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Sample records for current proton linac

  1. A High Current Proton Linac with 352 MHz SC Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Pagani, C; Pierini, P

    1996-01-01

    A proposal for a 10-120 mA proton linac employing superconducting beta-graded, CERN type, four cell cavities at 352 MHz is presented. The high energy part (100 MeV-1 GeV) of the machine is split in three beta-graded sections, and transverse focusing is provided via a periodic doublet array. All the parameters, like power in the couplers and accelerating fields in the cavities, are within the state of the art, achieved in operating machines. A first stage of operation at 30 mA beam current is proposed, while the upgrade of the machine to 120 mA operation can be obtained increasing the number of klystrons and couplers per cavity. The additional coupler ports, up to four, will be integrated in the cavity design. Preliminary calculations indicate that beam transport is feasible, given the wide aperture of the 352 MHz structures. A capital cost of less than 100 M$ at 10 mA, reaching up to 280 M$ for the 120 mA extension, has been estimated for the superconducting high energy section (100 MeV-1 GeV). The high effic...

  2. Study on design of proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang

    2000-01-01

    Two important directions in the development of proton linacs are high-current proton linacs (mainly applied in nuclear power field) and compact proton linacs (for proton therapy). There are some common characteristics in them: (1) Employment of the novel accelerating structures, which are combination and evolution of the conventional ones; (2) Accelerating beam with small emittance; (3) Requirement for high reliability. The construction of the former is, however, much more difficult because it still needs low beam lose rate and as high power transformation efficiency as possible. Some important problems in the design of these accelerators are discussed and some schemes designed are presented

  3. The FAIR proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, O.

    2015-01-01

    FAIR - the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe - constructed at GSI in Darmstadt comprises an international centre of heavy ion accelerators that will drive heavy ion and antimatter research. FAIR will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities, allowing a large variety of fore-front research in physics and applied science. FAIR will deliver antiproton and ion beams of unprecedented intensities and qualities. The main part of the FAIR facility is a sophisticated accelerator system, which delivers beams to different experiments of the FAIR experimental collaborations - APPA, NuSTAR, CBM and PANDA - in parallel. Modern H-type cavities offer highest shunt impedances of resonant structures of heavy ion linacs at low beam energies < 20 MeV/u and enable the acceleration of intense proton and ion beams. One example is the interdigital H-type structure. The crossed-bar H-cavities extend these properties to high energies even beyond 100 MeV/u. Compared to conventional Alvarez cavities, these crossed-bar (CH) cavities feature much higher shunt impedance at low energies. The design of the proton linac is based on those cavities

  4. High current induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge

  5. Microwave proton source development for a high-current linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, J.; Bolme, G.; Geisik, C.

    1995-01-01

    Powerful CW proton linear accelerators (100-mA at 0.5--1.0 GeV) are being proposed for spallation neutron-source applications. A 75-keV, 110-mA dc proton injector using a microwave ion source is being tested for these applications. It has achieved 80-keV, 110-mA hydrogen-ion-beam operation. Video and dc beam-current toroid diagnostics are operational, and an EPICS control system is also operational on the 75-keV injector. A technical base development program has also been carried out on a 50-keV injector obtained from Chalk River Laboratories, and it includes low-energy beam transport studies, ion source lifetime tests, and proton-fraction enhancement studies. Technical base results and the present status of the 75-keV injector will be presented

  6. Preliminary design of a dedicated proton therapy linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Crandall, K.R.; Potter, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design has been completed for a low current, compact proton linac dedicated to cancer therapy. A 3 GHz side-coupled structure accelerates the beam from a 70 MeV drift tube linac using commercially available S-band rf power systems and accelerating cavities. This significantly reduces the linac cost and allows incremental energies up to 250 MeV. The short beam pulse width and high repetition rate make the linac similar to the high energy electron linacs now used for cancer therapy, yet produce a proton flux sufficient for treatment of large tumors. The high pulse repetition rate permits raster scanning, and the small output beam size and emittance result in a compact isocentric gantry design. Such a linac will reduce the facility and operating costs for a dedicated cancer therapy system

  7. Application of RF Superconductivity to High-Current Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, the authors initiated a development program in Los Alamos for high-current superconducting proton-linac technology to build prototypes components of this linac to demonstrate the feasibility. The authors are building 700-MHz niobium cavities with elliptical shapes, as well as power couplers to transfer high RF power to these cavities. The cavities and power couplers will be integrated in cryostats as linac cryomodules. In this paper, they describe the linac design and the status of the development program

  8. HOM Dampers or not in Superconducting RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  9. HOM Dampers or not in SUPERCONDUCTING RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  10. High gradient linac for proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benedetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proposed for the first time almost 30 years ago, the research on radio frequency linacs for hadron therapy experienced a sparkling interest in the past decade. The different projects found a common ground on a relatively high rf operating frequency of 3 GHz, taking advantage of the availability of affordable and reliable commercial klystrons at this frequency. This article presents for the first time the design of a proton therapy linac, called TULIP all-linac, from the source up to 230 MeV. In the first part, we will review the rationale of linacs for hadron therapy. We then divided this paper in two main sections: first, we will discuss the rf design of the different accelerating structures that compose TULIP; second, we will present the beam dynamics design of the different linac sections.

  11. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-01-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented

  12. Focussing magnets for proton Linac of ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Sanjay; Mahapatra, U.; Singh, Pitamber; Choudhury, R.K.; Goel, Priyanshu; Verma, Vishnu; Bhattacharya, S.; Srivastava, G.P.; Kailas, S.; Sahni, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    A linear accelerator comprising of Radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) and drift tube linac (DTL) is being developed by BARC. The Alvarez type post-coupled cw DTL accelerates protons from an energy of 3 MeV to 20 MeV. The drift tube linac is excited in TM010 mode, wherein the particles are accelerated by longitudinal electric fields at the gap crossings between drift tubes. The particles are subjected to transverse RF defocusing forces at the gap crossings due to the increasing electric fields in the gap. The transverse defocusing is corrected by housing magnetic quadrupole focussing lenses inside the drift tubes. The permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) are placed inside the hermetically sealed drift tubes and provide a constant magnetic field gradient in the beam aperture. This paper discusses various aspects of magnetic design, selection of magnetic materials and the engineering development involved in the prototype development of these drift tubes for proton Linac. (author)

  13. Range of Possible Beam Current in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Linac4 is a new accelerator under construction at CERN. It is designed to accelerate H- ions to 160MeV, for injection into the existing Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). It is also the front-end of the SPL Linac, a high energy proton driver that will reach the energy of 5GeV. The Linac baseline design has been done for a nominal beam peak current of 70mA but it will certainly have to deal with different currents. 132 out of 155 quadrupoles in the Linac are permanent magnets, this choice of using PMQ having fixed gradient, mainly in the DTL and in the CCDTL may then entail issues concerning the beam transverse matching and quality from current different from the nominal one. In this paper, we present the beam dynamics performances in Linac4 obtained for different currents.

  14. Proton induction linacs as high-intensity neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Hoyer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induction linacs are explored as high intensity neutron sources. The induction linac - concept, properties, experience with electrons, and possibilities - and its limitations for accelerating ions are reviewed. A number of proton induction linac designs are examined with the LIACEP program and general conclusions are given. Results suggest that a proton induction accelerator of the lowest voltage, consistent with good neutron flux, is preferred and could well be cost competitive with the usual rf linac/storage ring designs. (orig.)

  15. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  16. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  17. High duty factor plasma generator for CERN's Superconducting Proton Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Kronberger, M; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, J-M; Küchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-02-01

    CERN's Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN's PS-Booster. Its ion source is a noncesiated rf driven H(-) volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. It consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H(-) plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the required heat dissipation and maintains the original functionality. Materials with higher thermal conductivity are selected and, wherever possible, thermal barriers resulting from low pressure contacts are removed by brazing metals on insulators. The AlN plasma chamber cooling circuit is inspired from the approach chosen for the cesiated high duty factor rf H(-) source operating at SNS.

  18. Proton linac for hospital-based fast neutron therapy and radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, A.J.; Hendrickson, F.R.; Swenson, D.A.; Winje, R.A.; Young, D.E.

    1989-09-01

    Recent developments in linac technology have led to the design of a hospital-based proton linac for fast neutron therapy. The 180 microamp average current allows beam to be diverted for radioisotope production during treatments while maintaining an acceptable dose rate. During dedicated operation, dose rates greater than 280 neutron rads per minute are achievable at depth, DMAX = 1.6 cm with source to axis distance, SAD = 190 cm. Maximum machine energy is 70 MeV and several intermediate energies are available for optimizing production of isotopes for Positron Emission Tomography and other medical applications. The linac can be used to produce a horizontal or a gantry can be added to the downstream end of the linac for conventional patient positioning. The 70 MeV protons can also be used for proton therapy for ocular melanomas. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Simulation studies of the LAMPF proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, R.W.; Gray, E.R.; Rybarcyk, L.J.; Wangler, T.P.

    1995-01-01

    The LAMPF accelerator consists of two 0.75-MeV injectors, one for H + and the other for H - , a separate low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line for each beam species, a 0.75 to 100-MeV drift-tube linac (DTL) operating at 201.25-MHz, a 100-MeV transition region (TR), and a 100 to 800-MeV side-coupled linac (SCL) operating at 805-MHz. Each LEBT line consists of a series of quadrupoles to transport and transversely match the beam. The LEBT also contains a prebuncher, a main buncher, and an electrostatic deflector. The deflector is used to limit the fraction of a macropulse which is seen by the beam diagnostics throughout the linac. The DTL consists of four rf tanks and uses singlet FODO transverse focusing. The focusing period is doubled in the last two tanks by placing a quadrupole only in every other drift-tube. Doublet FDO transverse focusing is used in the SCL. The TR consists of separate transport lines for the H + and H - beams. The pathlengths for the two beams differ, by introducing bends, so as to delay arrival of one beam relative to the other and thereby produce the desired macropulse time structure. Peak beam currents typically range from 12 to 18-mA for varying macropulse lengths which give an average beam current of 1-mA. The number of particles per bunch is of the order 10 8 . The work presented here is an extension of previous work. The authors have attempted to do a more complete simulation by including modeling of the LEBT. No measurements of the longitudinal structure of the beam, except phase-scans, are performed at LAMPF. The authors show that, based on simulation results, the primary causes of beam spill are inefficient longitudinal capture and the lack of longitudinal matching. Measurements to support these claims are not presently made at LAMPF. However, agreement between measurement and simulation for the transverse beam properties and transmissions serve to benchmark the simulations

  20. Application of superconductivity to intense proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrichs, H.

    1996-01-01

    Three examples of proposed superconducting linacs for intense particle beams are presented, and in two cases compared to normal conducting counterparts. Advantages and disadvantages of both types are discussed. Suggestions for future developments are presented. Finally a comparison of estimated operational costs of the normal and the superconducting linac for the ESS is given. (R.P.)

  1. Proton linacs for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, A.J.

    1993-08-01

    Recent advances in the ability to deliver boron-containing drugs to brain tumors have generated interest in ∼4 MeV linacs as sources of epithermal neutrons for radiation therapy. In addition, fast neutron therapy facilities have been studying methods to moderate their beams to take advantage of the high cross section for epithermal neutrons on boron-10. This paper describes the technical issues involved in each approach and presents the motivation for undertaking such studies using the Fermilab linac. the problems which must be solved before therapy can begin are outlined. Status of preparatory work and results of preliminary measurements are presented

  2. Dark currents for CEBAF linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunn, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    Continuing on our numerical study of field emitted electrons from a superconducting CEBAF cavity we have identified all possible emission sites, magnitudes, and the energy profile of dark currents expected at CEBAF under nominal operating conditions. We find that most electrons do not survive beyond a single cryomodule which includes eight 5-cell superconducting cavities. However, some electrons can be accelerated through many cryomodules, ending up with an energy close to 100 MeV. However, no field emitted electrons can be recirculated along with an electron beam generated at the gun, due to the limited energy acceptance of CEBAF recirculation arcs. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. Reduction of losses in linacs for protons or heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is necessary to minimize the beam losses in linacs for high average currents in order to avoid serious problems due to radiation damage, dissipation and radio activation of the accelerator structure. A large part of the losses in existing linacs is due to incomplete bunching of the injected beam. Proposed improvements generally appear to be deficient in one or more respects if applied to linacs with conventional frequencies, injection energies and current densities. By preceding the linac proper with an accelerating structure and an energy analyzer, it becomes possible to separate the particles that remained outside the buckets from those that are inside so that they can be dumped in a controlled manner

  4. Klystron High Power Operation for KOMAC 100-MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Seong-Gu; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) accelerator facility has a 100-MeV proton linac, five beam lines for 20-MeV beam utilization, and another five beam lines for 100-MeV beam utilization. The 100-MeV linac consists of a 50-keV proton injector based on a microwave ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ with a four-vane structure, and a 100-MeV DTL. Nine sets of 1MW klystrons have been operated for the 100-MeV proton linac. The klystron filament heating time was approximately 5700 hours in 2014, and RF operation time was 2863.4 hours. During the high power operation of the klystron, unstable RF waveforms appeared at the klystron output, and we have checked and performed cavity frequency adjustments, magnet and heater current, reflection from a circulator, klystron test without a circulator, and the frequency spectrum measurement. Nine sets of the klystrons have been operated for the KOMAC 100-MeV proton linac. The klystron filament heating time was 5700 hours and RF operation time was 2863.4 hours during the operation in 2014. Some klystrons have unstable RF waveforms at specific power level. We have checked and tested the cavity frequency adjustment, reflection from a circulator, high power test without a circulator, and frequency spectrum at the unstable RF.

  5. Wall current monitor for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Kenichi; Yamada, Kouji; Yokoyama, Minoru

    1994-06-01

    A fast rise time, broad band width and wide dynamic range wall current monitor was developed for SPring-8 linac. The performances are a rise time of ∼250ps, an effective impedance of 1.4Ω (output of ∼1.4V/A) and a bandwidth of 18kHz-2GHz. From a result of examination using 40ns electron beam, a significant change of effective impedance was not observed when a peak current was changed up to 12A or when a beam was moved by 8mm in a vacuum pipe. A circuit model that includes a core inductor loop was constructed. Using this model effective impedance and band width were calculated and compared to measured ones. They agreed very well except one part. In consequence the mechanism of wall current monitor can be explained by means of this model. (author)

  6. Linac4 45 keV Proton Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Hein, L M; Lallement, J-B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R; Posocco, P A

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton complex. Commissioning of the low energy part - comprising the H - source, a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport line (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) - will start in fall 2012 on a dedicated test stand installation. In preparation to this, preliminary measurements were taken using a 45 keV proton source and a temporary LEBT setup, with the aim of characterising the output beam by comparison with the predictions of simulations. At the same time this allowed a first verification of the functionalities of diagnostics instrumentation and acquisition software tools. Measurements of beam profile, emittance and intensity were taken in three different setups: right after the source, after the first and after the second LEBT solenoids respectively. Particle distributions were reconstructed from emittance scan...

  7. Design of RF structures for a superconducting proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main components of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) programme in India is a 1 GeV, high intensity CW proton accelerator that will be superconducting after the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), i.e. after 3 MeV. The superconducting linac will consist of various superconducting structures like Half Wave Resonators, Spoke Resonators and elliptical cavities, operating at RF frequencies of 162.5 MHz, 325 MHz and 650 MHz. The paper will discuss the optimization of the electromagnetic design of the various superconducting structures. (author)

  8. High duty factor Plasma Generator for CERN’s Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, JM; Kuchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN’s PS-Booster. Its ion source is a non-cesiated RF driven H- volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, it consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV Synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H- during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H- plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the...

  9. Development of an Eddy Current Septum for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Goddard, B; Ueda, A; Weterings, W

    2008-01-01

    A linear accelerator (linac) is the first stage of the CERN accelerator complex. The linac defines the beam quality for subsequent stages of acceleration and the reliability has to be high as a fault of the linac shuts down all other machines. The existing linacs at CERN were designed 30 or more years ago: recent upgrades allowed the linacs to reach LHC requirements but also showed that they are at the limit of their brightness and intensity capabilities. A replacement Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) has been proposed; the initial part of the SPL is termed LINAC4. The LINAC4 injection bump would be made up of a set of four pulsed dipole magnets; the first of these magnets (BS1) must act as a septum with a thin element dividing the high-field region of the circulating beam from the field-free region through which injected $H^{-}$ beam must pass. The initial specifications for BS1 required; a deflection of 66 mrad at 160 MeV, achieved with a peak field of 628 mT and a length of 250 mm: the field fall time wa...

  10. Design study of a medical proton linac for neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, S.; Raparia, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a design study which establishes the physical parameters of the low energy beam transport, radiofrequency quadrupole, and linac, using computer programs available at Fermilab. Beam dynamics studies verify that the desired beam parameters can be achieved. The machine described here meets the aforementioned requirements and can be built using existing technology. Also discussed are other technically feasible options which could be attractive to clinicians, though they would complicate the design of the machine and increase construction costs. One of these options would allow the machine to deliver 2.3 MeV protons to produce epithermal neutrons for treating brain tumors. A second option would provide 15 MeV protons for isotope production. 21 refs., 33 figs

  11. Beam tests on a proton linac booster for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    De Martinis, C; Berra, P; Birattari, C; Calabretta, L; Crandall, K; Giove, D; Masullo, M R; Mauri, M; Rosso, E; Rovelli, A; Serafini, L; Szeless, Balázs; Toet, D Z; Vaccaro, Vittorio G; Weiss, M; Zennaro, R

    2002-01-01

    LIBO is a 3 GHz modular side-coupled proton linac booster designed to deliver beam energies up to 200 MeV, as required for the therapy of deep seated tumours. The injected beam of 50 to 70 MeV is produced by a cyclotron like those in several hospitals and research institutes. A full-scale prototype of the first module with an input/output energy of 62/74 MeV, respectively, was designed and built in 1999 and 2000. Full power RF tests were carried out successfully at CERN using a test facility at LIL at the end of the year 2000. In order to prove the feasibility of the acceleration process, an experimental setup with this module was installed at the INFN Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (LNS) in Catania during 2001. The superconducting cyclotron provided the 62 MeV test beam. A compact solid-state RF modulator with a 4 MW klystron, made available by IBA-Scanditronix, was put into operation to power the linac. In this paper the main features of the accelerator are reviewed and the experimental results obtained duri...

  12. Beam simulations with initial bunch noise in superconducting RF proton linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, J

    2010-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by coupled bunch instabilities (CBI), driven by impedance peaks, where then all cavity higher order modes (HOMs) are possible drivers. Limiting the CBI growth rate is the fundamental reason that all superconducting rf cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. The question arises if for similar reasons HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current superconducting rf proton linacs. Therefore we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in such machines, also including charge and position noise on the injected bunches. Simulations were executed for a generic linac with properties close to the planned SPL at CERN, SNS, or Project X at FNAL. It was found that with strong bunch noise and monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter, possibly exceeding the admittance of a receiving machine, cannot be excluded. A transverse simulation shows similar requirements. Therefore including initial bunch noise in any beam dynamic study on superconducti...

  13. Current status of femtosecond triplet Linacs 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, M.; Watanabe, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    2000-01-01

    Femtosecond Ultrafast Quantum Phenomenon Research Facility has been commissioned in 2000. It consists the femtosecond linac-laser synchronization system, the 12 TW 50 fs laser system and the analyzing system. Laser photocathode RF gun produced l kA = 7 nC / 7 ps for 250 μJ 267 nm laser irradiation, synchronization of 300 fs (rms) for minutes and l.9 ps (rms) for hours was established. Efforts to avoid such long-term drift are under way. This system is applied to subpico- and picosecond pulseradiolysis for radiation chemistry of water and supercritical water. Laser plasma linac works are under way to generate 20 MeV 10 fs electron bunch and ps ion beam using the 12 TW 50 fs laser. Further, the time-resolved X-ray diffraction is close to dynamic visualization of atomic motions. (author)

  14. Report of the design study on the proton linac of the Japanese Hadron Project, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The design study on the proton linac of the Japanese Hadron Project began in May 1987, in the collaboration of Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo and National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. This is the second report of the design study on the 1-GeV proton linac, which includes the developments of the ion source, RFQ, DTL, CCL and RF sources. (author)

  15. Current-current interaction picture for proton-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, D.J.; Lo, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The authors propose that color current - color current interaction is reponsible for small angle elastic proton proton scattering at asymptotic energy. Excellent fits are obtained for all data above 12 GeV/c which covers twelve orders of magnitude

  16. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F. P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-07-01

    A new 160 MeV H- linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities.

  17. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F.P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H − linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities

  18. Design considerations for high-current superconducting ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting linacs may be a viable option for high-current applications such as fusion materials irradiation testing, spallation neutron source, transmutation of radioactive waste, tritium production, and energy production. These linacs must run reliably for many years and allow easy routine maintenance. Superconducting cavities operate efficiently with high cw gradients, properties which help to reduce operating and capital costs, respectively. However, cost-effectiveness is not the sole consideration in these applications. For example, beam impingement must be essentially eliminated to prevent unsafe radioactivation of the accelerating structures, and thus large apertures are needed through which to pass the beam. Because of their high efficiency, superconducting cavities can be designed with very large bore apertures, thereby reducing the effect of beam impingement. Key aspects of high-current cw superconducting linac designs are explored in this context

  19. Radiation protection studies for a high-power 160 MeV proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio

    2009-01-01

    CERN is presently designing a new chain of accelerators to replace the present Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex: a 160 MeV room-temperature H− linac (Linac4) to replace the present 50 MeV proton linac injector, a 3.5 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to replace the 1.4 GeV PS Booster (PSB) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (named PS2) to replace the 26 GeV PS. Linac4 has been funded and the civil engineering work started in October 2008, whilst the SPL is in an advanced stage of design. Beyond injecting into the future 50 GeV PS, the ultimate goal of the SPL is to generate a 4 MW beam for the production of intense neutrino beams. The radiation protection design is driven by the latter requirement. This work summarizes the radiation protection studies conducted for Linac4. FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, complemented by analytical estimates, were performed to evaluate the propagation of neutrons through the waveguide, ventilation and cable ducts placed along the accelerator, to estimate the radiological impact of ...

  20. Development of an IH-type linac for the acceleration of high current heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Jan Hendrik

    2017-07-20

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt will provide unprecedented intensities of protons and heavy ions up to uranium at energies of up to 29 GeV for protons and 2.7 GeV/u for U{sup 28+}. To achieve high intensities in the synchrotron accelerators, high beam currents have to be provided by the injector linear accelerators. High current heavy ion beams are provided by the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC), which in its current state will not be able to provide the required FAIR beam currents. This thesis deals with the development of upgrades for the UNILAC to ensure its high current capability. The first improvement is a matching section (MEBT) for the interface between the RFQ and the IH-DTL of the existing high current injector HSI at the UNILAC. With this new MEBT section, particle losses are eliminated and the overall beam quality is improved. As a second improvement, a complete replacement of the existing Alvarez-DTL is presented. A combination of efficient IH-type cavities and KONUS beam dynamics results in a reduction of the linac length from about 60 m (Alvarez) to just 23 m (new IH-DTL) while providing the same energy and fulfilling FAIR requirements of a high beam current and beam quality. This thesis contains a detailed beam dynamics design of the new linac including some fundamental investigations of the KONUS beam dynamics concept. A cross-check of the beam dynamics design was performed with two independent multi-particle simulation codes. Detailed error studies were conducted to investigate the influence of manufacturing, alignment and operating errors on the beam dynamics performance. Additionally, all five linac cavities were designed, optimized, and their RF parameters including power requirements calculated to provide a comprehensive linac design.

  1. Development of an IH-type linac for the acceleration of high current heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, Jan Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt will provide unprecedented intensities of protons and heavy ions up to uranium at energies of up to 29 GeV for protons and 2.7 GeV/u for U 28+ . To achieve high intensities in the synchrotron accelerators, high beam currents have to be provided by the injector linear accelerators. High current heavy ion beams are provided by the Universal Linear Accelerator (UNILAC), which in its current state will not be able to provide the required FAIR beam currents. This thesis deals with the development of upgrades for the UNILAC to ensure its high current capability. The first improvement is a matching section (MEBT) for the interface between the RFQ and the IH-DTL of the existing high current injector HSI at the UNILAC. With this new MEBT section, particle losses are eliminated and the overall beam quality is improved. As a second improvement, a complete replacement of the existing Alvarez-DTL is presented. A combination of efficient IH-type cavities and KONUS beam dynamics results in a reduction of the linac length from about 60 m (Alvarez) to just 23 m (new IH-DTL) while providing the same energy and fulfilling FAIR requirements of a high beam current and beam quality. This thesis contains a detailed beam dynamics design of the new linac including some fundamental investigations of the KONUS beam dynamics concept. A cross-check of the beam dynamics design was performed with two independent multi-particle simulation codes. Detailed error studies were conducted to investigate the influence of manufacturing, alignment and operating errors on the beam dynamics performance. Additionally, all five linac cavities were designed, optimized, and their RF parameters including power requirements calculated to provide a comprehensive linac design.

  2. LASL high-current proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Cooper, R.K.; Hudgings, D.W.; Spalek, G.; Jason, A.J.; Higgins, E.F.; Gillis, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Proton Storage Ring at LAMPF is a high-current accumulator designed to convert long 800-MeV linac pulses into very short high-intensity proton bunches ideally suited to driving a pulsed polyenergetic neutron source. The Ring, authorized for construction at $19 million, will operate in a short-bunch high-frequency mode for fast neutron physics and a long-bunch low-frequency mode for thermal neutron-scattering programs. Unique features of the project include charge-changing injection with initial conversion from H - to H 0 , a high repetition rate fast-risetime extraction kicker, and high-frequency and first-harmonic bunching system

  3. A hospital-based proton linac for neutron therapy and radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, A.J.

    1988-10-01

    Fermilab's Alvarez proton linac has been used routinely for neutron therapy since 1976. The Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF) operates in a mode parasitic to the laboratory's high energy physics program, which uses the linac as an injector for a synchrotron. Parasitic operation is possible because the linac delivers /approximately/1.2 /times/ 10 13 protons per pulse at a 15 Hz rate, while the high energy physics program requires beam at a rate not greater than 0.5 Hz. Protons not needed for physics experiments strike a beryllium target to produce neutrons for neutron therapy. Encouraging clinical results from NTF have led to a study of the issues involved in providing hospitals with a neutron beam of the type available at Fermilab. This paper describes the issues addressed by that study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, J; Silari, M; Vollaire, J

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H−H− linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling w...

  5. Analysis of phase velocity designing on superconducting section of proton Linac for spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Huafu; Xu Taoguang; Yu Qingchang; Guan Xialing; Luo Zihua

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary design of superconducting section of proton linac for spallation neutron source is made, which includes the design and optimization of the cavity shape and the architecture design of the superconducting section. In addition, the choice of the cell number of the superconducting cavity, the value of the geometric β G , the optimization principles of cavity and the beam dynamic properties are discussed

  6. Spatial and temporal beam profile monitor with nanosecond resolution for CERN's Linac4 and Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2008-01-01

    The Linac4, now being developed at CERN, will provide 160-MeV H- beams of high intensity . Before this beam can be injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster or future Superconducting Proton Linac for further acceleration, some sequences of 500-ps-long micro-bunches must be removed from it, using a beam chopper. These bunches, if left in the beam, would fall outside the longitudinal acceptance of the accelerators and make them radioactive. We developed a monitor to measure the time structure and spatial profile of this chopped beam, with respective resolutions and . Its large active area and dynamic range also allows investigations of beam halos. The ion beam first struck a carbon foil, and secondary electrons emerging from the foil were accelerated by a series of parallel grid electrodes. These electrons struck a phosphor screen, and the resulting image of the scintillation light was guided to a thermoelectrically cooled, charge-coupled device camera. The time resolution was attained by applying high-...

  7. Capacitive beam position monitors for the low-β beam of the Chinese ADS proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wu, Jun-Xia; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Jia, Huan; Xue, Zong-Heng; Zheng, Hai; Xie, Hong-Ming; Kang, Xin-Cai; He, Yuan; Li, Lin; Denard, Jean Claude

    2016-02-01

    Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) for the low-β beam of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Subcritical system (CADS) Proton linac are of the capacitive pick-up type. They provide higher output signals than that of the inductive type. This paper will describe the design and tests of the capacitive BPM system for the low-β proton linac, including the pick-ups, the test bench and the read-out electronics. The tests done with an actual proton beam show a good agreement between the measurements and the simulations in the time domain. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405240) and “Western Light” Talents Training Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  8. Target irradiation facility and targetry development at 160 MeV proton beam of Moscow linac

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuikov, B L; Konyakhin, N A; Vincent, J

    1999-01-01

    A facility has been built and successfully operated with the 160 MeV proton beam of Moscow Meson factory LINAC, Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk. The facility was created for various isotope production goals as well as for fundamental nuclear investigations at high intensity beam (100 mu A and more). An important part of the facility targetry system is a high-intensity beam monitoring collimator device. Measurements of the temperature distribution between collimator sectors, cooling water flow and temperature, and the beam current, provide an opportunity to compute beam losses and beam position. The target holder design allows easy insertion by manipulator and simultaneous bombardment of several different targets of various types and forms, and variation of proton energy on each target over a wide range below 160 MeV. The main target utilized for commercial sup 8 sup 2 Sr isotope production is metallic rubidium in a stainless-steel container. A regular wet chemistry ...

  9. RF system for the super conducting proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the several types of RF sources used for proton liner accelerators. Also we discus the undesirable characteristics of super-conducting cavities, and the influence of the large beam loading for an accelerating field. We propose the RF system for the super-conducting proton linear accelerators using the Diacrode or IOT taking these effects into account. (author)

  10. Basis for low beam loss in the high-current APT linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.; Gray, E.R.; Krawczyk, F.L.; Kurennoy, S.S.; Lawrence, G.P.; Ryne, R.D.; Crandall, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The present evidence that the APT proton linac design will meet its goal of low beam loss operation. The conclusion has three main bases: (1) extrapolation from the understanding of the performance of the 800-MeV LANSCE proton linac at Los Alamos, (2) the theoretical understanding of the dominant halo-forming mechanism in the APT accelerator from physics models and multiparticle simulations, and (3) the conservative approach and key principles underlying the design of the APT linac, which are aimed at minimizing beam halo and providing large apertures to reduce beam loss to a very low value

  11. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang; Ouyang Huafu; Xu Taoguang

    2002-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the authors consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  12. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Qi; Ouyang Hua Fu; Xu Tao Guang

    2001-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  13. The application and study of an oxide-impregnated nickel-matrix cathode for Beijing proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dehong; Shi Rongjian

    1996-01-01

    A low power consumption oxide-impregnated nickel-matrix cathode used in the Duoplasmatron ion source of the Beijing Proton Linac (BPL) is presented. Its structure, treatment process of nickel-foam rubber on metal matrix surface and manufacture of dip coating carbonate are briefly introduced. The activation method and experiment results of the cathode are described. The principal factors which influence the cathode lifetime are discussed. The lifetime of the cathode is up to 2110 h while the extracted pulsed beam current is about 200 mA

  14. Comparison of coaxial higher order mode couplers for the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac study

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085329; Gerigk, Frank; Van Rienen, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Higher order modes (HOMs) may affect beam stability and refrigeration requirements of superconducting proton linacs such as the Superconducting Proton Linac, which is studied at CERN. Under certain conditions beam-induced HOMs can accumulate sufficient energy to destabilize the beam or quench the superconducting cavities. In order to limit these effects, CERN considers the use of coaxial HOM couplers on the cutoff tubes of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. These couplers consist of resonant antennas shaped as loops or probes, which are designed to couple to potentially dangerous modes while sufficiently rejecting the fundamental mode. In this paper, the design process is presented and a comparison is made between various designs for the high-beta SPL cavities, which operate at 704.4 MHz. The rf and thermal behavior as well as mechanical aspects are discussed. In order to verify the designs, a rapid prototype for the favored coupler was fabricated and characterized on a low-power test-stand.

  15. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. ENERGY CORRECTION FOR HIGH POWER PROTON/H MINUS LINAC INJECTORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAPARIA, D.; LEE, Y.Y.; WEI, J.

    2005-05-16

    High-energy proton/H minus energy (> GeV) linac injector suffer from energy jitter due to RF amplitude and phase stability. Especially in high power injectors this energy jitter result beam losses more than 1 W/m that require for hand on maintenance. Depending upon the requirements for next accelerator in the chain, this energy jitter may or may not require to be corrected. This paper will discuss the sources of this energy jitter, correction schemes with specific examples.

  17. Los Alamos high-power proton linac designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Medium-energy high-power proton linear accelerators have been studied at Los Alamos as drivers for spallation neutron applications requiring large amounts of beam power. Reference designs for such accelerators are discussed, important design factors are reviewed, and issues and concern specific to this unprecedented power regime are discussed.

  18. Software of the System Protection for the PEFP 20MeV Proton Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young-Gi; Hong, In-Seok; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2007-01-01

    A 20 MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) has been developed at Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP). A 20 MeV linac consists of 50 keV proton injector, 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). PEFP control system is developed with several sub-systems (e.g. machine control, diagnostic control, timing control, and interlock systems). These systems have each EPICS based control system which provides a network-based real time distributed control. For stable and harmonic operation, we had developed sequential logic by using state notation language (SNL) and database records with alarm fields for warning signal. The various control system can drop a transmission rate of the control network traffic. We need to manage control signals by a control network gateway and protect values of control servers by security management. In this paper, the stabilization methods of the control signals are described and the results of the stabilized signals are presented

  19. Direct-current proton-beam measurements at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, J.; Stevens, R.R.; Schneider, J.D.; Zaugg, T.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a CW proton accelerator complex was moved from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to Los Alamos National Laboratory. This includes a 50-keV dc proton injector with a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) and a CW 1.25-MeV, 267-MHz radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The move was completed after CRL had achieved 55-mA CW operation at 1.25 MeV using 250-kW klystrode tubes to power the RFQ. These accelerator components are prototypes for the front end of a CW linac required for an accelerator-driven transmutation linac, and they provide early confirmation of some CW accelerator components. The injector (ion source and LEBT) and emittance measuring unit are installed and operational at Los Alamos. The dc microwave ion source has been operated routinely at 50-keV, 75-mA hydrogen-ion current. This ion source has demonstrated very good discharge and H 2 gas efficiencies, and sufficient reliability to complete CW RFQ measurements at CRL. Proton fraction of 75% has been measured with 550-W discharge power. This high proton fraction removes the need for an analyzing magnet. Proton LEBT emittance measurements completed at Los Alamos suggest that improved transmission through the RFQ may be achieved by increasing the solenoid focusing current. Status of the final CW RFQ operation at CRL and the installation of the RFQ at Los Alamos is given

  20. Light ion linacs for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.; Knapp, E.A.; Nagle, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in linear accelerator technology point to the feasibility of designing and developing practical medical linacs for producing protons, neutrons, or π mesons for the radiation therapy of cancer. Additional uses of such linacs could include radioisotope production and charged particle radiography. For widespread utilization medical linacs must exhibit reasonable cost, compactness, reliability, and simplicity of operation. Possible extensions of current accelerator technology which might provide these characteristics are discussed in connection with linac design, fabrication techniques, materials, power sources, injectors, and particle collection and delivery systems. Parameters for a medical proton linac for producing pions are listed. (U.S.)

  1. Reducing the beam current in Linac4 in pulse to pulse mode.

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    In order to deliver different beam intensities to users, we studied the possibility of varying the Linac4 beam current at PS Booster injection in pulse to pulse mode. This report gives the possible configurations of Linac4 Low and Medium Energy Beam Transport lines (LEBT and MEBT) that lead to a consistent current reduction.

  2. Emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1985 the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been studying current amplification and emittance variations in MBE-4, a four-cesium-beam induction linac. This experiment models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a fusion driver. Four space-charge dominated Cs + beams, initially about one meter in length at currents of 5-10 mA, are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated in parallel from approximately 200 keV up to one MeV by 24 accelerating gaps. Final currents of 20-40 mA per beam are typical. Recent experiments with extremely low emittance beams (var-epsilon n =0.03 mm-mRad) have investigated variations of transverse and longitudinal normalized emittance for drifting and accelerating beams. These very strongly tune-depressed beams (σ 0 =72 degree, σ∼6 degree) are difficult to match to the accelerator so as to avoid emittance growth during acceleration. During transport strong emittance fluctuations are observed in good qualitative agreement with simulations. Warmer beams with less tune depression exhibit little to no emittance growth, show smaller emittance fluctuations, and are much easier to match. A summary of findings from the MBE-4 studies is presented

  3. Emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1985 the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been studying current amplification and emittance variations in MBE-4, a four-cesium-beam induction linac. This experiment models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a fusion driver. Four space-charge dominated Cs + beams, initially about one meter in length at currents of 5--10 mA, are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated in parallel from approximately 200 keV up to one MeV by 24 accelerating gaps. Final currents of 20--40 mA per beam are typical. Recent experiments with extremely low emittance beams (ε n = 0.03 mm-mRad) have investigated variations of transverse and longitudinal normalized emittance for drifting and accelerating beams. These very strongly tune-depressed beams (σ o = 72 degrees, σ∼6 degree) are difficult to match the accelerator so as to avoid emittance growth during acceleration. During transport strong emittance fluctuations are observed in good qualitative agreement with simulations. Warmer beams with less tune depression exhibit little to no emittance growth, show smaller emittance fluctuations, and are much easier to match. A summary of findings from the MBE-4 studies is presented. 12 refs., 8 figs

  4. A high current electron gun for the IEAv linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraro, A. Jr.; Stopa, C.R.S.; Romao, B.M.V.; Jorge, A.M.; Takahashi, J.

    2001-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and characterization of a new electron gun for the linear electron accelerator (linac) which is under construction at the Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv)

  5. Post-acceleration of laser driven protons with a compact high field linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Turchetti, Giorgio; Bolton, Paul R.

    2013-05-01

    We present a start-to-end 3D numerical simulation of a hybrid scheme for the acceleration of protons. The scheme is based on a first stage laser acceleration, followed by a transport line with a solenoid or a multiplet of quadrupoles, and then a post-acceleration section in a compact linac. Our simulations show that from a laser accelerated proton bunch with energy selection at ~ 30MeV, it is possible to obtain a high quality monochromatic beam of 60MeV with intensity at the threshold of interest for medical use. In the present day experiments using solid targets, the TNSA mechanism describes accelerated bunches with an exponential energy spectrum up to a cut-off value typically below ~ 60MeV and wide angular distribution. At the cut-off energy, the number of protons to be collimated and post-accelerated in a hybrid scheme are still too low. We investigate laser-plasma acceleration to improve the quality and number of the injected protons at ~ 30MeV in order to assure efficient post-acceleration in the hybrid scheme. The results are obtained with 3D PIC simulations using a code where optical acceleration with over-dense targets, transport and post-acceleration in a linac can all be investigated in an integrated framework. The high intensity experiments at Nara are taken as a reference benchmarks for our virtual laboratory. If experimentally confirmed, a hybrid scheme could be the core of a medium sized infrastructure for medical research, capable of producing protons for therapy and x-rays for diagnosis, which complements the development of all optical systems.

  6. Comparison of coaxial higher order mode couplers for the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Papke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher order modes (HOMs may affect beam stability and refrigeration requirements of superconducting proton linacs such as the Superconducting Proton Linac, which is studied at CERN. Under certain conditions beam-induced HOMs can accumulate sufficient energy to destabilize the beam or quench the superconducting cavities. In order to limit these effects, CERN considers the use of coaxial HOM couplers on the cutoff tubes of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. These couplers consist of resonant antennas shaped as loops or probes, which are designed to couple to potentially dangerous modes while sufficiently rejecting the fundamental mode. In this paper, the design process is presented and a comparison is made between various designs for the high-beta SPL cavities, which operate at 704.4 MHz. The rf and thermal behavior as well as mechanical aspects are discussed. In order to verify the designs, a rapid prototype for the favored coupler was fabricated and characterized on a low-power test-stand.

  7. Conceptual Design of the Superconducting Proton Linac Short Cryo-module

    CERN Document Server

    Bourcey, N; Capatina, O; Azevedo, P; Montesinos, E; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Vande Craen, A; Williams, L R; Weingarten, W; Rousselot, S; Duthil, P; Duchesne, P; Reynet, D; Dambre, P

    2012-01-01

    The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is an R&amp;amp;D effort conducted by CERN in partnership with other international laboratories, aimed at developing key technologies for the construction of a multi-megawatt proton linac based on state-of-the-art Superconducting Radio Frequency technology, which would serve as a driver for new physics facilities such as neutrinos and radioactive ion beams. Amongst the main objectives of this effort, are the development of 704 MHz bulk niobium b=1 elliptical cavities, operating at 2 K and providing an accelerating field of 25 MV/m, and testing of a string of cavities integrated in a machine-type cryo-module. In an initial phase only four out of the eight cavities of an SPL cryo-module will be tested in a ½ length cryo-module developed for this purpose, and therefore called the Short Cryo-module. This paper presents the conceptual design of the SC, highlighting its innovative principles in terms of cavity supporting and alignment, and describes the integratio...

  8. Design of high-energy high-current linac with focusing by superconducting solenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batskikh, G.I.; Belugin, V.M.; Bondarev, B.I. [Moscow Radiotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The advancement of MRTI design for 1.5 GeV and 250 mA ion CW linac was presented in a previous report. In this new linac version all the way from input to output the ions are focused by magnetic fields of superconducting solenoids. The ion limit current is far beyond the needed value. The linac focusing channel offers major advantages over the more conventional ones. The acceptance is 1.7 times as large for such focusing channel as for quadrupole one. Concurrently, a random perturbation sensitivity for such channel is one order of magnitude smaller than in quadrupole channel. These focusing channel features allow to decrease beam matched radius and increase a linac radiation purity without aperture growth. {open_quotes}Regotron{close_quotes} is used as high power generator in linac main part. But D&W cavities need not be divided into sections connected by RF-bridges which denuded them of high coupling factor.

