WorldWideScience

Sample records for current research interests

  1. Review of current interest and research in water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarian, R. K.; Balon, J. E.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The status of activity in the user community for water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment was evaluated. The principal technique used was that of interviewing people who either (1) were known to be engaged in hyacinth research or development or (2) had made inquiry to NASA about hyacinth systems. About 40 non-research organizations and a similar number of research organizations were contacted. As a result of the interviews and a review of the relevant literature, it was concluded that hyacinth systems have the potential for providing a lower cost way for small cities to meet increasingly stringent effluent requirements. A limited amount of full-scale demonstration of hyacinth systems has been carried out during the past two years, but the yield of design data has been small. Several organizations are currently planning construction of experimental full-scale hyacinth-based wastewater treatment systems during 1977-1978.

  2. Elastic, excitation, ionization and charge transfer cross sections of current interest in fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. TN (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low-to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work. (author)

  3. The Optimal Interest Rates and the Current Interest Rate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the current target interest rate, which is closed to zero with the new experiment of quantitative easing since 2009 and has reduced the rate of return and the income and has made the real savings rate negative. This target rate has not reduced unemployment and has not improved growth (it is not optimal, but has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. People were borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit cards. The current monetary system needs to be changed and an interest rate floor on deposits (savings and an interest rate ceiling on individuals‟ loans (borrowings is necessary to improve social welfare, fairness, and justice in our society and not to support only disintermediation (financial markets. The middle class cannot work only to pay taxes and interest on its debt (redistribution of their wealth to government and banks or worse to be in chronic unemployment. Many home owners defaulted on their loans payments and their homes are foreclosed. They will end up without property (real assets. The unconcern towards the middle class will affect negatively the entire socio-economic structure of the nation and after losing its productive power, it will start declining, as history has shown to us with so many empires that do not exist anymore. We hope the leaders (the democratic governments to improve public policies, to regulate the financial market and institutions, and to satisfy their policy ultimate objective, which is citizens‟ perfection and the nation‟s highest point of prosperity.

  4. READING FOR YOUTH INTEREST DURING CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Camelia, MARIN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality and images conquer them permanently and irrevocably even children from the earliest age. For instance, I can say that as they grow departs books. So many young people arrive at teens refuse to read a book, even electronically. Children considered mandatory reading something imposed by adults and tries to escape, finding other concerns. They also have no motivation, the universe discovered through books hardly seems interesting, which is, in their opinion, obsolete. The environment in which I work led me to satisfy my curiosity namely that of finding out to what extent reading is among the priorities of young people today. This research considers the study of attitudes, behaviors, opinions and intentions of young people their interest in reading, be it physical or books in electronic format. Then I directed a questionnaire to students of the Faculty of Management Marketing in Economic Affairs Rm. Valcea. For example, we chose a target group of young people aged between 18 and 25 years.

  5. Virology Interest Group | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Virology Interest Group comprises researchers at NIH and in the local area who are interested in virology. The group organizes activities designed to promote interactions and exchange of information.

  6. Negative nominal interest rates: History and current proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Ilgmann, Cordelius; Menner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Given the renewed interest in negative interest rates as a means for overcoming the zero bound on nominal interest rates, this article reviews the history of negative nominal interest rates and gives a brief survey over the current proposals that received popular attention in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007/08. It is demonstrated that taxing money proposals have a long intellectual history and that instead of being the conjecture of a monetary crank, they are a serious policy proposa...

  7. Research experience and research interests of allied health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Delwyne; Taylor, Nicholas F; Taylor, Nicholas; Leggat, Sandra G

    2009-01-01

    Allied heath professionals are expected to utilize evidence-based practices in their workplaces, and there is an increasing expectation that clinicians will become involved in clinical research. With the aim of establishing the level of interest and experience in clinical research among allied health professionals in Australia, 132 allied health professional in Australia were surveyed to determine their level of interest and their level of experience in clinical research. The Research Spider survey tool was used to examine clinicians' level of research experience and level of research interest across ten core areas. These areas included writing a research proposal, using quantitative methods, publishing research, writing and presenting a research report, analysing and interpreting results, using qualitative research methods, critically reviewing literature, finding relevant literature, generating research ideas and applying for research funding. Overall, allied health professionals rated themselves as having "little research experience." While clinicians' level of interest in research was significantly greater than their level of research experience, clinicians as a whole only had "some interest" in research. Fifteen percent of the sample were very interested in research. The results of this study have implications for the implementation of education and support programs aimed at providing clinical research opportunities for allied health professionals.

  8. Ordinal Position Research Related to Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1974-01-01

    Birth order studies directly related to vocational interest were reviewed to discern support for certain theoretical susumptions: firstborns are more directing, controlling, and organizing than later borns and later borns are more sociable, empathic, and sympathetic than firstborns. The research was inconsistent, contradictory, and speculative.…

  9. The Effect of the Current Account Balance on Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The international capital market is the marginal provider of capital to the Canadian economy, and the current account balance is the measure of demand pressure from Canadian borrowing in that market. If the foreign supply of capital to Canada is less than perfectly elastic, Canadian interest rates will have to rise as Canadian borrowing increases. Past attempts to test empirically for the effect of Canadian fiscal policy on interest rates have generally been unsuccessful, because the link bet...

  10. Research Ethics, Governance, Oversight And Public Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Suleiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A better educated public has started to challengethe way decisions are made in medical research activities.Although Institutional and National Guidelines onResearch are in place, there are fears that InstitutionalReview Boards (IRBs and funding agencies are only fairlyactive in scientific and ethical reviews of research proposalsbut not on oversight of projects after their initiation. Theseissues are integral to good research governance andresearchers and custodians of research ethics must ensurethat public interest is not compromised. Medical progress is based on research including humanexperimentation carried out according to guidingprinciples as enunciated in the Declaration of Helsinki(2000, but the quality of compliance with theDeclaration is an important issue. Better choice and appropriate training of members of IRBsto improve the quality of decision making and governanceprocesses are urgently needed. Competency in evaluationof proposals requires not only the appropriate scientificknowledge but also access to relevant preclinical andother data. Unfortunately, the completeness and quality ofsuch data may not be adequate. Public interest demands that injury to trial subjects inclinical trials is minimized if not avoided completely.Unfortunately this is not always possible with trialswhere novel biological modes of action are tested.A more robust evaluation mechanism for projectapproval may minimize but not completely avoid injuryto subjects; thus insurance cover to provide care andcompensation to subjects must be compulsory.The decision to approve or reject a project must bebased on the balance of potential risks and benefits,taking into consideration justifiable distributive risks totarget communities and populations. Economicconsiderations should never be the primary focus,especially when there are real concerns that themigration of early phase clinical trials including vaccinetrials to developing countries is based on the perceivedless

  11. Interested in research? Start here (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hey, there it is. An idea. A question. Finding an answer to that question would be really useful, wouldn’t it? I’ll bet that other people would find the answer useful too, since they probably have asked themselves that very same question. Has anyone else made an attempt to answer that question in the literature? Nope. Hmmm...you’ve found a gap in theliterature on an idea that you have identified and in which you are interested. Looks like you have a research project on your hands. It is at this point that many people become intimidated. The thought of designing a study, collecting and interpreting data and maybe even publishing the results can be daunting, whether you are familiar with research methods or not. Where do you begin? How do you determine the study design? How do you narrow down your idea to a manageable hypothesis? What statistical tests should you utilize? In other words, help! Even the most seasoned researchers don’t do it all on their own. They, just like new researchers, consult guides and textbooks and enlist the help of statisticians and coders. A research project is a huge undertaking, but it is more manageable than you might think. In this issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice you will find a Feature section on research. The articles in this section are designed to act as guides for those new to research or for those needing a refresher. Diane Lorenzetti and Lisa Given take a close look at qualitative and quantitative research design in their articles. Both these articles will help you choose the most appropriate study design based on your question type. Research can be costly and therefore, funding is often sought. Lynne Langille and Theresa Mackenzie provide valuable and practical advice on how to write a successful grant application. In her two articles, Lisa Goddard identifies a wealth of data that is available to you in web server logs and specific library applications. The possibilities of

  12. Conflict of interest in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra B Ghooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased focus on ethical review of research demands a number of improvements in the existing system. Although these are being implemented, some factors that have received less attention in the past could be examined. One of these is conflict of interest. Such conflicts could exist for investigators, ethics committee (EC members, and even the regulators. Guidance for identification and management of conflicts has been issued by many countries and Indian rules also speak about these conflicts. Greater clarity would help investigators and ECs manage conflicts more effectively. It is admitted that conflicts cannot be done away with, but their timely identification, disclosure, and management can reduce their impact and bring more transparency and accountability to trials in this country.

  13. Interest organization demography research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.; Lowery, D.; Halpin, D.; Gray, V.

    2015-01-01

    European population ecological studies of interest organizations are rare. The concern about the Schattschneiderian upper-class accent motivating such studies in the United States never gained much traction in European ‘organized’ interest systems. There have been, however, several large-n studies t

  14. Current Solid Mechanics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    About thirty years ago James Lighthill wrote an essay on “What is Mechanics?” With that he also included some examples of the applications of mechanics. While his emphasis was on fluid mechanics, his own research area, he also included examples from research activities in solid mechanics....

  15. Current Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    Biological oceanography, marine food chain dynamics, carbon cycling in the ocean. Martin, Seelye,Ph.D., Johns Hopkins. Geophysical fluid dynamics...currently under investigation, (Ahmed, Packard) 8. Amylase studies An assay for amylase activity has been adapted to measure zooplankton grazing. This...as a function of available food and of the biomass of copepods, was prescribed by sixteen equations: five, corresponding to copepodite stages (I to V

  16. Interest organization demography research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, scholars in several European countries have initiated system-wide, population ecological studies (e.g. Halpin & Jordan 2011b, Messer, Berkhout & Lowery 2010) or have started data collection on such populations of interest organizations (e.g. Fisker 2013, Klüver 2012, Naurin & Borang 2012).

  17. Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction: Current Debate and Indonesia's Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulardi Nurbintoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The drafters of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS have left behind a lacunae in terms of the regulations concerning Biodiversity in the Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ. As living organisms are found in the deep seabed in areas beyond national jurisdiction, as well as the utilization of marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdiction for commercial purposes, States are currently deliberating on the proper regime in dealing with the management and exploitation of the biodiversity. Some States argue that Part XI UNCLOS applies hence BBNJ is also part of the Common Heritage of Mankind. On the other hand, some States believe that Part VII UNCLOS applies which will allow individual States to exploit the resources in accordance with the principle of the freedom of the high seas. Since 2004, the UN General Assembly has established a Working Group to discuss the issue. Indonesia as a Party to UNCLOS which in general advocates the importance of the rule of law in the oceans has the interest that the discussion in the UN will allow developing countries, including Indonesia, to enjoy the result of the exploration and exploitation of non-mineral resources at the bottom of the ocean.

  18. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Olivia; Stamatakos, Korene; Ayers, Amanda J.; Fryer, Victoria A.; Jernigan, David H.; Siegel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims There has been insufficient research attention to the alcohol industry’s use of corporate sponsorship as a marketing tool. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the nature and extent of alcohol sponsorship—at the brand level—in the U.S. Methods The study examined sponsorship of organizations and events in the U.S. by alcohol brands from 2010–2013. The top 75 brands of alcohol consumed by underage drinkers were identified based on a previously conducted national internet-based survey. For each of these brands, a systematic search for sponsorships was conducted using Google. The sponsorships were coded by category and type of sponsorship. Results We identified 945 sponsorships during the study period for the top 75 brands consumed by underage drinkers. The most popular youth brands were far more likely to engage in sponsorship and to have a higher number of sponsorships. The identified sponsorships overwhelmingly associated alcohol brands with integral aspects of American culture, including sports, music, the arts and entertainment, and drinking itself. The most popular brands among underage drinkers were much more likely to associate their brands with these aspects of American culture than brands that were less popular among underage drinkers. Conclusions Alcohol brand sponsorship must be viewed as a major alcohol marketing strategy that generates brand capital through positive associations with integral aspects of culture, creation of attractive brand personalities, and identification with specific market segments. Alcohol research, practice, and policy should address this highly prevalent form of alcohol marketing. PMID:25384933

  19. A Video Introduction to Psychology: Enhancing Research Interest and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Donald F.; Bernstein, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the extent to which a video about psychological research would heighten introductory psychology students' interest and participation in research studies, we created a video about ongoing research at our university, the value of research participation, and course requirements for the research experience. Instructors in 4 courses (N = 471…

  20. Conflicting interests, social justice and proxy consent to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Daryl

    2002-10-01

    Historically the primary role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) has been "to assure, both in advance and by periodic review, that appropriate steps are taken to protect the rights and welfare of humans participating as subjects in research" (U.S. FDA, 1996). However, there is much to suggest that IRBs have been unable to fulfil this mandate, particularly in regard to the matter of informed consent. Part of the problem in this regard is that the competing interests of other stakeholders often undermine the IRB's capacity to serve the best interests of research subjects. This paper proposes an alternative view of the role of the IRB. It begins by treating the interests of other stakeholders as legitimate matters of concern for IRBs. Hence the process established to review and monitor human research should be treated as an exercise in social justice in which the interests of all legitimate stakeholders must be represented and considered. A variation of Rawls' (1971) heuristic "the veil of ignorance" is employed to explore the dynamic relationship between knowledge and interests that ensues when the role of the IRB is characterized in this manner. Inadequacies in the informed consent process are taken as illustrative of the inability of IRBs as they are presently construed to attend to the interests of research subjects. The major normative implication of the analysis offered here is that the role of the IRB must be expanded to include the granting of a provisional proxy consent on behalf of prospective research subjects. This provision is necessary, it is argued, if the interests of research subjects are to be fairly assessed by IRBs as a matter of social justice. It is necessary as well to ensure that an adequate standard of informed consent is attained. Somewhat paradoxically it is argued that the interests of research subjects are better served when treated as one among a number of competing sets of interests the IRB must serve, rather than as the primary

  1. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  2. Current issues with research support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  3. Social networks user: current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1 social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality; 2 personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem. The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connected with socio-demographic and personality characteristics

  4. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  5. Research on the User Interest Modeling of Personalized Search Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhengwei; XIA Shixiong; NIU Qiang; XIA Zhanguo

    2007-01-01

    At present, how to enable Search Engine to construct user personal interest model initially, master user's personalized information timely and provide personalized services accurately have become the hotspot in the research of Search Engine area.Aiming at the problems of user model's construction and combining techniques of manual customization modeling and automatic analytical modeling, a User Interest Model (UIM) is proposed in the paper. On the basis of it, the corresponding establishment and update algorithms of User Interest Profile (UIP) are presented subsequently. Simulation tests proved that the UIM proposed and corresponding algorithms could enhance the retrieval precision effectively and have superior adaptability.

  6. Changing currents in Norwegian hydropower governance? The challenge of reconciling conflicting interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Joergen Kjetil; Ruud, Audun

    2011-06-15

    The present report focuses on the potential for reconciling energy and environmental policy concerns when phasing in new renewable electricity production. In order to identify the potential for a better reconciliation for Norwegian hydropower, the report assesses the governance of the sector, focusing on the licensing of hydropower production along two dimensions: (1) horizontally, looking at the level of governance related to the degree of coordination between relevant policy domains and sectors - with related objectives, plans and regulations, as well as interests, actors and institutions; and (2) vertically, focusing on the interaction between different levels of governance (international/national/regional/local). In addition, perspectives from research and documentation of assumed effects and impacts of hydropower will also be viewed as a crucial part of the licensing processes. In sum, main political and regulatory drivers and barriers impacting upon the current and future hydropower development in Norway are quite complex and fragmentary, and there is currently no overall target providing a general direction for hydropower development. Given the lack of an overall, coherent approach, the interaction between the different levels of governance does not demonstrate a specific, coherent pattern. At the same time the interest for further expansion of hydropower production is growing. Knowledge and documentation stand out as crucial in two major ways: (1) A need to reinforce the accessibility and transparency of the licensing process; and (2) complementary and updated research and documentation on how to meet the challenges raised by the renewed interest in, and further demand for, hydropower. (Author)

  7. Graduate Students' Research Interest in Business Ethics: A Study of Dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the nature of business ethics education during graduate-level training is somewhat limited. One approach in determining advanced students' research interest in the area is to examine the selection of "business ethics" topics for dissertation research. The current study addressed this issue by conducting a topical…

  8. Graduate Students' Research Interest in Business Ethics: A Study of Dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris; Guyette, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the nature of business ethics education during graduate-level training is somewhat limited. One approach in determining advanced students' research interest in the area is to examine the selection of "business ethics" topics for dissertation research. The current study addressed this issue by conducting a topical…

  9. [Conflicts of interests in clinical research in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-de Paz, L; Navarro-Rubio, M D; Sisó-Almirall, A

    2014-03-01

    Conflicts of interests between professionals and patients in biomedical research, is an ethical problem. None of the laws in Spain mention whether the clinical researcher has to clarify to participants the reasons why it proposes them to participate in a clinical trial. In this article, conflicts of interests in research are discussed in the context of primary healthcare. In this area conflicts of interests might alter the confidence between patients and healthcare professionals. Finally, we suggest some practical strategies that can help participants make the decision to participate in a clinical trial more willingly and freely. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Teaching Interested Clinicians How to Develop Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtecki, Cindy A.; Wade, Michael J.; Pato, Michele T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss teaching clinicians about research by generating projects from clinical practice, expertise, and interest. Method: Classes were co-taught by the hospital biostatistician and clinical nurse specialist in consultation with one of the authors. Hospital clinicians were taught how to initiate and design their study as a…

  11. Current Research on Antiepileptic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xi Wei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy affects about 1% of the world’s population. Due to the fact all antiepileptic drugs (AEDs have some undesirable side effects and about 30% of epileptic patients are not seizure-free with the existing AEDs, there is still an urgent need for the development of more effective and safer AEDs. Based on our research work on antiepileptic compounds and other references in recent years, this review covers the reported work on antiepileptic compounds which are classified according to their structures. This review summarized 244 significant anticonvulsant compounds which are classified by functional groups according to the animal model data, although there are some limitations in the data. This review highlights the properties of new compounds endowed with promising antiepileptic properties, which may be proven to be more effective and selective, and possibly free of unwanted side effects. The reviewed compounds represent an interesting possibility to overcome refractory seizures and to reduce the percentage of patients with a poor response to drug therapy.

  12. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  13. Conflicts of interest in academic research: policies, processes, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Shira; Boyd, Elizabeth A; Bero, Lisa A

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have examined academic researchers' understandings or attitudes toward conflict of interest policies even though these understandings and attitudes represent a crucial component of both compliance and educational efforts. This study reports the results of a large-scale, cross-sectional survey of research faculty at the nine campuses of the University of California regarding their understandings of and attitudes toward campus conflict of interest policies. We gathered information on their general assessments of investigators with financial ties to industry sponsors and reactions to the process of implementing conflict of interest policies at their respective campuses. We surveyed 1,971 faculty members from the nine-campus University of California system and had 779 responses (39% response rate). The sampled faculty were in the ten departments with the most number of financial disclosures at each campus. We utilized the WebSurveyor software to create a secure, online, 21-item survey. Our study reveals faculty with complex, sometimes contradictory, feelings about academic-industry relationships and highlights perceived gaps in policy and process. Most respondents were concerned about unlimited financial relationships, but a sizable number also viewed campus policies as irrelevant. Some expressed considerable anger over the process of policy implementation, rejecting the policies on the basis of professional and individual self-determination and moral integrity. Our study suggests the need for renewed efforts to encourage awareness of the relevance of conflict of interest policies for all faculty, new efforts to increase understanding of the situational nature of conflicts of interest, and reexamination of the processes of policy implementation at the campus level.

  14. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1988-01-01

    Briefly describes 22 reports on language-related research relevant to Southeast Asia, detailing study aims, methodology, researchers, and sponsors for studies conducted in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. (CB)

  15. Researcher views about funding sources and conflicts of interest in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2012-12-01

    Dependence in nanotechnology on external funding and academic-industry relationships has led to questions concerning its influence on research directions, as well as the potential for conflicts of interest to arise and impact scientific integrity and public trust. This study uses a survey of 193 nanotechnology industry and academic researchers to explore whether they share similar concerns. Although these concerns are not unique to nanotechnology, its emerging nature and the prominence of industry funding lend credence to understanding its researchers' views, as these researchers are shaping the norms and direction of the field. The results of the survey show general agreement that funding sources are influencing research directions in nanotechnology; many respondents saw this influence in their own work as well as other researchers' work. Respondents also agreed that funding considerations were likely to influence whether researchers shared their results. Irrespective of their institutional affiliation or funding status, twice as many researchers as not considered financial conflicts of interest a cause for concern, and three times as many respondents as not disagreed financial conflicts of interest in nanotechnology were uncommon. Only a third was satisfied with the way that conflicts of interest are currently managed and believed current procedures would protect the integrity of nanotechnology research. The results also found differences in views depending on researchers' institutional affiliation and funding status.

  16. Research between conflicts of interest in a small German municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinikmann, Karin; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Lake eutrophication is a traditional topic in hydrology which attracts the attention of scientists all over the world to date. However, in single cases of lakes experiencing severe consequences of nutrient overloads (e.g., toxic algae blooms, loss of species richness…) also a non-scientific public arouses interest in processes behind and reasons for these phenomena. This interest results from the various effects of eutrophication on the anthropogenic use of the lake, such as loss of the lakés recreational value, potential health impairments from contact with lake water, changes of the ecological/esthetical status, etc. We present our manifold experiences in communicating with different actors who are or at least feel affected by our research to identify sources for elevated phosphorus loads to Lake Arendsee in Germany. Among those are supporters and opponents of restoration plans as there are for example • representatives of different public authorities, • inhabitants of local communities making their income from tourism around the lake, • farmers, • fishermen, • etc. We describe different conflicts of interest arising from this situation and describe problems we had interacting with single actors. A citizen-science action was initiated which increased both, the research output and the awareness of the problem within the general local public. We conclude that even in small municipalities a complex structure of stakeholders may develop who might act in unpredictable ways to achieve their personal or political goals.

  17. Assessment of Research Interests of First-Year Osteopathic Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; McClellan, Nicholas; McFaul, Derek; Massey, Blaine; Guenther, Elisabeth; Kisby, Glen

    2016-07-01

    According to a 2014 survey, 59% of students entering allopathic medical school reported previous research experience. However, limited data exist on the amount of research experience that students have before entering osteopathic medical school. A strong understanding of the research skills and level of interest of first-year osteopathic medical students is essential for developing research programs at osteopathic medical schools. Limited data exist on the amount of research experience that students have before starting osteopathic medical school. A strong understanding of the research skills and level of interest of first-year medical students is essential for developing research programs at osteopathic medical schools. To determine the amount of previous research experience of first-year osteopathic medical students, their level of interest in participating in research during medical school, the factors influencing their interest in research, and their research fields of interest. First-year osteopathic medical students (class of 2019) at the Western University of Health Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific in Pomona, California (WesternU/COMP), and Pacific-Northwest in Lebanon, Oregon (WesternU/COMP-Northwest), campuses were surveyed about their previous research experiences and whether they were interested in participating in research during medical school. Surveys were administered through an anonymous online portal. Responses were evaluated for evidence of interest in conducting research. Of the 346 osteopathic medical students invited to participate in the study, the response rate was 77% (N=266). A total of 167 from WesternU/COMP and 99 from the WesternU/COMP-Northwest responded. More than 215 students (81%) reported they had participated in research before entering medical school. In addition, 200 students (75%) either expressed a strong interest in participating in research during medical school or were currently conducting research

  18. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices World Health Organization: Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones International Agency for Research on Cancer Press ...

  19. Current state of Czech astronomy popularization and its potential for enhancing science career interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříček, Radek

    2015-08-01

    The Czech Republic has a dense net of observatories, astronomical clubs and other activities for both adults and children. Can we use it to improve skills of our pupils and their motivation to choose their career in science? Does the situation in the Czech Republic differ from abroad? What can we improve in the future? These questions were not answered satisfactorily so far. We decided to contribute to solve this issue.We present our survey of current state based mainly on electronic sources and personal dealings. Besides of 56 observatories working with public and many interest clubs, there are other possibilities to meet astronomy. For example, Astronomical Olympiad attracts thousands of pupils across the country each year to solve both theoretical and practical tasks in astronomy. In other projects, children can visit Dark-Sky Parks, design experiments for a stratospheric balloon, observe with CCD or radio devices or build their own rockets.We outline our ongoing project to examine the link between popularization activities and pupils’ or high school students’ attitude toward science and science career. We plan to create a typology of both popularization activities and life stories of people dealing with astronomy. From the methodological point of view, the mixed method design, combining both the qualitative and quantitative approach, will be used to solve the research problems. The basic research plan will be a case study. So far the project is based on interviews with various subjects. We choose people with different life stories, all connected with astronomy or astronomy popularization in some period. We focus on important moments in their career, similarities between subjects, and various types of possible motivation to participate in astronomy-related activities or to study science at university.Future results can be used to help interested organizations such as universities, observatories or astronomical societies. They will be able to work more

  20. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  1. Current concepts in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kok Seng Yap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer research is an extremely broadtopic covering many scientific disciplines includingbiology (e.g. biochemistry and signal transduction,chemistry (e.g. drug discover and development,physics (e.g. diagnostic devices and even computerscience (e.g. bioinformatics. Some would argue thatcancer research will continue in much the same wayas it is by adding further layers of complexity to thescientific knowledge that is already complex and almostbeyond measure. But we anticipate that cancer researchwill undergo a dramatic paradigm shift due to therecent explosion of new discoveries in cancer biology.This review article focuses on the latest horizons incancer research concerning cancer epigenetics, cancerstem cells, cancer immunology and cancer metabolism.

  2. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Yolanda

    1989-01-01

    Summaries of six language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include English as the instructional medium, teacher's use of language, Tamil language management, standardizing texts, cross-cultural business negotiations, and assessment of English language needs in computer science. (LB)

  3. A Guide for Scientists Interested in Researching Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn R.; Anbar, Ariel; Semken, Steve; Mead, Chris; Horodyskyj, Lev; Perera, Viranga; Bruce, Geoffrey; Schönstein, David

    2015-11-01

    Scientists spend years training in their scientific discipline and are well versed the literature, methods, and innovations in their own field. Many scientists also take on teaching responsibilities with little formal training in how to implement their courses or assess their students. There is a growing body of literature of what students know in space science courses and the types of innovations that can work to increase student learning but scientists rarely have exposure to this body of literature. For scientists who are interested in more effectively understanding what their students know or investigating the impact their courses have on students, there is little guidance. Undertaking a more formal study of students poses more complexities including finding robust instruments and employing appropriate data analysis. Additionally, formal research with students involves issues of privacy and human subjects concerns, both regulated by federal laws.This poster details the important decisions and issues to consider for both course evaluation and more formal research using a course developed, facilitated, evaluated and researched by a hybrid team of scientists and science education researchers. HabWorlds, designed and implemented by a team of scientists and faculty at Arizona State University, has been using student data to continually improve the course as well as conduct formal research on students’ knowledge and attitudes in science. This ongoing project has had external funding sources to allow robust assessment not available to most instructors. This is a case study for discussing issues that are applicable to designing and assessing all science courses. Over the course of several years, instructors have refined course outcomes and learning objectives that are shared with students as a roadmap of instruction. The team has searched for appropriate tools for assessing student learning and attitudes, tested them and decided which have worked, or not, for

  4. Current strategies for mobilome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue Sparholt Jørgensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile genetic elements (MGE are pivotal for bacterial evolution and adaptation, allowing shuffling of genes even between distantly related bacterial species. The study of MGEs is biologically interesting as the mode of genetic propagation is kaleidoscopic and important, as MGEs are the main vehicles of the increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance that causes thousands of human deaths each year. The study of MGEs has previously focused on plasmids from individual isolates, but the revolution in sequencing technology has allowed the study of mobile genomic elements of entire communities using metagenomic approaches. The problem in using metagenomic sequencing for the study of MGEs is that plasmids and other mobile elements only comprise a small fraction of the total genetic content that are difficult to separate from chromosomal DNA based on sequence alone. Several different approaches have been proposed that specifically enrich plasmid DNA from community samples. Here, we review recent approaches used to study entire plasmid pools from complex environments, and point out possible future developments for and pitfalls of these approaches. Further, we discuss the use of the PacBio long-read sequencing technology for MGE discovery.

  5. Current Research Status of Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD JUNAEDI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The term of allelopathy refers to chemical interactions (inhibitory or stimulatory between plants, between plants and microorganisms, and between microorganisms. The wealth of information on the processes, procedures, and practices of allelopathy has contributed to understanding this field of science. Recently, researches of allelopathy have been conducted in laboratory, greenhouse, and field with multifaceted standpoint in some concerning area: (i allelochemicals identifications and screening test; (ii ecological and physiological aspects of allelopathy; (iii genetic studies and the possibilities of using plant breeding or genetic manipulation to enhance allelopathic varieties; (iv the use of allelopathic potential in the biological control, including as natural pesticide, of weeds and plant diseases as eco-friendly approach for sustainable agriculture scheme.

  6. Biomedical research and corporate interests: a question of academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Leemon

    2008-01-01

    The current situation in medicine has been described as a crisis of credibility, as the profit motive of industry has taken control of clinical trials and the dissemination of data. Pharmaceutical companies maintain a stranglehold over the content of medical journals in three ways: (1) by ghostwriting articles that bias the results of clinical trials, (2) by the sheer economic power they exert on journals due to the purchase of drug advertisements and journal reprints, and (3) by the threat of legal action against those researchers who seek to correct the misrepresentation of study results. This paper argues that Karl Popper's critical rationalism provides a corrective to the failure of academic freedom in biomedical research.

  7. Research on Bayesian Network Based User's Interest Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weifeng; XU Baowen; CUI Zifeng; XU Lei

    2007-01-01

    It has very realistic significance for improving the quality of users' accessing information to filter and selectively retrieve the large number of information on the Internet. On the basis of analyzing the existing users' interest models and some basic questions of users' interest (representation, derivation and identification of users' interest), a Bayesian network based users' interest model is given. In this model, the users' interest reduction algorithm based on Markov Blanket model is used to reduce the interest noise, and then users' interested and not interested documents are used to train the Bayesian network. Compared to the simple model, this model has the following advantages like small space requirements, simple reasoning method and high recognition rate. The experiment result shows this model can more appropriately reflect the user's interest, and has higher performance and good usability.

  8. EdD Students’ Self-Efficacy and Interest in Conducting Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R Kerrigan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s educational practitioners are expected to know how to gather, analyze, and report on data for accountability purposes and to use that information to improve student outcomes. However, there is little understanding of how to support practitioners’ learning of and engagement with research and few studies on the research experiences of students enrolled in Doctorate of Education (EdD programs. The success of students enrolled in Doctor of Philosophy (PhD programs in conducting research has been found to be related to students’ self-efficacy and interest, but these concepts have not been explored with EdD students who are more likely to engage in applied research in their workplace than to create a research-focused career. This study sought to understand the self-efficacy and interest that EdD students enrolled in an Educational Leadership program have in research skills and tasks in order to improve research course offerings. Our findings with EdD students are consistent with existing research on PhD students regarding research self-efficacy but we did not observe significant changes in students’ interest over time. We suggest avenues for future study in light of current accountability reporting requirements for practitioners.

  9. Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.E.

    1990-05-24

    Research on this grant is devoted to the calculation of heavy particle collision cross sections needed for diagnostic studies of magnetic fusion plasmas. This work requires the development and testing of new theoretical methods, with the implementation of benchmarked techniques to collisions pertinent to fusion reactors. Within the last context, we have provided charge-exchange-recombination cross sections to specific n,1-levels for diagnostic studies on TFTR and for a major compilation for IAEA. We have also completed a cross section study related to the planned neutral beam current drive for ITER. In addition, calculations were completed to assess the use of He neutral atom angular scattering measurements for JT-60. Also, new theoretical methods have been developed to more accurately calculate cross sections involving either He or H{sub 2} targets and partially stripped multiply-charged ions.

  10. Current research directions definition of economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Falovych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article features the topical issue of the established level of the enterprise's economic security. The objective of this article is to research, to base and to supplement the tendency for generalization of the categorical system in order to clarify the matter meaning of the enterprise's economic security. The systematized analyses of the matter meaning of the enterprise's economic security were done by domestic and foreign scientists-economists. The results of the study were expounded and also some vital approaches to the definition of the enterprise's economic security were presented and proved particularly: strategically, resource-functional, marketable, combined, deductive, systematic and criminal.Based on the analyzed content-conceptual interpretations and detailed characteristics of each approach to the definition of this meaning, there was proposed its own meaning of the interpretation of the enterprise's economic security. A systematic approach was adopted due to the matters concerning enterprise's economic security. As in this approach the vital economic interests of thee enterprise were stipulated, also gained the topicality in the current crisis economic conditions

  11. Optimisation of current injection protocol based on a region of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Mayo; Jehl, Markus; Aristovich, Kirill; Avery, James; Witkowska-Wrobel, Anna; Holder, David

    2017-03-29

    Electrical Impedance Tomography has the potential to image fast neural activity associated with physiological or epileptic activity throughout the brain. These applications pose a particular challenge as expected voltage changes on the electrodes are less than 1% and geometrical constraints of the body under investigation mean that electrodes can not be evenly distributed around its boundary. Unlike other applications, however, information regarding the location of expected activity is typically available. An informative method for choosing current paths that maximise sensitivity to specific regions is desirable. Two electrode addressing protocol generation methods based on current density vectors concentrated in a region of interest have been proposed. One focuses solely on maximising its magnitude while the other considers its distribution. The quality of reconstructed images using these protocols was assessed in a simulation study conducted in a human and rat mesh and compared to the protocol that maximises distance between injecting electrodes. When implementing the protocol that focused on maximising magnitude, the current density concentrated in a region of interest increased by up to a factor of 3. When the distribution of the current was maximised, the spread of current density vectors increased by up to fivefold. For the small conductivity changes expected in the applications explored, image quality was best when implementing the protocol that maximised current density. The average image error when using this protocol was 7% better than when employing other protocols. We conclude that for fast neural EIT applications, the protocol that maximises current density is the best protocol to implement.

  12. A national survey of policies on disclosure of conflicts of interest in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, S. V.; Anderson, C. B.; Jakovljevic, J.; Khan, T.; McCullough, L. B.; Wray, N. P.; Brody, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicts of interest pose a threat to the integrity of scientific research. The current regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation require that medical schools and other research institutions report the existence of conflicts of interest to the funding agency but allow the institutions to manage conflicts internally. The regulations do not specify how to do so. METHODS: We surveyed all medical schools (127) and other research institutions (170) that received more than $5 million in total grants annually from the National Institutes of Health or the National Science Foundation; 48 journals in basic science and clinical medicine; and 17 federal agencies in order to analyze their policies on conflicts of interest. RESULTS: Of the 297 institutions, 250 (84 percent) responded by March 2000, as did 47 of the 48 journals and 16 of the 17 federal agencies. Fifteen of the 250 institutions (6 percent)--5 medical schools and 10 other research institutions--reported that they had no policy on conflicts of interest. Among the institutions that had policies, there was marked variation in the definition and management of conflicts. Ninety-one percent had policies that adhered to the federal threshold for disclosure ($10,000 in annual income or equity in a relevant company or 5 percent ownership), and 9 percent had policies that exceeded the federal guidelines. Only 8 percent had policies requiring disclosure to funding agencies, only 7 percent had such policies regarding journals, and only 1 percent had policies requiring the disclosure of information to the relevant institutional review boards or to research subjects. Twenty journals (43 percent) reported that they had policies requiring disclosure of conflicts of interest. Only four federal agencies had policies that explicitly addressed conflicts of interest in extramural research, and all but one of the agencies relied primarily on institutional discretion. CONCLUSIONS

  13. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe......The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer...... to a special descriptive, empirical, experimental approach to translation studies based on close, technology-supported observation of translational (micro)behaviour. Fundamentally, TPR is based on software which logs a translator’s keystrokes on a computer keyboard in time in combination with an eyetracker...

  14. Combining estimates of interest in prognostic modelling studies after multiple imputation: current practice and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Roger L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation (MI provides an effective approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies, as it can properly account for the missing data uncertainty. The multiply imputed datasets are each analysed using standard prognostic modelling techniques to obtain the estimates of interest. The estimates from each imputed dataset are then combined into one overall estimate and variance, incorporating both the within and between imputation variability. Rubin's rules for combining these multiply imputed estimates are based on asymptotic theory. The resulting combined estimates may be more accurate if the posterior distribution of the population parameter of interest is better approximated by the normal distribution. However, the normality assumption may not be appropriate for all the parameters of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies, such as predicted survival probabilities and model performance measures. Methods Guidelines for combining the estimates of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies are provided. A literature review is performed to identify current practice for combining such estimates in prognostic modelling studies. Results Methods for combining all reported estimates after MI were not well reported in the current literature. Rubin's rules without applying any transformations were the standard approach used, when any method was stated. Conclusion The proposed simple guidelines for combining estimates after MI may lead to a wider and more appropriate use of MI in future prognostic modelling studies.

  15. Predictors of quit attempts and abstinence among smokers not currently interested in quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Rates of quitting smoking remain stagnant, and thus it is becoming increasingly important to identify determinants of successful quitting behavior. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine predictors of quit attempts and 7-day point prevalence abstinence in a large nationally based sample. The study population consisted exclusively of smokers with minimal interest in quitting in the immediate future, for whom the need to identify facilitating factors of cessation is highly significant. Participants consisted of 849 smokers participating in a nationwide population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) to promote quit attempts and cessation; all participants were not currently interested in cessation. After adjusting for treatment group, and using a multivariate logistic approach, a combination of motivational and self-efficacy variables consistently predicted quit attempts, regardless of how quit attempts were defined (i.e., any self-defined vs. 24 hr). Additionally, a greater number of previous quit attempts significantly predicted making future quit attempts. In terms of achieving short-term abstinence, regardless of whether analyses were restricted to individuals who made prior quit attempts or not, self-efficacy emerged as the only significant consistent predictor. Unlike previous studies, we did not find strong evidence suggesting unique predictors for making a quit attempt compared with achieving abstinence. Our findings demonstrate that even among smokers not currently interested in quitting, self-efficacy and motivation are key factors in the cessation process. Overall, the findings have important implications, as they highlight factors to target for future treatment.

  16. Current challenges in dedifferentiated fat cells research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mickey; George, Richard L; Evancho-Chapman, M Michelle; Zhang, Ge

    2016-07-02

    Dedifferentiated fat cells show great promises as a novel cell source for stem cell research. It has many advantages when used for cell-based therapeutics including abundance, pluripotency, and safety. However, there are many obstacles researchers need to overcome to make the next big move in DFAT cells research. In this review, we summarize the current main challenges in DFAT cells research including cell culture purity, phenotypic properties, and dedifferentiation mechanisms. The common methods to produce DFAT cells as well as the cell purity issue during DFAT cell production have been introduced. Current approaches to improve DFAT cell purity have been discussed. The phenotypic profile of DFAT cells have been listed and compared with other stem cells. Further studies on elucidating the underlying dedifferentiation mechanisms will dramatically advance DFAT cell research.

