, specific characteristics, such as backspacing and correction during the communication that impact spontaneity rate, the absence of non-verbal language, etc., are necessary to be taken into accountIt is concluded that all the above-mentioned issues must be addressed individually to the research topic, object, aim, research problem and the specifics of the respondents. When deciding about the method of

  8. Delphi research: issues raised by a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clibbens, Nicola; Walters, Stephen; Baird, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This paper will explore the issues raised by the pilot stage of a three-round Delphi study. The Delphi method involves a range of complex activity for the expert panellists and the researcher and yet there is a lack of debate in the academic literature about how Delphi research should be piloted. A Delphi study aimed at establishing areas of agreement between service users and registered nurses about therapeutic nursing on acute mental health wards. A pilot Delphi study tested the first-round questions, the use of two measurement approaches and the process of analysis and administration across three rounds. A brief review of published Delphi pilot studies in health care between 2001 and 2011; ten of 25 relevant papers are included here. Approaches to pilot tests for the Delphi method are discussed. Delphi researchers should publish greater detail about their approach to pilot studies. Pilot Delphi studies can support the development of first round questions but also offer a means to test measurement methods and define consensus in subsequent rounds. Pilot studies in Delphi research provide useful guidance about first-round questions as well as measurement methods, consensus thresholds and controlled feedback in subsequent rounds. They support the involvement of professionals and service users and they need to trial the recruitment strategy to avoid between-round delays. Delphi researchers should publish details of their approach to pilot studies.

  9. Being Bilingual: Issues for Cross-Language Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusia Temple

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The current political debates in England highlight the role of language in citizenship, social exclusion, and discrimination. Similar debates can also be found around the world. Correspondingly, research addressing different language communities is burgeoning. Service providers and academics are increasingly employing bilingual community researchers or interpreters to carry out research. However, there is very little written about the effect of working with bilingual researchers. What it means to be bilingual is often essentialised and rarely problematised. Bilingual researchers are seen as unproblematically acting as bridges between communities just because they are bilingual. Their ties to communities, their use of language, and their perspectives on the research are rarely investigated. Language is tied in an unproblematic way to meaning, values, and beliefs. In this article, I use examples from my own research to question what it means to be bilingual and to do cross-language research. I argue that there is no straightforward way in which meanings can be read off from researchers’ ties to language and that being bilingual is not the same for everyone.

  10. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H. [eds.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  11. Doing Sensitive Research Sensitively: Ethical and Methodological Issues in Researching Workplace Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Declan Fahie PhD

    2014-01-01

    Complex ethical and methodological issues can sometimes arise when conducting research into sensitive topics. By employing an autobiographic approach to explore the personal dilemmas that arose for the author while undertaking doctoral research on workplace bullying in Irish education, this article highlights potential difficulties and tensions which may arise for researchers (particularly those at the beginning of their careers) when conducting sensitive research. Specific attention is paid ...

  12. MULTIGENERATIONAL ASPECTS OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: ISSUES FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Robert D

    2014-03-01

    The articles in this special issue show the vitality and progress of research on multigenerational aspects of social mobility, stratification, and inequality. The effects of the characteristics and behavior of grandparents and other kin on the statuses, resources, and positions of their descendants are best viewed in a demographic context. Intergenerational effects work through both the intergenerational associations of socioeconomic characteristics and also differential fertility and mortality. A combined socioeconomic and demographic framework informs a research agenda which addresses the following issues: how generational effects combine with variation in age, period, and cohort within each generation; distinguishing causal relationships across generations from statistical associations; how multigenerational effects vary across socioeconomic hierarchies, including the possibility of stronger effects at the extreme top and bottom; distinguishing between endowments and investments in intergenerational effects; multigenerational effects on associated demographic behaviors and outcomes (especially fertility and mortality); optimal tradeoffs among diverse types of data on multigenerational processes; and the variability across time and place in how kin, education, and other institutions affect stratification.