  9. Prototype Digital Beam Position and Phase Monitor for the 100-MeV Proton Linac of PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Yu In Ha; Kim, Sung-Chul; Park, In-Soo; Park, Sung-Ju; Tae Kim, Do

    2005-01-01

    The PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is building a high-power proton linear accelerator aiming to generate 100-MeV proton beams with 20-mA peak current (pulse width and max. repetition rate of 1 ms and 120 Hz respectively). We are developing a prototype digital BPPM (Beam Position and Phase Monitor) for the PEFP linac utilizing the digital technology with field programmable gate array (FPGA). The RF input signals are down converted to 10 MHz and sampled at 40 MHz with 14-bit ADC to produce I and Q data streams. The system is designed to provide a position and phase resolution of 0.1% and 0.1? RMS respectively. The fast digital processing is networked to the EPICS-based control system with an embedded processor (Blackfin). In this paper, the detailed description of the prototype digital beam position and phase monitor will be described with the performance test results.

  10. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  11. Assessment of the basic parameters of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brunner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a 4 GeV superconducting proton linac (the SPL is now part of the long term plan of CERN, and the construction of Linac4, its low-energy front end, has begun. For mid-2012 the existing conceptual design of the SPL has to be refined and transformed into a project proposal. As a first step, basic parameters like rf frequency, accelerating gradient, and operating temperature of the superconducting cavities have been reassessed, taking into account the experience accumulated in the world during the recent years, especially for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS in Oakridge and the International Linear Collider (ILC projects. The conclusions confirm the validity of the initial choices, namely, the rf frequency of 704.4 MHz and the cooling temperature of ≈2  K. However, the assumed gradients are estimated as optimistic: additional tests are necessary during the coming years to properly define the values to be used in the SPL design. This analysis is documented and its results are explained in this report.

  12. Transport and energy selection of laser generated protons for postacceleration with a compact linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo; Sumini, Marco

    2013-03-01

    Laser accelerated proton beams have a considerable potential for various applications including oncological therapy. However, the most consolidated target normal sheath acceleration regime based on irradiation of solid targets provides an exponential energy spectrum with a significant divergence. The low count number at the cutoff energy seriously limits at present its possible use. One realistic scenario for the near future is offered by hybrid schemes. The use of transport lines for collimation and energy selection has been considered. We present here a scheme based on a high field pulsed solenoid and collimators which allows one to select a beam suitable for injection at 30 MeV into a compact linac in order to double its energy while preserving a significant intensity. The results are based on a fully 3D simulation starting from laser acceleration.

  13. Transport and energy selection of laser generated protons for postacceleration with a compact linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sinigardi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser accelerated proton beams have a considerable potential for various applications including oncological therapy. However, the most consolidated target normal sheath acceleration regime based on irradiation of solid targets provides an exponential energy spectrum with a significant divergence. The low count number at the cutoff energy seriously limits at present its possible use. One realistic scenario for the near future is offered by hybrid schemes. The use of transport lines for collimation and energy selection has been considered. We present here a scheme based on a high field pulsed solenoid and collimators which allows one to select a beam suitable for injection at 30 MeV into a compact linac in order to double its energy while preserving a significant intensity. The results are based on a fully 3D simulation starting from laser acceleration.

  14. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Jose V., E-mail: josev.mathew@gmail.com; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ∼16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ∼20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs. -- Highlights: • An improved permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) design with larger good field region is proposed. • We investigate four PMQ designs, including the widely used Halbach and bullet nosed designs. • Analytical calculations are backed by 2D as well as 3D numerical solvers, PANDIRA and RADIA. • The optimized 16 segment rectangular PMQ design is identified to exhibit the largest good field region. • The effect of easy axis orientation

  15. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ∼16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ∼20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs. -- Highlights: • An improved permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) design with larger good field region is proposed. • We investigate four PMQ designs, including the widely used Halbach and bullet nosed designs. • Analytical calculations are backed by 2D as well as 3D numerical solvers, PANDIRA and RADIA. • The optimized 16 segment rectangular PMQ design is identified to exhibit the largest good field region. • The effect of easy axis orientation

  16. System design of a proton linac for the neutron science project at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Ouchi, Nobuo; Honda, Yoichiro; Ino, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP). The NSP requires pulse and CW proton beams with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power up to 8MW. This paper describes design concepts and parameters of the linac. A front end part of the linac, which consists of RFQ, DTL and SDTL sections, uses normal conducting structures and a high energy part uses superconducting (SC) structures. The linac has two injector lines for the pulse and the CW modes, respectively, and the two lines merge at 7 MeV. The total linac length is approximately 900 m and most of the part (>75%) is the superconducting section. An equipartitioning design, which is a new idea to suppress an emittance growth for high power linacs, has been taken for the DTL, the SDTL and the SC sections. Compared with the conventional constant phase advance design scheme, the equipartitioning design scheme is proved to be a good approach to suppress the longitudinal emittance growth. (author)

  17. Hearthfire design base for the high current low velocity rf linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.J.; Khoe, T.K.; Kustom, R.L.; Martin, R.L.; Moretti, A.

    1977-01-01

    The particle beam parameters needed for inertial fusion can be achieved with conventional accelerator technology if heavy ion machines attain the level of performance of the most intense high energy proton machines. Many of the problems posed by this goal pertain to the low energy portions of the accelerator system. In particular, the implied particle current in the rf linac is 10 3 --10 4 times the values achieved with existing heavy ion machines. Much of this discrepancy is simply attributable to the great differences between the design considerations relevant to accelerators for fusion and those which have determined the performance of the existing machines. The basic concept chosen at Argonne National Laboratory is cavities containing single drift tubes mounted on lambda/4 supports. Such structures pose the least problem for the beam transport system, and one cavity is placed between adjacent quadrupole magnets. The average voltage gain of the first cells of the low velocity section is moderate; and, although probably acceptable and improved by the end of the 10 MV section, the low initial gain adds to the motivation provided by the transport problem to increase the preinjector voltage substantially above 750 kV

  18. Ring current proton decay by charge exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Fritz, T.

    1975-01-01

    Explorer 45 measurements during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic storm have confirmed that the charge exchange decay mechanism can account for the decay of the storm-time proton ring current. Data from the moderate magnetic storm of 24 February 1972 was selected for study since a symmetrical ring current had developed and effects due to asymmetric ring current losses could be eliminated. It was found that after the initial rapid decay of the proton flux, the equatorially mirroring protons in the energy range 5 to 30 keV decayed throughout the L-value range of 3.5 to 5.0 at the charge exchange decay rate calculated by Liemohn. After several days of decay, the proton fluxes reached a lower limit where an apparent equilibrium was maintained, between weak particle source mechanisms and the loss mechanisms, until fresh protons were injected into the ring current region during substorms. While other proton loss mechanisms may also be operating, the results indicate that charge exchange can entirely account for the storm-time proton ring current decay, and that this mechanism must be considered in all studies involving the loss of proton ring current particles.

  19. Prompt radiation, shielding and induced radioactivity in a high-power 160 MeV proton linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magistris, Matteo [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: matteo.magistris@cern.ch; Silari, Marco [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2006-06-23

    CERN is designing a 160 MeV proton linear accelerator, both for a future intensity upgrade of the LHC and as a possible first stage of a 2.2 GeV superconducting proton linac. A first estimate of the required shielding was obtained by means of a simple analytical model. The source terms and the attenuation lengths used in the present study were calculated with the Monte Carlo cascade code FLUKA. Detailed FLUKA simulations were performed to investigate the contribution of neutron skyshine and backscattering to the expected dose rate in the areas around the linac tunnel. An estimate of the induced radioactivity in the magnets, vacuum chamber, the cooling system and the concrete shield was performed. A preliminary thermal study of the beam dump is also discussed.

  20. Beam physics design strategy for a high-current rf linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The high average beam power of an rf linac system for transmutation of nuclear waste puts very stringent requirements on beam quality and beam control. Fractional beam losses along the accelerator must be kept at extremely low levels to assure {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} maintenance. Hence, halo formation and large-amplitude tails in the particle distribution due to beam mismatch and equipartitioning effects must be avoided. This implies that the beam should ideally be in near-perfect thermal equilibrium from injection to full energy - in contrast to existing rf linacs in which the transverse temperature, T {sub {perpendicular}}, is higher than the longitudinal temperature, T{sub {parallel}}. The physics and parameter scaling for such a system will be reviewed using the results of recent work on high-intensity bunched beams. A design strategy for a high-current rf linac with equilibrated beam will be proposed.

  1. The RaDIATE High-Energy Proton Materials Irradiation Experiment at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, Kavin; et al.

    2017-05-01

    The RaDIATE collaboration (Radiation Damage In Accelerator Target Environments) was founded in 2012 to bring together the high-energy accelerator target and nuclear materials communities to address the challenging issue of radiation damage effects in beam-intercepting materials. Success of current and future high intensity accelerator target facilities requires a fundamental understanding of these effects including measurement of materials property data. Toward this goal, the RaDIATE collaboration organized and carried out a materials irradiation run at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer facility (BLIP). The experiment utilized a 181 MeV proton beam to irradiate several capsules, each containing many candidate material samples for various accelerator components. Materials included various grades/alloys of beryllium, graphite, silicon, iridium, titanium, TZM, CuCrZr, and aluminum. Attainable peak damage from an 8-week irradiation run ranges from 0.03 DPA (Be) to 7 DPA (Ir). Helium production is expected to range from 5 appm/DPA (Ir) to 3,000 appm/DPA (Be). The motivation, experimental parameters, as well as the post-irradiation examination plans of this experiment are described.

  2. Induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The principle of linear induction acceleration is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. These examples include the Advanced Technology Accelerator, Long Pulse Induction Linac, Radial Line Accelerator (RADLAC), and Magnetically-Insulated Electron-Focussed Ion Linac. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub-10 MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the 100 to 1000 MeV range. Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed

  3. Dark current and radiation shielding studies for the ILC main linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nikolai V. [Fermilab; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Solyak, N. A. [Fermilab; Sukhanov, A. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-05

    Electrons of dark current (DC), generated in high-gradient superconducting RF cavities (SRF) due to field emission, can be accelerated up to very high energies—19 GeV in the case of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main linac—before they are removed by focusing and steering magnets. Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by such electrons can represent a significant radiation threat to the linac equipment and personnel. In our study, an operational scenario is analysed which is believed can be considered as the worst case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the main linac tunnel. A detailed modelling is performed for the DC electrons which are emitted from the surface of the SRF cavities and can be repeatedly accelerated in the high-gradient fields in many SRF cavities. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the prompt dose design level of 25 μSv/hr in the service tunnel can be provided by a 2.3-m thick concrete wall between the main and service ls.

  4. Modeling radiation loads in the ILC main linac and a novel approach to treat dark current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nilolai V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rakhno, Igor L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tropin, Igor S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by electrons of dark current (DC) can represent a significant radiation threat to the ILC linac equipment and personnel. In this study, a commissioning scenario is analysed which is considered as the worst-case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the tunnel. A normal operation scenario is analysed as well. An emphasis is made on radiation load to sensitive electronic equipment—cryogenic thermometers inside the cryomodules. Prompt and residual dose rates in the ILC main linac tunnels were also calculated in these new high-statistics runs. A novel approach was developed—as a part of general purpose Monte Carlo code MARS15—to model generation, acceleration and transport of DC electrons in electromagnetic fields inside SRF cavities. Comparisons were made with a standard approach when a set of pre-calculated DC electron trajectories is used, with a proper normalization, as a source for Monte Carlo modelling. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the peak absorbed dose in the cryogenic thermometers in the main tunnel for 20 years of operation is about 0.8 MGy. The calculated contact residual dose on cryomodules and tunnel walls in the main tunnel for typical irradiation and cooling conditions is 0.1 and 0.01 mSv/hr, respectively.

  5. Large area dispenser cathode applied to high current linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Anmin; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Wu Dengxue; Liu Chenjun; Xia Liansheng; Wang Wendou; Zhang Kaizhi

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduced a dispenser cathode (411 M) which was 55 mm in diameter. A 200 kV long pulsed power generator with 2 μs flattop based on Marx-PEN and system with heat and voltage insulation were built. A 52 A space charge limited current was gained, when the temperature was 1165 degree C and the filament current was 18 A on the cathode and the voltage of the pulse was 75 kV at the cathode test stand. Experimental results show that the current values are consistent with the numerical simulation. The experiment reveals that the deflated gas will influence the cathode emission ability. (authors)

  6. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ''real'' beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS

  7. Differential current measurement in the BNL energy recovery linac test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2006-01-01

    An energy recovery linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL [V.N. Litvinenko, et al., High current energy recovery linac at BNL, PAC, 2005; I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Extremely high current, high brightness energy recovery linac, PAC, 2005]. The goal of this test facility is to demonstrate CW operation with an average beam current greater than 100mA, and with greater than 99.95% efficiency of current recovery. This facility will serve as a test bed for the novel high current CW photo-cathode [A. Burrill, et al., Multi-alkali photocathode development at BNL, PAC, 2005; A. Murray, et al., State-of-the-art electron guns and injector designs for energy recovery linacs, PAC, 2005], the superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers [R. Calaga, et al., High current superconducting cavities at RHIC, EPAC, 2004; R. Calaga, et al., in: Proceedings of the 11th workshop on RF superconductivity, Lubeck, Germany, 2003], and the lattice [D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, Novel method of emittance preservation in ERL merging system in presence of strong space charge forces, PAC, 2005; D. Kayran, et al., Optics for high brightness and high current ERL project at BNL, PAC, 2005] and feedback systems needed to insure the specified beam parameters. It is an important stepping stone for electron cooling in RHIC [I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Electron cooling of RHIC, PAC, 2005], and essential to meet the luminosity specifications of RHICII [T. Hallman, et al., RHICII/eRHIC white paper, available at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/NSAC_RHICII-eRHIC_2-15-03.pdf]. The expertise and experience gained in this effort might also extend forward into a 10-20GeV ERL for the electron-ion collider eRHIC [http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A, The linac-ring option, 2005]. We report here on the use of a technique of differential current measurement to monitor the efficiency of current recovery in the test facility, and investigate the possibility of using such a monitor in the machine

  8. High-current Standing Wave Linac With Gyrocon Power Source

    CERN Document Server

    Karliner, M M; Makarov, I G; Nezhevenko, O A; Ostreiko, G N; Persov, B Z; Serdobintsev, G V

    2004-01-01

    A gyrocon together with high-voltage 1.5 MeV accelerator ELIT-3A represents a power generator at 430 MHz serving for linear electron accelerator pulse driving. The facility description and results of calorimetric measurements of ELIT-3A electron beam power and accelerated beam at the end of accelerator are presented in the paper. 2.2 amps of pulsed current have been obtained at electron energy of 20 MeV. The achieved energy conversion efficiency is about 55%.

  9. Overview of superconducting RF technology and its application to high-current linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting linacs may be a viable option for high-current applications such as copious neutron production like that needed for transmutation of radioactive waste. These linacs must run reliably for many years and allow easy routine maintenance. superconducting cavities operate efficiently with high cw gradients, properties which help to reduce operating and capital costs. However, cost effectiveness is not the sole consideration in these applications. For example, beam impingement must be essentially eliminated to prevent unsafe radioactivation of the accelerating structures, and thus large apertures are needed through which to pass the beam. Because of their high efficiency, superconducting cavities can be designed with very large bore apertures, thereby reducing the effect of beam impingement

  10. EXCESS RF POWER REQUIRED FOR RF CONTROL OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) LINAC, A PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY SUPERCONDUCTING PROTON ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.; Kwon, S.

    2001-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linac, such as that being planned for the SNS, requires accurate RF control of cavity fields for the entire pulse in order to avoid beam spill. The current design requirement for the SNS is RF field stability within ±0.5% and ±0.5 o [1]. This RF control capability is achieved by the control electronics using the excess RF power to correct disturbances. To minimize the initial capital costs, the RF system is designed with 'just enough' RF power. All the usual disturbances exist, such as beam noise, klystron/HVPS noise, coupler imperfections, transport losses, turn-on and turn-off transients, etc. As a superconducting linac, there are added disturbances of large magnitude, including Lorentz detuning and microphonics. The effects of these disturbances and the power required to correct them are estimated, and the result shows that the highest power systems in the SNS have just enough margin, with little or no excess margin

  11. A Faraday Cup with high frequency response for a 200 MeV LINAC proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Bittner, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this device, composed essentially of coaxial line elements, is monitoring, on a per micropulse basis, the beam intensity of a 200 MeV LINAC at the BNL Radiation Effects Facility. The center conductor of the coaxial line acts as a beam stop. The output pulses are suitable for fast timing. 2 refs., 5 figs

  12. Linac 1, inner structure

    CERN Multimedia

    1968-01-01

    This photo shows the inner structure of Linac 1. As injector to the PS, and later to the Booster, Linac 1 accelerated protons to 50 MeV, but it has also accelerated heavier ions. Fitted with a 520 keV RFQ pre-injector (instead of the original Cockcroft-Walton generator), it delivered protons and heavy ions to LEAR, from 1982 to 1992. After 33 years of faithful service, Linac 1 was dismantled in 1992 to make room for Linac 3 (Pb ions).

  13. The use the a high intensity neutrino beam from the ESS proton linac for measurement of neutrino CP violation and mass hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E.; Ekelof, T.; Martinez, E.Fernandez; Ohman, H.; Vassilopoulos, N.

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed to complement the ESS proton linac with equipment that would enable the production, concurrently with the production of the planned ESS beam used for neutron production, of a 5 MW beam of 10$^{23}$ 2.5 GeV protons per year in microsecond short pulses to produce a neutrino Super Beam, and to install a megaton underground water Cherenkov detector in a mine to detect $\

  14. Radiation induced currents in MRI RF coils: application to linac/MRI integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, B.; Fallone, B. G.; Rathee, S.

    2010-02-01

    The integration of medical linear accelerators (linac) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is advancing the current state of image-guided radiotherapy. The MRI in these integrated units will provide real-time, accurate tumor locations for radiotherapy treatment, thus decreasing geometric margins around tumors and reducing normal tissue damage. In the real-time operation of these integrated systems, the radiofrequency (RF) coils of MRI will be irradiated with radiation pulses from the linac. The effect of pulsed radiation on MRI radio frequency (RF) coils is not known and must be studied. The instantaneous radiation induced current (RIC) in two different MRI RF coils were measured and presented. The frequency spectra of the induced currents were calculated. Some basic characterization of the RIC was also done: isolation of the RF coil component responsible for RIC, dependence of RIC on dose rate, and effect of wax buildup placed on coil on RIC. Both the time and frequency characteristics of the RIC were seen to vary with the MRI RF coil used. The copper windings of the RF coils were isolated as the main source of RIC. A linear dependence on dose rate was seen. The RIC was decreased with wax buildup, suggesting an electronic disequilibrium as the cause of RIC. This study shows a measurable RIC present in MRI RF coils. This unwanted current could be possibly detrimental to the signal to noise ratio in MRI and produce image artifacts.

  15. Sparking limits, cavity loading, and beam breakup instability associated with high-current rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Lemons, D.S.; Thode, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The limitations on high-current rf linacs due to gap sparking, cavity loading, and the beam breakup instability are studied. It appears possible to achieve cavity accelerating gradients as high as 35 MV/m without sparking. Furthermore, a linear analysis, as well as self-consistent particle simulations of a multipulsed 10 kA beam, indicated that only a negligible small fraction of energy is radiated into nonfundamental cavity modes. Finally, the beam breakup instability is analyzed and found to be able to magnify initial radial perturbations by a factor of no more than about 20 during the beam transit time through a 1 GeV accelerator

  16. Electromagnetic design of a β=0.4 superconducting spoke resonator for a high intensity proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Krishnagopal, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Here we present electromagnetic design simulations of a superconducting single-spoke resonator with a geometrical beta of 0.4 and operating at 325 MHz for a high intensity proton linac (HIPL). The spoke equatorial and base parameters were optimized to minimize the peak electric and peak magnetic fields and maximize the shunt impedance, while keeping the same resonant frequency. Variation of the surface magnetic fields was investigated as a function of the spoke base shape, and it was found that an elliptical profile is preferred over a circular or racecourse profile with E peak /E acc =4.71, E peak /E acc =4.33 (mT/(MV/m)) and R/Q=272 Ω. (author)

  17. Development of bunch shape monitor for high-intensity beam on the China ADS proton LINAC Injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyu; Wu, Junxia; Du, Ze; Zhang, Yong; Xue, Zongheng; Xie, Hongming; Wei, Yuan; Jing, Long; Jia, Huan

    2018-05-01

    The development, performance, and testing of the longitudinal bunch shape monitor, namely, the Fast Faraday Cup (FFC), are presented in this paper. The FFC is an invasive instrument controlled by a stepper motor, and its principle of operation is based on a strip line structure. The longitudinal bunch shape was determined by sampling a small part of the beam hitting the strip line through a 1-mm hole. The rise time of the detector reached 24 ps. To accommodate experiments that utilize high-intensity beams, the materials of the bunch shape monitor were chosen to sustain high temperatures. Water cooling was also integrated in the detector system to enhance heat transfer and prevent thermal damage. We also present an analysis of the heating caused by the beam. The bunch shape monitor has been installed and commissioned at the China ADS proton LINAC Injector II.

  18. Dark currents and their effect on the primary beam in an X-band linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl L. F. Bane

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We numerically study properties of primary dark currents in an X-band accelerating structure. For the H60VG3 structure considered for the Next Linear Collider (NLC we first perform a fairly complete (with some approximations calculation of dark-current trajectories. These results are used to study properties of the dark current leaving the structure. For example, at accelerating gradient of 65  MV/m, considering two very different assumptions about dark-current emission around the irises, we find that the fraction of emitted current leaving the structure to be a consistent ∼1%. Considering that ∼1  mA outgoing dark current is seen in measurement, this implies that ∼100  mA (or 10 pC per period is emitted within the structure itself. Using the formalism of the Liénard-Wiechert potentials, we then perform a systematic calculation of the transverse kick of dark currents on a primary linac bunch. The result is ∼1   V kick per mA (or per 0.1  pC per period dark current emitted from an iris. For an entire structure we estimate the total kick on a primary bunch to be ∼15   V. For the NLC linac this translates to a ratio of (final vertical beam offset to beam size of about 0.2. However, with the assumptions that needed to be made—particularly the number of emitters and their distribution within a structure—the accuracy of this result may be limited to the order of magnitude.

  19. Moderator/collimator for a proton/deuteron linac to produce a high-intensity, high-quality thermal neutron beam for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Imel, G.R.; McMichael, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Reactor based high resolution neutron radiography facilities are able to deliver a well-collimated (L/D ≥100) thermal flux of 10 6 n/cm 2 ·sec to an image plane. This is well in excess of that achievable with the present accelerator based systems such as sealed tube D-T sources, Van der Graaff's, small cyclotrons, or low duty factor linacs. However, continuous wave linacs can accelerate tens of milliamperes of protons to 2.5 to 4 MeV. The MCNP code has been used to analyze target/moderator configurations that could be used with Argonne's Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL). These analyses have shown that ACWL could be modified to generate a neutron beam that has a high intensity and is of high quality

  20. Hospital-based proton linear accelerator for particle therapy and radioisotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    1991-05-01

    Taking advantage of recent advances in linear accelerator technology, it is possible for a hospital to use a 70 MeV proton linac for fast neutron therapy, boron neutron capture therapy, proton therapy for ocular melanomas, and production of radiopharmaceuticals. The linac can also inject protons into a synchrotron for proton therapy of deep-seated tumors. With 180 μA average current, a single linac can support all these applications. This paper presents a conceptual design for a medical proton linac, switchyard, treatment rooms, and isotope production rooms. Special requirements for each application are outlined and a layout for sharing beam among the applications is suggested.

  1. ISAC target operation with high proton currents

    CERN Document Server

    Dombsky, M; Schmor, P; Lane, M

    2003-01-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC facility target stations were designed for ISOL target irradiations with up to 100 mu A proton beam currents. Since beginning operation in 1998, ISAC irradiation currents have progressively increased from initial values of approx 1 mu A to present levels of up to 40 mu A on refractory metal foil targets. In addition, refractory carbide targets have operated at currents of up to 15 mu A for extended periods. The 1-40 mu A operational regime is achieved by tailoring each target to the thermal requirements dictated by material properties such as beam power deposition, thermal conductivity and maximum operating temperature of the target material. The number of heat shields on each target can be varied in order to match the effective emissivity of the target surface for the required radiative power dissipation. Targets of different thickness, surface area and volume have been investigated to study the effect of diffusion and effusion delays on the yield of radioisotopes. For yields of short-lived p...

  2. A linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source Project (SNS), to be constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accelerates H - ions to an energy of 1.0 GeV with an average current of 1-mA for injection into an accumulator ring that produces the short intense burst of protons needed for the spallation-neutron source. The linac will be the most intense source of H - ions and as such requires advanced design techniques to meet project technical goals. In particular, low beam loss is stressed for the chopped beam placing strong requirements on the beam dynamics and linac construction. Additionally, the linac is to be upgraded to the 2- and 4-MW beam-power levels with no increase in duty factor. The author gives an overview of the linac design parameters and design choices made

  3. Study and optimization of a LINAC drift tube for high intensity proton acceleration; Etude et optimisation d'un LINAC a tubes de glissement pour acceleration de forts courants de protons en continu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernaudin, P.E

    2002-09-01

    High intensity proton accelerators lead to specific problems related to the need to limit beam losses. The problem is more acute in the low energy part (up to 20 MeV) where the beam transport is the most difficult. The drift tube linac (DTL) remains the reference structure for energies of a few MeV to a few dozens MeV despite the arising of some new cavity types. This thesis purpose is to design such a DTL for a high intensity proton accelerator. Until now, no such continuous wave cavity has ever been operated. To ensure the viability of such an accelerator, a short four cells prototype is designed, built and tested under nominal RF conditions. This prototype is fully representative of a complete machine except for its length. The design complexity comes from the combination of RF electromagnetism, thermal exchanges, mechanics, ultra-vacuum engineering and manufacturing constraints. More specifically, the electromagnets alignment is a primary factor, and reliability, despite being usually of secondary importance in particles accelerator science, is here a major concern considering potential industrial applications of this machine. The prototype design includes the cavity itself, but also quadrupole electromagnets whose feasibility is a limiting factor, considering the very small space available to them. Two different magnet types and associated drift tubes are studied and manufactured, to be tested in the prototype cavity. The experimental part is focused on mechanical and thermal aspects. The electromagnetic properties of the cavity are also checked. As a conclusion of this thesis, technical and conceptual improvements as suggested by the manufacturing and experimental phases are presented, to be implemented in a complete cavity. (author)

  4. Observations of accelerated high current low emittance beams in the SLC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.; Ross, M.C.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stiening, R.F.

    1985-05-01

    The Linac of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is required to accelerate several intense single electron and positron bunches to high energy while not enlarging their small transverse emittances. The improvements needed by the SLAC Linac to meet these goals have very stringent design criteria. As partial systems have become available, beam tests have been performed to confirm the designs. The results of those beam tests are discussed. Future plans of the improvement program are described. 13 refs., 9 figs

  5. Linacs for medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews efforts on using high energy (25-30 MeV) and high power (10-20 kW) electron linacs and lower energy (7 MeV) proton linacs for medical radioisotope production. Using high energy x-rays from the electron linacs, PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes are produced through photonuclear reactions such as 19 F(γ,n) 18 F, which also allow production of other PET radionuclides 11 C, 13 N, and 15 O. Other mostly used medical radionuclides 99m Tc can also be obtained by using the electron linacs, through photofission or photonuclear reactions. Proton linacs for PET have also been recently developed and the product has been available in the market since 2005. The linacs have been tested for 18 F production. As a proton accelerator, the target systems and nuclear reactions are similar to the ones used in PET cyclotrons. (author)

  6. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H Y; He, Y; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  7. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Ma, H. Y.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. Y.; He, Y.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  8. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q., E-mail: wuq@impcas.ac.cn; Ma, H. Y.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. Y.; He, Y.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  9. The Digital Feedback RF Control System of the RFQ and DTL1 for 100 MeV Proton Linac of PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Yu In Ha; Cho, Yong-Sub; Han, Yeung-Jin; Kang Heung Sik; Kim, Sung-Chul; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, In-Soo; Tae Kim, Do; Tae Seol, Kyung

    2005-01-01

    The 100 MeV Proton linear accelerator (Linac) for the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) will include 1 RFQ and 1 DTL1 at 350 MHz as well as 7 DTL2 cavities at 700 MHz. The low level RF system with the digital feedback RF control provides the field control to accelerate a 20mA proton beam from 50 keV to 20 MeV with a RFQ and a DTL1 at 350M Hz. The FPGA-based digital feedback RF control system has been built and is used to control cavity field amplitude within ± 1% and relative phase within ± 1°. The fast digital processing is networked to the EPICS-based control system with an embedded processor (Blackfin). In this paper, the detailed description of the digital feedback RF control system will be described with the performance test results.

  10. TOP LINAC design; Progetto del TOP LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L; Ronsivalle, C; Vignati, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1997-11-01

    The report describes a linear accelerator for protons named TOP LINAC designed for the TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni, Oncological Protontherapy) project launched by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, ISS) to explore in collaboration with the biggest Oncological Hospital in Rome (Istituto Regina Elena, IRE) the potentialities of the therapy with accelerated protons and establish guide lines for the application of this new type of radiotherapy in comparison with the more traditional electron and x-rays radiotherapy. The concept of a compact accelerator for protontherapy applications bore within the Italian Hadrontherapy Collaboration (TERA Collaboration) with the aim to diffuse the protontherapy on the National territory. The ISS program plans to use the TOP linac proton beam also for production of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes and radiobiology studies. Official agreements are in course between ISS and ENEA which provides its experience in the industrial and medical accelerators for the design and the construction of the TOP linac. The accelerator that will be the first 3 GHz proton linac in the world, will be composed of a 428.3 MHz 7 Me V RFQ + DTL injector followed by a 7-65 Me V section of a 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65 - 200 Me V variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. In particular the SCDTL section uses a highly innovative accelerating structure patented by ENEA. In this report the clinical and physical requests are discussed and a preliminary design of the whole machine is given.

  11. Drift tube with an electro-quadrupole magnet made with a conventional enamel wire for the proton engineering frontier project drift tube linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S.

    2006-12-01

    The proton engineering frontier project (PEFP) drift tube linac (DTL) chose the new type of electro-quadrupole magnet (EQM) using an enameled wire for a drift tube. By using this kind of EQM, we could simplify the drift tube structure. We verified the structural stability and thermal stability of this drift tube structure through a computational analysis and a simple experiment. We also verified the stability of the enameled wire regarding corrosion through a long period test of about 1 year. It was concluded that the design and fabrication of the drift tube and the EQM were successful.

  12. Drift tube with an electro-quadrupole magnet made with a conventional enamel wire for the proton engineering frontier project drift tube linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.H. [PEFP, KAERI, DaeJeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yhkim72@kaeri.re.kr; Kwon, H.J. [PEFP, KAERI, DaeJeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.S. [PEFP, KAERI, DaeJeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-21

    The proton engineering frontier project (PEFP) drift tube linac (DTL) chose the new type of electro-quadrupole magnet (EQM) using an enameled wire for a drift tube. By using this kind of EQM, we could simplify the drift tube structure. We verified the structural stability and thermal stability of this drift tube structure through a computational analysis and a simple experiment. We also verified the stability of the enameled wire regarding corrosion through a long period test of about 1 year. It was concluded that the design and fabrication of the drift tube and the EQM were successful.

  13. Drift tube with an electro-quadrupole magnet made with a conventional enamel wire for the proton engineering frontier project drift tube linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Kwon, H.J.; Cho, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    The proton engineering frontier project (PEFP) drift tube linac (DTL) chose the new type of electro-quadrupole magnet (EQM) using an enameled wire for a drift tube. By using this kind of EQM, we could simplify the drift tube structure. We verified the structural stability and thermal stability of this drift tube structure through a computational analysis and a simple experiment. We also verified the stability of the enameled wire regarding corrosion through a long period test of about 1 year. It was concluded that the design and fabrication of the drift tube and the EQM were successful

  14. Characterization of Radiation Induced Current in RF coils of Linac-MR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Benjamin Lester

    Real-time MR imaging of the cancer patients undergoing external beam radiation treatment represents the next generation in image guided radiotherapy. However, the radio frequency (RF) coil of the MRI is exposed to the pulsed radiation of the linear accelerator in the systems where a medical linear accelerator is integrated with the MRI. This thesis is primarily concerned with the instantaneous effect of pulsed radiation on the RF coils, in particular the Radiation Induced Current (RIC). The RIC results from the charge imbalance created by the ejection of Compton electrons from the thin conductors of the RF coils during the pulsed irradiation. This work spans the initial observations of the RIC in real coils, a detailed characterization of the RIC and finally its impact on the MR image. The first part presented the measurements of the instantaneous RIC in two different MRI RF coils. Some basic characterization of the RIC included the isolation of the RF coil component responsible for RIC, the dependence of RIC on linear accelerator dose rate, and the effect of placing wax buildup on the coil to reduce RIC. The copper windings of the RF coils were isolated as the main source of RIC. A linear dependence of the RIC amplitude on dose rate was observed. The RIC was decreased with wax buildup, suggesting an electronic disequilibrium as the cause of RIC. In the second part, a buildup method of RIC removal in planar conductors is tested, a Monte Carlo method of RIC calculation in metal conductors is presented and validated, and the Monte Carlo method is used to examine the effects of magnetic fields on both planar conductor and practical cylindrical coil geometries. The buildup method of RIC removal is effective in planar geometries and in cylindrical coil geometries when the coil conductor is in direct contact with the patient. The presence of air gap between the coil and patient makes this method of RIC removal less effective although placing buildup still reduces the RIC

  15. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  16. An energy recovery electron linac-on-ring collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2000-01-01

    We present the design of high-luminosity electron-proton/ion colliders in which the electrons are produced by an Energy Recovering Linac (ERL). Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10 33 (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at currents of a few hundred mA and multi-GeV energies. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented

  17. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zheng; He, Yuan; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave (CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation (PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral (PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  18. Proton current measurements using the prompt gamma ray diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Burns, E.J.T.; Johnson, D.J.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Prompt gamma ray signals from the nuclear reaction 7 Li(p,γ) 8 Be have been used to make time resolved proton current measurements. In these measurements, the proton beam was allowed to strike cylindrical thick lithium metal targets. The time integrated proton current was measured using gamma activation of copper via the reaction 63 Cu(γ,n) 62 Cu(β+). The positron activity of the copper sample was easily measured using coincidence counting techniques. The number of 62 Cu atoms produced per proton incident on a thick Li metal target was determined with separate calibration runs performed on the Sandia 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The time history of the prompt gamma production was measured using six EGG NPM-54 scintillator photomultiplier combinations shielded by 96.5 cm of concrete and 5.1 cm of Pb. The use of six scintillator photomultiplier combinations was necessary to increase the statistical precision of the data. The normalization of the prompt gamma time history data with the total time integrated proton-current measurement yielded the absolute time resolved proton current on target. Data from runs performed on the Sandia Proto I accelerator will be presented

  19. Radiotechnical Institute activity in the linac field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, B.P.

    1976-01-01

    For many years, the Radiotechnical Institute has been involved in a number of projects aimed at constructing linear accelerators for protons or electrons. This report summarizes the experience gained and covers 1) some problems of developing linacs to serve as meson or neutron generators, 2) results of study of a linac with asymmetric alternating phase focusing, and 3) electron linac projects. (author)

  20. Linac beam dynamics calculations for low-current large-emittance beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, G.R.; Butler, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    The beam in PILAC, a superconducting linac for pions proposed at LAUFF, will have a lager momentum spread (7% dp/p) and occupy a larger transverse space (13 cm dia. bore) than is usual in high-beta linacs. To find the effects of this large phase space, a cavity element is being added to the MOTER code. With this addition, pions and other particles may be tracked through the injection line and the PILAC linac. In one option, the particles may be cell by cell through a multicell cavity using formulas. The formulas are derived by integrating the energy gain and transverse impulse from the fields in a cell along the path of the particle. What is new in this analysis is that the transverse momentum is considered to be a significant part of the total momentum. The effect of a difference in velocity from the design velocity of the structure is considered. In another option still under development, field information is specified, and the particles may be tracked by stepwise integration

  1. Suitability of high-current standing-wave linac technology for ultra-relativistic electron beam propagation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, D.C.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Near-term development of the existing PHERMEX standing-wave linac would provide a 40 to 60 MeV electron beam with a current of 3 kA capable of answering a number of fundamental issues concerning endoatmospheric, ultra-relativistic electron beam propagation. Inherent high-repetition rate and multiple-pulse capability would allow alternative propagation scenarios to be investigated. Much of the theoretical expertise required to support the technology development and time-resolved beam propagation experiments presently resides within the Theoretical Applications Division

  2. RF linac designs with beams in thermal equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Brown, N.

    1996-01-01

    Beams in conventional radio-frequency linear accelerators (rf linacs) usually have a transverse temperature which is much larger than the longitudinal temperature. With high currents, space charge forces couple the transverse and longitudinal particle motions, driving the beam toward thermal equilibrium, which leads to emittance growth and halo formation. A design strategy is proposed in which the beam has equal transverse and longitudinal temperatures through the entire linac, avoiding these undesirable effects. For such equipartitioned linac beams, simple analytical relationships can be derived for the bunch size, tune depression, and other parameters as a function of beam intensity, emittance, and external focusing. These relations were used to develop three conceptual designs for a 938 MeV, 100 mA proton linac with different tune depressions, which are presented in this paper. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Fermilab: Linac upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Fermilab linear accelerator (Linac) was conceived 20 years ago, produced its first 200 MeV proton beam on 30 November 1970 and has run without major interruption ever since. Demands have steadily increased through the added complexity of the downstream chain of accelerators and by the increased patient load of the Neutron Therapy Facility

  4. TOP LINAC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, A.

    1997-11-01

    The report describes a linear accelerator for protons named TOP LINAC designed for the TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni, Oncological Protontherapy) project launched by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita', ISS) to explore in collaboration with the biggest Oncological Hospital in Rome (Istituto Regina Elena, IRE) the potentialities of the therapy with accelerated protons and establish guide lines for the application of this new type of radiotherapy in comparison with the more traditional electron and x-rays radiotherapy. The concept of a compact accelerator for protontherapy applications bore within the Italian Hadrontherapy Collaboration (TERA Collaboration) with the aim to diffuse the protontherapy on the National territory. The ISS program plans to use the TOP linac proton beam also for production of PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radioisotopes and radiobiology studies. Official agreements are in course between ISS and ENEA which provides its experience in the industrial and medical accelerators for the design and the construction of the TOP linac. The accelerator that will be the first 3 GHz proton linac in the world, will be composed of a 428.3 MHz 7 Me V RFQ + DTL injector followed by a 7-65 Me V section of a 3 GHz SCDTL structure and a 65 - 200 Me V variable energy SCL 3 GHz structure. In particular the SCDTL section uses a highly innovative accelerating structure patented by ENEA. In this report the clinical and physical requests are discussed and a preliminary design of the whole machine is given

  5. Review of induction LINACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1981-10-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of activity in the field of induction linacs, with several new machines becoming operational and others in the design stages. The performance levels of electron machines have reached 10's of kiloamps of current and will soon reach 10's of MeV's of energy. Acceleration of ion current has been demonstrated, and the study of a 10 GeV heavy ion induction linac for ICF continues. The operating principles of induction linacs are reviewed with the emphasis on design choices which are important for increasing the maximum beam currents

  6. Review of induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1982-01-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of activity in the field of induction linacs, with several new machines becoming operational and others in the design stages. The performance levels of electron machines have reached 10's of kiloamps of current and will soon reach 10's of MeV's of energy. Acceleration of several kiloamps of ion current has been demonstrated, and the study of a 10 GeV heavy ion induction linac for ICF continues. The operating principles of induction linacs are reviewed with the emphasis on design choices which are important for increasing the maximum beam currents

  7. Design of Linear Accelerator (LINAC) tanks for proton therapy via Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, T.; De Palma, L.; Laneve, D.; Strippoli, V.; Cuccovilllo, A.; Prudenzano, F. [Electrical and Information Engineering Department (DEI), Polytechnic Institute of Bari, 4 Orabona Street, CAP 70125, Bari, (Italy); Dimiccoli, V.; Losito, O.; Prisco, R. [ITEL Telecomunicazioni, 39 Labriola Street, CAP 70037, Ruvo di Puglia, Bari, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    A homemade computer code for designing a Side- Coupled Linear Accelerator (SCL) is written. It integrates a simplified model of SCL tanks with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The computer code main aim is to obtain useful guidelines for the design of Linear Accelerator (LINAC) resonant cavities. The design procedure, assisted via the aforesaid approach seems very promising, allowing future improvements towards the optimization of actual accelerating geometries. (authors)

  8. Design of Linear Accelerator (LINAC) tanks for proton therapy via Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, T.; De Palma, L.; Laneve, D.; Strippoli, V.; Cuccovilllo, A.; Prudenzano, F.; Dimiccoli, V.; Losito, O.; Prisco, R.

    2015-01-01

    A homemade computer code for designing a Side- Coupled Linear Accelerator (SCL) is written. It integrates a simplified model of SCL tanks with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The computer code main aim is to obtain useful guidelines for the design of Linear Accelerator (LINAC) resonant cavities. The design procedure, assisted via the aforesaid approach seems very promising, allowing future improvements towards the optimization of actual accelerating geometries. (authors)

  9. Dump and Current Measurement of Unstripped H`ions at the Injection from the CERN LINAC4 Into the PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Chamizo, R; Goddard, B; Mereghetti, A; Versaci, R; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 is the new H- linear accelerator under construction at CERN aiming to double the brightness of the beam injected to the CERN PS Booster (PSB) for delivering proton beams to experiments or further CERN accelerators, down to the LHC. The injection system in the PSB is based on the H- charge exchange where the 160 MeV H- beam is converted into an H+ beam by stripping the electrons with a carbon foil. A beam dump located inside a pulsed magnet for the injection bump will intercept the unstripped ions (H0 and H-) and measure the collected charge to detect the relative efficiency and degradation of the stripping foil. The challenge of the dump design is to meet the requirements of a beam dump providing a current measurement and at the same time minimizing the perturbation of the magnetic field of the surrounding pulsed magnet. This paper describes all phases of the dump design and the main issues related to its integration in the line.