  17. Virology Interest Group Seminar | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virology Interest Group Seminar.  September 7th, Building 50, Room 2328 from 3:00 until 4:00.   We will have two presenters. Dr. Vladimir Majerciak: The full transcription map of mouse papillomavirus type 1 (MmuPV1), Tumor Virus RNA Biology Section, RNA Biology Laboratory, NCI Dr. Zhi-Ming Zheng: Viral DNA replication regulates HPV18 transcription and gene expression, Tumor Virus RNA Biology Section, RNA Biology Laboratory, NCI    

  18. The Multigenre Paper: Increasing Interest, Motivation, and Functionality in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Margaret R. "Cookie"

    1999-01-01

    Describes how undergraduate secondary English education majors in a course on teaching writing defined and created the multigenre research paper, researching a topic and then writing a number of pieces that integrated and interpreted their findings. Notes students' enthusiasm, creativity and ownership; shows two student papers; and describes using…

  19. Balancing interests of hospitals and nurse researchers: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, June; Edmonson, Cole; Gemeinhardt, Gretchen; Hamilton, Patti

    2012-08-01

    While nurse researchers and administrators in health care organizations need to collaborate to understand the variables that affect nursing practice environments and patient care outcomes, there are inherent risks associated with these collaborations that require careful consideration. A team of academic and hospital researchers found that in studying the off-peak (nights and weekends) nursing environment using institutional ethnography, which involved interviews of nurses and administrators, the subject of the research was frequently the hospitals where these individuals worked. Although the individuals who participated in the research consented to be interviewed about their work, it was less clear how and to what extent the anonymity of their organizations could be maintained. The risks and benefits encountered suggest the need for a decision-making process to be undertaken by collaborative research teams. This decision process and analysis can help ensure a fruitful research relationship that protects sensitive concerns of hospital entities while advancing our understanding of nursing practice environments and patient care outcomes. Important strategies include having all leaders and research team members discuss the agendas of all entities and individuals involved, including clearly delineating the roles, responsibilities, and contributions of all parties. In addition, any constraints or expectations of first right of review of publications needs to be negotiated from the outset. Collaborators need to review their agreements throughout the research process to avoid pitfalls that could adversely impact the relationships as well as the dissemination of knowledge gained.

  20. Undergraduates' Perceived Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Interest in Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived knowledge of research methods, research self-efficacy, interest in learning about research, and interest in performing research-related tasks in one's career. The study also investigated the effect of a research methods course with both didactic and experiential components on these…

  1. Current research on aviation weather (bibliography), 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, B. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The titles, managers, supporting organizations, performing organizations, investigators and objectives of 127 current research projects in advanced meteorological instruments, forecasting, icing, lightning, visibility, low level wind shear, storm hazards/severe storms, and turbulence are tabulated and cross-referenced. A list of pertinent reference material produced through the above tabulated research activities is given. The acquired information is assembled in bibliography form to provide a readily available source of information in the area of aviation meteorology.

  2. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  3. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  4. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  5. California Energy Commission Public Interest EnergyResearch/Energy System Integration -- Transmission-Planning Research&Development Scoping Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard; Widergren, Steven

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this Public Interest Energy Research (PIER)scoping project is to identify options for public-interest research and development (R&D) to improve transmission-planning tools, techniques, and methods. The information presented was gathered through a review of current California utility, California Independent System Operator (ISO), and related western states electricity transmission-planning activities and emerging needs. This report presents the project teams findings organized under six topic areas and identifies 17 distinct R&D activities to improve transmission-planning in California and the West. The findings in this report are intended for use, along with other materials, by PIER staff, to facilitate discussions with stakeholders that will ultimately lead to development of a portfolio of transmission-planning R&D activities for the PIER program.

  6. Video Games Related to Young Adults: Mapping Research Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the typological-research domain of the extant literature on video games related to college-age samples (18-29 years-of-age). A content analysis of 264 articles, from PsycINFO for these identifiers, was performed. Findings showed that negative or pathological aspects of video gaming, i.e., violence potential,…

  7. Research on applying the interests distribution method of enterprise-university-research institute cooperation based on hash model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-dong

    2007-01-01

    In order to get an acceptable interests-distribution scheme for each partner of enterprise-university-research institute cooperation in advance, based on Nash model, the paper designs the interest distribution method of enterprise-university-research institute cooperation and provides the basis for determining the weight of each partner in accordance with the interest distribution principles and subjected relations between major factors in enterprise-university-research institute cooperation. Also, in combination with one example, an applicable method is provided to distribute interest in enterprise-university-research institute cooperation. The study gives some references for interests-distribution of enterprise-university-research institute cooperation.

  8. Current research of hepatic cirrhosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xian Yao; Shu-Lin Jiang; Dong-Mei Yao

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is a common disease that poses a serious threat to public health, and is characterized by chronic,progressive and diffuse hepatic lesions preceded by hepaticfibrosis regardless of the exact etiologies. In recent years,considerable achievements have been made in China in research of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and especially the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in much improved prognosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this paper, the authors review the current status of research in hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and their major complications.

  9. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities ...

  10. Integrated fundamental research on current collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Doris; Tran, Leo

    1993-06-01

    The aim of our research was to add to the basic understanding in the area of current collection with particular emphasis on topics likely to benefit practical objectives. Under sponsorship of this contract, 23 papers were published in the international literature. Additionally, 13 invited lectures and 11 contributed lectures on various aspects of this research were delivered at universities, research laboratories, and international conferences by the principal investigator and co-workers. The development of a novel metal fiber material for sliding electrical contacts was continued with much success. This is expected to become very useful for making metal fiber brushed for homopolar motors/generators, as well as for EML armatures. Included in this report are title pages (and abstracts) for the 23 published papers.

  11. Researcher Perspectives on Conflicts of Interest: A Qualitative Analysis of Views from Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Jensen T; Gibson, Carter; Giorgini, Vincent; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2015-08-01

    The increasing interconnectedness of academic research and external industry has left research vulnerable to conflicts of interest. These conflicts have the potential to undermine the integrity of scientific research as well as to threaten public trust in scientific findings. The present effort sought to identify themes in the perspectives of faculty researchers regarding conflicts of interest. Think-aloud interview responses were qualitatively analyzed in an effort to provide insights with regard to appropriate ways to address the threat of conflicts of interest in research. Themes in participant responses included disclosure of conflicts of interest, self-removal from situations where conflict exists, accommodation of conflict, denial of the existence of conflict, and recognition of complexity of situations involving conflicts of interest. Moral disengagement operations are suggested to explain the appearance of each identified theme. In addition, suggestions for best practices regarding addressing conflicts of interest given these themes in faculty perspectives are provided.

  12. Agriculture for improved nutrition: the current research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachel; Hawkes, Corinna; Jeff, Waage; Ferguson, Elaine; Haseen, Farhana; Homans, Hilary; Hussein, Julia; Johnston, Deborah; Marais, Debbi; McNeill, Geraldine; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-12-01

    Concern about food security and its effect on persistent undernutrition has increased interest in how agriculture could be used to improve nutritional outcomes in developing countries. Yet the evidence base for the impact of agricultural interventions targeted at improved nutrition is currently poor. To map the extent and nature of current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition in order to identify gaps where more research might be useful. The research, which was conducted from April to August 2012, involved developing a conceptual framework linking agriculture and nutrition, identifying relevant research projects and programs, devising and populating a "template" with details of the research projects in relation to the conceptual framework, classifying the projects, and conducting a gap analysis. The study identified a large number of research projects covering a broad range of themes and topics. There was a strong geographic focus on sub-Saharan Africa, and many studies were explicitly concerned with nutritional impacts on women and children. Although the study revealed a diverse and growing body of research, it also identified research gaps. Few projects consider the entire evidence chain linking agricultural input or practice to nutritional outcomes. There is comparatively little current research on indirect effects of agriculture on nutrition, or the effect of policies or governance, rather than technical interventions. Most research is focused on undernutrition and small farmer households, and few studies target consumers generally, urban populations, or nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. There is very little work on the cost-effectiveness of agricultural interventions. On the basis of these findings, we make suggestions for research investment and for broader engagement of researchers and disciplines in developing approaches to design and evaluate agricultural programs for improved nutrition.

  13. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  14. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1972-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  15. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  16. Declaring Conflict of Interest - Current State of Affairs in the Ophthalmic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jamie Lea; Aubert Bonn, Noemie; Craenen, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The importance of transparency with financial ties in biomedical research is widely recognized, and most peer-reviewed journals require declarations of Conflicts of Interest (COI). Nonetheless, variability in the consistency of declarations of COI has been sparsely assessed. To assess consistency and rates of COI declarations in the ophthalmic literature and the effectiveness of journal COI policies. We analyzed consistency and completeness of declaration of COI in the ophthalmic literature and compared the levels of completeness to specific journal requirements. Six-hundred forty-two peer reviewed articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. In 64%, COIs were unreported, in 25% declaration of COI was incomplete, and 11% of the articles reviewed had complete declaration of COI. Of the 33 journals in which the most frequently published authors' articles appeared, 10 required the authors to complete the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) form or an equivalent form, but this did not affect the rates of COI declaration. In a random sampling of the most frequently published authors in the field of ophthalmology, declaration of COI was low and highly inconsistent. Requiring a standardized COI form has no significant effect on the rate of accurate COI reporting. Our findings lend support to the growing body of literature that shows that journals and editors may need to take a more active role in ensuring accurate and consistent COI reporting.

  17. The limits of disclosure: what research subjects want to know about investigator financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine; Horstmann, Elizabeth; Sussman, Jeffrey S; Hull, Sara Chandros

    2006-01-01

    Research participants' views about investigator financial interests were explored. Reactions ranged from concern to acceptance, indifference, and even encouragement. Although most wanted such information, some said it did not matter, was private, or was burdensome, and other factors were more important to research decisions. Very few said it would affect their research decisions, and many assumed that institutions managed potential conflicts of interest. Although disclosure of investigator financial interest information to research participants is often recommended, its usefulness is limited, especially when participation is desired because of illness.

  18. Schools and Research: Are They Interested? The Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukotich, Charles J., Jr.; Stebbins, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Lack of trust is an issue in doing research with schools. A School-Based Research and Practice Network was established by the University of Pittsburgh to create a regional research agenda. Over the past two years, Network staff held meetings with school staff in 43 districts to determine specific research needs, interests, and concerns. The most…

  19. Current interest in careers in surgery and cardiothoracic surgery from the millennial generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannam, Michael; Zhao, Lili; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2014-01-01

    Interest in cardiothoracic surgery (CTS) as a career has decreased over the past decade. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many surgeons develop an interest in CTS before medical school and even before college. This study evaluates the interest of high-school students at a magnet high school, with regard to careers in medicine, in surgery, and in CTS. A survey assessing career interests and values was conducted among junior and senior high-school students. Students were given a 1-hour presentation by a cardiothoracic (CT) surgeon on the postgraduate training process and then completed a postpresentation survey. A magnet math and science high school, the Kalamazoo Area Mathematics and Science Center. Of 128 students, 117 (91% response rate) completed the survey. Overall, 38% of students reported having a high interest in medicine; of this group, 58% reported a high interest in surgery and 36% reported having a high interest in CTS. Men were more likely than women were to have a high interest in surgery and CTS (p < 0.001). Students with at least 1 family member as a physician vs those without were more likely to be interested in medicine, surgery, and CTS and also have a higher level of concern for postgraduation debt (p < 0.01). Women were more likely than men were to have a high level of concern about postgraduation debt (p = 0.018). After a presentation by a CT surgeon, students showed no changes in interest in medicine careers but did report an increased level of knowledge about the process of becoming a CT surgeon, going from 31% to 72%. There exists a large interest in both surgery and CTS at the high-school level, but there may be a need for more active outreach to maintain and foster their interest in surgery and CTS through undergraduate and medical school. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of DLESE in Fostering Partnerships Between Research and Educational Interests in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.

    2001-05-01

    The Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE; www.dlese.org) supports excellence in Earth system education-for all learners in all instructional settings. Application of emerging information technologies provides new opportunities to form meaningful partnerships between the research community and education and public outreach efforts in the Earth sciences. Current activities at DLESE include:\\Working/Interest Groups: List-servers and websites are available to support self-defined working/interest groups. Groups currently active include K-12, Diversity, Water in the Earth System, Integrating Research and Education, and Science Policy. You are invited to join existing groups or start new topical discussions. The Integrating Research and Education list-server provides an excellent venue for sharing information on successful programs of this type. Dataset Working Group: This group is focused on the development of data access, tools and materials that will allow students to explore the Earth system using research data. A demonstration project showing integrated access to distributed datasets spanning the Earth system is underway. The Earth Exploration Toolbook project is collecting information and tips for using available data interfaces and tools. Researcher and educators are invited to join the dataset working group and contribute to the data access, interfaces, and educational resources needed to support learning through data exploration.\\Collections Development: Both individual learning resources and resource collections are being collected, organized and cataloged for broad dissemination using the search and browse functions of the DLESE discovery system. A Resource Cataloger has been developed to allow individuals to catalog resources that they have either developed themselves or that they routinely use in their instructional practice. Our experience shows that users or creators are most familiar with resources they use, and are therefore best

  1. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandel M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1 high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2 research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3 measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE, which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  2. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  3. Is it really all about the money? Reconsidering non-financial interests in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Concern about financial conflicts crowds out sufficient consideration of other interests that may bias research conduct. Regulations, institutional policies, and guidance from professional bodies and medical journals all primarily focus on financial ties. But why? Economic gain is not the only powerful influence. This article argues that we under-prioritize non-financial interests in the regulation of medical research. It critiques the usual reasons given for regulating financial and non-financial interests differently - that the interests contrast in terms of tangibility, that financial interests are optional, and that financial interests can be efficiently carved out as a discrete area of focus. Moreover, disparate regulatory treatment seems inattentive to the very similar social and psychological forces that animate the bias effect of both financial and non-financial interests and fails to account for how financial and non-financial interests synergistically interact. Under-prioritization of non-financial interests threatens to erode public trust and creates negative spillover effects that weaken financial conflicts regulation. Optimal regulation requires a more integrated, balanced, and proportionate response to secondary interests in medical research.

  4. High Interest Scales on the Strong Vocational Interest Blank and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey Using Holland's Occupational Codes. Research Report No. 1-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Franklin D.

    This study compared the arrays of high interest occupations produced by the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, T-399 and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey, Form DD when the instruments were administered to the same Subjects. Holland type Summary Codes were devised from the arrays of occupations and were analyzed by correlated t tests and…

  5. CURRENT ANSTO RESEARCH ON WASTEFORM DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, E.R.; Perera, D.S.; Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Carter, M.L.; Day, R.A.; Moricca, S.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Hanna, J.V.

    2003-02-27

    Current ANSTO scientific research on wasteform development for mainly high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications. Titanate wasteform products we have developed or are developing are aimed at immobilization of: (a) tank wastes and sludges; (b) U-rich wastes from radioisotope production from reactor irradiation of UO2 targets; (c) Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels; (d) 99Tc; (e) high- Mo wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels and (f) partitioned Cs-rich wastes. Other wasteforms include encapsulated zeolites or silica/alumina beads for immobilization of 129I. Wasteform production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting. In addition, building on previous work on speciation and leach resistance of Cs in cementitious products, we are studying geopolymers. Although we have a strong focus on candidate wasteforms for actual wastes, we have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the wasteforms in regard to crystal chemistry, their dissolution behavior in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and processing techniques.

  6. Vocational Interests and Performance: A Quantitative Summary of Over 60 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Su, Rong; Rounds, James; Drasgow, Fritz

    2012-07-01

    Despite early claims that vocational interests could be used to distinguish successful workers and superior students from their peers, interest measures are generally ignored in the employee selection literature. Nevertheless, theoretical descriptions of vocational interests from vocational and educational psychology have proposed that interest constructs should be related to performance and persistence in work and academic settings. Moreover, on the basis of Holland's (1959, 1997) theoretical predictions, congruence indices, which quantify the degree of similarity or person-environment fit between individuals and their occupations, should be more strongly related to performance than interest scores alone. Using a comprehensive review of the interest literature that spans more than 60 years of research, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine the veracity of these claims. A literature search identified 60 studies and approximately 568 correlations that addressed the relationship between interests and performance. Results showed that interests are indeed related to performance and persistence in work and academic contexts. In addition, the correlations between congruence indices and performance were stronger than for interest scores alone. Thus, consistent with interest theory, the fit between individuals and their environment was more predictive of performance than interest alone.

  7. On Unsaturated Soil Mechanics - Personal Views on Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, G. N.; Pietruszczak, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the authors' personal views on current research being conducted by various research groups around the world in the broad area of mechanics of unsaturated geomaterials in general and soils in particular. The topic is of interest to a wide spectrum of scientists and engineers working in diverse areas such as geology and geophysics, powder technology, agricultural, petroleum, chemical, geotechnical, civil, environmental and nuclear engineering. Even if we restrict ourselves to civil, geotechnical and environmental engineering, it is noted that a plethora of hypotheses as well as a number of empirical and semi-empirical relations have been introduced for describing the mechanics of unsaturated porous media. However, many of these proposed advances as well as methods of testing may lack sound theoretical basis.

  8. Bulk Glassy Alloys: Historical Development and Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Inoue

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of current research in bulk glassy alloys by focusing on the trigger point for the synthesis of the first bulk glassy alloys by the conventional mold casting method. This review covers the background, discovery, characteristics, and applications of bulk glassy alloys, as well as recent topics regarding them. Applications of bulk glassy alloys have been expanding, particularly for Fe-based bulk glassy alloys, due to their unique properties, high glass-forming ability, and low cost. In the near future, the engineering importance of bulk glassy alloys is expected to increase steadily, and continuous interest in these novel metallic materials for basic science research is anticipated.

  9. On Unsaturated Soil Mechanics – Personal Views on Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande G.N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the authors’ personal views on current research being conducted by various research groups around the world in the broad area of mechanics of unsaturated geomaterials in general and soils in particular. The topic is of interest to a wide spectrum of scientists and engineers working in diverse areas such as geology and geophysics, powder technology, agricultural, petroleum, chemical, geotechnical, civil, environmental and nuclear engineering. Even if we restrict ourselves to civil, geotechnical and environmental engineering, it is noted that a plethora of hypotheses as well as a number of empirical and semi-empirical relations have been introduced for describing the mechanics of unsaturated porous media. However, many of these proposed advances as well as methods of testing may lack sound theoretical basis.

  10. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research.

  11. 2002–2012: 10 Years of Research Progress in Horizontal-Axis Marine Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wern Ng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in marine current energy, including tidal and ocean currents, has undergone significant growth in the past decade. The horizontal-axis marine current turbine is one of the machines used to harness marine current energy, which appears to be the most technologically and economically viable one at this stage. A number of large-scale marine current turbines rated at more than 1 MW have been deployed around the World. Parallel to the development of industry, academic research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines has also shown positive growth. This paper reviews previous research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines and provides a concise overview for future researchers who might be interested in horizontal-axis marine current turbines. The review covers several main aspects, such as: energy assessment, turbine design, wakes, generators, novel modifications and environmental impact. Future trends for research on horizontal-axis marine current turbines are also discussed.

  12. Research Ethics III: Publication Practices and Authorship, Conflicts of Interest, and Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. Method: In "Research Ethics III", they review the RCR domains of publication…

  13. Current Research on Effective Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    This presentation provides an overview of research on classroom management, emphasizing results from a program of research conducted at the Research and Development Center for Teacher Education (University of Texas) during the last 5 years. These studies, along with others, provide a basis for describing important dimensions of teacher behavior…

  14. Current trends in free software research

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Bosch, Ramon; Vila Marta, Sebastià

    2009-01-01

    This report analyzes how scientific research is studying free software. We find which research is being done on free software by looking into scientific journals and conferences publications. The data thus obtained is analized and the most salient trends related to free software discovered. We also reviewed the main works published in each free software research area.

  15. Statistics used in current nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Kathleen; Boerst, Connie J; Tabb, Wil

    2007-02-01

    Undergraduate nursing research courses should emphasize the statistics most commonly used in the nursing literature to strengthen students' and beginning researchers' understanding of them. To determine the most commonly used statistics, we reviewed all quantitative research articles published in 13 nursing journals in 2000. The findings supported Beitz's categorization of kinds of statistics. Ten primary statistics used in 80% of nursing research published in 2000 were identified. We recommend that the appropriate use of those top 10 statistics be emphasized in undergraduate nursing education and that the nursing profession continue to advocate for the use of methods (e.g., power analysis, odds ratio) that may contribute to the advancement of nursing research.

  16. Codependency: A concomitant field of interest in research into the phenomenon caring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. van der Wal

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of caring is evident throughout the nursing profession. Research into the phenomenon caring, however, necessitates that caring as an ethic be distinguished from pseudo caring actions and experiences. Codependence and codependency are proposed as being of a pseudo-caring nature. Research interest into this field of study needs to be kindled.

  17. Codependency: a concomitant field of interest in research into the phenomenon caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, D

    1996-12-01

    The growing popularity of caring is evident throughout the nursing profession. Research into the phenomenon caring, however, necessitates that caring as an ethic be distinguished from pseudo caring actions and experiences. Codependence and codependency are proposed as being of a pseudo-caring nature. Research interest into this field of study needs to be kindled.

  18. Some Current Themes in Functional Analysis Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Smith, Richard G.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses clinical application of functional analysis in developmental disabilities, reviewing issues related to treatment logic and development. The article then approaches functional analysis as a research method, reviewing three areas of research: analysis of diverse response topographies, analysis of basic behavioral processes,…

  19. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Carol P; Strauman, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research.

  20. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries.

  1. The nature of social interests within the framework of societal and economic security research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgen Nikolaiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the nature of social interests as a complex category of social sciences that reflects the momentum behind human and social actions but is not deeply developed in applied research or in legislature. In particular, certain academic disciplines, such as security studies, interpret social interests much more narrowly and superficially compared to their real essence. Ukrainian legislature uses lists of social interests as a set of social and security policy goals, but it singles out an excessive number of such goals, ignores the imminent contradictions between interests of different members of the society, does not assign quantitative indicators to any of the interests nor sets any time frame for their fulfillment. Therefore the analytical and practical potential for using social interests as guidelines for public policy remains largely unexploited. The paper also offers a system of basic social interests that can serve as a foundation for building a modern European state in Ukraine. The events of 2013-2014 lead to the fall of autocratic and cleptocratic rule in Ukraine, and dissociate the country from the Russian integration projects. In this situation, the basic social interests of Ukraine must be the “desovietization” of its socioeconomic system, reduction of income inequality within the population, achievement of social justice as viewed in John Rawls’ concept, and the development of an adequate social and economic order

  2. Headaches of otolaryngological interest: current status while awaiting revision of classification. Practical considerations and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Farri, A; Enrico, A.; FARRI, F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In 1988, diagnostic criteria for headaches were drawn up by the International Headache Society (IHS) and is divided into headaches, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. The 2nd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) was produced in 2004, and still provides a dynamic and useful instrument for clinical practice. We have examined the current IHC, which comprises 14 groups. The first four cover primary headaches, with "benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhoo...

  3. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge pert

  4. Current trends in chloroplast genome research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... organization and promising ability for transgenic expression. Therefore, cpDNA ... highly conserved in size, structure and gene content. (Olmstead and ... contain only 10% of the genes required for fully functional organelle whereas the ... concept (McFadden, 1999; Maliga, 2003; Howe, 2008). Currently 170 ...

  5. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  6. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge pert

  7. CURRENT STATE OF HISTORIC AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magsumov Timur Albertovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the results of development of national historic and educational research at the turn of the XXth century; pinpoint obvious success and indicate problems and contradictory areas; give grounding to the development model of the XXth century Russian pedagogy; make suggestions on the strategy and tactics of further development of historic and educational science and suggest areas for further research. They are ‘new social history’ of education, professional education and teacher training, personified microhistory and history of local educational environment, genesis of didactic principles, ethno-pedagogy, country school, pedagogical diagnostics, Orthodox religious education, contemporary history of foreign pedagogy, pedagogical futurology. We prove the need in reassessment of certain studies’ viability. We draw the conclusion that historic and educational knowledge determines areas and instruments to understand the problems of educational issues, their roots and realize the existence of ways to solve them.

  8. Current clinical research in orthodontics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon

    2006-10-01

    This essay explores briefly the approach of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory to the systematic and rigorous investigation of the usual outcome of orthodontic treatment in the practices of experienced clinicians. CRIL's goal is to produce a shareable electronic database of reliable, valid, and representative data on clinical practice as an aid in the production of an improved environment for truly evidence-based orthodontic treatment.

  9. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  10. Sustainability in facilities management: an overview of current research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Sarasoja, Anna-Liisa; Ramskov Galamba, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    the emerging sub-discipline of sustainable facilities management (SFM) on research, an overview of current studies is needed. The purpose of this literature review is to provide exactly this overview. Design/methodology/approach: This article identifies and examines current research studies on SFM through...... indicated that the current research varies in focus, methodology and application of theory, and it was concluded that the current research primary addresses environmental sustainability, whereas the current research which takes an integrated strategic approach to SFM is limited. The article includes lists...... of reviewed journals and articles to support the further development of SFM in research and practice. Research limitations/implications: The literature review includes literature from 2007 to 2012, to manage the analytical process within the project period. However, with the current categorisation...

  11. Mindfulness for Children in Public Schools: Current Research and Developmental Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Jeanne; Gelbar, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have increased in popularity over the past decade and interest continues to increase in the potential to use mindfulness-based interventions in schools. The current research concerning school-based mindfulness-based interventions is reviewed in this article. This research base is fragmented, as most of the studies…

  12. Current research trends and perspectives on materials-based hydrogen storage solutions: A critical review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective hydrogen storage solutions have been pursued for decades, and materials-based hydrogen storage is a research frontier of much current interest. Yet, no researched materials to date have come close to the DOE 2020 targets for hydrogen...

  13. Intelligent multimedia surveillance current trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Atrey, Pradeep K; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent multimedia surveillance concerns the analysis of multiple sensing inputs including video and audio streams, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and depth data. These data are processed for the automated detection and tracking of people, vehicles, and other objects. The goal is to locate moving targets, to understand their behavior, and to detect suspicious or abnormal activities for crime prevention. Despite its benefits, there is societal apprehension regarding the use of such technology, so an important challenge in this research area is to balance public safety and privacy.

  14. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  15. The current status of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tri Wulan Tjiptono; Syarip

    1998-10-01

    The Kartini reactor reached the first criticality on January 25, 1979. In the first three years, the reactor power is limited up to 50 kW thermal power and on July 1, 1982 has been increased to 100 kW. It has been used as experiments facility by researcher of Atomic Energy National Agency and students of the Universities. Three beam tubes used as experiments facilities, the first, is used as a neutron source for H{sub 2}O-Natural Uranium Subcritical Assembly, the second, is developed for neutron radiography facility and the third, is used for gamma radiography facility. The other facilities are rotary rack and two pneumatic transfer systems, one for delayed neutron counting system and the other for the new Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) facility. The rotary rack used for isotope production for NAA purpose (for long time irradiation), the delayed neutron counting system used for analysis the Uranium contents of the ores and the new NAA is provided for short live elements analysis. In the last three years the Reactor Division has a joint use program with the Nuclear Component and Engineering Center in research reactor instrumentation and control development. (author)

  16. Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  17. A SURVEY OF CURRENT RESEARCH ON CAPTCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Khalifa Abdullah Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been playing an increasingly important role in our daily life, with the availability of many web services such as email and search engines. However, these are often threatened by attacks from computer programs such as bots. To address this problem, CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart was developed to distinguish between computer programs and human users. Although this mechanism offers good security and limits automatic registration to web services, some CAPTCHAs have several weaknesses which allow hackers to infiltrate the mechanism of the CAPTCHA. This paper examines recent research on various CAPTCHA methods and their categories. Moreover it discusses the weakness and strength of these types.

  18. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 4. Managing conflicts of interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the fourth of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on conflicts of interest to answer the following questions: 1. What is the best way to obtain complete and accurate disclosures on financial ties and other competing interests? 2. How to determine when a disclosed financial tie or other competing interest constitutes a conflict of interest? 3. When a conflict of interest is identified, how should the conflict be managed? 4. How could conflict of interest policies be enforced? Methods We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Methodology Register and selectively searched for the published policies of several organizations, We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers What is the best way to obtain complete and accurate disclosures on financial ties and other competing interests? • Although there is little empirical evidence to guide the development of disclosure forms, minimal or open-ended formats are likely to be uninformative. We recommend the development of specific, detailed, structured forms that solicit as much information as possible about the nature and extent of the competing interests. How to determine when a disclosed financial tie or other competing interest constitutes a conflict of interest? • There is no empirical evidence to suggest that explicit criteria are preferable to ad hoc committee decisions when deciding if a disclosed financial tie is a conflict of

  19. Disclosing conflicts of interest in German publications concerning health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Friedrich W

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of the pharmaceutical industry and other stakeholders on medical science has been increasingly criticised. When dealing with conflicts of interest in scientific publications it is important to ensure the best possible transparency. The objective of this work is to examine the disclosure practice of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest in German language publications concerning health services research for the first time. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in the PubMed data base using the MeSH term "health services research". The review was conducted on July 10, 2006, setting the limits "dates: published in the last 2 years" and "languages: German" (only articles with abstracts. 124 articles in 31 magazines were found. In the magazines the instructions for authors were examined as to whether a statement on conflicts of interest is expected – and if, in which form. Regarding the articles in the journals which require a statement, we examined whether the statement is explicitly published. The results are descriptively represented. Results 13 magazines (42% do not require any statement on conflicts of interest, whereas 18 journals (58% expect a statement. Two of these 18 magazines refer explicitly to the uniform requirements of the International Committee of the Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; the remaining 16 magazines give differently accentuated instructions on how to disclose conflicts of interest, whereby the focus is primarily on financial issues. A statement on conflicts of interest is explicitly published in 11 of the 71 articles (15% which are found in the magazines that require a statement with the submission of a manuscript. Related to the total number of included articles, this means that the reader explicitly receives information on potential conflicts of interest in 9% of the cases (11 of 124 articles. Statements of others that are involved in the publication process

  20. Twins' injuries: genetic and environmental risks / twin research reports / human interest stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2011-04-01

    The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to unintentional injuries are of interest to families with young twins. A recent study found that childhood injuries are explained mostly by child-specific environmental factors. Next, twin research reviews of the association between periodontal disease and cancer, secular trends in gestational age and birthweight, and language development in hearing and deaf co-twins are also summarized. Interesting reports of newborn twins, twin-like relationships, twin interactions and missed twin relationships are presented.

  1. Analyzing Progress of Researches on Learning Interest%学习兴趣研究进展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛亏环

    2014-01-01

    Learning interests can arouse students ’ curiosity of learning, promot students ’development of personality and creativity. With the further development of cognitive psychology and learning science, this paper deepens the study of students’ learning interest. It analyzed the root causes of learning interest and path and the current situation of the development of modern western learning interest and rule, it tried to grasp the students ’ learning interest and its concept of development and explore the relationship between development trend and student’ development. It claimed that it is today’s important issue for scholars and experts to study modern science research methods.%学习兴趣在学生的学习中具有激发求知欲、促进个性和创造性发展的作用。随着认知心理学和学习科学的进一步发展,加强对学生学习兴趣的研究,分析学习兴趣产生的根源和路径,了解近20年来西方学习兴趣研究发展现状,掌握学生学习兴趣发展走向与学生发展观的关系,应成为当今学习科学领域的一项重要课题。

  2. Presentations of scientific research results as a strategy to increase the interest of students in physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the search for strategies to arouse the interest of undergraduate students in science, it was proposed the project "Colloquiums in Physiology" in order to disseminate and discuss scientific discoveries and improve the students’ interest in Physiology. This work aimed to verify the perception of participants about the impact of this activity. The activity included lectures throughout the semester and at the end of each lecture, a questionnaire was applied to listeners. Among the 171 students who answered the questionnaire, 81% (n=139 considers that this proposal increased their interest in physiology, 96% (n=164 believes that it is an important activity and achieved its goal of promote science disclosure, and 83% (n=142 stated that the project promotes interaction between research, teaching and outreach activities. Thus, it highlights the importance of this type of event for the academic formation.

  3. Conflicts of interest in research: is clinical decision-making compromised? An opinion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Shawn; Abidi, Shawn; Bebermeyer, Richard D

    2010-08-01

    Lack of transparency in funded research can compromise clinical decision-making in an evidence-based practice. Transparency can be defined as full disclosure of all financial assistance and support to authors and investigators. There is a perception that ethical principles are eroding and that research data can be biased due to conflicts of interest. These research outcomes biased or not, are used for clinical decision-making in the evidence-based practice. One suggested solution to this common ethical dilemma is to continue the dialogue on transparency in research and to create oversight bodies which include representatives from business and industry, private practice, academia, and research. There is increasing evidence of the need for more ethics education at all levels.

  4. Conflito de interesses em pesquisa clínica Conflict of interests in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Maria de Oliveira Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Na pesquisa clínica há um grande potencial para o conflito de interesses e, mesmo para o pesquisador, a identificação desses conflitos pode não ser muito clara. Há muitos aspectos a serem considerados, com implicações que atingem todos os agentes que participam do processo: o sujeito da pesquisa, o pesquisador, a instituição onde a pesquisa é realizada, o patrocinador, os comitês de ética, as agências reguladoras, a comunidade científica e a sociedade em geral. A conclusão é que os conflitos de interesses são generalizados e inevitáveis na vida acadêmica. O desafio não é erradicá-los, mas reconhecê-los e manejá-los adequadamente. A única prática aceitável é que sejam expostos claramente e que todas as pesquisas em seres humanos passem pelo crivo dos comitês de ética em pesquisa.In clinical research there is a real possibility to have some conflict of interests. Even for the researcher, the identification of these conflicts cannot be clear. There are many aspects to be considered, involving all participants of the process: the research subject, the researcher, the institution where the research is carried through, the sponsor, the ethics committees, the regulating agencies, the scientific community and the society. The conclusion is that conflicts of interests are common and inevitable in the academic field. The challenge is not to eradicate them, but to recognize them and to manage them properly. The only acceptable way to do this is to expose clearly the conflicts of interests and always to submit the clinical research projects to the ethics committees.

  5. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  6. YouTube videos of 'research in action' foster diverse public interest in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Gil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, scientific enterprises seek to diversify interest and participation in STEM fields, to both provide equitable opportunities and to push research forward. However, diversity in STEM remains low in many institutions. Internet-based video has emerged as a dominant communication medium that scientists can use to communicate the motivations, process, and products of their work to a diverse, mass audience. Here I describe my use of internet-based video about my research and career as a marine biologist as a tool to inspire broad public interest in science. With my YouTube videos, I have reached a diverse and growing global viewership, amassing >10,000 hours of watch time at the time of this writing. Viewer surveys revealed that my videos have improved individual perceptions about science and science careers, particularly among women and minority groups. I conclude that the emergence of internet-based video as a dominant, ever-expanding communication medium provides an unprecedented but largely untapped opportunity for scientists to broadly communicate their research and to inspire diverse interest in STEM careers.

  7. Factors influencing pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmacy practice research and strategies for promoting research interest in pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritikos VS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To (1 investigate the relationships between students’ characteristics and their (a perceptions of research in general and (b attitudes towards pharmacy practice research; (2 identify strategies that could be used by pharmacy educators to promote research interest in pharmacy practice; and (3 identify perceived barriers to the pursuit or completion of a pharmacy practice research degree. Methods: A survey was administered to all students enrolled in each year of the four-year pharmacy undergraduate program, University of Sydney, Australia. Perceptions of research in general were measured using 4 items on a five-point semantic-differential scale and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research were measured using 16 items on a five-point Likert scale. Student characteristics were also collected as were responses to open-ended questions which were analysed using content analysis. Results: In total 853 students participated and completed the survey (83% response rate. Participants’ characteristics were associated with some but not all aspects of research and pharmacy practice research. It appeared that positive attitudes and perspectives were influenced strongly by exposure to the ‘research’ process through projects, friends or mentors, previous degrees or having future intentions to pursue a research degree. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest positive attitudes and perceptions of research can be nurtured through the formal inclusion in research processes, particularly the utility of practice research in clinical practice across the four years of study. Participants indicated there was a lack of awareness of the needs, benefits and career opportunities associated with pharmacy practice research and voiced clear impediments in their career path with respect to the choice of practice research-related careers. Conclusions: Future research should investigate changes in perceptions and attitudes in a

  8. Advancing Sustainable Bioenergy: Evolving Stakeholder Interests and the Relevance of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy Lawrence; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Dodder, Rebecca S.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Ozge Kaplan, P.; Andrew Miller, C.

    2013-02-01

    The sustainability of future bioenergy production rests on more than continual improvements in its environmental, economic, and social impacts. The emergence of new biomass feedstocks, an expanding array of conversion pathways, and expected increases in overall bioenergy production are connecting diverse technical, social, and policy communities. These stakeholder groups have different—and potentially conflicting—values and cultures, and therefore different goals and decision making processes. Our aim is to discuss the implications of this diversity for bioenergy researchers. The paper begins with a discussion of bioenergy stakeholder groups and their varied interests, and illustrates how this diversity complicates efforts to define and promote "sustainable" bioenergy production. We then discuss what this diversity means for research practice. Researchers, we note, should be aware of stakeholder values, information needs, and the factors affecting stakeholder decision making if the knowledge they generate is to reach its widest potential use. We point out how stakeholder participation in research can increase the relevance of its products, and argue that stakeholder values should inform research questions and the choice of analytical assumptions. Finally, we make the case that additional natural science and technical research alone will not advance sustainable bioenergy production, and that important research gaps relate to understanding stakeholder decision making and the need, from a broader social science perspective, to develop processes to identify and accommodate different value systems. While sustainability requires more than improved scientific and technical understanding, the need to understand stakeholder values and manage diversity presents important research opportunities.

  9. Interest of individuals from BRCA families to participate in research studies focused on male BRCA carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan; Kim, Jongphil; Xu, Yan; Friedman, Sue; Narod, Steven A; Metcalfe, Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Although men and women are equally likely to carry a mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) genes, the clinical significance of mutations in men remains incompletely defined. We sought evaluate interest of individuals from BRCA families to participate in a research study focused on men from BRCA families. Through an anonymous survey posted on the website of the BRCA patient advocacy organization, facing our risk of cancer empowered (FORCE), data was collected over a 21 month period (August 2010-June 2012) from members of BRCA families. The survey was completed by 405 individuals with known BRCA mutations, including 150 males and 232 females. The median age of survey respondents was 49 years (50 years for males and 48 years for females). Overall, 84% of survey respondents indicated prior BRCA mutation testing (95.2% females, 67.3% males). For the overall group of survey respondents, 84% (86% females, 84% males) indicated they would tell their male relatives about a research study focused on high risk men from BRCA families, and 53% (39% females, 74% males) thought that their male relatives would be interested in participating in such a study. Despite limited studies focused on men from BRCA mutation positive families, our survey suggests that both male and female family members are highly interested in focused on male BRCA mutation carriers. The importance of further studying this topic is underscored by emerging literature that suggest cancer surveillance and treatment decisions may improve outcomes in men with BRCA mutations.