  13. Arctic development and historical analysis: the use of historical methodology in addressing current issues in the Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Vasiliki Kravariotis

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the applicability of historical methodology to current issues in the Canadian Arctic. STUDY DESIGN: This is a literature-based analytical historical study, which draws on material from database searches of MEDLINE, Anthropology Plus, POLARInfo, the Arctic Blue Books and Historical Abstracts. Material was also obtained from physical searches of the University of Alberta Libraries and Library and Archives Canada collections, as well as from field research in the reco...

  14. Bioethical Issues in Conducting Pediatric Dentistry Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury

    2017-10-31

    Pediatric clinical research on new drugs and biomaterials involves children in order to create valid and generalizable knowledge. Research on vulnerable populations, such as children, is necessary but only admissible when researchers strictly follow methodological and ethical standards, together with the respect to human rights; and very especially when the investigation cannot be conducted with other population or when the potential benefits are specifically for that age group. Clinical research in Pediatric Dentistry is not an exception. The aim of the present article was to provide the bioethical principles (with respect to the child/parents' autonomy, benefit/risk analysis, and distributive justice), and recommendations, including informed consent, research ethics committees, conflict of interest, and the "equipoise" concept. Current and future worldwide oral health research in children and adolescents must be conducted incorporating their perspectives in the decision-making process as completely as possible. This concept must be carefully considered when a dental clinical study research is going to be planned and conducted, especially in the case of randomized controlled trials, in which children will be recruited as participants.

  15. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries.

  16. Ethical responsibilities in nursing: research findings and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, V R

    1991-01-01

    Discussions in the literature assert that nurses are becoming increasingly cognizant of their ethical responsibilities, but that they are often ill prepared to participate in ethical decision making. A review of selected research literature from 1970 to 1987 was undertaken to validate these assertions. A total of 12 studies related to ethical responsibilities was identified in the review; all studies were published between 1980 and 1987. The majority of studies were at the descriptive and exploratory levels and employed Kohlberg's cognitive theory of moral development as their conceptual framework. Significant findings related to educational level and ethical responsibilities were consistent across studies. Findings related to age and clinical experience were mixed; the effects of economic level, religion-religiosity, ethnicity, and other variables on ethical responsibilities were not significant. Issues raised in the light of the existing research include the use of Kohlberg's theory as a conceptual orientation in nursing groups and limited data on the reliability and validity of instruments used in measuring ethical constructs. Recommendations for future research on ethical responsibilities include the validation of Kohlberg's theory for nursing investigations, exploration of other frameworks for developing a multidimensional view of ethical responsibilities, and the use of qualitative research designs.

  17. The parameters of the current legal framework for health research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-02

    Nov 2, 2013 ... medicines and related substances. • the development of new applications of human technology.[1]. Second, the research activity must aim at knowledge production. While the NHA does not define 'research which contributes to knowledge', the national ethical guidelines issued by the Department of Health ...

  18. Doing Sensitive Research Sensitively: Ethical and Methodological Issues in Researching Workplace Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Fahie PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex ethical and methodological issues can sometimes arise when conducting research into sensitive topics. By employing an autobiographic approach to explore the personal dilemmas that arose for the author while undertaking doctoral research on workplace bullying in Irish education, this article highlights potential difficulties and tensions which may arise for researchers (particularly those at the beginning of their careers when conducting sensitive research. Specific attention is paid to the importance of protecting the researcher from harm, the exiting of the research relationship in an appropriate manner, and the necessity of anticipating potential problems before they become manifest.

  19. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Background and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-24

    13 1 Directly Observed Treatment, Short - Course . 2 Global Fund, Progress Report. January 21, 2005, at [http...automobiles to deliver DOTS tuberculosis therapy to patients. Supporters of the Global Fund maintained that the large initial disbursement to Ethiopia ...Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis , and Malaria: Background and Current Issues Updated March 24, 2005 Raymond W. Copson and Tiaji Salaam Foreign Affairs

  20. Implementation issues on the design of current loops based on resonant regulators for isolated microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current in voltage source inverters (VSI) operating in stand-alone microgrids. A decoupling technique is proposed as an effective measure to enhance the dynamics. Further implementation issues...