  10. High current proton linear accelerators and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnicliffe, P.R.; Chidley, B.G.; Fraser, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible role that high-current proton linear accelerators might play as ''electrical breeders'' in the forthcoming nuclear-power economy. A high-power beam of intermediate energy protons delivered to an actinide-element target surrounded by a blanket of fertile material may produce fissile material at a competitive cost. Criteria for technical performance and, in a Canadian context, for costs are given and the major problem areas outlined not only for the accelerator and its associated rf power source but also for the target assembly. (author)

  11. Kinetic description of electron-proton instability in high-intensity proton linacs and storage rings based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Davidson

    1999-05-01

    electrons is negligibly small. We introduce the ion plasma frequency squared defined by ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}=4πn[over ^]_{b}Z_{b}^{2}e^{2}/γ_{b}m_{b}, and the fractional charge neutralization defined by f=n[over ^]_{e}/Z_{b}n[over ^]_{b}, where n[over ^]_{b} and n[over ^]_{e} are the characteristic ion and electron densities. The equilibrium and stability analysis is carried out for arbitrary normalized beam intensity ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}}, and arbitrary fractional charge neutralization f, consistent with radial confinement of the beam particles. For the moderately high beam intensities envisioned in the proton linacs and storage rings for the Accelerator for Production of Tritium and the Spallation Neutron Source, the normalized beam intensity is typically ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}}≲ 0.1. For heavy ion fusion applications, however, the transverse beam emittance is very small, and the space-charge-dominated beam intensity is much larger, with ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}}≲ 2γ_{b}^{2}. The stability analysis shows that the instability growth rate Imω increases with increasing normalized beam intensity ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}} and increasing fractional charge neutralization f. In addition, the instability is strongest (largest growth rate for perturbations with azimuthal mode number ℓ=1, corresponding to a simple (dipole transverse displacement of the beam ions and the background electrons. For the case of overlapping step-function density profiles for the beam ions and background electrons, corresponding to monoenergetic ions and electrons, a key result is that there is no threshold in beam intensity ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/ω_{βb}^{0^{2}} or fractional charge neutralization f for the onset of instability. Finally, for the case of continuously varying density profiles with parabolic profile shape, a semiquantitative estimate is made of the effects of the corresponding spread in (depressed betatron frequency on stability

  12. Test of a non-invasive bunch shape monitor at the GSI high current LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, Benjamin; Forck, Peter; Kester, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Dorn, Christoph; Kowina, Piotr [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    At the heavy ion LINAC at GSI, a novel scheme of non-invasive Bunch Shape Monitor has been tested with several ion beams at 11.4 MeV/u. Caused by the beam impact on the residual gas, secondary electrons are liberated. These electrons are accelerated by an electrostatic field, transported through a sophisticated electrostatic energy analyzer and an rf-deflector, acting as a time-to-space converter. Finally a MCP detects the electron distribution. For the applied beam settings this Bunch Shape Monitor is able to obtain longitudinal profiles down to 400 ps with a resolution of 50 ps, corresponding to 2 degree of the 36 MHz acceleration frequency. During a long shutdown period for the GSI accelerators in 2013, the monitor underwent a general technical retrofit: Influence of the beam has been significantly reduced, due enhanced electrodes, new apertures have been installed to decrease electron scattering, sophisticated stepping motors will allow better image properties, a MCP shielding plate will prevent high background. Together with these improvements the achievements of the monitor are discussed.

  13. Minimum beam-energy spread of a high-current rf linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Fraser, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Energy spread is an important parameter of an electron linac and, usually, is determined by the time dependence of the external rf accelerating field. By using a combination of fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies, the accelerating field can be maintained approximately constant over a beam bunch with the resultant energy spread approximately zero. This technique is no longer adequate when the longitudinal wake field of the beam bunch is taken into account. The wake-field variation along the bunch length introduces an energy spread that cannot be exactly compensated for with the use of fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies. The achievable minimum energy spread including the wake-field effect is therefore limited. In this paper, we report the minimum energy spreads achievable using the fundamental and third-harmonic frequencies, calculated using a least-squares algorithm, for some typical structures in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The dependence of these results on bunch shape, bunch charge, and structure frequency is discussed. Also included are discussions of schemes for implementing the third-harmonic frequency and their effectiveness

  14. Confinement of a high current proton beam in a linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerslick, G.S.; Roth, I.S.; Golkowski, C.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A 1 MeV, 6 kA, 50 ns annular proton beam has been generated in a two stage induction linac. Several confinement systems designed to allow propagation through multiple acceleration stages have been studied. In the first, the beam is injected through a half cusp into a 1.4 T solenoidal magnetic field. In the second system the beam is generated in a full cusp diode. The third system discussed relies on collective confinement of the protons by the space charge of the neutralizing electrons. This is in contrast to the previously described systems which rely on magnetic confinement. A comparison between the three methods of transport is made

  15. An overview of current experiments in search of proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.; Sulak, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors being used in current experiments dedicated to the search for proton decay, fall into two classes, totally active water Cherenkov detectors with light collected by phototubes, and sampling calorimeters with particle ionization tracked by gas tube arrays. An example of each type is considered in detail, the features of other detectors in the two classes are pointed out and compared with those of the same type. (U.K.)

  16. Preliminary design of high-power wave-guide/transmission system for multimegawatt CW requirements of 100 MeV proton Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Purushottam; Wanmode, Y.D.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Development of a 100 MeV CW proton Linac has been planned at CAT. This Linac will be needing CW rf power in the frequency ranges of 350 MHz and 700 MHz for its RFQ and DTL/CCDTL/SFDTL structures respectively. The power to the accelerating structures will be produced by either 1 MW CW or 250 kW CW klystron/inductive output tubes (HOM IOTs). The power needed by respective feed points in the structure is max. 250 kW which will be powered by splitting the power from 1 MW klystron/klystrode into four channels by using a wave-guide system. In case of using 250 kW tubes the power to the structures will be provided directly from each tube. Two types of wave-guide transmission system have been considered, viz WR 2300 for 350 MHz rf needs and WR 1500 for 700 MHz rf needs. The typical wave-guide system has been designed using the 1 MW CW klystron followed by wave-guide filter, dual directional coupler, high-power circulator, three 3 dB magic TEE power dividers to split the main channel into four equal channels of 250 kW each. Each individual channel has dual directional couplers, flexible wave-guide sections and high power ceramic vacuum window. The circulator and each power divider is terminated into the isolated ports by high power CW loads. Out of the four channels three channels have phase shifters. Present paper describes the technological aspects and design specifications-considerations for these stringent requirements. (author)

  17. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  18. Physics design of APT linac with normal conducting rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, S.; Billen, J.H.; Stovall, J.E.; Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The accelerator based production of tritium calls for a high-power, cw proton linac. Previous designs for such a linac use a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL) to an intermediate energy and a coupled-cavity linc (CCL) to the final energy. The Los Alamos design uses a high-energy (6.7 MeV) RFQ followed by the newly developed coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a CCL. This design accommodates external electromagnetic quadrupole lenses which provide a strong uniform focusing lattice from the end of the RFQ to the end of the CCL. The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells symmetric in both the CCDTL and CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. At higher energies, there are some advantages of using superconducting rf cavities. Currently, such schemes are under vigorous study. This paper describes the linac design based on normal conducting cavities and presents simulation results

  19. Electron linac injector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    There is a continuing demand for improved injectors for electron linacs. Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators require pulse trains of high brightness and, in some applications, high average power at the same time. Wakefield-accelerator and laser-acceleration experiments require isolated bunches of high peak brightness. Experiments with alkali-halide photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for injector applications are described. For isolated pulses, metal photocathodes (illuminated by intense laser pulses) are being employed. Reduced emittance growth in high-peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by linearizing the cavity electric field's radial component and by using high field strengths at the expense of lower shunt impedance. Harmonically excited cavities have been proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance of linac cavities and thereby reducing the energy spread produced in the acceleration process. Operation of injector linacs at a subharmonic of the main linac frequency is also proposed for enlarging the phase acceptance

  20. Spectrum Analyzer Application for the Proton Synchrotron Wall Current Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Limpens, Rik

    The Proton Synchrotron (PS) is a key component in CERN's accelerator complex, where it usually accelerates either protons or heavy ions. The new acquisition system for the PS ring wall current monitors has been installed to be able to perform higher frequency measurements of a beam bunch. This is an important improvement, since the oscillating signals are related to losses of a beam bunch. The main goal of this project is to develop a LabVIEW application running on a Real-Time target to perform continuous and triggered spectral acquisition of a PS beam bunch and to provide a data visualization and analysis tool for the operators and users of the machine.

  1. Electron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G A; Schriber, S O [ed.

    1976-11-01

    A study was made of the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field. These machines were classified according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for x-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. Industrial machines discussed include linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a c-w, 1 GeV, 100..mu..A electron linac is raised, and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of rf superconductivity is summarized. A review is given of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e/sup +-/ storage rings, and recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC, is described.

  2. Electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    To study the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field, we have classified these machines according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for X-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. The section on industrial machines includes linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a C.W., 1 GeV, 100 μA electron linac is raised and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of RF superconductivity is summarized. Following, there is a review of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e +- storage rings. The paper ends with a description of recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC. (author)

  3. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  4. First high-power model of the annular-ring coupled structure for use in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype cavity for the annular-ring coupled structure (ACS for use in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC linac has been developed to confirm the feasibility of achieving the required performance. This prototype cavity is a buncher module, which includes ten accelerating cells in total. The ACS cavity is formed by the silver brazing of ACS half-cell pieces stacked in a vacuum furnace. The accelerating cell of the ACS is surrounded by a coupling cell. We, therefore, tuned the frequencies of the accelerating and coupling cells by an ultraprecision lathe before brazing, taking into account the frequency shift due to brazing. The prototype buncher module was successfully conditioned up to 600 kW, which corresponds to an accelerating field that is higher than the designed field of 4.1  MV/m by 30%. We describe the frequency-tuning results for the prototype buncher module and its high-power conditioning.

  5. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  6. Low energy current accumulator for high-energy proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    Building current in high-energy p-p colliding beam machines is most appropriately done in a low-energy (small circumference) current accumulator. Three significant factors favor such a procedure: First, large rings tend to be susceptible to unstable longitudinal density oscillations. These can be avoided by pumping up the beam in the accumulator. When the current stack is injected into the storage ring, potentially harmful instability is essentially neutralized. Second, high-field magnets characteristic of future high energy proton rings are designed with superconducting coils within the iron magnetic shield. This means coil construction and placement errors propagate rapidly within the beam aperture. An intermediate ''stacking ring'' allows the minimum use of the superconducting ring aperture. Finally, the coils are vulnerable to radiation heating and possible magnet quenching. By minimizing beam manipulaion in the superconducting environment and using only the central portion of the beam aperture, coil vulnerability can be put at a minimum

  7. Observation of dark-current signals from the S-band structures of the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R.; Decker, F.J.; Seidel, M.; Siemann, R.H.; Whittum, D.

    1997-07-01

    It is well known that the electro-magnetic fields in high-gradient RF structures can cause electron emission from the metallic structure walls. If the emitted electrons are captured and accelerated by the accelerating fields so-called dark-current is induced. Dark-currents have been measured and studied for various RF-structures. In this paper the authors present measurements of RF induced signals for the SLC S-band structures. For nominal gradients of 17 MV/m it is shown that the dark-current can be strong enough to significantly reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of the SLC beam wire scanners. They also show results from RF measurements in the dipole band. The measurements are compared to more direct observations of dark-current and it is tried to connect the results to possible effects on the accelerated particle beam

  8. An analysis of the gradient-induced electric fields and current densities in human models when situated in a hybrid MRI-LINAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Limei; Trakic, Adnan; Sanchez-Lopez, Hector; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    MRI-LINAC is a new image-guided radiotherapy treatment system that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a linear accelerator (LINAC) in a single unit. One drawback is that the pulsing of the split gradient coils of the system induces an electric field and currents in the patient which need to be predicted and evaluated for patient safety. In this novel numerical study the in situ electric fields and associated current densities were evaluated inside tissue-accurate male and female human voxel models when a number of different split-geometry gradient coils were operated. The body models were located in the MRI-LINAC system along the axial and radial directions in three different body positions. Each model had a region of interest (ROI) suitable for image-guided radiotherapy. The simulation results show that the amplitudes and distributions of the field and current density induced by different split x-gradient coils were similar with one another in the ROI of the body model, but varied outside of the region. The fields and current densities induced by a split classic coil with the surface unconnected showed the largest deviation from those given by the conventional non-split coils. Another finding indicated that the distributions of the peak current densities varied when the body position, orientation or gender changed, while the peak electric fields mainly occurred in the skin and fat tissues. (paper)

  9. NPL superconducting Linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, H.E.; Howe, M.A.; Jackson, L.W.; LaCroix, J.M.; Readdy, H.P.; Storm, D.W.; Van Houten, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    The control system for the NPL Linac is based on a Microvax II host computer connected in a star network with 9 satellite computers. These satellites use single board varsions of DEC's PDP 11 processor. The operator's console uses high performance graphics and touch screen technology to display the current linac status and as the means for interactively controlling the operation of the accelerator

  10. High-current proton accelerators-meson factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrievskij, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A possibility of usage of accelerators of neutron as well as meson factories is considered. Parameters of linear and cyclic accelerators are given, which are employed as meson factories and as base for developing intense neutron generators. It is emphasized that the principal aim of developing neutron generators on the base of high current proton accelerators is production of intense neutron fluxes with a present energy spectrum. Production of tens-and-hundreds milliampere currents at the energy of 800-1000 MeV is considered at present for two types of accelerating facilities viz. linear accelerators under continuous operating conditions and cyclotrons with strong focusing. Quantitative evaluations of developing high-efficiency linear and cyclic accelerators are considered. The basic parameters of an ccelerating complex are given, viz. linear accelerator-injector and 800 MeV isochronous cyclotron. The main problems associated with their realization are listed [ru

  11. Development of RF-linac and storage ring system for high-current experiments at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, I.

    1986-08-01

    The heavy ion facility under construction at GSI is suitable for the generation of high-current beams. It consists of a new high-current injector into the Unilac and a synchrotron and storage ring. We discuss the capability of this system to produce short pulses of heavy ions with a specific energy of the order of 0.1 MJ/g. Under these conditions the system allows to perform a first generation of heavy ion driven target experiments and to test most of the critical issues of a large scale heavy ion fusion driver facility. (orig.)

  12. rf quadrupole linac: a new low-energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.; Crandall, K.R.; Fuller, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept in low-energy particle accelerators, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is currently being developed at the Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory. In this new linear accelerating structure both the focusing and accelerating forces are produced by the rf fields. It can accept a high-current, low-velocity dc ion beam and bunch it with a high capture efficiency. The performance of this structure as a low-energy linear accelerator has been verified with the successful construction of a proton RFQ linac. This test structure has accelerated 38 mA of protons from 100 keV to 640 keV in 1.1 meters with a capture efficiency greater than 80%. In this paper a general description of the RFQ linac and an outline of the basic RFQ linac design procedure are presented in addition to the experimental results from the test accelerator. Finally, several applications of this new accelerator are discussed

  13. A Fast Non Intercepting Linac Electron Beam Position and Current Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Wille, Mads

    1982-01-01

    A non-intercepting beam monitor consisting of four detecting loops is used to determine the spatial postion and current of a pulsed beam from an electron linear accelerator. The monitor detects the magnetic field radiated by the substructure of the electron bunches created by the accelerating...

  14. A fast non-intercepting linac beam position and current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.; Wille, M.

    1982-01-01

    A non-intercepting beam monitor consisting of four detecting loops is used to determine the spatial postion and current of a pulsed beam from an electron linear accelerator. The monitor detects the magnetic field radiated by the substructure of the electron bunches created by the accelerating microwave. The detecting loops are interconnected two by two, by means of two coaxial hybrid junctions, the two sets positioned perpendicular to each other. By means of the two signals from the diametrically positioned detecting loops, a good spatial displacement and current monitoring sensitivity are achieved by subtracting one signal from the other and adding the two signals, respectively. For displacements below 2 mm from the center axis an average sensitivity of 0.5 mV/mm x mA is measured, whereas displacements more than 2 mm yields 1.3 mV/mm x mA. A sensitivity of 0.2 mV/mA in current monitoring is measured, and the rise time of the monitored pulse signal is better than 5 ns measured from 10 to 90% of the pulse height. Design strategy and performance of the monitor are described. (orig.)

  15. Multiple-linac approach for tritium production and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes an approach to tritium production based on the use of multiple proton linear accelerators. Features of a single APTT Linac as proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory are presented and discussed. An alternative approach to the attainment of the same total proton beam power of 200 MW with several lower-performance superconducting Linacs is proposed and discussed. Although each of these accelerators are considerable extrapolations of present technology, the latter can nevertheless be built at less technical risk when compared to the single high-current APT Linac, particularly concerning the design and the performance of the low-energy front-end. The use of superconducting cavities is also proposed as a way of optimizing the accelerating gradient, the overall length, and the operational costs. The superconducting technology has already been successfully demonstrated in a number of large-size projects and should be seriously considered for the acceleration of intense low-energy beams of protons. Finally, each linear accelerator would represent an ideal source of very intense beams of protons for a variety of applications, such as: weapons and waste actinide transmutation processes, isotopes for medical application, spallation neutron sources, and the generation of intense beams of neutrinos and muons for nuclear and high-energy physics research. The research community at large has obviously an interest in providing expertise for, and in having access to, the demonstration, the construction, the operation, and the exploitation of these top-performance accelerators

  16. University of Washington superconducting booster linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.W.; Amsbaugh, J.F.; Cramer, J.G.; Swanson, H.E.; Trainor, T.A.; Vandenbosch, R.; Weitkamp, W.G.; Will, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    We have begun construction of a superconducting linac designed to accelerate ions from protons through about mass 60. Injected by our 9 MV-terminal tandem van de Graaff accelerator, the linac is expected to double the proton energy and quadruple the energies of heavier ions. The resonators are lead plated copper quarter wave structures. The overall layout and expected performance of the accelerator will be presented, along with a brief status report. 3 refs., 3 figs

  17. Statistical simulations of machine errors for LINAC4

    CERN Document Server

    Baylac, M.; Froidefond, E.; Sargsyan, E.

    2006-01-01

    LINAC 4 is a normal conducting H- linac proposed at CERN to provide a higher proton flux to the CERN accelerator chain. It should replace the existing LINAC 2 as injector to the Proton Synchrotron Booster and can also operate in the future as the front end of the SPL, a 3.5 GeV Superconductingg Proton Linac. LINAC 4 consists of a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole, a chopper line, a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Cell Coupled DTL all operating at 352 MHz and finally a Side Coupled Linac at 704 MHz. Beam dynamics was studied and optimized performing end-to-end simulations. This paper presents statistical simulations of machine errors which were performed in order to validate the proposed design.

  18. Effect of high current electron beam in a 30 MeV radio frequency linac for neutron-time-of-flight applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, B., E-mail: biswaranjan.nayak1@gmail.com; Acharya, S.; Rajawat, R. K. [Accelerator and Pulsed Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); DasGupta, K. [Accelerator and Pulsed Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Beam Technology Development Group, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-01-15

    A high power pulsed radio frequency electron linac is designed by BARC, India to accelerate 30 MeV, 10 A, 10 ns beam for neutron-time-of-flight applications. It will be used as a neutron generator and will produce ∼10{sup 12}–10{sup 13} n/s. It is essential to reduce the beam instability caused by space charge effect and the beam cavity interaction. In this paper, the wakefield losses in the accelerating section due to bunch of RMS (Root mean square) length 2 mm (at the gun exit) is analysed. Loss and kick factors are numerically calculated using CST wakefield solver. Both the longitudinal and transverse wake potentials are incorporated in beam dynamics code ELEGANT to find the transverse emittance growth of the beam propagating through the linac. Beam loading effect is examined by means of numerical computation carried out in ASTRA code. Beam break up start current has been estimated at the end of the linac which arises due to deflecting modes excited by the high current beam. At the end, transverse beam dynamics of such high current beam has been analysed.

  19. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  20. Radioisotope production linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, J.E.; Hansborough, L.D.; O'Brien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A 70-MeV proton beam would open a new family of medical radioisotopes (including the important 123 I) to wide application. A 70-MeV, 500-μA linac is described, based on recent innovations in accelerator technology. It would be 27.3 m long, cost approx. $6 million, and the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable to existing cyclotrons. By operating the rf-power system to its full capability, the same accelerator is capable of producing a 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons. The technology to build such a linac is in a mature stage of developmnt, ready for use by industry

  1. WE-D-BRB-03: Current State of Volumetric Image Guidance for Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C. [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The goal of this session is to review the physics of proton therapy, treatment planning techniques, and the use of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. The course material covers the physics of proton interaction with matter and physical characteristics of clinical proton beams. It will provide information on proton delivery systems and beam delivery techniques for double scattering (DS), uniform scanning (US), and pencil beam scanning (PBS). The session covers the treatment planning strategies used in DS, US, and PBS for various anatomical sites, methods to address uncertainties in proton therapy and uncertainty mitigation to generate robust treatment plans. It introduces the audience to the current status of image guided proton therapy and clinical applications of CBCT for proton therapy. It outlines the importance of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. Learning Objectives: Gain knowledge in proton therapy physics, and treatment planning for proton therapy including intensity modulated proton therapy. The current state of volumetric image guidance equipment in proton therapy. Clinical applications of CBCT and its advantage over orthogonal imaging for proton therapy. B. Teo, B.K Teo had received travel funds from IBA in 2015.

  2. WE-D-BRB-03: Current State of Volumetric Image Guidance for Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, C.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this session is to review the physics of proton therapy, treatment planning techniques, and the use of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. The course material covers the physics of proton interaction with matter and physical characteristics of clinical proton beams. It will provide information on proton delivery systems and beam delivery techniques for double scattering (DS), uniform scanning (US), and pencil beam scanning (PBS). The session covers the treatment planning strategies used in DS, US, and PBS for various anatomical sites, methods to address uncertainties in proton therapy and uncertainty mitigation to generate robust treatment plans. It introduces the audience to the current status of image guided proton therapy and clinical applications of CBCT for proton therapy. It outlines the importance of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. Learning Objectives: Gain knowledge in proton therapy physics, and treatment planning for proton therapy including intensity modulated proton therapy. The current state of volumetric image guidance equipment in proton therapy. Clinical applications of CBCT and its advantage over orthogonal imaging for proton therapy. B. Teo, B.K Teo had received travel funds from IBA in 2015.

  3. A SUPER-CONDUCTING LINAC DRIVER FOR THE HFBR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.; Raparia, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    2000-08-21

    This paper reports on the feasibility study of a proton Super-Conducting Linac (SCL) as a driver for the High-Flux Breeder Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Linac operates in Continuous Wave (CW) mode to produce an average 10 MW of beam power. The Linac beam energy is 1.0 GeV. The average proton beam intensity in exit is 10 mA.

  4. Operational experience with the CERN hadron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmot, H.; Dutriat, C.; Hill, C.E.; Langbein, K.; Lombardi, A.M.; O'Neil, M.; Tanke, E.; Vretenar, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present CERN proton linac (Linac2) was commissioned in 1978 and since that date has been the primary source of protons to the CERN accelerator complex. During the past 18 years, the machine has had a very good reliability record in spite of the demands made upon it. Modifications have been made with the view of maintaining this reliability with reduced resources and new requirements from the users. Further demands will be made in the future for LHC operation. In 1994, a new linac for heavy ion production was put into service replacing the original CERN proton linac. As this machine was built within an international collaboration, operation had to take into account the novelty of the techniques used and the variety of equipment supplied by outside collaborators. Even so, the new machine has also had very good reliability. (author)

  5. Inner structure of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows the inner structure of Linac 2, with drift-tubes hanging on stems under a rigid support structure, soon to be mounted inside tank 1 (750 keV to 10 MeV, the lowest-energy one of 3). Frank Malthouse is standing in the background.

  6. Proton Therapy Expansion Under Current United States Reimbursement Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstiens, John [Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Johnstone, Peter A.S., E-mail: pajohnst@iupui.edu [Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether all the existing and planned proton beam therapy (PBT) centers in the United States can survive on a local patient mix that is dictated by insurers, not by number of patients. Methods and Materials: We determined current and projected cancer rates for 10 major US metropolitan areas. Using published utilization rates, we calculated patient percentages who are candidates for PBT. Then, on the basis of current published insurer coverage policies, we applied our experience of what would be covered to determine the net number of patients for whom reimbursement is expected. Having determined the net number of covered patients, we applied our average beam delivery times to determine the total number of minutes needed to treat that patient over the course of their treatment. We then calculated our expected annual patient capacity per treatment room to determine the appropriate number of treatment rooms for the area. Results: The population of patients who will be both PBT candidates and will have treatments reimbursed by insurance is significantly smaller than the population who should receive PBT. Coverage decisions made by insurers reduce the number of PBT rooms that are economically viable. Conclusions: The expansion of PBT centers in the US is not sustainable under the current reimbursement model. Viability of new centers will be limited to those operating in larger regional metropolitan areas, and few metropolitan areas in the US can support multiple centers. In general, 1-room centers require captive (non–PBT-served) populations of approximately 1,000,000 lives to be economically viable, and a large center will require a population of >4,000,000 lives. In areas with smaller populations or where or a PBT center already exists, new centers require subsidy.

  7. Approach of a failure analysis for the MYRRHA linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, J.P.; Medeiros-Romao, L.; Salemne, R.; Vandeplassche, D.; Biarotte, J.L.; Bouly, F.; Uriot, D.

    2015-01-01

    The MYRRHA project currently under development at SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium) is a subcritical research reactor that requires a 600 MeV proton accelerator as a driver. This linac is expected to produce a beam power of 1.5 MW onto a spallation target for the reactor to deliver a thermal power around 70 MW. Thermomechanical considerations of the spallation target set stringent requirements on the beam trip rate which should not exceed 40 trips/year for interruptions longer than three seconds. The 3 underlying principles in the design of the MYRRHA linac are elements redundancy (like the dual-injector), elements operation at de-rated values (like cavities operating at about 30% from their nominal operating points) and the fault tolerance concept, which allows the failure of a beamline component to be compensated by its neighbouring elements. Studies presented in this document show that in the event of a failure of the first cryo-module or the first quadrupole doublet the linac can resume nominal operation with a re-matched lattice. Since the fault tolerance procedure is expected to work more efficiently at higher energies (due to lower space charge effects) we can extrapolate from our studies that the MYRRHA linac is expected to operate with the failure of any cryo-module or quadrupole doublet in the main linac. A virtual accelerator-based control system is mandatory for the operation of the MYRRHA linac to ensure the very fast implementation (<3 seconds) of the fault tolerance procedure. The virtual accelerator uses a beam dynamics code (like TRACEWIN or TRACK) to compute the model of the real accelerator in operation and interacts with this later through the accelerator control command

  8. Dextromethorphan inhibition of voltage-gated proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Ho; Yeh, Jay Z

    2012-05-10

    Dextromethorphan, an antitussive drug, has a neuroprotective property as evidenced by its inhibition of microglial production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. The microglial activation requires NADPH oxidase activity, which is sustained by voltage-gated proton channels in microglia as they dissipate an intracellular acid buildup. In the present study, we examined the effect of dextromethorphan on proton currents in microglial BV2 cells. Dextromethorphan reversibly inhibited proton currents with an IC(50) value of 51.7 μM at an intracellular/extracellular pH gradient of 5.5/7.3. Dextromethorphan did not change the reversal potential or the voltage dependence of the gating. Dextrorphan and 3-hydroxymorphinan, major metabolites of dextromethorphan, and dextromethorphan methiodide were ineffective in inhibiting proton currents. The results indicate that dextromethorphan inhibition of proton currents would suppress NADPH oxidase activity and, eventually, microglial activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing begins on Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 3 August 2012, the Linac4 radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) module was installed at the accelerator test-stand in Building 152. The site will be the module’s home for almost a year, as the linear accelerator enters the assembly and testing stage.   Final module assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152.  Over the next Long Shutdown (LS2), Linac4 will replace the current Linac2 linear accelerator as the first link in CERN’s accelerator chain. It will deliver particles at 160 MeV to the PS Booster, more than triple the energy currently delivered by Linac2. But before the accelerator team can pop the champagne, the various elements of Linac4 will be tested and re-tested in facilities across CERN. “The first Linac4 tests are currently underway, starting with the CERN-built RFQ,” says Carlo Rossi, a physicist in the RF Group of the Beams (BE) Department and the RFQ project coordinator. “It’s an extremely impre...

  10. 25th anniversary for Linac-2

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On Friday, 3 October 2003, the Linac team celebrated a quarter century of successful operation of one of its linear accelerators: Linac-2, the proton workhorse of the CERN accelerator complex. Linac-2, CERN's linear proton accelerator, has now been running for 25 years - ample reason for a small celebration. About 30 members of the original team (10 of the initially more than 50 are still working at CERN), and other CERN personnel met on 3 October 2003. Linac-2 is the first link in the accelerator chain Linac-2 - PS Booster - PS - SPS and eventually LHC. Beams from Linac-2 are used after further acceleration in the CERN complex for SPS fixed target physics; for antiproton production for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD); for test beams in the East Experimental Hall and in the PS; for nuclear physics at ISOLDE; for LHC test beams and in the past for both ISR physics and Antiproton production (AA/AC) and test beams in LEAR. Linac-2 was built to obtain higher intensities and better stability than with ...

  11. Antipsychotics, chlorpromazine and haloperidol inhibit voltage-gated proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyewon; Song, Jin-Ho

    2014-09-05

    Microglial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Some antipsychotic drugs have anti-inflammatory activity and can reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species from activated microglial cells. Voltage-gated proton channels on the microglial cells participate in the generation of reactive oxygen species and neuronal toxicity by supporting NADPH oxidase activity. In the present study, we examined the effects of two typical antipsychotics, chlorpromazine and haloperidol, on proton currents in microglial BV2 cells using the whole-cell patch clamp method. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol potently inhibited proton currents with IC50 values of 2.2 μM and 8.4 μM, respectively. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol are weak bases that can increase the intracellular pH, whereby they reduce the proton gradient and affect channel gating. Although the drugs caused a marginal positive shift of the activation voltage, they did not change the reversal potential. This suggested that proton current inhibition was not due to an alteration of the intracellular pH. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol are strong blockers of dopamine receptors. While dopamine itself did not affect proton currents, it also did not alter proton current inhibition by the two antipsychotics, indicating dopamine receptors are not likely to mediate the proton current inhibition. Given that proton channels are important for the production of reactive oxygen species and possibly pro-inflammatory cytokines, the anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic activities of chlorpromazine and haloperidol may be partly derived from their ability to inhibit microglial proton currents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Theory of magnetospheric hydromagnetic waves excited by energetic ring-current protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liu; Hasegawa, Akira.

    1987-06-01

    A general theoretical formulation, allowing finite ion Larmor radii, general magnetic field geometries and plasma equilibria, has been developed to investigate excitations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Alfven waves within the earth's magnetosphere by the storm-time energetic ring-current protons. In particular, it is found that for adiabatically injected protons, various predicted instability properties are consistent with satellite observations. 8 refs

  13. Mapping return currents in laser-generated Z-pinch plasmas using proton deflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Sinenian, N.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Petrasso, R. D.; Beg, F. N.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic return currents and electromagnetic field structure in laser-generated Z-pinch plasmas have been measured using proton deflectometry. Experiments were modeled to accurately interpret deflections observed in proton radiographs. Current flow is shown to begin on axis and migrate outwards with the expanding coronal plasma. Magnetic field strengths of ∼1 T are generated by currents that increase from ∼2 kA to ∼7 kA over the course of the laser pulse. Proton deflectometry has been demonstrated to be a practical alternative to other magnetic field diagnostics for these types of plasmas.

  14. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Rohlev, A; Garoby, R

    2003-01-01

    A new VME based system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in the linac accelerating structure. It makes use of high speed digital In-phase/Quadrature (IQ) detection, digital processing, and digital IQ modulation. The digital processing and IQ modulation is done in a single PLD. The system incorporates continually variable set points, iterative learning, feed forward as well as extensive diagnostics and other features well suited for digital implementations. Built on a single VME card, it will be first used in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3) and later for upgrading the present proton linac (linac 2). This system serves also as a prototype for the future Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL). The design principle and the experimental results are described.

  15. Plants for H- acceleration in the AGS Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.S.; Witkover, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since its commissioning in 1970, the 200 MeV Linac at the Brookhaven AGS has been capable of producing peak proton beam current of greater than 100 mA with pulse lengths up to 300 μsec at a repetition rate of 10 pulses/second. The linac typically runs at 5 pulses per second, providing a 60 mA pulse of 120 μsec duration every 1.6 to 2.4 seconds for conventional multiturn injection into the AGS. The intervening pulses of length up to 300 μsec are used by the radio-isotope production, chemistry and medical facilities. Preparations are now being made to inject and accelerate H - ions in order to implement charge exchange injection into the AGS. This paper describes the aspects of this work leading to an H - beam at 200 MeV

  16. The current status of proton therapy in the world, the European Union and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, J.

    2011-01-01

    Proton therapy is considered to be very promising cancer treatment modality, and therefore many countries of the world are trying to (regardless of the high investment costs) to build their own atomic centre (or other proton centres if they operate already some). Proton therapy allows better control of therapeutic doses of radiation to which the patient is exposed. Proton irradiation of the tumor can kill more cancer cells while minimizing damage of healthy tissue. Currently there is about 33 facilities in operation in the world where proton therapy can be carried out. Proton therapy complex with new, highly sophisticated equipment is also being constructed in Slovakia - in The Central Military Hospital in Ruzomberok. The project is in its final stage of implementation. The paper describes the current status of proton therapy in the world, the European Union (EU) and Slovakia. In conclusion principally new Proton therapy unit complex built in Slovakia with similar facilities currently existing in EU countries (old 15 member states) is compared (especially from technical and medical aspects). (author)

  17. Development of the Medium Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Dae Il; Kim, Han Sung; Park, Bum Sik; Seol, Kyung Tae; Song, Young Gi; Yun, Sang Pil; Cho, Yong Sub; Hong, In Seok

    2008-05-01

    The main purpose of this project is developing 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for proton engineering frontier project (PEFP). In the first phase of the PEFP, the development of the 20-MeV linac has successfully finished. Hence the work scope of this project is designing the linac to accelerate proton beams from 20-MeV up to 100-MeV, fabricating the linac up to 45 MeV, fabricating one set of the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) tank, and developing the low level radio frequency (LLRF) system and the control system. The basic role of the new proton accelerator is accelerating 20-mA proton beams from 20 MeV up to 100 MeV. The first step of the design procedure is optimizing and determining the accelerator parameters. The beam loss is also main concern in the design stage. The drift tube (DT) and the quadrupole magnets are designed to be optimized to the new linac design. The other purpose is confirming the new design by fabricating and tuning the drift tube linac (DTL). The 20MeV proton beam divided into two directions. One is supplying the beams to user group by turning on the 45-degree bending magnet. The other is guided into the 100-MeV DTL by tuning off the dipole magnet. That is why the PEFP MEBT located after 20-MeV DTL. The MEBT is realized as two small DTL tanks with three cells and a 45-degree bending magnet. The fabrication of one MEBT tank is another purpose of this project. The other purposes of this project is developing the LLRF system to control the RF signal and control system to monitor and control the vacuum system, magnet power supply, etc

  18. The proton ''spin contents'': Current status ampersand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ta-Pei; Li, Ling-Fong

    1990-01-01

    The present status of the phenomenological and theoretical interpretation of the EMC result on the polarized deep elastic scattering is reviewed. We focus our discussion on the possibility of a significant gluonic contribution to the proton spin via the axial anomaly. We contrast the variant perspectives on this question: the viewpoint that stresses the interpretation in terms of the parton distributions vs the one that concentrates on the matrix elements of local operators. Some remarks concerning the validity of OZI rule for the strange quark are also included. 53 refs

  19. Progress On Neutrino-Proton Neutral-Current Scattering In MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, Stephen [New Mexico State U.

    2017-01-16

    The MicroBooNE Experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, an 89-ton active mass liquid argon time projection chamber, affords a unique opportunity to observe low-$Q^2$ neutral-current neutrino-proton scattering events. Neutral-current neutrino-proton scattering at $Q^2 < 1$ GeV$^2$ is dominated by the proton's axial form factor, which can be written as a combination of contributions from the up, down, and strange quarks: $G_A(Q^2) = \\frac{1}{2}[-G_A^u(Q^2)+G_A^d(Q^2)+G_A^s(Q^2)]$. The contribution from up and down quarks has been established in past charged-current measurements. The contribution from strange quarks at low $Q^2$ remains unmeasured; this is of great interest since the strange quark contribution to the proton spin can be determined from the low-$Q^2$ behavior: $\\Delta S = G_A^s(Q^2=0)$. MicroBooNE began operating in the Booster Neutrino Beam in October 2015. I will present the status in observing isolated proton tracks in the MicroBooNE detector as a signature for neutral-current neutrino-proton events. The sensitivity of the MicroBooNE experiment for measuring the strange quark contribution to the proton spin will be discussed.

  20. Application of optical emission spectroscopy to high current proton sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G; Mazzaglia, M; Nicolosi, D; Mascali, D; Reitano, R; Celona, L; Leonardi, O; Leone, F; Naselli, E; Neri, L; Torrisi, G; Gammino, S; Zaniol, B

    2017-01-01

    Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) represents a very reliable technique to carry out non-invasive measurements of plasma density and plasma temperature in the range of tens of eV. With respect to other diagnostics, it also can characterize the different populations of neutrals and ionized particles constituting the plasma. At INFN-LNS, OES techniques have been developed and applied to characterize the plasma generated by the Flexible Plasma Trap, an ion source used as 'testbench' of the proton source built for European Spallation Source. This work presents the characterization of the parameters of a hydrogen plasma in different conditions of neutral pressure, microwave power and magnetic field profile, along with perspectives for further upgrades of the OES diagnostics system. (paper)

  1. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F

    2006-12-21

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  2. RESONANCE CONTROL FOR THE COUPLED CAVITY LINAC AND DRIFT TUBE LINAC STRUCTURES OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE LINAC USING A CLOSED-LOOP WATER COOLING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Brown, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. SNS will generate and use neutrons as a diagnostic tool for medical purposes, material science, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of two room temperature copper structures, the drift tube linac (DTL), and the coupled cavity linac (CCL). Both of these accelerating structures use large amounts of electrical energy to accelerate the protons to an energy of 185 MeV. Approximately 60-80% of the electrical energy is dissipated in the copper structure and must be removed. This is done using specifically designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by specially designed resonance control and water cooling systems

  3. A new matcher type between RFQ and IH-DTL for the GSI high current heavy ion prestripper linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzinger, U.; Tiede, R.

    1996-01-01

    The adaptation of a RFQ beam to the typical requirements at the entrance of a drift tube linac is rather difficult at high intensities and high A/q values. The high focusing power needed for such a matcher can be provided by a conventional array with rather large quadrupoles and rebuncher cavities only. Many problems arising from such a design can be avoided by using an element which is focusing in transverse and longitudinal direction at the same time, that is a short RFQ ('Super Lens') with 10 cells typically and a larger aperture as compared to the main RFQ. A xy-steerer and a short quadrupole doublet with small aperture were added to gain flexibility with regard to beam mismatch and misalignment corrections. This new concept is realised for the GSI 15 mA U 4+ injector, which is under construction. Beam dynamics calculations are presented and compared with results for a conventional solution consisting of a rebuncher and a quadrupole triplet. (author)

  4. Development of the low energy linac systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sub; Kwon, H. J.; Kim, Y. H.

    2005-08-01

    The project 'Development of the Low Energy Linac System' is aiming to develop the 20 MeV proton linac system. This consists of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV RFQ, and a 20 MeV DTL. We obtained the first beam signal after the 20 MeV linac. The high power switch installed in the ion source supplies the pulsed beam into the following LEBT. The pulse operation was successfully tested. The main role of the LEBT is to match the beam into the 3 MeV RFQ. The total length of the four-vane type RFQ is about 3.26m. For the field stabilization, we used the resonant coupling scheme and dipole stabilizer rods. An 1 MW klystron supplies the RF power into the RFQ. After tuning, the field deviation of the quadrupole mode is less than 2% of the design value and the dipole fraction is less than 5% of the operating mode. The following accelerating structure is DTL which accelerate 20 mA proton beams up to 20 MeV. It consists of 4 tanks and the length of each tank is less than 5 m. The lattice is FFDD type and the integrated fields of the quadrupole magnets are 1.75 T. The inner walls of the tanks are copper-plated by PR plating method. The thickness is 100m with the roughness of 0.3m. Each drift tube consists of 6 parts and assembled by e-beam welding. The tanks and drift tubes are aligned under the installation limit of 50m by using the laser-tracker. The tuning by the slug tuners and post couplers results in the field uniformity of 2% and field sensitivity of 100%/MHz. In order to detect the beam signal, we installed the Faraday cup after the RFQ or the DTL. For the RFQ, we observed the beam of 12 A under the forward RF power of 450 kW. The beam current after DTL is about 0.5 A when RF power of 150 kW was fed into each tank

  5. First H- beam accelerated at Linac4: 3MeV done, 157 MeV to go!

    CERN Multimedia

    Linac4 Project Team

    2013-01-01

    On 14 November, the first H- (one proton surrounded by two electrons) beam was accelerated to the energy of 3 MeV in the Linac4 - the new linear accelerator that will replace Linac2 as low-energy injector in the LHC accelerator chain.      A view of the Linac4 taken during the recent tests (top image) and the current measured by the instruments at the end of the acceleration line on 14 November (bottom image). Images: Linac4 collaboration. Using the recently installed Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, 13 mA of current were accelerated to the energy of 3 MeV. After the successful commissioning of the Linac4 RFQ at the 3 MeV test stand completed during the first months of 2013, the whole equipment (composed of the RFQ itself, the following Medium Energy Beam Transport line and its diagnostic line) were moved to the Linac4 tunnel during summer and installed in their final position. In the meantime, a new ion source was assembled, installed and successfu...

  6. Oxygen ion source and RFQ for Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by an RFQ. In the foreground at the right is the oxygen ion source. A 90 deg bending magnet selects O6+ ions which are preaccelerated in an RFQ and enter Linac 1, at the far left. In the background is the proton and negative hydrogen ion source, followed by the 520 keV RFQ-1 and a bending magnet towards the entrance of Linac 1.