  10. Current pathways for epidemiological research in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTOR-LITVAK, PAM; AL-CHALABI, AMMAR; ASCHERIO, ALBERTO; BRADLEY, WALTER; CHÍO, ADRIANO; GARRUTO, RALPH; HARDIMAN, ORLA; KAMEL, FREYA; KASARSKIS, EDWARD; MCKEE, ANN; NAKANO, IMAHARU; NELSON, LORENE M.; EISEN, ANDREW

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease. The current status of the epidemiology, challenges to its study, and novel study design options are discussed in this paper. We focus on recent results from large-scale population based prospective studies, case-control studies and population based registries, risk factors, and neuropathologic findings in chronic traumatic encephalomyelopathy. We identify areas of interest for future research, including time-trends in the incidence and prevalence of ALS; the meaning of lifetime risk; the phenotypic description of ALS; the definition of familial versus sporadic ALS, syndromic aspects of ALS; specific risk factors such as military service, life style factors such as smoking, the use of statins, and the presence of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), an excitotoxic amino acid derivative possibly produced by cyanobacteria found in almost every terrestrial and aquatic habitat; the emergence and disappearance of an endemic ALS in areas of the Pacific; and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of ALS. To move the epidemiology forward, we suggest using well-characterized cohorts of newly diagnosed ALS patients to identify risk and prognostic factors; storing biological material for future studies; building on the National ALS Registry as a resource of future studies; working in multidisciplinary consortia; and addressing the possible early life etiology of ALS. PMID:23678878

  11. Sleep disturbance due to noise: Current issues and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hume

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies

  12. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations......, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical...

  13. Current status and future directions of research on facial attractiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the perception of facial attractiveness and to assess the opportunity for research on poorly explored issues regarding facial preferences...

  14. Green Infrastructure Research Promotes Students' Deeper Interest in Core Courses of a Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.; Foti, R.

    2015-12-01

    As one of most innovative among low impact development technologies, Green Infrastructure (GI) is a new technology that presents a range of potential research opportunities. Inherently linked to sustainability, urban quality of life, resilience, and other such topics, GI also represents a unique opportunity to highlight the social relevance of practical STEM research to undergraduate students. The nature of research on urban GI, in fact, as well as the accessibility of the GI sites, allows students to combine hands-on experience with theoretical work. Furthermore, the range of scales of the projects is such that they can be managed within a single term, but does not preclude longer engagement. The Sustainable Water Resource Engineering lab at Drexel University is engaged in two types of GI research outside the classroom. One type is a research co-op research internship. The second is a selective university-wide faculty-mentored summer scholarship STAR (Students Tackling Advanced Research) specifically designed for freshmen. The research projects we developed for those curricula can be accomplished by undergraduate students, but also address a larger research need in this emerging field. The research tasks have included identifying and calibrating affordable instruments, designing and building experimental setups, and monitoring and evaluating performance of GI sites. The work also promoted deeper understanding of the hydrological processes and initiated learning beyond the students' current curricula. The practice of the Lab's research being embedded into the educational process receives positive feedback from the students and achieves meaningful and long-lasting learning objectives. The experience helps students to students acquire hands-on experience, improves their metacognition and evidence-based inquiring into real-world problems, and further advances decision-making and communication skills.

  15. Current Research on the Relative Effectiveness of Selected Media Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Nancy L.

    The literature of research and theory on media, the psychology of learning, and the technology of instruction is reviewed. The focus is on discovering what is currently known about the intersection of these fields. Current thoughts and discoveries about brain structure and processing are discussed. The management of learning as a system is another…

  16. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  17. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  18. Current status and future research in motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  19. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  20. Physician-industry conflict of interest: public opinion regarding industry-sponsored research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles G; DiPaola, Christian P; Noonan, Vanessa K; Bailey, Christopher; Dvorak, Marcel F S

    2012-07-01

    The nature of physician-industry conflict of interest (COI) has become a source of considerable concern, but is often not discussed in the research setting. With reduced funding available from government and nonprofit sources, industry support has enthusiastically grown, but along with this comes the potential for COI that must be regulated. In this era of shared decision making in health care, society must have input into this regulation. The purpose of this study was to assess the opinions of a North American population sample on COI regarding industry-funded research and to analyze population subgroups for trends. A survey was developed for face and content validity, underwent focus group evaluation for clarity and bias reduction, and was administered via the World Wide Web. Demographic and general survey results were summarized as a percentage for each answer, and subgroup analysis was done using logistic regression. Generalizability of the sample to the US population was also assessed. Of 541 surveys, 40 were excluded due to missing information, leaving 501 surveys for analysis. The sample population was composed of more females, was older, and was more educated than a representative cross-section of the American population. Respondents support multidisciplinary surgeon-industry COI regulation and trust doctors and their professional societies the most to head this effort. Respondents trust government officials and company representatives the least with respect to regulation of COI. Most respondents feel that industry-sponsored research can involve physicians and be both objective and beneficial to patients. Most respondents in this study felt that surgeons should be involved in industry-sponsored research and that more research, regardless of funding source, will ultimately benefit patients. The majority of respondents distrust government or industry to regulate COI. The development of evidence-based treatment recommendations requires the inclusion of patient

  1. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby A. Goodrum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR: text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  2. Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

    OpenAIRE

    Abby A. Goodrum

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of current research in image information retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of image research (IR): text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to TREC.

  3. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  4. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  5. Direct and enhanced disclosure of researcher financial conflicts of interest: the role of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spece, Roy G

    2013-01-01

    In earlier writing, I recommended direct disclosure of major researcher financial conflicts of interest in per capita funding arrangements--the practice of providing researchers with a fixed sum for each subject recruited and enrolled in a study. This Article adds a recommendation for enhanced direct disclosure. The enhancement in the disclosure is a summary of why per capita and excess payments are being discussed and further includes whether the sponsors of the research and the researchers have claimed that there are no excess payments. The reason per capita payments are being discussed is because of the risk--with special caution when sponsors and researchers are not willing to claim that there are no excess payments--of introducing bias into researchers' decisions regarding study design, implementation, and interpretation, as well as concerning whom to enroll or keep in studies. Researchers' claims that there are no excess payments do not vitiate the risk of such payments. Nevertheless, a special admonition when sponsors and researchers do not claim the absence of excess payments would hopefully encourage them to eschew excess payments. My recommendations are required by the rights to bodily integrity and autonomy embedded in informed consent. Several arguments have been made against my recommendations, many of which relate to supposed effects on trust. My rights-based recommendations should not be rejected because of objections based on propositions that (1) are conceptually unclear because of a failure to unbundle different kinds and degrees of trust and (2) have not been empirically proven even where concepts are clarified. In some instances, the required strong empirical confirmation cannot be made because of practical or ethical restraints, including the fact that some of the necessary studies would require invasion of the right to informed consent. Finally, I suggest and partially apply an organizational method to generate empirical questions and guidance

  6. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  7. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C L; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K J; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-09-01

    To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Australia. Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.

  8. "Why Did We Have the Partition?" The Making of a Research Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Saberwal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This “case study” examines the shaping of a research interest. It turns on the Partition of the South Asian subcontinent in 1947, leading to the Independence and establishment of the sovereign states of Pakistan and India. The Partition was a climax within a pattern of recurrent violence in the name of Hindus and Muslims for several generations before 1947, a pattern that recurs at lower intensity continually. This study explores the emerging of an interest in the social origins of the Partition out of several decades of the author’s personal experience. It tracks the origins of a sense of difference between the religiously defined social categories to the medieval period--though the Mughal period saw wide-ranging cooperative activity too. The colonial period saw a major change of phase, with heightened insecurities amidst large changes in polity, economy, and society, and the rise of influential institutions for religious revival on both sides. Amidst comprehensive enlargements in the scales of organisations, communications, and activities, the sense of opposition between groups, defined in religious terms, grew; and so too the frequency and intensity of aggression across the divide. The violence in 1947 was exceptionally brutal and large in scale; but the underlying attitudes had long been in the making. To take full measure of that long inception, one needs to summon the resources not only of history but also of a wide array of other social sciences.

  9. Research Reproducibility in Geosciences: Current Landscape, Practices and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, An

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility of research can gauge the validity of its findings. Yet currently we lack understanding of how much of a problem research reproducibility is in geosciences. We developed an online survey on faculty and graduate students in geosciences, and received 136 responses from research institutions and universities in Americas, Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. This survey examined (1) the current state of research reproducibility in geosciences by asking researchers' experiences with unsuccessful replication work, and what obstacles that lead to their replication failures; (2) the current reproducibility practices in community by asking what efforts researchers made to try to reproduce other's work and make their own work reproducible, and what the underlying factors that contribute to irreproducibility are; (3) the perspectives on reproducibility by collecting researcher's thoughts and opinions on this issue. The survey result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing. Only one third of the respondents received helpful feedbacks when they contacted the authors of a published study for data, code, or other information. The primary factors that lead to unsuccessful replication attempts are insufficient details of instructions in published literature, and inaccessibility of data, code and tools needed in the study. Our findings suggest a remarkable lack of research reproducibility in geoscience. Changing the incentive mechanism in academia, as well as developing policies and tools that facilitate open data and code sharing are the promising ways for geosciences community to alleviate this reproducibility problem.

  10. Current states and perspectives of Czech educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Janík

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review study is to evaluate the current state of Czech educationalresearch and to offer possibilities of its further development. The paper has threeparts. In the first part, the author presents the context of the topic: the current changesin the financing of research and development in the Czech Republic; the avoiding ofthe term (social science is discussed along with the issue of institutional financing ofresearch and the various presently up-to-date methodologies of quality assessment inresearch. In the second part, the author analyses the current state of Czech educationalresearch – previous analyses of J. Pr°ucha, J. Mareš and E. Walterová and those carriedout by the Educational Research Centre are briefly summarised. In the third part, possibilitiesof further development of Czech educational research are offered. Developinga knowledge base of educational sciences is used as an example. First the nature andsubject of knowledge that is produced by research is analysed, then the difference betweenpedagogical research and research in education is discussed. Towards the end,relevant approaches are discussed along with research areas and types of knowledgeacquired by research.

  11. Fracture detection and mapping for geothermal reservoir definition: an assessment of current technology, research, and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1984-11-01

    The detection and mapping of fractures and other zones of high permeability, whether natural or manmade, has been a subject of considerable economic and scientific interest to the pertroleum industry and to the geothermal community. Research related to fractured geothermal reservoirs has been conducted under several past DOE geothermal energy development programs. In this paper we review the present state of technology in fracture detection and mapping. We outline the major problems and limitations of the ''conventional'' techniques, and current research in new technologies. We also present research needs.

  12. MicroRNA Detection: Current Technology and Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Eric A.; Broyles, David; Head, Trajen; Deo, Sapna K.

    2015-07-01

    The relatively new field of microRNA (miR) has experienced rapid growth in methodology associated with its detection and bioanalysis as well as with its role in -omics research, clinical diagnostics, and new therapeutic strategies. The breadth of this area of research and the seemingly exponential increase in number of publications on the subject can present scientists new to the field with a daunting amount of information to evaluate. This review aims to provide a collective overview of miR detection methods by relating conventional, established techniques [such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), microarray, and Northern blotting (NB)] and relatively recent advancements [such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), highly sensitive biosensors, and computational prediction of microRNA/targets] to common miR research strategies. This should guide interested readers toward a more focused study of miR research and the surrounding technology.

  13. Curating research data a handbook of current practice

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Lisa R

    2017-01-01

    Curating Research Data, Volume Two: A Handbook of Current Practice guides you across the data lifecycle through the practical strategies and techniques for curating research data in a digital repository setting. The data curation steps for receiving, appraising, selecting, ingesting, transforming, describing, contextualizing, disseminating, and preserving digital research data are each explored, and then supplemented with detailed case studies written by more than forty international practitioners from national, disciplinary, and institutional data repositories. The steps in this volume detail the sequential actions that you might take to curate a data set from receiving the data (Step 1) to eventual reuse (Step 8). Data curators, archivists, research data management specialists, subject librarians, institutional repository managers, and digital library staff will benefit from these current and practical approaches to data curation.

  14. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  15. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics,both conceptually and technologically.It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology,the large genomic database,and bioinformatic power in the immunology research.The fast development in the fields of basic immunology,clinical immunology(tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy.We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  16. Current research status of immunology in the genomic era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaoWen; LI dinZhi; ZHAO GuoPing; WANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    This review updates the current status of immunology research under the influence of genomics, both conceptually and technologically. It particularly highlights the advantages of employing the high-throughput and large-scale technology, the large genomic database, and bioinformatic power in the immunology research. The fast development in the fields of basic immunology, clinical immunology (tumor and infectious immunology) and vaccine designing is illustrated with respect to the successful usage of genomic strategy. We also speculate the future research directions of immunology in the era of genomics and post-genomics.

  17. Simian virus 40, poliovirus vaccines, and human cancer: research progress versus media and public interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    From 1955 through early 1963, millions of people were inadvertently exposed to simian virus 40 (SV40) as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines; the virus had been present in the monkey kidney cultures used to prepare the vaccines and had escaped detection. SV40 was discovered in 1960 and subsequently eliminated from poliovirus vaccines. This article reviews current knowledge about SV40 and considers public responses to reports in the media. SV40 is a potent tumour virus with broad tissue tropism that induces tumours in rodents and transforms cultured cells from many species. It is also an important laboratory model for basic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. SV40 neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated poliovirus vaccines. There have been many reports of detection of SV40 DNA in human tumours, especially mesotheliomas, brain tumours and osteosarcomas; and DNA sequence analyses have ruled out the possibility that the viral DNA in tumours was due to laboratory contamination or that the virus had been misidentified. However, additional studies are necessary to prove that SV40 is the cause of certain human cancers. A recently published review article evaluated the status of the field and received much media attention. The public response emphasized that there is great interest in the possibility of health risks today from vaccinations received in the past.

  18. Changing Currents in Second Language Writing Research: A Colloquium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei; Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Harklau, Linda; Hyland, Ken; Warschauer, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on an invited colloqium on second language (L) writing presented at the 200 meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. The colloquium featured five second language writing researchers two discussed some of the important currents that have shaped the field of second language writing. (Author/VWL)

  19. Current Status and Advancements in Research of Plantation Nutrient Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Run; ZHANG Changshun; SUN Yongyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces concepts and current research status of plantation nutrients cyclings, and analyzes main contents of plantation nutrients cycling as nutrients contents, accumulation and distribution of nutrients elements, understory species and forest litter. At the same time, the paper summarizes the problems in plantation nutrients cycling and its prospects.

  20. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  1. Lubbock Gin Lab - Current Research and Leaf Grade Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation was given to a group of cotton gin managers and allied industry reps. Approximately 100 attendees were in the audience. A discussion of the current research conducted at the USDA ARS CPPRU Ginning Laboratory in Lubbock, TX was given along with a discussion of leaf grade issues and ...

  2. Cheerleading and Cynicism of Effective Mentoring in Current Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Paul A.; Naseem, Samina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of current empirical research of effective practices in teacher mentoring. Compiling literature published since 2000 in peer-reviewed journals, we examine arguments for mentoring practices to improve teacher candidate and novice teacher experiences and skills. The emergent "effective"…

  3. Evolutionary multi-objective optimization: some current research trends and topics that remain to be explored

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos A. COELLO COELLO

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a short review of some of the main topics in which the current research in evolutionary multi-objective optimization is being focused. The topics discussed include new algorithms, efficiency, relaxed forms of dominance, scalability, and alternative metaheuristics. This discussion motivates some further topics which,from the author's perspective, constitute good potential areas for future research, namely, constraint-handling techniques,incorporation of user's preferences and parameter control,This information is expected to be useful for those interested in pursuing research in this area.

  4. Is News Media Related to Civic Engagement? The Effects of Interest in and Discussions about the News Media on Current and Future Civic Engagement of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erentaite, Rasa; Zukauskiene, Rita; Beyers, Wim; Pilkauskaite-Valickiene, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether discussions about the media, when positively linked to interest in the news media, were related to adolescents' current and future civic engagement. A sample of 2638 adolescents (age M = 17, SD = 1.2), who participated in a school-based study on positive socialization, completed self-report measures on interest in the…

  5. The current status of research on resources recycling in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-31

    The current domestic research status for resources recycling has been reviewed by surveying the technical and review papers reported to some academic journals. The surveyed articles were classified based upon several categories, including recycling fields according to the kinds of recyclable materials, applied recycling technologies, organizations where the research was conducted, and references according to publication year and region. The survey showed that the recycling of metallurgical waste is being studied most actively. Also, the investigation of fly ash recycling is surveyed to be actively conducted. In the aspect of recycling technologies, chemical technologies are shown to be more widely applied than physical ones. For research-conducting organizations, academic institutes have been more active in the research of recycling field compared with national/private research institutes and industries. In the reference survey, English-written articles and the articles published between 1991-1995 period are shown to be most referred. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-07-27

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Animal models of frailty: current applications in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Alice E; Hilmer, Sarah N; Mach, John; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Howlett, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The ethical, logistical, and biological complications of working with an older population of people inherently limits clinical studies of frailty. The recent development of animal models of frailty, and tools for assessing frailty in animal models provides an invaluable opportunity for frailty research. This review summarizes currently published animal models of frailty including the interleukin-10 knock-out mouse, the mouse frailty phenotype assessment tool, and the mouse clinical frailty index. It discusses both current and potential roles of these models in research into mechanisms of frailty, interventions to prevent/delay frailty, and the effect of frailty on outcomes. Finally, this review discusses some of the challenges and opportunities of translating research findings from animals to humans.

  8. Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology?—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Huumo, Jesse; Ko, Deokyoon; Park, Sooyong; Smolander, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Blockchain is a decentralized transaction and data management technology developed first for Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The interest in Blockchain technology has been increasing since the idea was coined in 2008. The reason for the interest in Blockchain is its central attributes that provide security, anonymity and data integrity without any third party organization in control of the transactions, and therefore it creates interesting research areas, especially from the perspective of technical challenges and limitations. In this research, we have conducted a systematic mapping study with the goal of collecting all relevant research on Blockchain technology. Our objective is to understand the current research topics, challenges and future directions regarding Blockchain technology from the technical perspective. We have extracted 41 primary papers from scientific databases. The results show that focus in over 80% of the papers is on Bitcoin system and less than 20% deals with other Blockchain applications including e.g. smart contracts and licensing. The majority of research is focusing on revealing and improving limitations of Blockchain from privacy and security perspectives, but many of the proposed solutions lack concrete evaluation on their effectiveness. Many other Blockchain scalability related challenges including throughput and latency have been left unstudied. On the basis of this study, recommendations on future research directions are provided for researchers. PMID:27695049

  9. Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology?-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Huumo, Jesse; Ko, Deokyoon; Choi, Sujin; Park, Sooyong; Smolander, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Blockchain is a decentralized transaction and data management technology developed first for Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The interest in Blockchain technology has been increasing since the idea was coined in 2008. The reason for the interest in Blockchain is its central attributes that provide security, anonymity and data integrity without any third party organization in control of the transactions, and therefore it creates interesting research areas, especially from the perspective of technical challenges and limitations. In this research, we have conducted a systematic mapping study with the goal of collecting all relevant research on Blockchain technology. Our objective is to understand the current research topics, challenges and future directions regarding Blockchain technology from the technical perspective. We have extracted 41 primary papers from scientific databases. The results show that focus in over 80% of the papers is on Bitcoin system and less than 20% deals with other Blockchain applications including e.g. smart contracts and licensing. The majority of research is focusing on revealing and improving limitations of Blockchain from privacy and security perspectives, but many of the proposed solutions lack concrete evaluation on their effectiveness. Many other Blockchain scalability related challenges including throughput and latency have been left unstudied. On the basis of this study, recommendations on future research directions are provided for researchers.

  10. Factors influencing current interests and motivations of local governments to supply carbon offset credits from urban forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Poudyal; J. Siry; M. Bowker

    2009-01-01

    This study conducted a nationwide survey of municipal governments in the United States to assess their motivations, willingness, and technical as well as managerial capacities of cities to store carbon and sell carbon offsets. The analysis reveals that cities are fairly interested in selling carbon offsets and their interest in carbon trading is driven by the degree of...

  11. CYBERQUEER – MAJOR TOPICS AND ISSUES IN CURRENT RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA RODAT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the opportunities opened by the internet raises also questions of interest for research regarding the extent to which these have an impact on the formations of non heterosexual life and on the experience of marginalised sexual identities. There have been different approaches in this regard and answers vary from optimistic and utopian appraisals concerning cyberspace in the early 90s to the more moderate and sceptic visions in the 2000s. Starting from this framework of debates, the present paper aims to explore the meaning of the term “cyberqueer”, including the theoretical context of its occurrence, to briefly highlight some critical considerations relating to cyberqueer research and to look over the main recurrent themes linked up with this concept, such as queer and cyberqueer identity, body and (disembodied practices and the forthcoming process of blurring the dividing boundaries between real/virtual, online/offline and public/private

  12. A review on Bacopa monniera: Current research and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohil Kashmira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the use of herbal products has increased tremendously in the western world as well as in developed countries. Lately, one of the outstandingly important medicinal plants, widely used therapeutically in the orient and becoming increasingly popular in the west is Bacopa monniera, a well-known nootropic. The present review summarizes our current knowledge of pharmacological actions, preclinical and clinical studies, major bioactives, reported mechanisms of actions, clinical efficacy, safety and the possibility of interactions of the herb with the conventional drugs. Simultaneously, research updates as well as avenues for further research are also mentioned concerning the plant.

  13. Curiosity, Interest and Engagement in Technology-Pervasive Learning Environments: A New Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.; Chauncey, Sarah A.; McKenna, H. Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for developing new ways to study curiosity in the context of today's pervasive technologies and unprecedented information access. Curiosity is defined in this paper in a way which incorporates the concomitant constructs of interest and engagement. A theoretical model for curiosity, interest and engagement in new…

  14. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program. Industry, university and research interest in the US Department of Energy ECUT biocatalysis research activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Research Opportunity Notice (RON) disseminated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program's Biocatalysis Research Activity are presented. The RON was issued in late April of 1983 and solicited expressions of interest from petrochemical and chemical companies, bioengineering firms, biochemical engineering consultants, private research laboratories, and universities for participating in a federal research program to investigate potential applications of biotechnology in producing chemicals. The RON results indicate that broad interest exists within the nation's industry, universities, and research institutes for the Activity and its planned research and development program.

  15. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  16. SYRUPS: COMPOSITION, TECHNOLOGY, CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview data for the syrups formulation, including syrups for children, with synthetic substances were represented: assortment, composition, technological approach. The advantages and disadvantages of this dosage form were described. Details considered flavoring agents and other auxiliaries (stabilizers, preservatives, thickeners comprising syrups were closely examined. The issues of current research state of syrups for children were described.

  17. Fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) phenomena in reactor safety. Current understanding and future research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speis, T.P. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States); Basu, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the current understanding of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) phenomena in the context of reactor safety. With increased emphasis on accident management and with emerging in-vessel core melt retention strategies for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, recent interest in FCI has broadened to include an evaluation of potential threats to the integrity of reactor vessel lower head and ex-vessel structural support, as well as the role of FCI in debris quenching and coolability. The current understanding of FCI with regard to these issues is discussed, and future research needs to address the issues from a risk perspective are identified. (author)

  18. Research on scheme of applying ASON to current networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y. F.; Li, J. R.; Deng, L. J.

    2008-10-01

    Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON) is currently a new and hot research subject in the world. It can provide high bandwidth, high assembly flexibility, high network security and reliability, but with a low management cost. It is presented to meet the requirements for high-throughput optical access with stringent Quality of Service (QoS). But as a brand new technology, ASON can not be supported by the traditional protocol software and network equipments. And the approach to build a new ASON network on the basis of completely abandoning the traditional optical network facilities is not desirable, because it costs too much and wastes a lot of network resources can also be used. So how to apply ASON to the current networks and realize the smooth transition between the existing network and ASON has been a serious problem to many network operators. In this research, the status in quo of ASON is introduced first and then the key problems should be considered when applying ASON to current networks are discussed. Based on this, the strategies should be complied with to overcome these key problems are listed. At last, the approach to apply ASON to the current optical networks is proposed and analyzed.

  19. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  20. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  1. Physiological Research of Defence Interest in India Part I : Studies in High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Ramaswamy

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Our troops have to operate under a variety of adverse environments including hypoxic, dry cold/wet cold conditions of high altitudes, hot dry/humid conditions in the plains, high noise levels from machinery, engines in ships and aircraft, gunfire, etc. Professor DS Kothari, the first Scientific Adviser, Ministry of Defence, could foresee as early as the late forties that it was only a scientific understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms that would lead to solutions which would ensure the optimal operational efficiency of men under such trying environments. He sowed the seeds of defence physiology as a major discipline in the then Defence Science Organisation, which developed into the Defence Research and Development organisation. As a result, there have been outstanding contributions by the defence physiologists as well in the direct applications of their work in optimizing the operational efficiency of our defence personnel. This paper reviews the wide spectrum of problems relevant to defence physiology studied over the last four decades, the significant findings, and their practical applications. Part I reviews in detail work on the most pressing problem in our current geopolitical context, viz. high altitude physiology. Part II discusses studies on thermal stress, bioclimatology, noise exposure hazards, physical work capacity, effects of ageing on physical and mental capacities, and toxicology. In addition, the contributions of defence scientists towards the rationalisation of service ration scales, and resource development efforts are dealt with.

  2. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X’avia; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-03-17

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been revealed in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been hotspot for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for the disease of interest. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state-of-the-art of the technologies, and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, we will underscore some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research.

  4. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X'avia; Gritsenko, Marina A; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been implicated in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been considered as hotspots for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for diseases of interest. This review highlights recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state of the art of the technologies and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research are underscored.

  5. [Pathological gambling and computergame-addiction. Current state of research regarding two subtypes of behavioural addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Müller, K W

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral addictions, like pathological gambling and computer game addiction (or internet addiction), have become a growing concern in research and public interest. Currently similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are controversially discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately a mismatch exists between the large number of people seeking treatment and the small number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and computer game addiction. Prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is estimated to be 0.2-0.5%. These estimations are comparable to prevalence rates reported for drug dependency. Latest research states that about 3% of German adolescents and young adults are believed to suffer from computer game addiction. Therefore, it is important to enhance investigations regarding the clinical and neuroscientific basis of computer game addiction. This review offers a summary of current results of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction. The phenomenological description of these two disorders is meant to allow a deeper understanding of behavioral addictions.

  6. The development of a web page for lipid science and research. Main web sites of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boatella, J.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet provide access to a huge of scientific and technical information on Internet which is not validated by any committee of experts. This information needs filtering in order to optimize user access to these resources. In this paper, we describe the development of a WEB page outlining the activity of our research team Food Lipids Quality and Health. The WEB page seeks to fulfil the following objectives: to communicate the activities of the team, to use effectively the resources that Internet offers and to promote their use among the team. We report on the methods used in achieving these objectives. Finally, a large number of WEB addresses related to Lipids are presented and classified. The addresses have been selected on the basis of their usefulness and interest value.En internet encontramos gran cantidad de información científico-técnica cuya validez no suele estar controlada por comités correctores. Para aprovechar estos recursos es necesario filtrar y facilitar el acceso del usuario a la información. En este artículo se expone la experiencia práctica en el desarrollo de una página WEB centrada en las actividades del grupo de investigación «Calidad Nutricional y Tecnología de los Lípidos». Los objetivos de esta página WEB fueron los siguientes: difusión de las actividades del grupo de investigación, aprovechar los recursos que ofrece internet y fomentar y facilitar su uso. Esta experiencia permitió presentar una metodología de trabajo eficaz para conseguir estos objetivos. Finalmente, se presentan un gran número de direcciones WEB agrupadas por apartados en el ámbito de los lípidos. Estas direcciones han sido rigurosamente seleccionadas, entre un gran número de referencias consultadas, siguiendo una serie de criterios que se discuten en este trabajo, para ofrecer aquellas que presentan un mayor interés práctico.

  7. The Communication Research in Spain. Historical evolution and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Manuel Martínez Nicolás - manuel.martinez.nicolas@urjc.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper an approach to the history of Communication Research in Spain, taking into account the scientific production and the structure and historical context in which the scientific community interested in this field have performed their work. For this task we have established a temporary frame beginning from the moment communication became an autonomous field of research and education in Spain, during the mid-sixties, until present time. This period has been divided into three stages, typically defined as emergence, consolidation and development (or maturing of communication studies in Spain. In each of these stages, the scientific community interested in communication research have worked in different social, academic and epistemic or scientific contexts. These particular conditions contribute to understanding the different orientations which have inspired historical communication research in Spain (research objects, theoretical and methodological approaches, contributions and limitations.Traducción supervisada por la Dda. María Teresa Durán Sánchez (ULPGC.En este trabajo se propone una aproximación a la historia de la investigación sobre comunicación en España poniendo en relación la producción científica con las características, estructura y condiciones históricas en las que ha desempeñado su trabajo la comunidad científica interesada en este ámbito. Para ello, se establece un marco temporal que arranca en el momento de la constitución de la comunicación como campo de investigación (y de docencia autónomo, a mediados de la década de los sesenta, y llega hasta la actualidad. Consideramos que en el curso de este periodo pueden distinguirse no menos de tres etapas, que convencionalmente se han denominado de emergencia, consolidación y desarrollo (o maduración de los estudios sobre comunicación en España. En cada una de estas etapas, la comunidad científica interesada en la investigación comunicativa

  8. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  9. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  10. Current frontiers and future directions of telecoupling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The world has been increasingly interconnected over long distances though processes such as international trade, migration, telecommunication, and disease spread. However, previous studies often focused on socioeconomic or environmental issues of distant processes. While these studies have generated useful information for individual disciplines, integrating socioeconomic and environmental information is essential for holistic understanding of complex global challenges and unbiased decision making to address the challenges. To advance integrated research, the framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances) has been developed to explicitly address both socioeconomic and environmental issues simultaneously. Although the framework is relatively new, it has already been applied to tackle a variety of globally important issues, such as food security, water resources, energy sustainability, land use, international trade (e.g., food, forest products, energy, wildlife, industrial products), species invasion, investment, ecosystem services, conservation, information dissemination, and tourism. These applications have identified many important research gaps (e.g. spillover systems) and hidden linkages (e.g. feedbacks) among distant areas of the world with profound implications for sustainable development, ecosystem health, and human well-being. While working with telecoupling presents more challenges than focusing only on disciplinary issues, support from funding agencies has helped accelerate research on telecoupling and more efforts are being aimed at framework quantification and operationalization. The presenter will provide an overview of the current frontiers, discuss future research directions, and highlight emerging opportunities and challenges in telecoupling research and governance.

  11. Current research in child and adolescent bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Christine A; Townsend, Lisa D; Wilson, Michael; Findling, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Although recently more research has considered children with bipolar disorder than in the past, much controversy still surrounds the validity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, questions remain as to whether or not childhood expressions of bipolarity are continuous with adult manifestations of the illness. In order to advance current knowledge of bipolar disorders in children, researchers have begun to conduct phenomenological, longitudinal, treatment, and neuroimaging studies in youths who exhibit symptoms of bipolar illness, as well as offspring of parents with bipolar disorders. Regardless of the differences between research groups regarding how bipolar disorder in children is defined, it is agreed that pediatric bipolarity is a serious and pernicious illness. With early intervention during the period of time in which youths are exhibiting subsyndromal symptoms of pediatric bipolarity, it appears that the progression of the illness to the more malignant manifestation of the disorder may be avoided. This paper will review what is currently known and what still is left to learn about clinically salient topics that pertain to bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

  12. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  13. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    which simultaneously tracks the translator’s eye movements across a screen displaying both a source text and the translator’s emerging translation. This research method was developed as a means of qualifying and strengthening translation process hypotheses based on verbal reports by providing additional...... remains inaccessible to outside observation. What mental processes underlie measurable (micro)behaviour can only be inferred. A multi-methodological approach is clearly called for in order to capture the full complexity of translation, and translation studies must be open to extend its curiosity beyond...... itself, into regions like cognitive psychology, psycho- and neurolinguistics, and neuroscience, where the interest in what goes on in our heads is also very strong....

  14. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    diagnosis, accounting for 65.6% (RM 9.7 million) of cancer project funds. The 8th Malaysia Plan saw a change in research strategy. The IRPA agency fielded several top-down projects which encouraged a multicentre and multidisciplinary approach. This resulted in larger funding per project i.e. RM32 million for 49 projects. There was also a surge of interest in drug development and natural products. Because of this shift in direction, cancer diagnosis projects constituted only 51% of IRPA-funded cancer projects. Nonetheless funding for cancer diagnosis research has exceeded that of the 7th Malaysia Plan, being RM12.5 million by March 2004. The majority of such research is carried out at the Universities, engaging a large number of young scientists and postgraduate students (51 MSc and 21 PhD). A lot of research findings presented at scientific meetings have not yet been published and there is a glaring shortage of patents and commercialization of research findings (such as creation of test kits). Because diagnosis is very much a part of clinical practice, many researchers felt satisfied and confident that their work will be translated into practice and will significantly improve diagnostic services in Malaysia. National guidelines and consensus development on at least three malignancies i.e. breast cancer, oral cancer and lymphoma, have substantial basis in local R&D work. Problems encountered in research included (1) insufficient funding to realize research objectives, (2) lack of local expertise (most research assistants are inexperienced BSc graduates with no or minimal research experience), (3) inadequate technical support from vendors during equipment failure, (4) inexperienced Institutional development units to assist in product development, (5) lack of venture capital for commercialization of findings, and (6) inadequate incentives to undertake research. Researchers pointed out that plans to promote research should include the establishment of (1) regional and national

  15. 公益诉讼当事人问题探究%Research onPublic Interest Litigants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒亮

    2014-01-01

    In public interest litigation ,the two problems of public interest litigants being qualified or not and the pro-tection of public interest litigants ’ rights are important to promote the rationalization and legalization of public inter-est litigation.On the basis of discussing the qualification and litigation status of public interest litigants ,the article researches the influence of our imperfect public interest litigation system on public interest litigants and realizes that it is necessary to improve public interest litigation system and protect public interest litigants ’ rights.Then,our pub-lic interest litigation system can play its due role and public interest can be protected in the lawsuit level .%公益诉讼中,公益诉讼当事人的适格与否、公益诉讼当事人权益的保护这两大问题,对促进公益诉讼制度的合理化与合法化具有重要作用。文章在探讨公益诉讼当事人适格问题和其诉讼地位的基础上,研究了我国不完善的公益诉讼制度对公益诉讼当事人的影响,认识到完善公益诉讼制度保障公益诉讼当事人的权益是十分必要的,如此,我国的公益诉讼制度才能发挥其应有的作用,公共利益在诉讼层面才能得到保障。

  16. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  17. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  18. Astrobites: Engaging Undergraduate Science Majors with Current Astrophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Michael; Astrobites

    2017-01-01

    Astrobites is a graduate-student organization that publishes an online astrophysical literature blog (astrobites.com). The purpose of the site is to make current astrophysical research accessible to and exciting for undergraduate physical science majors and astronomy enthusiasts, and the site now hosts an archive of over 1300 posts summarizing recent astrophysical research. In addition, Astrobites presents posts on career guidance, practical 'how-to' articles, conference summaries, and astronomy news. Astrobites has an average of more than 1000 pageviews per day and reaches not only its target audience of undergraduates, but also graduate students and professionals within astronomy, astronomy enthusiasts, and educators. As we enter our seventh year of successful blogging, we share here the most up-to-date summary of our organization, readership, and growth.

  19. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Current research projects 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In 1986 SKB decided to construct the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in order to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed underground rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The focus of current and future work is on development and testing of site characterization methods, verification of models describing the function of the natural and engineered barriers and development, testing, and demonstration of repository technology. The program has been organised so that all important steps in the development of a repository are covered, in other words the Aespoe HRL constitutes a `dress rehearsal` for the Swedish deep geological repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began in 1986. Aespoe was selected as the site for the laboratory in 1988. Construction of the facility, which reaches a depth of 460 m below the surface, began in 1990 and was completed in 1995. A major milestone had been reached in 1996 with the completion of the pre-investigation and construction phases of the Aespoe HRL. The comprehensive research conducted has permitted valuable development and verification of site characterization methods applied from the ground surface, boreholes, and underground excavations. The results of this research are summarised in the book `Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - 10 years of Research` published by SKB in 1996. The Operating Phase of the Aespoe HRL began in 1995 and is expected to continue for 15-20 years, that is until the first stage of the development of the Swedish deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is expected to be completed. A number of research projects were initiated at the start of the Operating Phase. Most of these projects have made substantial progress since then and important results have been obtained. The purpose of this brochure is to provide a brief presentation of the

  20. Public Goods and Public Interests: Scholarly Communication and Government Documents in Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Sarah; Sare, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Federal mandates requiring that publicly funded research be made openly accessible recast scholarly information as public information and provide an impetus to join the efforts of scholarly communication and government information programs in United States research libraries. Most major research libraries are long-standing participants in the…

  1. Remarriage and Stepfamily Research in the 1980s: Increased Interest in an Old Family Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that nearly all existing empirical work on stepfamilies has been published in 1980s. Describes demographic context for this work and surveys research on stepchildren, remarriage, and stepfamily functioning. Identifies problems in extant research and suggests areas for future research. Emphasizes explicit and implicit theories that guided…

  2. Remarriage and Stepfamily Research in the 1980s: Increased Interest in an Old Family Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    Notes that nearly all existing empirical work on stepfamilies has been published in 1980s. Describes demographic context for this work and surveys research on stepchildren, remarriage, and stepfamily functioning. Identifies problems in extant research and suggests areas for future research. Emphasizes explicit and implicit theories that guided…

  3. A Research Project Using the Safran Student Interest Inventory (SSII): Discriminant Analysis of University Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K. E.

    Safran Student Interest Inventory (SSII) data was gathered on 135 university students registered in five different faculties. A discriminant analysis of the data indicated that the SSII was a good test for separating students into faculties and therefore would make a good counselling instrument. Some results are also present using Differential…

  4. Viewpoint on the current status of researches on sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-guo WANG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a common complication after severe trauma and burn, and also one of the main causes of death. Recently, although some new progresses were seen in antibiotic therapy, the mortality of sepsis is still on the rise, and the death rate as a result of sepsis is higher than a total of that of prostate cancer, breast cancer and AIDS. Therefore, sepsis has obviously become one of the serious ailments threatening human health. The present paper introduced the international definition of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, the current researches on diagnosis and therapy, and proposed that we should not only pay attention to pathogenesis and treatment, but also to sepsis prevention in sepsis researches, and we should try to find out the breakthrough in the interaction and dynamic balance between human being and pathogenic factors. Researches on the strategies to revert strong toxicity of infectious agents to non-toxic or weak pathogenic factors, and to conduct further research concerning biological characteristics of microorganisms and mechanism of drug resistance in order to render them to lose the drug resistance ability, or to increase its sensitivity to the drugs. The above suggested approaches might form the future strategies for preventing and controlling sepsis.