  1. Japanese as a Second Language Assessment in Japan: Current Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatasa, Yukiko; Watanabe, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews assessment practices of Japanese as a second language as taught in Japan since the 1980s. It begins with an explanation of the social and political conditions that have impacted assessment practices in Japan and then addresses current assessment practices and issues. This analysis first examines large-scale tests developed in…

  2. Wolves in the Wild: Using Current Issues to Make Science Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jennie; Sadler, Troy D.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, one of our most important responsibilities is to help students develop dynamic and useful views of science. Using current issues to create learning experiences can help generate student interest in science and help students appreciate its significance in both personal and societal contexts. This article presents a lesson based on news…

  3. Leadership in Organizations: Current issues and key trends (3rd edition)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of a popular text first published in 2004. The 14 chapters locate the leadership phenomenon in the wider social and economic context. As the title suggests the underlying emphasis is upon changes to the understanding of leadership with reference to trends and current issues.

  4. Assessment of BSBA Students' Conversancy in Current Business Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Maskulka, Therese A.; Kaminski, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the College of Business at Kutztown University developed a set of five learning goals for its BSBA program. In fall, 2011, the college's Assurance of Learning Committee began to pursue the assessment of the last of these goals: "BSBA graduates will be conversant in current business issues, including ethics, social…

  5. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  6. Beyond STS: A research-based framework for socioscientific issues education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Simmons, Michael L.; Howes, Elaine V.

    2005-05-01

    An important distinction can be made between the science, technology, and society (STS) movement of past years and the domain of socioscientific issues (SSI). STS education as typically practiced does not seem embedded in a coherent developmental or sociological framework that explicitly considers the psychological and epistemological growth of the child, nor the development of character or virtue. In contrast, the SSI movement focuses on empowering students to consider how science-based issues reflect, in part, moral principles and elements of virtue that encompass their own lives, as well as the physical and social world around them. The focus of this paper is to describe a research-based framework of current research and practice that identifies factors associated with reasoning about socioscientific issues and provide a working model that illustrates theoretical and conceptual links among key psychological, sociological, and developmental factors central to SSI and science education.

  7. Emotion theory and research: highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E

    2009-01-01

    Emotion feeling is a phase of neurobiological activity, the key component of emotions and emotion-cognition interactions. Emotion schemas, the most frequently occurring emotion experiences, are dynamic emotion-cognition interactions that may consist of momentary/situational responding or enduring traits of personality that emerge over developmental time. Emotions play a critical role in the evolution of consciousness and the operations of all mental processes. Types of emotion relate differentially to types or levels of consciousness. Unbridled imagination and the ability for sympathetic regulation of empathy may represent both potential gains and losses from the evolution and ontogeny of emotion processes and consciousness. Unresolved issues include psychology's neglect of levels of consciousness that are distinct from access or reflective consciousness and use of the term "unconscious mind" as a dumpster for all mental processes that are considered unreportable. The relation of memes and the mirror neuron system to empathy, sympathy, and cultural influences on the development of socioemotional skills are unresolved issues destined to attract future research.

  8. Emotion Theory and Research: Highlights, Unanswered Questions, and Emerging Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion feeling is a phase of neurobiological activity, the key component of emotions and emotion-cognition interactions. Emotion schemas, the most frequently occurring emotion experiences, are dynamic emotion-cognition interactions that may consist of momentary/ situational responding or enduring traits of personality that emerge over developmental time. Emotions play a critical role in the evolution of consciousness and the operations of all mental processes. Types of emotion relate differentially to types or levels of consciousness. Unbridled imagination and the ability for sympathetic regulation of empathy may represent both potential gains and losses from the evolution and ontogeny of emotion processes and consciousness. Unresolved issues include psychology’s neglect of levels of consciousness that are distinct from access or reflective consciousness and use of the term “unconscious mind” as a dumpster for all mental processes that are considered unreportable. The relation of memes and the mirror neuron system to empathy, sympathy, and cultural influences on the development of socioemotional skills are unresolved issues destined to attract future research. PMID:18729725