  7. CERN Linac4. The space charge challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Lutz Matthias

    2013-08-06

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting H-ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to reconstruct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam is transported along a 180 m long transfer line to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PS-Booster). The transfer line optics was studied, optimised and sections were completely re-designed. The new transfer line optics is characterised by an improved preservation of the beam emittance, higher stability of the optical solution with respect to alignment errors and field jitters of the transfer line magnets and it is matched to each of the PS-Booster injection schemes. In a concluding ''Start-To-End'' simulation based on the measured beam characteristics at the LEBT exit the beam dynamics of the downstream Linac, including the transfer line, was calculated. To minimise particle losses within acceptable emittance preservation the beam optics of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was adapted to the measured beam parameters. This ''Start-To-End'' simulation was performed to identify critical sections of the Linac4 beam dynamics and

  8. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurennoy, S.S.; O'Hara, J.F.; Rybarcyk, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  9. LINAC4 low energy beam measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Posocco, P; Scrivens, R

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac (Linac2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The low energy part, comprising a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport system (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) is being assembled in a dedicated test stand for pre-commissioning with a proton beam. During 2011 extensive measurements were done after the source and after the LEBT with the aim of preparing the RFQ commissioning and validating the simulation tools, indispensable for future source upgrades. The measurements have been thoroughly simulated with a multi-particle code, including 2D magnetic field maps, error studies, steering studies and the generation of beam distribution from measurements. Emittance, acceptance and transmission measurements will be presented and compared to the results of the simulations.

  10. Proton injection and RF capture in the national spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.U.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Maletic, D.

    1997-01-01

    The accelerator system for the 1 to 5 MW National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) consists of a linac followed by a 1 GeV proton accumulator ring. Since the ring is a very high current machine, the injection and rf capture of the protons is deeply affected by transverse and longitudinal space charge effects. Results of numerical simulation of the process are presented together with considerations on methods and results of space charge treatment in high intensity proton storage rings

  11. Mechanical features of a 700 MHz bridge-coupled drift tube linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.; Smith, P.; Carlisle, L.; Larkin, T.; Lawrence, G.; Garnett, R.

    1992-01-01

    Modem linac designs for treating radioactive waste achieve high proton currents through funneling at low energy, typically around 20 MeV. The resulting switch to a high-frequency accelerating structure poses severe performance and fabrication difficulties below 100 MeV. Above 100 MeV, proven coupled-cavity linacs (CCLS) are available. However, at 20 MeV one must choose between a high-frequency drift-tube linac (DTL) or a coupled-cavity linac with very short cells. Potential radiation damage from the CW beam, excessive RF power losses, multipactoring, and fabricability all enter into this decision. At Los Alamos, we have developed designs for a bridge-coupled DTL (BCDTL) that, like a CCL, uses lattice focusing elements and bridge couplers, but that unlike a CCL, accelerates the beam in simple, short, large-aperture DTL modules with no internal quadrupole focusing. Thus, the BCDTL consumes less power than the CCL linac without beam performance and is simpler and cheaper to fabricate in the 20 to 100 MeV range

  12. Mechanical features of a 700-MHz bridge-coupled drift-tube linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, D.; Smith, P.; Carlisle, L.; Larkin, T.; Lawrence, G.; Garnett, R.

    1992-01-01

    Modern linac designs for treating radioactive waste achieve high proton currents through funneling at low energy, typically around 20 MeV. The resulting switch to a high-frequency accelerating structure poses severe performance and fabrication difficulties below 100 MeV. Above 100 MeV, proven coupled-cavity linacs (CCLs) are available. However, at 20 MeV one must choose between a high-frequency drift-tube linac (DTL) or a coupled-cavity linac with very short cells. Potential radiation damage from the CW beam, excessive RF power losses, multipactoring, and fabricability all enter into this decision. At Los Alamos, we have developed designs for a bridge-coupled DTL (BCDTL) that, like a CCL, uses lattice focusing elements and bridge couplers, but that unlike a CCL, accelerates the beam in simple, short, large-aperture DTL modules with no internal quadrupole focusing. Thus, the BCDTL consumes less power than the CCL linac without beam performance and is simpler and cheaper to fabricate in the 20 to 100 MeV range. (Author) ref., tab., 3 figs

  13. Development of the High Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Chung, Byung Chul; Jang, Ji Ho; Gao, Changgi; Li, Yingmin; Sun, An; Tang, Yazhe; Zhang, Lipoing; Hwang, Yong Seok

    2008-05-01

    The main purpose of this project is studying the extension plan of the proton engineering frontier project (PEFP) 100-MeV Linac. It includes three categories. One is studying operation plan of the PEFP linac and its extended accelerators, and developing a distribution system of 100-MeV proton beams with a laser striping. Other is designing superconducting RF (SRF) modules and fabricating and testing a copper cavity model. The other is designing a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The operation scheme of the PEFP linac is related to the optimization in the operation of the 100-MeV linac, 200-MeV SRF, and RCS. We studied several operational method to increase the validity of the accelerators. The beam distribution system has two roles. One is supplying proton beams of 100 MeV to the user group. The laser stripping of the negative hydrogen atoms is used in this case. The other beams are directed to the next high energy accelerators. This study contributes to increase the availability of the proton beams. The SRF is one of candidates to extend the PEFP linac system. Since the accelerating gradient of the SRF is much higher than the normal conducting accelerator, a lot of institutes over the world are developing the SRF structure. Main purposes are designing an SRF module, fabricating and testing an copper model which has similar material properties as Nb of the usual SRF cavity material. The RCS is a synchrotron whose injector is the PEFP 100-MeV linac. Main purposes are determining the lattice structure, studying the fast and slow extraction system, simulating beam behavior in the designed synchrotron. The RCS will be used as the spallation neutron source and tools in the basic and applied science including medical application

  14. Improved beam extraction for a negative hydrogen ion source for the LHC injector chain upgrade, Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    In the scope of an upgrade of the injector chain of CERN’s accelerator complex, a new linear accelerator, Linac4, is under construction. This accelerator will replace the existing 50 MeV proton linac, Linac2. By increasing the beam energy to 160 MeV, Linac4 makes it possible to double the brightness in the PSB, and ultimately increase the luminosity in the LHC. Linac4 will accelerate beams of negative hydrogen (H-) to be injected into the PSB by multi-turn, charge exchange injection. The ion source was initially based on the non-caesiated RF-volume source from DESY. However, the beam extraction from this source could not handle the 45 keV beam energy required by the RFQ. A new beam extraction system has therefore been designed, via IBSimu simulations [1], to extract and transport the H- ion beam respecting the Linac4 requirements. Key features of the extraction system is a tuneable puller voltage to adapt the extraction field to the ion and electron beam currents, and a magnetized Einzel lens to dump the co...

  15. Short-lived radionuclide production capability at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Richards, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Linac Isotope Producer is the first facility to demonstrate the capability of a large linear accelerator for efficient and economical production of difficult-to-make, medically useful radionuclides. The linac provides a beam of 200-MeV protons at an integrated beam current of up to 60 μA. The 200-MeV proton energy is very suitable for isotope production because the spallation process can create radionuclides unavailable at lower energy accelerators or reactors. Several medically important short-lived radionuclides are presently being prepared for on-site and off-site collaborative research programs. These are iodine-123, iron-52, manganese-52m, ruthenium-97, and the rubidium-81-krypton-81m system. The production parameters for these are summarized

  16. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Gerczak, T. J.; Eiden, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150μA of proton current from the source, with over 70μA on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above ∼1×10 17 /m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  17. Emittance growth in rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    As the space-charge limit is approached, the current that can be accelerated in an rf linac and the output emittance that can be expected are discussed. The role of the envelope equations to estimate limits is outlined. The results of numerical experiments to explore general properties of emittance growth are given

  18. High intensity proton accelerator and its application (Proton Engineering Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, Spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  19. The linac control system for the large-scale synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaki, Hironao; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Itoh, Yuichi [Atomic Energy General Services Corporation, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Terashima, Yasushi [Information Technology System Co., Ltd. (ITECS), Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    The linac for large-scale synchrotron radiation facilities has been operated since August of 1996. The linac deal with the user requests without any big troubles. In this report, the control system development policy, details, and the operation for the linac are presented. It is also described so that these experiences can be used for control system of a large scale proton accelerators which will be developed in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project. (author)

  20. 1-GeV Linac Upgrade Study at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, M.; Moretti, A.; Noble, R.; Schmidt, C.W.

    1998-09-01

    A linac injector for a new proton source complex at Fermilab is assumed to have a kinetic energy of 1 GeV. This linac would be sized to accelerate 100 mA of H - beam in a 200 microsecond pulse at a 15 Hz repetition rate. This would be adequate to produce ∼10 14 protons per pulse allowing for future improvements of the new proton source complex. An alternate proposal is to add 600 MeV of side coupled cavity linac at 805 MHz to the existing 400 MeV Linac. This addition may either be in a new location or use the present Booster tunnel. A discussion of these possibilities will be given

  1. Preinjector for Linac 1, accelerating column

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. High up on the wall of the Faraday cage (7403073X) is this drum-shaped container of the ion source (7403083X). It is mounted at the HV end of the accelerating column through which the ions (usually protons; many other types of ions in the course of its long history) proceed through the Faraday cage wall to the low-energy end (at ground potential) of Linac 1. The 520 kV accelerating voltage was supplied by a SAMES generator (7403074X).

  2. High current, high energy proton beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Láska, Leoš; Velyhan, Andriy; Prokůpek, Jan; Ryc, L.; Parys, P.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 159-163 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA AV ČR IAA100100715; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-acceleration * proton beam * high ion current * time -of-flight * proton energy distribution Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  3. Upgrade of the AGS H- linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.; Buxton, W.; Kponou, A.; LoDestro, V.; Mapes, M.; McNerney, A.J.; Raparia, D.

    1994-01-01

    The AGS linac presently accelerates 25 mA of H - to 200 MeV at a 5 Hz rep-rate and 500 μs pulse width. The Booster takes 4 pulses every 3.8 seconds, and the remaining pulses are used for isotope production. The authors are in the process of upgrading the linac to increase the average current delivered for isotope production by more than a factor of two, while at the same time expecting to decrease linac downtime. Various aspects of this upgrade are discussed, including the upgrade of the control system, new high power transmission line, transport line vacuum, and rf power supply system upgrades

  4. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  5. RF system developments for CW and/or long pulse linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.

    1998-01-01

    High Power Proton Linacs are under development or proposed for development at Los Alamos and elsewhere. By current standards these linacs all require very large amounts of RF power. The Accelerator for Production of Tritium (APT) is a CW accelerator with an output current and energy of 100 mA and 1,700 MeV, respectively. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), in its ultimate configuration, is a pulsed accelerator with an average output power of 4 MW of beam. Other accelerators such as those that address transmutation and upgrades to LANSCE have similar requirements. For these high average power applications, the RF systems represent approximately half of the total cost of the linac and are thus key elements in the design and configuration of the accelerator. Los Alamos is fortunate to be actively working on both APT and SNS. For these programs the author is pursuing a number of component developments which are aimed at one or more of the key issues for large RF systems: technical performance, capital cost, reliability, and operating efficiency. This paper briefly describes some of the linac applications and then provides updates on the key RF developments being pursued

  6. Construction of SPring-8 LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, Hideaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Yanagida, Ken-ichi; Mizuno, Akihiko; Hori, Toshihiko; Tamezane, Kenji; Kodera, Masahiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Mashiko, Katsuo

    1993-01-01

    Construction of the linac building has been started in February 1993. The components of the linac are under manufacturing. The preinjector of linac was already constructed and temporarily installed in Tokai Establishment in order to test the beam quality. (author)

  7. Review of induction linac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, Denis

    1984-01-01

    The major emphasis of the U.S. program in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is on developing and understanding induction-linac systems that employ multiple beams of high-current heavy ions. The culmination of the plan lies in building the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) which will involve an ion induction linac to deliver multiple high current beams, that can be focussed and overlapped on a two-millimeter diameter spot. A sequence of three major experimental activities are as follows. In the Single-Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE), the stability or otherwise transport of a high-current Cs +1 beam over a long distance is tested. In the Multiple-Beam Experiment (MBE), the experiment is designed to simulate on a small scale as many as possible of the features to be encountered in the HTE. (Mori, K.)

  8. Workshop: Linac90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyck, Olin

    1990-12-15

    In 1960 the first linear accelerator (linac) conference was organized at Brookhaven by John Blewett. In the few years following, linear accelerator energies jumped from 50 MeV (at Brookhaven and CERN) to 2 GeV at Stanford. With the realization that, at least for electrons, circular accelerators have reached their practical limits, linacs are once more in the spotlight.

  9. Magnet innovations for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is possible to produce large magnetic fields at the aperture of permanent magnet quadrupoles, even when the magnetic aperture is very small. That, combined with their compactness, makes permanent magnet quadrupoles very powerful components of small aperture linacs. Results of past and present work on both fixed and variable strength permanent magnets suitable for use in and around linacs are presented

  10. Linac pre-injector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    New accelerating column of the linac pre-injector, supporting frame and pumping system. This new system uses two mercury diffusion pumps (in the centre) and forms part of the modifications intended to increase the intensity of the linac. View taken during assembly in the workshop.

  11. Magnet innovations for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1986-06-01

    It is possible to produce large magnetic fields at the aperture of permanent magnet quadrupoles, even when the magnetic aperture is very small. That, combined with their compactness, makes permanent magnet quadrupoles very powerful components of small aperture linacs. Results will be presented about past and present work on both fixed and variable strength permanent magnets suitable for use in and around linacs

  12. Workshop: Linac90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyck, Olin

    1990-01-01

    In 1960 the first linear accelerator (linac) conference was organized at Brookhaven by John Blewett. In the few years following, linear accelerator energies jumped from 50 MeV (at Brookhaven and CERN) to 2 GeV at Stanford. With the realization that, at least for electrons, circular accelerators have reached their practical limits, linacs are once more in the spotlight

  13. Proton-irradiation technology for high-frequency high-current silicon welding diode manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagov, P B; Drenin, A S; Zinoviev, M A

    2017-01-01

    Different proton irradiation regimes were tested to provide more than 20 kHz-frequency, soft reverse recovery “snap-less” behavior, low forward voltage drop and leakage current for 50 mm diameter 7 kA/400 V welding diode Al/Si/Mo structure. Silicon diode with such parameters is very suitable for high frequency resistance welding machines of new generation for robotic welding. (paper)

  14. Proton-irradiation technology for high-frequency high-current silicon welding diode manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagov, P. B.; Drenin, A. S.; Zinoviev, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    Different proton irradiation regimes were tested to provide more than 20 kHz-frequency, soft reverse recovery “snap-less” behavior, low forward voltage drop and leakage current for 50 mm diameter 7 kA/400 V welding diode Al/Si/Mo structure. Silicon diode with such parameters is very suitable for high frequency resistance welding machines of new generation for robotic welding.

  15. Real time data acquisition system for the High Current Test Facility proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlais, C.E.; Erickson, P.D.; Caissie, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    A real time data acquisition system was developed to monitor and control the High Current Test Facility Proton Accelerator. It is a PDP-8/E computer system with virtual memory capability that is fully interrupt driven and operates under a real-time, multi-tasking executive. The application package includes mode selection to automatically modify programs and optimize operation under varying conditions. (U.S.)

  16. Linac 1 in the process of being pulled back

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1985-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions and, from 1981 to 1996, of protons and negative hydrogen ions for LEAR. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by a much smaller RFQ, which allowed it to be moved to a more convenient location.

  17. Update of the Linac4-PSB Transfer Line

    CERN Document Server

    HEIN, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    The installation of Linac4 represents the first step of the upgrade plans of the CERN accelerator complex for the future in order to raise the available proton flux to attain amongst others the LHC ultimate luminosity. This linac is capable to accelerate H--ions from 45keV to 160MeV, which will be injected into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). The increase of energy from 50MeV (Linac2) to 160MeV (Linac4) allows to overcome the space charge limitations at the PSB injection, which is the main bottleneck towards higher beam brightness in the downstream accelerator chain. In order to preserve beam quality from the outlet of Linac4 to PSB injection the design of the transfer line becomes crucial. As the location of Linac4 was chosen in view of upgrade scenarios, the construction of a new transfer line is foreseen, see ref.[1] and ref.[2]. Here part of the Linac2-PSB transfer line will be re-used. In the new part of the transfer line the beam is horizontally and vertically adjusted towards the bending magnet B...

  18. Radio-frequency-quadrupole linac in a heavy ion fusion driver system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Stokes, R.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of linear accelerator, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. The RFQ accelerator can be adapted to any high-current applications. A recent experimental test carried out at the Los Alamos Scienific Laboratory (LASL) has demonstrated the outstandig properties of RFQ systems. The test linac accepts a 30-mA proton beam of 100-keV energy and focuses, bunches, and accelerates the beam to an energy to 640 keV. This ia done in a length of 1.1 m, with a transmission efficiency of 87% and with a radial emittance growth of less than 60%. The proven capability of the RFQ linac, when extended to heavy ion acceleration, should provide an ideal technique for use in the low-velocity portion of a heavy-ion linac for inertial-confinement fusion. A specific concept for such an RFQ-based system is described

  19. LINAC4, A New $H^{-}$ Linear Injector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A M; Rossi, C; Vretenar, M

    2004-01-01

    Linac2, the present injector of the CERN PS Booster, limits the performance of the proton accelerator complex because of its low output energy (50 MeV). To remove this bottleneck, a higher energy linac is proposed (called â€ワLinac4†) which will double the brightness and the intensity of the beam delivered by the PSB and ensure the â€ワultimate” beam is available for LHC. Linac4 will deliver H- ions at a kinetic energy of 160 MeV. It is designed to be usable as the front-end of a future multi-GeV multi-MW linear accelerator, the â€ワSuperconducting Proton Linac” (SPL). R&D for Linac4 is now actively taking place with the support of the European Union through the Joint Research Activity HIPPI (â€ワHigh Intensity Pulsed Proton Injectors”), and of three ISTC projects involving three major Russian laboratories (BINP, IHEP and ITEP) and two nuclear centres (VNIIEF and VNIITF). The design of this new accelerator and the on-going developments are described.

  20. Crossbar H-mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Kitamura, R.; Kondo, Y.; Kurennoy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a Crossbar H-mode (CH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The CH-DTL accelerates muons from β = v/c = 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The design and results are described in this paper.

  1. Novel dimeric bis(7)-tacrine proton-dependently inhibits NMDA-activated currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Liu, Yuwei; Zhang, Wei; Fu, Hongjun; Lee, Nelson T.K.; Yu, Hua; Pang, Yuanping; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wang; Li, Chaoying; Han, Yifan

    2007-01-01

    Bis(7)-tacrine has been shown to prevent glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis by blocking NMDA receptors. However, the characteristics of the inhibition have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we further characterize the features of bis(7)-tacrine inhibition of NMDA-activated current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The results show that with the increase of extracellular pH, the inhibitory effect decreases dramatically. At pH 8.0, the concentration-response curve of bis(7)-tacrine is shifted rightwards with the IC 50 value increased from 0.19 ± 0.03 μM to 0.41 ± 0.04 μM. In addition, bis(7)-tacrine shifts the proton inhibition curve rightwards. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of bis(7)-tacrine is not altered by the presence of the NMDA receptor proton sensor shield spermidine. These results indicate that bis(7)-tacrine inhibits NMDA-activated current in a pH-dependent manner by sensitizing NMDA receptors to proton inhibition, rendering it potentially beneficial therapeutic effects under acidic conditions associated with stroke and ischemia

  2. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Compendium of Scientific Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clendenin, James E

    2003-05-16

    The International Committee supported the proposal of the Chairman of the XVIII International Linac Conference to issue a new Compendium of linear accelerators. The last one was published in 1976. The Local Organizing Committee of Linac96 decided to set up a sub-committee for this purpose. Contrary to the catalogues of the High Energy Accelerators which compile accelerators with energies above 1 GeV, we have not defined a specific limit in energy. Microtrons and cyclotrons are not in this compendium. Also data from thousands of medical and industrial linacs has not been collected. Therefore, only scientific linacs are listed in the present compendium. Each linac found in this research and involved in a physics context was considered. It could be used, for example, either as an injector for high energy accelerators, or in nuclear physics, materials physics, free electron lasers or synchrotron light machines. Linear accelerators are developed in three continents only: America, Asia, and Europe. This geographical distribution is kept as a basis. The compendium contains the parameters and status of scientific linacs. Most of these linacs are operational. However, many facilities under construction or design studies are also included. A special mention has been made at the end for the studies of future linear colliders.

  4. Wakefields in SLAC linac collimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Novokhatski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. We also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  5. Design considerations for a superconducting linac as an option for the ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Bräutigam, W F; Schug, G; Zaplatin, E N; Meads, P F; Senichev, Yu V

    1999-01-01

    An approach for a superconducting high-current proton linac for the ESS has been discussed as an option in the "Proposal for a Next Generation Neutron Source for Europe-the European Spallation Source (ESS)". The following work studies the technical and economic conditions for a superconducting linac at the high-energy end of the proposed accelerator system. The use of superconducting elliptical cavities for the acceleration of high-energetic particles beta =v/c-1 is certainly state of the art. This is documented by many activities (TJNAF, TESLA, LEP, LHC, and KEK). A design study for the cavities is described in another paper on this conference. For low energy particles ( beta <<1) quarter wave type cavities and spoke-type cavities have been discussed. The main motivation for this study is the expectation of significant cost reduction in terms of operational and possibly investment cost. (5 refs).

  6. Review of superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the technology of superconducting (SC) linacs designed for the acceleration of ions. The emphasis is on the technical issues involved, with only brief descriptions of the numerous linacs now in operation or under construction. Recent developments of special interest are treated in more detail, and remaining technical challenges are outlined. The technology required for acceleration of ions with velocity β ∼ 1 is not discussed because it is almost the same as for relativistic electrons. That is, this paper is mainly about SC linacs for low-velocity heavy ions. (Author) 5 tabs., 6 figs., 29 refs

  7. Neutron radiography characterization of an operating proton exchange membrane fuel cell with localized current distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardo, J.J.; Owejan, J.P.; Trabold, T.A.; Tighe, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron radiography has proven to be a powerful tool to study and understand the effects of liquid water in an operating fuel cell. In the present work, this experimental method is coupled with locally resolved current and ohmic resistance measurements, giving additional insight into water management and fuel cell performance under a variety of conditions. The effects of varying the inlet humidification level and the current density of the 50 cm 2 cell are studied by simultaneously monitoring electrochemical performance with a 10x10 matrix of current sensors, and liquid water volumes are measured using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) neutron imaging facility. A counter flow, straight channel proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is used to demonstrate localized performance loss corresponds to water-filled channels that impede gas transport to the catalyst layer, thereby creating an area that has low current density. Furthermore, certain operating conditions causing excess water accumulation in the channels can result in localized proton resistance increase, a result that can only be accurately observed with combined radiography and distributed electrochemical measurements.

  8. The current status of development of the electron and proton telescope for Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, Shrinivasrao; Boden, Sebastian; Martin-Garcia, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Schuster, Bjoern; Seimetz, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    ESA's Solar Orbiter mission, scheduled for launch in January 2017, will study how the sun creates the inner heliosphere. Therefore, the spacecraft will perform in situ and remote sensing measurements of the sun on a high inclination orbit with a perihelion of about 60 solar radii, making it possible to observe the poles of the sun from nearby. The Energetic Particle Detector suite on-board of Solar Orbiter will measure particles of a wide energy range and from multiple directions. One of the important sensors of the EPD suite is the Electron and Proton Telescope. It consists of two antiparallel telescopes with two silicon detectors respectively and is designed to detect electrons between 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 keV to 7 MeV. EPT relies on a magnet/foil technique to discriminate between electrons and protons. Its design is driven by mass allocation, the thermal environment, power consumption and electronic noise; especially the magnet system must guarantee stray fields low enough to be compliant with the Solar Orbiter EMC requirements. Here, we present the current status of the Structural/Thermal Model and Engineering Model assembly as well as the integration and testing of the prototype.

  9. SNS superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelin, Ronald M.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) decided in early 2000 to use superconducting RF (SRF) in the linac at energies above 185 MeV. Since the SNS duty cycle is 6%, the SRF and normal conducting approaches have capital costs which are about the same, but operating costs and future upgradability are improved by using SRF. The current status of cavity and cryomodule development and procurement, including the basis for decisions made, is discussed. The current plan includes use of 805 MHz, 6-cell cavities with geometrical betas of 0.61 and 0.81. There are 33 medium beta and 60 high beta cavities in 11 and 15 cryomodules, respectively. Each cavity (except the 93rd) is powered by a 550 kW pulsed klystron. Issues addressed include choice of peak surface gradient, optimization of cavity shape, selection of a scaled KEK input power coupler, selection of scaled TESLA higher mode couplers, and control of the effects of higher order modes on the beam. (author)

  10. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  11. Superconducting linac booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.; Betigeri, M.G.; Pandey, M.K.; Pillay, R.G.; Kurup, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The report on superconducting LINAC booster, which is a joint project of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), brings out the work accomplished so far towards the development of the technology of superconducting LINAC to boost the energy of ions from the 14UD Pelletron. The LINAC is modular in construction with each module comprising of a helium cryostat housing four lead-plated quarter wave resonators. The resonators are superconducting for temperatures below 7.19K. An energy boost of 2 MeV/q per module is expected to be achieved. The first module and the post-tandem superbuncher have been fabricated and tested on the LINAC beam line. This report gives a summary of the technological achievements and also brings out the difficulties encountered during the R and D phase. (author)

  12. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  13. Development of a digital high-frequency regulation for the pulsed operation of the proton-linac test facility at FAIR; Entwicklung einer digitalen Hochfrequenzregelung fuer den gepulsten Betrieb des Protonenlinac Teststandes bei FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonn, Patrick Walter

    2014-06-16

    At the site of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung near Darmstadt, the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is under construction. The research program of FAIR includes experiments with antiproton beams. In order to provide the high intensity proton beam, that is necessary to produce the antiprotons, a new linear accelerator, acting as injector to the SIS18 synchrotron, will be constructed. This linear accelerator, called p-Linac, shall be kept as short as possible. That is why novel CH-type cavities will be used for the main acceleration from 3 MeV to 70 MeV. In order to test these novel cavities and their supporting technology, an rf test stand is under construction at GSI. Within the scope of this thesis a pulsed 325 MHz control system has been developed as part of that test stand. It is based upon the cw rf control system of the superconducting Darmstaedter Linearaccelerator (S-DALINAC), that is designed to drive normal- and superconducting cavities at 3 GHz. Aim of this thesis is, to adapt the frequency of S-DALINAC's rf control to p-Linac's 325 MHz at one hand and on the other hand, to improve the response time in order to achieve a relative amplitude error of below 10{sup -3} and a phase error below 0.1 within the 200 μs long rf pulses. The time that is needed in order to re-achieve the errors after the beam pulse hits the cavity, is also crucial. At first, the dependance of the control rate to various parameters of the cavity and the control has been tested by analytical and numerical methods. Therefore, the behavior of a cavity's amplitude in the base band has been modeled and confirmed by comparison of the model's and a measured step response of a cavity. The dependance of the I- and PI-control's parameters on the decay time of the cavity was shown by analytical methods. With the aid of numerical simulations the extent at which the response time is affected negatively by dead time and

  14. Production of slow-positron beams with an electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Stanek, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons have been produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency for low-energy positrons has been determined for electrons with 60 to 120 MeV energy, low-energy positron beams from a linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources

  15. A Pencil Beam for the Linac4 commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the different accelerating structures and transport lines of Linac4 and to proceed to its commissioning, we need to produce a low current, low emittance beam. This note describes the generation of two pencil beams and their dynamic through the Linac.

  16. Current and future applications of protons in medical imaging and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Reinhard W. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    2011-07-01

    Protons have a more than 50-year history of applications in medical therapy and more recently also in imaging. Therapy with protons became possible after proton accelerators capable of accelerating protons to energies higher than 150 MeV had been built during the 1940s in a few places around the world. Proton radiography experiments started at the Harvard Cyclotron in the early 1960s. Physicist Allan Cormack, who shared the Nobel Prize for laying the foundation of computed tomography together with Sir Godfrey Hounsfield in 1979, suggested that protons can be used for tomographic imaging for the first time in 1963. Proton CT requires a rotating proton gantry, which did not become available until 1991, at our institution. The interest in proton CT has been renewed due to the fact that exact proton treatment planning is only possible with accurate knowledge of the relative proton stopping power distribution (with respect to water) of the patient, which is best derived by using protons for imaging. Early attempts to do proton CT were hampered by the lack of high-resolution particle trackers, fast data acquisition electronics, and sufficient computing power. Also, efficient proton CT reconstruction algorithms had to be developed that can handle reconstruction based on a large number of proton histories, taking into account the non-straight probabilistic paths of multiply scattered protons. Most of these challenges have been or are about to be solved with the help of high-energy and particle physicists, computer science engineers, and applied mathematicians. In this talk, I will give an update on the development of proton CT for applications in proton therapy. This is an update from a talk I gave at the Annual Brazilian Physics Meeting in 2001, when I first suggested that physicists should contribute to the development of modern proton CT. Brazilian physicists have provided many valuable ideas and discussions for this exciting development. (author)

  17. Current and future applications of protons in medical imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-01-01

    Protons have a more than 50-year history of applications in medical therapy and more recently also in imaging. Therapy with protons became possible after proton accelerators capable of accelerating protons to energies higher than 150 MeV had been built during the 1940s in a few places around the world. Proton radiography experiments started at the Harvard Cyclotron in the early 1960s. Physicist Allan Cormack, who shared the Nobel Prize for laying the foundation of computed tomography together with Sir Godfrey Hounsfield in 1979, suggested that protons can be used for tomographic imaging for the first time in 1963. Proton CT requires a rotating proton gantry, which did not become available until 1991, at our institution. The interest in proton CT has been renewed due to the fact that exact proton treatment planning is only possible with accurate knowledge of the relative proton stopping power distribution (with respect to water) of the patient, which is best derived by using protons for imaging. Early attempts to do proton CT were hampered by the lack of high-resolution particle trackers, fast data acquisition electronics, and sufficient computing power. Also, efficient proton CT reconstruction algorithms had to be developed that can handle reconstruction based on a large number of proton histories, taking into account the non-straight probabilistic paths of multiply scattered protons. Most of these challenges have been or are about to be solved with the help of high-energy and particle physicists, computer science engineers, and applied mathematicians. In this talk, I will give an update on the development of proton CT for applications in proton therapy. This is an update from a talk I gave at the Annual Brazilian Physics Meeting in 2001, when I first suggested that physicists should contribute to the development of modern proton CT. Brazilian physicists have provided many valuable ideas and discussions for this exciting development. (author)

  18. Alignment and Field Error Tolerance in Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Garcia Tudela, M; Hein, L; Lallement, J B; Lanzone, S; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P; Sargsyan, E

    2011-01-01

    LINAC4 [1] is a linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton LINAC (LINAC2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The higher output energy (160 MeV) together with charge-exchange injection will allow increasing beam intensity in the following machines. LINAC4 is about 80 m long, normal-conducting, and will be housed in a tunnel 12 m below ground on the CERN Meyrin site. The location has been chosen to allow using LINAC4 as the first stage of acceleration for a Multi-MegaWatt superconducting LINAC (SPL [2]). A 60 m long transfer line brings the beam towards the present LINAC2-to-PS Booster transfer line, which is joined at the position of BHZ20. The new transfer line consists of 17 new quadrupoles, an RF cavity and 4 bending magnets to adjust both the direction and the level for injection into the PS Booster. End-to-end beam dynamics simulations have been carried out in parallel with the codes PATH [3] and TRACEWIN[4]. Following the definition of the layout...

  19. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  20. EG and G electron linac modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, N.J.; Detch, J.L.; Kocimski, S.M.; Sawyer, C.R.; Hudson, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    A three-year modification of the EG and G electron linac has been performed to replace obsolete equipment and bring all subsystems up to the current state of the art. Components and subsystems were designed, constructed, and tested off-line to minimize interruption of experiments. The configuration of the modified linac is shown schematically, and performance characteristics are give. Each subsystem is described, including: the electron gun; solenoid focusing system; subharmonic bunchers; accelerating system; RF system; klystron modulators and power supplies; control system; beam handling system; vacuum system; and beam current monitors. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Finite element thermal study of the Linac4 plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D.; Kronberger, M.; Kuechler, D.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the rf-powered noncesiated Linac4 H - ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW rf power, 2 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), an extrapolation of the heat load toward 100 kW rf power, 50 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in the high-power mode of SPL.

  2. Finite element thermal study of the Linac4 plasma generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faircloth, D. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kronberger, M.; Kuechler, D.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R. [BE-ABP, Hadron Sources and Linacs, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the rf-powered noncesiated Linac4 H{sup -} ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW rf power, 2 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), an extrapolation of the heat load toward 100 kW rf power, 50 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in the high-power mode of SPL.

  3. Heavy ion induction linacs for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Ho, D.D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1976 Denis Keefe proposed the heavy ion induction linac as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plants. Subsequent research has established that heavy ion fusion (HIF) is potentially an attractive energy source and has identified the issues that must be resolved to make HIF a reality. The principal accelerator issues are achieving adequately low transverse and longitudinal emittance and acceptable cost. Results from the single and multiple beam experiments at LBL on transverse emittance are encouraging. A predicted high current longitudinal instability that can affect longitudinal emittance is currently being studied. This paper presents an overview of economics and ICF target requirements and their relationship to accelerator design. It also presents a summary of the status of heavy ion induction linac research. It concludes with a discussion of research plans, including plans for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE)

  4. Development of a high current H- injector for the proton storage ring at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, R.L.; Stevens, R.R.; DeHaven, R.A.; McConnell, J.R.; Chamberlin, E.P.; Kandarian, R.

    1984-01-01

    A new high-current H - injector has been installed at LAMPF for the Proton Storage Ring. The injector is equipped with a multicusp surface-production H - ion source that was developed at LAMPF. The ion source is capable of long-term operation at 20 mA of H - current at 10% duty factor and with normalized beam emittance of 0.08 cm-mrad (95% beam fraction). Details of the development program, the injector design, and initial operating experience are discussed. Included in the discussion is a comparison of intensity and emittance measurements of the same H - beam at 100 keV and 750 keV. 4 references, 6 figures

  5. Simulations of plasma heating caused by the coalescence of multiple current loops in a proton-boron fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruki, T.; Yousefi, H. R.; Sakai, J.-I.

    2010-01-01

    Two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of a dense plasma focus were performed to investigate a plasma heating process caused by the coalescence of multiple current loops in a proton-boron-electron plasma. Recently, it was reported that the electric field produced during the coalescence of two current loops in a proton-boron-electron plasma heats up all plasma species; proton-boron nuclear fusion may therefore be achievable using a dense plasma focus device. Based on this work, the coalescence process for four and eight current loops was investigated. It was found that the return current plays an important role in both the current pinch and the plasma heating. The coalescence of four current loops led to the breakup of the return current from the pinched plasma, resulting in plasma heating. For the coalescence of eight current loops, the plasma was confined by the pinch but the plasma heating was smaller than the two and four loop cases. Therefore the heating associated with current loop coalescence depends on the number of initial current loops. These results are useful for understanding the coalescence of multiple current loops in a proton-boron-electron plasma.

  6. On the energy dependence of the relative contributions ionospheric and solar sources of the ring current protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtyukh, A.

    2007-01-01

    The energy dependence of a fraction of ring current protons of i onospheric origin is calculated using the AMPTE/CCE data for a typical magnetic storm (D st = -120 nT). It is shown that at L = 6-7 (L is the Mcllwain parameter) this fraction monotonically decreases from ∼83 to 25-30% with an increase in proton energy from 5 to 315 keV and is 30-40% at energy 40-50 keV corresponding to the maximum of proton energy density at L 6-7. It is evident that the core of the ring current (L = 3.7-4.7) is enriched by solar protons with E∼10-200 keV during storm main phase (the maximum effect is achieved at E∼20-50 keV). (author)

  7. Induction linacs and pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in electronic power conversion technology is making possible a new class of induction linacs that can operate at extremely high repetition rates. Advances in insulator technology, pulse forming line design and switching may also lead to a new type of high current accelerator with accelerating gradients at least an order of magnitude greater than those attainable today. The evolution of the induction accelerator pulsed power system will be discussed along with some details of these emerging technologies which are at the frontiers of accelerator technology

  8. Beams dynamics optimisation of LINAC4 structures for increased operational flexibility

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Garcia Tudela, M; Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P A; Sargsyan, E; Stovall, J

    2010-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV, 40 mA pulsed beam current H- accelerator which will be the source of particles for all proton accelerators at CERN. Construction started in October 2008, and beam commissioning of the 3 MeV front-end is scheduled for early next year. A baseline design of the linac beam dynamics was completed 2 years ago and validated by a systematic campaign of transverse and longitudinal error studies to assess tolerance limits and machine activation levels. Recent studies have been mainly focused on optimising this design to achieve both a smoother performance for nominal beam conditions and to gain operational flexibility for non-nominal scenarios. These include a review of the chopper beam dynamics design, a re-definition of the DTL and CCDTL inter-tank regions and a study of operational schemes for reduced beam currents (either permanent or in pulse-to-pulse mode). These studies have been carried out in parallel to first specifications for a beam commissioning strategy of the linac and its low-en...

  9. Progress in the Development of the TOP Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Picardi, L

    2004-01-01

    The TOP Linac (Oncological Therapy with Protons), under development by ENEA and ISS is a sequence of three pulsed (5 msec, 300 Hz) linear accelerators: a 7 MeV, 425 MHz RFQ+DTL (AccSys Model PL-7), a 7–65 MeV, 2998 MHz Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) and a 65–200 MeV, variable energy 2998 MHz Side Coupled Linac (SCL). The first SCDTL module is composed by 11 DTL tanks coupled by 10 side cavities. The tanks has modified to overcome vacuum leakage that occurred during brazing, and now the module has been completed, and is ready to be tested with protons. The 7 MeV injector has been recently installed in the ENEA Frascati laboratories for preliminary test, before being transferred to the main Oncologycal Hospital in Rome, Istituto Regina Elena.

  10. New high power linacs and beam physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.; Gray, E.R.; Nath, S.; Crandall, K.R.; Hasegawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    New high-power proton linacs must be designed to control beam loss, which can lead to radioactivation of the accelerator. The threat of beam loss is increased significantly by the formation of beam halo. Numerical simulation studies have identified the space-charge interactions, especially those that occur in rms mismatched beams, as a major concern for halo growth. The maximum-amplitude predictions of the simulation codes must be subjected to independent tests to confirm the validity of the results. Consequently, the authors compare predictions from the particle-core halo models with computer simulations to test their understanding of the halo mechanisms that are incorporated in the computer codes. They present and discuss scaling laws that provide guidance for high-power linac design

  11. Operational experience with the Fermilab Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Lennox, A.J.; Schmidt, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Fermilab 200-MeV Linac has been in operation for nearly 22 years as a proton injector to the Booster synchrotron. It presently accelerates H - ions to 200 MeV for charge-exchange injection into the Booster and to 66 MeV for the production of neutrons at the Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF). The beam intensity is typically 35 mA with pulse widths of 30 μsec for the Booster for high energy physics and 57 μsec for NTF at a maximum of 15 pulses per sec. During a typical physics run of nine to twelve months, beam is available for greater than 98% of the scheduled time. The Linac history, operation, tuning, stability and reliability will be discussed. (Author) 15 refs., 2 tabs

  12. First observation of neutral current proton electron scattering at √s = 300 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuya

    1993-02-01

    Neutral current proton electron scattering at center of mass energy 295 GeV was observed for the first time, using the newly built proton electron collider HERA (Hadron Elektron Ring Anlage) and the general purpose detector ZEUS. The distributions of Q 2 , Bjorken-x(x) and Bjorken-y(y) were compared with the expectation based on the standard electroweak theory and QCD. Regarding the investigation of high-Q 2 region, an event of Q 2 ∼ 1000 GeV 2 was observed for the first time. From the x-distribution of the events, a limit on the mass and the coupling of an exotic s-channel resonance of a quark-lepton system (leptoquark) was obtained. The mass limit is 72 GeV(97 GeV) at 95% confidence level for a scalar type leptoquark with a left-handed (right-handed) electromagnetic coupling to ordinary leptons. The leptoquark is assumed to be weak-isoscalar. To realize this experiment a uranium scintillator sandwich type calorimeter was developed. Equal response to electrons and hadrons (e/h = 1), which is essential for the good energy resolution for hadrons, has been achieved. One of the main characteristics of this calorimeter is a possibility of calibration utilizing of its own uranium radioactivity. The grain variation of each channel can be detected with an accuracy of ± 1 %. (J.P.N.) 65 refs

  13. High field electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1985-12-01

    High field electron linacs are considered as potential candidates to provide very high energies beyond LEP. Since almost twenty years not much improvement has been made on linac technologies as they have been mostly kept at low and medium energies to be used as injectors for storage rings. Today, both their efficiency and their performances are being reconsidered, and for instance the pulse compression sheme developed at SLAC and introduced to upgrade the energy of that linac is a first step towards a new generation of linear accelerators. However this is not enough in terms of power consumption and more development is needed to improve both the efficiency of accelerating structures and the performances of RF power sources

  14. RF linacs for FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are twenty rf linac-driven Free Electron Lasers (FELs) existing or under construction throughout the world and proposals for several more. A number of these FELs have recently been established as facilities to produce coherent optical beams for materials and biomedical research. Both short pulse low duty factor and long pulse high duty factor linac-driven FELs will be discussed. Accelerator issues that influence the performance of an FEL as a scientific instrument will be indicated. (Author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. High intensity SRF proton linac workshop (vugraphs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The meeting is divided into four sections. The first section is the general introduction and included opening remarks and an overview of APT (accelerator product of tritium). The second section contains vugraphs from the cavity-structures working group. The third section is comprised of vugraphs from the couplers and rf working group. And the fourth section contains vugraphs of the system integration group

  16. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Midttun, Ø. [University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, 0316 Oslo (Norway); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A. [Departamento de Investigación en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-04-08

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN’s acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H{sup −} beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm· mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H{sup −} ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H{sup −} ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H{sup −} ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H{sup −} source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  17. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  18. Measurements of beam current density and proton fraction of a permanent-magnet microwave ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    A permanent-magnet microwave ion source has been built for use in a high-yield, compact neutron generator. The source has been designed to produce up to 100 mA of deuterium and tritium ions. The electron-cyclotron resonance condition is met at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT. The source operates at a low hydrogen gas pressure of about 0.15 Pa. Hydrogen beams with a current density of 40 mA/cm{sup 2} have been extracted at a microwave power of 450 W. The dependence of the extracted proton beam fraction on wall materials and operating parameters was measured and found to vary from 45% for steel to 95% for boron nitride as a wall liner material.