  5. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  6. The tobacco industry, researchers, and ethical access to UK Biobank: using the public interest and public good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Benjamin James; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-10-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry-funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking.

  7. [Cycles of German yellow fever research in the first half of the 20th century: protagonists and interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz-Wessels, Annette

    2008-01-01

    This article examines for the case of yellow fever research in Germany in the first half of the 20th century how political and military conditions affected the interests of scientific research. As a tropical disease, yellow fever was unknown in Germany and very rare in the German colonies and thus of little scientific or political interest. But this changed once the National Socialists began pursuing their wars of conquest. In preparation for a new colonial empire and a military mission in Africa, yellow fever research became increasingly important. The chief beneficiary of this development was the Robert Koch-Institute in Berlin, where Eugen Haagen worked after his time as a researcher in the Yellow Fever Laboratory in New York. In collaboration with the army and the industry, he used human experiments in his efforts to develop a vaccine for mass production. Ultimately, the vaccine's application was prevented by the German surrender in North Africa.

  8. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  9. In the past two decades, research interest has focused on the eddy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Current results in meandering, with the formation of eddies that can ... forced by a number of oceanic and meteorological boundary conditions, none of which is entirely predictable. ...... invade the South Atlantic: evidence from Geosat altimeter.

  10. The current status of environmental health research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowland, Angela; Cook, Angus; Heyworth, Jane

    2012-01-01

    At present, the extent of environmental health research in Australia is unclear and there are no recent overarching reviews of national publications on the subject. This study investigates the current status of environmental health research in Australia using a bibliometric analysis. Three databases (Medline, Web of Science, and AUSTHealth) were used to access original, peer-reviewed journal articles with Australian data published between 1 January 2001 and 11 June 2010. A total of 337 articles from 174 different journal titles were used in the analysis and were classified according to 15 pre-determined environmental health areas. The highest number of articles related to water health and resources (66 articles), exposure to hazardous chemicals (57 articles), and air pollution including indoor air (58 articles). These areas made up 54% of the total publication output over the past 10 years. The amount of environmental health research published in Australia over the past 10 years, and the topics explored in these studies, is comparable to that of other countries of similar socio-economic status.

  11. Precision viticulture in Brazil: Current research status on wine grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies associated to precision viticulture (PV are not currently used by Brazilian growers. To overcome this situation, a research is being carried out since 2011 in a vineyard of Merlot using a wide range of PV technologies. During this period, several PV research activities were performed which will be concluded in a couple of years. Therefore, final results depend on further variable evaluation which should be done by means of geostatistic, Geographic Information Systems and Principal Component Analysis. This paper briefly presents a series of methodological procedures used in different ways to attain the objective of this research project. In the sequence, it describes one final result and nine partial ones. Morphological and physicochemical analyses of soil showed that the vineyards are established on three taxonomic classes of soil – Argissolo, Cambissolo and Neossolo −, which are formed by ten mapping units. The partial results are mainly related to the utilization of GIS, modeling and must and wine composition of five mapping units; however they show results of only one year. With the complete set of analyses, data should be spatialized and maps prepared. Then, it will be possible to recommend different practices to each soil type and to aid oenologists to direct wines to a specific quality pattern.

  12. Public Interest in Medical Research Participation: Does It Matter if Patients or Community Members Have Helped Design the Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Enesha M; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Singer, Dianne; Davis, Matthew M

    2015-10-01

    We determined national levels of public participation in medical research study design. We compared public interest in medical research participation (MRP) in studies overall, versus studies explicitly designed with public involvement. Cross-sectional household survey of US population in June 2013. Descriptive statistics estimated participation in medical research study design. Chi-square test compared levels of interest in MRP if respondent knew patients or community members helped design the study. Of 2,048 respondents (participation rate 60%), 5% knew someone who had helped design a medical research study. There was no association between having known someone or personal participation in study design and willingness to engage in MRP. Although the overall proportion of respondents who would consider MRP initially (51%) was similar to the proportion who would consider MRP with community member involvement in study design (49%), the changes in respondents' views across the different scenarios were significantly greater than what would have been expected by chance. We found similar levels of interest in MRP whether or not the public is involved in medical research study design. This finding may indicate that public involvement in study design, like community-based participatory research, may not affect overall rates of MRP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  14. The Public Good vs. Commercial Interest: Research Scientists in Search of an Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rose H. C.; Westwood, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The environment for scientific research in public organisations is undergoing radical change, particularly with commercialisation pressures and blurring of the distinction between public and private research. The commercialisation pressures are reflected in government policy frameworks and institutional contexts for scientific work which are…

  15. Self-Interest and Scholarly Publication: The Dilemma of Researchers, Reviewers, and Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond L.; Roberts, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Academic misconduct in research is of growing concern to funding agencies, scholars, and academic journal editors. Scholarly publication has ethical implications researchers, reviewers, and journal editors. The theoretical background of the ethics of scholarly publication is explored as well as the use of a case study of an untenured researcher…

  16. Government databases and public health research: facilitating access in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Carolyn; Allen, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Access to datasets of personal health information held by government agencies is essential to support public health research and to promote evidence-based public health policy development. Privacy legislation in Australia allows the use and disclosure of such information for public health research. However, access is not always forthcoming in a timely manner and the decision-making process undertaken by government data custodians is not always transparent. Given the public benefit in research using these health information datasets, this article suggests that it is time to recognise a right of access for approved research and that the decisions, and decision-making processes, of government data custodians should be subject to increased scrutiny. The article concludes that researchers should have an avenue of external review where access to information has been denied or unduly delayed.

  17. Facilitating Out-of-Home Caregiving Through Health Information Technology: Survey of Informal Caregivers’ Current Practices, Interests, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; Jenchura, Emily C; Asch, Steven M; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic conditions are supported by out-of-home informal caregivers—family members, friends, and other individuals who provide care and support without pay—who, if armed with effective consumer health information technology, could inexpensively facilitate their care. Objective We sought to understand caregivers’ use of, interest in, and perceived barriers to health information technology for out-of-home caregiving. Methods We conducted 2 sequential Web-based surveys with a national sample of individuals who provide out-of-home caregiving to an adult family member or friend with a chronic illness. We queried respondents about their use of health information technology for out-of-home caregiving and used multivariable regression to investigate caregiver and care-recipient characteristics associated with caregivers’ technology use for caregiving. Results Among 316 out-of-home caregiver respondents, 34.5% (109/316) reported using health information technology for caregiving activities. The likelihood of a caregiver using technology increased significantly with intensity of caregiving (as measured by number of out-of-home caregiving activities). Compared with very low intensity caregivers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of technology use was 1.88 (95% CI 1.01-3.50) for low intensity caregivers, 2.39 (95% CI 1.11-5.15) for moderate intensity caregivers, and 3.70 (95% CI 1.62-8.45) for high intensity caregivers. Over 70% (149/207) of technology nonusers reported interest in using technology in the future to support caregiving. The most commonly cited barriers to technology use for caregiving were health system privacy rules that restrict access to care-recipients’ health information and lack of familiarity with programs or websites that facilitate out-of-home caregiving. Conclusions Health information technology use for out-of-home caregiving is common, especially among individuals who provide more intense caregiving. Health care

  18. Translational research in infectious disease: current paradigms and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Judith M; Alexander, Elizabeth; Salvatore, Mirella

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technologic evolution after the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biology to the "holistic" approach of broadmindedly examining the globally interacting elements of biological systems. The emergence of this new way of thinking has brought about a scientific revolution in which genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other "omics" have become the predominant tools by which large amounts of data are amassed, analyzed, and applied to complex questions of biology that were previously unsolvable. This enormous transformation of basic science research and the ensuing plethora of promising data, especially in the realm of human health and disease, have unfortunately not been followed by a parallel increase in the clinical application of this information. On the contrary, the number of new potential drugs in development has been decreasing steadily, suggesting the existence of roadblocks that prevent the translation of promising research into medically relevant therapeutic or diagnostic application. In this article, we will review, in a noninclusive fashion, several recent scientific advancements in the field of translational research, with a specific focus on how they relate to infectious disease. We will also present a current picture of the limitations and challenges that exist for translational research, as well as ways that have been proposed by the National Institutes of Health to improve the state of this field. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on micro-blog based personal interests and emotion transition tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushuo WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of social network, people can present or share their opinions and emotions on the micro-blog, and as a result, large amount of blog texts and emotional information of different topics are produced. As the traditional text mining algorithms cannot deal with these blog texts with fractional contents and different personal emotions effectively, this paper presents a novel weighting computation approach based on the key characters of micro-blog posts to get the dynamic interests of bloggers on different times. Furthermore, based on the emotion classification, the emotion transition tendency analysis can also be implemented. Experimental results show the feasibility of the presented approach.

  20. Event review: How Interesting Archaeology Is! - Captivating and Leading-Edge Student Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Uemine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kyoto City Archaeological Museum situated in Kansai region, the central part of Honshu Island, Japan, has held special exhibitions in collaboration with external organizations every year since 2011. From 2011 to 2013, several universities and even a high school have participated projects, and in 2014, the Kansai Archaeological Association for Students (KAAS played an important role as partner, producing the exhibit “ここまでわかる!考古学―学生が魅せる最先端” (“How Interesting Archaeology Is! - Captivating and Leading-Edge Student Research”.

  1. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T F

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  2. Current Debates in Corporate Social Responsibility: An Agenda for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crowther

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR has a particular prominence at this point in time, featuring heavily in the discourses of both academe and business. The understanding of what is meant by CSR continues to evolve as a consensus is reached. Nevertheless some important debates continue – or are commencing – which need to be resolved. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight these as some of the current debates within the CSR community – and hence form a significant part of an agenda for research in the area. Specifically we focus upon three key areas for the management of business, namely setting standards for reporting, identifying and implementing sustainable practice, and the management of risk.

  3. Request Twin Screw Extruder to Enhance DoD Interested Polymer Nanocomposite Research and STEM Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-25

    The polymer systems including plastics and modified plastics including polyester, nylon, polyolefin, polystyrene, polyurea, polyurethane, polyamide...substantial and unprecedented history of educating, training, and mentoring underrepresented groups, the enhanced research capabilities and education

  4. Vitamin K metabolism: current knowledge and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David J; Gorska, Renata; Cutler, Jacky; Harrington, Dominic J

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin K is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient that is required for the post-translational γ-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues in hepatic and extra-hepatic proteins involved in blood coagulation and preventing cartilage and vasculature calcification. In humans, sources of vitamin K are derived from plants as phylloquinone and bacteria as the menaquinones. Menadione is a synthetic product used as a pharmaceutical but also represents an intermediate in the tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, which preferentially resides in tissues such as brain. Research into vitamin K metabolism is essential for the understanding of vitamin K biology in health and disease. Progress in this area, driven by knowledge of vitamin K and the availability of markers of vitamin K status, has already proved beneficial in many areas of medicine and further opportunities present themselves. Areas of interest discussed in this review include prophylactic administration of vitamin K1 in term and preterm neonates, interactions between vitamins K and E, the industrial conversion of vitamin K to dihydro-vitamin K in foods, tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, the biological activity of the five and seven carbon metabolites of vitamin K and circadian variations.

  5. Current Research Status of KHNP for Site Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyemin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Bahng, Ki-In; Na, Jang-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, by the geographical characteristics, many Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been constructed and operated at a single site. This is above average level or number of plants per site in the world. For this reason, the public concerns for the safety of nuclear facilities increased after Fukushima Daiichi accident. As a result, comprehensive risk assessment and management for the site which have multi-unit NPPs were strongly asked. Currently, to solve it, many researches and projects has carried out by various Korean companies, research centers, and regulatory authorities. In this paper, R and D plans of KHNP for multi-unit risk were summarized. Firstly, the needs of multi-unit PSA were reviewed. R and D activities and plans of KHNP were summarized in the last part. In this paper, we summarized the R and D plans of KHNP for assessing the multi-unit risk. Currently, multi-unit risk or multi-unit PSA are important and practical issues in both nuclear industry and national energy policy. After Fukushima accident, several countries stopped the construction and the operation of NPPs, other countries which is maintaining the NPPs are being strongly asked to assess the risk for multi-unit NPPs at the same site. Because of Korean geographical characteristics, the number of NPPs which are above average level or number of plants per site in the world is being constructed and operated at a single site. The population density nearby each site is considered to be higher than that of other countries.

  6. [Video game and internet addiction. The current state of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, F; Mößle, T; Arnaud, N; Rumpf, H-J

    2013-05-01

    The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In DSM-5, nine criteria are proposed for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder. The focus is currently on video games as most studies have been done in this field. Prevalence estimations are difficult to interpret due to the lack of standard diagnostic measures and result in a range of the frequency of Internet addiction between 1 % and 4.2 % in the general German population. Rates are higher in younger individuals. For computer game addiction prevalence rates between 0.9 % and 1.7  % can be found in adolescents. Despite substantial comorbidity among those affected current research points to addictive media use as a stand-alone disorder.

  7. Best Sellers as a Research Tool: High Interest, Low Readability Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satlof, Marilyn R.

    Based on Daniel Fader's philosophy that "pleasure and enthusiasm must be the first (and at times the only) goal of an English teacher," this paper discusses the use of best sellers and current literature in remedial and freshman English classes. Best sellers were used as the basis for class discussion and provided topics for themes in the remedial…

  8. Pharmacotherapy for the core symptoms in autistic disorder: current status of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey; Grant, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The current review covers extant literature on pharmacotherapy for core symptoms of autism. The core symptoms of autism include impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. There are no known efficacious treatments for the core social symptoms, although effects on repetitive behaviors are indicated with some data. While studies of fenfluramine, secretin, opiates, and mood stabilizers generally find no effect, mixed results suggest more research is needed on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics. Newer lines of research, including cholinergic and glutamatergic agents and oxytocin, will be of considerable interest in the future. However, research on the treatment of core symptoms is plagued by limitations in study design, statistical power, and other issues inherent to the study of treatments for autism (e.g., heterogeneity of the disorder) that continue to prevent the elucidation of efficacious treatments.

  9. Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Greg; Davison, Richard; Jeukendrup, Asker; Passfield, Louis

    2003-09-01

    of power output is both physiologically and biophysically optimal for longer ( > 4 km) time-trials held in conditions of unvarying wind and gradient. For shorter races (e.g. a 1 km time-trial), an 'all out' effort from the start is advised to 'save' time during the initial phase that contributes most to total race time and to optimize the contribution of kinetic energy to race velocity. From a biophysical standpoint, the optimum pacing strategy for road time-trials may involve increasing power in headwinds and uphill sections and decreasing power in tailwinds and when travelling downhill. More research, using models and direct power measurement, is needed to elucidate fully how much such a pacing strategy might save time in a real race and how much a variable power output can be tolerated by a rider. The cyclist's diet is a multifactorial issue in itself and many researchers have tried to examine aspects of cycling nutrition (e.g. timing, amount, composition) in isolation. Only recently have researchers attempted to analyse interrelationships between dietary factors (e.g. the link between pre-race and in-race dietary effects on performance). The thermal environment is a mediating factor in choice of diet, since there may be competing interests of replacing lost fluid and depleted glycogen during and after a race. Given the prevalence of stage racing in professional cycling, more research into the influence of nutrition on repeated bouts of exercise performance and training is required.

  10. Collaborative Research in Childhood Cancer Survivorship: The Current Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Smita; Armenian, Saro H; Armstrong, Gregory T; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Hawkins, Michael M; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Olsen, Jørgen H; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M

    2015-09-20

    Survivors of childhood cancer carry a substantial burden of morbidity and are at increased risk for premature death. Furthermore, clear associations exist between specific therapeutic exposures and the risk for a variety of long-term complications. The entire landscape of health issues encountered for decades after successful completion of treatment is currently being explored in various collaborative research settings. These settings include large population-based or multi-institutional cohorts and single-institution studies. The ascertainment of outcomes has depended on self-reporting, linkage to registries, or clinical assessments. Survivorship research in the cooperative group setting, such as the Children's Oncology Group, has leveraged the clinical trials infrastructure to explore the molecular underpinnings of treatment-related adverse events, and to understand specific complications in the setting of randomized risk-reduction strategies. This review highlights the salient findings from these large collaborative initiatives, emphasizing the need for life-long follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer, and describing the development of several guidelines and efforts toward harmonization. Finally, the review reinforces the need to identify populations at highest risk, facilitating the development of risk prediction models that would allow for targeted interventions across the entire trajectory of survivorship.

  11. FES in Europe and Beyond: Current Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Christine Azevedo; Mayr, Winfried; Bijak, Manfred; Musarò, Antonio; Carraro, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES) is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators). Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS) conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies. PMID:28078074

  12. FES in Europe and beyond: Current Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.

  13. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue

    2008-09-01

    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  14. Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Kobayashi, Susumu; Hong, Zhen; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Wen, Guoqiang; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains.

  15. The Increasing Interest of ANAMMOX Research in China: Bacteria, Process Development, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen pollution created severe environmental problems and increasingly has become an important issue in China. Since the first discovery of ANAMMOX in the early 1990s, this related technology has become a promising as well as sustainable bioprocess for treating strong nitrogenous wastewater. Many Chinese research groups have concentrated their efforts on the ANAMMOX research including bacteria, process development, and application during the past 20 years. A series of new and outstanding outcomes including the discovery of new ANAMMOX bacterial species (Brocadia sinica, sulfate-dependent ANAMMOX bacteria (Anammoxoglobus sulfate and Bacillus benzoevorans, and the highest nitrogen removal performance (74.3–76.7 kg-N/m3/d in lab scale granule-based UASB reactors around the world were achieved. The characteristics, structure, packing pattern and floatation mechanism of the high-rate ANAMMOX granules in ANAMMOX reactors were also carefully illustrated by native researchers. Nowadays, some pilot and full-scale ANAMMOX reactors were constructed to treat different types of ammonium-rich wastewater including monosodium glutamate wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, and leachate. The prime objective of the present review is to elucidate the ongoing ANAMMOX research in China from lab scale to full scale applications, comparative analysis, and evaluation of significant findings and to set a design to usher ANAMMOX research in culmination.

  16. Current and Planned Cochlear Implant Research at New York University Laboratory for Translational Auditory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirsky, Mario A.; Fitzgerald, Matthew B.; Neuman, Arlene; Sagi, Elad; Tan, Chin-Tuan; Ketten, Darlene; Martin, Brett

    2013-01-01

    The Laboratory of Translational Auditory Research (LTAR/NYUSM) is part of the Department of Otolaryngology at the New York University School of Medicine and has close ties to the New York University Cochlear Implant Center. LTAR investigators have expertise in multiple related disciplines including speech and hearing science, audiology, engineering, and physiology. The lines of research in the laboratory deal mostly with speech perception by hearing impaired listeners, and particularly those who use cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). Although the laboratory's research interests are diverse, there are common threads that permeate and tie all of its work. In particular, a strong interest in translational research underlies even the most basic studies carried out in the laboratory. Another important element is the development of engineering and computational tools, which range from mathematical models of speech perception to software and hardware that bypass clinical speech processors and stimulate cochlear implants directly, to novel ways of analyzing clinical outcomes data. If the appropriate tool to conduct an important experiment does not exist, we may work to develop it, either in house or in collaboration with academic or industrial partners. Another notable characteristic of the laboratory is its interdisciplinary nature where, for example, an audiologistandan engineer might work closely to develop an approach that would not have been feasible if each had worked singly on the project. Similarly, investigators with expertise in hearing aids and cochlear implants might join forces to study how human listeners integrate information provided by a CI and a HA. The following pages provide a flavor of the diversity and the commonalities of our research interests. PMID:22668763

  17. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  18. Passion Research: A Joint Venture To Interest High School Students in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Francois J.; Abouaf, Madeleine

    1997-01-01

    Describes a joint venture between the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Department of Education in France that was created to allow students to do practical scientific work with the help of a CNRS researcher. Presents two practical projects done by students on organic polymers and on color. Concludes that this increases…

  19. Passion Research: A Joint Venture To Interest High School Students in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Francois J.; Abouaf, Madeleine

    1997-01-01

    Describes a joint venture between the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Department of Education in France that was created to allow students to do practical scientific work with the help of a CNRS researcher. Presents two practical projects done by students on organic polymers and on color. Concludes that this increases…

  20. [Development of interest in research on the quality of life in medical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukielczak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is an interdisciplinary concept, defined and used in the work by representatives of the medical sciences and the humanities. In the era of continuous development of medicine, physicians are increasingly able to treat and the gradual lengthening of life. Subjective assessment of health status of the patient has made in recent years, more and more important. Health evaluation of the patient makes a special role in the healing process and is indispensable in assessing the effectiveness of therapy. Hence arose the need to initiate research on the quality of life. The article discusses methods of determining quality of life, that are used in medical sciences. It also includes a summary of trends in the use of quality of life investigations in medical sciences. A review of research methods quality of life, which are used in medical science. In addition, analyzes the contents of the database "Medline" using password "quality of life". The article presents the types of questionnaires examining quality of life, recommended by the panel of experts, and are listed and briefly characterized the basic quality of life questionnaires to general and specific. In particular, the review provides a list of principal quality of life diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, in disorders and mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The article also includes information about the requirements associated with the reliability of the questionnaire, and provides information on the possible acquisition and use of research tools with ready-made MAPI Institute. This paper presents apparent in recent decades the development of medical research using the assessment of quality of life related to health. It is the use of validated questionnaires, so that the results of the tests were reliable and reproducible, which increases their value.

  1. Workshop on Functional and Structural Relationships and Factor Analysis (1983). Summary of Research Interests of Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous pairwise linear structural relationships. Biometrics, 25, 129-142. BARON, B. & P. JGLICOEUR. 1980. Brain structure in Chiroptera : some multivariate...Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 32, 1491-1494. JOLICOEUR9 P. & 6. BARON. 1980. Brain center correlations amotng Chiroptera . Brain,. Behavior...between major brain regions in Chiroptera . Brain, Behavior & Evolution, ~20, 172-181. SPRENT, P. 1972. The mathematics of size and shape. Biometrics

  2. Cohort profile: the Scottish Research register SHARE. A register of people interested in research participation linked to NHS data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Brian; Sullivan, Frank M; Vasishta, Shobna; Armstrong, Roma; Hanley, Janet; Haughney, John; Philip, Sam; Smith, Blair H; Wood, Amanda; Palmer, Colin N A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Recruitment to trials is often difficult. Many trials fail to meet recruitment targets resulting in underpowered studies which waste resources and the time of those who participated. While there is evidence that many people are willing to take part in research, particularly if it involves a condition from which they suffer, researchers are unable to easily contact such people often relying on busy clinicians to identify them. Many clinicians perceive themselves as too busy to take part in research activities. The Scottish Health Research Register SHARE adopts an approach which asks the public to consent to their data held in National Health Service databases to be used to determine their suitability for research projects. Additionally, participants can consent for spare blood, left after routine venepuncture to be automatically identified in the laboratory and stored for future research studies. Participants Anyone over the age of 16 years in Scotland can participate. Participants are approached through a range of methods including directly at outpatient clinics and general practitioners practices, leaflets with hospital letters and personal email from employers. Findings to date SHARE has recruited around 130 000 people. SHARE has demonstrated that it can quickly and efficiently recruit to studies, over 20 until now. In addition, it can be used to administer questionnaire studies by email and recruit to patient and public involvement groups. Future plans SHARE continues to steadily recruit with the ambition of eventually achieving 1 000 000 people in Scotland. We are steadily increasing the number of data sets we use for identifying participants. We are adding a mobile app which will facilitate dissemination about research and allow the collection of physiological and activity data if desired. We anticipate that SHARE will soon become the main source of health research recruitment in Scotland. PMID:28148535

  3. Potential of nanotechnology as a delivery platform against tuberculosis: current research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, S; Kusum Devi, V

    2015-03-28

    This review focusses on the current ongoing research in the field of tuberculosis comprising the resistant strains. It specifies a proper data analysis with results in concise form from areas gripping in: diagnostic nanotechnology, vaccine nanotechnology and the prime field of interest i.e., therapeutic nanotechnology. Primarily, therapeutic area recollects the research findings from advanced drug delivery (primary era) to the targeted drug delivery (modern era). The vaccine-based area derives the immune-specific targeting with enhanced emphasis on vaccine extraction and preparation of nanoparticles. Finally, the diagnostic area signifies the imaging techniques that may be employed in the diagnosis of TB. Not only that, there are some researches that emphasized on finding the comparable diagnostic differences between normal and resistant strains. With the advent of carbon nanotubes, metallic NPs, a newer hope has emerged out in diagnostic research, which may extend to therapeutic research applications too. Modifications of natural polymers, least or no use of organic solvents, size controlled NPs, optimized methodology, etc., are fields that need more effort to bypass toxicity. If above desired possibilities get the priority during research, it may lead to shift in the timeline towards much more oriented research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of research self-efficacy with medical student career interests, specialization, and scholarship: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S Beth; Prayson, Richard A; Dannefer, Elaine F

    2015-05-01

    This study used variables proposed in social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to focus the evaluation of a research curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University (CCLCM). Eight cohorts of CCLCM medical students completed a web-based version of the six-scale Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory-Short Form (CRAI-SF) items at matriculation (n = 128) or graduation (n = 111) during 2009-2013. Parametric statistics were used to compare CRAI-SF scales to domains proposed in SCCT: trainees' characteristics (gender, training level, advanced degree), career interests, career intentions (medical specialty), and performance (peer-reviewed publications and required thesis topic). A number of lessons emerged in using theory to frame the evaluation of a complex educational program. Graduates rated their research self-efficacy significantly higher on all six CRAI-SF scales with large effect sizes (>.90) on five scales (Conceptualizing a Study, Study Design and Analysis, Responsible Research Conduct, Collaborating with Others, and Reporting a Study). Women and men did not have significantly different scores on CRAI-SF scales (p > .05), suggesting that the research program provides adequate supports for women students. Most thesis projects addressed clinical (36.9 %, n = 41) or translational (34.2 %, n = 38) research topics. The CRAI-SF discriminated between medical school matriculates and graduates, suggesting that research self-efficacy increases with mastery experiences. No significant relationships occurred between CRAI-SF scores and graduates' thesis topics or chosen clinical specialty. Correlations demonstrated significant relationships between graduates' perceptions of research self-efficacy and their interest in clinical research careers.

  5. Governance of biomedical research in Singapore and the challenge of conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Calvin Wai Loon; De Castro, Leonardo D; Campbell, Alastair V

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses the establishment of a governance framework for biomedical research in Singapore. It focuses on the work of the Bioethics Advisory Committee (BAC), which has been instrumental in institutionalizing a governance framework, through the provision of recommendations to the government, and through the coordination of efforts among government agencies. However, developing capabilities in biomedical sciences presents challenges that are qualitatively different from those of past technologies. The state has a greater role to play in balancing conflicting and potentially irreconcilable economic, social, and political goals. This article analyzes the various ways by which the BAC has facilitated this.

  6. Microbial Contamination Detection in Water Resources: Interest of Current Optical Methods, Trends and Needs in the Context of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude-Valérie Jung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens’ presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research.

  7. Microbial contamination detection in water resources: interest of current optical methods, trends and needs in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Aude-Valérie; Le Cann, Pierre; Roig, Benoit; Thomas, Olivier; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Marie-Florence

    2014-04-17

    Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens' presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research.

  8. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Jaume; Petrov, Dmitry; Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Elena; García, M. Luisa; Olloquequi, Jordi; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Auladell, Carme; Camins, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a) to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b) to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC). PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease. PMID:26881137

  9. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Folch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC. PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5. Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease.

  10. Current status of auditory aging and anti-aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingwei; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Ruxin; Yu, Zhuowei

    2014-01-01

    The development of presbycusis, or age-related hearing loss, is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The auditory periphery exhibits a progressive bilateral, symmetrical reduction of auditory sensitivity to sound from high to low frequencies. The central auditory nervous system shows symptoms of decline in age-related cognitive abilities, including difficulties in speech discrimination and reduced central auditory processing, ultimately resulting in auditory perceptual abnormalities. The pathophysiological mechanisms of presbycusis include excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, aging and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage that results in apoptosis in the auditory pathway. However, the originating signals that trigger these mechanisms remain unclear. For instance, it is still unknown whether insulin is involved in auditory aging. Auditory aging has preclinical lesions, which manifest as asymptomatic loss of periphery auditory nerves and changes in the plasticity of the central auditory nervous system. Currently, the diagnosis of preclinical, reversible lesions depends on the detection of auditory impairment by functional imaging, and the identification of physiological and molecular biological markers. However, despite recent improvements in the application of these markers, they remain under-utilized in clinical practice. The application of antisenescent approaches to the prevention of auditory aging has produced inconsistent results. Future research will focus on the identification of markers for the diagnosis of preclinical auditory aging and the development of effective interventions.

  11. Alcohol and NMDA Receptor: Current research and future direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman eChandrasekar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by NMDA receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadapation is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism.

  12. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism.

  13. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Ross; Meyer, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled 'Rethinking Cancer', which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Cagan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled ‘Rethinking Cancer’, which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials.

  15. The Tobacco Industry, Researchers, and Ethical Access to UK Biobank: Using the Public Interest and Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    We have asked whether the strategic purpose of the tobacco industry is something that a public resource, such as UK Biobank, should support. Tobacco industry health research has been known to work irreconcilably with the purposes of such institutions, which can be surmised as for the public good and defined to improve the provision, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the promotion of health throughout society. We have isolated possible conflicts of interest that underlie vested research agendas of the tobacco industry and that may extend to tobacco industry–funded researchers. With respect to research, we find that the tobacco industry is entirely at odds with the purposes of public biobanking. PMID:25122018

  16. Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.E.

    1981-10-15

    Research on this contract can be divided into two general topics: (1) D/sup -/ formation collision processes, and (2) the determination of scattering cross sections used to diagnose properties of magnetically-confined plasmas. For topic (1) during last year, we completed theoretical calculations on the differential (angular) scattering of H/sup 0/ and D/sup 0/ on Cs, and determined the mechanisms and trends in the electron detachment cross sections for collisions of H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ on He, Ne, and the alkali and heavy alkaline earth atom systems. On topic (2) a major accomplishment was the determination of the electron capture and ionization cross sections for the C/sup 5 +/, N/sup 5 +/, and O/sup 6 +/ + H systems in the energy range from 13 eV/amu to 2.1 MeV/amu.

  17. Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The

  18. Research Interests and Broad Agency Announcement 94-1 of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    such as BC3, which resist oxidation better resistant, affordable materials for high-temperature struc- than carbon. In a sd BC3, whi chesi t oxidation...grtimavity , uld-modinginvols We place the highest priorities on research in ionospheric geopotential coefficient estimation, upward-continuation

  19. Bridging prediction and attention in current research on perception and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A; SanMiguel, Iria

    2015-11-11

    Prediction and attention are fundamental brain functions in the service of perception and action. Theories on prediction relate to neural (mental) models inferring about (present or future) sensory or action-related information, whereas theories of attention are about the control of information flow underlying perception and action. Both concepts are related and not always clearly distinguishable. The special issue includes current research on prediction and attention in various subfields of perception and action. It especially considers interactions between predictive and attentive processes, which constitute a newly emerging and highly interesting field of research. As outlined in this editorial, the contributions in this special issue allow specifying as well as bridging concepts on prediction and attention. The joint consideration of prediction and attention also reveals common functional principles of perception and action.

  20. Overview of recent and current research on the TCV tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Codathe TCV Team

    2013-10-01

    Through a diverse research programme, the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) addresses physics issues and develops tools for ITER and for the longer term goals of nuclear fusion, relying especially on its extreme plasma shaping and electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) launching flexibility and preparing for an ECRH and NBI power upgrade. Localized edge heating was unexpectedly found to decrease the period and relative energy loss of edge localized modes (ELMs). Successful ELM pacing has been demonstrated by following individual ELM detection with an ECRH power cut before turning the power back up to trigger the next ELM, the duration of the cut determining the ELM period. Negative triangularity was also seen to reduce the ELM energy release. H-mode studies have focused on the L-H threshold dependence on the main ion species and on the divertor leg length. Both L- and H-modes have been explored in the snowflake configuration with emphasis on edge measurements, revealing that the heat flux to the strike points on the secondary separatrix increases as the X-points approach each other, well before they coalesce. In L-mode, a systematic scan of the auxiliary power deposition profile, with no effect on confinement, has ruled it out as the cause of confinement degradation. An ECRH power absorption observer based on transmitted stray radiation was validated for eventual polarization control. A new profile control methodology was introduced, relying on real-time modelling to supplement diagnostic information; the RAPTOR current transport code in particular has been employed for joint control of the internal inductance and central temperature. An internal inductance controller using the ohmic transformer has also been demonstrated. Fundamental investigations of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) seed island formation by sawtooth crashes and of NTM destabilization in the absence of a sawtooth trigger were carried out. Both stabilizing and destabilizing agents

  1. Relevance of cytochrome P450s in plants: also one of Ron Estabrook's research interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Manjunath S

    2007-01-01

    I worked with Dr. Ronald Estabrook for nearly 10 years at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. In Ron's lab, when I joined I was initially involved in the isolation, purification, and characterization of cytochrome P450s and NADPH-P450(c) reductase(s) from plants, which was his new exploratory project at the time. We developed methods for the isolation, solubilization, and purification of P450s and NADPH-P450(c) reductase from plant tissue microsomes. We carried out number of in vitro experiments to study the involvement P450s and NADPH-P450(c) reductase in the biosynthesis of number of phytoalexins. We successfully isolated, purified, and cloned NADPH-P450(c) reductase from etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiate) seedlings. In addition, a series of studies were undertaken to show that purified mung bean NADPH-P450(c) reductase was able to catalyze P450-supported reactions for mammalian and bacterial P450s. My stay in Ron's lab was very educational and productive. He provided the necessary support and led the way through the maze in different research projects in the lab, which allowed me to understand the roles of P450s in humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. He liked to teach and discover new things everyday in the lab. He is a great scientist, as well as loving and caring mentor.

  2. CURRENT APPROACHES FOR RESEARCH OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current data concerning features of multiple sclerosis (MS etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment of disease indicate the necessity of personalized approach to the management of MS patients. These features are the variety of possible etiological factors and mechanisms that trigger the development of MS, different courses of disease, and significant differences in treatment efficiency. Phenotypic and pathogenetic heterogeneity of MS requires, on the one hand, the stratification of patients into groups with different treatment depending on a number of criteria including genetic characteristics, disease course, stage of the pathological process, and forms of the disease. On the other hand, it requires the use of modern methods for assessment of individual risk of developing MS, its early diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis of the disease course and the treatment efficiency. This approach is based on the identification and determination of biomarkers of MS including the use of systems biology technology platforms such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics. Research and practical use of biomarkers of MS in clinical and laboratory practice requires the use of a wide range of modern medical and biological, mathematical and physicochemical methods. The group of "classical" methods used to study MS biomarkers includes physicochemical and immunological methods aimed at the selection and identification of single molecular biomarkers, as well as methods of molecular genetic analysis. This group of methods includes ELISA, western blotting, isoelectric focusing, immunohistochemical methods, flow cytometry, spectrophotometric and nephelometric methods. These techniques make it possible to carry out both qualitative and quantitative assay of molecular biomarkers. The group of "classical methods" can also include methods based on polymerase chain reaction (including multiplex and allele-specific PCR and genome sequencing

  3. Constructed wetlands, 1991-2011: a review of research development, current trends, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wei; Ji, Guodong

    2012-12-15

    This study explores a bibliometric approach to quantitatively evaluate global scientific constructed wetlands research, and statistically assess current trends, and future directions using the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) database from 1991 to 2011. Articles referencing constructed wetlands were analyzed by accessing the following: publication language, output characteristics, publication performance by country and institution, author keywords, title words, and KeyWords Plus. Synthetically analyzing three keyword types, we concluded that the dominant constructed wetlands research hotspots from 1991 to 2011 included water, nutrients, plants, and flow. These four hotspots remained the most dominant research areas throughout our study period, and are predicted to remain the top research emphases in the near future. "Soil" also exhibited a notable increase since 2005, and is likely to become another notable area of research interest in the future. "Phytoremediation" and "horizontal" were not identified in 1991-1995, but exhibited marked increases from 136th (0.5%) and 169th (0.7%) in 1996-2000, to 9th (3.8%) and 11th (4.3%) in 2006-2011, respectively. Therefore, given the heightened attention during the last 15 years, these topics are likely to become a primary research focus in upcoming years.

  4. Current status of NADPH oxidase research in cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiño-Janeiro BK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro,1,2 Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro,1 María Isabel Castiñeiras-Landeira,1 Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín,1,3 José R González-Juanatey,1,3,4 Ezequiel Álvarez1,4 1Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble, France; 3Cardiology Department, University Clinic Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Medicine Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Abstract: The implications of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease have been known for some decades. Rationally, therapeutic antioxidant strategies combating oxidative stress have been developed, but the results of clinical trials have not been as good as expected. Therefore, to move forward in the design of new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease based on prevention of production of reactive oxygen species, steps must be taken on two fronts, ie, comprehension of reduction-oxidation signaling pathways and the pathophysiologic roles of reactive oxygen species, and development of new, less toxic, and more selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase inhibitors, to clarify both the role of each NADPH oxidase isoform and their utility in clinical practice. In this review, we analyze the value of NADPH oxidase as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease and the old and new pharmacologic agents or strategies to prevent NADPH oxidase activity. Some inhibitors and different direct or indirect approaches are available. Regarding direct NADPH oxidase inhibition, the specificity of NADPH oxidase is the focus of current investigations, whereas the chemical structure-activity relationship studies of known inhibitors have provided pharmacophore models with which to search for new molecules. From a general point of view, small-molecule inhibitors are preferred because of their hydrosolubility

  5. One-Two Punch: Utilizing Teacher Research Experiences and Related Classroom Activities to Increase Student Interest in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold-Brennon, R.; Cooper, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Through collaborations between scientists and educators, the Consortium for Ocean Leadership developed a series of marine geosciences classroom activities and lesson plans -- including the Adopt-a-Microbe project, a collection of hands-on science lessons that use the sub-seafloor microbiology topics to provide engaging pathways for K-12 students to learn about the world around them. The goal of these activities has been to introduce youth to deep ocean exploration, inspire interest in microbial oceanography, and foster higher education goals and career paths in related sciences for our youth. From the beginning, these lessons were developed in close working relationships between scientists and educators, and the lessons geared towards middle school have been recently piloted with the intent to maximize sustained student interest in STEM topics. While teaching these units, educators used surveys, polls, group discussions, and interviews to shed light on correlations between student interest in STEM and their close proximity to exemplary and enthusiastic educators and student leaders who are active in STEM activities such as research projects and expeditions. Educators continue to use Adopt-a-Microbe and related expedition science-based lessons to explore the broader impacts of their professional development in the Geosciences on their students' professed interest in STEM.