  9. The contribution of geomorphological research to environmental issues in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bocco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the development of Mexican geomorphology and specially its contribution to environmental issues. To this end, a thorough literature review was carried out; papers were differentiated according to the type of journal (Mexican and international. Special emphasis was placed on analyzing whether the interest on environment was derived from a well defined theoretical framework, in particular in terms of the insertion of geomorphology in the geographic arena in Mexico. The review has focused on secientific papers duly refereed and available at the Internet. Thus other research was not included. However, that the database described in this paper represents a solid sample of the entire universe of the efforts of Mexican geomorphologists.

  10. Sustainability in facilities management: an overview of current research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Sarasoja, Anna-Liisa; Ramskov Galamba, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    indicated that the current research varies in focus, methodology and application of theory, and it was concluded that the current research primary addresses environmental sustainability, whereas the current research which takes an integrated strategic approach to SFM is limited. The article includes lists...... the emerging sub-discipline of sustainable facilities management (SFM) on research, an overview of current studies is needed. The purpose of this literature review is to provide exactly this overview. Design/methodology/approach: This article identifies and examines current research studies on SFM through...... a comprehensive and systematic literature review. The literature review included screening of 85 identified scientific journals and almost 20,000 articles from the period of 2007-2012. Of the articles reviewed, 151 were identified as key articles and categorised according to topic. Findings: The literature review...

  11. Current thinking in qualitative research: evidence-based practice, moral philosophies, and political struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Christina; Magasi, Susan; Frank, Gelya

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue on current thinking in qualitative research and occupational therapy and science, the authors focus on the importance of rigorous qualitative research to inform occupational therapy practice. The authors chosen for this special issue reflect a "second generation of qualitative researchers" who are critical, theoretically sophisticated, methodologically productive, and politically relevant to show that working with disabled clients is political work. Three themes emerged across the articles included in this special issue: (1) recognizing and addressing social justice issues; (2) learning from clients' experiences; and (3) critically reframing occupational therapy's role. These themes can inform occupational therapy practice, research, and education to reflect a more client-centered and politically engaging approach. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Folch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC. PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5. Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  13. Current legal and institutional issues in the commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmons, J. T.; Sheehy, K. D.; Singer, J. R.; Gardner, T. C.

    1982-01-01

    Legal and institutional factors affecting the development and commercial diffusion of phosphoric acid fuel cells are assessed. Issues for future research and action are suggested. Perceived barriers and potential opportunities for fuel cells in central and dispersed utility operations and on-site applications are reviewed, as well as the general concept of commercialization as applied to emerging energy technologies.

  14. Special Issue on Gender and Writing | Gender and literacy issues and research: Placing the spotlight on writing

    OpenAIRE

    Judy M. Parr; Shelley Stagg Peterson

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Writing Research, we review four decades of research, bringing writing to the forefront in conversations devoted to gender and literacy. We identify the impetus for much of the research on gender and writing and situate the four articles in this special issue within three themes: gender patterns in what and how students write, cognitive and socio-cultural factors influencing gender differences in student writing, and attempts to provi...

  15. Measurement issues in research on social support and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, K; Holst, E; Kreiner, S; Schoenborn, C; Wilson, R

    1994-04-01

    The aims were: (1) to identify methodological problems that may explain the inconsistencies and contradictions in the research evidence on social support and health, and (2) to validate a frequently used measure of social support in order to determine whether or not it could be used in multivariate analyses of population data in research on social support and health. Secondary analysis of data collected in a cross sectional survey of a multistage cluster sample of the population of the United States, designed to study relationships in behavioural, social support and health variables. Statistical models based on item response theory and graph theory were used to validate the measure of social support to be used in subsequent analyses. Data on 1755 men and women aged 20 to 64 years were available for the scale validation. Massive evidence of item bias was found for all items of a group membership subscale. The most serious problems were found in relationship to an item measuring membership in work related groups. Using that item in the social network scale in multivariate analyses would distort findings on the statistical effects of education, employment status, and household income. Evidence of item bias was also found for a sociability subscale. When marital status was included to create what is called an intimate contacts subscale, the confounding grew worse. The composite measure of social network is not valid and would seriously distort the findings of analyses attempting to study relationships between the index and other variables. The findings show that valid measurement is a methodological issue that must be addressed in scientific research on population health.