  19. Measurements of beam current density and proton fraction of a permanent-magnet microwave ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2011-11-01

    A permanent-magnet microwave ion source has been built for use in a high-yield, compact neutron generator. The source has been designed to produce up to 100 mA of deuterium and tritium ions. The electron-cyclotron resonance condition is met at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT. The source operates at a low hydrogen gas pressure of about 0.15 Pa. Hydrogen beams with a current density of 40 mA/cm(2) have been extracted at a microwave power of 450 W. The dependence of the extracted proton beam fraction on wall materials and operating parameters was measured and found to vary from 45% for steel to 95% for boron nitride as a wall liner material. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  20. Proton therapy for head and neck cancer: Rationale, potential indications, practical considerations, and current clinical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Su, Zhong; Yeung, Daniel; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong rationale for potential benefits from proton therapy (PT) for selected cancers of the head and neck because of the opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio by improving radiation dose distributions and because of the significant differences in radiation dose distribution achievable with x-ray-based radiation therapy (RT) and PT. Comparisons of dose distributions between x-ray-based and PT plans in selected cases show specific benefits in dose distribution likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. However, the use of PT in head and neck cancers requires special considerations in the simulation and treatment planning process, and currently available PT technology may not permit realization of the maximum potential benefits of PT. To date, few clinical data are available, but early clinical experiences in sinonasal tumors in particular suggest significant improvements in both disease control and radiation-related toxicity

  1. Proton therapy for head and neck cancer: Rationale, potential indications, practical considerations, and current clinical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Su, Zhong; Yeung, Daniel; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng (Univ. of Florida Proton Therapy Inst., Jacksonville, Florida (United States)), e-mail: menden@shands.ufl.edu

    2011-08-15

    There is a strong rationale for potential benefits from proton therapy (PT) for selected cancers of the head and neck because of the opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio by improving radiation dose distributions and because of the significant differences in radiation dose distribution achievable with x-ray-based radiation therapy (RT) and PT. Comparisons of dose distributions between x-ray-based and PT plans in selected cases show specific benefits in dose distribution likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. However, the use of PT in head and neck cancers requires special considerations in the simulation and treatment planning process, and currently available PT technology may not permit realization of the maximum potential benefits of PT. To date, few clinical data are available, but early clinical experiences in sinonasal tumors in particular suggest significant improvements in both disease control and radiation-related toxicity

  2. The longitudinal space charge problem in the high current linear proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a linear proton accelerator peak currents of 200 mA lead to high space charge densities and the resultant space charge forces reduce the effective focussing considerably. In particular the longitudinal focussing is affected. A new concept based on linear theory is proposed that restricts the influence of the space charge forces on the longitudinal focussing by increasing a, the mean transverse bunch radius, as a proportional(βγ)sup(3/8). This concept is compared with other concepts for the Alvarez (1 MeV - 100 MeV) and for the high energy part (100 MeV - 1100 MeV) of the SNQ linear accelerator. (orig.)

  3. On the Effect of Clamping Pressure and Method on the Current Mapping of Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Zhou, Fan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    The degradation of the electrochemical reaction of the proton exchange membrane water electrolysis (PEMWE) can be characterized using in-situ current mapping measurements (CMM). CMM is significantly affected by the amount of clamping pressure and method. In this work the current is mapped...

  4. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Gerczak, T. J. [Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Eiden, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150{mu}A of proton current from the source, with over 70{mu}A on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}/m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  5. Improvement Plans of Fermilab’s Proton Accelerator Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    The flagship of Fermilab’s long term research program is the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), located Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, which will study neutrino oscillations with a baseline of 1300 km. The neutrinos will be produced in the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a proposed new beam line from Fermilab’s Main Injector. The physics goals of the DUNE require a proton beam with a power of some 2.4 MW at 120 GeV, which is roughly four times the current maximum power. Here I discuss current performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex, our plans for construction of the SRF proton linac as key part of the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), outline the main challenges toward multi-MW beam power operation of the Fermilab accelerator complex and the staged plan to achieve the required performance over the next 15 years.

  6. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  7. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  8. Emittance reconstruction technique for the Linac4 high energy commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; Posocco, PA

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H-) presently under construction which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton accelerator complex. Linac4 is 80 meters long and comprises a Low Energy Beam Transport line, a 3 MeV RFQ, a MEBT, a 50 MeV DTL, a 100 MeV CCDTL and a PIMS up to 160 MeV. The commissioning of the Linac is scheduled to start in 2013. It will be divided into several steps corresponding to the commissioning of the different accelerating structures. A temporary measurement bench will be dedicated to the high energy commissioning from 30 to 100 MeV (DTL tanks 2 and 3, and CCDTL). The commissioning of the PIMS will be done using the permanent equipment installed in between the end of the Linac and the main dump. This note describes the technique we will use for reconstructing the transverse emittances and the expected results.

  9. Transverse Matching Progress Of The SNS Superconducting Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Experience using laser-wire beam profile measurement to perform transverse beam matching in the SNS superconducting linac is discussed. As the SNS beam power is ramped up to 1 MW, transverse beam matching becomes a concern to control beam loss and residual activation in the linac. In our experiments, however, beam loss is not very sensitive to the matching condition. In addition, we have encountered difficulties in performing a satisfactory transverse matching with the envelope model currently available in the XAL software framework. Offline data analysis from multi-particle tracking simulation shows that the accuracy of the current online model may not be sufficient for modeling the SC linac.

  10. Interaction of ring current and radiation belt protons with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. 2. Time evolution of the distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Rasmussen, C. E.; Miller, R. H.; Villalon, E.

    1995-11-01

    The evolution of the bounce-averaged ring current/radiation belt proton distribution is simulated during resonant interactions with ducted plasmaspheric hiss. The plasmaspheric hiss is assumed to be generated by ring current electrons and to be damped by the energetic protons. Thus energy is transferred between energetic electrons and protons using the plasmaspheric hiss as a mediary. The problem is not solved self-consistently. During the simulation period, interactions with ring current electrons (not represented in the model) are assumed to maintain the wave amplitudes in the presence of damping by the energetic protons, allowing the wave spectrum to be held fixed. Diffusion coefficients in pitch angle, cross pitch angle/energy, and energy were previously calculated by Kozyra et al. (1994) and are adopted for the present study. The simulation treats the energy range, E>=80 keV, within which the wave diffusion operates on a shorter timescale than other proton loss processes (i.e., Coulomb drag and charge exchange). These other loss processes are not included in the simulation. An interesting result of the simulation is that energy diffusion maximizes at moderate pitch angles near the edge of the atmospheric loss cone. Over the simulation period, diffusion in energy creates an order of magnitude enhancement in the bounce-averaged proton distribution function at moderate pitch angles. The loss cone is nearly empty because scattering of particles at small pitch angles is weak. The bounce-averaged flux distribution, mapped to ionospheric heights, results in elevated locally mirroring proton fluxes. OGO 5 observed order of magnitude enhancements in locally mirroring energetic protons at altitudes between 350 and 1300 km and invariant latitudes between 50° and 60° (Lundblad and Soraas, 1978). The proton distributions were highly anisotropic in pitch angle with nearly empty loss cones. The similarity between the observed distributions and those resulting from this

  11. A magnetized Einzel lens electron dump for the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Kronberger, M; Lettry, J; Pereira, H; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator which will inject negative hydrogen ions (H−) into CERN’s Proton Synchrotron Booster, a required upgrade to improve the beam brightness in the LHC injector chain. A volume production RF ion source, based on the design of the DESY RF source was implemented, but showed considerable electron dump ablation during operation at 45 keV beam energy. To reduce the electron beam power density in the dump, a magnetized Einzel lens is designed that reduces the beam energy to 10 keV before permanentmagnets dump the electrons on a tungsten surface. Presented in this paper are simulations of the design using IBSimu, the tunable range of parameters depending on the extracted H− and electron current, as well as details of the implementation, the choice of pulsed power converters and the electrode alignment system. In addition, simulations of proton extraction from this source will be shown.

  12. LINAC4 takes a tour of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Along the German Autobahnen, a truck carrying 20 tonnes of copper is on its way to Poland. The metal has already made a short tour of Europe, yet the drive across the high-speed highway is only the beginning of its transformation into CERN’s next linear accelerator, LINAC4.   Grzegorz Wrochna (left), director of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), and Rolf Heuer (right), CERN DG, sign the framework agreement between the two institutes. By the summer of 2012, the PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) will be constructed and completely installed in the LINAC4 tunnel. The PIMS cavities are the final accelerating structures needed for LINAC4, and have been designed to accelerate protons from 100 to 160MeV. While the first cavity was built entirely at CERN, construction of the remaining cavities has become a larger, multi-national operation. In a 1 million euro framework agreement signed on 11 February by the Director-General, the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swie...

  13. Design of a Marx-Topology Modulator for FNAL Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Garcia, F. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kufer, M. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pfeffer, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wolff, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-28

    The Fermilab Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) was formed in late 2011 to address important and necessary upgrades to the Proton Source machines (Injector line, Linac and Booster). The goal is to increase the proton flux by doubling the Booster beam cycle rate while maintaining the same intensity per cycle, the same uptime, and the same residual activation in the enclosure. For the Linac, the main focus within PIP is to address reliability. One of the main tasks is to replace the present hard-tube modulator used on the 200 MHz RF system. Plans to replace this high power system with a Marx-topology modulator, capable of providing the required waveform shaping to stabilize the accelerating gradient and compensate for beam loading, will be presented, along with development data from the prototype unit.

  14. Measurements of longitudinal phase space in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Adolphsen, C.; Lavine, T.L.; Ross, M.; Seeman, J.; Thompson, K.

    1990-05-01

    In the Stanford Linear Collider the beam leaves a damping ring and then enters the Ring-to-Linac (RTL) transfer line. In the RTL it is compressed in length by a factor of 10 by means of an rf section, with which a longitudinally correlated energy variation is induced in the beam, and a following beam line which has non-zero momentum compaction. The compressed beam then enters the linac proper. In this paper we describe three measurements of longitudinal properties of the beam in the SLC linac. We present measurements of single bunch beam loading, of the energy spectrum at the end of the linac, and of the linac bunch length. Since the results of all three measurements depend on the beam's longitudinal charge distribution in the linac they, in turn, also depend on the bunch lengthening that occurs in the damping rings, as well as on the behavior of the compressor. The results of the first two measurements, in addition, depend critically on the strength of the longitudinal wakefields in the linac. The results of these three measurements are compared with simulations. For these calculations, at any given current, the potential well distortion in the damping ring is first computed. The compression process is then simulated to obtain the longitudinal charge distribution in the linac. For the first two measurements this distribution is then convolved with the calculated longitudinal wake function of the SLAC linac in order to obtain the induced voltage. Finally, the induced voltage is combined with the effect of the linac rf wave to give the final energy spectrum. 8 refs., 5 figs

  15. H- ion sources for CERN's Linac4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Coutron, Y.; Chaudet, E.; Dallocchio, A.; Gil Flores, J.; Hansen, J.; Mahner, E.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, O.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O'Neil, M.; Paoluzzi, M.; Pasquino, C.; Pereira, H.; Arias, J. Sanchez; Schmitzer, C.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.

    2013-02-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitable for 20-30 mA H- and 80 mA proton pulses at 45 keV by mid-2012. This first prototype will be dedicated to the commissioning of the low energy components of the Linac4. Design and production of a second prototype suitable for 40-50 mA H- based on an external RF solenoid plasma heating and cesiated-surface production mechanism in 2013 and a third prototype based on BNL's Magnetron aiming at reliable 2 Hz and 80 mA H- operations in 2014. In order to ease the future maintenance and allow operation with Ion sources based on three different production principles, an ion source "front end" providing alignment features, pulsed gas injection, pumping units, beam tuning capabilities and pulsed bipolar high voltage acceleration was designed and is being produced. This paper describes the progress of the Linac4 ion source program, the design of the Front end and first ion source prototype. Preliminary results of the summer 2012 commissioning are presented. The outlook on

  16. Laser-driven grating linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    I would like to consider a 50 TeV on 50 TeV collider. Even a hadron machine with such an energy seems unrealistic with current technology. Magnetic fields higher than 10 Tesla are difficult and at this field the circumference would be 120 km. I conclude that only a high gradient Linac could be practical and that one should aim for 10 GeV/meter so as to keep the total length down to the order ot 10 km. Currently it is only plausible to obtain such fields using the very high energy densities produced by lasers. The luminosity is another issue. I aim for 10 33 to 10 34 but I am conscious that higher luminosities than even these are really desired, especially for an e + e - machine. I tend to assume that the machine is an e + e - machine but it will also accept hadrons

  17. Nonlinear interaction of energetic ring current protons with magnetospheric hydromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.A.; Chen, L.; White, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the Earth's magnetosphere we have derived Hamiltonian equations for the gyrophase-averaged nonrelativistic motion of charged particles in a perturbed dipole magnetic field. We assume low frequency (less than the proton gyrofrequency) fully electromagnetic perturbations, and we retain finite Larmor radius effects. Analytic and numerical results for the stochastic threshold of energetic protons (approx-gt 100 keV) in compressional geomagnetic pulsations in the Pc 5 range of frequencies 150--600 seconds are presented. These protons undergo a drift-bounce resonance with the Pc 5 waves which breaks the second (longitudinal) and third (flux) adiabatic invariants, while the first invariant (the magnetic moment) and the proton energy are approximately conserved. The proton motion in the observed spectrum of waves is found to be strongly diffusive, due to the overlap of neighboring primary resonances. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  18. Nonlinear interaction of energetic ring current protons with magnetospheric hydromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.A.; Chen, Liu; White, R.B.

    1989-09-01

    In order to study nonlinear wave-particle interactions in the earth's magnetosphere we have derived Hamiltonian equations for the gyrophase-averaged nonrealistic motion of charged particles in a perturbed dipole magnetic field. We assume low frequency (less than the proton gyrofrequency) fully electromagnetic perturbations, and we retain finite Larmor radius effects. Analytic and numerical results for the stochastic threshold of energetic protons (approx gt 100 keV) in compressional geomagnetic pulsations in the Pc 5 range of frequencies (150--600 seconds) are presented. These protons undergo a drift-bounce resonance with the Pc 5 waves which breaks the second (longitudinal) and third (flux) adiabatic invariants, while the first invariant (the magnetic moment) and the proton energy are approximately conserved. The proton motion in the observed spectrum of waves is found to be strongly diffusive, due to the overlap of neighboring primary resonances. 17 refs., 2 figs

  19. PERLE. Powerful energy recovery linac for experiments. Conceptual design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal-Kalinin, D.; Arduini, G.; Auchmann, B.; Bernauer, J.; Bogacz, A.; Bordry, F.; Bousson, S.; Bracco, C.; Brüning, O.; Calaga, R.; Cassou, K.; Chetvertkova, V.; Cormier, E.; Daly, E.; Douglas, D.; Dupraz, K.; Goddard, B.; Henry, J.; Hutton, A.; Jensen, E.; Kaabi, W.; Klein, M.; Kostka, P.; Lasheras, N.; Levichev, E.; Marhauser, F.; Martens, A.; Milanese, A.; Militsyn, B.; Peinaud, Y.; Pellegrini, D.; Pietralla, N.; Pupkov, Y.; Rimmer, R.; Schirm, K.; Schulte, D.; Smith, S.; Stocchi, A.; Valloni, A.; Welsch, C.; Willering, G.; Wollmann, D.; Zimmermann, F.; Zomer, F.

    2018-06-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a novel energy-recovering linac (ERL) facility for the development and application of the energy recovery technique to linear electron accelerators in the multi-turn, large current and large energy regime. The main characteristics of the powerful energy recovery linac experiment facility (PERLE) are derived from the design of the Large Hadron electron Collider, an electron beam upgrade under study for the LHC, for which it would be the key demonstrator. PERLE is thus projected as a facility to investigate efficient, high current (HC) (>10 mA) ERL operation with three re-circulation passages through newly designed SCRF cavities, at 801.58 MHz frequency, and following deceleration over another three re-circulations. In its fully equipped configuration, PERLE provides an electron beam of approximately 1 GeV energy. A physics programme possibly associated with PERLE is sketched, consisting of high precision elastic electron–proton scattering experiments, as well as photo-nuclear reactions of unprecedented intensities with up to 30 MeV photon beam energy as may be obtained using Fabry–Perot cavities. The facility has further applications as a general technology test bed that can investigate and validate novel superconducting magnets (beam induced quench tests) and superconducting RF structures (structure tests with HC beams, beam loading and transients). Besides a chapter on operation aspects, the report contains detailed considerations on the choices for the SCRF structure, optics and lattice design, solutions for arc magnets, source and injector and on further essential components. A suitable configuration derived from the here presented design concept may next be moved forward to a technical design and possibly be built by an international collaboration which is being established.

  20. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac; Schemi di iniezione per il TOP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Bartolini, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed. [Italian] In questo rapporto sono studiati due schemi di iniezione nella sezione accelerante SCDTL a 3 GHz del TOP (terapia oncologica con protoni) linac del fascio di protoni generato da un acceleratore lineare di 7 MeV. L'acceleratore e' frutto di una convenzione tra L'ENEA e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita'. Rispetto a versioni precedenti del progetto, viene eliminato il vincolo della sincronizzazione delle radiofrequenze dei due acceleratori.

  1. High-Performance Beam Simulator for the LANSCE Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Xiaoying; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Baily, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    A high performance multiparticle tracking simulator is currently under development at Los Alamos. The heart of the simulator is based upon the beam dynamics simulation algorithms of the PARMILA code, but implemented in C++ on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) hardware using NVIDIA's CUDA platform. Linac operating set points are provided to the simulator via the EPICS control system so that changes of the real time linac parameters are tracked and the simulation results updated automatically. This simulator will provide valuable insight into the beam dynamics along a linac in pseudo real-time, especially where direct measurements of the beam properties do not exist. Details regarding the approach, benefits and performance are presented.

  2. Control system in the technological electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriskin, V.N.; Akchurin, Yu.I.; Bahmetev, N.N.; Gurin, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The special system has been developed for linac control.It controls the electron beam current,the energy and the position,protects the accelerating and scanning systems from the damage caused by the beam;blocks the modulator and the klystron amplifier in the case of intolerable operating modes;regulates the phase and power of the HF signals in the injecting system and also regulates the source power currents in the magnetic system

  3. An outline of research facilities of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  4. Injector linac of SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Hori, T.; Suzuki, S.; Yanagida, K.; Itoh, Y.; Mizuno, A.; Taniuchi, T.; Sakaki, H.; Kuba, A.; Fukushima, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Asaka, T.; Yokomizo, H.

    1996-01-01

    The linac that is SPring-8 injector was completed and started operation from August 1. A beam was able to be transported to the final beam dumping at a tail end on August 8. From now on this linac carries out beam adjustment and be scheduled to do a beam injection to a synchrotron in October. The construction and fundamental performance of the linac are described. (author)

  5. Amide proton transfer imaging in clinics: Basic concepts and current and future use in brain tumors and stoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jahng, Geon Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ha Kyu [Philips Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is gaining attention as a relatively new in vivo molecular imaging technique that has higher sensitivity and spatial resolution than magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging. APT imaging is a subset of the chemical exchange saturation transfer mechanism, which can offer unique image contrast by selectively saturating protons in target molecules that get exchanged with protons in bulk water. In this review, we describe the basic concepts of APT imaging, particularly with regard to the benefit in clinics from the current literature. Clinical applications of APT imaging are described from two perspectives: in the diagnosis and monitoring of the treatment response in brain glioma by reflecting endogenous mobile proteins and peptides, and in the potential for stroke imaging with respect to tissue acidity.

  6. Interface modulated currents in periodically proton exchanged Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [Department of Applied Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-21

    Conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) plays a key role in the reduction of photorefraction and is therefore widely exploited in optical devices. However, charge transport through Mg:LN and across interfaces such as electrodes also yields potential electronic applications in devices with switchable conductivity states. Furthermore, the introduction of proton exchanged (PE) phases in Mg:LN enhances ionic conductivity, thus providing tailorability of conduction mechanisms and functionality dependent on sample composition. To facilitate the construction and design of such multifunctional electronic devices based on periodically PE Mg:LN or similar ferroelectric semiconductors, fundamental understanding of charge transport in these materials, as well as the impact of internal and external interfaces, is essential. In order to gain insight into polarization and interface dependent conductivity due to band bending, UV illumination, and chemical reactivity, wedge shaped samples consisting of polar oriented Mg:LN and PE phases were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy. In Mg:LN, three conductivity states (on/off/transient) were observed under UV illumination, controllable by the polarity of the sample and the externally applied electric field. Measurements of currents originating from electrochemical reactions at the metal electrode–PE phase interfaces demonstrate a memresistive and rectifying capability of the PE phase. Furthermore, internal interfaces such as domain walls and Mg:LN–PE phase boundaries were found to play a major role in the accumulation of charge carriers due to polarization gradients, which can lead to increased currents. The insight gained from these findings yield the potential for multifunctional applications such as switchable UV sensitive micro- and nanoelectronic devices and bistable memristors.

  7. Linac technology for free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Morton, P.L.; Wilson, P.B.; Keefe, D.; Faltens, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to concentrate on the properties of high-energy electron linear accelerators for use in free-electron lasers operating principally in the Compton regime. To fix our focus somewhat, we shall consider electron energies in the 20- to 200-MeV range and consider requirements for high-power free-electron lasers operating in the 0.5- to 10-μm range. Preliminary remarks are made on high-power free-electron laser amplifiers and oscillators and some desirable characteristics of the linacs that deliver electron beams for these devices. Both the high peak-current requirements of the amplifier and the high pulse-repetition frequency requirements of the oscillator can be met by present-day linac technology, although not necessarily by the same machine. In this papers second and third section, the technology of two rather different types of linear accelerators, the rf linac and the induction linac, is reviewed. In conclusion, applications to the Free Electron Lasers are stated

  8. CEBAF Cryomodule Commissioning in the South Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Drury; H. Lankford; T. Lee; J. Marshall; J. Preble; Q. Saulter; W. Schneider; Michael Spata; Mark Wiseman

    1993-01-01

    When complete, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility will house a 4 GeV recirculating linear accelerator containing 42 1/4 cryomodules arrayed in two antiparallel linacs and an injector. Currently, 38 1/4 cryomodules have been installed. Each cryomodule contains eight superconducting niobium 5-cell rf cavities that operate at 1.497 GHz[1]. A cryomodule must provide an energy gain of 20 MeV to the 200 mu-A beam[2]. The resultant dynamic heat load must be less than 45 W. The cavity parameters that are measured during the commissioning process include the external Q's (Q(sub ext)) of the cavity ports, the unloaded Q (Q(sub 0)) of the cavity as a function of accelerating gradient, and the maximum operating gradient of the cavity[3]. Finally, the mechanical tuners are cycled and characterized. A portable test stand allows local control of the rf system and provides automated data acquisition. During the period from April 1993 through September 1993, 16 of the 20 cryomodules installed in the South Linac were commissioned. All cryomodules tested in the South Linac meet or exceed the CEBAF specifications. This paper describes the results of the commissioning of the first 10 cryomodules in the South Linac

  9. Measurements of fusion-protons anisotropy around the pinch axis within high-current PF-1000 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies - IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion - IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Malinowska, A.; Malinowski, K.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Zebrowski, J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies - IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M.; Stepniewski, W. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion - IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes measurements of fast protons produced by D-D fusion reactions during high-current discharges within the PF-1000 facility operated with the deuterium filling at 27 kV, 480 kJ. The measurements were performed by means of a set of pinhole-cameras equipped with PM-355 track detectors shielded by 80-{mu}m-thick Al-filters, which eliminated fast primary deuterons and protons of lower energy (< 3 MeV). Those cameras were placed at different angles around the pinch axis. The obtained proton images showed a distinct angular anisotropy, which was explained by an influence of local magnetic fields connected with a filamentary structure of the plasma column during the fast proton (and neutron) emission. The paper shows that in addition to measurements of a fusion neutron anisotropy it is reasonable to study also an anisotropy of fusion protons (originated from the second branch of the D-D reactions), as well as other charged fusion products. This document is composed of a paper followed by a poster

  10. Superconducting heavy-ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of plans developed by four different groups for the construction of small superconducting linacs to boost the energy of heavy ions from existing tandem electrostatic accelerators. The projects considered are the linac under construction at Argonne and the design efforts at Karlsruhe, at Stanford, and by a Cal Tech-Stony Brook collaboration. The intended uses of the accelerator systems are stated. Beam dynamics of linacs formed of short independently-phased resonators are reviewed, and the implications for performance are discussed. The main parameters of the four linacs are compared, and a brief analysis of accelerating structures is given

  11. Status and experiece with the alignment of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jean-Frederic

    2016-01-01

    LINAC4 (L4) is an H- linear accelerator that will deliver, for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project requirements, a beam of protons at 160 MeV energy to the PS complex and then to the LHC. Its connection to the PS booster will take place during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) in 2019-2020 or earlier if any major failure of the LINAC2. The Linac4 project requires the precise alignment with a tolerance of about +/- 0.2 mm in both the horizontal and vertical planes, of elements along approximately 150 m beam line. This paper will give a status, an overview of the challenges of the alignment, the issues solved by the survey section, the techniques and methodology used to realise the survey activities over the last five years.

  12. A 2--4 nm Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-05-01

    We describe the use of the SLAC linac to drive a unique, powerful. short wavelength Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Operating as an FEL, lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a high peak current electron beam through a long undulator by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). The main components are a high-brightness rf photocathode electron gun; pulse compressors; about 1/5 of the SLAC linac; and a long undulator with a FODO quadrupole focussing system. Using electrons below 8 GeV, the system would operate at wavelengths down to about 3 nm, producing ≥10 GW peak power in sub-ps pulses. At a 120 Hz rate the average power is ∼ 1 W

  13. Source and LINAC3 studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC Ion Injector Upgrade pro-gramme (LIU), several activities have been carried out in2016 to improve the ion source and Linac3 performance,with the goal to increase the beam current routinely deliv-ered to LEIR. The extraction region of the GTS-LHC ionsource was upgraded with enlarged vacuum chamber aper-tures and the addition of an einzel lens, yielding highertransmission through the rest of the machine. Also, a seriesof experiments have been performed to study the effects ofdouble frequency mixing on the afterglow performance ofthe source after installation of a Travelling Wave Tube Am-plifier (TWTA) as secondary microwave source at variablefrequency. Measurements have been carried out at a dedi-cated oven test stand for better understanding of the ionsource performance. Finally, several MD sessions werededicated to the study and characterization of the strippingfoils, after evidence of degradation in time was discoveredin the 2015 run.

  14. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Carneiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of H^{-} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H^{-} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  15. LINAC4 - Views of the 3 MeV Front-end (H- Source, LEBT, RFQ, MEBT) with Test Bench.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    The Linac4 is the new linear accelerator that will replace Linac2 as proton low energy injector in the LHC accelerator chain. On 14 November, members of the Linac4 collaboration and the CERN Operation Group were brought together for their first “real day” in the Linac4 Control Room. Together, they successfully accelerated their first hydrogen ion beam to 3 MeV. It was an exciting moment for everyone involved marked the start of one of the most critical commissioning phases for the new accelerator.

  16. A Very Intense Neutrino Super Beam Experiment for Leptonic CP Violation Discovery based on the European Spallation Source Linac: A Snowmass 2013 White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E; Bogomilov, M.; Bouquerel, E.; Cederkäll, J.; Christiansen, P.; Coloma, P.; Cupial, P.; Danared, H.; Densham, C.; Dracos, M.; Ekelöf, T.; Eshraqi, M.; Fernandez Martinez, E.; Gaudiot, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Koutchouk, J.P.; Lindroos, M.; Matev, R.; McGinnis, D.; Mezzetto, M.; Miyamoto, R.; Mosca, L.; Ohlsson, T.; Öhman, H.; Osswald, F.; Peggs, S.; Poussot, P.; Ruber, R.; Tang, J.Y.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wildner, E.; Wurtz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Very intense neutrino beams and large neutrino detectors will be needed in order to enable the discovery of CP violation in the leptonic sector. We propose to use the proton linac of the European Spallation Source currently under construction in Lund, Sweden to deliver, in parallel with the spallation neutron production, a very intense, cost effective and high performance neutrino beam. The baseline program for the European Spallation Source linac is that it will be fully operational at 5 MW average power by 2022, producing 2 GeV 2.86 ms long proton pulses at a rate of 14 Hz. Our proposal is to upgrade the linac to 10 MW average power and 28 Hz, producing 14 pulses/s for neutron production and 14 pulses/s for neutrino production. Furthermore, because of the high current required in the pulsed neutrino horn, the length of the pulses used for neutrino production needs to be compressed to a few $\\mu$s with the aid of an accumulator ring. A long baseline experiment using this Super Beam and a megaton underground ...

  17. CONFERENCE: Linacs at Seeheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-07-15

    The 12th Linear Accelerator Conference, organized by GSI Darmstadt, was held from 8-11 May at the Lufthansa Schulungszentrum in Seeheim, West Germany. It was the first of this series of Linac Accelerator Conferences - started in 1961 with 20 participants and 17 contributions at Brookhaven - held outside North America. In Seeheim, 32 invited talks, 11 oral and 98 poster papers were presented to more than 250 participants from the USA, Canada, Europe, Japan, the USSR and China, representing 39 research institutions and 12 industrial laboratories.

  18. CONFERENCE: Linacs at Seeheim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The 12th Linear Accelerator Conference, organized by GSI Darmstadt, was held from 8-11 May at the Lufthansa Schulungszentrum in Seeheim, West Germany. It was the first of this series of Linac Accelerator Conferences - started in 1961 with 20 participants and 17 contributions at Brookhaven - held outside North America. In Seeheim, 32 invited talks, 11 oral and 98 poster papers were presented to more than 250 participants from the USA, Canada, Europe, Japan, the USSR and China, representing 39 research institutions and 12 industrial laboratories

  19. Preliminary results of proton ring current observations in time of magnetic perturbations with the 'Molniya-1' satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechin, A.N.; Kovrygina, L.M.; Kovtyukh, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental results of observation on the injection of the annular current protons (30< Esub(r)<380 KeV) into the radiation band during the storm on October 28, 1973 and three storms on January 1, 1974, July 12 and 21, 1974, with the maximum values of Dsup(st) of 65, 30, and 20γ, respectively, are described. During the main phases of the storms the assymetry of the annular current of protons relative to the mid-day-mid-night meridian was observed. The injection of the particles was being accompanied by variation of the shape of the spectrum on the internal edge of the annular current. The possible effect of the ion-cyclotron instability on the formation of the initial edge of the annular current has been analyzed. Immediately after the main phases of the storms on July 12 and 21, 1974, a gap in the spectum within the pre-mid-night sector, with the energies amounting to several dozens of KeV was observed. The formation of this gap may be explained by the development of the instability which results in the pinch-angular diffusion of protons and their decay in the region of plasmapause

  20. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Avery, R.T.; Brady, V.; Bisognano, J.; Celata, C.; Chupp, W.W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Laslett, L.J.; Lee, E.P.; Rosenblum, S.S.; Smith, L.; Warwick, A.

    1984-01-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams. (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to proportional70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units. (orig.)

  1. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  2. Re-circulating linac vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Russell P.; Corlett, John N.; Zholents, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10ΜA recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10ΜA average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing

  3. Linac4, a New Injector for the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Hanke, K; Lombardi, A; Pasini, M; Rossi, C; Sargsyan, E; Vretenar, M

    2006-01-01

    The first bottle-neck towards higher beam brightness in the LHC injector chain is due to space charge induced tune spread at injection into the CERN PS Booster (PSB). A new injector called Linac4 is proposed to remove this limitation. Using RF cavities at 352 and 704 MHz, it will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2, and deliver a 160 MeV, 40 mA H- beam. The higher injection energy will reduce space charge effects by a factor of 2, and charge exchange will drastically reduce the beam losses at injection. Operation will be simplified and the beam brightness required for the LHC ultimate luminosity should be obtained at PS ejection. Moreover, for the needs of non-LHC physics experiments like ISOLDE, the number of protons per pulse from the PSB will increase by a significant factor. This new linac constitutes an essential component of any of the envisaged LHC upgrade scenarios. It is also designed to become the low energy part of a future 3.5 GeV, multi-megawatt superconducting linac (SPL). The present desig...

  4. History, developments and recent performance of the CERN linac 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseroth, H.; Hill, C.E.; Langbein, K.; Tanke, E.; Tylor, C.; Tetu, P.; Warner, D.; Weiss, M.

    1992-01-01

    In early June 1992 the original CERN 50 MeV proton Linac accelerated its last beam after nearly 33 years of loyal service. Although conceived as a proton machine and commissioned in 1959 as an injector for the 26 GeV Proton Synchrotron, it finished its life as a light-ion source for the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and as a cheap source of particles for tests in the Low Energy Anti-Proton Ring (LEAR). Highlights in its recent history were the installation of RFQs and the upgrading with an ECR source for O 6+ and S 12+ ions. The early parameters and the subsequent modifications as well as the performance are reviewed in this paper. (Author) 8 refs., 3 figs., tab

  5. Linac4 Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Baylac, M; Bellodi, G; Body, Y; Borburgh, J; Bourquin, P; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Bruno, L; Carli, C; Caspers, Friedhelm; Cousineau, S M; Cuvet, Y; De Almeida Martins, C; Dobers, T; Fowler, T; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Hori, M; Jones, M; Kahle, K; Kalbreier, Willi; Kroyer, T; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; López-Hernandez, L A; Magistris, M; Martini, M; Maury, S; Page, E; Paoluzzi, M; Pasini, M; Raich, U; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Sargsyan, E; Serrano, J; Scrivens, R; Silari, M; Timmins, M; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vretenar, M; Wegner, R; Weterings, W; Zickler, T

    2006-01-01

    Linac4 is an H- linear accelerator, intended to replace Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster (PSB). By delivering to the PSB a beam at 160 MeV energy, Linac4 will provide the conditions to double the brightness and intensity of the beam from the PSB, thus removing the first bottleneck towards higher brightness for the LHC and simplifying operation. Moreover, this new linac constitutes an essential component of any of the envisaged LHC upgrade scenarios and could open the way to future extensions of the CERN accelerator complex towards higher performance. This Technical Design Report presents a detailed technical overview of the Linac4 design as it stands at end 2006.

  6. LINAC for ADS application - accelerator technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Robert W.; Sheffreld, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Sifnificant high-current, high-intensity accelerator research and development have been done in the recent past in the US, centered primarily at Los Alamos National Laboratory. These efforts have included designs for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, and Accelerator Driven Systems, as well as many others. This past work and some specific design principles that were developed to optimie linac designs for ADS and other high-intensity applications will be discussed briefly.

  7. Linac4 RFQ assembly is carried out before installation in Building 152

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2012-01-01

    This series of pictures documents the assembly phase of the Linac4 RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole), performed at the end of July 2012. The Linac4 RFQ is made of 3 modules, 1 meter each, assembled together to accelerate the H- or proton beam from the ion source extraction at 45 kV to the energy of 3 MeV. The RFQ is the first of the Linac4 accelerating structures, which will increase to 160 MeV the beam injection energy into the PS Booster as from the end of LS2.

  8. Measurement of the ratio of charged current neutrino cross sections on neutrons and protons in the energy range 1-10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, W.; Pohl, M.; Schultze, K.; Derange, B.; Francois, T.; Van Dam, P.; Jaffre, M.; Longuemare, C.; Pascaud, C.; Calimani, E.; Ciampolillo, S.; Mattioli, F.

    1978-01-01

    The charged current cross-section ratio R = sigma(γ+n)/sigma(γ+p), averaged over the energy range, 1-10 GeV, is determined by two independent methods. The combined value is R = 2.08+-0.15. Semi-inclusive proton production rates on both proton and neutron targets are presented. Event rates of exclusive channels on the proton target are also given. (Auth.)

  9. Improvements on monitor system in the KEK 2.5-GeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidara, T.; Oogoe, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements to the monitor system of the KEK 2.5-GeV linac have been undertaken. Energy analyzing stations were added to both the positron generator linac and the 2.5-GeV electron linac in order to realize easier checking of beam energy. Wall current monitors and profile monitors were added in the beam transport line between the positron generator linac and the 2.5-GeV electron linac in order to realize easier positron-beam transfer. As a result of the installation of an automatic beam-current-surveillance system and with other existing surveillance systems, more reliable and easier operation of the linac is expected. (author)

  10. submitter Radiation Protection Studies for CERN LINAC4/SPL Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio; Silari, Marco

    2009-01-01

    CERN is presently designing a new chain of accelerators to replace the present Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex: a 160 MeV room-temperature H$^-$ linac (Linac4) to replace the present 50 MeV proton linac injector, a 3.5 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to replace the 1.4 GeV PS booster (PSB) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (named PS2) to replace the 26 GeV PS. Linac4 has been funded and the civil engineering work started in October 2008, whilst the SPL is in an advanced stage of design. Beyond injecting into the future 50 GeV PS, the ultimate goal of the SPL is to generate a 4 MW beam for the production of intense neutrino beams. The radiation protection design is driven by the latter requirement. This thesis summarizes the radiation protection studies conducted for Linac4. FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, complemented by analytical estimates, were performed 1) to evaluate the propagation of neutrons through the waveguide, ventilation and cable ducts placed along the accelerator, 2) to estimate the radiological i...

  11. RF acceleration of intense laser generated proton bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, Ali

    2012-07-13

    With respect to laser-accelerated beams, the high current capability of the CH-DTL cavity has been investigated. Beam simulations have demonstrated that 10{sup 10} protons per bunch can be accelerated successfully and loss free along the structure. It was shown that, the maximum number of protons per bunch that can be accelerated in the first cavity by exploiting about 1% of the stored field energy is 2.02 x 10{sup 11} protons. One further aspect is the total number of protons arriving at the linac entrance. One main aspect of an rf postacceleration experiment is the rf operation stability under these beam load conditions. Detailed simulations from the target along the solenoid and down to the linac entrance were presented, applying adapted software. Special care was taken on the time steps, especially close to the target, and on the collective phenomena between electron and proton distributions. The effect of comoving electrons on the beam dynamics has been investigated in detail. A CH-linac with high space charge limit and large transverse and longitudinal acceptance was designed to accept a maximum fraction of the laser generated proton bursts. Due to well-known transformations of the injected beam emittances along the CH-cavity, it is aimed to derive parameters of the laser generated beam by measuring the beam properties behind of the CH-cavity. With respect to the linac development it is intended to realize the first cavity of the proposed CH-DTL and to demonstrate the acceleration of a laser generated proton bunch with the LIGHT project. The first cavity consists of 7 gaps within a total length of about 668 mm. It is operated at 325 MHz and has an effective accelerating field gradient of about 12.6 MV/m. The study on the surface electric field for this cavity shows, that maximum surface fields of about 94 MV/m and 88 MV/m on the third and sixth drift tubes are reachable, respectively.

  12. Development of a commissioning plan for the APT linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, L.W.; Crandall, K.R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Gray, E.R.; Regan, A.H.; Rohlev, A.; Rybarcyk, L.J.; Wangler, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) facility is based on a linac which incorporates both normal-conducting and superconducting RF technology and accelerates a 100-mA cw proton beam to an energy of 1,030 MeV or higher, depending on the desired production rate. Commissioning plans to achieve full power operation with minimum beam-induced activation of components have been evolving. This paper presents the main issues and the basic approaches that are now being discussed

  13. High order modes in Project-X linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A., E-mail: ais@fnal.gov; Lunin, A.; Yakovlev, V.; Awida, M.; Champion, M.; Ginsburg, C.; Gonin, I.; Grimm, C.; Khabiboulline, T.; Nicol, T.; Orlov, Yu.; Saini, A.; Sergatskov, D.; Solyak, N.; Vostrikov, A.

    2014-01-11

    Project-X, a multi-MW proton source, is now under development at Fermilab. In this paper we present study of high order modes (HOM) excited in continues-wave (CW) superconducting linac of Project-X. We investigate effects of cryogenic losses caused by HOMs and influence of HOMs on beam dynamics. We find that these effects are small. We conclude that HOM couplers/dampers are not needed in the Project-X SC RF cavities.

  14. Perspectives of development of linac-driver for the ITEP neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozodaev, A.M.; Vengrov, R.M.; Drozdovskij, A.A.; Kolomiets, A.A.; Orlov, Yu.G.; Raskopin, A.M.; Skachkov, V.S.; Shvedov, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    The perspectives of developing the experimental accelerator-driven neutron generator being made in ITEP are discussed. The ITEP ADS neutron generator consists of the target-blanket assembly and the linear proton accelerator Istra-36. It is projected to introduce superconducting sections in the composition of the neutron generator linac-driven. The application of superconducting resonators allows to increase the particle energy up to 53 MeV at the average beam current 500 μA. The variants of raising the average current up to 5 mA by increasing the HF-system power are considered. The application of magnetohard materials permits to decrease the cost of the bend magnet and its dimensions. To improve the radiation situation it is proposed to use the graphite absorbers of particles [ru

  15. Status of the RF-driven H− ion source for J-PARC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Ueno, A.; Shibata, T.