  6. Hepatic hemodynamics and fetal growth: a relationship of interest for further research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharona Vonck

    Full Text Available It is well known that hepatic hemodynamics is an important physiologic mechanism in the regulation of cardiac output (CO. It has been reported that maternal cardiac output relates to neonatal weight at birth.In this study, we assessed the correlation between maternal hepatic vein Doppler flow parameters, cardiac output and neonatal birth weight.Healthy women with uncomplicated second or third trimester pregnancy attending the outpatient antenatal clinic of Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg in Genk (Belgium, had a standardized combined electrocardiogram-Doppler ultrasound with Impedance Cardiography, for measurement of Hepatic Vein Impedance Index (HVI  =  [maximum velocity - minimum velocity]/maximum velocity, venous pulse transit time (VPTT  =  time interval between corresponding ECG and Doppler wave characteristics and cardiac output (heart rate x stroke volume. After delivery, a population-specific birth weight chart, established from a cohort of 27000 neonates born in the index hospital, was used to define customized birth weight percentiles (BW%. Correlations between HVI, VPTT, CO and BW% were calculated using Spearman's ρ, linear regression analysis and R2 goodness of fit in SPSS 22.0.A total of 73 women were included. There was a negative correlation between HVI and VPTT (ρ = -0.719, p < 0.001. Both HVI and VPTT correlated with CO (ρ = -0.403, p < 0.001 and ρ = 0.332, p < 0.004 resp. and with BW% (ρ =  -0.341, p < 0.003 and ρ = 0.296, p < 0.011 resp..Our data illustrate that the known contribution of hepatic hemodynamics in the regulation of cardiac output is also true for women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Our study is the first to illustrate a potential link between maternal hepatic hemodynamics and neonatal birth weight. Whether this link is purely associative or whether hepatic vascular physiology has a direct impact on fetal growth is to be evaluated in more extensive clinical and experimental research.

  7. Summary of current research on Central Asian vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Mei YANG

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian vortex (CAV is an important synoptic-scale system that causes rainstorms, short-term heavy precipitation, hail, and sustained low temperatures in Xinjiang. This paper summarizes the current research conducted on the CAV since the 1960s. The objective definition of the CAV has been revised and a deep and shallow CAV classification proposed. Two high-frequency areas of deep CAV activity are the Kazakhstan hills (Sayan mountains and the eastern area of the Aral Sea (Tashkent; events mostly occur in summer and 40% cause strong rainfall. In addition, two high-frequency activity areas of the shallow CAV are located in the west and south of the Pamirs Plateau and mostly occur in spring; 23.2% of occurrences cause strong rainfall. The western and eastern water vapor transport relates to westerlies and a strong low-level easterly jet stream (LLEJ extending from Gansu to Xinjiang, respectively, and water vapor over the Tibetan Plateau transports even more northwards and enters Xinjiang. The deep CAV has an obvious cold core structure down to 300 hPa. The conversion terms from eddy available potential energy (AE to eddy kinetic energy (KE and eddy kinetic energy inflow (BKE from the open atmospheric region boundaries are the main sources of KE which cause rapid development of the CAV. The anomalous anti-cyclone center over the northeast Atlantic is the fountain of Rossby wave energy dispersion; Rossby waves propagate from the northeast Atlantic to eastern Europe (Urals (EEU, and then continuously propagate to Central Asia causing development of the CAV. The CAV requires further study to characterize the meso-scale system structure and evolution characteristics. In addition, physical modeling of the severe convective weather occurring under the CAV is required to determine the critical impacts of this severe convective weather and enable forecasting and early-warning indexes.

  8. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  9. International Inventory of Current Mexico-Related Research. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Ricardo Anzaldua, Ed.; And Others

    The fourth annual research inventory describes 728 Mexican-related research projects being conducted in 1984 or to begin in 1985 in 14 countries. Data come from questionnaires sent during 1984 to more than 1,800 individual researchers and 650 institutions around the world. Each project description provides names and addresses of principal and…

  10. Current developments in environmental psychology : topics and researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Muinos, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to bring the work of early-career researchers in environmental psychology to the spotlight. These young researchers come from different countries and cultures, have their own theoretical approaches and employ different research methods to increase knowledge on the re

  11. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  12. Bibliometric Analysis of Current Web Survey Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; SHAO Peiji; FANG Jiaming

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with the advancement of information technology and its application in survey activities, web surveys have not only greatly developed, but have also encountered many problems in China. An analysis of domestic research is important for better understanding of web surveys, to guide further research and application. This paper gives a bibliometric analysis of 120 domestic articles on web surveys from 1998 to 2006, on publication growth, author and organization distribution, journal distribution, and research subjects. Research on web surveys in China should make progress comparable with research abroad in comparative studies, specific studies, and technical application studies.

  13. Research and design of a novel current mode charge pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianrui, Li; Xinquan, Lai; Yushan, Li; Qiang, Ye

    2009-10-01

    To meet the demands for a number of LEDs, a novel charge pump circuit with current mode control is proposed. Regulation is achieved by operating the current mirrors and the output current of the operational transconductance amplifier. In the steady state, the input current from power voltage retains constant, so reducing the noise induced on the input voltage source and improving the output voltage ripple. The charge pump small-signal model is used to describe the device's dynamic behavior and stability. Analytical predictions were verified by Hspice simulation and testing. Load driving is up to 800 mA with a power voltage of 3.6 V, and the output voltage ripple is less than 45 mV. The output response time is less than 8 μs, and the load current jumps from 400 to 800 mA.

  14. Research and design of a novel current mode charge pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xianrui; Lai Xinquan; Li Yushan; Ye Qiang, E-mail: lixianrui4213@126.co [Research Institute of Design Circuit, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2009-10-15

    To meet the demands for a number of LEDs, a novel charge pump circuit with current mode control is proposed. Regulation is achieved by operating the current mirrors and the output current of the operational transconductance amplifier. In the steady state, the input current from power voltage retains constant, so reducing the noise induced on the input voltage source and improving the output voltage ripple. The charge pump small-signal model is used to describe the device's dynamic behavior and stability. Analytical predictions were verified by Hspice simulation and testing. Load driving is up to 800 mA with a power voltage of 3.6 V, and the output voltage ripple is less than 45 mV. The output response time is less than 8 {mu}s, and the load current jumps from 400 to 800 mA.

  15. Research and design of a novel current mode charge pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xianrui; Lai Xinquan; Li Yushan; Ye Qiang

    2009-01-01

    To meet the demands for a number of LEDs, a novel charge pump circuit with current mode control is proposed. Regulation is achieved by operating the current mirrors and the output current of the operational transcon ductance amplifier. In the steady state, the input current from power voltage retains constant, so reducing the noise induced on the input voltage source and improving the output voltage ripple. The charge pump small-signal model is used to describe the device's dynamic behavior and stability. Analytical predictions were verified by Hspice sim ulation and testing. Load driving is up to 800 mA with a power voltage of 3.6 V, and the output voltage ripple is less than 45 mV. The output response time is less than 8 μs, and the load current jumps from 400 to 800 mA.

  16. Current status of research on biophysical effects of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, S B; ter Haar, G R; Ziskin, M C; Nyborg, W L; Maeda, K; Bang, J

    1994-01-01

    This overview of bioeffects of ultrasound presents some key aspects of selected papers dealing with biophysical end-points. Its purpose is to establish a basis for exposure and dosimetric standards for medical ultrasonic equipment. It is intended to provide essential background resource material for the medical/scientific community, and more specifically for scientific working groups. This document was prepared by members of the Safety Committee of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. It was produced as a resource document in response to a request for information by Working Group 12 (Ultrasound exposure parameters) of the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 87, Ultrasonics. IEC TC 87, WG12 is the working group responsible for generating international standards for the classification of equipment by its acoustic fields based on safety thresholds. Our paper is intended to update and supplement information on the thermal mechanism provided in the publication, "WFUMB Symposium on Safety and Standardisation in Medical Ultrasound: Issues and Recommendations Regarding Thermal Mechanisms for Biological Effects of Ultrasound" (WFUMB 1992). It also provides an overview of trends in research into nonthermal mechanisms as a preliminary to the next WFUMB Symposium on Safety of Medical Ultrasound when this subject will be examined in detail by a select group of international experts. The WFUMB-sponsored workshop will take place in Utsunomiya, Japan during 11-15th July, 1994. The purpose of the meeting is to evaluate the scientific literature and to formulate internationally accepted recommendations on the safe use of diagnostic ultrasound that may be endorsed as official policy of the WFUMB. It should be noted that the current publication is not intended for review or endorsement as an official WFUMB document. It is produced as a scientific paper by individuals who are members of the WFUMB Safety Committee, and it therefore

  17. Current research and potential applications of the Concealed Information Test: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gershon eBen-Shakhar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research interest in psychophysiological detection of deception has significantly increased since the September 11 terror attack in the USA. In particular, the Concealed Information Test (CIT, designed to detect memory traces that can connect suspects to a certain crime, has been extensively studied. In this paper I will briefly review several psychophysiological detection paradigms that have been studied, with a focus on the CIT. The theoretical background of the CIT, its strength and weaknesses, its potential applications as well as research finings related to its validity, (based on a recent mata-analytic study, will be discussed. Several novel research directions, with a focus on factors that may affect CIT detection in realistic settings (e.g., memory for crime details; the effect of emotional stress during crime execution will be described. Additionally, research focusing on mal-intentions and attempts to detect terror networks using information gathered from groups of suspects using both the standard CIT and the searching CIT will be reviewed. Finally, implications of current research to the actual application of the CIT will be discussed and several recommendations that can enhance the use of the CIT will be made.

  18. Prebiotics and the health benefits of fiber: current regulatory status, future research, and goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownawell, Amy M; Caers, Wim; Gibson, Glenn R; Kendall, Cyril W C; Lewis, Kara D; Ringel, Yehuda; Slavin, Joanne L

    2012-05-01

    First defined in the mid-1990s, prebiotics, which alter the composition and activity of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to improve health and well-being, have generated scientific and consumer interest and regulatory debate. The Life Sciences Research Organization, Inc. (LSRO) held a workshop, Prebiotics and the Health Benefits of Fiber: Future Research and Goals, in February 2011 to assess the current state of the science and the international regulatory environment for prebiotics, identify research gaps, and create a strategy for future research. A developing body of evidence supports a role for prebiotics in reducing the risk and severity of GI infection and inflammation, including diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcerative colitis as well as bowel function disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. Prebiotics also increase the bioavailability and uptake of minerals and data suggest that they reduce the risk of obesity by promoting satiety and weight loss. Additional research is needed to define the relationship between the consumption of different prebiotics and improvement of human health. New information derived from the characterization of the composition and function of different prebiotics as well as the interactions among and between gut microbiota and the human host would improve our understanding of the effects of prebiotics on health and disease and could assist in surmounting regulatory issues related to prebiotic use.

  19. The current status of nuclear research reactor in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittichai, C.; Kanyukt, R.; Pongpat, P. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1998-10-01

    Since 1962, the Thai Research Reactor has been serving for various kinds of activities i.e. the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and research and development on nuclear science and technology, for more than three decades. The existing reactor site should be abandoned and relocated to the new suitable site, according to Thai cabinet`s resolution on the 27 December 1989. The decommissioning project for the present reactor as well as the establishment of new nuclear research center were planned. This paper discussed the OAEP concept for the decommissioning programme and the general description of the new research reactor and some related information were also reported. (author)

  20. Urban tourism research : Recent progress and current paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, Gregory; Page, Stephen J.

    Urban tourism has remained a consistent theme in the expansion of tourism research since the 1980s and several seminal papers (e.g. Ashworth, 1989, 2003) have reviewed the state of research and its progress towards a greater recognition. This Progress in Tourism Management review article moves our

  1. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  2. Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Critical Review of Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallin, Antoinette; Nayar, Shoba

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the funding and delivery of research programmes at the university level have, in recent years, resulted in significant changes to research supervision. This paper critically reviews key influences effecting postgraduate supervision. Analysis draws on literature spanning 2000-2010 to determine the appropriateness of traditional models of…

  3. Urban tourism research : Recent progress and current paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, Gregory; Page, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Urban tourism has remained a consistent theme in the expansion of tourism research since the 1980s and several seminal papers (e.g. Ashworth, 1989, 2003) have reviewed the state of research and its progress towards a greater recognition. This Progress in Tourism Management review article moves our u

  4. Why people attend science festivals: Interests, motivations and self-reported benefits of public engagement with research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Buckley, Nicol

    2014-07-01

    As a form of public engagement, science festivals have rapidly expanded in size and number over recent years. However, as with other domains of informal public engagement that are not linked to policy outcomes, existing research .does not fully address science festivals' impacts and popularity. This study adduces evidence from surveys and focus groups to elucidate the perspectives of visitors at a large UK science festival. Results show that visitors value the opportunities afforded by the science festival to interact with scientific researchers and to encounter different types of science engagement aimed at adults, children and families. The most significant self-reported impact of attending a science festival is the development of increased interest in and curiosity about new areas of scientific knowledge within a socially stimulating and enjoyable setting.

  5. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  6. Exploring intentions of physician-scientist trainees: factors influencing MD and MD/PhD interest in research careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jennifer M; Daye, Dania; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Conlon, Claudia Morrissey; Kim, Hajwa; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Payne, Aimee S; Riddle, Megan; Madera, Sharline; Adami, Alexander J; Winter, Kate Quinn

    2017-07-11

    Prior studies have described the career paths of physician-scientist candidates after graduation, but the factors that influence career choices at the candidate stage remain unclear. Additionally, previous work has focused on MD/PhDs, despite many physician-scientists being MDs. This study sought to identify career sector intentions, important factors in career selection, and experienced and predicted obstacles to career success that influence the career choices of MD candidates, MD candidates with research-intense career intentions (MD-RI), and MD/PhD candidates. A 70-question survey was administered to students at 5 academic medical centers with Medical Scientist Training Programs (MSTPs) and Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) from the NIH. Data were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. More MD/PhD and MD-RI candidates anticipated or had experienced obstacles related to balancing academic and family responsibilities and to balancing clinical, research, and education responsibilities, whereas more MD candidates indicated experienced and predicted obstacles related to loan repayment. MD/PhD candidates expressed higher interest in basic and translational research compared to MD-RI candidates, who indicated more interest in clinical research. Overall, MD-RI candidates displayed a profile distinct from both MD/PhD and MD candidates. MD/PhD and MD-RI candidates experience obstacles that influence their intentions to pursue academic medical careers from the earliest training stage, obstacles which differ from those of their MD peers. The differences between the aspirations of and challenges facing MD, MD-RI and MD/PhD candidates present opportunities for training programs to target curricula and support services to ensure the career development of successful physician-scientists.

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory interests and capabilities for research on the ecological effects of global climatic and atmospheric change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amthor, J.S.; Houpis, J.L.; Kercher, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.; Miller, N.L.; Penner, J.E.; Robison, W.L.; Taylor, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has interests and capabilities in all three types of research that must be conducted in order to understand and predict effects of global atmospheric and climatic (i.e., environmental) changes on ecological systems and their functions (ecosystem function is perhaps most conveniently defined as mass and energy exchange and storage). These three types of research are: (1) manipulative experiments with plants and ecosystems; (2) monitoring of present ecosystem, landscape, and global exchanges and pools of energy, elements, and compounds that play important roles in ecosystem function or the physical climate system, and (3) mechanistic (i.e., hierarchic and explanatory) modeling of plant and ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Specific experimental programs, monitoring plans, and modeling activities related to evaluation of ecological effects of global environmental change that are of interest to, and that can be carried out by LLNL scientists are outlined. Several projects have the distinction of integrating modeling with empirical studies resulting in an Integrated Product (a model or set of models) that DOE or any federal policy maker could use to assess ecological effects. The authors note that any scheme for evaluating ecological effects of atmospheric and climatic change should take into account exceptional or sensitive species, in particular, rare, threatened, or endangered species.

  8. Incorporating current research into formal higher education settings using Astrobites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan E.; Kohler, Susanna; Faesi, Chris; Villar, Ashley; Zevin, Michael

    2017-10-01

    A primary goal of many undergraduate- and graduate-level courses in the physical sciences is to prepare students to engage in scientific research or to prepare students for careers that leverage skillsets similar to those used by research scientists. Even for students who may not intend to pursue a career with these characteristics, exposure to the context of applications in modern research can be a valuable tool for teaching and learning. However, a persistent barrier to student participation in research is familiarity with the technical language, format, and context that academic researchers use to communicate research methods and findings with each other: the literature of the field. Astrobites, an online web resource authored by graduate students, has published brief and accessible summaries of more than 1300 articles from the astrophysical literature since its founding in 2010. This article presents three methods for introducing students at all levels within the formal higher education setting to approaches and results from modern research. For each method, we provide a sample lesson plan that integrates content and principles from Astrobites, including step-by-step instructions for instructors, suggestions for adapting the lesson to different class levels across the undergraduate and graduate spectrum, sample student handouts, and a grading rubric.

  9. Current knowledge on the genetics of autism and propositions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeron, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by problems in social communication, as well as by the presence of restricted interests, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. In the last 40years, genetic studies have provided crucial information on the causes of ASD and its diversity. In this article, I will first review the current knowledge on the genetics of ASD and then suggest three propositions to foster research in this field. Twin and familial studies estimated the heritability of ASD to be 50%. While most of the inherited part of ASD is captured by common variants, our current knowledge on the genetics of ASD comes almost exclusively from the identification of highly penetrant de novo mutations through candidate gene or whole exome/genome sequencing studies. Approximately 10% of patients with ASD, especially those with intellectual disability, are carriers of de novo copy-number (CNV) or single nucleotide variants (SNV) affecting clinically relevant genes for ASD. Given the function of these genes, it was hypothesized that abnormal synaptic plasticity and failure of neuronal/synaptic homeostasis could increase the risk of ASD. In addition to these discoveries, three propositions coming from institutions, researchers and/or communities of patients and families can be made to foster research on ASD: (i) to use more dimensional and quantitative data than diagnostic categories; (ii) to increase data sharing and research on genetic and brain diversity in human populations; (iii) to involve patients and relatives as participants for research. Hopefully, this knowledge will lead to a better diagnosis, care and integration of individuals with ASD.

  10. [Current situation and development trend of Chinese medicine information research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Cui, Meng

    2013-04-01

    Literature resource service was the main service that Chinese medicine (CM) information offered. But in recent years users have started to request the health information knowledge service. The CM information researches and application service mainly included: (1) the need of strength studies on theory, application of technology, information retrieval, and information standard development; (2) Information studies need to support clinical decision making, new drug research; (3) Quick response based on the network monitoring and support to emergency countermeasures. CM information researches have the following treads: (1) developing the theory system structure of CM information; (2) studying the methodology system of CM information; (3) knowledge discovery and knowledge innovation.

  11. Current research trends in mountain biodiversity in NW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, Risto A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on four themes in relation to biodiversity (vegetation science, keystone grazers, long-term studies and protected areas, a synthesis of current research in the mountain areas of Fennoscandia, Iceland and Scotland is presented. Recent relevant advances in vegetation science include classifications of mountain habitats which together with species distribution maps offer new possibilities for analysis. Generalisations emerging from comparisons of the ecology and ecophysiology of plants between different mountain areas are greatly needed. Further studies on the ecological impacts of keystone grazers are urgently required because of the alarming rate of degradation of mountain habitats. The topics highlighted from northern Fennoscandia include (i the effect of overgrazing by reindeer on the cover of foliose lichens and on the regeneration of mountain birch, (ii the ecological interactions between the autumnal moth and mountain birch, and (Hi the effect of rodents on vegetation. Long-term studies of slow processes to capture rare but important events are needed to better understand the functioning of mountain ecosystems. Examples of such studies are presented for (i the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum as an indicator of airborne nitrogen pollution, (ii research based on cyclic oscillations of vole numbers, and (Hi the application of breeding birds in environmental assessment. The conservation of appropriate areas is important for mountain biodiversity. Mountain habitats have been protected extensively in northern Europe. The evaluation of how representative the existing areas are and how to use them for research need international co-ordination.

    [fr] On présente une synthèse de la recherche actuelle dans les régions de montagne de la Scandinavie, l'Islande et l'Ecosse, centrée sur quatre sujets autour de la biodiversité (science de la végétation, herbivores principaux, études à long terme et zones protégées. Les r

  12. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  13. Neuroeconomics: cross-currents in research on decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanfey, A.G.; Loewenstein, G.; McClure, S.M.; Cohen, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite substantial advances, the question of how we make decisions and judgments continues to pose important challenges for scientific research. Historically, different disciplines have approached this problem using different techniques and assumptions, with few unifying efforts made. However, the

  14. Symposium: Organizational Health Intervention Research: Current Empirical Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jenny, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    This symposium is one of three symposia submitted by the "International organizational health intervention research partnership". The aim of this symposium is to present new empirical developments based on participatory intervention models. All five studies have developed and applied intervention...

  15. Current research situation of titanium alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys possess excellent comprehensive properties, and they are widely used in many fields. China pays great attentions to the research on new titanium alloys. This paper mainly reviews the research on new Ti alloys in China, for example, high strength and high toughness Ti alloys, burn resistant Tialloys, high temperature Ti alloys, low cost Ti alloys and so on.New basic theories on Ti alloys developed in China in recent years are also reviewed.

  16. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.

  17. Research Diagnostic criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: current status & future relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, S F

    2010-10-01

    The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), published in 1992, was based on international expert recommendations and available empirical data. The major rationale was to offer a putative diagnostic and classification system whose reliability, validity and clinical usefulness for TMD diagnosis and classification could be scientifically evaluated and then revised using an evidence-based model for successive iterations. The present journal issue attests to the accomplishment of that major objective: the RDC/TMD has been translated into 18 languages and used very extensively in international research. One important component of that research has been to yield reliable and valid data resulting in an evidence-based revision of the RDC/TMD now available for continuing research and clinical application. The present article offers recommendations and speculations regarding how the RDC/TMD may continue to serve the function of guiding future research and, most importantly, serve as an evidence-based diagnostic and classification system to aid in the rational choice of clinical care for TMD sufferers around the world.

  18. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  19. Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G

    2017-06-01

    For decades, parenting has been characterized in terms of broad global styles, with authoritative parenting seen as most beneficial for children's development. Concerns with greater sensitivity to cultural and contextual variations have led to greater specificity in defining parenting in terms of different parenting dimensions and greater consideration of the role of parenting beliefs in moderating links between parenting and adjustment. New research includes 'domain-specific' models that describe parents as flexibly deploying different practices depending on their goals, children's needs, and the types of behaviors towards which parenting is directed. These trends are described, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand's consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  1. Current research activity in the measurement of thorium and the identification of future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M A; Howe, A M; Rosen, P; Holmes, L

    2001-01-01

    A pre-requisite in the setting and enforcement of regulatory limits for exposure to thorium in the workplace is that thorium and its progeny can be accurately measured. Literature surveys have shown that the majority of thorium measurements were performed using either a radiochemical technique, such as alpha or gamma spectroscopy, or ICP-MS. For many methods. there was a separation step to isolate and pre-concentrate thorium from the sample matrix. Thorium was most commonly measured in geological matrices and industrial materials. A survey of current research activity was performed through distribution of a questionnaire to laboratories and national centres. From the rcsponses, four areas of current activity were identified: (i) development of methods for low level thorium determination, (ii) biological monitoring and metabolism of thorium, (iii) environmental monitoring for thorium, and (iv) health risks from X ray contract media. Two key areas for priority research were identified by the thorium Thematic Network: namely sample preparation methods and for traceable standards and reference materials for thorium analysis.

  2. Research on Predicting Drive Current of Shipborne Satcom Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the effect of antenna wind load on servo system precisely is meaningful to ensure the safety of satcom antenna on operation, which can avoid overload operation. In this paper, the computational fluid dynamics is used to proceed numerical computation on the pressure distribution of the reflector and torque of drive shaft under different wind speed, windward angle and angle of pitch of the antenna. The simulation model is built under MATLAB/Simulink simulation environment, and the drive current of the antenna servo system is analyzed under wind load effect and ship swing. Then, a method of predicting drive current of antenna servo system according to the wind speed, wind direction and attitude of the antenna is concluded. And this method is verified by simulation at last.

  3. Research on current e-commerce of tourism in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of e-commerce in China has been accompanied by a similar development in tourism-based e-commerce. Taking the network as the medium, e-commerce has already become the new model for tourism transactions in the information age: By building one convenient bridge between tourism-based enterprises and tourists, can directly influence the profitability of enterprises. The paper will introduce the current development of tourism-based e-commerce websites, by firstly examining...

  4. Current trends in safety testing and toxicological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, G.

    1982-06-01

    The paper reviews current concepts of toxicological evaluation of new drugs and other chemicals. Instead of completing a predetermined check-list toxicologists now consider the potential adverse effects of the substances under actual conditions of use. They then design experimental models which have a high probability to predict the toxic effects. Moreover, the enhanced susceptibilities of special risk populations is more and more taken into consideration.

  5. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Considerations for Research in Adolescent Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is a prevalent disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment interventions do not target relevant pathophysiology and are frequently ineffective, thereby leading to a substantial burden for individuals, families, and society. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex undergoes extensive structural and functional changes. Recent work suggests that frontolimbic development in depressed adolescents is delayed or aberrant. The judicious application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to the prefrontal cortex may present a promising opportunity for durable interventions in adolescent depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applies a low-intensity, continuous current that alters cortical excitability. While this modality does not elicit action potentials, it is thought to manipulate neuronal activity and neuroplasticity. Specifically, tDCS may modulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and effect changes through long-term potentiation or long-term depression-like mechanisms. This mini-review considers the neurobiological rationale for developing tDCS protocols in adolescent depression, reviews existing work in adult mood disorders, surveys the existing tDCS literature in adolescent populations, reviews safety studies, and discusses distinct ethical considerations in work with adolescents.

  6. Research on Low Power Marine Current Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkai Peng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a simple topological structure and power control method for a small scale stand alone marine current system, in which a diode rectifier, DC/DC boost converter for the maximum power control, battery as a storage element and a single phase inverter to link with load. The study establishes the steady-state mathematical model of marine current power generation system and derives the formula between the maximum power point and dc battery voltage. Then use the measurements of DC voltage and DC current to obtain Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT by controlling the duty cycle of the boost converter switch in order to simplify the system structure and the control strategies. In this case, the hill climbing searching algorithm is employed to get maximum power point and the double closed loops control strategy is used to improve the dynamic and static performance of single phase inverter. The simulation model is developed in MATLAB/Simulink. And the control method is executed in dSPACE1104 real-time platform. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed control strategies.

  7. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  8. Talent management : Current theories and future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Ariss, A.; Cascio, W.F.; Paauwe, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on Talent Management (TM) has been lagging behind businesses in offering vision and leadership in this field. After sketching a comprehensive outline of knowledge about TM, theoretical as well as practical, we introduce the papers in this special issue and their important contributions.

  9. Applying Current Theory and Research in Career Exploration to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Provides selected review of two lines of recent research on career exploration (identifying antecedents of exploratory activity and application of information processes biases to career exploration), with specific focus on applications for counseling practice. Describes relevant counseling interventions and concludes with summary of six goals to…

  10. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  11. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  12. Behavioral Marital Therapy: Current Trends in Research, Assessment and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.

    1980-01-01

    Behavioral Marital Therapy (BMT) is clinically useful because it includes elaborating procedures, modifying the spouse's self-defeating cognitions, and moving toward early intervention and prevention. Each article in this issue of American Journal of Family Therapy focuses on innovations in BMT, either in research or practice. (Author/NRB)

  13. Dyslexia and the Brain: What Does Current Research Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Roxanne F.; High, Leslie; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Dyslexia is a disorder of the language-processing systems in the brain. It is a specific learning disability in reading that often affects spelling as well. This article describes: (1) Common characteristics experienced by people with dyslexia or reading disabilities; (2) Common misconceptions about dyslexia; (3) What brain research tell us about…

  14. Current Relevance of Zetetics to Library Research and Library Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marta A.; Davis, Harry O.

    1996-01-01

    Explains zetetics which involve theories of research and epistemology and discusses its relevance to library science. Topics include library literacy, and the use of an information matrix to help library patrons understand what information they have and what they need to find. (Author/LRW)

  15. Materials for hydrogen storage: current research trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Annemieke W C; Areán, Carlos Otero

    2008-02-14

    Storage and transport of hydrogen constitutes a key enabling technology for the advent of a hydrogen-based energy transition. Main research trends on hydrogen storage materials, including metal hydrides, porous adsorbents and hydrogen clathrates, are reviewed with a focus on recent developments and an appraisal of the challenges ahead. .

  16. Artificial Neural Networks in Policy Research: A Current Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) exhibit properties that promise usefulness for policy researchers. Notes that ANNs have found extensive use in areas once reserved for multivariate statistical programs such as regression and multiple classification analysis and are developing an extensive community of advocates for processing text…

  17. Business model innovation: Past research, current debates, and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mokter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide state-of-the-art knowledge about business model innovation (BMI) and suggest avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic literature review approach was adopted with thematic analysis being conducted on 92 articles...

  18. Current research in Spain on walnut for wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neus Alet& #224; Neus NO-VALUE

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Mediterranean Trees at the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA) in Spain initiated a research program in 1993 to examine the variability among walnut species for wood production and to establish orchards with improved selections. The main objective of the programme is to obtain superior Persian walnut (Juglans regia...

  19. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  20. Researches on regenerative medicine——current state and prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo; XIAO Kai

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980s,the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed regenerative medicine to a new fastigium,and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine.In China,about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year,while the number is much larger in the world.Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients.Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine.The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine.In accord with this strategy,the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD)for the research on regenerative medicine.In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward - from bench to bedside,a strategic alliance has been established.and it includes 27 top-level research institutes,medical institutes,colleges,universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine.Recently the journal,Science,has published a special issue-Regenerative Medicine in China,consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration,tissue engineering and regeneration,trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine.It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years).

  1. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  2. Icing Branch Current Research Activities in Icing Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Current development: A grid block transformation scheme which allows the input of grids in arbitrary reference frames, the use of mirror planes, and grids with relative velocities has been developed. A simple ice crystal and sand particle bouncing scheme has been included. Added an SLD splashing model based on that developed by William Wright for the LEWICE 3.2.2 software. A new area based collection efficiency algorithm will be incorporated which calculates trajectories from inflow block boundaries to outflow block boundaries. This method will be used for calculating and passing collection efficiency data between blade rows for turbo-machinery calculations.

  3. Nanomaterials in Lubricants: An Industrial Perspective on Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zhmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations. The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and greases are discussed. Results of numerous studies combined with formulation experience of the authors strongly suggest that nanomaterials do indeed have potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties, yet there is a long way to go before balanced formulations are developed.

  4. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  5. Conceptual knowledge representation: A cross-section of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T; Wolmetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors.

  6. [Musculoskeletal shock wave therapy--current database of clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompe, J D; Buch, M; Gerdesmeyer, L; Haake, M; Loew, M; Maier, M; Heine, J

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade application of extracorporal shock waves became an established procedure for the treatment of various musculoskeletal diseases in Germany. Up to now the positive results of prospective randomised controlled trials have been published for the treatment of plantar fasciitis, lateral elbow epicondylitis (tennis elbow), and of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff. Most recently, contradicting results of prospective randomised placebo-controlled trials with adequate sample size calculation have been reported. The goal of this review is to present information about the current clinical database on extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT).

  7. Current research on drugs and vaccines for fighting bird flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-12-01

    Bird flu, or avian flu, caused by the H5N1 virus, is of concern worldwide. The antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir have been used to treat human cases, and resistance has been reported. Studies on the molecular mechanisms of antiviral resistance are needed to understand the problem and to aid future drug development. Control of a major outbreak would require a vaccine, but current manufacturing technology is not adequate to support influenza vaccine production in the event of an avian influenza outbreak.

  8. Incredible Years parenting interventions: current effectiveness research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frances; Leijten, Patty

    2017-06-01

    The Incredible Years parenting intervention is a social learning theory-based programme for reducing children's conduct problems. Dozens of randomized trials, many by independent investigators, find consistent effects of Incredible Years on children's conduct problems across multiple countries and settings. However, in common with other interventions, these average effects hide much variability in the responses of individual children and families. Innovative moderator research is needed to enhance scientific understanding of why individual children and parents respond differently to intervention. Additionally, research is needed to test whether there are ways to make Incredible Years more effective and accessible for families and service providers, especially in low resource settings, by developing innovative delivery systems using new media, and by systematically testing for essential components of parenting interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Current electroconvulsive therapy practice and research in the geriatric population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Nancy; Prudic, Joan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is utilized worldwide for various severe and treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders. Research studies have shown that ECT is the most effective and rapid treatment available for elderly patients with depression, bipolar disorder and psychosis. For patients who suffer from intractable catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, ECT can be life saving. For elderly patients who cannot tolerate or respond poorly to medications and who are at a high risk for drug-induced toxicity or toxic drug interactions, ECT is the safest treatment option. Organic causes are frequently associated with late-life onset of neuropsychiatric conditions, such as parkinsonism, dementia and stroke. ECT has proven to be efficacious even when these conditions are present. During the next decade, research studies should focus on the use of ECT as a synergistic therapy, to enhance other biological and psychological treatments, and prevent symptom relapse and recurrence. PMID:24778709

  10. Opening the "black box" of current creativity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann Birk, Rasmus; Ernø, Steffen

    value" or none at all. Creativity was mostly measured with different types of divergent thinking tests. There appears to be a lack of deeper theoretical and methodological discussions of creativity in the literature, which creates a disconnection between definitions, methodologies and the interpretation......This presentation aims to problematise the ways in which creativity is defined and measured in recent studies on the topic. For this purpose, we analyzed 58 articles on creativity, selected from within the sub-fields of neuropsychology, psychometrics and developmental psychology published from 2009......-2012. The sub-fields were chosen because of their prominence in psychological research and research on creativity. The articles were procured from the PsycINFO database, with selection criteria being that they must be peer-reviewed and empirical studies. Typical definitions of creativity were "novelty plus...

  11. AAS Nova and Astrobites: Making current astronomy research accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2016-10-01

    AAS Nova and Astrobites are two resources available for astronomers, astronomy students, and astronomy enthusiasts to keep up with some of the most recent research published across the field of astronomy. Both supported by the AAS, these two daily astrophysical literature blogs provide accessible summaries of recent publications on the arXiv and in AAS journals. We present the goals, content, and readership of AAS Nova and Astrobites, and discuss how they might be used as tools in the undergraduate classroom.

  12. Current Status and Trend of Forest Hydrological Services Market Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Of the many services that forests provide, hydrological services are among the most valuable, and it becomes more scarce with the growing demands by human beings. As a kind of incentive measure for protecting forest, forest hydrological services markets have been developed in many countries around the world and some valuable experiences have been achieved. The paper reviews the experiments carried out in the world and their research findings on forest hydrological services market, and presents the issues to...

  13. Ubiquitous Wireless Computing: Current Research Progress, Challenging, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Elyas, Palantei

    2014-01-01

    - The aggressive research activities and generous studies focusing on the ubiquitous mobile computing carried-out during the last two decades have gained very tremendous outcomes to apply in broad areas of modern society lives. In the near future, the computing technology application is highly possible to emerge as the dominant method to connect any objects to the global ICT infrastructure, the internet. This talk mainly discusses several R&D achievements performed during the last five yea...

  14. Music therapy in cardiac health care: current issues in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Suzanne B

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy is a service that has become more prevalent as an adjunct to medical practice-as its evidence base expands and music therapists begin to join the cardiology team in every phase of care, from the most serious cases to those maintaining good heart health. Although applications of music medicine, primarily listening to short segments of music, are capable of stabilizing vital signs and managing symptoms in the short-term, music therapy interventions by a qualified practitioner are showing promise in establishing deeper and more lasting impact. On the basis of mind-body approaches, stress/coping models, the neuromatrix theory of pain, and entrainment, music therapy capitalizes on the ability of music to affect the autonomic nervous system. Although only a limited number of randomized controlled trials pinpoint the efficacy of specific music therapy interventions, qualitative research reveals some profound outcomes in certain individuals. A depth of understanding related to the experience of living with a cardiovascular disease can be gained through music therapy approaches such as nonverbal music psychotherapy and guided imagery and music. The multifaceted nature of musical responsiveness contributes to strong individual variability and must be taken into account in the development of research protocols for future music therapy and music medicine interventions. The extant research provides a foundation for exploring the many potential psychosocial, physiological, and spiritual outcomes of a music therapy service for cardiology patients.

  15. Alaskan Peninsula Cenozoic stratigraphy: stratigraphic sequences and current research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, R.C.; Armentrout, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    Geology of the Alaska Peninsula-Island Arc and Continental Margin, by C.A. Burk, is the principal reference for stratigraphic studies on the Alaska Peninsula. Burk mapped the Phanerozoic stratigraphy and provided a geologic history and structural interpretation of the area between Wide Bay and Unimak Island. Cenozoic rocks were mapped as three unconformity-bounded sequences. Recognition of specific formations was difficult due to similarity of lithofacies, isolated outcrops, rapid facies changes, and alteration and burial by young volcanics. Consequently, megafossil assemblages were relied upon to facilitate correlations between study areas. The three unconformity-bounded Cenozoic sequences are: (1) the Paleogene Beaver Bay Group consisting of three formations: the dominantly nonmarine Tolstoi Formation, the dominantly marine Stepovak Formation, and the volcanic Meshik Formation. Current work suggests these units are at least in part coeval facies of late Paleocene through Oligocene age. (2) The Neogene Bear Lake Formation consisting of the lower Unga Conglomerate Member and an unnamed upper member. Rapid facies changes and incorrect reports of fossil occurrence have resulted in confusion of stratigraphic relationships within this sequence of middle to late Miocene age. (3) A late Neogene informally defined upper sequence consisting of interbedded marginal marine, coastal-plain, and volcanic facies. Current work suggests this sequence is Pliocene through Pleistocene in age.

  16. Current Status and Research into Overcoming Limitations of Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Won Gun; Lim, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic investigation has a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Since 2001, capsule endoscopy (CE) has been available for small-bowel exploration and is under continuous development. During the past decade, CE has achieved impressive improvements in areas such as miniaturization, resolution, and battery life. As a result, CE is currently a first-line tool for the investigation of the small bowel in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and is a useful alternative to wired enteroscopy. Nevertheless, CE still has several limitations, such as incomplete examination and limited diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. To resolve these problems, many groups have suggested several models (e.g., controlled CO2 insufflation system, magnetic navigation system, mobile robotic platform, tagging and biopsy equipment, and targeted drug-delivery system), which are in development. In the near future, new technological advances will improve the capabilities of CE and broaden its spectrum of applications not only for the small bowel but also for the colon, stomach, and esophagus. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current status of CE and to review the ongoing development of solutions to address its limitations.