  16. Ethnic Tuvans in Tsagaan-Nuur sumon, Mongolia: Research issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda D. Suvandii

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a historical and ethnographic overview of a sub-ethnic group of Tuvans living in sumon Tsagaan Nuur, Khövsgöl aimag, Mongolia. They are known locally as Tsaatans and by self-appellation of Tukha or Tukhalar. Our study is based to the body of existing research and on the field data collected by the authors during expeditions to the Tsaatan area in 2010-11 and 2015-16. A comparative analysis and a summary of existing information call for further research into a number of specific issues. While ethnographic and philological studies of the Tsaatans had begun in mid-20th century, the new stage, spearheaded by scholars from Mongolia and Russia (Tuva, began in the 2000s. ‘Tsaatan’ (i.e. deer owner is a term applied to the Tukhalars in Mongolia to mark their deer herding-based households. Other issues under discussion include specific details of the Tsaatans’ ethnic history, population size, etc. Mongol acts as the official and interethnic communication language in the sumon. The native Tuvan language is used by the elderly and middle-aged Tukhalars in everyday speech. Youngsters study in Mongol schools where Tuvan language is not an official discipline, which both makes the prospects of language survival dire and threatens the very foundation of the Tsaatans’ ethnic self-identification. Herding the taiga deer still remains the most important economic practice of Tsaatan Tuvans. According to their residence area, Tsaatans are subdivided into deer herders of the taiga of the West and South. Alongside with deer herding, hunting is one of Tsaatan’s main pursuits, which brings them food, clothing and habitation. Domestic utensils are suited for nomadic life, and the staples of Tsaatans’ diet are venison and doe milk. Thus traditional Tsaatan lifestyles are very close to that of deer herders of Tuvans in Tojin rayon, Republic of Tuva. Tsaatans still largely follow their long-time economic practices, which allows them to

  17. Talent management : Current theories and future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Ariss, A.; Cascio, W.F.; Paauwe, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on Talent Management (TM) has been lagging behind businesses in offering vision and leadership in this field. After sketching a comprehensive outline of knowledge about TM, theoretical as well as practical, we introduce the papers in this special issue and their important contributions.

  18. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  19. Current Contexts for Research in Educational Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Research in education, and in educational leadership and management, has been heavily criticized in the UK for lack of quality and relevance. The criticism has led to a number of initiatives intended to ameliorate the situation, of which this special issue focusing on methods of investigation is a part. The article briefly considers the range of…

  20. Book Review Current Issues in Islamic Banking and Finance in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Andriansyah, Yuli

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews Current Issues in Islamic Banking and Finance: Resilience and Stability in the Present System, a book edited by Angelo M. Venardos. The book focused mainly on the recent events in Islamic banking and finance in south east Asia with additional information about it in Japan and U.S. The comprehensive approach to cover large topics in Islamic banking and finance make this book highly recommended for those who seek development of this industry in the region.

  1. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    Security Operations.”9 Among other matters , the Report deals with the legal justification for the United States ’ ongoing use of military force...relevant matters including actions taken and planned actions under the authorization none specified President must certify that the United States ...A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State : Issues and Current Proposals Matthew C. Weed Specialist in Foreign

  2. Current issues around the pharmacotherapy of ADHD in children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, W.M.; Faber, A; Ban, van den, A.W.; Tobi, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background New drugs and new formulations enter the growing market for ADHD medication. The growing awareness of possible persistence of ADHD impairment beyond childhood and adolescence resulting in increased pharmacotherapy of ADHD in adults, is also a good reason for making an inventory of the what is generally known about pharmacotherapy in ADHD. Aim To discuss current issues in the possible pharmacotherapy treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults with respect to the position ...