    2016-01-01

    For the upgrade of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex linac beam current, a cesiated RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source was installed during the 2014 summer shutdown period, with subsequent operations commencing on September 29, 2014. The ion source has been successfully operating with a beam current and duty factor of 33 mA and 1.25% (500 μs and 25 Hz), respectively. The result of recent beam operation has demonstrated that the ion source is capable of continuous operation for approximately 1100 h. The spark rate at the beam extractor was observed to be at a frequency of less than once a day, which is an acceptable level for user operation. Although an antenna failure occurred during operation on October 26, 2014, no subsequent serious issues have occurred since then

  16. A development plan for the Fermilab proton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, S. D.

    1997-01-01

    The present Fermilab Proton Source is composed of a 750 KV ion source, a 400 MeV Linac, and an 8 GeV Booster synchrotron. This facility currently provides proton beams at intensities up to 5 x 10 10 protons/bunch for injection into the Main Ring in support of the current Tevatron fixed target run. Following completion of the Main Injector project in 1999, the Proton Source is expected to provide protons to the Main Injector at an intensity of 6 x 10 10 protons/bunch as required to meet established performance goals for Tevatron Collider Run II. With the advent of the Main Injector the demand for protons in support of a diverse physics research program at Fermilab will grow. This is because the Main Injector creates a new capability for simultaneous operation of the collider and fixed target programs at 120 GeV. It has also been recently appreciated that a physics program based on the utilization of unallocated 8 GeV Booster cycles is potentially very attractive. A variety of experiments are either approved or under consideration including the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NUMI) project, Kaons at the Main Injector (KAMI), and an rf separated K + beam for CPT tests, all utilizing 120 GeV protons, and a low energy neutrino (MiniBooNe) or muon program based on 8 GeV protons from the Booster. In addition significant effort is now being invested in defining paths to a factor of five improvement in Tevatron collider luminosity beyond those expected in Run II and in understanding the possible future siting of either a very large hadron collider or a modest energy ''First Muon Collider'' (FMC) at Fermilab. Support for these varied activities is beyond the capabilities of the current Proton Source--in the case of the FMC by about a factor of ten as measured in delivered protons per second. The purpose of this document is to describe a possible evolution of the Fermilab Proton Source over the next ten years. The goal is to outline a staged plan, with significant

  17. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Dragoş E.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Holloway, Lois; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5°, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with ±15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T

  18. The source development lab linac at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.S.; Johnson, E.D.

    1996-12-01

    A 210 MeV SLAC-type electron linac is currently under construction at BNL as part of the Source Development Laboratory. A 1.6 cell RF photoinjector is employed as the high brightness electron source which is excited by a frequency tripled Titanium:Sapphire laser. This linac will be used for several source development projects including a short bunch storage ring, and a series of FEL experiments based on the 10 m long NISUS undulator. The FEL will be operated as either a SASE or seeded beam device using the Ti:Sapp laser. For the seeded beam experiments; direct amplification, harmonic generation, and chirped pulse amplification modes will be studied, spanning an output wavelength range from 900 nm down to 100 nm. This paper presents the project's design parameters and results of recent modeling using the PARMELA and MAD simulation codes

  19. Design of a New Acceleration System for High-Current Pulsed Proton Beams from an ECR Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew L.; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Surbrook, Jason T.; Kelly, Keegan J.; Carlin, Bret P.; Champagne, Arthur E.; Clegg, Thomas B.

    2014-03-01

    A primary objective for accelerators at TUNL's Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA) is to maximize target beam intensity to ensure a high rate of nuclear events during each experiment. Average proton target currents of several mA are needed from LENA's electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source because nuclear cross sections decrease substantially at energies of interest tube structures; and provide better heat dissipation by using deionized water to provide the current drain needed to establish the accelerating tube's voltage gradient. Details of beam optical modeling calculations, proposed accelerating tube design, and initial beam pulsing tests will be described. Work supported in part by USDOE Office of HE and Nuclear Physics.

  20. Design development of the SCDTL structure for the TOP linac

    CERN Document Server

    Picardi, L; Spataro, B

    1999-01-01

    The Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac (SCDTL) is an attractive 3 GHz accelerating structure composed of short DTL tanks coupled together by side coupling cavities, in the course of development of the 200 MeV proton linear accelerator for proton therapy planned for the Terapia Oncologica con Protoni (TOP) program of the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, ISS). The TOP Linac will be used to boost to 70 MeV the 7 MeV proton beam from a linac injector. Our main concern is to investigate in detail the characteristics of the structure in terms of RF properties of the accelerating mode, like longitudinal and transverse shunt impedance and quality factor, and of the other modes that cause the origin of the tank dispersion curve, in order to stabilize the behaviour under operating conditions. Calculations performed with the computer three-dimensional (3D) codes MAFIA and SOPRANO on the smallest unit of the system (a single DTL tank without coupling cavities) and experimental measurements m...

  1. Experiments and prospects for induction linac drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-05-01

    In the last three years, the US program in Heavy Ion Fusion has concentrated on understanding the induction linac approach to a power-plant driver. In this method it is important that the beam current be maximized throughout the accelerator. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the space-charge limit in the AG transport system in the linac and, also, to achieve current amplification during acceleration to keep pace with the kinematical increase of this limit with energy. Experimental results on both these matters and also on the use of multiple beams (inside the same accelerating structure) will be described. A new examination of the most attractive properties of the induction linac for a fusion driver has clearly pointed to the advantage of using heavy ions with a charge-state greater than unity - perhaps q = 3 may be an optimum. This development places even greater importance on understanding space-charge limits and mechanisms for emittance growth; also, it will require a new emphasis on the development of a suitable ion source

  2. Experiments and prospects for induction linac drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-12-01

    In the last three years, the US program in Heavy Ion Fusion has concentrated on understanding the induction linac approach to a power-plant driver. In this method it is important that the beam current be maximized throughout the accelerator. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the space-charge limit in the AG transport system in the linac and, also, to achieve current amplification during acceleration to keep pace with the kinematical increase of this limit with energy. Experimental results on both these matters and also on the use of multiple beams (inside the same accelerating structure) will be described. A new examination of the most attractive properties of the induction linac for a fusion driver has clearly pointed to the advantage of using heavy ions with a charge-state greater than unity - perhaps q = 3 may be an optimum. This development places even greater importance on understanding space-charge limits and mechanisms for emittance growth; also, it will require a new emphasis on the development of a suitable ion source

  3. Enhancements of the critical currents of YBaCuO single crystals by neutron (n) and proton (p) irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, B.M.; Frischherz, M.C.; Vishwanathan, H.K.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G.W.; Kirk, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    We present results of magnetization hysteresis and T c measurements of neutron and proton irradiated YBaCuO single crystals. The crystals used for comparison were irradiated to a fluence of 2x10 7 n/cm 2 (n,E > 0.1MeV) and 1x10 16 p/cm 2 (p,E=3.5MeV). The critical currents at 1T and 10K are enhanced by a factor of 5 for the neutron irradiated and a factor of 9 for the proton irradiated sample respectively. After irradiation the crystals were annealed at 100, 200 and 300C for 8h each in air. Following each annealing step the critical temperature and the magnetization hysteresis at 10 and 70K was measured. Upon annealing, we observe a decrease of the critical currents, which is more pronounced for the proton irradiated sample. This decrease is related to the removal of point defects or their small clusters. Thus, their contribution to pinning can be studied. The critical temperature decreases after both types of irradiation by about 0.5K and is fully recovered after annealing

  4. Review of superconducting ion linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the technology of superconducting (SC) linacs designed for the acceleration of ions. The emphasis is on the technical issues involved, with only brief descriptions of the numerous linacs now in operation or under construction. Recent developments of special interest are treated in more detail, and remaining technical challenges are outlined. The technology required for the acceleration of ions with velocity β=1 is not discussed because it is almost the same as for relativistic electrons. That is, this paper is mainly about SC linacs for low-velocity heavy ions

  5. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  6. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Abigail T.; James, Sara St.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT), through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning

  7. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail T. Berman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT, through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning.

  8. The current status of model development of the electron and proton telescope for Solar Orbiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, Jan; Kulkarni, S.R.; Tammen, Jan; Boden, Sebastian; Elftmann, Robert; Martin, Cesar; Ravanbakhsh, Ali; Boettcher, Stephan I.; Seimetz, Lars; Schuster, Bjoern; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Kiel (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    ESA's Solar Orbiter mission, scheduled for launch in January 2017, will study how the sun creates the inner heliosphere. Therefore, the spacecraft will perform in situ and remote sensing measurements of the sun on a high inclination orbit with a perihelion of about 60 solar radii, making it possible to observe the poles of the sun from nearby. The Energetic Particle Detector suite on-board of Solar Orbiter will measure particles of a wide energy range and from multiple directions. One of the important sensors of the EPD suite is the Electron Proton Telescope. It consists of two antiparallel telescopes with two silicon detectors respectively and is designed to detect electrons between 20 - 400 keV and protons from 20 keV to 7 MeV. EPT relies on a magnet/foil technique to discriminate between electrons and protons. Here, we present the testing of the Structural and Thermal Model, which has already been delivered to ASTRIUM for spacecraft level tests as well as the integration and testing of the Engineering Model, which already provides full electrical functionality.

  9. Overview of the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the J-PARC Project started in April of 2001. After 8 years of construction period, the project was completed in the spring of 2009. Three accelerator elements (Linac, 3 GeV proton synchrotron and 50 GeV proton synchrotron) are now working. Also, three experimental halls (materials and life experimental hall, hadron experimental hall, and neutrino experimental hall) are in operation. In this article I review all these facilities and their scientific goals. In addition, I would like to overview the current and future scope of this J-PARC facility. (author)

  10. Linac4 H− ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettry, J.; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; David, N.; Chaudet, E.; Fink, D. A.; Garlasche, M.; Grudiev, A.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Haase, M.; Jones, A.; Koszar, I.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lombardi, A. M.; Machado, C.

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s 160 MeV H − linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H − source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H − source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described

  11. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  12. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  13. Commissioning plans for SSC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, J.W.; Aprile, R.L.; Chang, C.R.; Crist, C.E.; Cutler, R.I.; Funk, L.W.; Guy, F.W.; Leifeste, G.T.; Raparia, D.; Saadatmand, K.; Sethi, R.C.; Swenson, D.A.; Tooker, J.; Yao, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    Presented are the general description of the SSC linac and the plans for commissioning. Sections of the linac are installed, tested, and beam commissioned in a serial approach. A specialized set of diagnostics is used to characterize the beam through each section. In addition to the standard diagnostic set, plans call for the use of a bunch shape monitor and x-ray spectrometer. Streak camera and digital imaging diagnostics will be developed. The commissioning plan is folded into the general linac project schedule to show the relation between delivery, staging, installation, conditioning, and actual commissioning with beam. These plans form the basis for coordination between the various organizations responsible for different elements of the linac including the technical components, infrastructure, and temporary staging and operation facilities. (Author) 2 figs., 17 refs

  14. Superconducting linacs used with tandems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1984-01-01

    The main features of superconducting linacs used as post-accelerators of tandems are reviewed. Various aspects of resonators, cryogenics and electronics are discussed, and recent advances in the field are presented. (orig.)

  15. Exclusive Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Muon Plus Any Number of Protons Topologies In ArgoNeuT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partyka, Kinga Anna [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Neutrinos remain among the least understood fundamental particles even after decades of study. As we enter the precision era o f neutrino measurements bigger and more sophisticated detectors have emerged. The leading candidate among them is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC ) detector technology due to its bubble-like chamber imaging, superb background rejection and scalability. I t is a perfect candidate that w ill aim to answer the remaining questions of the nature o f neutrino and perhaps our existence. Studying neutrinos with a detector that employs detection via beautiful images o f neutrino interactions can be both illuminating and surprising. The analysis presented here takes the full advantage of the LArTPC power by exploiting the first topological analysis of charged current muon neutrino p + N p , muon and any number of protons, interactions with the ArgoNeuT LArTPC experiment on an argon target. The results presented here are the first that address the proton multiplicity at the vertex and the proton kinematics. This study also addresses the importance o f nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. Furthermore, the developed here reconstruction techniques present a significant step forward for this technology and can be employed in the future LArTPC detectors.

  16. SLAC Linac Preparations for FACET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been cut at the two-thirds point to provide beams to two independent programs. The last third provides the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), leaving the first two-thirds available for FACET, the new experimental facility for accelerator science and test beams. In this paper, we describe this separation and projects to prepare the linac for the FACET experimental program.

  17. Comparison of LINAC-4 Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Crandall, K; Sargsyan, E; Lallement, J-B; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the expected performance of two drift tube linac (DTL) designs proposed for LINAC-4. The two designs use the same cell geometries but are characterized by different phase (φs) and accelerating field (E0) distributions. In addition we have investigated the expected performance of 3 different quadrupole focusing schemes in each design. The expected performance of these 6 variants is compared with respect to their stability and risk of beam loss with alignment errors.

  18. Measurement of current distribution in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with various flow arrangements – A parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaefour, Ibrahim; Karimi, G.; Jiao, Kui; Li, X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatial local current distributions in a single PEMFC are measured. ► Effects of key operating conditions on the local current density are investigated. ► Increasing air and hydrogen stoichiometries improves local current density distributions. ► Operating pressure and temperature have negligible impact on local current distribution. - Abstract: Understanding of current distributions in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is crucial for designing cell components such as the flow field plates and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). In this study, the spatial current density distributions in a single PEMFC with three serpentine flow channels are measured using a segmented bipolar plate and printed circuit board technique. The effects of key operating conditions such as stoichiometry ratios, inlet humidity levels, cell pressure and temperature on the local current density distributions for co-, counter-, and cross-flow arrangements are examined. It is observed that the local current density distribution over the MEA is directly affected by the cell operating conditions along with the configuration of the flow arrangement. It is also found that among the different flow configurations tested under the various operating conditions, the counter flow arrangement provides the optimum average current density and the lowest variations in the local current densities along the flow channels.

  19. Establishing Evidence-Based Indications for Proton Therapy: An Overview of Current Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Mark V., E-mail: mmishra@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Aggarwal, Sameer [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Bentzen, Soren M. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Knight, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Miami Cancer Institute at Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, Florida (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To review and assess ongoing proton beam therapy (PBT) clinical trials and to identify major gaps. Methods and Materials: Active PBT clinical trials were identified from (clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Platform Registry. Data on clinical trial disease site, age group, projected patient enrollment, expected start and end dates, study type, and funding source were extracted. Results: A total of 122 active PBT clinical trials were identified, with target enrollment of >42,000 patients worldwide. Ninety-six trials (79%), with a median planned sample size of 68, were classified as interventional studies. Observational studies accounted for 21% of trials but 71% (n=29,852) of planned patient enrollment. The most common PBT clinical trials focus on gastrointestinal tract tumors (21%, n=26), tumors of the central nervous system (15%, n=18), and prostate cancer (12%, n=15). Five active studies (lung, esophagus, head and neck, prostate, breast) will randomize patients between protons and photons, and 3 will randomize patients between protons and carbon ion therapy. Conclusions: The PBT clinical trial portfolio is expanding rapidly. Although the majority of ongoing studies are interventional, the majority of patients will be accrued to observational studies. Future efforts should focus on strategies to encourage optimal patient enrollment and retention, with an emphasis on randomized, controlled trials, which will require support from third-party payers. Results of ongoing PBT studies should be evaluated in terms of comparative effectiveness, as well as incremental effectiveness and value offered by PBT in comparison with conventional radiation modalities.

  20. SRF LINAC for future extension of the PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Sung; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Seol, Kyoung Tae; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Proton Engineering Frontier Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    A study on the superconducting RF linac is underway in order to increase the beam energy up to 1 GeV by extending the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 100-MeV linac. The operating frequency of the PEFP superconducting linac (SCL) is 700 MHz, which is determined by the fact that the frequency of the existing normal conducting linac is 350 MHz. A preliminary study on the beam dynamics showed that two types of cavities with geometrical betas of 0.50 and 0.74 could cover the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. An inductive output tube (IOT) based RF system is under consideration as a high-power RF source for the SCL due to its low operating voltage and high efficiency. As a prototyping activity for a reduced beta cavity, a five-cell cavity with a geometrical beta of 0.42 was designed and fabricated. A vertical test of the prototype cavity at low temperatures was performed to check the performance of the cavity. The design study and the prototyping activity for the PEFP SCL will be presented in this paper.

  1. Status of the SNS superconducting linac and future plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The use of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities in particle accelerator is becoming more widespread. Among the projects that make use of that technology is the Spallation Neutron Source, where H- ions are accelerated to about 1 GeV, mostly making use of niobium elliptical cavities. SNS generates neutrons by the spallation reaction with the accelerated short (about 700 ns) sub-bunches of protons, which will in turn allow probing structural and magnetic properties of new and existing materials. The SNS superconducting linac is the largest application of RF superconductivity to come on-line in the last decade and has been operating with beam for almost two years. As the first operational pulsed superconducting linac, many of the aspects of its performance were unknown and unpredictable. A lot of experiences and data have been gathered on the pulsed behavior of cavities and cryomodules at various repetition rates and at various temperatures during the commissioning of its components and beam operations. This experience is of great value in determining future optimizations of SNS as well in guiding in the design and operation of future pulsed superconducting linacs. The testing of the superconducting cavities, the operating experience with beam, the performance of the superconducting linac and the future plans will be presented.

  2. Optimization of steering elements in the RIA driver linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E. S.; Aseev, V. S.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting (SC) linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from proton to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver's real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids. The algorithm has been fully integrated into the tracking code TRACK and it is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements in the driver linac

  3. SRF LINAC for future extension of the PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Sung; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Seol, Kyoung Tae; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub

    2014-01-01

    A study on the superconducting RF linac is underway in order to increase the beam energy up to 1 GeV by extending the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 100-MeV linac. The operating frequency of the PEFP superconducting linac (SCL) is 700 MHz, which is determined by the fact that the frequency of the existing normal conducting linac is 350 MHz. A preliminary study on the beam dynamics showed that two types of cavities with geometrical betas of 0.50 and 0.74 could cover the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. An inductive output tube (IOT) based RF system is under consideration as a high-power RF source for the SCL due to its low operating voltage and high efficiency. As a prototyping activity for a reduced beta cavity, a five-cell cavity with a geometrical beta of 0.42 was designed and fabricated. A vertical test of the prototype cavity at low temperatures was performed to check the performance of the cavity. The design study and the prototyping activity for the PEFP SCL will be presented in this paper.

  4. Full power to the first Linac4 module

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Since last week the first of a total of 23 accelerating structures for Linac4 has been undergoing high-power tests. Although still a prototype, this structure is destined to be the first of the 12 PIMS cavities to be installed in the Linac4 tunnel and it has been completely designed, developed and constructed at CERN.   The PIMS prototype. The new Linac4 has 4 different types of accelerating structures. The PI-Mode Structures (PIMS) are the last stage and are designed to accelerate protons up to 160 MeV. “PIMS have never before been used to accelerate protons”, explains Frank Gerigk, the project engineer responsible for the Linac4 accelerating structures. “In LEP, they were used to accelerate electrons, and now we have modified them and improved several design features to make them suitable for protons”. The first prototype was entirely manufactured in the CERN workshop. Due to the size of the pieces it was difficult to achieve and preserve the required to...

  5. Conceptual Design of the Linac4 Main Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Leitao, I V; Maglioni, C

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is the new CERN linear accelerator intended to replace the ageing Linac2 as the injector to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) for increasing the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). By delivering a 160MeV H- beam, Linac4 will provide the necessary conditions to double the brightness and intensity of the beam extracted from the PSB. This paper describes the conceptual design of the Linac4 Main Dump, where two different concepts relying respectively on water and air cooling were compared and evaluated. Based on the application of analytical models for the energy deposited by the beam, heat conduction and cooling concepts, a parametric study was performed. This approach allowed the identification of the “optimal” configuration for these two conceptual geometries and their relative comparison. Besides giving the theoretical guidelines for the design of the new dump, this work also contributes to the development of analytical tools to allow a better understanding of the influence of the se...

  6. Beam dynamics and commissioning of low and medium energy H- beam at Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Satri, Masoomeh Yarmohammadi; Lombardi, Alessandra; Lamehi-Rachti , Mohammad

    The First step of the CERN Large Hadron Collider injectors upgrade (LIU) project is Linac4. It accelerates H- ions to 160 MeV in an 80 m long accelerator housed in a tunnel 12 m underground, presently under construction. It will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector of the proton accelerator complex to increase the LHC luminosity. It consists of a 45 keV RF volume source, a twosolenoid Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating the beam to 3 MeV, a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line. The MEBT houses a fast chopper to selectively remove unwanted micro-bunches in the 352 MHz sequence and avoid losses at capture in the CERN PSB (1 MHz). After chopping, the beam acceleration continues by a 50 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a 100 MeV Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac and a Pi-Mode Structure bringing the beam to the final energy of 160 MeV. Linac4 has been commissioned with a temporary source up to 12 MeV. The beam commissioning stages of Linac4 in LEBT...

  7. Multiplacting analysis on 650 MHz, BETA 0.61 superconducting RF LINAC cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, Sudeshna; Som, Sumit; Mandal, Aditya; Ghosh, Surajit; Saha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Design, analysis and development of high-β multi-cell elliptical shape Superconducting RF linac cavity has been taken up by VECC, Kolkata as a part of IIFC collaboration. The project aims to provide the-art technology achieving very high electric field gradient in superconducting linac cavity, which can be used in high energy high current proton linear accelerator to be built for ADSS/SNS programme in India and in Project-X at Fermilab, USA. The performance of this type of superconducting RF structure can be greatly affected due to multipacting when we feed power to the cavity. Multipacting is a phenomenon of resonant electron multiplication in which a large number of electrons build up an electron Avalanche which absorbs RF Energy leading to remarkable power losses and heating of the walls, making it impossible to raise the electric field by increasing the RF Power. Multipacting analysis has been carried out for 650 MHz, β=0.61, superconducting elliptical cavity using 2D code MultiPac 2.1 and 3 D code CST particle studio and the result is presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Gas Injection And Fast Pressure-Rise Measurements For The Linac4 H− Source

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Lettry, J; Mattei, S; O'Neil, M; Neupert, H; Pasquino, C; Schmitzer, C

    2013-01-01

    In the era of the Large Hadron Collider, the CERN injector complex comprising the 34 years old Linac2 with its primary proton source, is presently upgraded with a new linear accelerator for H− (Linac4). The design, construction, and test of volume production and cesiated RF-driven H− ion sources is presently ongoing with the final goal of producing an H− beam with 80 mA beam current, 45 keV beam energy, 500 s pulse length, and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In order to have quantitative information of the hydrogen gas density at the moment of plasma ignition the dynamic vacuum properties of the plasma generator were studied experimentally. We describe the experimental setup and present fast pressure-rise measurements for different parameters of the gas injection system, such as gas species (H2, He, N2, Ar), piezo valve voltage pulse length (200 - 500 s), and injection pressure (400 - 2800 mbar). The obtained data are compared with a conductance model of the plasma generator.

  9. ANU LINAC upgrade using multi-stub resonators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LINAC development work at ANU is currently aimed at improving ... current through the rf joint at the base of the outer wall and so increasing joint losses. The ... The stub geometry was developed with a help of Superfish/Poisson software [8].

  10. Experimental test of the PCAC-hypothesis in charged current neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hoffmann, E.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1987-03-01

    Data obtained with the bubble chamber BEBC at CERN are used for the first significant test of Adler's prediction for the neutrino and antineutrino-proton scattering cross sections at vanishing four-momentum transfer squared Q 2. An Extended Vector Meson Dominance Model (EVDM) is applied to extrapolate Adler's prediction to experimentally accessible values of Q 2. The data show good agreement with Adler's prediction for Q 2→0 thus confirming the PCAC hypothesis in the kinematical region of high leptonic energy transfer ν>2 GeV. The good agreement of the data with the theoretical predictions also at higher Q 2, where the EVDM terms are dominant, also supports this model. However, an EVDM calculation without PCAC is clearly ruled out by the data.

  11. Experimental test of the PCAC-hypothesis in charged current neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Allport, P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1987-01-01

    Data obtained with the bubble chamber BEBC at CERN are used for the first significant test of Adler's prediction for the neutrino and antineutrino-proton scattering cross sections at vanishing four-momentum transfer squared Q 2 . An Extended Vector Meson Dominance Model (EVDM) is applied to extrapolate Adler's prediction to experimentally accessible values of Q 2 . The data show good agreement with Adler's prediction for Q 2 → 0 thus confirming the PCAC hypothesis in the kinematical region of high leptonic energy transfer ν > 2 GeV. The good agreement of the data with the theoretical predictions also at higher Q 2 , where the EVDM terms are dominant, also supports this model. However, an EVDM calculation without PCAC is clearly ruled out by the data. (orig.)

  12. Design of LINAC4, A New Injector for the CERN Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Lombardi, A M; Rossi, C; Vretenar, M; Gerigk, F

    2004-01-01

    A new H- linac (Linac4) is presently under study at CERN. This accelerator, based on normal conducting structures at 352 and 704 MHz, will provide a 30 mA 160 MeV H- beam to the CERN PS Booster (PSB), thus overcoming the present space-charge bottleneck at injection with a 50 MeV proton beam. Linac4 is conceived as the first stage of a future 2.2 GeV superconducting linac (SPL) and it is therefore designed for a higher duty cycle than necessary for the PSB. This paper discusses the design choices, presents the layout of the facility and illustrates the advantages for the LHC and other CERN users. The R&D and construction strategy, which mainly relies upon international collaborations, is also presented.

  13. Mechanical Engineering of the Linac for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bultman, N.K.; Chen, Z.; Collier, M.; Erickson, J.L.; Guthrie, A.; Hunter, W.T.; Ilg, T.; Meyer, R.K.; Snodgrass, N.L.

    1999-01-01

    The linac for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project will accelerate an average current of 1 mA of H - ions from 20 MeV to 1GeV for injection into an accumulator ring. The linac will be an intense source of H - ions and as such requires advanced design techniques to meet project technical goals as well as to minimize costs. The DTL, CCDTL and CCL are 466m long and operate at 805 MHz with a maximum H - input current of 28 mA and 7% rf duty factor. The Drift Tube Linac is a copper-plated steel structure using permanent magnetic quadrupoles. The Coupled-Cavity portions are brazed copper structures and use electromagnetic quads. RF losses in the copper are 80 MW, with total rf power supplied by 52 klystrons. Additionally, the linac is to be upgraded to the 2- and 4-MW beam power levels with no increase in duty factor. The authors give an overview of the linac mechanical engineering effort and discuss the special challenges and status of the effort

  14. Parametric Study of the current limit within a single driver-scale transport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prost, Lionel Robert

    2007-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2 (micro)C/m) over long pulse durations (4 (micro)s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K + ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (∼80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics

  15. Design, performance, and calculated error of a Faraday cup for absolute beam current measurements of 600-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, S.M.

    1975-04-01

    A mobile self-contained Faraday cup system for beam current measurments of nominal 600-MeV protons was designed, constructed, and used at the NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The cup is of reentrant design with a length of 106.7 cm and an outside diameter of 20.32 cm. The inner diameter is 15.24 cm and the base thickness is 30.48 cm. The primary absorber is commercially available lead hermetically sealed in a 0.32-cm-thick copper jacket. Several possible systematic errors in using the cup are evaluated. The largest source of error arises from high-energy electrons which are ejected from the entrance window and enter the cup. A total systematic error of -0.83 percent is calculated to be the decrease from the true current value. From data obtained in calibrating helium-filled ion chambers with the Faraday cup, the mean energy required to produce one ion pair in helium is found to be 30.76 +- 0.95 eV for nominal 600-MeV protons. This value agrees well, within experimental error, with reported values of 29.9 eV and 30.2 eV

  16. Design, performance, and calculated error of a Faraday cup for absolute beam current measurements of 600-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, S.M.

    1975-04-01

    A mobile self-contained Faraday cup system for beam current measurements of nominal 600 MeV protons was designed, constructed, and used at the NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The cup is of reentrant design with a length of 106.7 cm and an outside diameter of 20.32 cm. The inner diameter is 15.24 cm and the base thickness is 30.48 cm. The primary absorber is commercially available lead hermetically sealed in a 0.32-cm-thick copper jacket. Several possible systematic errors in using the cup are evaluated. The largest source of error arises from high-energy electrons which are ejected from the entrance window and enter the cup. A total systematic error of -0.83 percent is calculated to be the decrease from the true current value. From data obtained in calibrating helium-filled ion chambers with the Faraday cup, the mean energy required to produce one ion pair in helium is found to be 30.76 +- 0.95 eV for nominal 600 MeV protons. This value agrees well, within experimental error, with reported values of 29.9 eV and 30.2 eV. (auth)

  17. Heavy ion induction linac drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Hovingh, J.

    1988-10-01

    Intense beams of high energy heavy ions (e.g., 10 GeV Hg) are an attractive option for an ICF driver because of their favorable energy deposition characteristics. The accelerator systems to produce the beams at the required power level are a development from existing technologies of the induction linac, rf linac/storage ring, and synchrotron. The high repetition rate of the accelerator systems, and the high efficiency which can be realized at high current make this approach especially suitable for commercial ICF. The present report gives a summary of the main features of the induction linac driver system, which is the approach now pursued in the USA. The main subsystems, consisting of injector, multiple beam accelerator at low and high energy, transport and pulse compression lines, and final focus are described. Scale relations are given for the current limits and other features of these subsystems. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. A study of single-meson production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P.; Grässler, H.; Schulte, R.; Jones, G. T.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Gebel, W.; Hofmann, E.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Clayton, E. F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P. N.; Towers, S. J.; Aachen-Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-London IC-Munich (MPI)-Oxford Collaboration

    1986-01-01

    We present results on exclusive single-charged pion and kaon production in neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons in the energy range from 5 to 120 GeV. The data were obtained from exposures of BEBC to wide band beams at the CERN SPS. For invariant masses of the (pπ) system below 2 GeV, the pions originate predominantly from decays of baryon resonances excited by the weak charged current. Similarly, we observe the production of Λ(1520) decaying into p and K -. For invariant masses above 2 GeV pion production becomes peripheral by interaction of the weak current with a virtual π0. We establish a contribution of longitudinally polarised intermediate vector bosons to this process.

  19. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobayyen, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ratios R νp and R a ntiν a ntip of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R νp = 0.384±0.024±0.015 and R a ntiν a nti p = 0.338±0.014±0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2 θ W (M W ) a nti M a nti S of 0.225±0.030. 20 refs

  20. A study of single-meson production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.; Graessler, H.; Schulte, R.; Gebel, W.; Hofmann, E.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    We present results on exclusive single-charged pion and kaon production in neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons in the energy range from 5 to 120 GeV. The data were obtained from exposures of BEBC to wide band beams at the CERN SPS. For invariant masses of the (pπ) system below 2 GeV, the pions originate predominantly from decays of baryon resonances excited by the weak charged current. Similarly, we observe the production of Λ(1520) decaying into p and K - . For invariant masses above 2 GeV pion production becomes peripheral by interaction of the weak current with a virtual π 0 . We establish a contribution of longitudinally polarised intermediate vector bosons to this process. (orig.)

  1. Essay of accelerator R and D in a small laboratory of a university. Prototype of IHQ linac 1985-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    This is a series of stories on developing particle accelerators employing new acceleration principles at a university laboratory. In this paper the design, the cold-model test, the fabrication and the acceleration test of a linear accelerator (linac) of 'IHQ' type are described. The word IHQ is coined by combining 'Inter-digital H' and 'Radio-Frequency Quadrupole', which are the words for types of linacs. The linac of IHQ type can accelerate particles with rather low injection energy and can perform a high acceleration efficiency. In the acceleration test, the proton beam from an RFQ linac with an energy of 0.8MeV was injected to the IHQ linac and accelerated up to 2 MeV as designed. The effective shunt impedance of the accelerator structure was measured to be as high as 132MΩ/m as expected. (K.Y.)

  2. Design and construction of the main linac module for the superconducting energy recovery linac project at Cornell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhorn, R.; Bullock, B.; He, Y.; Hoffstaetter, G.; Liepe, M.; O' Connell, T.; Quigley, P.; Sabol, D.; Sears, J.; Smith, E.; Veshcherevich, V. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-based Science and Education (CLASSE), Cornell University, 161 Synchrotron Drive, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Cornell University has been designing and building superconducting accelerators for various applications for more than 50 years. Currently, an energy-recovery linac (ERL) based synchrotron-light facility is proposed making use of the existing CESR facility. As part of the phase 1 R and D program funded by the NSF, critical challenges in the design were addressed, one of them being a full linac cryo-module. It houses 6 superconducting cavities- operated at 1.8 K in continuous wave (CW) mode - with individual HOM absorbers and one magnet/ BPM section. Pushing the limits, a high quality factor of the cavities (2⋅10{sup 10}) and high beam currents (100 mA accelerated plus 100 mA decelerated) are targeted. We will present the design of the main linac cryo-module (MLC) being finalized recently, its cryogenic features and report on the status of the fabrication which started in late 2012.

  3. High power CW linac in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, S.; Wang, Y.L.; Emoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) is developing a high power electron linac for various applications. The electron beam is accelerated in CW operation to get maximum beam current of 100 mA and energy of 10 MeV. Crucial components such as a high power L-band klystron and a high power traveling wave resonant ring (TWRR) accelerator guides were designed and manufactured and their performance were examined. These design and results from the recent high power RF tests were described in this paper. (author)

  4. Superconducting LINAC booster for the Mumbai pelletron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LINAC), to boost the energy of heavy ion beams from the 14UD Pelletron accelerator, at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The accelerating structures in the LINAC are quarter wave resonators (QWR) coated with lead which is ...

  5. Investigation of alternating-phase focusing for superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagalovsky, L.; Delayen, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a new model of alternating-phase focusing (APF) dynamics applicable to ion linacs with short independently controlled superconducting cavities. The equations of motion are derived for a cylindrically symmetric electric field represented by a traveling wave with continuous periodic phase modulation. Solutions are obtained and analyzed for both the linear and nonlinear particle motion. Problems of linear stability and overall longitudinal acceptance are solved using standard mathematical techniques for periodic systems; analytical results are obtained. It is shown that the main beam dynamical aspects of APF are adequately described by four parameters; equilibrium synchronous phase, phase modulation amplitude, length of APF period, and incremental energy gain. The model can be applied to study the feasibility of realizing APF in a low-β section of a proton linac. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs

  6. A development of BPM for P-LINAC at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almalki, Mohammed; Kester, Oliver; Forck, Peter; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Sieber, Thomas; Kowina, Piotr; Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Krueger, Christoph [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Simon, Claire [CEA/DSM/IRFU (France); Tinta, Dejan; Hrovatin, Rok; Lemut, Promoz [Instrumentation Technologies, Solkan (Slovenia)

    2014-07-01

    Four-fold button Beam Position Monitor (BPM) has been developed for the planned Proton LINAC at the FAIR facility. These monitors will be installed at 14 locations along the LINAC and four of them will be mounted only about 40 mm upstream of the CH cavities. A BPM prototype will be fabricated to evaluate the rf power at the BPM location as generated by cavity excitation as well as to test different options in the mechanical design. For the read-out electronics, the I/Q digital signal processing will be implemented to derive the transverse beam position and the beam phase. This contribution presents the status of the BPM development and focuses on the mechanical design and the optimization of the button pick-ups. The development progress of digital signal processing system is discussed as well.

  7. Linac4 Low Energy Beam Measurements with Negative Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Scrivens, R; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, O; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  8. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivens, R., E-mail: richard.scrivens@cern.ch; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  9. High Voltage Installation of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The high-voltage installation of the linac 1 preinjector in its house-sized Faraday cage. Originally driven by a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator, at the time of this picture the HV came from a 520 kV SAMES generator. The column in the front carries a capacitor. The cubicle in the right background is the electronics platform (see 7403120). The round structure at left houses the ion source, from where the protons (and sometimes other ions), electrostatically accelerated to 520 keV, enter the Alvarez structure of linac 1, to be accelerated to 50 MeV. Jean-Luc Vallet is busy with servicing the installation. See also 7403064X, 7403066X.

  10. Upgrading the Fermilab Linac local control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrory, E.S.; Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

    1991-02-01

    A new control system for the Fermilab Linac is being designed, built and implemented. First, the nine-year-old linac control system is being replaced. Second, a control system for the new 805 MHz part of the linac is being built. The two systems are essentially identical, so that when the installations are complete, we will still have a single Linac Control System. 8 refs., 5 figs

  11. Electron Linacs for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Perry B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce some of the basic physical principles underlying the operation of electron linear accelerators (electron linacs). Electron linacs have applications ranging from linacs with an energy of a few MeV, such that the electrons are approximately relativistic, to future electron-positron linear colliders having a collision energy in the several-TeV energy range. For the most part, only the main accelerating linac is treated in this article.

  12. Linac particle tracing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    A particle tracing code was developed to study space--charge effects in proton or heavy-ion linear accelerators. The purpose is to study space--charge phenomena as directly as possible without the complications of many accelerator details. Thus, the accelerator is represented simply by harmonic oscillator or impulse restoring forces. Variable parameters as well as mismatched phase--space distributions were studied. This study represents the initial search for those features of the accelerator or of the phase--space distribution that lead to emittance growth

  13. Simultaneous measurement of current and temperature distributions in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell during cold start processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Kui; Alaefour, Ibrahim E.; Karimi, Gholamreza; Li Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Cold start is critical to the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in automotive applications. Dynamic distributions of current and temperature in PEMFC during various cold start processes determine the cold start characteristics, and are required for the optimization of design and operational strategy. This study focuses on an investigation of the cold start characteristics of a PEMFC through the simultaneous measurements of current and temperature distributions. An analytical model for quick estimate of purging duration is also developed. During the failed cold start process, the highest current density is initially near the inlet region of the flow channels, then it moves downstream, reaching the outlet region eventually. Almost half of the cell current is produced in the inlet region before the cell current peaks, and the region around the middle of the cell has the best survivability. These two regions are therefore more important than other regions for successful cold start through design and operational strategy, such as reducing the ice formation and enhancing the heat generation in these two regions. The evolution of the overall current density distribution over time remains similar during the successful cold start process; the current density is the highest near the flow channel inlets and generally decreases along the flow direction. For both the failed and the successful cold start processes, the highest temperature is initially in the flow channel inlet region, and is then around the middle of the cell after the overall peak current density is reached. The ice melting and liquid formation during the successful cold start process have negligible influence on the general current and temperature distributions.

  14. Status and performance of PF injector linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Isamu

    1994-01-01

    PF injector linac has been improved on a buncher section for accelerating of intense electron beam, and reinforced a focusing system of the positron generator linac for the expansion of phase space. In this presentation, I shall report present status and performance of PF injector linac, and discuss its upgrade program for B-factory project. (author)

  15. SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STOVALL, J.; NATH, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac is comprised of both normal and superconducting rf (SRF) accelerating structures. The SRF linac accelerates the beam from 186 to 1250 MeV through 117 elliptical, multi-cell niobium cavities. This paper describes the SRF linac architecture, physics design considerations, cavity commissioning, and the expected beam dynamics performance

  16. IMPACT simulation and the SNS linac beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-particle tracking simulations for the SNS linac beam dynamics studies are performed with the IMPACT code. Beam measurement results are compared with the computer simulations, including beam longitudinal halo and beam losses in the superconducting linac, transverse beam Courant-Snyder parameters and the longitudinal beam emittance in the linac. In most cases, the simulations show good agreement with the measured results

  17. ASIC-like, proton-activated currents in rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Anne; Waldmann, Rainer; Lazdunski, Michel

    2002-03-01

    The expression of mRNA for acid sensing ion channels (ASIC) subunits ASIC1a, ASIC2a and ASIC2b has been reported in hippocampal neurons, but the presence of functional hippocampal ASIC channels was never assessed. We report here the first characterization of ASIC-like currents in rat hippocampal neurons in primary culture. An extracellular pH drop induces a transient Na(+) current followed by a sustained non-selective cation current. This current is highly sensitive to pH with an activation threshold around pH 6.9 and a pH(0.5) of 6.2. About half of the total peak current is inhibited by the spider toxin PcTX1, which is specific for homomeric ASIC1a channels. The remaining PcTX1-resistant ASIC-like current is increased by 300 microM Zn(2+) and, whereas not fully activated at pH 5, it shows a pH(0.5) of 6.0 between pH 7.4 and 5. We have previously shown that Zn(2+) is a co-activator of ASIC2a-containing channels. Thus, the hippocampal transient ASIC-like current appears to be generated by a mixture of homomeric ASIC1a channels and ASIC2a-containing channels, probably heteromeric ASIC1a+2a channels. The sustained non-selective current suggests the involvement of ASIC2b-containing heteromeric channels. Activation of the hippocampal ASIC-like current by a pH drop to 6.9 or 6.6 induces a transient depolarization which itself triggers an initial action potential (AP) followed by a sustained depolarization and trains of APs. Zn(2+) increases the acid sensitivity of ASIC channels, and consequently neuronal excitability. It is probably an important co-activator of ASIC channels in the central nervous system.

  18. Beam dynamics pre-design with KONUS principle for the DTL of SPPC p-Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Li, Haipeng; Lu, Yuanrong; Su, Jiancang; Liu, Xiaolong; Fu, Qi

    2018-04-01

    As the Higgs bosons were observed on the LHC in 2012, a two-stage particle collider program named CEPC-SPPC is proposed for precise measurement of Higgs properties and exploring the new physics models. In order to deliver a 2.1-TeV proton beam into the Super Proton-Proton Collider (SPPC), the injector chain will use a 1.2-GeV proton linac (p-Linac) and three synchrotrons of p-RCS, MSS and SS. This paper focuses on the preliminary conceptual design of the DTL within the p-Linac and mainly concerns about the beam dynamics studies. Taking advantages of the KONUS principle and LORASR code, a 325 MHz, 50.65 MeV DTL design which is composed of three tanks in 15.6 m will be presented. The whole DTL contains 129 gaps for beam acceleration, one quadruple doublet which is behind the buncher and eight quadruple triplets of which three are located after each tank, respectively. The aims of this pre-study are to optimize the acceleration electric field distribution together with the focusing magnetic field parameters, enhance the beam transmission quality of beam envelopes, particle distribution and energy spread, then improve the DTL performance in terms of transmission efficiency and so on. The results of the analyses show that the DTL pre-design achieves 16.8 times high energy gain and meets all the p-Linac requirements well.

  19. ETL linac facility and free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Noguchi, T.; Mikado, T.; Sugiyama, S.; Yamada, K.; Chiwaki, M.; Ohgaki, H.; Suzuki, R.; Sei, N.