  17. Ecosystem services – current challenges and opportunities for ecological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eBirkhofer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem services was originally developed to illustrate the benefits that natural ecosystems generate for society and to raise awareness for biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. In this article we identify major challenges and opportunities for ecologists involved in empirical or modeling ecosystem service research. The first challenge arises from the fact that the ecosystem service concept has not been generated in the context of managed systems. Ecologists need to identify the effect of anthropogenic interventions in order to propose practices to benefit service-providing organisms and associated services. The second challenge arises from the need to evaluate relationships between indicators of ecosystem services that are collected in ecological studies while accounting for uncertainties of ecological processes that underlie these services. We suggest basing the assessment of ecosystem services on the utilization of sets of indicators that cover aspects of service-providing units, ecosystem management and landscape modification. The third challenge arises from our limited understanding of the nature of relationships between services and a lack of a general statistical framework to address these links. To manage ecosystem service provisioning, ecologists need to establish whether services respond to a shared driver or if services are directly linked to each other. Finally, studies relating biodiversity to ecosystem services often focus on services at small spatial or short temporal scales, but research on the protection of services is often directed towards services providing benefits at large spatial scales. Ecological research needs to address a range of spatial and temporal scales to provide a multifaceted understanding of how nature promotes human well-being. Addressing these challenges in the future offers a unique opportunity for ecologists to act as promoters for the understanding about how to conserve benefits

  18. Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Background The Internet has revolutionized the health world, enabling self-diagnosis and online support to take place irrespective of time or location. Alongside the positive aspects for an individual’s health from making use of the Internet, debate has intensified on how the increasing use of Web technology might have a negative impact on patients, caregivers, and practitioners. One such negative health-related behavior is Munchausen by Internet. Objective Munchausen by Internet occurs when medically well individuals fake recognized illnesses in virtual environments, such as online support groups. This paper focuses on the aspect of Munchausen by Internet in which individuals actively seek to disrupt groups for their own satisfaction, which has not yet been associated with the wider phenomena of Internet trolls (users who post with the intention of annoying someone or disrupting an online environment). Methods A wide-ranging review was conducted to investigate the causes and impacts of online identity deception and Munchausen by Internet drawing on academic research and case studies reported online and in the media. Results The limited research relating to motivation, opportunity, detection, effects, and consequences of Munchausen by Internet is highlighted and it is formally linked to aspects of trolling. Case studies are used to illustrate the phenomenon. What is particularly worrying is the ease with which the deception can be carried out online, the difficulty in detection, and the damaging impact and potential danger to isolated victims. Conclusions We suggest ways to deal with Munchausen by Internet and provide advice for health group facilitators. We also propose that Munchausen by Internet and Munchausen by Internet trolling should be formally acknowledged in a revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-5. This will assist in effectively identifying and minimizing the growth of this behavior as more people seek reassurance and support

  19. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

    2003-03-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10{sup 13} - 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  20. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  1. Current Status of Dengue Therapeutics Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is a significant global health problem. Even though a vaccine against dengue is now available, which is a notable achievement, its long-term protective efficacy against each of the 4 dengue virus serotypes remains to be definitively determined. Consequently, drugs directed at the viral targets or critical host mechanisms that can be used safely as prophylaxis or treatment to effectively ameliorate disease or reduce disease severity and fatalities are still needed to reduce the burden of dengue. This review will provide a brief account of the status of therapeutics research and development for dengue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Current status, research progress and future plan of Kartini research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardjono, Y.; Syarip; Tjiptono, T.W. [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Batan (Indonesia)

    1999-10-01

    The current status, research progress and future plan of the Kartini Research Reactor (KRR) is presented. The measurements of axial burn-up distributions for each fuel element by gamma scanning techniques, core axial power distribution display, fuel management for safeguards purpose as well as some research progress activities i.e.; utilization of beamport for: neutron radiography, application neutron activation analysis and history record of KRR power operations is also presented. The KRR is 100 kW pool water reactor type which uses natural circulation and provided by: five beamports in which one of them already coupled with natural uranium subcritical assembly, two thermalizing columns in which one of them is prepared for developing Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), two rabbit systems utilized for special analysis uranium ore by delayed neutron counting techniques, one center timbre and 40 irradiation rack (lazy susan) for neutron activation analysis. The KRR was constructed as a second research reactor in Indonesia with special purpose for training and education, high safety margin with involve in high negative temperature coefficient which achieved its first criticality on January 25, 1979. The maximum power level on first criticality is 50 kW and since August 1981 up to now is operating 100 kW. Base on the KRR design limit, it is planned to increase the power level up to 250 kW in the future plan. The preliminary activities such as Non Destructive Testing (NDT) for some reactor components especially water tank and thermal column should be done before decided to increase power level. (author)

  3. [Depression and sleep--the status of current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, D; Schnitzler, M; Hohagen, F; Berger, M

    1994-12-01

    Abnormalities of REM sleep, i.e. shortening of REM latency, lengthening of the duration of the first REM period and heightening of REM density, which are frequently observed in patients with a Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), have attracted considerable interest. Initial hopes that these aberrant patterns of sleep constitute specific markers for the primary/endogenous subtype of depression have not been fulfilled. The specificity of REM sleep disinhibition for depression in comparison to other psychopathological groups is also challenged. Demographic variables like age and sex exert strong influences on sleep physiology and must be controlled when searching for specific markers of depressed sleep. It is still an open question whether abnormalities of sleep are state-markers or trait-markers of depression. Beyond baseline studies, the cholinergic REM induction test (CRIT) indicated a heightened responsitivity of the REM sleep system to cholinergic challenge in depression compared with healthy controls and other psychopathological groups, with the exception of schizophrenia. A special role for REM sleep in depression is supported by the well known REM sleep suppressing effect of most antidepressants. The antidepressant effect of selective REM deprivation by awakenings stresses the importance of mechanisms involved in REM sleep regulation for the understanding of the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The positive effect of total sleep deprivation on depressive mood which can be reversed by daytime naps, furthermore emphasizes relationships between sleep and depression. Experimental evidence as described above instigated several theories like the REM deprivation hypothesis, the 2-process model and the reciprocal interaction model of nonREM-REM sleep regulation to explain the deviant sleep pattern of depression. The different models will be discussed with reference to empirical data gathered in the field.

  4. Understanding Scientists' Involvement in Education--Their Interests, Activities, and Needs: Research Results from the ReSciPE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, H.; Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Melton, G.

    2006-12-01

    The involvement of scientists in education has been cited by national leaders as essential for strengthening US science education at the K-12 and higher levels. While many individuals and groups have developed expertise in designing and implementing programs that engage scientists with students or teachers, there is little research evidence that helps us understand what motivates or discourages scientists from such involvement, the benefits and costs to them of participating, and the barriers they face that must be addressed to involve them effectively. The ReSciPE Project (Resources for Scientists in Partnership with Education) has offered a workshop on "Scientific Inquiry in the K-12 Classroom" to over 300 scientists and science educators across the US. These workshops have reached a wide audience of science professionals who undertake activities in science education, whether individual or institution-based work, for work or as a volunteer. The project aims to help these "education-engaged scientists" pursue their education work more effectively, but has also drawn on this group as a research sample for an evaluation-with-research study to investigate scientists' involvement in education. Pre- and post-surveys have enabled us to characterize the demographics of the participants and measure their self-reported knowledge and learning about education, especially inquiry-based science. Follow- up interviews have provided insight into their education activities, motivations, interests, difficulties, and needs. We will report on recent research findings from this study and place them in context of national needs and efforts to engage scientists in education.

  5. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in... Control and Prevention (CDC) has worked to integrate genomics into public health research, policy,...

  6. Strength and conditioning in tennis: current research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Machar; Schneiker, Knut

    2008-06-01

    Virtually all professional tennis players are in continuous pursuit of enhanced performance. With the modern game becoming increasingly dynamic and tournament schedules no less demanding, the importance of physical fitness is well accepted. Indeed, most professional tennis players resource strength and conditioning specialists on a full- or part-time basis. As tennis play is characterised by intricate bio-energetics, planning specific strength and conditioning interventions represents a significant challenge for the specialist. Further, where game physiology and mechanics have been described extensively, critiques of the efficacy of different training initiatives are far less common. This review therefore considers the current scientific, tennis-specific fitness training evidence base in light of contemporary conditioning, and more particularly resistance training, practices.

  7. Caffeine and cardiovascular diseases: critical review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulli, Anthony; Smith, Renee M; Kubatka, Peter; Novak, Jan; Uehara, Yoshio; Loftus, Hayley; Qaradakhi, Tawar; Pohanka, Miroslav; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Zagatina, Angela; Klimas, Jan; Hayes, Alan; La Rocca, Giampiero; Soucek, Miroslav; Kruzliak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a most widely consumed physiological stimulant worldwide, which is consumed via natural sources, such as coffee and tea, and now marketed sources such as energy drinks and other dietary supplements. This wide use has led to concerns regarding the safety of caffeine and its proposed beneficial role in alertness, performance and energy expenditure and side effects in the cardiovascular system. The question remains "Which dose is safe?", as the population does not appear to adhere to the strict guidelines listed on caffeine consumption. Studies in humans and animal models yield controversial results, which can be explained by population, type and dose of caffeine and low statistical power. This review will focus on comprehensive and critical review of the current literature and provide an avenue for further study.

  8. [Organ cryopreservation: current status of research carried out in Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, J L; Payen, E; Rambeaud, J J; Peuridieu, J F; Baudot, A; Odin, J; Mazuer, J; Boutron, P; Delon-Martin, C; Dupeyre, R

    1995-12-01

    After discussing the problem of organ cryopreservation and reviewing the current data available on this subject, the Grenoble project is presented. Physical and biological studies have been combined with experimentation of autologous renal transplantation in rabbits to assess the functional value of the retransplanted organ after treatment and cooling. Renal resistances are measured during perfusion of the kidney with the cryoprotective solution. In order to verify the homogeneity of the cryoprotector concentration in the organ, on NMR spectral imaging test has been developed. A new rapid imaging method now allows real time monitoring of concentration variations during perfusion. In addition to concentration and homogeneity, analysis of local spectra also provides information about the local temperature de the kidney.

  9. I'd Do Anything for Research, But I Won't Do That: Interest in Pharmacological Interventions in Older Adults Enrolled in a Longitudinal Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Calamia; Bernstein, John P. K.; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) ranks as the 6th leading cause of death in the United States, yet unlike other diseases in this category, there are no disease-modifying medications for AD. Currently there is significant interest in exploring the benefits of pharmacological treatment before the onset of dementia (e.g., in those with mild cognitive impairment); however, recruitment for such studies is challenging. The current study examined interest in pharmacological intervention trials relative to o...

  10. Sediment pollution of the Elbe River side structures - current research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupova, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír

    2016-04-01

    The contribution brings the summarized results of a long-term research on sediment pollution of side structures of the Elbe River over the last 14 years. The investigation has been focused on old anthropogenic pollution of sediment cores taken from fluvial lakes and floodplain, as the sampling of deeper sediments outside the riverbed is not a part of systematic monitoring of sediment pollution of the Elbe. The Elbe River floodplain has been influenced by human activities since the Middle Ages, but the main anthropogenic pollution have been produced in the 20th century. The studied localities were chosen with the respect to the distance from the source of industrial pollution, the intensity of hydrological communication with the river and the surrounding landuse to determine the extend and the level of anthropogenic contamination in the Elbe River floodplain ecosystem. Apart from bathymetric measurements, observation of the hydrological regime in several fluvial lakes or water quality sampling at some localities, the research was focused above all on determination of metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn) in all taken sediment cores, specific organic compounds (PCBs, DDT, HCH, HCB, PAHs etc.), total organic carbon at some localities and grain structure analyses. The data were also compared with the results of systematic sediment monitoring from the nearest riverbed sampling stations on the Elbe River. The highest concentrations of metals and specific organic compounds were determined in the sediments taken from fluvial lakes and floodplain (Zimní přístav PARAMO, Rosice fuvial Lake, Libiš pool etc.) situated in the vicinity of the main Elbe River polluters - Synthesia chemical plant and PARAMO refinery in Pardubice or Spolana chemical plant near Neratovice. However, there was also determined a significant role of the hydrological communication with the river proved with lower sediment pollution in separated localities. The realization of the

  11. Microarrays—Current and Future Applications in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Certa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Microarrays covers research where microarrays are applied to address complex biological questions. This new open access journal publishes articles where novel applications or state-of-the art technology developments in the field are reported. In addition, novel methods or data analysis algorithms are under the scope of Microarrays. This journal will serve as a platform for fast and efficient sharing of data within this large user community. As one of the first microarray users in Europe back in 1996, I am proud to serve as Editor-in-Chief and I believe we have assembled a highly proficient Editorial Board, responsible for a fair and fast peer-review of articles.

  12. Current Status of Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Oki, Riko; Kubota, Takuji; Masaki, Takeshi; Kida, Satoshi; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is a mission led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under collaboration with many international partners, who will provide constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM Core Observatory, which carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) developed by JAXA and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) developed by NASA. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled to be launched in early 2014. JAXA also provides the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) 1st - Water (GCOM-W1) named "SHIZUKU," as one of constellation satellites. The SHIZUKU satellite was launched in 18 May, 2012 from JAXA's Tanegashima Space Center, and public data release of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) on board the SHIZUKU satellite was planned that Level 1 products in January 2013, and Level 2 products including precipitation in May 2013. The Japanese GPM research project conducts scientific activities on algorithm development, ground validation, application research including production of research products. In addition, we promote collaboration studies in Japan and Asian countries, and public relations activities to extend potential users of satellite precipitation products. In pre-launch phase, most of our activities are focused on the algorithm development and the ground validation related to the algorithm development. As the GPM standard products, JAXA develops the DPR Level 1 algorithm, and the NASA-JAXA Joint Algorithm Team develops the DPR Level 2 and the DPR-GMI combined Level2 algorithms. JAXA also develops the Global Rainfall Map product as national product to distribute hourly and 0.1-degree horizontal resolution rainfall map. All standard algorithms including Japan-US joint algorithm will be reviewed by the Japan-US Joint

  13. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  14. Research on Field Emission and Dark Current in ILC Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kexin; Li, Yongming; Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli

    2013-09-01

    Field emission and dark current are issues of concern for SRF cavity performance and SRF linac operation. Complete understanding and reliable control of the issue are still needed, especially in full-scale multi-cell cavities. Our work aims at developing a generic procedure for finding an active field emitter in a multi-cell cavity and benchmarking the procedure through cavity vertical test. Our ultimate goal is to provide feedback to cavity preparation and cavity string assembly in order to reduce or eliminate filed emission in SRF cavities. Systematic analysis of behaviors of field emitted electrons is obtained by ACE3P developed by SLAC. Experimental benchmark of the procedure was carried out in a 9-cell cavity vertical test at JLab. The energy spectrum of Bremsstrahlung X-rays is measured using a NaI(Tl) detector. The end-point energy in the X-ray energy spectrum is taken as the highest kinetic electron energy to predict longitudinal position of the active field emitter. Angular location of the field emitter is determined by an array of silicon diodes around irises of the cavity. High-resolution optical inspection was conducted at the predicted field emitter location.

  15. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  16. [Magnetoreception systems in birds: a review of current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishkinev, D A; Chernetsov, N S

    2014-01-01

    Currently at least two independent systems of magnetoreception are believed to exist in birds, based on different biophysical principles, located in different parts of their bodies, and having different innervation. One magnetoreceptory system is located in the retina and may be based on photo-induced biradical chemical reactions on the basis of cryptochrome. Information from these receptors is processed in a specialized part of visual Wulst, the so-called Cluster N. There are good reasons to believe that this visual magnetoreceptor processes compass magnetic information which is necessary for migratory orientation. The second magnetoreceptory system is probably iron-based (biogenic magnetite), is located somewhere in the upper beak (its exact location and ultrastructure of receptors remain unknown), and is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve. It cannot be ruled out that this system participates in spatial representation and helps forming either a kind of map or more primitive signposts, based on regular spatial variation of the geomagnetic field. The magnetic map probably governs navigation of migrating birds across hundreds and thousands of kilometers. Apart from these two systems whose existence may be considered to be convincingly shown (even if their details are not yet fully clear), there are data on the existence of magnetoreceptors based on the vestibular system. It cannot be ruled out that iron-based magnetoreception takes place in lagena (a structure homologous to cochlea of marsupials and eutherians), and the information perceived is processes in vestibular nuclei. The very existence of this magnetoreception system needs verification, and its function remains completely open.

  17. Nontyphoidal salmonella disease: Current status of vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; MacLennan, Calman A; Simon, Raphael; Martin, Laura B; Khan, M Imran

    2016-06-01

    currently under development.

  18. Current topics in red cell biology: report on the Red Cell Special Interest Group meeting held at NHS Blood and Transplant Bristol on 30 October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, T; Bruce, L J; Ridgwell, K

    2016-08-01

    The Red Cell Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting, hosted by the British Blood Transfusion Society, provides an annual forum for the presentation of UK- and European-based red cell research. The 2015 meeting was held on Friday 30 October at the National Health Service Blood & Transplant (NHSBT) facility in Filton, Bristol and provided an exciting and varied programme on the themes of erythropoiesis, malaria biology and pathophysiology and red cells properties in stress and disease. Ten speakers presented on these topics over the course of one day. The meeting was well attended by over 90 delegates. Posters were presented during the lunch break, and abstracts from the posters are published at the end of this issue.

  19. Research of Current Issues and Preliminary Sensitivity Analysis of Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, So Eun; Lee, Yong Suk [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Thus, in this study, key current issues came from research on previous studies related to L3 PSA. L3 PSA has been carried out by using MACCS code in Korea on a trial basis. The technique of assessing an off-site radiation effect quantitatively is required because the interest in off-site consequence analysis has been increased after the Fukushima accident. Therefore, in order to use Level 3 PSA(L3 PSA) in Korea, methods of calculating MACCS(MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) code to be adequate for domestic circumstances in Korea were investigated. If L3 PSA is performed in Korea, it will be possible to raise many issues. Since MACCS code is based on the U.S., input parameters and the scope of analysis were set by considering circumstances of the U.S. For this reason, by focusing on solutions to current issues, the method for reflecting circumstances of Korea in L3 PSA was investigated. It is also required to find out methods for decreasing uncertainty of L3 PSA in Korea.

  20. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minori, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice), the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far. PMID:28210503

  1. Microorganisms in metalworking fluids: Current issues in research and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta A. Trafny

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbial contamination of water miscible metalworking fl uids (MWFs is a serious problem in metal industry. A good maintenance of MWF re-circulation systems can extend the lifetime of coolants and ensure the quality of the tools produced. In MWFs, as in the other water-based environments, microorganisms usually live in the form of biofi lms, the communities of bacteria and fungi attached to the surface of sumps, metal parts and also to each other. Biofi lms exhibit very high resistance to biocides. The effect of biocides that are used as additives to MWFs to control the growth of the bacterial and fungal microbiomes (microorganisms characteristic to the individual coolant system have become the subject of research only in recent years. There are also only sparse reports on the impact of biocides on microorganisms growing in biofi lms in MWF installations. Fast growing mycobacteria are important members of these biofi lm communities. Their presence has recently been linked with the occurrence of cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a serious respiratory disorder in the metal industry employees. The new, relatively fast and inexpensive techniques to assess the species diversity within MWF microbiomes and their population size should be developed in order to control the microorganisms’ proliferation in MWFs and to diminish the occupational exposure to harmful bioaerosols in metal industry.

  2. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in case fatality rate over time. Increase in cases of canine diabetes worldwide is attributed to awareness amongst pet owners, better veterinary health facilities, breed preferences by dog owners, increase dependence on commercial feeds, obesity, etc. Diabetes in most dogs is immune mediated and insulin dependent. Breed predisposition in canine is attributed to dog leukocyte antigen gene pool encoding form major histocompatibility complex-II molecules, however research is still underway. Diagnosis of diabetes still relies on blood sugar evaluation for screening of canine population, though many other diagnostic methods have shown promising benefits including measurement of fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin. Management of diabetes in dog is based on insulin therapy, diet modification and exercise. Use of oral anti-diabetics drugs in canine is limited though experimental studies have shown promising results. Alternative therapies have been explored, but only a few approaches have shown promise for clinical application.

  3. Current development of acupuncture research in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bai-Yun; Salvage, Sarah; Jenner, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease. The etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms that cause PD are still not fully understood. The available treatments to PD are only symptomatic relief. Acupuncture is used to treat many medical conditions for 1000 years in China and has gained wider and increasing acceptance within both public and medical profession because it has been a very safe and well-tolerated treatment. In this chapter, we reviewed relevant laboratory findings regarding acupuncture mechanism on Parkinson's. We showed that acupuncture stimulation in Parkinson's models had generated valuable mechanistic insight of Parkinson's and showed that acupuncture treatment is in fact a neuroprotective therapy that increase the release of various neuroprotective agents such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and cyclophilin A. In addition, acupuncture therapy slows cell death process and attenuates oxidative stress to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Further, acupuncture therapy modulates neuronal activity of the basal ganglia output structures. These results suggest that early application of acupuncture therapy to Parkinson's patients may be helpful for the best efficacy of acupuncture treatment. It is hopeful that translation of achievement in acupuncture research in Parkinson's models will maximize the potentials of acupuncture treatment.

  4. Current Challenges and Prospective Research for Upscaling Hybrid Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Spencer T; Rajagopal, Adharsh; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2016-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photovoltaics (PSCs) are poised to push toward technology translation, but significant challenges complicating commercialization remain. Though J-V hysteresis and ecotoxicity are uniquely imposing issues at scale, CH3NH3PbI3 degradation is by far the sharpest limitation to the technology's potential market contribution. Herein, we offer a perspective on the practical market potential of PSCs, the nature of fundamental PSC challenges at scale, and an outline of prospective solutions for achieving module scale PSC production tailored to intrinsic advantages of CH3NH3PbI3. Although integrating PSCs into the energy grid is complicated by CH3NH3PbI3 degradation, the ability of PSCs to contribute to consumer electronics and other niche markets like those organic photovoltaics have sought footing in rests primarily upon the technology's price point. Thus, slot die, roll-to-roll processing has the greatest potential to enable PSC scale-up, and herein, we present a perspective on the research necessary to realize fully printable PSCs at scale.

  5. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Tiago; Minori, Karen; Ueta, Marlene; Miguel, Danilo Ciccone; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice), the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far.

  6. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice, the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far.

  7. Ovarian aging and menopause: current theories, hypotheses, and research models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Julie M; Zelinski, Mary B; Ingram, Donald K; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2005-12-01

    Aging of the reproductive system has been studied in numerous vertebrate species. Although there are wide variations in reproductive strategies and hormone cycle components, many of the fundamental changes that occur during aging are similar. Evolutionary hypotheses attempt to explain why menopause occurs, whereas cellular hypotheses attempt to explain how it occurs. It is commonly believed that a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is responsible for the onset of menopause. Data exist to demonstrate that the first signs of menopause occur at the level of the brain or the ovary. Thus, finding an appropriate and representative animal model is especially important for the advancement of menopause research. In primates, there is a gradual decline in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis ultimately resulting in irregularities in menstrual cycles and increasingly sporadic incidence of ovulation. Rodents also exhibit a progressive deterioration in HPG axis function; however, they also experience a period of constant estrus accompanied by intermittent ovulations, reduced progesterone levels, and elevated circulating estradiol levels. It is remarkable to observe that females of other classes also demonstrate deterioration in HPG axis function and ovarian failure. Comparisons of aging in various taxa provide insight into fundamental biological mechanisms of aging that could underlie reproductive decline.

  8. Asthma in the Elderly: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Nicola A.; King, Monroe J.; Braman, Sidney S.; Saltoun, Carol; Wise, Robert A.; Enright, Paul; Falsey, Ann A; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ramsdell, Joe W.; Rogers, Linda; Stempel, David A.; Lima, John J.; Fish, James E.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Boyd, Cynthia; Patel, Kushang V.; Irvin, Charles G.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Halm, Ethan A; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Sands, Mark F.; Ershler, William B.; Ledford, Dennis K.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in the elderly (AIE) is under diagnosed and under treated and there is a paucity of knowledge. The National Institute on Aging convened this workshop to identify what is known, what gaps in knowledge remain and suggest research directions needed to improve the understanding and care of AIE. Asthma presenting at an advanced age often has similar clinical and physiologic consequences as seen with younger individuals but co-morbid illnesses and the psychosocial effects of aging may affect the diagnosis, clinical presentation and care of asthma in this population. At least two phenotypes exist among elderly asthma; those with long-standing asthma have more severe airflow limitation and less complete reversibility than those with late-onset asthma. Many challenges exist in the recognition and treatment of asthma in the elderly. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIE are likely to be different from those seen in young asthmatics and these differences may influence the clinical course and outcomes of asthma in this population. PMID:21872730

  9. Current progress in epigenetic research for hepato-carcinomagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main type of primary liver cancer,and also one of the most malignant tumors.At present,the pathogenesis mechanisms of liver cancer are not entirely clear.It has been shown that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes play a significant role in carcinogenesis,caused by the genetic and epigenetic aberrance.In the past,people generally thought that genetic mutation is a key event of tumor pathogenesis,and somatic mutation of tumor suppressor genes is in particular closely associated with oncogenesis.With deeper understanding of tumors in recent years,increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic silencing of those genes,as a result of aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoters and histone modification,is essential to carcinogenesis and metastasis.The term epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression caused by regulation mechanisms,other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence.Specific epigenetic processes include DNA methylation,genome imprinting,chromotin remodeling,histone modification and microRNA regulations.This paper reviews recent epigenetics research progress in the hepatocellular carcinoma study,and tries to depict the relationships between hepatocellular carcinomagenesis and DNA methylation as well as microRNA regulation.

  10. Current progress in epigenetic research for hepato-carcinomagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main type of primary liver cancer, and also one of the most malignant tumors. At present, the pathogenesis mechanisms of liver cancer are not entirely clear. It has been shown that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes play a significant role in carcinogenesis, caused by the genetic and epigenetic aberrance. In the past, people generally thought that genetic mutation is a key event of tumor pathogenesis, and somatic mutation of tumor suppressor genes is in particular closely associated with oncogenesis. With deeper understanding of tumors in recent years, increasing evidence has shown that epigenetic silencing of those genes, as a result of aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoters and histone modification, is essential to carcinogenesis and metastasis. The term epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression caused by regulation mechanisms, other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Specific epi-genetic processes include DNA methylation, genome imprinting, chromotin remodeling, histone modi-fication and microRNA regulations. This paper reviews recent epigenetics research progress in the hepatocellular carcinoma study, and tries to depict the relationships between hepatocellular carci-nomagenesis and DNA methylation as well as microRNA regulation.

  11. How are the interests of incapacitated research participants protected through legislation? An Italian study on legal agency for dementia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Gainotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with dementia may have limited capacity to give informed consent to participate in clinical research. One possible way to safeguard the patients' interests in research is the involvement of a proxy in the recruitment process. In Italy, the system of proxy is determined by the courts. In this study we evaluate the timing for appointment of a legal proxy in Italy and identify predictive variables of appointment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were recruited among the outpatients seeking medical advice for cognitive complaints at the Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions, University of Milan, "Luigi Sacco" Hospital. The Centre was participating to the AdCare Study, a no-profit randomised clinical trial coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health. The requirement that informed consent be given by a legal representative dramatically slowed down the recruitment process in AdCare, which was prematurely interrupted. The Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions collected data on the timing required to appoint the legal representatives. Patients diagnosed with dementia and their caregivers were provided information on the Italian law on legal agency (law 6/2004. At each scheduled check-up the caregiver was asked whether she/he had applied to appoint a legal proxy for the patient and the time interval between the presentation of the law, the registration of the application at the law court chancellery and the sentence of appointment was registered. The study involved 169 demented patients. Seventy-eight patients (46.2% applied to appoint a legal proxy. These subjects were usually younger, had been suffering from dementia for a longer time, had less than two children and made more use of memantine. The mean interval time between the presentation of the law and the patients' application to the law court chancellery was two months. The mean interval time between the patient

  12. How are the interests of incapacitated research participants protected through legislation? An Italian study on legal agency for dementia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Sabina; Fusari Imperatori, Susanna; Spila-Alegiani, Stefania; Maggiore, Laura; Galeotti, Francesca; Vanacore, Nicola; Petrini, Carlo; Raschetti, Roberto; Mariani, Claudio; Clerici, Francesca

    2010-06-16

    Patients with dementia may have limited capacity to give informed consent to participate in clinical research. One possible way to safeguard the patients' interests in research is the involvement of a proxy in the recruitment process. In Italy, the system of proxy is determined by the courts. In this study we evaluate the timing for appointment of a legal proxy in Italy and identify predictive variables of appointment. Subjects were recruited among the outpatients seeking medical advice for cognitive complaints at the Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions, University of Milan, "Luigi Sacco" Hospital. The Centre was participating to the AdCare Study, a no-profit randomised clinical trial coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health. The requirement that informed consent be given by a legal representative dramatically slowed down the recruitment process in AdCare, which was prematurely interrupted. The Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions collected data on the timing required to appoint the legal representatives. Patients diagnosed with dementia and their caregivers were provided information on the Italian law on legal agency (law 6/2004). At each scheduled check-up the caregiver was asked whether she/he had applied to appoint a legal proxy for the patient and the time interval between the presentation of the law, the registration of the application at the law court chancellery and the sentence of appointment was registered. The study involved 169 demented patients. Seventy-eight patients (46.2%) applied to appoint a legal proxy. These subjects were usually younger, had been suffering from dementia for a longer time, had less than two children and made more use of memantine. The mean interval time between the presentation of the law and the patients' application to the law court chancellery was two months. The mean interval time between the patient's application to the law court chancellery and the sentence of

  13. Structural dynamics of microsystems—current state of research and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. M.; Wang, W. J.

    2006-07-01

    Microsystems or micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), as a newly emerged revolutionary enabling technology, has brought both opportunities and challenges to the field of structural dynamics in a different scale, owing primarily to its interdisciplinary nature of research and extremely small feature size. This paper seeks to present a comprehensive yet critical review on some of the major issues that need to be tackled in the successful realisation of microsystems, with an ultimate objective of further developing and improving the current design capabilities of these systems. The electro-mechanical coupling of typical MEMS devices is first defined and introduced, followed by an in-depth review of the various existing modeling and simulation techniques. Special requirements are discussed when typical MEMS devices need to be tested and existing vibration testing techniques are reviewed. Of particular interest to MEMS devices, structural damping has become a major issue affecting dynamic performance due to the various energy dissipation mechanisms involved. These damping mechanisms have been examined, together with methods developed to model them. Finally, conclusions are made on what have been achieved to date and future prospects of structural dynamics of Microsystems are identified with an intention to stimulate further concerted research in this important emerging area.

  14. The Current State of Research on Networks in China’s Business System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Meuer (Johannes); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of the paper is to assess the current state of network research in China’s business system. Research on networks has developed significantly during the last decades in regards to analytic techniques, number of research projects, and accumulated findings. While research on net

  15. The Current State of Research on Networks in China’s Business System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Meuer (Johannes); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of the paper is to assess the current state of network research in China’s business system. Research on networks has developed significantly during the last decades in regards to analytic techniques, number of research projects, and accumulated findings. While research on net

  16. Roundtable: Researching the Selfie

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan Schroeder

    2014-01-01

      This roundtable gathers researchers interested in the phenomenon of the "selfie" -- to explore current developments, research methods and interdisciplinary research into how consumer behavior, social...

  17. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The

  18. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The p

  19. Current research and future directions in pattern identification: Results of an international symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Ju Ah; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Goto, Hirozo; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kao, Shung-Te; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Bongki; Park, Kyung-Mo; You, Sooseong; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-12-01

    A symposium on pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) on October 2, 2013, in Daejeon, South Korea. This symposium was convened to provide information on the current research in PI as well as suggest future research directions. The participants discussed the nature of PI, possible research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research. With eight presentations and an extensive panel discussion, the symposium allowed participants to discuss research methods in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented the topic, 'Clinical pattern differentiation and contemporary research in PI.' Two speakers presented current trends in research on blood stasis while the remaining five other delegates discussed the research methods and future directions of PI research. The participants engaged in in-depth discussions regarding the nature of PI, potential research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research.

  20. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  1. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  2. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  3. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  4. A Sustainable Model for Integrating Current Topics in Machine Learning Research into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulos, M.; DeMara, R. F.; Gonzalez, A. J.; Wu, A. S.; Mollaghasemi, M.; Gelenbe, E.; Kysilka, M.; Secretan, J.; Sharma, C. A.; Alnsour, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated research and teaching model that has resulted from an NSF-funded effort to introduce results of current Machine Learning research into the engineering and computer science curriculum at the University of Central Florida (UCF). While in-depth exposure to current topics in Machine Learning has traditionally occurred…

  5. A Sustainable Model for Integrating Current Topics in Machine Learning Research into the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulos, M.; DeMara, R. F.; Gonzalez, A. J.; Wu, A. S.; Mollaghasemi, M.; Gelenbe, E.; Kysilka, M.; Secretan, J.; Sharma, C. A.; Alnsour, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated research and teaching model that has resulted from an NSF-funded effort to introduce results of current Machine Learning research into the engineering and computer science curriculum at the University of Central Florida (UCF). While in-depth exposure to current topics in Machine Learning has traditionally occurred…

  6. Motivational Influences on School-Prompted Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Keith; Ferguson, Yuna; Bergin, David; Hilpert, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Some argue that the goal of education is to influence out-of-school learning activity, yet little research exists on how teachers can help students develop an interest in a topic and continue to pursue that interest outside of school. The current study tested classroom context variables from self-determination theory (teachers' autonomy support)…

  7. Current Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mary Alice

    1981-01-01

    Describes a doctoral dissertation entitled "World-Future Images in Childrens Literature" which analyzed books on science fiction or utopian fiction by 43 authors of children's literature to determine whether presentations were optimistic or pessimistic. Results indicating generally optimistic stories are discussed, as well as strengths and…

  8. Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2013-03-13

    The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies.

  9. Current research and trends in the use of smartphone applications for mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Torous

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: While the research base for smartphone applications is limited, it is still informative. Numerous opportunities for further research exist, especially in the use of passive data for, major depressive disorder, validating passive data to detect mania in bipolar disorder, and exploring the use of physiological data. As interest in smartphones for psychiatry and mental health continues to expand, it is important that the research base expands to fill these gaps and provide clinically useful results.

  10. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  11. Domestic and Foreign Research on Vocational Interest Theory%国内外职业兴趣理论研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景毅

    2016-01-01

    Vocational interest is an important branch of interest researches, based on all kinds of interest theory, different vocational interest theories will be produced. In this paper, from the meaning of vocational interest, the research significance, history of the development of the questionnaire, influencing factors and training strategy, two professional interest measurement tools in seven aspects of study on vocational interest were reviewed, and the author puts forward views and suggestions for the further research.%职业兴趣是兴趣研究的重要分支,基于各种兴趣理论的研究产生出不同的职业兴趣理论。文章从职业兴趣的含义、研究意义、测量问卷的发展历史、影响因素、培养策略、工具等六个方面对职业兴趣研究进行了综述,并对进一步的研究提出了建议。

  12. Current Practice in Measuring the Quality of Conceptual Models:Challenges and Research%Current Practice in Measuring the Quality of Conceptual Models:Challenges and Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; WU Yu-feng; LI Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    How to measure the quality of conceptual models is an important issue in the IS field and related research. This paper conducts a review of research in measuring conceptual model quality and identifies the major theoretical and practical issues that need to be addressed in future studies. We review current classification frameworks for conceptual model quality and practice of measuring conceptual model quality. Based on the review, challenges for studies of measuring the quality of conceptual models are proposed and these challenges are also research points which should be strengthened in future studies.

  13. T2* mapping of articular cartilage: current status of research and first clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreisek, Gustav; Weiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    T2* mapping is a relatively new method for the compositional assessment of the articular cartilage. Typically, a multigradient echo or an ultrashort echo time imaging technique with a range of short and very short echo times is used. In most studies, imaging is performed at a high field strength, that is, 3 and 7 T. Postprocessing includes exponential fitting of relaxation decay and manual region-of-interest-based measurements of T2* times on T2* maps. Detailed analyses of T2* times of articular cartilage have shown distinct T2* components with shorter and longer T2* times. Moreover, there is a zonal distribution with a significant depthwise gradient of T2*, with relatively short times near the osteochondral junction and relatively long times at the cartilage's surface. T2* times of normal articular cartilage at the knee are, when averaged over the whole cartilage thickness and using monoexponential fitting, approximately 20 milliseconds. The results of recent studies have shown a good test-retest as well as interreader and intrareader reliabilities for T2* mapping. This article provides a descriptive review of the current literature, briefly discusses the technique itself, and provides an outlook on future research questions and possible clinical applications.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  15. Navigation Hydraulics Research Program: Evaluation of Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute Physical Model Current Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    readout circuit CURRENT VELOCITY / DIRECTION SENSOR A mini-servomotor and a piece of fibre optic rod are installed at the base. The rod is turned by...34Description. of The Fibre - Optic Type Miniature Propetler Velocity Meter" for detal Is) THE OPERATION OF THE COMBINED CURRENT VELOCITY ’ DIRECTION METER 1. Plug...of The Fibre - Optic Type Miniature propeller Velocity Meter" for details. Front Panel: Ma /jj (tPj ) Current Direction Readout (Degree) Sensitivity

  16. The development of dental research in Argentinean biological anthropology: current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, V; Luna, L H

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to conduct a historical analysis of the research-oriented studies related to dental anthropology in Argentina, evaluate its current state and discuss future expectations and perspectives. In this country, anthropological studies based on analysis of dentition have been scarce and even temporarily discontinued, since they began in the late nineteenth century, simply following the course of the predominant theoretical and methodological approaches over time. Early papers, guided mainly by evolutionary ideas, were oriented towards establishing the taxonomic position of humans through the description and comparison of morphological and morphometric aspects of the dental crown and root. Later studies mainly described types of intentional modifications (i.e. dental mutilations) and tooth wear in the context of Historic-Cultural School. However, they failed to constitute valid lines of research over time. In recent years, there has been a significant change in dental studies, mainly as a result of the interest in evaluating the adaptive aspects of human populations within biocultural settings. One of the most relevant lines of studies has been the bioarchaeological analysis of health and stress indicators, such as enamel hypoplasia, caries and tooth wear in hunter-gatherer and farmer societies. More recently, the study of discrete and metric dental traits began, with a goal to contribute to the study of evolution and inter-populational biological relations among South American groups. Since teeth contain valuable information not only about the environment in which the individual lived, but also about the action of neutral and non-neutral factors on human groups, the consolidation of ongoing studies will contribute to knowledge of various aspects of the adaptation and evolution of native American populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Restoring balance to industry-academia relationships in an era of institutional financial conflicts of interest: promoting research while maintaining trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michael M E; Barnes, Mark; Florencio, Patrik S

    2003-02-12

    Economic partnerships between industry and academia accelerate medical innovation and enhance patient access to medical advances, but such partnerships have sometimes eroded public trust in the research enterprise. There is particular risk for conflict of interest when economic partnerships extend beyond a university's corporate interests to involve institutional decision makers. Institutions and institutional decision makers should fully disclose industry-related financial interests and relationships. Without legitimate justification for such interests, individuals should divest themselves from these interests or recuse themselves from responsibility for research oversight. Management of institutional partnerships also might entail the physical separation of certain facilities, the placement of restrictions on information shared between investment and research staffs, and provision of oversight by independent review panels made up of persons who have expertise in intellectual property, finance, and research, but who are not financially or otherwise dependent on the institution. Through these means, it is possible to restore balance to industry-academia relationships, thereby promoting progress while maintaining public trust in research.