  3. MIGRATION, A CURRENT ISSUE: THE CRISIS OF TODAY, THE CHALLENGE OF TOMORROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu PĂTRAŞCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to portray a clear perspective of the problem of immigrants, who are arriving in Europe from the Middle East conflict zones (particularly Syria and Iraq and from North Africa (mainly Libya. The causes that conducted to the development of such a phenomenon represent the motivation for choosing this theme, as well as its effects on the functionality of the EU at an institutional level and finally yet importantly the “trenchant” visions of the European public opinion, amplified by the mass media: the pros and cons of accepting the wave of refugees. The author's approach aims to put in balance both the positive effects of the phenomenon on the European continent, as well as the negative ones. Positive effects might consist in obtaining additional work force, as Europe is currently facing a demographic aging phenomenon. Furthermore, from the perspective of EU citizens, who believe in the cohesion of the European institutions, the acceptance of refugees represents a basic value for unity and further on stands for the formation of a homogenous European Union, therefore emphasising the importance of each individual. On the other hand, analysing the matter in the most realistic possible way, the risk of potential terrorist penetration in Europe is quite high and unmanageable. As a research method, we will use document analysis, referring to media articles and official documents. This phenomenon is particularly complex and the crisis result will depend on the effectiveness of the manner in which each national authority as well as the European ones will handle the issue.

  4. Book Review: International terrorism. Current research and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: International terrorism. Current research and future directions. Book Author: Alan D. Buckley & Daniel D. Olson (Eds.) Wayne Avery Publishing Group, 1980. 113pp., Illustrations ...

  5. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  6. Research ethics in Internet-enabled research: human subjects issues and methodological myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    As Internet resources are used more frequently for research on social and psychological behavior, concerns grow about whether characteristics of such research affect human subjects protections. Early efforts to address such concerns have done more to identify potential problems than to evaluate them or to seek solutions, leaving bodies charged with human subjects oversight in a quagmire. This article critiques some of these issues in light of the US Code of Federal Regulations' policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, and argues that some of the issues have no pertinence when examined in the context of common methodological approaches that previous commentators failed to consider. By separating applicable contexts from those that are not, and by identifying cases where subjects' characteristics are irrelevant and/or impossible to provide, oversight committees may be able to consider research applications more appropriately, and investigators may be less ethically bound to ascertain and demonstrate those characteristics.

  7. Quality and quantity tackling real issues in an institutional research repository

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Simpson, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    The TARDis project has examined and tackled many practical issues in scaling up from the current individual departmental scholarly communication practices towards an active institutional research repository. This repository must, of necessity, serve a variety of goals for a wide spread of disciplines. We illustrate the steps that have helped move the University of Southampton’s institutional research repository into a key position within the university’s research strategy for both visibility and reporting. We demonstrate the practical activities being developed to manage research assessment in conjunction with the EPrints software. These balance others which we show help fulfill the broad vision of disseminating all research output. These steps are enabling the visions of open access and institutional repositories to come closer together in a constructive fashion.

  8. Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archy Otto De Berker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The transcranial application of weak currents to the human brain has enjoyed a decade of success, providing a simple and powerful tool for non-invasively altering human brain function. However, our understanding of current delivery and its impact upon neural circuitry leaves much to be desired. We argue that the credibility of conclusions drawn with tDCS is contingent upon realistic explanations of how tDCS works, and that our present understanding of tDCS limits the technique’s use to localize function in the human brain. We outline two central issues where progress is required: the localization of currents, and predicting their functional consequence. We encourage experimenters to eschew simplistic explanations of mechanisms of transcranial current stimulation. We suggest the use of individualized current modelling, together with computational neurostimulation to inform mechanistic frameworks in which to interpret the physiological impact of tDCS. We hope that through mechanistically richer descriptions of current flow and action, insight into the biological processes by which transcranial currents influence behaviour can be gained, leading to more effective stimulation protocols and empowering conclusions drawn with tDCS.

  9. Current issues and related activities in seismic hazard analysis in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong-Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chun-Joong

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses some technical issues identified from the seismic hazard analyses for probabilistic safety assessment on the operating Korean nuclear power plants and the related activities to resolve the issues. Since there are no strong instrumental earthquake records in Korea, the seismic hazard analysis is mainly dependent on the historical earthquake records. Results of the past seismic hazard analyses show that there are many uncertainties in attenuation function and intensity level and that there is a need to improve statistical method. The identification of the activity of the Yangsan Fault, which is close to nuclear power plant sites, has been an important issue. But the issue has not been resolved yet in spite of much research works done. Recently, some capable faults were found in the offshore area of Gulupdo Island in the Yellow Sea. It is anticipated that the results of research on both the Yangsan Fault and reduction of uncertainty in seismic hazard analysis will have an significant influence on seismic design and safety assessment of nuclear power plants in the future. (author)

  10. Fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) phenomena in reactor safety. Current understanding and future research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speis, T.P. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States); Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the current understanding of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) phenomena in the context of reactor safety. With increased emphasis on accident management and with emerging in-vessel core melt retention strategies for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, recent interest in FCI has broadened to include an evaluation of potential threats to the integrity of reactor vessel lower head and ex-vessel structural support, as well as the role of FCI in debris quenching and coolability. The current understanding of FCI with regard to these issues is discussed, and future research needs to address the issues from a risk perspective are identified. (author)

  11. Rastislav Šuštaršič and current issues of standard Slovene language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Požgaj Hadži

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By studying languages in contact, we can observe one language while revealing hidden features of another. This was the original idea of the two Slovene-Croatian phonetic and phonological bilateral projects, which connected various Slovene and Croatian phonologists. This paper highlights the work of Rastislav Šuštaršič, who continued his contrastive research of English and Slovene in contact within these projects. Several open issues of the Slovene standard language were also at the centre of his research interests, including the issue of tonemic accent in Slovene, which he studied mainly in collaboration with H. Tivadar. The findings of their works underlined a gap between the explicit norm and language use, which future codifiers of the Slovene standard language should take into consideration.

  12. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    Goodrum, Abby A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR): text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  13. Current Issues and Problems in the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Walter A.; Messier, Russell

    1990-02-01

    Current issues and problems in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond are those which relate to its characterization, its nucleation on foreign surfaces, the question of its formation in preference to the other phases of solid carbon (for example, graphite, chaoite, or lonsdaleite), why different morphologies and crystallographic orientations (textures) are seen in different experiments or with different parameters in the same experiment, and finally whether well-crystallized metastable phases can be obtained by CVD in other material systems or are only a peculiarity of carbon chemistry. Whether a given carbon coating is justly described as diamond has been such an issue, and coatings should clearly show evidence for diamond by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy before the claim of diamond is made. Experimental results have not been consistent in many cases, and much work remains to be done before an accurate assessment can be made of the technological impact of the development.

  14. The treatment of Parkinson′s disease with deep brain stimulation: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia-Sabine Moldovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation has become a well-established symptomatic treatment for Parkinson′s disease during the last 25 years. Besides improving motor symptoms and long-term motor complications, positive effects on patients′ mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being and health-related quality of life have been recognized. Apart from that, numerous clinical trials analyzed effects on non-motor symptoms and side effects of deep brain stimulation. Several technical issues and stimulation paradigms have been and are still being developed to optimize the therapeutic effects, minimize the side effects and facilitate handling. This review summarizes current therapeutic issues, i.e., patient and target selection, surgical procedure and programming paradigms. In addition it focuses on neuropsychological effects and side effects of deep brain stimulation.

  15. The NRC's SPAR Models: Current Status, Future Development, and Modeling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Buell

    2008-09-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) play an increasingly important role in the regulatory framework of the U.S. nuclear power industry. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) relies on a set of plant-specific Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models to provide critical risk-based input to the regulatory process. The Significance Determination Process (SDP), Management Directive 8.3 - NRC Incident Investigation Program, Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) and Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) programs are among the regulatory initiatives that receive significant input from the SPAR models. Other uses of the SPAR models include: Screening & Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, License Amendment reviews and Notice of Enforcement Discretion (NOEDs). This paper presents the current status of SPAR model development activities, future development objectives, and issues related to the development, verification and maintenance of the SPAR models.