    1993-01-01

    An outline is presented of the recent development on the ETL (Electro-technical Laboratory) electron-linac facility and storage-ring FELs (free-electron lasers). Some modifications including the injection system have been made to the linac. Four storage rings are working very well. The TERAS FEL system has been shut down after the successful oscillation around 590 nm. The new NIJI-IV FEL system has been proven to work well, and the current tunable wavelength range is over 100 nm (488-595 nm). Preparatory experiments on the FEL at shorter wavelength are underway. (author)

  20. Overview and status of RF systems for the SSC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynk, J.; Grippe, J.; Cutler, R.I.; Rodriguez, R.

    1993-05-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linear Accelerator (Linac) produces a 600-MeV, 35-μs, H-beam at a 10-Hz repetition rate. The beam is accelerated by a series of RF cavities. These consist of a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), two bunchers, and four Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tanks at 427.617 MHz, and two bunchers, nine side-coupled Linac modules, and an energy compressor at 1282.851 MHz. The RFQ amplifier and the low-frequency buncher cavity amplifiers use gridded tubes, while the other cavities use klystron amplifier systems. The RF control system consists of a reference line and cavity feedback and feedforward loops for each amplifier. The RF amplifier system for each of these accelerator cavities is described, and the current status of each system is presented

  1. An overview of BARC-TIFR pelletron linac facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The 14UD Pelletron Accelerator at Mumbai has recently completed twenty five years of successful operation. The accelerator is primarily used for basic research in the fields of nuclear, atomic, condensed matter and material science. The superconducting Linac booster provides additional acceleration to the ions from Pelletron injector up to A∼60 region with E∼5 MeV/A. Further, an alternate injector system to the Superconducting LINAC booster is planned as an augmentation programme, comprising of a superconducting ECR ion source, room temperature RFQ and superconducting low-beta cavity resonators. This talk will provide an overview of the recent developmental activities carried out at the Pelletron Accelerator Facility, resulting in enhanced overall performance and uptime of the accelerator. The application oriented programs initiated at Pelletron Accelerator and the current status of the alternate injector system at the Pelletron-Linac facility will also be discussed. (author)

  2. An overview of BARC-TIFR Pelletron-Linac Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    The 14UD Pelletron Accelerator at Mumbai has recently completed twenty five years of successful operation. The accelerator is primarily used for basic research in the fields of nuclear, atomic, condensed matter and material science. The superconducting Linac booster provides additional acceleration to the ions from Pelletron injector up to A~60 region with E~5 MeV/A. Further, an alternate injector system to the Superconducting LINAC booster is planned as an augmentation programme, comprising of a superconducting ECR ion source, room temperature RFQ and superconducting low-beta cavity resonators. This talk will provide an overview of the recent developmental activities carried out at the Pelletron Accelerator Facility, resulting in enhanced overall performance and uptime of the accelerator. The application oriented programs initiated at Pelletron Accelerator and the current status of the alternate injector system at the Pelletron-Linac facility will also be discussed. (author)

  3. Design of the WNR proton storage ring lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Lawrence, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    The Weapons Neutron Research Facility, now approaching operational status, is a pulsed neutron time-of-flight facility utilizing bursts of 800 MeV protons from the LAMPF linac. The protons strike a heavy metal target and produce a broad energy spectrum of neutrons via spallation reactions. Ideally the width of the proton pulse should approach a delta function in order to achieve good neutron energy resolution. Practically, the shortest pulse that can be employed in the facility is that produced by a single LAMPF micropulse, which, at design current, contains approximately 5 x 10 8 protons. With the addition of a storage ring capable of accumulating many micropulses, this intensity can be increased, as can the repetition rate. Moreover, by storing an unbunched beam, a low repetition rate, very intense proton burst can be generated. This latter mode of usage allows neutron time-of-flight studies using large neutron targets, for which pulse lengths of the order of several hundred nanoseconds are suitable. The primary goals of the ring are reported: (i) to increase the intensity of the burst to 10 11 protons while retaining a short pulse length; (ii) to increase the repetition rate of the bursts by at least a factor of six; and (iii) to store as many particles as possible, uniformly distributed around the ring

  4. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and and antineutrino interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Hoffmann, E.; Haidt, D.; Klein, H.; Mittendorfer, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Retter, M. L.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P. N.; Towers, S. J.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.; Fitch, P. J.; Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-Imperial College-München(MPI)-Oxford-University College Collaboration

    1986-10-01

    The ratios Rvp and Rvp of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 400 GeV wideband beam. The bubble chamber, equipped with the standard External Muon Identifier, was surrounded with an additional plane of wire chambers (Internal Picket Fence), which was added to improve neutral current event identification. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/ c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R vp = 0.384 ± 0.015 and R vp = 0.338 ± 0.014 ± 0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2θ w(M woverlineMSof 0.225 ± 0.030 . Combining the results from hydrogen and an isoscalar target, the differences of the neutral current chiral coupling constants were found to be u2l- d2L = -0.080 ± 0.043 ± 0.012 and u2R- d2R = 0.021±0.055±0.028.

  5. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Hoffmann, E.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Retter, M.L.; Saitta, B.; Shotton, P.N.; Towers, S.J.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.; Fitch, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The ratios R vp and R vp of the neutral current to charged current cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino interactions on protons have been measured in BEBC. The beam was the CERN SPS 400 GeV wideband beam. The bubble chamber, equipped with the standard External Muon Identifier, was surrounded with an additional plane of wire chambers (Internal Picket Fence), which was added to improve neutral current event identification. For a total transverse momentum of the charged hadrons above 0.45 GeV/c and a charged multiplicity of at least 3, it was found that R vp =0.384±0.024±0.015 and R vp =0.338±0.014±0.016, corresponding to a value of sin 2 θ w (M w ) MS of 0.225±0.030. Combining the results from hydrogen and an isoscalar target, the differences of the neutral current chiral coupling constants were found to be u L 2 -d L 2 =-0.080±0.043±0.012 and u R 2 -d R 2 =0.021±0.055±0.028. (orig.)

  6. Computer codes for designing proton linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takao

    1992-01-01

    Computer codes for designing proton linear accelerators are discussed from the viewpoint of not only designing but also construction and operation of the linac. The codes are divided into three categories according to their purposes: 1) design code, 2) generation and simulation code, and 3) electric and magnetic fields calculation code. The role of each category is discussed on the basis of experience at KEK (the design of the 40-MeV proton linac and its construction and operation, and the design of the 1-GeV proton linac). We introduce our recent work relevant to three-dimensional calculation and supercomputer calculation: 1) tuning of MAFIA (three-dimensional electric and magnetic fields calculation code) for supercomputer, 2) examples of three-dimensional calculation of accelerating structures by MAFIA, 3) development of a beam transport code including space charge effects. (author)

  7. Medical application and its promotion of X-band linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the current status of the development of the monochromatic tunable hard X-ray source by the X-band linac and YAG leasers. New medical applications such as 2 colors CT and Drug Delivery System (DDS) are planned. Finally, the virtual laboratory for the distribution of the system to the society is discussed. (author)

  8. Drift Tube Linac Conditioning of Tank1

    CERN Document Server

    Shafqat, N; Toor, W A

    2014-01-01

    Tank1 of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) of the Linac4 has been conditioned at the Linac4 tunnel. The tank was tuned for resonance at 352.2 MHz, and stable operation has been achieved with 725 µs long RF pulses at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The maximum RF level that has been reached is 810 kW with a pulse width of 600 µs. Since this was the first RF structure exclusively conditioned in the Linac4 tunnel with the operation and control software of Linac4, some related issues and limitations had to be taken into account.

  9. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs

  10. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs.

  11. The new Linac moves mountains

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The civil engineering work has started for Linac 4, one of the major renovation projects for the CERN accelerator complex. The work will be completed at the end of 2010 and the new linear accelerator is scheduled to be commissioned in 2013.

  12. Linac boosters for electrostatic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY

    1990-01-01

    A survey of linacs which are used as boosters to electrostatic accelerators is presented. Machines both operating and under construction, copper and superconducting, are reviewed. The review includes data on the accelerating structures, performance, rf and control, beam optics, budget, vacuum and cryogenics. (orig.)

  13. Release the beams! - Linac4 ready to hit the 50 MeV mark

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The Linac4 accelerator is now prepared to reach 50 MeV. This milestone energy - expected in the coming weeks - will allow the machine to act as a replacement for the ageing Linac2, four years before it takes over at the head of the accelerator chain in 2020.    Inside the Linac4 tunnel, the final DTL cavities will guide beams to 50 MeV.  (Image: Stephan Russenschuck.) The Linac4 accelerator will bring H- ion beams (hydrogen atoms with an extra electron) up to 160 MeV for injection into the PS Booster. As a key part of the LHC injector upgrade programme, Linac4 will allow the PS Booster to double its beam brightness, which will contribute to increasing the LHC’s luminosity. Linac4 will soon bring beams up to 50 MeV - the current energy delivered by the Linac2 accelerator. This milestone follows on from another recent accomplishment: the installation and commissioning of the final Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tank. Using an innovati...

  14. Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4  MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.

  15. Investigation of the double exponential in the current-voltage characteristics of silicon solar cells. [proton irradiation effects on ATS 1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.; Noel, G. T.; Stirn, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Difficulties in relating observed current-voltage characteristics of individual silicon solar cells to their physical and material parameters were underscored by the unexpected large changes in the current-voltage characteristics telemetered back from solar cells on the ATS-1 spacecraft during their first year in synchronous orbit. Depletion region recombination was studied in cells exhibiting a clear double-exponential dark characteristic by subjecting the cells to proton irradiation. A significant change in the saturation current, an effect included in the Sah, Noyce, Shockley formulation of diode current resulting from recombination in the depletion region, was caused by the introduction of shallow levels in the depletion region by the proton irradiation. This saturation current is not attributable only to diffusion current from outside the depletion region and only its temperature dependence can clarify its origin. The current associated with the introduction of deep-lying levels did not change significantly in these experiments.

  16. Progress in design of the SNS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardekopf, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a six-laboratory collaboration to build an intense pulsed neutron facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The linac design has evolved from the conceptual design presented in 1997 in order to achieve higher initial performance and to incorporate desirable upgrade features. The linac is now designed to produce 2-MW beam power using a combination of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, drift-tube linac (DTL), coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and superconducting-RF (SRF) linac. Designs of each of these elements support he high peak intensity and high quality beam required for injection into the SNS accumulator ring. This paper will trace the evolution of the linac design and the progress made in the R and D program. (author)

  17. The booster linac of the Sparkle Company 18 MeV Cyclotron: main design elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Sparkle Company (Casarano, Le) that is setting up a centre for production and research on radioisotopes for medical use, has requested to the ENEA Accelerator Laboratory a specific design of a linear accelerator for boosting the energy of its commercial cyclotron from 18 to 24 MeV, with the aim of implementing a small proton irradiation facility for radiobiology studies. This is the first case of coupling a cyclotron beam to a linac, that, if successful, can give rise to a new class of accelerators for proton therapy. The linac can accelerate only a very small portion of the cyclotron beam, due to the intrinsic mismatching of the two kind of accelerators both in the vertical and in the longitudinal phase planes. A beam transport line has been studied that besides matching at best the beam to the linac in the transverse plane, is equipped with a chopping system to lower drastically the primary beam power in order to protect the linac structure. The linac is SCDTL type, and operates at 3 GHz. In the following the results of the design are presented. [it

  18. Design of a 120 MeV $H^{-}$ Linac for CERN High-Intensity Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerigk, F

    2002-01-01

    The SPL (Superconducting Proton Linac) study at CERN foresees the construction of a 2.2 GeV linac as a high beam-power driver for applications such as a second-generation radioactive ion beam facility or a neutrino superbeam. At the same time such a high-performance injector would both modernize and improve the LHC injection chain. The 120 MeV normal-conducting section of the SPL could be used directly in a preliminary stage for H- charge-exchange injection into the PS Booster. This would increase the proton flux to the CERN experiments while also improving the quality and reliability of the beams for the LHC. The 120 MeV linac consists of a front-end, a conventional Drift Tube Linac (DTL) to 40 MeV and a Cell Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) to the full energy. All the RF structures will operate at 352 MHz, using klystrons and RF equipment recovered from the LEP collider. This paper concentrates on the design of the 3 to 120 MeV section. It introduces the design criteria for high-stability beam optics and th...

  19. BNCT with linac, feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfuraih, A.; Ma, A.; Spyrou, N.M.; Awotwi-Pratt, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    High energy photon beams from Medical Linear Accelerators (linacs) which are used in radiotherapy produce undesirable neutrons, beside the clinically useful electron and photon beams. Neutrons are produced from the photonuclear reaction (γ,n) of high energy photons with high Z-materials which compose the accelerator head. In this paper the possible use of these undesirable neutrons for BNCT is investigated, making use of high energy linacs already installed in hospitals, primarily for high energy electron and photon therapy and applying them in the context of BNCT. The photoneutron components emitted by the accelerator is the source for Monte Carlo simulations of the interactions that take place within the head of a voxel-based phantom. The neutron flux across the phantom head is calculated using different moderator arrangements and different techniques in the aim of increasing the thermal neutron flux at the targeted site. Also, we shall test different configurations of the linac head to maximize the exposure of high-Z materials to the photon beam, including the removal of the flattening filter, so as to boost the photoneutron production in the linac head. Experimental work will be conducted in hospitals to validate the Monte Carlo simulations. To make use of linacs for BNCT will be advantageous in the sense that the setting in a hospital department is much more acceptable by the public than a reactor installation. This will mean less complications regarding patient positioning and movement with respect to the beams, additional patient transportation and management will be more cost effective. (author)

  20. Florida State University superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, E.G.; Fox, J.D.; Frawley, A.D.; Allen, P.; Faragasso, J.; Smith, D.; Wright, L.

    1988-01-01

    As early as the fall of 1977 it was decided that the future research needs of their nuclear structure laboratory required an increase in energy capability to at least 8 MeV per nucleon for the lighter ions, and that these needs could be met by the installation of a 17 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The chief problem with this proposal was the high cost. It became apparent that a far less expensive option was to construct a linear accelerator to boost the energy from their existing 9 MV tandem. The options open to them among linac boosters were well represented by the room temperature linac at Heidelberg and the superconducting Stony Brook and Argonne systems. By the Spring of 1979 it had been decided that both capital cost and electric power requirements favored a superconducting system. As regards the two superconducting resonator technologies - the Argonne niobium-copper or the Caltech-Stony Brook lead plated copper - the Argonne resonators, though more expensive to construct, had the advantages of more boost per resonator, greater durability of the superconducting surface and less stringent beam bunching requirements. In 1980 pilot funding from the State of Florida enabled the construction of a building addition to house the linac and a new target area, and the setting up of a small, three resonator, test booster. Major funding by the NSF for the laboratory upgrade started in 1984. With these funds they purchased their present helium liquefaction and transfer system and constructed three large cryostats, each housing four Argonne beta = 0.105 resonators and two superconducting solenoids. The last large cryostat was completed and installed on-line early this year and the linac was dedicated on March 20. Nuclear physics experiments using the whole linac began in early June. 4 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  1. Hypotonic stimuli enhance proton-gated currents of acid-sensing ion channel-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugawa, Shinya; Ishida, Yusuke; Ueda, Takashi; Yu, Yong; Shimada, Shoichi

    2008-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are strong candidates for mammalian mechanoreceptors. We investigated whether mouse acid-sensing ion channel-1b (ASIC1b) is sensitive to mechanical stimuli using oocyte electrophysiology, because ASIC1b is located in the mechanosensory stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. Hypotonic stimuli that induced membrane stretch of oocytes evoked no significant current in ASIC1b-expressing oocytes at pH 7.5. However, acid (pH 4.0 or 5.0)-evoked currents in the oocytes were substantially enhanced by the hypotonicity, showing mechanosensitivity of ASIC1b and possible mechanogating of the channel in the presence of other components. Interestingly, the ASIC1b channel was permeable to K + (a principal charge carrier for cochlear sensory transduction) and the affinity of the channel for amiloride (IC 50 (inhibition constant) = approximately 48.3 μM) was quite similar to that described for the mouse hair cell mechanotransducer current. Taken together, these data raise the possibility that ASIC1b participates in cochlear mechanoelectrical transduction

  2. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1993-06-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0, Λ andbar Λ in vp andbar vp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables E v, W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables x F, z and p {T/2}. K *± (892) and ∑ *± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for ∑ *- (1385) production in vp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K *± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ,bar Λ and ∑ *± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicities are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up.

  3. Design of injector section for SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoki; Mizuno, Akihiko; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Hori, Toshihiko; Yanagida, Kenichi; Mashiko, Katsuo; Yokomizo, Hideaki

    1993-07-01

    In the SPring-8, we are planning to use positrons in order to increase the beam life time in the storage-ring. For the injector linac, though high current beam production to yield positrons is alternative with accurate low current beam production for commissioning, we designed the injector section to achieve both of the high current mode and the low current mode. In this paper, overview of some simulation codes for the design of electron accelerators are described and the calculation results by TRACE for the injector section of the linac are shown. That is useful not only for the design of machines but for the selection of sensitive parameters to establish the good beam quality. Now the injector section, which is settled at Tokai Establishment, is arranged for the case of the performance check of the electron gun. And we present that the layout of this section is needed to be rearranged for the high current mode operation. (author)

  4. H- Ion Sources For CERN’s Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Coutron, Y; Chaudeta, E; Dallocchio, A; Gil Flores, J; Hansen, J; Mahner, E; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Sanchez Arias, J; Schmitzer, C; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitabl...

  5. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  6. Real-Time Microscopic Monitoring of Flow, Voltage and Current in the Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Li, Shih-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yen-Ting; Wang, Yu-Syuan

    2018-03-15

    Looking for alternative energy sources has been an inevitable trend since the oil crisis, and close attentioned has been paid to hydrogen energy. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzer is characterized by high energy efficiency, high yield, simple system and low operating temperature. The electrolyzer generates hydrogen from water free of any carbon sources (provided the electrons come from renewable sources such as solar and wind), so it is very clean and completely satisfies the environmental requirement. However, in long-term operation of the PEM water electrolyzer, the membrane material durability, catalyst corrosion and nonuniformity of local flow, voltage and current in the electrolyzer can influence the overall performance. It is difficult to measure the internal physical parameters of the PEM water electrolyzer, and the physical parameters are interrelated. Therefore, this study uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a flexible integrated microsensor; internal multiple physical information is extracted to determine the optimal working parameters for the PEM water electrolyzer. The real operational data of local flow, voltage and current in the PEM water electrolyzer are measured simultaneously by the flexible integrated microsensor, so as to enhance the performance of the PEM water electrolyzer and to prolong the service life.

  7. Analytical solutions for thermal transient profile in solid target irradiated with low energy and high beam current protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Henrique B. de; Brazao, Nei G.; Sciani, Valdir

    2009-01-01

    There were obtained analytical solutions for thermal transient in solid targets, used in short half-life radioisotopes production, when irradiated with low energy and high beam current protons, in the cyclotron accelerator Cyclone 30 of the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The beam spatial profile was considered constant and the time depended heat distribution equation was resolved for a continuous particles flow entering the target. The problem was divided into two stages: a general solution was proposed which is the sum of two functions, the first one related to the thermal equilibrium situation and the second one related to a time dependent function that was determinate by the setting of the contour conditions and the initial conditions imposed by the real problem. By that one got an analytic function for a complete description of the heat transport phenomenon inside the targets. There were used both, numerical and symbolic computation methods, to obtain temperature maps and thermal gradients and the results showed an excellent agreement when compared with purely numerical models. The results were compared with obtained data from Gallium-67 and Thallium-201 irradiation routines conducted by the IPEN Cyclotrons accelerators center, showing excellent agreement. The objective of this paper is to develop solid targets irradiation systems (metals and oxides) so that one can operate with high levels of current beam, minimizing the irradiation time and maximizing the final returns. (author)

  8. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1992-08-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0 , Λ and anti Λ in νp and anti νp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables. E ν , W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables χ F , z and p T 2 . K* ± (892) and Σ* ± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for Σ* - (1385) production in νp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K* ± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ, anti Λ and Σ* ± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicities are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up. (orig.)

  9. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1993-01-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0 , Λ and anti Λ in νp and anti νp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables E ν , W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables x F , z and p T 2 . K* ± (892) and Σ* ± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for Σ* - (1385) production in νp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K* ± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ, anti Λ and Σ* ± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicites are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up. (orig.)

  10. The RF system for the 70 MeV linac injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planner, C.W.

    1975-12-01

    The Radio Frequency System for the 70 MeV Linac Injector for Nimrod is required to power the four Accelerating Cavities and the Buncher and Debuncher Cavities. The frequency of operation is 202.5 MHz and is determined by the use of existing equipment from the redundant 50 MeV Proton Linac for the second and third accelerating cavities and the buncher and de-buncher cavities. The subject is discussed under the following headings: low power drive chain; RF feed lines; cavity field level stabilisation. Circuit diagrams are presented. (U.K.)

  11. Acceleration characteristics of the injector Linacs for the Hyogo Hadrontherapy Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J.; Sawada, K.; Sakata, T.

    2000-01-01

    Hyogo Hadrontherapy center in Harima Science Garden City is a cancer therapy facility with proton, helium and carbon beams. The beams are supplied by a synchrotron, which has manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, with RF 1inacs as an injector, which has manufactured by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd.(SHI). The injector consists of the identical ECR ion sources, a RFQ linac, and an Alvarez linac, which are connected by beam transport systems including vacuum systems, and some kinds of beam monitoring equipments. The results accomplished for the beam conditioning are described in this paper. (author)

  12. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-12-14

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-{beta} region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the {phi}{sub s}=0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs

  13. Linac design for intense hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the RFQ and H-type DTL structures, this dissertation is dedicated to study the beam dynamics in the presence of significantly strong space-charge effects while accelerating intense hadron beams in the low- and medium-β region. Besides the 5 mA/30 mA, 17 MeV proton injector (RFQ+DTL) and the 125 mA, 40 MeV deuteron DTL of the EUROTRANS and IFMIF facilities, a 200 mA, 700 keV proton RFQ has been also intensively studied for a small-scale but ultra-intense neutron source FRANZ planned at Frankfurt University. The most remarkable properties of the FRANZ RFQ and the IFMIF DTL are the design beam intensities, 200 mA and 125 mA. A new design approach, which can provide a balanced and accelerated beam bunching at low energy, has been developed for intense beams. To design the IFMIF DTL and the injector DTL part of the EUROTRANS driver linac, which have been foreseen as the first real applications of the novel superconducting CH-DTL structure, intensive attempts have been made to fulfill the design goals under the new conditions. For the IFMIF DTL, the preliminary IAP design has been considerably improved with respect to the linac layout as well as the beam dynamics. By reserving sufficient drift spaces for the cryosystem, diagnostic devices, tuner and steerer, introducing SC solenoid lenses and adjusting the accelerating gradients and accordingly other configurations of the cavities, a more realistic, reliable and efficient linac system has been designed. On the other hand, the specifications and positions of the transverse focusing elements as well as the phase- and energy-differences between the bunch-center particle and the synchronous particle at the beginning of the φ s =0 sections have been totally redesigned. For the EUROTRANS injector DTL, in addition to the above-mentioned procedures, extra optimization concepts to coordinate the beam dynamics between two intensities have been applied. In the beam transport simulations for both DTL designs, no beam

  14. The BATES linac control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, T.; Radouch, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The Bates linac control system (LCS), a distributed processing architecture, is described. Due to the historic evolution of the system, a mix of different hardware, operating systems and programming languages are used throughout. However, a standardized interface at the network level enables a smooth system integration. In particular, a multicasting scheme for data transmission over the network permits simultaneous database updates on more than one workstation. This allows for true distribution of data processing power. 3 figs

  15. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (<Linac Feedback Simulation Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  16. Status of the SNS Linac An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Holtkamp, N

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source SNS is a second generation pulsed neutron source and under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SNS is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic energy Sciences and is dedicated to the study of the structure and dynamics of materials by neutron scattering. A collaboration composed of six national laboratories (ANL, BNL, TJNAF, LANL, LBNL, ORNL) is responsible for the design and construction of the various subsystems. With the official start in October 1998, the operation of the facility will begin in 2006 and deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam with a pulse length of approximately 700 nanoseconds on a liquid mercury target. The multi-lab collaboration allowed access to a large variety of expertise in order to enhance the delivered beam power by almost an order of magnitude compared to existing neutron facilities. The SNS linac consists of a combination of room temperature and superconducting structures and will be the first pulsed high power sc lin...

  17. Linacs for medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications have become an important commercial business. Microwave electron linacs for cancer radiation therapy and high-energy industrial radiography form the bulk of this market, but these, as well as induction linacs, are now being offered for radiation processing applications such as sterilization of disposable medical products, food preservation and material modifications. The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has now made the ion linac also practical for commercial applications in medicine and industry, including radiation therapy, isotope production, neutron production, materials modification, and energy transfer processes. Ion linacs for several of these applications will soon be commercially available. The market for both ion and electron linacs is expected to significantly grow in several exciting and important areas

  18. Longitudinal instability in heavy-ion-fusion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1993-05-01

    A induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls

  19. Operation of the Brookhaven 200 MeV Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewell, N.M.; LoDestro, V.

    1979-01-01

    During the past three years the 200 MeV linear accelerator has continued to operate at a high level of performance and reliability. The linac output beam current has been limited to 60 mA in order to obtain the maximum rf power tube life without compromising the output performance of the AGS. Despite a reduction in pulse repetition rate, total beam current to the BLIP facility has increased to an average of 300 mA hours/year

  20. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1997-01-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  1. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  2. A medical facility proposal to use the SSC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    A consortium organized by the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission under a Department of Energy grant proposes to build and operate a Regional Medical Technology Center to function as a combined medical radioisotope production complex and proton cancer therapy facility using the Linear Accelerator (Linac) assets of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The radioisotope production complex will serve as a domestic source of radioisotopes critically needed by the U.S. pharmaceutical industry and nuclear medicine facilities throughout North America. Presently, more than 70 percent of radioisotopes used in U.S. nuclear medicine procedures are produced outside the country. The Center's state-of-the-art proton cancer therapy facility will serve the Central United States, providing advanced capabilities and augmenting facilities in California and Massachusetts. Long-term, it is anticipated that the RMTC also will stimulate nuclear medicine research, advance medical diagnostic technologies, and generate new industrial applications for linear accelerator technology

  3. A medical facility proposal to use the SSC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    A consortium organized by the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) under a Department of Energy (DOE) grant proposes to build and operate a Regional Medical Technology Center (RMTC) to function as a combined medical radioisotope production complex and proton cancer therapy facility using the linear accelerator (linac) assets of the cancelled Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The radioisotope production complex will serve as a domestic source of radioisotopes critically needed by the U.S. pharmaceutical industry and nuclear medicine facilities throughout North America. Presently, more than 70 percent of radioisotopes used in U.S. nuclear medicine procedures are produced outside the country. The Center's state-of-the-art proton cancer therapy facility will serve the Central United States, providing advanced capabilities and augmenting facilities in California and Massachusetts. Long-term, it is anticipated that the RMTC also will stimulate nuclear medicine research, advance medical diagnostic technologies, and generate new industrial applications of linear accelerator technology. (orig.)

  4. A medical facility proposal to use the SSC linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren Funk, L.

    1995-05-01

    A consortium organized by the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNRLC) under a Department of Energy (DOE) grant proposes to build and operate a Regional Medical Technology Center (RMTC) to function as a combined medical radioisotope production complex and proton cancer therapy facility using the linear accelerator (linac) assets of the cancelled Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The radioisotope production complex will serve as a domestic source of radioisotopes critically needed by the U.S. pharmaceutical industry and nuclear medicine facilities throughout North America. Presently, more than 70 percent of radioisotopes used in U.S. nuclear medicine procedures are produced outside the country. The Center's state-of-the-art proton cancer therapy facility will serve the Central United States, providing advanced capabilities and augmenting facilities in California and Massachusetts. Long-term, it is anticipated that the RMTC also will stimulate nuclear medicine research, advance medical diagnostic technologies, and generate new industrial applications of linear accelerator technology.

  5. Proton and gamma -Rays Irradiation-Induced Dark Current Random Telegraph Signal in a 0.18-mu{{m}} CMOS Image Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Nuns, T.; Virmontois, C.; David, J.-P.; Gilard, O.

    2013-08-01

    The dark current random telegraph signal (RTS) behavior has been studied in a five-transistor-per-pixel (5T) pinned photodiode 0.18-μm COTS active pixel sensor (APS). Several devices, irradiated using protons and gamma rays, have been studied in order to assess the ionizing and displacement damage effects. The influence of the proton energy, fluence, ionizing dose and applied bias during irradiation on the number of RTS pixels, the number of discrete levels, maximum transition amplitude, and mean switching time constants is investigated.

  6. Heavy-ion-linac post-accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main features of the tandem-linac system for heavy-ion acceleration are reviewed and illustrated in terms of the technology and performance of the superconducting heavy-ion energy booster at Argonne. This technology is compared briefly with the corresponding technologies of the superconducting linac at Stony Brook and the room-temperature linac at Heidelberg. The performance possibilities for the near-term future are illustrated in terms of the proposed extension of the Argonne booster to form ATLAS

  7. Diagnostic expert system in the PF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Isamu; Nakahara, Kazuo; Kitamura, Masaharu.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype diagnostic expert system (ES) was developed for the Photon Factory 2.5-GeV electron/positron LINAC injector system. The ES has been on-lined with the conventional linac computer network for receiving real data. This project was undertaken in an attempt to reduce the linac operator's mental workload, diagnosis duties, and to explore Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The outlook for ES and its problems, and what has been achieved are outlined in this presentation. (author)

  8. Design, Manufacture and Measurements of Permanent Quadrupole Magnets for Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Thonet, P; Vorozhtsov, A

    2012-01-01

    Compact quadrupole magnets are required for the CCDTL (Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac) of Linac 4, a 160 MeV linear accelerator of negative hydrogen ions which will replace the old 50 MeV proton Linac2 at CERN. The magnets, of an overall physical length of 140 mm and an aperture diameter of 45 mm, are based on Sm2Co17 blocks and can provide an integrated gradient of up to 1.6 Tesla. The magnetic field quality is determined by 4 ferromagnetic pole tips, aligned together with the permanent magnets blocks inside a structure made in a single piece. Tuning bars allow to individually trim the magnetic flux provided by each pole, to correct possible differences between blocks and to modify the field gradient intensity within about 20% of the nominal value. The paper describes and discusses the design, manufacture and magnetic measurements of a first prototype magnet.

  9. A P + DEUTERON PROTON POLARIMETER AT 200 MEV.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG,H.; ROSER,T.; ZELENSKI,A.; KURITA,K.; STEPHENSON,E.; TOOLE,R.

    2002-06-02

    There has been concern about the analyzing power of the p-Carbon polarimeter at the end of 200 MeV LINAC of BNL. A new polarimeter based on proton-deuteron scattering was installed and we have repeated the calibration of proton-Carbon scattering at 12 degrees and 200 MeV against proton-deuteron scattering. The result is consistent with the value of A=0.62 now used to measure the beam polarization at the end of the LINAC.

  10. Options for a next generation neutron source for neutron scattering based on the projected linac facility at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.; Watanabe, Noboru; Niimura, Nobuo; Morii, Yukio; Aizawa, Kazuya; Suzuki, Jun-ichi.

    1997-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has a project to construct a high intensity proton accelerator to promote wide basic science using neutrons and nuclear power technologies such as radioactive nuclide transmutation. One of the most important field for utilization of neutron beam is neutron scattering. The energy and the averaged current obtained by the proton accelerator are 1.5 GeV and 4-5.3 mA, respectively and these provide 6-8 MW power. The repetition frequency is 50-60 Hz. Evaluation of options for the use of accelerators for neutron production for neutron scattering research and investigation of the neutron research opportunities offered by sharing the superconducting linac planned at JAERI were discussed. There are two ways of the utilization of proton beams for neutron scattering experiment. One is for long pulse spallation source (LPSS) and the other is for short pulse spallation source (SPSS). Quantitative evaluation of instrument performance with LPSS and SPSS was examined in the intensive discussion, calculations, workshop on this topics with Prof. F. Mezei who stayed at JAERI from October 24 to November 6, 1996. A report of the collaborative workshop will be also published separately. (author)

  11. Analysis of the LSC microbunching instability in MaRIE linac reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    In this report we estimate the effect of the microbunching instability in the MaRIE XFEL linac. The reference design for the linac is described in a separate report. The parameters of the L1, L2, and L3 linacs as well as BC1 and BC2 bunch compressors were the same as in the referenced report. The beam dynamics was assumed to be linear along the accelerator (which is a reasonable assumption for estimating the effect of the microbunching instability). The parameters of the bunch also match the parameters described in the referenced report. Additionally, it was assumed that the beam radius is equal to R = 100 m and does not change along linac. This assumption needs to be revisited at later studies. The beam dynamics during acceleration was accounted in the matrix formalism using a Matlab code. The input parameters for the linacs are: RF peak gradient, RF frequency, RF phase, linac length, and initial beam energy. The energy gain and the imposed chirp are calculated based on the RF parameters self-consistently. The bunch compressors are accounted in the matrix formalism as well. Each chicane is characterized by the beam energy and the R56 matrix element. It was confirmed that the linac and beam parameters described previously provide two-stage bunch compression with compression ratios of 10 and 20 resulting in the bunch of 3kA peak current.

  12. A new trajectory correction technique for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.; Ruth, R.D.

    1990-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a new trajectory correction technique for high energy linear accelerators. Current correction techniques force the beam trajectory to follow misalignments of the Beam Position Monitors. Since the particle bunch has a finite energy spread and particles with different energies are deflected differently, this causes ''chromatic'' dilution of the transverse beam emittance. The algorithm, which we describe in this paper, reduces the chromatic error by minimizing the energy dependence of the trajectory. To test the method we compare the effectiveness of our algorithm with a standard correction technique in simulations on a design linac for a Next Linear Collider. The simulations indicate that chromatic dilution would be debilitating in a future linear collider because of the very small beam sizes required to achieve the necessary luminosity. Thus, we feel that this technique will prove essential for future linear colliders. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. HOM Consideration of 704 MHz and 2.1 GHz Cavities for LEReC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Binping [RIKEN BNL; Belomestnykh, Sergey [SUNY, Stony Brook; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [RIKEN BNL; Blaskiewicz, Michael [RIKEN BNL; Brennan, Joseph [RIKEN BNL; Brutus, Jean Clifford [RIKEN BNL; Fedotov, Alexei [RIKEN BNL; Hahn, Harald [RIKEN BNL; McIntyre, Gary [RIKEN BNL; Pai, Chien [RIKEN BNL; Smith, Kevin [RIKEN BNL; Tuozzolo, Joseph [RIKEN BNL; Veshcherevich, Vadim [Cornell U., CLASSE; Wu, Qiong [RIKEN BNL; Xin, Tianmu [RIKEN BNL; Xu, Wencan [RIKEN BNL; Zaltsman, Alex [RIKEN BNL

    2016-06-01

    To improve RHIC luminosity for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon, the Low Energy RHIC electron Cooler (LEReC) is currently under development at BNL. The Linac of LEReC is designed to deliver 2 MV to 5 MV electron beam, with rms dp/p less than 5·10⁻⁴. The HOM in this Linac is carefully studied to ensure this specification.

  15. Preliminary results from MBE-4: A four beam induction linac for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.; Warwick, A.I.; Warwick, P.b.A.I.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a scaled experimental multiple beam induction linac. This experiment is part of a program of accelerator research for heavy ion fusion. It is shown that multiple beams can be accelerated without significant mutual interaction. Measurements of the longitudinal dynamics of a current-amplifying induction linac are presented and compared to calculations. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal dynamics is discussed

  16. Preliminary results from MBE-4: a four beam induction linac for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Judd, D.L.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.; Warwick, A.I.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a scaled experimental multiple beam induction linac. This experiment is part of a program of accelerator research for heavy ion fusion. It is shown that multiple beams can be accelerated without significant mutual interaction. Measurements of the longitudinal dynamics of a current-amplifying induction linac are presented and compared to calculations. Coupling of transverse and longitudinal dynamics is discussed

  17. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearing, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize some of the information about the nucleon-nucleon force which has been obtained by comparing recent calculations of proton-proton bremsstrahlung with cross section and analyzing power data from the new TRIUMF bremsstrahlung experiment. Some comments are made as to how these results can be extended to neutron-proton bremsstrahlung. (Author) 17 refs., 6 figs

  18. Updated layout of the LINAC4 transfer line to the PS Booster (Green Field Option)

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    At the time of defining the site of Linac4 and its integration in the complex of existing infrastructure at CERN (together with the plans for a future Superconducting Proton Linac), a series of radiation protection issues emerged that have since prompted a revision of the Linac4 to PSB transfer line layout, as was described in the document AB‐Note‐2007‐037. For radiological safety reasons the distance between the planned SPL tunnel and the basement of building 513 had to be increased, and this led to the decision to lower the Linac4 machine by 2.5m. A vertical ramp was consequently introduced in the transfer line to raise the beam at the same level of LINAC2/PSB for connection to the existing transfer line. A series of error study runs has been carried out on the modified layout to have an estimate of the losses induced by quadrupole alignment and field errors. The two worst cases of each error family have been used as case studies to test the efficiency of possible steering strategies in...

  19. 1974 view into the cage of the 520 keV electrostatic preaccelerator of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The condenser of the high voltage circuit (column in the foreground) is being serviced by Jean Luc Vallet. Standing on the electronics platform (the big, open metallic structure on insulating pillars, for details see 7403120) is Bob Nettelton. The column at the right edge of the photo is part of the bouncer (see also 7403066X) which compensated the voltage drop during acceleration of a proton pulse. In the background is the source (open pill box structure) attached to the accelerating column, barely visible) behind. The "old" 50 MeV Linac 1, the original PS injector built in the 1950s, was (since 1976) replaced by a new 50 MeV linac (Linac 2) with a 750 keV "Cockcroft-Walton" pre-injector(see 7602012X), later replaced by a 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) preaccelerator. Linac 1 co-existed until mid 1992 (from 1982 onwards it was mainly used to inject "test-particles" into the Low Energy Antiproton ring LEAR). In 1984 the electrostatic preaccelerator of linac 1 was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ ( 8303511X...

  20. Induction linacs as radiation processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California, in conjunction with the University of California at Davis have shown induction linear accelerators (linacs) to be suitable for radiation processing of food. Here we describe how it might be possible to optimize this technology developded for the Department of Defense to serve in radiation processing. The possible advantages of accelerator-produced radiation over the use of radioisotopes include a tailor-made energy spectrum that can provide much deeper penetration and thereby better dose uniformity

  1. Signal multiplexing scheme for LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujo, C.I.; Mohan, Shyam; Joshi, Gopal; Singh, S.K.; Karande, Jitendra

    2004-01-01

    For the proper operation of the LINAC some signals, RF (radio frequency) as well as LF (low frequency) have to be available at the Master Control Station (MCS). These signals are needed to control, calibrate and characterize the RF fields in the resonators. This can be achieved by proper multiplexing of various signals locally and then routing the selected signals to the MCS. A multiplexing scheme has been designed and implemented, which will allow the signals from the selected cavity to the MCS. High isolation between channels and low insertion loss for a given signal are important issues while selecting the multiplexing scheme. (author)

  2. Redesign of CERN LINAC3 RFQ for Lead 29+

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Stefano; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lombardi, Alessandra; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    CERN Linac3 is at the heart of the CERN Heavy Ion Facility, providing 4.2 MeV/u ion beams to the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR). It mostly accelerates 208Pb29+, though in recent years runs were performed with 40Ar11+ and 129Xe22+, in view of the raising interest of the physics community towards lighter ions experiments. In the framework of the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) project, measurements and beam dynamics simulations showed that a transmission bottleneck of Linac3 is represented by the RFQ. As this accelerator was originally designed for 208Pb25+, the lower beam rigidity of the heavy ions currently in used – and planned to be used – permits a redesign of the RFQ aimed at increasing its transverse acceptance, and thus the transmitted beam current. The methodology adopted and the results of this study are presented.

  3. Study of characteristics of linac with TWRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.L.; Toyama, S.; Emoto, T.; Nomura, M.; Takahashi, N.; Oshita, H.; Hirano, K.; Sato, I.

    1994-01-01

    High power electron linac which is developed by PNC is an electron linac with the TWRR (Traveling Wave Resonant Ring). Some phenomena occurred on our high power test are mentioned. Some important characteristics such as stability and phase characteristic are discussed. (author)

  4. Fermilab Linac Upgrade Conceptual Design: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1989-07-01

    The goal of the Tevatron Collider Upgrade program is to improve the Collider luminosity and the fixed-target intensity. The Linac portion of this project will increase the energy of the existing 200- MeV linac to 400 MeV in order to reduce beam emittance degradation in the Booster.

  5. Present status of the ETL LINAC facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryoichi; Mikado, Tomohisa; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    1993-01-01

    The ETL LINAC has been operated for the beam injection to the storage rings NIJI-II, III, IV, and TERAS, and for the generation of an intense slow positron beam. The status of the ETL LINAC on the operations, the maintenances, and the improvements is described. (author)

  6. Linac design for the European spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H. [Universitaet Postfach, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    A study group has started to develop a conceptual design for a European Spallation Source (ESS). This pulsed 5 MW source presently consists of a 1.334 GeV linac and two compressor rings. In the following mainly the high intensity linac part will be discussed, which has some features of interest for accelerators for transmutation of radioactive waste too.