  18. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Craig S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Clark, Rachael S; Plano Clark, Vicki L

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology. Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research. We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs. The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  19. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Elizabeth L.; Clark, Rachael S.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology. Methods Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12–25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research. Results We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs. Conclusions The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults. PMID:28841689

  20. Current state of information technology use in a US primary care practice-based research network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrews

    2004-02-01

    Conclusion While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.

  1. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  2. Research of resisting of the biological active point for constant and alternative current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Peregudov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Is conducted research of resistance of biologically active point (BAT on a direct and variable current. Research results are presented. The estimation of intercommunication between resistance of skin and by an electromagnetic radiation in BAT is done. Is shown possibility of the use of experimental information for diagnostics of the state of human to the organism.

  3. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  4. The Focus of Current HCI Research in Usability Evaluation and Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a systematic literature study of the research on usability evaluation and feedback. The literature study covers the papers published from five key human-computer interaction journals for a period of four years, and depicts the most current research within...

  5. THE CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE VALUE RELEVANCE RESEARCH FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen- Alexandra BALTARIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the scientific literature referring to the value relevance of reported accounting information over a twelve year period starting from 2002. The approach of the paper is a theoretical (conceptual one. In order to complete the purpose of the paper we selected as research method the longitudinal qualitative analysis. The qualitative analysis carried out presents a deductive character. Our conclusions regarding the general characteristics of the research field pertaining to the value relevance of reported accounting information are drawn based on the main results and scientific contributions identified in the research field of interest.

  6. Current Research Activities in Drive System Technology in Support of the NASA Rotorcraft Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Drive system technology is a key area for improving rotorcraft performance, noise/vibration reduction, and reducing operational and manufacturing costs. An overview of current research areas that support the NASA Rotorcraft Program will be provided. Work in drive system technology is mainly focused within three research areas: advanced components, thermal behavior/emergency lubrication system operation, and diagnostics/prognostics (also known as Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS)). Current research activities in each of these activities will be presented. Also, an overview of the conceptual drive system requirements and possible arrangements for the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft program will be reviewed.

  7. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment.

  8. INSTITUTIONALISM AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS: CURRENT STATE OF THE ART AND POSITION OF FRENCH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolande Marciniak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The various currents of institutionalism are used in management science, particularly in the area of information systems. Richard Scott's global model is a fertile framework for the analysis of institutional research. First, we will study the contributions of French research to institutionalism. Then, returning to the fundamentals of information systems (IS, we will show that the interaction between institutions and IS can be analysed via the notion of formal and informal rules. Research carried out at the University of Paris

  9. Studying the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism: rationale, methodology, and current research with psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2013-03-01

    Recent developments in the study of classic hallucinogens, combined with a re-appraisal of the older literature, have led to a renewal of interest in possible therapeutic applications for these drugs, notably their application in the treatment of addictions. This article will first provide a brief review of the research literature providing direct and indirect support for the possible therapeutic effects of classic hallucinogens such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of addictions. Having provided a rationale for clinical investigation in this area, we discuss design issues in clinical trials using classic hallucinogens, some of which are unique to this class of drug. We then discuss the current status of this field of research and design considerations in future randomized trials.

  10. Reprioritizing current research trends in medical education: a reflection on research activities in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Akef S; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous national efforts to determine and develop research priorities of medical education in Saudi Arabia. These priorities were first proposed in 2010 by "Dr Al-Khuli's Chair for Developing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia". The proposed priority domains were: curriculum, students, faculty, and quality assurance and accreditation. To investigate publications in medical education at the national and international levels in areas relating to these proposed priorities. Electronic search within PubMed database for papers relating to each domain of priority was conducted at national and international levels in the last three years, using the same keywords as the priority domains, but only confined to undergraduate medical education. Out of 3145 articles retrieved when searching with keyword as broad as "undergraduate medical curriculum" only 81 articles worldwide and 3 articles from Saudi Arabia were dealing with curriculum related issues as a whole. Further search on the sub-domains "effective strategies to manage undergraduate curriculum" and "undergraduate medical education models", resulted in the retrieval of few articles worldwide and none from Saudi Arabia. At the national level, there were 63 publications from Saudi Arabia that were either course (topic)-specific or could not be classified under the four domains specified by Dr Al-Khuli's Chair. Research activities in medical education in Saudi Arabia in the last 3 years showed diversity and lack of focus in the research priorities. Efforts of academic and research centers should continue to monitor and encourage these activities toward achieving the recommended priorities.

  11. Investigating the Impact on Student Learning and Outdoor Science Interest through Modular Serious Educational Games: A Design-Based Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Elizabeth Eason

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to get children back outdoors and exploring the natural environment, a Modular Serious Educational Game (mSEG), Red Wolf Caper, was created as part of a design-based research study. Red Wolf Caper uses a combination of an augmented reality (AR) game and a serious educational game (SEG) to capture the students' interest in the natural…

  12. Why are dreams interesting for philosophers?The example of minimal phenomenal selfhood, plus an agenda for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Metzinger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This metatheoretical paper develops a list of new research targets by exploring particularly promising interdisciplinary contact points between empirical dream research and philosophy of mind. The central example is the MPS-problem. It is constituted by the epistemic goal of conceptually isolating and empirically grounding the phenomenal property of minimal phenomenal selfhood, which refers to the simplest form of self-consciousness. In order to precisely describe MPS, one must focus on those conditions that are not only causally enabling, but strictly necessary to bring it into existence. This contribution argues that research on bodiless dreams, asomatic out-of-body experiences, and full-body illusions has the potential to make decisive future contributions. Further items on the proposed list of novel research targets include differentiating the concept of a first-person perspective on the subcognitive level; investigating relevant phenomenological and neurofunctional commonalities between mind-wandering and dreaming; comparing the functional depth of embodiment across dream and wake states; and demonstrating that the conceptual consequences of cognitive corruption and systematic rationality deficits in the dream state are much more serious for philosophical epistemology (and, perhaps, the methodology of dream research itself than commonly assumed. The paper closes by specifying a list of potentially innovative research goals that could serve to establish a stronger connection between dream research and philosophy of mind.

  13. Research on Digital Output Verification Technology of Electronic DC Current Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanjie; Wang, Bin; Hu, Haoliang; Xiong, Qianzhu; Yang, Chunyan

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the error of calibration system when conducting field calibration by electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system, an electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system based on protocol conversion is proposed and researched. Data frames outputted from merging unit are collected and converted by the system, the digital synchronization is realized by using the synchronous clock device to trigger the second pulse, and it is verified by the virtual instrument design software. The field calibration is conducted to some converter station digital dc current transformer under the rated current of 500A by using the calibration system. By calibrating and analyzing errors, the error is less than 0.075% when tested current is more than 40% of the rated current. According the standard in literature[1], performance of the calibration system is perfect, measured results perfectly meet the requirements of design, and the calibration system has great practical application value.

  14. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and

  15. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulato

  16. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: examining the effectiveness of authentic scientific research on high school students' science skills and interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-04-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and (2) how the open-inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  17. Data standards for clinical research data collection forms: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richesson, Rachel L; Nadkarni, Prakash

    2011-05-01

    Case report forms (CRFs) are used for structured-data collection in clinical research studies. Existing CRF-related standards encompass structural features of forms and data items, content standards, and specifications for using terminologies. This paper reviews existing standards and discusses their current limitations. Because clinical research is highly protocol-specific, forms-development processes are more easily standardized than is CRF content. Tools that support retrieval and reuse of existing items will enable standards adoption in clinical research applications. Such tools will depend upon formal relationships between items and terminological standards. Future standards adoption will depend upon standardized approaches for bridging generic structural standards and domain-specific content standards. Clinical research informatics can help define tools requirements in terms of workflow support for research activities, reconcile the perspectives of varied clinical research stakeholders, and coordinate standards efforts toward interoperability across healthcare and research data collection.

  18. Creating a "one-stop shop" for all the most interesting findings from across the field of andrology——Asian Journal of Andrology launches Research Highlights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Fei Wang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Thumbing the pages of various scientific journals a researcher might wonder: how do 1 efficiently and accurately identify articles that invoke my enthusiasm while informing me of important breakthroughs across the field of andrology? Skimming through an interesting article: how do 1 thoroughly and incisively comprehend the significance of the findings? Closing the article pages: how do 1 integrate the conclusions derived from the findings into my own research? Asian Journal of Andrology (AJA) would like to provide you an efficient information platform to address these questions through a brand new article type--Research Highlights.

  19. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version.

  20. Research on Measurement of Bed Shear Stress Under WaveCurrent Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华; 夏云峰; 张世钊马炳和; 郝思禹; 杜德军

    2015-01-01

    The movement of sediment in estuary and on coast is directly restricted by the bed shear stress. Therefore, the research on the basic problem of sediment movement by the bed shear stress is an important way to research the theory of sediment movement. However, there is not a measuring and computing method to measure the bed shear stress under a complicated dynamic effect like wave and current. This paper describes the measurement and test research on the bed shear stress in a long launder of direct current by the new instrument named thermal shearometer based on micro-nanotechnology. As shown by the research results, the thermal shearometer has a high response frequency and strong stability. The measured results can reflect the basic change of the bed shear stress under wave and wave-current effect, and confirm that the method of measuring bed shear stress under wave-current effect with thermal shearometer is feasible. Meanwhile, a preliminary method to compute the shear stress compounded by wave-current is put forward according to the tested and measured results, and then a reference for further study on the basic theory of sediment movement under a complicated dynamic effect is provided.

  1. Applying Earlier Literacy Research in Iran to Current Literacy Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Street

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I attempt to bring together approaches toliteracy in theory and in practice, drawing upon variousactivities I have been involved in over the years–research inIranian villages during the 1970s; linking research andtheory to literacy policy, with particular reference to acontribution to the Unesco Global Monitoring Report in2004 and involvement in an ongoing adult literacy trainingprogramme appropriately entitled Learning Empowermentthrough Training in Ethnographic Research (LETTER.IJSCL is interested in publishing original research andreview articles on the relationship between society, culture,and language and in particular ‘linking sound theoreticalapproaches on these fields with visible practical applicationsthat can be used by specialists in anthropology, sociology,linguistics, education, intercultural studies, and policymaking’. I hope that this piece on literacy, with duereference to work in Iran, will fit with that brief.

  2. Use of cone beam computed tomography in implant dentistry: current concepts, indications and limitations for clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Horner, Keith; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential component of treatment planning in the field of implant dentistry. This narrative review will present current concepts for the use of cone beam computed tomography imaging, before and after implant placement, in daily clinical practice and research. Guidelines for the selection of three-dimensional imaging will be discussed, and limitations will be highlighted. Current concepts of radiation dose optimization, including novel imaging modalities using low-dose protocols, will be presented. For preoperative cross-sectional imaging, data are still not available which demonstrate that cone beam computed tomography results in fewer intraoperative complications such as nerve damage or bleeding incidents, or that implants inserted using preoperative cone beam computed tomography data sets for planning purposes will exhibit higher survival or success rates. The use of cone beam computed tomography following the insertion of dental implants should be restricted to specific postoperative complications, such as damage of neurovascular structures or postoperative infections in relation to the maxillary sinus. Regarding peri-implantitis, the diagnosis and severity of the disease should be evaluated primarily based on clinical parameters and on radiological findings based on periapical radiographs (two dimensional). The use of cone beam computed tomography scans in clinical research might not yield any evident beneficial effect for the patient included. As many of the cone beam computed tomography scans performed for research have no direct therapeutic consequence, dose optimization measures should be implemented by using appropriate exposure parameters and by reducing the field of view to the actual region of interest.

  3. At the Intersection of Resident, Research and Recreation Stakeholder Interests: East Maui, Hawai‘i, as a Sustainable Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cusick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiences of contemporary protected areas indicate adaptations to challenges brought about by resource management strategies. Resident communities, protected area management, and the tourism industry stakeholders demonstrate that evolving relationships are complex webs of competing and cooperating interests. The geographic isolation of East Maui delayed the cultural disruption of traditional practices and is an area where residents simultaneously resist assimilation and re-create cultural landscapes to offer visitors a glimpse into the past and a view of an emerging future associated with the renaissance of Native Hawaiian identity. Partnerships have brought about and nurtured the perpetuation of culture and the conservation of biodiversity as stakeholders recognize shared benefits. Among the outcomes are that residents have reconstituted the identity of East Maui as a Hawaiian place with benefits to various stakeholders, including a network of protected areas. A sustainability framework suggests a reappraisal of how to nurture, not alter, East Maui’s identity.

  4. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Transcendental Meditation: Current State of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Holt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the current state of meditation research, specifically focusing on mindfulness-based stress reduction and transcendental meditation. Despite significant methodological problems with the studies reported to date on the subject, there is consistent evidence that meditation can produce changes in the nervous system and physiology of the meditator, and can help with various psychological markers of well-being. Regarding improvement in specific clinical diseases, research is generally mixed and preliminary. Strong recommendations cannot be made based on current evidence, and further studies are needed. In general, there is a stronger body of evidence supporting mindfulness-based stress reduction than for transcendental meditation.

  5. The state of exploitation of geothermal energy and some interesting achievements in geothermal research and development in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Rajver

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the latest status of geothermal energy use worldwide and the comparison with the previous period, both in electricity generation as well as in the various categories of direct use. Electricity production takes place in 26 countries and has at the end of 2014 reached 73,700 GWh from geothermal power plants with nearly 12.8 GW of installed power. This is still only 0.31 % of the total electricity produced in the world and it will be interesting to monitor the future share of geothermal energy in doing so. In the last 5-year period the development was particularly rapid in countries where it was slower in the past and, however, with favorable geological (tectonic conditions (Iceland, Kenya, New Zealand, Turkey, etc.. Direct use of geothermal energy covers a signifiant number of countries, today there are 82, although some of them are such where it takes place almost solely by geothermal (ground-source heat pumps (GHP on shallow subsurface energy (Finland. Installed capacity in the direct use is 70,885 MWt and geothermal energy used, including the GHP, is 592,638 TJ/year (end of 2014. Within the used energy the share of GHP dominates with 55.2 %, followed by the bathing and swimming pools complexes incl. balneology by 20.2 %, space heating by 15.0 % (the majority of it is district heating, heating of greenhouses and soil with 4.9 %, etc. The second part presents some interesting technological and scientifi innovations in exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy.

  6. In the Interests of Innovation: Time for a New Approach to Negotiating Research Agreements between the Commonwealth and Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Concerns are held across the Group of Eight (Go8) that the standard terms sought by the Commonwealth when entering into research agreements with universities misunderstand the role and nature of universities; are unnecessarily onerous and impractical; often cause delay and uncertainty due to their complexity; and serve to stifle knowledge transfer…

  7. Research on the induction motor current signature for centrifugal pump at cavitation condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a major undesirable phenomenon for centrifugal pump because it can cause hydraulic performance deterioration, pump damage by pitting and material erosion, and structural vibration and noise. Cavitation can appear within the entire range of the operating conditions; therefore, it must be prevented by all means. Sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature analysis is non-intrusive and economic for monitoring motor-driven equipment. Thus, this technology is suitable for centrifugal pump systems. The motor current signature for centrifugal pump load at the cavitation condition is the basis of this technology. However, systematic research is lacking on sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature. As a result, the tentative exploration for motor current signature at cavitation load was conducted in this study. The results show that the stator current is still a sinusoidal alternating current strictly to the law of sine. Moreover, the root mean square of the current fluctuates because of different flow regimes in the cavitation progress and decreases because vapor density is smaller than water density when cavitation is fully formed. For the stator current spectrum, the noise level, noise distribution, rotation speed, and vane pass frequency components show features in the cavitation process. These indicator indexes change according to the stage of cavitation development. Thus, the motor current signature analysis is found to be a feasible and cost-effective method for the stages of cavitation condition.

  8. Retrospectives, current valences and prospective dimensions of research at the Academy of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel SÎMBOTEANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to identify the social determinants, which initiated and facilitated the content and evolution of the scientific research of the administrative phenomenon in the Republic of Moldova after the declaration of independence. It also elucidates the current valences and perspectives of this activity in the context of the provisions of the recently adopted Research Strategy of the Academy of Public Administration for the period 2016-2020.

  9. Space and Architecture's Current Line of Research? A Lunar Architecture Workshop With An Architectural Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, D.; van Dijk, A.

    The "2002 ESA Lunar Architecture Workshop" (June 3-16) ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL) is the first-of-its-kind workshop for exploring the design of extra-terrestrial (infra) structures for human exploration of the Moon and Earth-like planets introducing 'architecture's current line of research', and adopting an architec- tural criteria. The workshop intends to inspire, engage and challenge 30-40 European masters students from the fields of aerospace engineering, civil engineering, archi- tecture, and art to design, validate and build models of (infra) structures for Lunar exploration. The workshop also aims to open up new physical and conceptual terrain for an architectural agenda within the field of space exploration. A sound introduc- tion to the issues, conditions, resources, technologies, and architectural strategies will initiate the workshop participants into the context of lunar architecture scenarios. In my paper and presentation about the development of the ideology behind this work- shop, I will comment on the following questions: * Can the contemporary architectural agenda offer solutions that affect the scope of space exploration? It certainly has had an impression on urbanization and colonization of previously sparsely populated parts of Earth. * Does the current line of research in architecture offer any useful strategies for com- bining scientific interests, commercial opportunity, and public space? What can be learned from 'state of the art' architecture that blends commercial and public pro- grammes within one location? * Should commercial 'colonisation' projects in space be required to provide public space in a location where all humans present are likely to be there in a commercial context? Is the wave in Koolhaas' new Prada flagship store just a gesture to public space, or does this new concept in architecture and shopping evolve the public space? * What can we learn about designing (infra-) structures on the Moon or any other

  10. Intellectual property rights and research disclosure in the university environment: preserving the commercialization option and optimizing market interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Clinical and basic scientists at academic medical and biomedical research institutions often form ideas that could have both monetary and human health benefits if developed and applied to improvement of human wellbeing. However, such ideas lose much of their potential value in both regards if they are disclosed in traditional knowledge-sharing forums such as abstracts, posters, and oral presentations at research meetings. Learning the basics about intellectual property protection and obtaining professional guidance in the management of intellectual property from a knowledgeable technology management professional or intellectual property attorney can avoid such losses yet pose a minimal burden of confidentiality on the investigator. Knowing how to successfully navigate the early stages of intellectual property protection can greatly increase the likelihood that discoveries and knowledge will become available for the public good without diminishing the important mandate of disseminating knowledge through traditional knowledge-sharing forums.

  11. Neonatal research in India: current status, challenges, and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shuchita; Chaurasia, Suman; Sankar, M Jeeva; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2014-11-01

    The present article systematically reviews the current status of neonatal research in India by examining the research articles published by Indian authors in the last 10 years. It also enlists the major challenges and proposes a few potential solutions to improve the status of neonatal research in the country. The systematic review of 574 eligible articles indicates that majority of the studies were observational in nature, facility-based, and primarily investigator-driven with no external funding, had small sample size, and were published in journals with low impact factor. Only a few select government and non-government academic institutions contributed to most studies. The major challenges include shortage of faculty, no provision for dedicated research time, inadequate knowledge/skills in research methods, lack of funding opportunities, limited access to literature, non-existence of research administrative cell, inappropriately low perks to research staff, and poor support for data management and statistical analysis. The recently revised guidelines on clinical trials involving drugs have further increased the researcher's dilemma. The potential solutions are to increase the faculty strength in medical colleges, allow dedicated research time to them, appoint dedicated research cadre with emoluments at par with clinical faculty, initiate formal training in research methods, create nationwide free portal for access to literature, facilitate development of good protocols through technical guidance at all stages, make the process of funding quick and transparent, and to promote collaborative trans-disciplinary research. Experts from different domains should come together and formulate evidence based research priorities. Regulatory mechanisms should be kept proportionate to plausible risks of research, and detailed ethical guidelines for research in children should be formulated. And last but not least, harnessing postgraduate thesis potential to answer simple and

  12. Social interest:It’s Concept, Measurement and Related Researches%社会兴趣:概念、测量以及相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰; 郭本禹

    2015-01-01

    Social interest is the positive attitude toward surrounding subjects and objects, the feel of identity of others and group affiliation, and the behavioral tendency of individual choices and decisions. Related researches have come to the foreground in the academia since it was proposed by Alfred Adler. The existing measuring tools involve Social Interest Index, Sulliman Social Interest Scale, and Social Interest Scale. Related researches showed that social interest as an important concept in psychological therapy, is associated with emotional experience and the levels of psychological development, useful in improving people’s life quality and reducing criminal behaviors. Future researches should focus on the following aspects: to make a through inquiry on the concept and structure of social interest, to refine the research methods, and to carry out indigenization researches.%社会兴趣是指对待他人和他事的积极态度和看法,对他人的认同感和对群体的归属感,以及对自身选择和决定的某种行为倾向。自从阿德勒提出社会兴趣后,相关研究备受学界重视。目前,社会兴趣的测量工具主要有《社会兴趣指数》、《Sulliman 社会兴趣量表》、《社会兴趣量表》等。相关研究表明,社会兴趣与情绪体验、心理发展水平等存在重要关联,可提升生活品质,减少犯罪行为,作为心理治疗的重要内容。未来应该深化研究社会兴趣的概念及结构,完善社会兴趣的测量方法以及开展本土化研究。

  13. Effective pseudonymisation and explicit statements of public interest to ensure the benefits of sharing health data for research, quality improvement and health service management outweigh the risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This journal strongly supports the sharing of data to support research and quality improvement. However, this needs to be done in a way that ensures the benefits vastly outweigh the risks, and vitally using methods which are inspire both public and professional confidences – robust pseudonymisation is needed to achieve this. The case for using routine data for research has already been well made and probably also for quality improvement; however, clearer mechanisms are needed of how we test that the public interest is served. Ensuring that the public interest is served is essential if we are to maintain patients’ and public’s trust, especially in the English National Health Service where the realpolitik is that patients can opt out of data sharing.  

  14. Effective pseudonymisation and explicit statements of public interest to ensure the benefits of sharing health data for research, quality improvement and health service management outweigh the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This journal strongly supports the sharing of data to support research and quality improvement. However, this needs to be done in a way that ensures the benefits vastly outweigh the risks, and vitally using methods which are inspire both public and professional confidences--robust pseudonymisation is needed to achieve this. The case for using routine data for research has already been well made and probably also for quality improvement; however, clearer mechanisms are needed of how we test that the public interest is served. Ensuring that the public interest is served is essential if we are to maintain patients' and public's trust, especially in the English National Health Service where the realpolitik is that patients can opt out of data sharing.

  15. A few perspectives of solar physics research in China - current status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxiu; Ding, Mingde; Ji, Haisheng; Deng, Yuanyong; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zhong; Qu, Zhongquan; Wang, Huaning; Xia, Lidong; Yan, Yihua

    2016-07-01

    Solar physics research as an important discipline in astrophysics in China aims at improving the understanding of origin and variation of solar magnetic field and magnetic activity, and founding the basis for forecast of disastrous space weather. The current review is focused on the solar physics research in China in recent three years. Highlights in scientific research in solar magnetism, magnetic activity, coronal plasma, and space weather forecast are briefly summarized. Key advances in instrument development are reported in some necessary details. Future tendency and working direction are considered and discussed.

  16. Review of Current Status and Research Approaches to Nitrogen Pollution in Farmlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Sheng-wei; GAO Wang-sheng; CHEN Yuan-quan; SUI Peng; A Egrinya Eneji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the history, current status, and research approaches to nitrogen pollution were reviewed using systems analysis and deductions. The seriousness of N pollution world-wide was highlighted and recommendations were made to address the situation. A new hypothesis based on phytoremediation, which means the use of plants to directly or indirectly degrade or remove contaminats from soil and water, was proposed.

  17. Gravitational radiation theory. M.A. Thesis - Rice Univ.; [survey of current research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    A survey is presented of current research in the theory of gravitational radiation. The mathematical structure of gravitational radiation is stressed. Furthermore, the radiation problem is treated independently from other problems in gravitation. The development proceeds candidly through three points of view - scalar, rector, and tensor radiation theory - and the corresponding results are stated.

  18. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  19. Current status and progress of research on the management of bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ©2000 National Agricultural Research Organisation. Current status ... Them a in ohj ective of this study was to identify control measures that can reduce the disease on ... practices in controlling root rot was carried out in 1997 for two seasons ...

  20. First Language Transfer in Second Language Writing: An Examination of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Khaled; Nassaji, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    First language (L1) transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA), and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1…

  1. Fusarium mycotoxins: Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the health and economic costs of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, there is a compelling need for improved understanding of these fungi, from across diverse perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit addresses Fusarium mycotoxin...

  2. The emergence and current performance of a health research system: lessons from Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Maarten O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how health research systems (HRS in low-income countries emerge and evolve over time, and how this process relates to their performance. Understanding how HRSs emerge is important for the development of well functioning National Health Research Systems (NHRS. The aim of this study was to assess how the HRS in Guinea Bissau has emerged and evolved over time and how the present system functions. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the emergence and current performance of the HRS, using the NHRS framework. We reviewed documents and carried out 39 in-depth interviews, ranging from health research to policy and practice stakeholders. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Results The research practices in Guinea Bissau led to the emergence of a HRS with both local and international links and strong dependencies on international partners and donors. The post-colonial, volatile and resource-dependent context, changes in donor policies, training of local researchers and nature of the research findings influenced how the HRS evolved. Research priorities have mostly been set by 'expatriate' researchers and focused on understanding and reducing child mortality. Research funding is almost exclusively provided by foreign donors and international agencies. The training of Guinean researchers started in the mid-nineties and has since reinforced the links with the health system, broadened the research agenda and enhanced local use of research. While some studies have made an important contribution to global health, the use of research within Guinea Bissau has been constrained by the weak and donor dependent health system, volatile government, top-down policies of international agencies, and the controversial nature of some of the research findings. Conclusions In Guinea Bissau a de facto 'system' of research has emerged through research practices and co

  3. Statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet:Cluster observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.REME; E.LUCEK

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the flapping motion of the earth’s magnetotail current sheet is one of the most important problems in the magnetotail dynamics.Using Cluster data,we make a statistical research on the motion properties of the magnetotail current sheet of 2001 and 2003.We calculate the velocities of the magnetotail current sheet using new methods and obtain the distribution of the magnetotail current sheet velocities in the X-Y plane in GSE coordinate system.Our results show that although most of the current sheets were propagating toward the tail flanks and those of the exceptions lay in dusk side,which is consistent with previous studies,the proportions of the current sheet which were propagating toward midnight (where |YGSE|=0) were higher than those in previous studies.Motions of the current sheet in the middle area (|YGSE|<8 Re) of the magnetotail are investigated.Relatively high value of the Z component of the velocity further confirms that the middle area of the magnetotail might be a source region for the motion of the current sheets which were propagating towards the tail flanks.According to our case studies,the way the current sheets propagated toward midnight area differs significantly from that toward dusk and dawn side,from which we infer that there might be two different kinds of current sheet motions originated from different sources.The statistical results of this paper may give some clues for further studies on the origin of the flapping motion of the magnetotail current sheet.

  4. Current Researches on the Methods of Diagnosing Sasang Constitution: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Woo Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitution diagnosis has traditionally been conducted by a Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM doctor who examines the external appearance, temperament and various symptoms of an individual and then collectively analyzes this information to determine their own constitutions. However, because this process is subjective and not quantitative, many researchers have been attempting to develop objective and reasonable methods of determining constitutions. In Korea, even though a wide range of research regarding SCM has been conducted, most of the work has not been revealed internationally. So in this review, the authors have searched the Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, as well as other Korean domestic journal databases and Pubmed for research regarding modernized constitution diagnosis methods so to provide the understanding of current research state and outlook for future research.

  5. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed.

  6. The Evolution of Current Research Impact Metrics: From Bibliometrics to Altmetrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joseph S; Kaye, I David; Sebastian, Arjun S; Wagner, Scott C; Morrissey, Patrick B; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-03-23

    The prestige of publication has been based on traditional citation metrics, most commonly journal impact factor. However, the Internet has radically changed the speed, flow, and sharing of medical information. Furthermore, the explosion of social media, along with development of popular professional and scientific websites and blogs, has led to the need for alternative metrics, known as altmetrics, to quantify the wider impact of research. We explore the evolution of current research impact metrics and examine the evolving role of altmetrics in measuring the wider impact of research. We suggest that altmetrics used in research evaluation should be part of an informed peer-review process such as traditional metrics. Moreover, results based on altmetrics must not lead to direct decision making about research, but instead, should be used to assist experts in making decisions. Finally, traditional and alternative metrics should complement, not replace, each other in the peer-review process.

  7. Challenges and opportunities in international molecular cancer prevention research: An ASPO Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and International Cancer Prevention Interest Groups Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplein, Meira; Bostick, Roberd M; Mu, Lina; Ogino, Shuji; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over half of the new cancer cases and almost two-thirds of the cancer deaths in 2012 occurred in low and middle income countries. To discuss the challenges and opportunities to reducing the burden of cancer worldwide, the Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and the International Issues in Cancer Special Interest Groups joined forces to hold a session during the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Preventive Oncology (March 2014, Arlington, Virginia). The session highlighted three topics of particular interest to molecular cancer prevention researchers working internationally, specifically: 1) biomarkers in cancer research; 2) environmental exposures and cancer; and 3) molecular pathological epidemiology. A major factor for successful collaboration illuminated during the discussion was the need for strong, committed, and reliable international partners. A key element of establishing such relationships is to thoroughly involve individual international collaborators in the development of the research question; engaged international collaborators are particularly motivated to champion and shepherd the project through all necessary steps, including issues relating to institutional review boards, political sensitivity, laboratory-based assays, and tumor subtyping. Also essential is allotting time for the building, maintaining, and investing in such relationships so that successful international collaborations may take root and bloom. While there are many challenges inherent to international molecular cancer research, the opportunities for furthering the science and prevention of cancer worldwide are great, particularly at this time of increasing cancer incidence and prevalence in low and middle income countries.

  8. Experimental Research of Harmonic Spectrum of Currents at Traction Drive with PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the significant results of the experimental research of current harmonic spectrum of traction drive with permanent magnet synchronous motor. The experiments were done on a special workplace with a real traction drive for wheel vehicles. Current harmonic spectrum was analyzed by a specialized device on the base of central measuring station. The knowledge of current marked subharmonic components of stator winding is the most significant finding of experiments. The frequencies of these components are given by multiples of frequency of mechanical speeds. The subharmonic components also pass to input DC current of drive. This fact is important in particular from the point of view of legislative requirements to electromagnetic compatibility of drive with railway interlocking devices.

  9. 互联网金融消费者权益保护问题研究%The Research on Internet Financial Consumer Rights and Interests Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋

    2015-01-01

    如何在支持互联网金融创新发展的同时,有效保护互联网金融消费者的合法权益,是一个亟待研究的重要课题。本文在总结互联网金融概念、模式的基础上,深入分析了互联网金融消费者权益受侵害的表现形式和当前互联网金融消费者权益保护面临的困境,提出了完善互联网金融消费者权益保护的政策建议。%It is an important subject to be studied how to support the development of Internet financial innovation, and at the same time, protect the lawful rights and interests of the Internet financial consumers effectively. The paper, on the basis of summarizing the concept and mode of the Internet finance, deeply analyzes the forms of the infraction of the Internet financial consumers’ rights and interests and the current plight of the Internet financial consumers' rights and interests protection. Finally, the paper proposes the policy suggestions on perfecting the protection of the rights and interests of the Internet financial consumers.

  10. Targeting breast cancer through its microenvironment: current status of preclinical and clinical research in finding relevant targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, H H; Gaykema, S B M; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Jalving, M; Brouwers, A H; Lub-de Hooge, M N; van der Vegt, B; Overmoyer, B; de Vries, E G E; Schröder, C P

    2015-03-01

    It is increasingly evident that not only breast cancer cells, but also the tissue embedding these cells: the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role in tumor progression, metastasis formation and treatment sensitivity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of processes by which the microenvironment affects breast cancer, including formation of the metastatic niche, metabolic stimulation, stimulation of tumor cell migration, immune modulation, angiogenesis and matrix remodeling. The number of drugs targeting key factors in these processes is expanding, and the available clinical data is increasing. Therefore current strategies for intervention and prediction of treatment response are outlined. At present, targeting the formation of the metastatic niche and metabolic stimulation by the breast cancer microenvironment, are already showing clinical efficacy. Intervening in the stimulation of tumor cell migration and immune modulation by the microenvironment upcoming fields of great research interest. In contrast, targeting microenvironmental angiogenesis or matrix remodeling appears to be of limited clinical relevance in breast cancer treatment so far. Further research is warranted to optimize intervention strategies and develop predictive tests for the relevance of targeting involved factors within the microenvironment in order to optimally personalize breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The value of value of information: best informing research design and prioritization using current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Karnon, Jon; Willan, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Value of information (VOI) methods have been proposed as a systematic approach to inform optimal research design and prioritization. Four related questions arise that VOI methods could address. (i) Is further research for a health technology assessment (HTA) potentially worthwhile? (ii) Is the cost of a given research design less than its expected value? (iii) What is the optimal research design for an HTA? (iv) How can research funding be best prioritized across alternative HTAs? Following Occam's razor, we consider the usefulness of VOI methods in informing questions 1-4 relative to their simplicity of use. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI) with current information, while simple to calculate, is shown to provide neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to address question 1, given that what EVPI needs to exceed varies with the cost of research design, which can vary from very large down to negligible. Hence, for any given HTA, EVPI does not discriminate, as it can be large and further research not worthwhile or small and further research worthwhile. In contrast, each of questions 1-4 are shown to be fully addressed (necessary and sufficient) where VOI methods are applied to maximize expected value of sample information (EVSI) minus expected costs across designs. In comparing complexity in use of VOI methods, applying the central limit theorem (CLT) simplifies analysis to enable easy estimation of EVSI and optimal overall research design, and has been shown to outperform bootstrapping, particularly with small samples. Consequently, VOI methods applying the CLT to inform optimal overall research design satisfy Occam's razor in both improving decision making and reducing complexity. Furthermore, they enable consideration of relevant decision contexts, including option value and opportunity cost of delay, time, imperfect implementation and optimal design across jurisdictions. More complex VOI methods such as bootstrapping of the expected value of

  12. Research on resistance characteristics of YBCO tape under short-time DC large current impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Yang, Jiabin; Qiu, Qingquan; Zhang, Guomin; Lin, Liangzhen

    2017-06-01

    Research of the resistance characteristics of YBCO tape under short-time DC large current impact is the foundation of the developing DC superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for voltage source converter-based high voltage direct current system (VSC-HVDC), which is one of the valid approaches to solve the problems of renewable energy integration. SFCL can limit DC short-circuit and enhance the interrupting capabilities of DC circuit breakers. In this paper, under short-time DC large current impacts, the resistance features of naked tape of YBCO tape are studied to find the resistance - temperature change rule and the maximum impact current. The influence of insulation for the resistance - temperature characteristics of YBCO tape is studied by comparison tests with naked tape and insulating tape in 77 K. The influence of operating temperature on the tape is also studied under subcooled liquid nitrogen condition. For the current impact security of YBCO tape, the critical current degradation and top temperature are analyzed and worked as judgment standards. The testing results is helpful for in developing SFCL in VSC-HVDC.

  13. Quantification of ultraviolet photon emission from interaction of charged particles in materials of interest in radiation biology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Syed Bilal, E-mail: ahmadsb@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan); McNeill, Fiona E., E-mail: fmcneill@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Prestwich, William V., E-mail: prestwic@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Byun, Soo Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Seymour, Colin, E-mail: seymouc@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E., E-mail: mothers@mcmaster.ca [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    In radiation biology experiments often cells are irradiated using charged particles with the intention that only a specified number of cells are hit by the primary ion track. However, in doing so several other materials such as the cell container and the growth media etc. are also irradiated, and UV radiation emitted from these materials can potentially interact with the cells. We have hypothesized that some “bystander effects” that are thought to be chemically mediated, may be, in fact, a physical effect, where UV is interacting with non-targeted cells. Based upon our hypothesis we quantified the emission of UV from Polypropylene, Mylar, Teflon, and Cellophane which are all commonly used materials in radiation biology experiments. Additionally we measured the NIST standard materials of Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves as these powdered materials are derived from living cells. Protons accelerated up to an energy of 2.2 MeV, in a 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator, were used for irradiation. Beam current was kept to 10 nA, which corresponds to a proton fluence rate of 2.7 × 10{sup 10} protons mm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. All the materials were found to emit light at UV frequencies and intensities that were significant enough to conduct a further investigation for their biological consequences. Mylar and polypropylene are commonly used in radiation induced bystander effect studies and are considered to be non-fluorescent. However our study showed that this is not the case. Significant luminescence observed from the irradiated NIST standard reference materials for Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves verified that the luminescence emission is not restricted only to the polymeric materials that are used to contain cells. It can also occur from ion interactions within the cells as well.

  14. The production of critical theories in Health Systems Research and Education. An epistemological approach to emancipating public research and education from private interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Unger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at offering alternative methodological perspectives in health systems research, to produce critical, theoretical knowledge in domains such as health policy and management of health care, organization of disease control, political economy of health and medical practice.We first examined the reasons to believe that worldwide economic agents have driven publicly funded schools of public health to adopt their preferred policies and to orient their priority research topics. We then studied whether this hidden leadership has also contributed to shape research methodologies, which we contrasted with the epistemological consequences of a quest for intellectual independence, that is, the researcher’s quest to critically understand the state of health systems and generalize results of related action-research. To do so, we applied concepts of what could be named the ‘French School of Critical Sociology’ to qualitative research methodologies in descriptive health systems research. To do so, we applied concepts of what could be named the ‘French School of Critical Sociology’ to qualitative research methodologies in descriptive health systems research.

  15. Evidence-based medicine at the intersection of research interests between academic health sciences librarians and medical educators: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Josephine L; Perry, Gerald Jerry

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries established an Education Research Task Force (ERTF) to plan research addressing research priorities outlined in key Association of American Medical Colleges reports. ERTF members conducted a literature review to describe the state of collaborative research at the intersection of medical education and health sciences librarianship. Analysis of initial results revealed instruction in evidence-based medicine (EBM) was a shared interest and is thus the focus of this review. Searches on EBM teaching programs were conducted, and results were posted to a shared online citation management service. Individual articles were assessed and assigned metadata describing subject matter, scope, and format. Article analysis identified key themes. Most papers were descriptive narratives of curricular development. Evaluation studies were also prominent and often based on student satisfaction or self-reported competency. A smaller number of controlled studies provide evidence of impacts of librarian involvement in EBM instruction. Scholarship of EBM instruction is of common interest between medical educators and health sciences librarians. Coauthorship between the groups and distribution of literature points to a productive collaboration. An emerging literature of controlled studies measuring the impact of cross-disciplinary efforts signals continued progress in the arena of EBM instruction.