  16. Current issues in the treatment of specific phobia: recommendations for innovative applications of hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Sharon B

    2014-04-01

    Specific phobia is the most common and treatable of the anxiety disorders. Exposure-based therapies are the treatment of choice and empirically validated protocols are available that promise rapid and effective results. In many cases, however, patients are reluctant to comply with demanding schedules of exposure, increasing the risk of treatment failure. Furthermore, in clinical practice, patients often present with multiple phobias and other Axis I and Axis II disorders that can further complicate therapy. This article covers four important issues that have been addressed in the literature: (a) managing resistance to treatment, (b) reducing length of treatment, (c) clarifying the optimal application of relaxation training, and (d) applying advances in cognitive neuroscience. These issues are reviewed and recommendations proposed for ways in which to modify current treatments. Specific suggestions are provided for implementing these recommendations including examples of innovative applications of standard hypnotic techniques.

  17. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible

  18. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M Fátima; Segurado, Susana; Brantes, Ana; Simões, Helena Teresinha; Melim, J Maurício; Geraldes, V; Miguel, J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible. Concerning human milk a careful

  19. The 2018 Nucleic Acids Research database issue and the online molecular biology database collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Xosé M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The 2018 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issue contains 181 papers spanning molecular biology. Among them, 82 are new and 84 are updates describing resources that appeared in the Issue previously. The remaining 15 cover databases most recently published elsewhere. Databases in the area of nucleic acids include 3DIV for visualisation of data on genome 3D structure and RNArchitecture, a hierarchical classification of RNA families. Protein databases include the established SMART, ELM and MEROPS while GPCRdb and the newcomer STCRDab cover families of biomedical interest. In the area of metabolism, HMDB and Reactome both report new features while PULDB appears in NAR for the first time. This issue also contains reports on genomics resources including Ensembl, the UCSC Genome Browser and ENCODE. Update papers from the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology and DrugBank are highlights of the drug and drug target section while a number of proteomics databases including proteomicsDB are also covered. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (https://academic.oup.com/nar). The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection has been updated, reviewing 138 entries, adding 88 new resources and eliminating 47 discontinued URLs, bringing the current total to 1737 databases. It is available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/. PMID:29316735

  20. Agriculture for improved nutrition: the current research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachel; Hawkes, Corinna; Jeff, Waage; Ferguson, Elaine; Haseen, Farhana; Homans, Hilary; Hussein, Julia; Johnston, Deborah; Marais, Debbi; McNeill, Geraldine; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-12-01

    Concern about food security and its effect on persistent undernutrition has increased interest in how agriculture could be used to improve nutritional outcomes in developing countries. Yet the evidence base for the impact of agricultural interventions targeted at improved nutrition is currently poor. To map the extent and nature of current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition in order to identify gaps where more research might be useful. The research, which was conducted from April to August 2012, involved developing a conceptual framework linking agriculture and nutrition, identifying relevant research projects and programs, devising and populating a "template" with details of the research projects in relation to the conceptual framework, classifying the projects, and conducting a gap analysis. The study identified a large number of research projects covering a broad range of themes and topics. There was a strong geographic focus on sub-Saharan Africa, and many studies were explicitly concerned with nutritional impacts on women and children. Although the study revealed a diverse and growing body of research, it also identified research gaps. Few projects consider the entire evidence chain linking agricultural input or practice to nutritional outcomes. There is comparatively little current research on indirect effects of agriculture on nutrition, or the effect of policies or governance, rather than technical interventions. Most research is focused on undernutrition and small farmer households, and few studies target consumers generally, urban populations, or nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. There is very little work on the cost-effectiveness of agricultural interventions. On the basis of these findings, we make suggestions for research investment and for broader engagement of researchers and disciplines in developing approaches to design and evaluate agricultural programs for improved nutrition.