  7. Superconducting heavy-ion linac at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aron, J.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.G.; Johnson, K.W.; Nixon, J.M.; Markovich, P.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The design, status, and performance of the first operating superconducting heavy-ion accelerator, a linac used to boost the energies of beams from a 9-MV tandem, is summarized. When completed in 1981, the linac will consist of 24 independently-phased split-ring niobium resonators operating at 97 MHz. This linac is designed to provide 29 MV of acceleration. Because of the modular character of the system, the linac has been operable and useful since mid-1978, when a beam was accelerated through 2 units and the first nuclear-physics experiments were preformed. Now, 16 resonators are in use, and a beam has been accelerated for approx. 6000 h. Resonator performance has been remarkably stable, in spite of vacuum accidents, and the linac as a whole operates reliably without operators in attendance during nights and weekends. The ease and speed with which the beam energy can be changed is proving to be unexpectedly valuable to users

  8. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The preliminary design of the 600 MeV H - linac for the Superconducting Super Collider injector is described. The linac must provide a 25 mA beam during 7--35 μs macropulses at Hz within injection bursts. Normalized transverse emittances of less than 0.5 π mm-mrad (rms) are required for injection into the Low Energy Booster synchrotron. Cost, ease of commissioning, and operational reliability are important considerations. The linac will consists of an H - source with electrostatic LEBT, 2.5 MeV radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator, a 70 MeV drift-tube linac, and 530 MeV and the side-coupled linac operates at 1284 MHz. A modest total length of 150 m results from the tradeoff between cost optimization and reliability. The expected performance from beam dynamics simulations and the status of the project are described. 11 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  9. A Linac afterburner to supercharge the Fermilab booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt M, Charles email = popovic@fnal.gov

    2002-01-01

    A Linac Afterburner is proposed to raise the energy of the beam injected into the Femrilab Booster from 400 MeV to about 600 MeV, thereby alleviating the longitudinal and transverse space-charge effects at low energy that currently limit its performance. The primary motivation is to increase the integrated luminosity of the Tevatron Collider in Run II, but other future programs would also recap substantial benefits. The estimated cost is $23M

  10. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Sage, G P

    2002-01-01

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the beam profile will be described

  11. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Sage, G P

    2002-01-01

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the b...

  12. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, K., E-mail: karol.malinowski@ncbj.gov.pl; Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in “sandwiches” of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The “sandwiches” were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  13. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Valentin; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The computer program LFSC ( ) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output

  14. Storm-associated variations of equatorially mirroring ring current protons, 1--800 keV, at constant first adiabatic invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.; Williams, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Explorer 45 observations of ring current protons mirroring near the equator, 1--800 keV, are presented at constant first adiabatic invariant μ throughout the period of the December 17, 1971, geomagnetic storm. To obtain μ, simultaneous magnetic field and particle observations are used. Particle deceleration in response to the storm time magnetic field decrease causes ring current measurements viewed at constant energy to underestimate the storm time increase in proton intensities at energies approximately-less-than200 keV. This adiabatic deceleration also accounts for the large flux decreases observed at energies approximately-greater-than200 keV during the storm, in contradiction with previous results (Soraas and Davis, 1968) obtained using a model for the storm time magnetic field

  15. MBE-4: an induction linac experiment for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Avery, R.T.; Brodzik, D.A.

    1986-06-01

    The multiple-beam induction linac approach to a heavy ion fusion driver features continuous current amplification along the accelerator and a minimum of transverse beam manipulation from source to pellet. Current amplification and bunch length control require careful shaping of the accelerating voltages. This driver approach exploits developments in electron induction linac technology that have occurred within the last 15 years at LBL, LLNL and NBS. MBE-4 is a four beam induction linac that models much of the accelerator physics of the electrostatically focused section of a considerably longer induction accelerator. Four parallel Cs + beams are electrostatically focussed and will be accelerated from 200 keV to approximately one MeV when the experiment is complete in the spring of 1987. The current in each of the four beams will increase from 10 to 40 mA due to both increase in beam speed and shortening of the bunch length. Results of experiments with the injector and first eight accelerating gaps are presented

  16. Calculations of the displacement damage and short-circuit current degradation in proton irradiated (AlGa)As-GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C. S.; Li, S. S.; Loo, R. Y.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical model for computing the displacement damage defect density and the short-circuit current (I sub sc) degradation in proton-irradiated (AlGa)As-GaAs p-n junction solar cells is presented. Assumptions were made with justification that the radiation induced displacement defects form an effective recombination center which controls the electron and hole lifetimes in the junction space charge region and in the n-GaAs active layer of the irradiated GaAs p-n junction cells. The degradation of I sub sc in the (AlGa)As layer was found to be negligible compared to the total degradation. In order to determine the I sub sc degradation, the displacement defect density, path length, range, reduced energy after penetrating a distance x, and the average number of displacements formed by one proton scattering event were first calculated. The I sub sc degradation was calculated by using the electron capture cross section in the p-diffused layer and the hole capture cross section in the n-base layer as well as the wavelength dependent absorption coefficients. Excellent agreement was found between the researchers calculated values and the measured I sub sc in the proton irradiated GaAs solar cells for proton energies of 100 KeV to 10 MeV and fluences from 10 to the 10th power p/square cm to 10 to the 12th power p/square cm.

  17. High-brightness electron guns for linac-based light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Most proposed linac-based light sources, such as single-pass free-electron lasers and energy-recovery-linacs, require very high-brightness electron beams in order to achieve their design performance. These beam requirements must be achieved not on an occasional basis, but rather must be met by every bunch produced by the source over extended periods of time. It is widely assumed that the beam source will be a photocathode electron gun; the selection of accelerator technique (e.g., dc or rf) for the gun is more dependent on the application.The current state of the art of electron beam production is adequate but not ideal for the first generation of linac-based light sources, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL). For the next generation of linac-based light sources, an order of magnitude reduction in the transverse electron beam emittance is required to significantly reduce the cost of the facility. This is beyond the present state of the art, given the other beam properties that must be maintained. The requirements for current and future linac-based light source beam sources are presented here, along with a review of the present state of the art. A discussion of potential paths towards meeting future needs is presented at the conclusion.

  18. Preliminary design study and problem definition for intense CW superconducting deuteron ion linac for fusion material study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Y.; Kakutani, N.; Ota, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, O.; Wachi, Y.; Yamazaki, C.; Morii, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The advantages of superconducting (SC) cavity have been verified for many electron accelerators and the application of SC cavity to high intensity CW ion linacs is currently being considered. These linacs have been required for neutron irradiation tests of materials, transmutation of nuclear waste and so on. An SC linac consisting of SC cavities, SC quadrupole magnets and cryostats, was preliminarily designed to investigate the feasibility of applying to deuteron machine. Beam dynamics analysis was also carried out by using a modified PARMILA code in order to confirm no beam loss. Since radiation damage of superconductors is especially severe for such a machine, data relating to the damage were surveyed and discussed. Moreover, other major facilities such as cryogenic system, radio frequency amplifier and RF control system were considered. Many problems to be solved were defined but no critical issues were found. In consequence, it became clear that SC linac is very attractive and competitive with a room-temperature linac. (orig.)

  19. Development of a high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ito, Nobuo; Oguri, Hidetomo; Touchi, Yutaka; Mukugi, Ken; Ino, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with a beam power of 15 MW has been proposed for various engineering tests for the nuclear waste transmutation system as one of the research plans in the Neutron Science Research Program (NSRP) in JAERI. High intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beam generated from the proton spallation reaction will be utilized at these facilities in each research field. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end part of the proton accelerator; ion source, RFQ, DTL and RF source. In the beam test, the current of 70 mA with a duty factor of 7% has been accelerated from the RFQ at the energy of 2 MeV. A hot test model of the DTL for the high power and high duty operation was fabricated and tested. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting accelerating cavity is studied as a main option. The superconducting linac is expected to have several favourable characteristics for high intensity accelerator such as short accelerator length, large bore radius resulting in low beam losses and cost effectiveness for construction and operation. A test stand with equipment of cryogenics system, vacuum system, RF system and cavity processing and cleaning is prepared to test the physics issues and fabrication process. The proposed plan for accelerator design and construction will compose of two consecutive stages. The first stage will be completed in about 7 years with the beam power of 1.5 MW. As the second stage gradual upgrading of the beam power will be made up to 15 MW. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  1. Overview of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) project and Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yujiro

    2008-01-01

    The J-PARC project has been conducted jointly by JAERI and KEK since 2001. This paper reports an overview and current status of the project. The high intensity proton accelerator consists of a 400 MeV Linac, a 3 GeV synchrotron and 50 GeV synchrotron to deliver MW level pulsed proton beam to experimental facilities. The MW proton power will provide an advanced scientific experimental research complex aiming at making breakthroughs in materials and life science with neutron and muon, nuclear and elementary physics, etc. Regarding the project being close to its completion in 2008, this paper describes the overview of J-PARC project with emphasis of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility, in which the MW pulsed neutron and muon sources, are placed to provide high quality neutron and muon beams to the world wide users. (author)

  2. Important aspects of linac beams for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, J.; Jones, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Linac based irradiators will require careful design before they can be routinely adopted for the radiation processing of food. The transverse emittance and energy spread from simple injectors provide a significant challenge to the design of a beam delivery system which must handle high power especially in photon mode. Any nonuniform current distribution at the plane of the product is further complicated by large dose variations near the air/product interface, even with simple geometries. The paper describes the use of methods developed at AECL to control and monitor linac behaviour as well as electron interactions at the product surface. It also reports on activation cross-section measurements and particularly on neutron yields from composite targets, designed to monitor the energy of accelerators used in food applications. (orig.)

  3. Conversion of the AGS linac to H- acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.L.; Barton, D.S.; Reece, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    The AGS 200 MeV linac was converted to an H - accelerator during the summer of 1982 using a magnetron-type source in the column of the second pre-injector pit. Because of the re-entrant electrode design, a 20 keV transport line was required to carry the beam to the first electrode. Several changes were made to the source which enhanced its performance over previous designs. The same H - beam current is available at 2.75 times the duty factor with reduced deterioration of its output over several months of operation. The source, 750 keV transport, and linac modifications and performance will be presented

  4. Control system by the technological electron Linac KUT-20

    CERN Document Server

    Akchurin, Y I; Gurin, V A; Demidov, N V

    2001-01-01

    The high-power technological electron linac KUT-20 was developed at the Science Research Complex 'Accelerator' of NSC KIPT. The linac consists of two 1.2 m length accelerating structures with a variable geometry and an injector. The latter comprises a diode electron gun,a klystron type buncher and an accelerating cavity.With a RF supply power at accelerating structure entries of 11 MW and with a current at the accelerator exit of 1A,the beam energy will be up to 20 MeV.An average beam power is planned to be 20 kW.All systems of the accelerator are controlled by a computerised control system. The program and technical complex consist of PC equipped with fast ADC control console, synchronization unit, microprocessor-operated complexes.

  5. Correlated analysis of 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals using photoluminescence and thermally stimulated current techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yaxu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Jie, Wanqi, E-mail: jwq@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Rong, Caicai [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Yuhan; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Lv, Haoyan; Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Du, Guanghua [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fu, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Detection Materials and Devices of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals is investigated by PL and TSC techniques. • The influence of radiation damage on the luminescent and electrical properties of CdZnTe crystals is studied. • Intensity of PL spectrum is found to decrease significantly in irradiated regions, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. • A correlated analysis of PL and TSC spectra suggests that the density of dislocations and A-centers increase after proton irradiation. - Abstract: Radiation damage induced by 2 MeV protons in CdZnTe crystals has been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) techniques. A notable quenching of PL intensity is observed in the regions irradiated with a fluence of 6 × 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. Moreover, the intensity of emission peak D{sub complex} centered at 1.48 eV dominates in the PL spectrum obtained from irradiated regions, ascribed to the increase of interstitial dislocation loops and A centers. The intensity of TSC spectra in irradiated regions decreases compared to the virgin regions, resulting from the charge collection inefficiency caused by proton-induced recombination centers. By comparing the intensity of identified traps obtained from numerical fitting using simultaneous multiple peak analysis (SIMPA) method, it suggests that proton irradiation under such dose can introduce high density of dislocation and A-centers in CdZnTe crystals, consistent with PL results.

  6. Conceptual design of the SPL II A high-power superconducting $H^-$ linac at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Baylac, M; Benedico-Mora, E; Caspers, Friedhelm; Chel, S; Deconto, J M; Duperrier, R; Froidefond, E; Garoby, R; Hanke, K; Hill, C; Hori, M; Inigo-Golfin, J; Kahle, K; Kroyer, T; Küchler, D; Lallement, J B; Lindroos, M; Lombardi, A M; López Hernández, A; Magistris, M; Meinschad, T; Millich, Antonio; Noah-Messomo, E; Pagani, C; Palladino, V; Paoluzzi, M; Pasini, M; Pierini, P; Rossi, C; Royer, J P; Sanmartí, M; Sargsyan, E; Scrivens, R; Silari, M; Steiner, T; Tückmantel, Joachim; Uriot, D; Vretenar, M

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the revised physics needs and recent progress in the technology of superconducting RF cavities have led to major changes in the speci cation and in the design for a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN. Compared with the rst conceptual design report (CERN 2000–012) the beam energy is almost doubled (3.5 GeV instead of 2.2 GeV), while the length of the linac is reduced by 40% and the repetition rate is reduced to 50 Hz. The basic beam power is at a level of 4–5MW and the approach chosen offers enough margins for upgrades. With this high beam power, the SPL can be the proton driver for an ISOL-type radioactive ion beam facility of the next generation (`EURISOL'), and for a neutrino facility based on superbeam C beta-beam or on muon decay in a storage ring (`neutrino factory'). The SPL can also replace the Linac2 and PS Booster in the low-energy part of the CERN proton accelerator complex, improving signi cantly the beam performance in terms of brightness and intensity for the bene t of al...

  7. View into the cage of the 520 keV preaccelerator of the PS Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The "open pill box" (in the background at the left) contains the ion source, where for many years all protons accelerated at CERN were "born". It is directly attached to the acceleration column where the protons pass from 520 kV to earth potential. The "electronics platform" (big metal structure on insulating pillars in the middle of the picture, for details see 7403120 and 7403071X) contains all the equipment that has to be at the same potential as the source itself. The smaller metal box in the foreground is part of the "bouncer", which compensated the voltage drop during acceleration of a proton pulse. The high voltage generator (not included in this photo)was originally a Cockcroft-Walton column. In 1973 it was replaced by a Sames generator (see 7403074X). Visible at the bottom right of the picture is the conductor from the "Sames". The "old" 50 MeV Linac 1, the original PS injector built in the 1950s, was (since 1976) replaced by a new 50 keV linac (Linac 2). It had a 750 keV "Cockcroft-Walton" pre-injec...

  8. Matching the laser generated p bunch into a crossbar-H drift tube linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, A.; Droba, M.; Ratzinger, U.; Hofmann, I.

    2012-05-01

    Proton bunches with energies up to 30 MeV have been measured at the PHELIX laser. Because of the laser-plasma interactions at a power density of about 4×1019W/cm2, a total yield of 1.5×1013protons was produced. For the reference energy of 10 MeV, the yield within ±0.5MeV was exceeding 1010protons. The important topic for a further acceleration of the laser generated bunch is the matching into the acceptance of an rf accelerator stage. With respect to the high space charge forces and the transit energy range, only drift tube linacs seem adequate for this purpose. A crossbar H-type (CH) cavity was chosen as the linac structure. Optimum emittance values for the linac injection are compared with the available laser generated beam parameters. Options for beam matching into a CH structure by a pulsed magnetic solenoid and by using the simulation codes LASIN and LORASR are presented.

  9. Matching the laser generated p bunch into a crossbar-H drift tube linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almomani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Proton bunches with energies up to 30 MeV have been measured at the PHELIX laser. Because of the laser-plasma interactions at a power density of about 4×10^{19}  W/cm^{2}, a total yield of 1.5×10^{13}  protons was produced. For the reference energy of 10 MeV, the yield within ±0.5  MeV was exceeding 10^{10}  protons. The important topic for a further acceleration of the laser generated bunch is the matching into the acceptance of an rf accelerator stage. With respect to the high space charge forces and the transit energy range, only drift tube linacs seem adequate for this purpose. A crossbar H-type (CH cavity was chosen as the linac structure. Optimum emittance values for the linac injection are compared with the available laser generated beam parameters. Options for beam matching into a CH structure by a pulsed magnetic solenoid and by using the simulation codes LASIN and LORASR are presented.

  10. IRLED-based patient localization for linac radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, Sanford L.; Bova, Francis J.; Friedman, William A.; Buatti, John M.; Moore, Russell D.; Mendenhall, William M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Currently, precise stereotactic radiosurgery delivery is possible with the Gamma Knife or floor-stand linear accelerator (linac) systems. Couch-mounted linac radiosurgery systems, while less expensive and more flexible than other radiosurgery delivery systems, have not demonstrated a comparable level of precision. This article reports on the development and testing of an optically guided positioning system designed to improve the precision of patient localization in couch-mounted linac radiosurgery systems. Methods and Materials: The optically guided positioning system relies on detection of infrared light-emitting diodes (IRLEDs) attached to a standard target positioner. The IRLEDs are monitored by a commercially available camera system that is interfaced to a personal computer. An IRLED reference is established at the center of stereotactic space, and the computer reports the current position of the IRLEDs relative to this reference position. Using this readout from the computer, the correct stereotactic coordinate can be set directly. Results: Bench testing was performed to compare the accuracy of the optically guided system with that of a floor-stand system, that can be considered an absolute reference. This testing showed that coordinate localization using the IRLED system to track translations agreed with the absolute to within 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. As rotations for noncoplanar couch angles were included, the inaccuracy was increased to 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. Conclusions: IRLED technology improves the accuracy of patient localization relative to the linac isocenter in comparison with conventional couch-mounted systems. Further, the patient's position can be monitored in real time as the couch is rotated for all treatment angles. Thus, any errors introduced by couch inaccuracies can be detected and corrected

  11. Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, H.; Takeda, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsui, T.

    1994-01-01

    A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)

  12. Overview of the Pelletron Linac facility, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Pelletron LINAC Facility at TIFR, Mumbai, comprising the 14 MV Pelletron and the superconducting LINAC booster caters to a variety of experiments in basic and applied Sciences. The Liquid Helium Refrigeration plant for the LINAC has been upgraded to enhance the refrigeration capacity. New instrumentation and interface for control and monitor of the cryogenic parameters, beam diagnostics and beam transport devices have been developed and installed. Digital implementation of the LLRF control has been demonstrated. All seven beam lines in new user halls have been commissioned and several new experimental setups have been added. (author)

  13. The superconducting linac booster at the ANU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the progress of the installation of the superconducting Linac booster at the Australian National University. The Linac is based upon four modules, three of which contain three split-loop resonators. The fourth cryostat was intended to be a superbuncher and so houses only one resonator. The first stage of Linac operation will employ only three modules with 2 MV/m from each resonator. It is expected that the implementation of all nine modules, in subsequent stages, would boost beams by 18 MV/q. The project has fostered productive international collaboration between UK and Australian scientists. 1 tab., 6 figs

  14. Operating experience with the ALS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.; Massoletti, D.

    1991-05-01

    The linac injector for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL was recently put into operation. Energy is 50 MeV, frequency 3 GHz. The electron gun delivers up to 6nC in a 3.0-ns bunch at 120 kV. A train of bunches is injected into a 1-Hz booster and accelerated to 1.5 GHz for storage ring injection. A magnetic analysis system is used for optimizing the linac. Measured beam properties from the gun and after acceleration in the linac are described. 9 refs., 3 figs

  15. Mechanical considerations in cw linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    An 80-MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed, fabricated and operated at 100% duty factor (cw) for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project at Los Alamos. This paper describes the design features, fabrication techniques, and operational problems of the device. The RFQ is an assembly of heavy steel, copper-plated weldments. It measures about 15 ft (4.5 m) long by 5 ft (1.5 m) in diameter and weighs over 12 t. Major components are two pair of diametrically orthogonal vanes mounted in a core cylinder. The core is assembled into a manifold cylinder that couples rf power into the vane quadrants. The design features discussed include assembly of hollow wall, flood-cooled components; high-conductivity rf seals; removable and adjustable vanes; and tuning devices. Fabrication challenges such as close-tolerance weldments, vane-tip-contour machining and large-component plating requirements are covered

  16. Vacuum simulation and characterization for the Linac4 H- source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, C.; Chiggiato, P.; Michet, A.; Hansen, J.; Lettry, J.

    2013-02-01

    At CERN, the 160 MeV H- Linac4 will soon replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2. In the H- source two major sources of gas are identified. The first is the pulsed injection at about 0.1 mbar in the plasma chamber. The second is the constant H2 injection up to 10-5 mbar in the LEBT for beam space charge compensation. In addition, the outgassing of materials exposed to vacuum can play an important role in contamination control and global gas balance. To evaluate the time dependent partial pressure profiles in the H- ion source and the RFQ, electrical network - vacuum analogy and test particle Monte Carlo simulation have been used. The simulation outcome indicates that the pressure requirements are in the reach of the proposed vacuum pumping system. Preliminary results show good agreement between the experimental and the simulated pressure profiles; a calibration campaign is in progress to fully benchmark the implemented calculations. Systematic outgassing rate measurements are on-going for critical components in the ion source and RFQ. Amongst them those for the Cu-coated SmCo magnet located in the vacuum system of the biased electron dump electrode, show results lower to stainless steel at room temperature.

  17. Search for flavour-changing neutral current top quark decays $t\\to qZ$ in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for flavour-changing neutral-current processes in top quark decays is presented. Data collected from proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 fb$^{-1}$, are analysed. A search is performed using top-quark$-$top-antiquark events, with one top quark decaying through the $t\\rightarrow qZ$ $(q = u, c)$ flavour-changing neutral-current channel, and the other through the dominant Standard Model mode $t\\rightarrow bW$. Only decays of the $Z$ boson to charged leptons and leptonic $W$ boson decays are considered as signal. Consequently, the final-state topology is characterised by the presence of three isolated charged leptons, and at least two jets, one of them originating from a $b$-quark. Data are consistent with Standard Model background contributions and thus observed (expected) upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the $t\\to uZ$ branching ratio of $1.7\\times10^{-4}$ ($2.4\\times10^{-4}$...

  18. Search for flavour-changing neutral current top-quark decays $t\\to qZ$ in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allaire, Corentin; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Álvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Bahrasemani, Sina; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Bakshi Gupta, Debottam; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tyler Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Beck, Helge Christoph; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Bergsten, Laura Jean; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bonilla, Johan Sebastian; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Buschmann, Eric; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrá, Sonia; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casha, Albert Francis; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, David; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jue; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgeniya; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioară, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corrigan, Eric Edward; Corriveau, François; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Eramo, Louis; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dahbi, Salah-eddine; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Dann, Nick; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dreyer, Etienne; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dülsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Minyu; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Fomin, Nikolai; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Förster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Spolidoro Freund, Werner; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; García Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gessner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonnella, Francesco; Gonski, Julia; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Goy, Corinne; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Graham, Emily Charlotte; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guerguichon, Antinea; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gugel, Ralf; Gui, Bin; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Kunlin; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hankache, Robert; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Eva; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Hohov, Dmytro; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Huo, Peng; Hupe, Andre Marc; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jäkel, Gunnar; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanjir, Luka; Kano, Yuya; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kiehn, Moritz; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Jörn Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laudrain, Antoine; Laurelli, Paolo; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jesse; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Thomas; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McNicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Meadows, Zachary Alden; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Muškinja, Miha; Mwewa, Chilufya; Myagkov, Alexey; Myers, John; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Ng, Sam Yanwing; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Novotny, Radek; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Connor, Kelsey; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, Jason; Olsson, Joakim; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orgill, Emily Claire; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Peri, Francesco; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Pham, Thu; Phillips, Forrest Hays; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pitt, Michael; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggi, Riccardo; Poggioli, Luc; Pogrebnyak, Ivan; Pohl, David-leon; Pokharel, Ishan; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Ponomarenko, Daniil; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Portillo Quintero, Dilia María; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potti, Harish; Poulsen, Trine; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proklova, Nadezda; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Radeka, Veljko; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rashid, Tasneem; Raspopov, Sergii; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravinovich, Ilia; Rawling, Jacob Henry; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ripellino, Giulia; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivera Vergara, Juan Cristobal; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocco, Elena; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Bosca, Sergi; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Rodríguez Vera, Ana María; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Röhrig, Rainer; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Roy, Debarati; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Rüttinger, Elias Michael; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sano, Yuta; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawada, Ryu; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schenck, Ferdinand; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Enrico Junior; Schioppa, Marco; Schleicher, Katharina; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Scyboz, Ludovic Michel; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Severini, Horst; Šfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherman, Alexander David; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silva Jr, Manuel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffa, Aaron Michael; Soffer, Abner; Søgaard, Andreas; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Weimin; Sopczak, Andre; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, D M S; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sydorenko, Alexander; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Loïc; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; von Buddenbrock, Stefan; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakamiya, Kotaro; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Ann Miao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Anton; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yajima, Kazuki; Yallup, David; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Siqi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2018-01-01

    AA search for flavour-changing neutral-current processes in top-quark decays is presented. Data collected with the ATLAS detector from proton--proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb$^{-1}$, are analysed. The search is performed using top-quark pair events, with one top quark decaying through the $t\\rightarrow qZ$ $(q = u, c)$ flavour-changing neutral-current channel, and the other through the dominant Standard Model mode $t\\rightarrow bW$. Only $Z$ boson decays into charged leptons and leptonic $W$ boson decays are considered as signal. Consequently, the final-state topology is characterized by the presence of three isolated charged leptons (electrons or muons) and at least two jets, one of the jets originating from a $b$-quark. The data are consistent with Standard Model background contributions, and at 95\\% confidence level the search sets observed (expected) upper limits of $1.7\\times10^{-4}$...

  19. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1989-01-01

    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of 2 or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US heavy-ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historial anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. (orig.)

  20. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1988-06-01

    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of two or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US Heavy Ion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historical anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. System engineering in the SSC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Chang, C.R.; Cutler, R.I.; Funk, L.W.; Guy, F.W.; Hale, R.; Leifeste, G.T.; Nonte, J.; Prichard, B.; Raparia, D.; Saadatmand, K.; Sethi, R.C.; Yao, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    The design and construction of the SSC Linac involves various departments within the SSCL and many outside vendors. The adaptive incorporation of system engineering principles into the SSC Linac is described. This involves the development of specification trees with the breakdown and flow of functional and physical requirements from the top level system specifications to the lower level component specifications. Interfaces are defined, which specify and control the interconnections between the various components. Review cycles are presented during which the requirements, evolution of the design, and test plans are reviewed, monitored, and finalized. The Linac specification tree, interface definition, and reviews of the Linac are presented, including typical examples. (Author) 2 refs., 3 tabs

  2. The invention that is shaping Linac4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator experts are no strangers to innovative optimizations of existing techniques and to the development of novel solutions. Sometimes, they even come up with ideas that have the potential to revolutionize the field. This is the case with the Tolerance Aligned Cantilever Mounting (TACM) system, a completely new way of supporting the drift tubes, one of the core elements of linear accelerators. The new, patent-pending technique will be implemented at Linac4.   Drift tubes in a prototype for Linac4, assembled using the new TACM technology. “Assemble and adjust” – that was the technique used to build drift-tube linacs before the arrival of the TACM. Now, the inventors’ motto has become ‘adjust and assemble’. The inversion of these two words represents a real revolution for people working in the field. “The drift tubes are a critical element of Linac4 and they have to satisfy several requirements: they have to be mechanically ...

  3. High Power CW Superconducting Linacs for EURISOL and XADS

    CERN Document Server

    Biarrotte, J L

    2004-01-01

    A multi-MW superconducting proton linac is proposed as the baseline solution for the EURISOL and the XADS driver accelerators. In the EURISOL project, which studies the design of the next-generation European ISOL facility, it is used to produce both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich exotic nuclei far from the valley of stability. In the PDS-XADS project, which aims to the demonstration of the feasibility of an ADS system for nuclear waste transmutation, it is used to produce the neutron flux required by the associated sub-critical reactor. In this paper, we report the main results and conclusions reached within these preliminary design studies. A special emphasis is given on the on-going and future R&D to be done to accomplish the demonstration of the full technology.

  4. High Gradient Accelerating Structures for Carbon Therapy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey; Agustsson, R.; Faillace, L.; Goel, A.; Mustapha, B.; Nassiri, A.; Ostroumov, P.; Plastun, A.; Savin, E.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon therapy is the most promising among techniques for cancer treatment, as it has demonstrated significant improvements in clinical efficiency and reduced toxicity profiles in multiple types of cancer through much better localization of dose to the tumor volume. RadiaBeam, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, are developing an ultra-high gradient linear accelerator, Advanced Compact Carbon Ion Linac (ACCIL), for the delivery of ion-beams with end-energies up to 450 MeV/u for 12C6+ ions and 250 MeV for protons. In this paper, we present a thorough comparison of standing and travelling wave designs for high gradient S-Band accelerating structures operating with ions at varying velocities, relative to the speed of light, in the range 0.3-0.7. In this paper we will compare these types of accelerating structures in terms of RF, beam dynamics and thermo-mechanical performance.

  5. Development of an RFQ linac for unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, S.; Imanishi, A.; Morimoto, T.; Shibuya, S.; Tojyo, E.; Tokuda, N.

    1990-05-01

    A split coaxial RFQ (SCRFQ) is being developed for accelerating unstable nuclei with a charge-to-mass ratio larger than 1/60 from 1 to 170 keV/u in the JHP heavy-ion linac. The SCRFQ is equipped with modulated vanes to generate ideal quadrupole and accelerating fields. The fundamental problems on the SCRFQ have been clarified and solved through studies on a cold model, and the excellent accelerating performance has been confirmed by using a proton accelerating model working at 50 MHz. A 25.5-MHz prototype for the JHP SCRFQ is now under development. The prototype, 2.1 m in length and 0.9 m in diameter, will accelerate ions with a charge-to-mass ratio larger than 1/30 from 1 to 45 keV/u. Low-power tests conducted so far show that the prototype cavity has good rf characteristics. (author)

  6. On scaling and optimization of high-intensity, low-beam-loss RF linacs for neutron source drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    RF linacs providing cw proton beams of 30--250 mA at 800--1600 MeV, and cw deuteron beams of 100--250 mA at 35--40 MeV, are needed as drivers for factory neutron sources applied to radioactive waste transmutation, advanced energy production, materials testing facilities, and spallation neutron sources. The maintenance goals require very low beam loss along the linac. Optimization of such systems is complex; status of beam dynamics aspects presently being investigated is outlined

  7. A conceptual design of the DTL-SDTL for the JAERI high intensity proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Hiroshi; Kabeya, Zenzaburo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Chishiro, Etsuji; Ouchi, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1998-08-01

    A high intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power of 8 MW has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. This linac starts with radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which is followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL), separated-type DTL (SDTL), and a superconducting structure. In this report, we focus on the DTL and SDTL part of the accelerator. The DTL accelerates the beam from 2 to 51 MeV, and SDTL accelerates the beam from 51 to 10 MeV. Since the main features of the requirement for the DTL-SDTL are high peak current ({approx}30 mA) and a high-duty factor ({approx}CW), the conceptual design should be determined not only based on the result of a beam-dynamics calculation, but by careful study of the cooling problems. The design processes of the DTL-SDTL and the matching sections (RFQ to DTL, CW-Pulse merge section, and SDTL to SCC) and the result of a heat transfer analysis of DTL are described. (author)

  8. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1993-08-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low-emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma types and the porous plug and hot alumino-silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino-silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented

  9. Relocatable cargo x-ray inspection systems utilizing compact linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapp, W. Wade; Adams, William L.; Callerame, Joseph; Grodzins, Lee; Rothschild, Peter J.; Schueller, Richard; Mishin, Andrey V.; Smith, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetron-powered, X-band linacs with 3-4 MeV capability are compact enough to be readily utilized in relocatable high energy cargo inspection systems. Just such a system is currently under development at AS and E trade mark sign using the commercially available ISOSearch trade mark sign cargo inspection system as the base platform. The architecture permits the retention of backscatter imaging, which has proven to be an extremely valuable complement to the more usual transmission images. The linac and its associated segmented detector will provide an additional view with superior penetration and spatial resolution. The complete system, which is housed in two standard 40 ' ISO containers, is briefly described with emphasis on the installation and operating characteristics of the portable linac. The average rf power delivered by the magnetron to the accelerator section can be varied up to the maximum of about 1 kW. The projected system performance, including radiation dose to the environment, will be discussed and compared with other high energy systems

  10. Optimization of Beam Transmission of PAL-PNF Electron Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. G.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, E. A. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The PNF (Pohang Neutron Facility) electron Linac is providing converted neutrons and photons from electron beams to users for nuclear physics experiments and high energy gamma-ray exposures. This linac is capable of producing 100 MeV electron beams with a beam current of pulsed 100 mA. The pulse length is 2 {mu}s and the pulse repetition rate is typically 30 Hz. This linac consists of two SLAC-type S-band accelerating columns and the thermionic RF gun. They are powered by one klystron and the matching pulse modulator. The electron beams emitted from the RF gun are bunched as they pass through the alpha magnet and are injected into the accelerating column thereafter. In this paper, we discuss procedures and results of the beam transmission optimization with technical details of the accelerator system. We also briefly discuss the future upgrade plan to obtain short-pulse or electron beams for neutron TOF experiments by adopting a triode type thermionic DC electron gun

  11. Beam emittance of the Stony Brook Tandem-LINAC booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholldorf, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is primarily a study of the longitudinal and transverse beam emittance of the Stony Brook Heavy Ion Tandem LINAC Accelerator Facility, with a secondary emphasis on the beam dynamical design of two key elements of the system: a low energy double-drift buncher, and an achromatic double-90 0 LINAC injection system. A transverse emittance measuring system consisting of two translation stages controlled by stepper motors is described. Each stage carried a pair of beam defining slits mounted so that both horizontal and vertical emittances could be measured with only linear motion of the stage assembly. Beam currents were measured directly by a low-noise, high-sensitivity electrometer circuit integrated with the second slit-stage assembly. A mini-computer controlled the motors and acquired and displayed the data. Transverse emittance areas of beams of 12 C, 16 O, 32 S, and 58 Ni were measured at ion source extraction potential, after ion source acceleration, after tandem acceleration, and after LINAC acceleration. The results were analyzed in terms of source sputter-cone geometry, angle straggling in gas and foil strippers, and a variety of other factors

  12. Ion sources for induction linac driven heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ion sources in induction linacs for heavy ion fusion is fundamentally different from their use in the rf linac-storage rings approach. Induction linacs require very high current, short pulse extraction usually with large apertures which are dictated by the injector design. One is faced with the problem of extracting beams in a pulsed fashion while maintaining high beam quality during the pulse (low emittance). Four types of sources have been studied for this application. The vacuum arc and the rf cusp field source are the plasma-types and the porous plug and hot alumino--silicate surface source are the thermal types. The hot alumino--silicate potassium source has proved to be the best candidate for the next generation of scaled experiments. The porous plug for potassium is somewhat more difficult to use. The vacuum arc suffers from noise and lifetime problems and the rf cusp field source is difficult to use with very short pulses. Operational experience with all of these types of sources is presented

  13. New linac technology - for SSC, and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    With recent agreement on the high priority of seeking funding for a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), it is appropriate to consider the injector linac requirements for such a machine. In so doing, the status of established technique and advantages of near-term R and D with relatively clear payoff are established, giving a base line for some speculation about linac possibilities even further in the future

  14. Study of higher order modes in superconducting accelerating structures for linac applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuh, Marcel

    2011-06-22

    Higher Order Modes (HOMs) can severely limit the operation of superconducting cavities in a linear accelerator with high beam current, high duty factor and complex pulse structure. Therefore, the full HOM spectrum has to be analysed in detail to identify potentially dangerous modes already during the design phase and to define their damping requirements. For this purpose a dedicated beam dynamics simulation code, Simulation of higher order Mode Dynamics (SMD), focusing on beam-HOM interaction, has been developed in the frame of this project. SMD allows to analyse the beam behaviour under the presence of HOMs, taking into account many important effects, such as for example the HOM frequency spread, beam input jitter, different chopping patterns, as well as klystron and alignment errors. SMD is used to investigate in detail into the effects of HOMs in the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN and in particular their potential to drive beam instabilities in the longitudinal and transverse direction. Based on these results, HOM damping requirements for the HOM coupler design are then defined. In addition, the linear accelerators of the European Spallation Source (ESS) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) are analysed with respect to HOM impact and the results are compared with the SPL simulations. (orig.)

  15. Equilibrium phase-space distributions and space charge limits in linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1977-10-01

    Limits on beam current and emittance in proton and heavy ion linear accelerators resulting from space charge forces are calculated. The method involves determining equilibrium distributions in phase space using a continuous focusing, no acceleration, model in two degrees of freedom using the coordinates r and z. A nonlinear Poisson equation must be solved numerically. This procedure is a matching between the longitudinal and transverse directions to minimize the effect of longitudinal-transverse coupling which is believed to be the main problem in emittance growth due to space charge in linacs. Limits on the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator performance are calculated as an example. The beam physics is described by a few space charge parameters so that accelerators with different physical parameters can be compared in a natural way. The main result of this parameter study is that the requirement of a high-intensity beam is best fulfilled with a low-frequency accelerator whereas the requirement of a high-brightness beam is best fulfilled with a high-frequency accelerator

  16. A beam position monitor for the diagnostic line in MEBT2 of J-PARC linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, A.; Tamura, J.; Kawane, Y.

    2017-07-01

    In the linac of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), the neutral hydrogen (H0) beam from the negative hydrogen ion (H-) beam is one of key issues in mitigating beam losses. To diagnose H0 particles, we installed a set of beam-bump magnets to generate a chicane orbit of the H- beam. The beam position monitors (BPMs) in the beam line are used for orbit correction to maintain the beam displacement within 2.0 mm from the duct center. To measure the beam displacement under different drive currents of the beam-bump magnets, a new wide-range BPM was designed and manufactured to evaluate the horizontal beam position by using a correction function to compensate for non-linearity. We also employed the beam profile monitor (WSM: wire scanner monitor) to measure the H- beam profile, which helped us to compare the beam position measurements. In this paper, the design and the performance of the wide-range BPM are described. In addition, we present a comparison of the beam position measured by the BPM and the WSM.

  17. The trajectory control in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, I.C.; Adolphsen, C.E.; Himel, T.M.; Seeman, J.T.

    1991-05-01

    Due to wake field effects, the trajectories of accelerated beams in the Linac should be well maintained to avoid severe beam breakup. In order to maintain a small emittance at the end of the Linac, the tolerance on the trajectory deviations become tighter when the beam intensities increase. The existing two beam trajectory correction method works well when the theoretical model agrees with the real machine lattice. Unknown energy deviations along the linac as well as wake field effects can cause the real lattice to deviate from the model. This makes the trajectory correction difficult. Several automated procedures have been developed to solve these problems. They are: an automated procedure to frequently steer the whole Linac by dividing the Linac into several small regions; an automated procedure to empirically correct the model to fit the real lattice and eight trajectory correcting feedback loops along the linac and steering through the collimator region with restricted corrector strengths and a restricted number of correctors. 6 refs., 2 figs

  18. The LINAC4 Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Bertone, C; Body, Y; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Buzio, M; Carli, C; Caspers, F; Corso, JP; Coupard, J; Dallocchio, A; Dos Santos, N; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Hammouti, L; Hanke, K; Jones, M; Kozsar, I; Lettry, J; Lallement, JB; Lombardi, A; Lopez-Hernandez, LA; Maglioni, C; Mathot, S; Maury, S; Mikulec, B; Nisbet, D; Noels, C; Paoluzzi, M; Puccio, B; Raich, U; Ramberger, S; Rossi, C; Schwerg, N; Scrivens, R; Vandoni, G; Weisz, S; Vollaire, J; Vretenar, M; Zickler, T

    2011-01-01

    As the first step of a long-term programme aiming at an increase in the LHC luminosity, CERN is building a new 160 MeV H¯ linear accelerator, Linac4, to replace the ageing 50 MeV Linac2 as injector to the PS Booster (PSB). Linac4 is an 86-m long normal-conducting linac made of an H¯ source, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), a chopping line and a sequence of three accelerating structures: a Drift-Tube Linac (DTL), a Cell-Coupled DTL (CCDTL) and a Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS). The civil engineering has been recently completed, and construction of the main accelerator components has started with the support of a network of international collaborations. The low-energy section up to 3 MeV including a 3-m long 352 MHz RFQ entirely built at CERN is in the final construction phase and is being installed on a dedicated test stand. The present schedule foresees beam commissioning of the accelerator in the new tunnel in 2013/14; the moment of connection of the new linac to the CERN accelerator chain will depend on the L...

  19. Acceleration units for the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Brady, V.; Brodzik, D.; Hansen, L.; Laslett, L.J.; Mukherjee, S.; Bubp, D.; Ravenscroft, D.; Reginato, L.

    1989-03-01

    The design of a high current heavy ion induction linac driver for inertial confinement fusion is optimized by adjusting the acceleration units along the length of the accelerator to match the beam current, energy, and pulse duration at any location. At the low energy end of the machine the optimum is a large number of electrostatically focused parallel beamlets, whereas at higher energies the optimum is a smaller number of magnetically focused beams. ILSE parallels this strategy by using 16 electrostatically focused beamlets at the low end followed by 4 magnetically focused beams after beam combining. 3 refs., 2 figs

  20. On propagating direction of ring current proton ULF waves observed by ATS 6 at 6.6 R/sub e/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Konradi, A.; Fritz, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    From June 11 to September 16, 1974, the NOAA low-energy proton detector on board the ATS 6 satellite observed 71 cases of ultralow-frequency oscillations of proton flux intensities. The oscillation periods varied from 40 s to 6 min, and the events were observed most frequently during moderate geomagnetic conditions. The flux oscillations occurred at various local times, yet almost two thirds of the events were detected in the near-dusk region of the magentosphere. For a majority of the events in this set a substantial phase shift in flux oscillation was detected between different energy channels and/or between two oppositely oriented detector telescopes. The phase shift is mainly due to the finite gyroradius effect of the protons gyrating in the geomagnetic field. By examining this finite gyroradius effect on the perturbed particle distribution function associated with the wave in a nonuniform magnetic field we are able to determine the propagation direction of the wave from particle observations made by a single spacecraft. Although the type of wave and its excitation mechanism can only be conjectured at the present time, it is concluded that the wave propagates in the westward direction with a phase velocity of about 13 km/s. Furthermore, it also has a very small phase velocity approx.0.15 km/s propagating toward the earth. If the wave had been traveling 1 hour or so before it was observed near the dusk magnetosphere, it might have originated in the dark magnetosphere in associating with some changes in geophysical conditions. The statistical correlation between the times of the observed wave events and the onsets of the auroral magnetic bays indicates that although they seldom occurred simultaneously, 80% of the waves were observed within 1 hour of the bay onset. Therefore it is concluded that the condition of the magnetosphere after a substorm is favorable for the occurrence of the ring current proton ultralow-frequency waves