  16. Improving performance in golf: current research and implications from a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie Evans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGolf, a global sport enjoyed by people of all ages and abilities, involves relatively long periods of low intensity exercise interspersed with short bursts of high intensity activity. To meet the physical demands of full swing shots and the mental and physical demands of putting and walking the course, it is frequently recommended that golfers undertake golf-specific exercise programs. Biomechanics, motor learning, and motor control research has increased the understanding of the physical requirements of the game, and using this knowledge, exercise programs aimed at improving golf performance have been developed. However, while it is generally accepted that an exercise program can improve a golfer's physical measurements and some golf performance variables, translating the findings from research into clinical practice to optimise an individual golfer's performance remains challenging. This paper discusses how biomechanical and motor control research has informed current practice and discusses how emerging sophisticated tools and research designs may better assist golfers improve their performance.

  17. Current thinking in qualitative research: evidence-based practice, moral philosophies, and political struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Christina; Magasi, Susan; Frank, Gelya

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue on current thinking in qualitative research and occupational therapy and science, the authors focus on the importance of rigorous qualitative research to inform occupational therapy practice. The authors chosen for this special issue reflect a "second generation of qualitative researchers" who are critical, theoretically sophisticated, methodologically productive, and politically relevant to show that working with disabled clients is political work. Three themes emerged across the articles included in this special issue: (1) recognizing and addressing social justice issues; (2) learning from clients' experiences; and (3) critically reframing occupational therapy's role. These themes can inform occupational therapy practice, research, and education to reflect a more client-centered and politically engaging approach. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Creating an interest in research and development as a means of reducing the gap between theory and practice in primary care: an interventional study based on strategic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morténius, Helena

    2014-08-26

    Today, healthcare professionals are faced with the challenge of implementing research results in an optimal way. It is therefore important to create a climate that is conducive to research and development (R&D). For this reason, new strategies are required to enhance healthcare professionals' interest in innovative thinking and R&D. Strategic communication with roots in sociology, psychology and political science was employed as a means of achieving long-term behavioural change. The aim of this study was to describe, follow up and evaluate a primary care intervention based on strategic communication intended to increase healthcare professionals' interest in R&D over time. An interventional cohort study comprising all staff members (N = 1276) in a Swedish primary care area was initiated in 1997 and continued for 12 years. The intention to engage in R&D was measured on two occasions; at 7 and 12 years. Both descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were employed. The results demonstrated that the positive attitude to R&D increased over time, representing a first step towards new thinking and willingness to change work practices for the benefit of the patient. Strategic communication has not been previously employed as a scientific tool to create a long-term interest in R&D within primary care.

  19. Person-centred health care: a critical assessment of current and emerging research approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carmel M; Félix-Bortolotti, Margot

    2014-12-01

    Person-centred health care is prominent in international health care reforms. A shift to understanding and improving personal care at the point of delivery has generated debates about the nature of the person-centred research agenda. This paper purviews research paradigms that influence current person-centred research approaches and traditions that influence knowledge foundations in the field. It presents a synthesis of the emergent approaches and methodologies and highlights gaps between static academic research and the increasing accessibility of evaluation, informatics and big data from health information systems. Paradigms in health services research range from theoretical to atheoretical, including positivist, interpretive, postmodern and pragmatic. Interpretivist (subjective) and positivist (objectivist) paradigms have been historically polarized. Yet, integrative and pragmatic approaches have emerged. Nevertheless, there is a tendency to reductionism, and to reduce personal experiences to metrics in the positivist paradigm. Integrating personalized information into clinical systems is increasingly driven by the pervasive health information technology, which raises many issues about the asymmetry and uncertainty in the flow of information to support personal health journeys. The flux and uncertainty of knowledge between and within paradigmatic or pragmatic approaches highlights the uncertainty and the 'unorder and disorder' in what is known and what it means. Transdisciplinary, complex adaptive systems theory with multi-ontology sense making provides an overarching framework for making sense of the complex dynamics in research progress. A major challenge to current research paradigms is focus on the individualizing of care and enhancing experiences of persons in health settings. There is an urgent need for person-centred research to address this complex process. A transdisciplinary and complex systems approach provides a sense-making framework. © 2014 John

  20. Partitioning and transmutation. Current developments - 2010. A report from the Swedish reference group for PT-research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, Jan (ed.) (Swedish Centre for Nuclear Technology, SKC, Stockholm (Sweden)); Karlsson, Fred (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Pomp, Stephan (Uppsala Univ., Uppsala, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Div. of Applied Nuclear Physics (Sweden)); Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Skarnemark, Gunnar (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Wallenius, Janne; Zakova, Jitka (Reactor Physics Div., Physics Dept., Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Grenthe, Ingemar; Szabo, Zoltan (School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The research and development on methods for partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides in spent nuclear fuel has attracted considerable interest during the last decade. The main objective of P and T is to eliminate or at least substantially reduce the amount of such long-lived radionuclides that has to go to a deep geological repository for final disposal. The objective of current research on partitioning is to find and develop processes suitable for separation of the heavier actinides (and possibly some long-lived fission products) on an industrial scale. The objective of current research on transmutation is to define, investigate and develop facilities that may be suitable for transmutation of the long-lived radionuclides. The research on partitioning has made important progress in recent years. In some cases one has succeeded to separate americium and curium. Many challenges remain however. Within hydrochemistry one has achieved sufficiently good distribution and separation factors. The focus turns now towards development of an operating process. The search for ligands that give sufficiently good extraction and separation will continue but with less intensity. The emphasis will rather be on improving stability against hydrolysis and radiolysis. This may be achieved either by additives to the solvent or by selection of a proper solvent. The development of processes and equipment must be intensified. Pyrochemical research is looking into methods for recovery of uranium and for separating fission products with large neutron cross sections. The objective is to avoid separation of plutonium from other transuranium elements and thus simplify the proliferation issue. The future work is focused on improved selectivity and on technical development. Design of processes and equipment is difficult due to the aggressive properties of the melts and the relatively high temperatures required. The fabrication of fuel for transmutation and the

  1. The Declaration of Helsinki in relation to medical research: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B M

    2012-09-01

    Medical research aims at improving diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic measures and understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of diseases in humans, and their application to improve the quality of life and survival. The subjects involved are exposed to hazards inherent to the experiments. In order to protect the human subjects and to maintain high ethical standards, the World Medical Association had adopted the "Declaration of Helsinki" in 1964. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on the historical and current perspectives on the Declaration of Helsinki in relation to medical research on human subjects.

  2. [Current situation of toxicity classification of Chinese materia medica and its research thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.

  3. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: what has been achieved, current clues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, Temitayo A; McMichael, Amy; Olsen, Elise A

    2014-04-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is an inflammatory type of central scalp hair loss seen primarily in women of African descent. The prevalence is unknown, but may vary from 2.7% to 5.7% and increases with age. This review outlines the history and current beliefs and identifies clues for future research for this enigmatic condition. Despite that the cause of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is unknown, research is ongoing. The role of cytokeratins, androgens, genetics, and various possible sources of chronic inflammation in disease pathogenesis remain to be elucidated.

  4. Current Research and Classroom Practice: Toward More Inclusive Approaches to Literacy Development in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Booth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an exploration of current research and related practice in boys’ literacy development, interprets key findings in the literature, and further explores some of the complex dilemmas and debates related to the ‘gender gap’ – i.e., differences between the achievement of boys and girls in this area. In conclusion, the authors suggest that governments, policy-makers, administrators, teachers and parents all need to closely examine and consider available research-based strategies and classroom interventions that can effectively support both boys and girls in their literacy development. 

  5. Inquiring Minds: Theorizing Children's Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cooper, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Children's interests are a common foundation for early childhood curricula. Yet, little research is available about the fundamental nature of children's interests and analytical ways to recognize and engage with these. Early work on children's interests adopted a psychological perspective and associated interests with activity choices. Recent work…

  6. Mandates, needs, equitable resources, and current research in English language teacher education: The case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Cepik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of English language teacher education (ELTE programs has become a major point of consideration; however, such programmatic evaluations are markedly rare. This study utilizes both numeric and interpretive qualitative data in a blended research design. The study addresses, vis-à-vis current research in related fields: What is the current situation of the Turkish ELTE programs in terms of curriculum strength and faculty resources? How do the program directors and teacher candidates envision the situation of their programs in terms of curriculum strength and faculty resources? Data included 45 ELTE curricula, interviews with 24 program directors and pre-service teachers, documents, and test scores. Findings revealed several significant associations between school type (public/private and rank (low/high and the number of faculty with expertise in critical areas in the field. Qualitative critical evaluations suggest both perceptual matches and mismatches between program directors and teacher candidates regarding programmatic strengths and weaknesses.

  7. Regeneration of tissues of the oral complex: current clinical trends and research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thomas T; Mui, Brennan; Mehrabzadeh, Mahsa; Chea, Yannie; Chaudhry, Zoya; Chaudhry, Kamran; Tran, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative therapy in oral health care is limited by both the body's natural capacity for regeneration and the materials and methods currently available. Research on various aspects of regenerative therapy, such as tissue engineering and stem cell and gene therapy, has produced promising results. Compelling advances, ranging from the discovery and characterization of stem cell populations in oral tissue to the engineering and transplantation of whole tooth structures, could result in exciting new treatment methods for clinicians in the near future. In this review, we discuss the limitations of natural healing and regeneration of various tissues of the oral complex, including teeth, periodontium and salivary glands, and summarize current treatment methods for tissue damage as well as research advances in oral tissue regeneration.

  8. White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TOR-2015-02548 White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and...voltage phenomena where the verification power level is chosen such that the maximum instantaneous operational voltage in the component is excited . In...analysis methods under investigation for multicarrier excitation threshold prediction based on a survey of the research literature. In general, this

  9. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Psychiatric Conditions: A Review of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mariyah; Sreeram, Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Neural-derived exosomes can be used as diagnostic markers to screen for various psychiatric conditions. These intravenously injected exosomes carry the potential to cross the blood brain barrier and deliver miRNA molecules specifically to neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes in the brain, resulting in specific gene knockdown. Here the authors review and discuss the current research on microRNA molecules and the therapeutic roles they may potentially play in treating depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.

  10. Research Progress in Farmer's Land Rights and Interests%农民土地权益问题研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范辉; 刘卫东; 吴泽斌

    2015-01-01

    梳理国内外农民土地权益领域的研究进展,从农民土地权益的界定、受损的表现形式和原因、研究方法、研究视角和对策等6个方面进行了概括。研究结果表明:①学术界对农民土地权益的界定没有达成共识;②从城乡二元土地制度、地权稳定性、地方政府行为监管、土地收益分配制度等方面,对农民土地权益受损的表现形式、原因和对策等进行了探索;③研究方法以规范分析方法为主,还包括计量经济分析、案例分析、定性与定量相结合等方法;④研究视角以宏微观经济学为主,并包含法学、新制度经济学、福利经济学和心理学等学科。总结了已有研究的不足之处,并探讨了今后农民土地权益领域研究发展的方向。%This paper elaborates on the research progress of farmer’s land rights and interests at home and abroad ,and it gives a comprehensive analysis of farmer’s land rights from six aspects ,including definition ,forms and reasons for interests damage ,research methods ,research perspectives and countermeasures .The research findings show that ,① in the academic community ,there has been no consensus about the definition of farmer land rights and interests .② From the aspects of the urban-rural dual land system ,land ownership stability ,local government behavior supervision ,land income distribution system ,the paper explores the forms ,causes and countermeasures of the damaged farmer land rights and interests .③ The normative analysis is adopted as the major research method ,and other methods ,such as econometric analysis ,case analysis and combination of qualitative and quantitative ,are also included .④ Major research perspectives are macro and micro economics ,and other disciplines ,such as law ,new institutional economics ,welfare economics and psychology ,are included .Finally ,the paper summarizes the existing research problems and discusses

  11. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  12. Medical Big Data for Research Use: Current Status and Related Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Koichi Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called "big data." This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data. Aside from these trends, there are numerous projects which collect diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) data to build large-scale databases for research purposes. Following to the ethics guidelines for epidemiologic studies, they collect and analyze anonymized DPC data from cooperating institutions. This communication concentrates on the use of DPC data, and outlines the scale of data currently available for research use. Examples on the use of DPC data will be shown for analysis on the current status of clinical practice from the microscopic perspective and macroscopic analysis of community medical care provision. Additionally, potential for extending studies to long-term outcomes research, limitations and issues related to the use of medical big data will also be discussed.

  13. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Why do we not see the corporate interests of the alcohol industry as clearly as we see those of the tobacco industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2013-04-01

    To compare the current status of global alcohol corporations with tobacco in terms of their role in global governance and to document the process by which this difference has been achieved and the consequences for alcohol control policy. Participant observation in the global political arena, review of industry materials (submissions, publications, conference presentations, websites) and review of published literature formed the basis for the current analysis. Recent events in the global political arena have highlighted the difference in perception of the alcohol and tobacco industries which has allowed alcohol corporations to participate in the global governance arena in a way in which tobacco has not been able. The transnational producers of alcohol have waged a sophisticated and successful campaign during the past three decades, including sponsorship of intergovernmental events, funding of educational initiatives, research, publications and sponsoring sporting and cultural events. A key aspect has been the framing of arguments to undermine perceptions of the extent of alcohol-related harms to health by promoting ideas of a balance of benefits and harms. An emphasis on the heaviest drinkers has been used to promote the erroneous idea that 'moderate' drinkers experience no harm and a goal of alcohol policy should be to ensure they are unaffected by interventions. This leads to highly targeted interventions towards the heaviest drinkers rather than effective regulation of the alcohol market. A sophisticated campaign by global alcohol corporations has promoted them as good corporate citizens and framed arguments with a focus on drinkers rather than the supply of alcohol. This has contributed to acceptance in the global governance arena dealing with policy development and implementation to an extent which is very different from tobacco. This approach, which obscures the contribution supply and marketing make to alcohol-related harm, has also contributed to failure by

  14. Attachment among older adults: current issues and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J M; Cafferty, T P

    2001-09-01

    Although John Bowlby conceptualized attachment theory as applicable across the life span, researchers have been relatively slow to examine attachment phenomena specifically among older adults. The present article reviews the extant research applying attachment theory to older populations; preliminary findings suggest that attachment issues hold particular relevance for older adults, given the increased potential for separation, loss and vulnerability associated with aging. Although many of the studies reviewed are somewhat limited methodologically, the overall pattern of results suggests that attachment patterns are associated with a variety of outcomes in later life (such as adaptation to chronic illness and caregiver burden among family members, reactions to the death of a loved one, and general well-being) in a theoretically consistent manner. The implications of and questions raised by current findings are reviewed, and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Unmanned aircraft systems in wildlife research: Current and future applications of a transformative technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Katherine S.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Brown, Casey L.; Hatfield, Michael; Hanson, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) – also called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones – are an emerging tool that may provide a safer, more cost-effective, and quieter alternative to traditional research methods. We review examples where UAS have been used to document wildlife abundance, behavior, and habitat, and illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this technology with two case studies. We summarize research on behavioral responses of wildlife to UAS, and discuss the need to understand how recreational and commercial applications of this technology could disturb certain species. Currently, the widespread implementation of UAS by scientists is limited by flight range, regulatory frameworks, and a lack of validation. UAS are most effective when used to examine smaller areas close to their launch sites, whereas manned aircraft are recommended for surveying greater distances. The growing demand for UAS in research and industry is driving rapid regulatory and technological progress, which in turn will make them more accessible and effective as analytical tools.

  16. Qualitative ergonomics/human factors research in health care: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; McGuire, Kerry Margaret; Rivera, A Joy

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics. Interviews, focus groups, and observations were the most prevalent forms of data collection. Triangulation and data archiving were the dominant approaches to ensuring rigor. Few studies employed a formal approach to qualitative inquiry. Significant opportunities remain to enhance the use of qualitative research to advance systems thinking within health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. National and International Migration:Reflections on Literature and Some Current Research1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicholas Tapp(Wang Fuwen)

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a review on literature and some current research relevant to na-tional and international migration , and examines the connections between such research in a na-tional context , and the research on international migration .The approaches to migration in migra-tion studies are very complex , and the author suggested that we need to pay attention to all three approaches contrasted by Solinger:the one based on rational calculation , the one based on stress-ing the historico-structural conditions and the one based on social networking analysis .The au-thor also stresses the importance of a network approach taken from the sociology of John Urry in the studies of both national and international migration , and the need to see movement as prima-ry, and productive of place , as much recent anthropological literature has stressed .

  18. Autismo: tratamentos psicofarmacológicos e áreas de interesse para desenvolvimentos futuros Autistic disorder: current psychopharmacological treatments and areas of interest for future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumen Nikolov

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno autista e o grupo de condições relacionadas definidas como transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento são transtornos de neurodesenvolvimento crônicos que começam na infância precoce e afetam um número significativo de crianças e suas famílias. Ainda que as causas e muito da fisiopatologia do transtorno sejam desconhecidas, em anos recentes, vários tratamentos medicamentosos disponíveis têm sido identificados como contendo a promessa de aliviar alguns dos comportamentos mal-adaptativos mais comprometedores associados aos transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento. No entanto, esses tratamentos não enfocam os sintomas nucleares da enfermidade e, geralmente, seus efeitos colaterais excedem os benefícios. Portanto, há uma necessidade substancial de novas medicações que sejam mais seguras e mais eficazes em tratar os sintomas comportamentais do autismo. O objetivo desta revisão é o de destacar as farmacoterapias correntes disponíveis e aquelas emergentes e que tenham potencial de melhorar as opções de tratamento de pacientes com transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento.Autistic disorder and the group of related conditions defined as pervasive developmental disorders are chronic neurodevelopmental disorders starting in early childhood and affecting a significant number of children and families. Although the causes and much of the pathophysiology of the disorder remain unknown, in recent years a number of available medication treatments have been identified as holding promise in alleviating some of the most disabling maladaptive behaviors, associated with pervasive developmental disorders. However these treatments do not address the core symptoms of the disease and oftentimes their side effects outweigh their benefits. Therefore there is substantial need for new medications that are safer and more effective in addressing the behavior symptoms of autism. The aim of this review is to highlight the available current

  19. Needed Research on Interests and Vocational Guidance. A Special Report of the USOE-Sponsored Grant Study: Critical Appraisal of Research in the Personality-Emotions-Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David P.; And Others

    This task group report is one of a series prepared by eminent psychologists who have served as consultants in the U.S.O.E.-sponsored grant study to conduct a Critical Appraisal of the Personality-emotions-Motivation Domain. In order to achieve the goal of identifying important problems and areas for new research and methodological issues related…

  20. Research on public interests and government interests relationship problems in the process of public policy%公共政策过程中的公共利益与政府利益关系问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金梅; 付浩海

    2015-01-01

    公共政策的问题从本质上说是公共利益的问题,而公共利益内部又孕育着政府利益,本文从公共利益与政府利益的相互关系开始分析,进而分析政府利益扩张的根本原因,最后提出了克服政府自利性行为的有效途径。强调政府的根本职责是制定和实施有效的公共政策以实现公共利益,探索在公共政策过程中实现公共利益与政府利益互惠与公正的基本路径,规避不适的政府利益对公共政策效果的影响。%The problem of the public policy is essentially the problem of public interests,and public interests and government interests within breeds,began to analyze the relationship from the public interests and government inter-ests,government interests expansion and root cause analysis,finally puts forward the effective way to overcome the government self benefit behavior.It emphasizes that the fundamental responsibility of the government's public policy formulation and implementation of effective in order to achieve the public interest,to explore the basic way to a-chieve public interests and government interests reciprocity and fairness in the public policy process,influence to a-void discomfort government interests in public policy effect.

  1. Interest and attitudes of patients, cancer physicians, medical students and cancer researchers towards a spectrum of genetic tests relevant to breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoi, Natalie; Lee, Soo-Chin; Hartman, Mikael; Khin, Lay-Wai; Wong, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals towards breast cancer genetic tests that are becoming increasingly available is unexplored in Asians. We surveyed the interest and attitudes of 200 breast cancer patients, 67 cancer physicians, 485 medical students and cancer researchers towards three genetic tests, BRCA1/2 mutation, CYP2D6 genotype and Oncotype DX testing, using hypothetical scenarios. Approximately 60% of patients expressed initial interest in each genetic test, although the majority reversed their decisions once test limitations were conveyed, with <15% maintaining interest in each test. Cancer physicians were most likely to recommend BRCA1/2 mutation testing (73%) and least likely to recommend CYP2D6 genotyping (12%), while patients were more likely to choose Oncotype DX testing (28%) over CYP2D6 (21%) and BRCA1/2 testing (15%). Cost concerns, low educational level and lack of prior awareness of genetic testing were the main barriers against breast cancer genetic testing among Asian patients.

  2. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri, Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B

    2017-01-15

    Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and regulatory issues that deter progress of AR research and development of therapeutics targeting AR and to propose approaches and solutions to these specific problems. This Statement is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on any disease in which AR is observed and/or plays a role. An international multidisciplinary group from within academia, industry, and the National Institutes of Health, with expertise in multimodal approaches to the study of airway structure and function, pulmonary research and clinical practice in obstructive lung disease, and drug discovery platforms was invited to participate in one internet-based and one face-to-face meeting to address the above-stated goals. Although the majority of the analysis related to AR was in asthma, AR in other diseases was also discussed and considered in the recommendations. A literature search of PubMed was performed to support conclusions. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Multiple conceptual, logistical, economic, and regulatory deterrents were identified that limit the performance of AR research and impede accelerated, intensive development of AR-focused therapeutics. Complementary solutions that leverage expertise of academia and industry were proposed to address them. To date, numerous factors related to the intrinsic difficulty in performing AR research, and economic forces that are disincentives for the pursuit of AR treatments, have thwarted the ability to understand AR pathology and mechanisms and to address it clinically. This ATS Research Statement identifies potential solutions for each of these factors and emphasizes the importance of educating the global research community as to the

  3. Research on the Financial Products and their Influence on Interest Rate Liberalization%理财产品与利率市场化效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    容玲

    2012-01-01

    本文运用SPSS逐步回归法做计量模型分析了储蓄存款转为理财产品的转化率,并理论剖析了理财产品的特征及其对存款替代效应的影响因素.研究得出结论:理财投资对储蓄存款的替代效应较大,对金融机构绕过存款利率上限管制、推进利率市场化进程具有重要意义.作为主导利率市场化改革的人民银行,应规范理财产品业务运营管理,加快推进市场化产品的研发和推广,在政策透明的前提下推动金融深化.%In this essay, an econometrical analysis is conducted to calculate the percentage of savings deposit converted to financial products investment using stepwise regression method on SPSS. The essay also discusses theoretically the characteristics of financing products and the influencing factors on the substitution effect of financing products for savings deposit. Finally, it is concluded that the financing products have a strong substitution effect on savings deposit and are of great significance for the financial institutions to circumvent the deposit interest rate caps and push forward the process of interest rate liberalization. Consequently, the People' s Bank of China, which guides China' s reform towards market-driven interest rates, shall without any doubt regulate the financing products market and speed up the research, development and popularization of investment vehicles embedded with market-driven interest rates. Such efforts are expected to promote financial deepening on the premise of transparent policies.

  4. Current concept in neural regeneration research: NSCs isolation, characterization and transplantation in various neurodegenerative diseases and stroke: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K. Vishwakarma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years, an impressive amount of data has been generated regarding the basic in vitro and in vivo biology of neural stem cells (NSCs and there is much far hope for the success in cell replacement therapies for several human neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. The discovery of adult neurogenesis (the endogenous production of new neurons in the mammalian brain more than 40 years ago has resulted in a wealth of knowledge about stem cells biology in neuroscience research. Various studies have done in search of a suitable source for NSCs which could be used in animal models to understand the basic and transplantation biology before treating to human. The difficulties in isolating pure population of NSCs limit the study of neural stem behavior and factors that regulate them. Several studies on human fetal brain and spinal cord derived NSCs in animal models have shown some interesting results for cell replacement therapies in many neurodegenerative diseases and stroke models. Also the methods and conditions used for in vitro culture of these cells provide an important base for their applicability and specificity in a definite target of the disease. Various important developments and modifications have been made in stem cells research which is needed to be more specified and enrolment in clinical studies using advanced approaches. This review explains about the current perspectives and suitable sources for NSCs isolation, characterization, in vitro proliferation and their use in cell replacement therapies for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases and strokes.

  5. Using ASM Podcasts to Excite Undergraduate Students about Current Microbiological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey E. Lettini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technology is often used as a mechanism to engage students in and out of the classroom and can be used to increase critical thinking skills. Podcasts are an excellent way to introduce students to current topics and research in microbiology. The American Society for Microbiology (ASM produces three podcasts that are microbiologically focused: This Week in Microbiology (TWiM, This Week in Parasitology (TWiP, and This Week in Virology (TWiV. These podcasts are usually presented in a manner similar to a journal club, as the presenters regularly invite guests to discuss current research papers. Since students often find reading scientific literature difficult and get bogged down in the details rather than seeing the over-arching purpose of a paper, these podcasts have been used in a General Microbiology course to introduce recent research articles. The students were first assigned an original research article to read and review, and they were asked to generate questions pertaining to things they did not understand. Next, students listened to the corresponding podcast that discussed the article and used it to answer their questions. This was followed by a classroom discussion of the article and the podcast. The ASM podcast helped to demystify original research by providing details of the experimental design and presentation of the results in a language that is more casual and relatable. Students demonstrated greater critical thinking and comprehension of microbiology literature after listening to the podcast. This activity can be used in a variety of courses in the biology curriculum.

  6. Current Realities and Future Possibilities: Language and science literacy—empowering research and informing instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Treagust, David F.

    2006-02-01

    In this final article, we briefly review and synthesize the science and language research and practice that arose from the current literature and presentations at an international conference, referred to as the first “Island Conference”. We add to the synthesis of the articles the conference deliberations and on-going discussions of the field and also offer our views as to how such contributions can take place. These central issues—the definition of science literacy; the models of learning, discourse, reading, and writing and their underlying pedagogical assumptions; the roles of discourse in doing, teaching, and learning science; and the demands on teacher education and professional development in the current reforms in language and science education—provide points of departure for discussion of four possible new considerations to research in this field of endeavour that could contribute to a broader and productive scholarship and deeper and enriched understanding of both teaching and learning. These considerations, each from well-established fields of research literature, are the need to develop support for a contemporary view of science literacy, the role of metacognition in science learning generally, the role of multiple representations in knowledge building and science literacy, and the need for more focused teacher education and professional development programmes.

  7. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Garg, Sourabh; Adarme-Vega, Tania Catalina; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Ghafor, Wael Abdul; Tannock, Simon; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-01-24

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO₂ extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research.

  8. Radiology Research in Quality and Safety: Current Trends and Future Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmont, Matthew E; Itri, Jason N; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Mankowski Gettle, Lori; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Scali, Elena P; Winokur, Ronald S; Probyn, Linda; Kung, Justin W; Bakow, Eric; Kadom, Nadja

    2017-03-01

    Promoting quality and safety research is now essential for radiology as reimbursement is increasingly tied to measures of quality, patient safety, efficiency, and appropriateness of imaging. This article provides an overview of key features necessary to promote successful quality improvement efforts in radiology. Emphasis is given to current trends and future opportunities for directing research. Establishing and maintaining a culture of safety is paramount to organizations wishing to improve patient care. The correct culture must be in place to support quality initiatives and create accountability for patient care. Focused educational curricula are necessary to teach quality and safety-related skills and behaviors to trainees, staff members, and physicians. The increasingly complex healthcare landscape requires that organizations build effective data infrastructures to support quality and safety research. Incident reporting systems designed specifically for medical imaging will benefit quality improvement initiatives by identifying and learning from system errors, enhancing knowledge about safety, and creating safer systems through the implementation of standardized practices and standards. Finally, validated performance measures must be developed to accurately reflect the value of the care we provide for our patients and referring providers. Common metrics used in radiology are reviewed with focus on current and future opportunities for investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards Current Profile Control in ITER: Potential Approaches and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, E.; Barton, J. E.; Wehner, W. P.

    2014-10-01

    Many challenging plasma control problems still need to be addressed in order for the ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) to be able to successfully achieve the ITER project goals. For instance, setting up a suitable toroidal current density profile is key for one possible advanced scenario characterized by noninductive sustainment of the plasma current and steady-state operation. The nonlinearity and high dimensionality exhibited by the plasma demand a model-based current-profile control synthesis procedure that can accommodate this complexity through embedding the known physics within the design. The development of a model capturing the dynamics of the plasma relevant for control design enables not only the design of feedback controllers for regulation or tracking but also the design of optimal feedforward controllers for a systematic model-based approach to scenario planning, the design of state estimators for a reliable real-time reconstruction of the plasma internal profiles based on limited and noisy diagnostics, and the development of a fast predictive simulation code for closed-loop performance evaluation before implementation. Progress towards control-oriented modeling of the current profile evolution and associated control design has been reported following both data-driven and first-principles-driven approaches. An overview of these two approaches will be provided, as well as a discussion on research needs associated with each one of the model applications described above. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0001334 and DE-SC0010661.

  10. Large-Eddy Simulation: Current Capabilities, Recommended Practices, and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Rizzetta, Donald P.; Fureby, Christer

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an activity by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Working Group of the AIAA Fluid Dynamics Technical Committee to (1) address the current capabilities of LES, (2) outline recommended practices and key considerations for using LES, and (3) identify future research needs to advance the capabilities and reliability of LES for analysis of turbulent flows. To address the current capabilities and future needs, a survey comprised of eleven questions was posed to LES Working Group members to assemble a broad range of perspectives on important topics related to LES. The responses to these survey questions are summarized with the intent not to be a comprehensive dictate on LES, but rather the perspective of one group on some important issues. A list of recommended practices is also provided, which does not treat all aspects of a LES, but provides guidance on some of the key areas that should be considered.

  11. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  12. An Overview of Current Capabilities and Research Activities in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Smith, Nancy M.; Palmer, Everett; Callantine, Todd; Lee, Paul; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeff; Martin, Lynne; Brasil, Connie; Cabrall, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames conducts research to provide a better understanding of roles, responsibilities, and requirements for human operators and automation in future air traffic management (ATM) systems. The research encompasses developing, evaluating, and integrating operational concepts and technologies for near-, mid-, and far-term air traffic operations. Current research threads include efficient arrival operations, function allocation in separation assurance and efficient airspace and trajectory management. The AOL has developed powerful air traffic simulation capabilities, most notably the Multi Aircraft Control System (MACS) that is used for many air traffic control simulations at NASA and its partners in government, academia and industry. Several additional NASA technologies have been integrated with the AOL's primary simulation capabilities where appropriate. Using this environment, large and small-scale system-level evaluations can be conducted to help make near-term improvements and transition NASA technologies to the FAA, such as the technologies developed under NASA's Air Traffic Management Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). The AOL's rapid prototyping and flexible simulation capabilities have proven a highly effective environment to progress the initiation of trajectory-based operations and support the mid-term implementation of NextGen. Fundamental questions about accuracy requirements have been investigated as well as realworld problems on how to improve operations in some of the most complex airspaces in the US. This includes using advanced trajectory-based operations and prototype tools for coordinating arrivals to converging runways at Newark airport and coordinating departures and arrivals in the San Francisco and the New York metro areas. Looking beyond NextGen, the AOL has started exploring hybrid human/automation control strategies as well as highly autonomous operations in the air traffic control domain. Initial results

  13. Third-generation biofuels: current and future research on microalgal lipid biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Beisson Yonghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One pressing issue faced by modern societies is to develop renewable energy for transportation. Microalgal biomass offers an attractive solution due to its high (annual surface biomass productivity, efficient conversion of solar energy into chemical energy and the ability to grow on non-agricultural land. Despite these considerable advantages, microalgal biofuels are not yet commercially sustainable. Major challenges lie in improving both cultivation technologies and microalgal strains. A microalgal crop species is yet to emerge. In this review, we focus on researches aiming at understanding and harnessing lipid metabolism in microalgae in view of producing lipid-based biofuels such as biodiesel. Current biotechnological challenges and key progresses made in the development of algal models, genetic tools and lipid metabolic engineering strategies are reviewed. Possible future research directions to increase oil yields in microalgae are also highlighted.

  14. First language transfer in second language writing: An examination of current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Karim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available First language (L1 transfer has been a key issue in the field of applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA, and language pedagogy for almost a century. Its importance, however, has been re-evaluated several times within the last few decades. The aim of this paper is to examine current research that has investigated the role of L1 transfer in second language (L2 writing. The paper begins by discussing the different views of L1 transfer and how they have changed over time and then reviews some of the major studies that have examined the role of L1 transfer both as a learning tool and as a communicative strategy in L2 writing. The paper concludes with a number of suggestions for L2 writing instruction and future research.

  15. Anniversary Article--Interactional Feedback in Second Language Teaching and Learning: A Synthesis and Analysis of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The role of interactional feedback has long been of interest to both second language acquisition researchers and teachers and has continued to be the object of intensive empirical and theoretical inquiry. In this article, I provide a synthesis and analysis of recent research and developments in this area and their contributions to second language…

  16. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs in Tobacco Control and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Frank T; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Folan, Patricia; Latzka, Karen; Munzer, Alfred; Neptune, Enid; Pakhale, Smita; Sachs, David P L; Samet, Jonathan; Upson, Dona; White, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Since the mid-20th century, the scientific community has substantially improved its understanding of the worldwide tobacco epidemic. Although significant progress has been made, the sheer enormity and scope of the global problem put it on track to take a billion lives this century. Curbing the epidemic will require maximizing the impact of proven tools as well as the development of new, breakthrough methods to help interrupt the spread of nicotine addiction and reduce the downstream morbidity. Members of the Tobacco Action Committee of the American Thoracic Society queried bibliographic databases, including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Collaborative, to identify primary sources and reviews relevant to the epidemic. Exploded search terms were used to identify evidence, including tobacco, addiction, smoking, cigarettes, nicotine, and smoking cessation. Evidence was consolidated into three thematic areas: (1) determinants of risk, (2) maternal-fetal exposure, and (3) current tobacco users. Expert panel consensus regarding current gaps in understanding and recommendations for future research priorities was generated through iterative discussion. Although much has been accomplished, significant gaps in understanding remain. Implementation often lags well behind insight. This report identifies a number of investigative opportunities for significantly reducing the toll of tobacco use, including: (1) the need for novel, nonlinear models of population-based disease control; (2) refinement of "real-world" models of clinical intervention in trial design; and (3) understanding of mechanisms by which intrauterine smoke exposure may lead to persistent, tobacco-related chronic disease. In the coming era of tobacco research, pooled talent from multiple disciplines will be required to further illuminate the complex social, environmental and biological codeterminants of tobacco dependence.

  17. Chemical of current interest--benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, W L

    1987-03-01

    Benzene is one of the world's major commodity chemicals. It is derived from petroleum and coal and is used both as a solvent and as a starting material in chemical syntheses. The numerous industrial uses of benzene over the last century need not be recounted here, but the most recent addition to the list of uses of benzene is as a component in a mixture of aromatic compounds added to gasoline for the purpose of replacing lead compounds as anti-knock ingredients. The best known and longest recognized toxic effect of benzene is the depression of bone marrow function seen in occupationally exposed individuals. These people have been found to display anemia, leucopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia. When pancytopenia, i.e., the simultaneous depression of all three cell types, occurs and is accompanied by bone marrow necrosis, the syndrome is called aplastic anemia. In addition to observing this decrease in humans and relating it to benzene exposure, it has been possible to establish animal models which mimic the human disease. The result has been considerable scientific investigation into the mechanism of benzene toxicity. Although the association between benzene exposure and aplastic anemia has been recognized and accepted throughout most of this century, it is only recently that leukemia, particularly of the acute myelogenous type, has been related to benzene. The acceptance of benzene as an etiological agent in aplastic anemia in large measure derives from our ability to reproduce the disease in most animals treated with sufficiently high doses of benzene over the necessary time period. Unfortunately, despite extensive efforts in several laboratories, it has not been possible to establish a reproducible, reliable model for the study of benzene-induced leukemia. The recent demonstration that several animals exposed to benzene either by inhalation or in the drinking water during studies by Drs. B. Goldstein and C. Maltoni suggests that such a model may be forthcoming. Nevertheless, at this time it is not clear whether bone marrow damage of the type that leads to aplastic anemia is required for the development of leukemia. Most studies of benzene toxicity have involved dosing animals with benzene either by inhalation or by injection, using high doses to ensure a toxic response. Very few studies have concentrated on the oral route of administration and none have concentrated on administering benzene by mouth at the low doses occasionally detected in drinking water.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  18. 基于前意识的情趣化产品设计研究%Research on Taste-and-interest-oriented Product Design Based on Preconsciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潜铁宇; 熊炎

    2012-01-01

    以前意识在产品设计中的作用为启示,分析了根据前意识所设计的情趣化产品设计,并结合日常生活中的典型案例,设计中的形态性质,论述了前意识在产品设计中的价值。进而分析了人们对带有前意识的情趣化产品在现今产品设计中的潜在市场。在此基础上,提出了探索人的前意识可以增加人们对此产品的认知程度和拥有欲望,大大提高产品设计中的新颖性和实用性。%Taking the action of pre-consciousness in product design as enlightenment,it analyzed the taste-and-interest-oriented product design in light of pre-consciousness.Combined with typical cases of daily life,the value of using pre-consciousness design is described.Accordingly,people requirement to preconscious taste-and-interest-oriented products in the current potential market is further analyzed.On this basis,the exploration of human pre-consciousness is proposed to increase people's cognize and desire and greatly improve product design novelty and practicality.

  19. Wi-Fi and health: review of current status of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Moulder, John E

    2013-12-01

    This review summarizes the current state of research on possible health effects of Wi-Fi (a commercial name for IEEE 802.11-compliant wireless networking). In response to public concerns about health effects of Wi-Fi and wireless networks and calls by government agencies for research on possible health and safety issues with the technology, a considerable amount of technology-specific research has been completed. A series of high quality engineering studies have provided a good, but not complete, understanding of the levels of radiofrequency (RF) exposure to individuals from Wi-Fi. The limited number of technology-specific bioeffects studies done to date are very mixed in terms of quality and outcome. Unequivocally, the RF exposures from Wi-Fi and wireless networks are far below U.S. and international exposure limits for RF energy. While several studies report biological effects due to Wi-Fi-type exposures, technical limitations prevent drawing conclusions from them about possible health risks of the technology. The review concludes with suggestions for future research on the topic.

  20. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, A; Sutter, G

    2017-01-01

    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology.