WorldWideScience

Sample records for current professional literature

  1. Professional Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jean M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reviews "Investigating Mathematics with Young Children" (Althouse); "Homecoming for Babies after the Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery: A Guide for Parents," with companion guide for professionals (Hanson and VandenBerg); "HIV/AIDS: A Challenge to Us All," with companion video (Pediatric AIDS Foundation); and "Modeling Healthy Behavior: Actions and…

  2. Defining professional nursing accountability: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautscheid, Lorretta C

    2014-01-01

    Professional nursing accountability is described by both professional nursing organizations and nursing education credentialing agencies as a core aspect that underpins professional nursing practice. Although accountability is foundational to professional practice, a review of the literature revealed no consistent language or definition regarding professional nursing accountability. Instead, the literature itself reveals that professional nursing accountability is challenging to both describe and define. The ambiguity surrounding how to define professional nursing accountability contributes to challenges associated with both teaching and evaluating student nurse accountability within nursing education curricula. This article provides a reliable and comprehensive definition of professional nursing accountability derived from a synthesis of the literature. Recommendations for nursing education practice and recommendations for nursing education research are proposed.

  3. Bibliography: Current world literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This bibliography is compiled by clinicians from the journals listed at the end of this publication. It is based on literature entered into our database between 1 March 2008 and 28 February 2009 (articles are generally added to the database about two and a half months after publication). In addition, the bibliography contains every paper annotated by reviewers; these references were obtained from a variety of bibliographic databases and published between the beginning of the review period and the time of going to press. The bibliography has been grouped into topics that relate to the reviews in this issue.

  4. Bibliography. Current world literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This bibliography is compiled by clinicians from the journals listed at the end of this publication. It is based on literature entered into our database between 1 March 2008 and 28 February 2009 (articles are generally added to the database about two and a half months after publication). In addition, the bibliography contains every paper annotated by reviewers; these references were obtained from a variety of bibliographic databases and published between the beginning of the review period and the time of going to press. The bibliography has been grouped into topics that relate to the reviews in this issue.

  5. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  6. Teaching Basic Skills through Literature: Professional's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Concetta Doti

    Based on the premise that improvement in students' reading, writing, and content area skills occurs when authentic literature is used as the core of reading instruction, this book offer guidelines for teachers who wish to incorporate literature into their classrooms. According to the book, the educational value of children's books as teaching…

  7. Professional Identity Development: A Review of the Higher Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trede, Franziska; Macklin, Rob; Bridges, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extant higher education literature on the development of professional identities. Through a systematic review approach 20 articles were identified that discussed in some way professional identity development in higher education journals. These articles drew on varied theories, pedagogies and learning strategies; however,…

  8. Can professionalism be measured?: evidence from the pharmacy literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutter PM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to ensure the future pharmacy workforce demonstrates professionalism has become important to both pharmacy educators and professional bodies. Objective: To determine the extent to which Schools of Pharmacy have taught or measured student professionalism.Methods: Review of the healthcare literature on teaching of professionalism at an undergraduate levelResults: Two-hundred and thirty one papers were retrieved but only 45 papers related specifically to pharmacy. Of these a further 25 were narrative in nature and did not report any findings. Nineteen papers were reviewed (one was excluded as it reported the same data. Papers could be broadly categorised in to those that have tried to create a tool to measure professionalism, those that are in effect pedagogical evaluations of new initiatives or longitudinal studies on student perceptions toward aspects of professionalism.Conclusion: A growing body of literature exists on pharmacy and professionalism. However, to date, very few Schools of Pharmacy appear to formally teach it let alone assess students’ acquisition of professionalism.

  9. Literature Suggests Information Professionals Have Adopted New Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin E. Miller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide a systematic review of the emerging or newly adopted roles of information professionals, over the past 14 years, as described in the Library and Information Science (LIS professional literature. Design – Systematic review of the literature. Setting – Databases featuring information science content, including ACM Digital Library, Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts (LISTA, Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA, Citeseer, Google Scholar, e-prints in Library and Information Science (e-LiS, Digital Library of Information Science and Technology (DLIST, Scopus, and Science Direct. The database Library Literature & Information Science Index was not included. Subjects – Through a systematic literature search, the authors identified 114 peer-reviewed studies published between 2000-2014. Methods – The authors searched selected databases using the terms “librarian/s role” and “information professional/s role” to collect literature about the roles of information professionals. The authors searched the selected databases in two phases. The initial search yielded 600 search results and the authors included 100 articles about “roles” information professionals have adopted. The authors excluded articles focused on specific positions, health and medical libraries, librarians’ professional skills, and development of specific programs or initiatives within libraries. In the second phase of searching, the authors refined search terms to include phrases specifically related to the roles identified in the 100 articles initially included in the review. There were 48 articles identified in the second search and 14 were included in the final pool of articles. The authors also cross-checked the references of all included literature. Main Results – The authors identified six roles of information professionals described in the literature during the review period. The role of “embedded librarian

  10. Current Factors Contributing to Professionalism in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynd, Christine A.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical analyses of responses from 774 of 1,850 registered nurses on the Professionalism Inventory found that professionalism was related to years of experience as a nurse, higher education degrees in nursing, organizational membership and service as an officer, and specialty certification. (Contains 52 references.) (SK)

  11. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury.

  12. Continuing professional development and social accountability: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Lisa J; Kirby, Fran; Cutler, Sarah; Dunikowski, Lynn; Nasmith, Louise; Shaughnessy, Rita

    2008-01-01

    ), CINAHL, ERIC, PsychInfo, Canadian Business & Current Affairs (CBCA) Full-text Education (now known as CBCA Education), Research and Development Resource Base in Continuing Medical Education (RDRB/CME) at the University of Toronto, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica). This literature review was one of the first activities conducted under the auspices of "Issues of Quality and Continuing Professional Development: Maintenance of Competence", a national project funded by the Primary Health Care Transition Fund, Health Canada. The purposes of this review were to identify literature which focuses on aspects of continuing professional development, social accountability, and determinants of health; "best practices" of socially accountable CPD and inter/intra-disciplinary collaboration, and the critical success factors and challenges to implementing CPD, especially CPD that meets the needs of both health professionals and the populations they serve.

  13. British pharmacy professionals' beliefs and participation in continuing professional development: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donyai, Parastou; Herbert, Rebecca Z; Denicolo, Pam M; Alexander, Angela M

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVES  Continuing professional development (CPD) has potential to be useful in pharmacy revalidation but past uptake and attitudes to CPD in Great Britain (GB) need to be mapped. This review examines published literature to chart the participation and beliefs of pharmacy professionals towards CPD in GB in a decade that had seen a formal transition from continuing education to CPD. METHODS  A comprehensive review of the published literature was conducted to identify studies of the uptake of, or attitudes towards, CPD cross different sectors of pharmacy in GB from 2000 to 2010. KEY FINDINGS  Twenty-two studies were included and analysed, including 13 research papers, six conference papers, two news items reporting survey outcomes and one commissioned study. Eight barriers to CPD were identified as: time, financial costs and resource issues, understanding of CPD, facilitation and support for CPD, motivation and interest in CPD, attitudes towards compulsory CPD, system constraints, and technical problems. Pharmacy professionals on the whole agreed with the principle of engaging with CPD but there was little evidence to suggest widespread and wholehearted acceptance and uptake of CPD, essential for revalidation. CONCLUSIONS  If CPD is to succeed, people's beliefs and attitudes must be addressed by recognising and modifying perceived barriers through a combination of regulatory, professional, work-related and personal channels. A number of recommendations are made. Direct experience of effective CPD in the absence of perceived barriers could impact on personal development, career development and patient benefit thus strengthening personal beliefs in the value of CPD in an iterative manner. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. [Current and future competencies for public health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Dolors; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Capella, Jordina; Peray, Josep Lluís de; Roma, Josep

    2013-01-01

    To identify current and future competencies (managers and technicians) for public health professionals in Catalonia (Spain). Qualitative research with a phenomenological approach. Between November 2009 and February 2010, 31 semistructured interviews were completed with public health professionals working in Catalonia. We purposely used a theoretical sample to include the maximum multiplicity of discourses. We conducted a thematic content analysis. We obtained a wide range of current professional competencies, as well as those required for the future, classified according to professional profile. The participants highlighted transversal competencies, such as the importance of sharing a general theoretical framework of the discipline and the institution. Among the most frequently reported competencies were knowledge management, communication skills, teamwork, multidisciplinary and intersectoral orientation, legal knowledge, computer skills and languages, particularly English. It was also important for individual professionals to have specific skills in their areas of activity. In terms of differences between managers and technicians, the study showed that technicians prioritize management skills concerning human and material resources, while managers emphasize organizational and professional public health expertise. There is a need for transversal and specific competencies in distinct areas. Public health is a multidisciplinary field, which collaborates with a wide range of professionals and organizations. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing Literature: The Current State of Affairs. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    A synthesis of the report, "The Current State of Assessment in Literature," (produced by the Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature), this digest discusses methods of evaluating students' knowledge of literature. The digest argues that, by and large, the tests that now exist in the United States do not live up to the standards set by…

  16. Entrepreneurship and Professional Service Firms – A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship in professional services is rather limited. We argue that one reason why the two fields of professional services and entrepreneurship have operated in isolation rather than in mutual interaction is an inherent contradiction between the very ideas of entrepreneurship and professionalism. Our perspective on entrepreneurship for this chapter is rather broad, focusing on new venture management and renewal in professional service firms as well as embracing aspects such...

  17. Designing Continuous Professional Development Programmes for Teachers: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneta, K.

    2012-01-01

    Continuous professional development is essential for upgrading and updating teachers because the rate of social and educational change makes pre-service training an inadequate basis for long term professional competence. The design of these continuous professional development programmes must be informed by an effective needs analysis that…

  18. The Comprehensive Evaluation of Professional Development Software: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaupsin, Carl J.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the development of professional development software for special education teachers reviews the literature to (1) consolidate the database of literature regarding professional development software; (2) examine the degree to which the described software has been comprehensively evaluated; and (3) provide suggestions for future…

  19. The Comprehensive Evaluation of Professional Development Software: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaupsin, Carl J.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the development of professional development software for special education teachers reviews the literature to (1) consolidate the database of literature regarding professional development software; (2) examine the degree to which the described software has been comprehensively evaluated; and (3) provide suggestions for future…

  20. Ethical and professional conduct of medical students: review of current assessment measures and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, K; Turner, J

    2004-01-01

    As medical education increasingly acknowledges the importance of the ethical and professional conduct of practitioners, and moves towards more formal assessment of these issues, it is important to consider the evidence base which exists in this area. This article discusses literature about the health needs and problems experienced by medical practitioners as a background to a review of the current efforts in medical education to promote ethical conduct and develop mechanisms for the detection and remediation of problems. PMID:15082823

  1. A literature review of professionalism in surgical education: suggested components for development of a curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptula, Peter; Chun, Maria B J

    2013-01-01

    While it is evident that a surgeon must master medical knowledge and technical skill, there are other "soft skills" that are essential to a successful surgeon. One of these skills is professionalism. The challenge in surgical education lies in developing an effective professionalism curriculum and a related method of evaluation. Our review updates the literature and provides recommendations for improving instruction and evaluation of professionalism. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge. We restricted our search to documents published from 2009 to 2012 that address methods of teaching and tools for assessing professionalism in surgical education. Sixty-three documents were reviewed, with 14 fitting our search criteria for professionalism in surgical education completely. Other articles focused on the topics of professionalism in surgery, medical professionalism, and professionalism education in medical specialties other than surgery. Development of a professionalism curriculum for surgical residents might begin with defining professionalism in terms of tangible behaviors. The program might also include a precurriculum preparatory course and simulation-based training. Residency programs must also maintain professionalism among its faculty. Assessment in the form of multisource feedback that is consistent with observable behavioral definitions of professionalism should also be considered in evaluating resident professionalism. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  3. How to Use Current Medical Literature and APA Format Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Robin

    Directives and guidance in obtaining current medical literature are provided in this publication with special emphasis given to locating material in the Portland, Oregon area. The uses and types of periodical indexes are identified and periodical index citation examples are indicated. Explanations are offered on: (1) how to conduct an effective…

  4. How to Use Current Medical Literature and APA Format Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Robin

    Directives and guidance in obtaining current medical literature are provided in this publication with special emphasis given to locating material in the Portland, Oregon area. The uses and types of periodical indexes are identified and periodical index citation examples are indicated. Explanations are offered on: (1) how to conduct an effective…

  5. Promotion of evidence-based practice by professional nursing associations: literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, G.; Eliens, A.; Vliet, M. van; Achterberg, T. van

    2006-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports a literature review examining the activities of professional nursing associations in the promotion of evidence-based practice. BACKGROUND: Professional nursing associations can play a role in the implementation and achievement of evidence-based practice as such associations

  6. Promotion of evidence-based practice by professional nursing associations: literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, G.; Eliens, A.; Vliet, M. van; Achterberg, T. van

    2006-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports a literature review examining the activities of professional nursing associations in the promotion of evidence-based practice. BACKGROUND: Professional nursing associations can play a role in the implementation and achievement of evidence-based practice as such associations a

  7. Professional Writing in the English Classroom: Literature-Based Professional Writing: An Oxymoron Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Kelley R.; Propper, Michele L.; Riedel, Ruth M.; Teitelzweig, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    An oxymoron is a simple contradiction, a juxtaposition of two inharmonious terms, such as "fiend angelical" in Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet." At first glance, literature and professional writing seem to be polar opposites; however, when one views them together, one can see unique, often interesting possibilities that add depth and richness to…

  8. Professional Writing in the English Classroom: Literature-Based Professional Writing: An Oxymoron Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Kelley R.; Propper, Michele L.; Riedel, Ruth M.; Teitelzweig, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    An oxymoron is a simple contradiction, a juxtaposition of two inharmonious terms, such as "fiend angelical" in Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet." At first glance, literature and professional writing seem to be polar opposites; however, when one views them together, one can see unique, often interesting possibilities that add…

  9. South-South Cooperation in health professional education: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L du toit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on the evolution of funding approaches there is criticism of traditional funding strategies and the promotion of inclusive models, such as South-South Cooperation (SSC and triangular models. The latter are felt to have a number of advantages. This article has four broad objectives: (i to present a literature review on the evolution of Southern approaches to development co-operation; (ii to indicate examples of current co-operative programmes in health and health professional education in Africa; (iii to assess the advantages and disadvantages of these models; and (iv to mention some emerging issues in monitoring and evaluation. The Boolean logic approach was used to search for applicable literature within three topic layers. Searches were conducted using PubMed, PLoS and other accessible databases. An initial draft of the article was presented to a group of academics and researchers at the Flemish Inter-University Council (VLIR-UOS-Primafamed annual workshop held in August 2010 in Swaziland. Comments and suggestions from the group were included in later versions of the article. It is important to note that the existence of various funding models implemented by a variety of actors makes it difficult to measure their effects. In health and health professional education, however, SSC and triangular models of aid provide conditions for more effective programming through their focus on participation and long-term involvement. With an eye towards evaluating programmes, a number of salient issues are emerging. The importance of context is highlighted.

  10. Statistical methods used in the public health literature and implications for training of public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Matthew J; Powell, Amanda; Johnson, Tessa; Cadwell, Betsy L

    2017-01-01

    Statistical literacy and knowledge is needed to read and understand the public health literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify basic and advanced statistical methods used in public health research. We randomly sampled 216 published articles from seven top tier general public health journals. Studies were reviewed by two readers and a standardized data collection form completed for each article. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and frequency distributions. Results were summarized for statistical methods used in the literature, including descriptive and inferential statistics, modeling, advanced statistical techniques, and statistical software used. Approximately 81.9% of articles reported an observational study design and 93.1% of articles were substantively focused. Descriptive statistics in table or graphical form were reported in more than 95% of the articles, and statistical inference reported in more than 76% of the studies reviewed. These results reveal the types of statistical methods currently used in the public health literature. Although this study did not obtain information on what should be taught, information on statistical methods being used is useful for curriculum development in graduate health sciences education, as well as making informed decisions about continuing education for public health professionals.

  11. Current Continuing Professional Education Practice among Malaysian Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Chan Chong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nurses need to participate in CPE to update their knowledge and increase their competencies. This research was carried out to explore their current practice and the future general needs for CPE. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved registered nurses from government hospitals and health clinics from Peninsular Malaysia. Multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1000 nurses from four states of Malaysia. Self-explanatory questionnaires were used to collect the data, which were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Seven hundred and ninety-two nurses participated in this survey. Only 80% (562 of the nurses had engaged in CPE activities during the past 12 months. All attendance for the various activities was below 50%. Workshops were the most popular CPE activity (345, 43.6% and tertiary education was the most unpopular activity (10, 1.3%. The respondents did perceive the importance of future CPE activities for career development. Mandatory continuing professional education (MCPE is a key measure to ensure that nurses upgrade their knowledge and skills; however, it is recommended that policy makers and nurse leaders in the continuing professional development unit of health service facilities plan CPE activities to meet registered nurses’ (RNs needs and not simply organizational requirements.

  12. Current Continuing Professional Education Practice among Malaysian Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Chan; Francis, Karen; Cooper, Simon; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim

    2014-01-01

    Nurses need to participate in CPE to update their knowledge and increase their competencies. This research was carried out to explore their current practice and the future general needs for CPE. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved registered nurses from government hospitals and health clinics from Peninsular Malaysia. Multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1000 nurses from four states of Malaysia. Self-explanatory questionnaires were used to collect the data, which were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Seven hundred and ninety-two nurses participated in this survey. Only 80% (562) of the nurses had engaged in CPE activities during the past 12 months. All attendance for the various activities was below 50%. Workshops were the most popular CPE activity (345, 43.6%) and tertiary education was the most unpopular activity (10, 1.3%). The respondents did perceive the importance of future CPE activities for career development. Mandatory continuing professional education (MCPE) is a key measure to ensure that nurses upgrade their knowledge and skills; however, it is recommended that policy makers and nurse leaders in the continuing professional development unit of health service facilities plan CPE activities to meet registered nurses' (RNs) needs and not simply organizational requirements.

  13. Health professionals' experience of teamwork education in acute hospital settings: a systematic review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kylie; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Teamwork is seen as an important element of patient care in acute hospital settings. The complexity of the journey of care for patients highlights the need for health professionals to collaborate and communicate clearly with each other. Health organizations in western countries are committed to improving patient safety through education of staff and teamwork education programs have been integral to this focus. There are no current systematic reviews of the experience of health professionals who participate in teamwork education in acute hospital settings. The objective of this systematic review was to search for the best available evidence on the experiences of health professionals who participate in teamwork education in acute hospital settings. This review considered studies reporting on experiences of registered health professionals who work in acute hospitals. This included medical, nursing and midwifery and allied health professionals. The focus of the meta-synthesis was the experiences and reflections of health professionals who were involved in teamwork education in acute hospital settings. The geographical context for this review was acute hospitals in rural or metropolitan settings in Australia and overseas countries. The review focused on the experiences of health professionals who work in acute hospitals and participated in teamwork education programs. This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research.In the absence of research studies, other text such as opinion papers, discussion papers and reports were considered. Studies published in English and from 1990 to 2013 were included in this review. The literature search for relevant papers occurred between 13 September and 26 October 2013. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. The databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, Embase and Scopus. The

  14. Views of healthcare professionals to linkage of routinely collected healthcare data: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Hopf, Y. M.; Bond, C.; Francis, J.; Haughney, J.; Helms, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the views of healthcare professionals to the linkage of healthcare data and to identify any potential barriers and/or facilitators to participation in a data linkage system.\\ud \\ud Methods: Published papers describing the views of healthcare professionals (HCPs) to data sharing and linkage were identified by searches of Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. The searches were limited to papers published in the English language from 2001 to 2011....

  15. The attitude of health care professionals towards accreditation: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alkhenizan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accreditation is usually a voluntary program, in which authorized external peer reviewers evaluate the compliance of a health care organization with pre-established performance standards. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature of the attitude of health care professionals towards professional accreditation. A systematic search of four databases including Medline, Embase, Healthstar, and Cinhal presented seventeen studies that had evaluated the attitudes of health care professionals towards accreditation. Health care professionals had a skeptical attitude towards accreditation. Owners of hospitals indicated that accreditation had the potential of being used as a marketing tool. Health care professionals viewed accreditation programs as bureaucratic and demanding. There was consistent concern, especially in developing countries, about the cost of accreditation programs and their impact on the quality of health care services.

  16. Professional Identity, Professional Associations, and Recruitment: Perspectives of Current Doctoral Students and Recent Graduates of Rehabilitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alison; Phillips, Brian; Manninen-Luse, Melissa; Irizarry, Lesley O.; Hylton, Terrie

    2011-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of the perceptions of current doctoral students and recent graduates from rehabilitation counseling and rehabilitation psychology programs on professional identity, professional associations, and recruitment. These three issues were selected based on the likelihood that students and recent graduates…

  17. Professional Integration of Immigrant Teachers in the School System: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyubahwe, Aline; Mukamurera, Joséphine; Jutras, France

    2013-01-01

    This literature review article investigates the professional integration of teachers recently immigrated to Canada and other western countries. Its findings reveal a number of obstacles to the integration of immigrant teachers into the teaching profession. The review summarizes different initiatives facilitating or hampering immigrant teachers'…

  18. The Literature of Technical and Professional Communication: Citation Patterns and Bibliographic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Donnelyn

    Through an examination of the technical and professional writing profession as it defines itself and through a citation analysis of its journals, this thesis highlights the literature, identifies access problems, and suggests some strategies for confronting bibliographic obstacles. After a brief introductory chapter, the second chapter of the…

  19. Professional Integration of Immigrant Teachers in the School System: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyubahwe, Aline; Mukamurera, Joséphine; Jutras, France

    2013-01-01

    This literature review article investigates the professional integration of teachers recently immigrated to Canada and other western countries. Its findings reveal a number of obstacles to the integration of immigrant teachers into the teaching profession. The review summarizes different initiatives facilitating or hampering immigrant…

  20. Current Technology Trends and Issues among Health and Physical Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jennifer M.; Franks, Hillary; Lynch, Brandy

    2017-01-01

    Health and physical education professionals who implement technology appropriately can contribute to helping students become physically educated individuals (NASPE, 2009). It is imperative that professionals be knowledgeable and resourceful in how to integrate technology effectively, but it is unclear what current challenges professionals face in…

  1. School Teacher Professional Development in Online Communities of Practice: A Systematic Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Strange, Majbrit Højland

    2016-01-01

    for the professional development of teachers are relatively new. This systematic literature review reports a qualitative synthesis of literature on in-service teachers’ online CoP participation. It adheres to the five-step literature search and analysis process by Creswell (2012). Seven peer-reviewed articles were......This study informs researchers of educational technology, teachers, teacher associations and moderators or admins of online platforms who are interested in knowledge sharing among teachers within online communities of practice (CoPs). The continuous professional development of teachers is primarily...... hand, informal knowledge sharing through CoPs can transform teachers by contributing to their immediate context or needs. There are various national and global IT platforms that are designed to enable teachers to participate and share knowledge in a CoP but in many countries, online platforms...

  2. Professional Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Cindy; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews three books of relevance to early childhood educators: (1) "Distinctions between Self-Esteem and Narcissism: Implications for Practice" (L. G. Katz); (2) "We All Belong: Multicultural Child Care That Works" (Australian Early Childhood Association); and (3) "Words Can Hurt You: Beginning a Program of Anti-Bias…

  3. Social work interest in prevention: A content analysis of the professional literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jamie Wyatt; Ruth, Betty J; Sisco, Sarah; Bethke, Christina; Piper, Tinka Markham; Cohen, Micaela; Bachman, Sarah

    2011-07-01

    Every day in the United States, over halfa million social workers provide services to people with health, mental health, and substance abuse problems in a fragmented system that emphasizes disease treatment over prevention. Powerful issues--including health inequities, population aging, globalization, natural disaster, war, and economic downturn--make the need for preventive approaches more critical than ever. Despite social work's historic commitment to enhancing human well-being and public health involvement, little is known about how social work currently views prevention or whether it is being addressed in the social work professional literature. To determine whether, and to what extent, prevention is addressed, discussed, and published in social work journals, the authors--all public health social work researchers-undertook a content analysis of nine peer-reviewed journals, analyzing all articles published from 2000 to 2005. A total of 1,951 articles were reviewed and coded for prevention according to specified criteria. A relatively small number--109 (5.6 percent)--were found to meet the criteria for being a prevention article, suggesting that prevention is still a minority interest area within social work.A renewed conversation about prevention in social work can enhance opportunities for strong social work participation in the transdisciplinary collaboration needed in this new era of health reform.

  4. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  5. [Quality of life in dementia, opinions among people with dementia, their professional caregivers, and in literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, D L; Dröes, R M; Ettema, T P; Boelens, E; Bos, J; Meihuizen, L; de Lange, J; Schölzel-Dorenbos, C J M; Hoogeveen, F

    2010-12-01

    Different definitions of quality of life (QOL) are found in the literature. This raised the question which domains are viewed as really important by persons with dementia. In an explorative study the opinions of persons with dementia (community-dwelling and living in nursing homes), were compared to those of professional carers and instruments for QOL in dementia. Data were gathered through interviews, focus groups and literature study. Most QOL-domains mentioned as important by persons with dementia were also acknowledged by carers and in measurement instruments. Some domains, however, were not mentioned by the carers ('sense of aesthetics', 'financial situation', 'being useful' and 'spirituality'), or not selected in the measuring instruments ('security and privacy', 'self-determination and freedom', 'being useful' and 'spirituality'). This indicates differences in perspectives on quality of life between persons with dementia, professional caregivers and researchers. Subsequently it was studied to what degree professionals focus on the QoL-domains that persons with dementia consider essential. Caregivers working on 29 units and 3 day care facilities of 13 nursing homes and in 12 meeting centers filled out a questionnaire (N = 374). They reported to focus at least to some degree on most domains considered important by persons with dementia. However, little attention was paid to the domains 'financial situation' and 'being useful'. Professionals offering daytime activities focused more than 24-hour care staff on 'attachment', 'enjoyment of activities', 'sense of aesthetics', and 'being useful'. This article is a translation and merging of 1) Dröes et al. Quality of life in dementia in perspective; an explorative study of variations in opinions among people with dementia and their professional caregivers, and in literature. Dementia: The International Journal 2006; 5 (4): 533-558, and 2) Gerritsen et al. Differences in perspective: do professional caregivers focus

  6. Analysis of the literature pertaining to the education of public health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie J Evashwick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A well-educated workforce is essential to the infrastructure of a public health system. At the time when global focus on public health is increasing, a severe shortage of public health professionals is projected. A strong educational framework is imperative to ensure the capacity and capability of the worldwide public health workforce for the future. Frenk and Chen (2011 comment that academic public health has done far less than medicine or nursing to examine its pedagogy. The goal of this study is to examine the literature pertaining to the education of public health professionals in order to document the extent to which those preparing public health professionals think about what they teach, how they teach, and what the results of the instruction are. The specific objectives are to (1 identify relevant peer reviewed literature, (2 analyze that literature for content, (3 characterize the literature according to type of methodology, and (4 draw conclusions and implications to enhance future pedagogical efforts. The study searched three bibliographic sources for articles written in English between 2000-2012. The search of PubMed, Scopus, Education Full Text identified 576 unique articles. The articles were analyzed according to ten content themes and four format categories. The conclusions are that those teaching public health professionals devote considerable thought to what and how they teach, although original research and evaluation studies are fewer than descriptive reports of courses, programs and curricula. A journal devoted specifically to articles pertaining to education of public health professionals will encourage academicians to write articles sharing approaches to educating the public health workforce.

  7. Multi-professional communication for older people in transitional care: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui; Ottmann, Goetz; Roberts, Gail

    2013-12-01

    To synthesise research-reporting literature about multi-professional communication between health and social care professionals within transitional care for older people, with particular attention on outcomes, enabling contextual factors and constraints. Older adults experience high rates of morbidity and health care usage, and frequently transit between health services, and community and social care providers. These transition episodes place elders at increased risk of adverse incidents due to poor communication of information. Integrated multi-professional models of care built on enhanced communication have been widely promoted as a strategy to improve transitional care for older people. However, a range of findings exist in the literature to guide service providers and researchers. Comprehensive literature search and review strategies were employed to identify, describe and synthesise relevant studies. Ten databases were searched in addition to Google Scholar. Specified discharge worker roles, multi-professional care coordination teams, and information technology systems promote better service satisfaction and subjective quality of life for older people when compared with standard hospital discharge. Improved multi-professional communication reduces rates of re-admission and length of stay indicating greater cost effectiveness and efficiency for the health and social care systems. Systems of care emphasizing information exchange, education and negotiation between stakeholders facilitate communication in transitional care contexts for older adults. Conversely, lack of dialogue and lack of understanding of others' roles are barriers to communication in transitional care. Enhanced multi-professional communication, transitional pathways, and role clarity are required to improve the quality, sustainability and responsiveness of aged care into the future. Recommendations for further research include: (i) Investigation of pathways promoting person-centred care planning

  8. Professional development research literature from 1996 to 2006: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Mary; Warren, Joan

    2011-01-01

    An integrative review of the professional development research literature, spanning the years 1996 to 2006, was conducted by the National Nurses in Staff Development Organization Research Committee at the request of the organization's Board of Directors. Rigorous research criteria were used to evaluate 949 publications. Results determined that 8 studies met the research criteria. Outcomes are reported and recommendations are suggested for advancement of research in the field.

  9. The Current of Continuing Professional Development for Product Designers

    OpenAIRE

    山内, 勉; Yamauchi, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Product Designers are required some skills and knowledge in the product development. Based on my professional career, I presumed three skills, they are, Technical skills, Conceptual skills and Human skills. In this study, I interviewed some Product Designers to make sure what skills are needed in the product development process. It emerged that Product Designers are expected to improve their Conceptual and Human skills besides Technical skills for playing a part at the upper and lower stage o...

  10. The impact of socially-accountable health professional education: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Carole; Woolley, Torres; Ross, Simone J; Mohammadi, Leila; Halili, Servando Ben; Cristobal, Fortunato; Siega-Sur, Jusie Lydia J; Neusy, A-J

    2017-01-01

    This literature review describes the impact of health professional schools with a social accountability mandate by identifying characteristics of medical education found to impact positively on medical students, health workforce, and health outcomes of disadvantaged communities. A critical appraisal tool was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the published articles. Data are presented as a narrative synthesis due to the variety of methodologies in the studies, and characterized using a logic model. Health professional schools aiming to improve health outcomes for their disadvantaged local communities described collaborative partnerships with communities, equitable selection criteria, and community-engaged placements in underserved areas as positively impacting the learning and attitudes of students. Students of socially accountable schools were more likely to stay in rural areas and serve disadvantaged communities, and were often more skilled than students from more traditional schools to meet the needs of underserved communities. However, published literature on the impact of socially accountable health professional education on communities and health outcomes is limited, with only one study investigating health outcomes. The findings of this literature review guide schools on the inputs likely to maximize their socially accountability outputs and increase their impact on students, local health workforce and local communities.

  11. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  12. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Keyworth

    2015-10-01

    Technological supports aiming to change the behaviour of healthcare professionals show considerable promise, particularly those involving computer-generated reminders and feedback. Due to the lack of theoretically-informed interventions, we were unable to draw conclusions around the effectiveness of theory-behaviour change interventions in this context. Interventions currently lack consistency in delivery method and content, which future research should address.

  13. Attitudes of Mental Health Professionals about Mental Illness: A Review of the Recent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto; Aroesty-Cohen, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A large body of research has documented public attitudes toward people with mental illness. The current attitudes of the people who provide services to those with psychiatric disorders are important to understand, as well. The authors review what studies over the past 5 years reveal about the attitudes of psychiatric professionals. Empirical…

  14. The Current Status of Nursing Professionalism Among Nursing Faculty in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Michiko; Taketomi, Kikuko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2017-02-01

    The faculty of nursing schools plays an important role in the successful execution of nursing education. Therefore, faculty behavior strongly affects the professional development of nurses. However, few studies have examined professional nursing behaviors from the perspective of nursing faculty. Members of nursing faculty in Japan were surveyed regarding their perspectives on behaviors related to professionalism. The model, Miller's Wheel of Professionalism in Nursing, was used as the theoretical framework. The Behavioral Inventory for Professionalism in Nursing (BIPN) was completed by 74 full-time nursing faculty who were currently working at 10 institutes of nursing education in Japan. The mean BIPN score for the participants was 11.56 (SD = 6.08) of a possible total of 27. The highest and lowest BIPN category scores were for "research development, use, and evaluation" and "community service," respectively. Professionalism was found to relate significantly to higher educational preparation (F = 32.17, p professionalism (p professionalism and both educational preparation (r = .85, p nursing educator (r = .31, p = .0077). The results support the idea that a higher level of educational preparation and more years of experience as a member of a nursing faculty are associated with higher levels of nursing professionalism. The professional behavior scores suggest that "community service" is an issue that requires further improvement among Japanese nursing faculty. Awareness of extrinsic factors such as education is important to maximize nursing professionalism. The findings of this study may help nursing faculty continue their self-development.

  15. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  16. Current perspectives on post systems: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goracci, C; Ferrari, M

    2011-06-01

    This literature review summarizes the most recent and reliable evidence on post systems. A search was limited to review articles published over the last 10 years in dental journals with an impact factor. Papers cited in the initially retrieved review articles were also included if significant. Preservation of tooth tissue, presence of a ferrule effect, and adhesion are regarded as the most effective conditions for long-term success of post-endodontic restorations. Adhesively luted fibre-reinforced composite post restorations have demonstrated satisfactory survival rates over relatively long follow-up periods. The clinical effectiveness of such restorations has been mainly ascribed to the more biomimetic behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite posts that reduces the risk of vertical root fractures. The most common type of failure when using fibre posts is post debonding and it is generally agreed that achieving stable adhesion to intraradicular dentine is more challenging than to coronal dentine. Several factors related to endodontic treatment, root canal shape, post space preparation, post translucency, adhesive cement handling and curing may have an influence on the outcome of the luting procedure. The most reliable results in fibre post cementation are obtained by etch-and-rinse adhesives in combination with dual-cure resin cements. The use of self-adhesive resin cements has also been proposed. Simplification is an obvious advantage of these new materials. However, the durability of their bond still needs to be verified with long-term clinical studies. Several techniques for pre-treating the fibre-reinforced composite post surface have been tested with the aim of improving the bond strength at the post-core and post-cement interfaces. Silicoating followed by silanization currently appears to be the most effective and convenient method for this purpose. In conclusion, the available evidence validates the use of fibre posts as an alternative to metal posts and

  17. Healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding patient safety: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasaite, Indre; Kaunonen, Marja; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to determine the extent of existing knowledge about healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills related to patient safety. A systematic review was performed using two electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCO) for the period 2000-2012. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles or empirical studies, published in English. The focus groups of the study were physicians, head nurses, nurses and nurse assistants. Altogether, 18 studies met the criteria and were included. Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. The investigated themes regarding healthcare professionals' knowledge of patient safety were their existing knowledge level, knowledge deficits and knowledge improvement. Results considered the target groups' overall attitudes to patient safety, attitudes to event reporting and safety attitude improvement. The investigations into healthcare professionals' skills included mathematical skills and those related to achieving patient safety. From this review, it is concluded that further research should be conducted into the investigation of healthcare professionals' knowledge and skills in patient safety.

  18. Genomics education for medical professionals - the current UK landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary

    2016-08-01

    Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine.

  19. Physical punishment, culture, and rights: current issues for professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Joan E

    2008-02-01

    Once considered a legitimate parenting tool, physical punishment is increasingly being redefined as a developmental risk factor by health professionals. Three forces that have contributed to this significant social change are the evolution of pediatric psychology, increasing understanding of the dynamics of parental violence, and growing recognition of children as rights bearers. However, despite the consistency of research findings demonstrating the risks of physical punishment, some practitioners still struggle with the question of whether physical punishment is an appropriate practice among some cultural or ethnic groups. This issue is explored through an analysis of studies examining cultural differences and similarities in physical punishment's effects, as well as legal decisions made throughout the world. Despite practitioners' awareness of the prevalence and impact of parental violence, some still struggle with deciding where to "draw the line" in advising parents about spanking. This issue is addressed through an examination of the role that physical punishment plays in child maltreatment. Finally, the human rights perspective on physical punishment is offered as a new lens through which practitioners may view physical punishment to clarify the fuzzy issues of cultural relativity and the punishment-abuse dichotomy.

  20. Continuing Professional Development in School Psychology: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Current patterns and trends in continuing education for school psychologists are identified by looking at the programs developed by the American Psychological Association and the National Association of School Psychologists, followed by a brief description of the National School Psychology Inservice Training Network project. (Author/BW)

  1. Sports reporting: a comprehensive review of the medical literature regarding North American professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2014-05-01

    The increased physical demands of professional athletes predispose this patient population to a unique set of injuries typically not seen in the general population. This systematic literature review investigates the nature of injury reporting (both orthopedic and nonorthopedic conditions) in the medical literature of professional athletes in the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Rigorous reporting of sports injuries helps clinicians better understand disease mechanisms relevant to specific sports. The nature of injury reporting will differ within each professional sport and reflect the anatomic emphasis of each sport. An electronic literature search of all publications addressing injuries and medical conditions among professional athletes in the NFL, MLB, NBA, and NHL was conducted using the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases through January 2013. Retrieved publications were categorized by journal type, medical type, and area of focus. A total of 536 publications met all inclusion criteria. There were a higher number of articles regarding the NFL (n = 211) and MLB (n = 216) when compared with the NBA (n = 34) or NHL (n = 75). The NFL had significantly more articles addressing nonorthopedic injuries/medical issues than were found with the MLB, NBA, or NHL (109 vs 75, 14, 41, respectively). Both the NFL (33 of 109, 30%) and NHL (6 of 41, 15%) had a relatively high percentage of articles regarding concussions/neurology, and MLB had a relatively high percentage of articles dedicated to vascular medicine (13 of 65, 20%). The proportion of publications dedicated to the knee/lower leg were highest in the NFL (29 of 102, 28%) and NBA (9 of 20, 45%), those dedicated to the shoulder/elbow were highest in MLB (113 of 151, 75%), and those dedicated to the hip/pelvis were highest in the NHL (16 of 34, 47%). The number and type of publications vary among the 4

  2. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  3. How do psychiatrists in India construct their professional identity? A critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayetti, Clement; Jadhav, Sushrut; Deshpande, Smita N

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric practice in India is marked by an increasing gulf between largely urban-based mental health professionals and a majority rural population. Based on the premise that any engagement is a mutually constructed humane process, an understanding of the culture of psychiatry including social process of local knowledge acquisition by trainee psychiatrists is critical. This paper reviews existing literature on training of psychiatrists in India, the cultural construction of their professional identities and autobiographical reflections. The results reveal a scarcity of research on how identities, knowledge, and values are constructed, contested, resisted, sustained, and operationalized through practice. This paper hypothesizes that psychiatric training and practice in India continues to operate chiefly in an instrumental fashion and bears a circular relationship between cultural, hierarchical training structures and patient-carer concerns. The absence of interpretative social science training generates a professional identity that predominantly focuses on the patient and his/her social world as the site of pathology. Infrequent and often superfluous critical cultural reflexivity gained through routine clinical practice further alienates professionals from patients, caregivers, and their own social landscapes. This results in a peculiar brand of theory and practice that is skewed toward a narrow understanding of what constitutes suffering. The authors argue that such omissions could be addressed through nuanced ethnographies on the professional development of psychiatrists during postgraduate training, including the political economies of their social institutions and local cultural landscapes. Further research will also help enhance culturally sensitive epistemology and shape locally responsive mental health training programs. This is critical for majority rural Indians who place their trust in State biomedical care.

  4. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Cuesta, Carla; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia; Bagán Sebastián, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidi...

  5. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Cuesta, Carla; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia; Bagán Sebastián, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidi...

  6. Analysis of the literature pertaining to the education of public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evashwick, Connie J; Tao, Donghua; Bax, Kate

    2013-01-01

    A well-educated workforce is essential to the infrastructure of a public health system (1). At a time when global focus on public health is increasing, a severe shortage of public health professionals is projected (2). A strong educational framework is thus imperative to ensure the capacity and capability of the worldwide public health workforce for the future. The education of those who work in public health is spread across disciplines, subject-specific training programs and types of academic institutions. In the 2011 report on the Health Professionals for a New Century, Frenk and Chen comment that, compared to medicine and nursing, public health has done the least to examine what and how it teaches (3). This does not bode well for meeting the demands of the public health workforce for the future. The purpose of the study reported here is to analyze the state of pedagogy pertaining to the education of the public health workforce as evidenced by published literature. The focus is on "professionals," defined as those who have formal education, are self-governing, and can work independently.

  7. Analysis of the Literature Pertaining to the Education of Public Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evashwick, Connie J.; Tao, Donghua; Bax, Kate

    2013-01-01

    A well-educated workforce is essential to the infrastructure of a public health system (1). At a time when global focus on public health is increasing, a severe shortage of public health professionals is projected (2). A strong educational framework is thus imperative to ensure the capacity and capability of the worldwide public health workforce for the future. The education of those who work in public health is spread across disciplines, subject-specific training programs and types of academic institutions. In the 2011 report on the Health Professionals for a New Century, Frenk and Chen comment that, compared to medicine and nursing, public health has done the least to examine what and how it teaches (3). This does not bode well for meeting the demands of the public health workforce for the future. The purpose of the study reported here is to analyze the state of pedagogy pertaining to the education of the public health workforce as evidenced by published literature. The focus is on “professionals,” defined as those who have formal education, are self-governing, and can work independently. PMID:24350216

  8. Current concepts in hypophosphatasia: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Amy; Arundel, Paul; High, Alec; Balmer, Richard

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND.  Hypophosphatasia (HP) is characterized by defective mineralization of bone and teeth because of deficient alkaline phosphatase activity. There are generally six recognized clinical forms, of which the most severe is often lethal prenatally or early in life. In milder forms, such as odontohypophosphatasia (OHP), premature exfoliation of primary teeth may be the only clinical manifestation. CASE REPORT.  A 20-month-old girl was referred to the Specialist Paediatric Salaried Dental Service within the Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust with mobility of tooth numbers 71 and 81. Clinical examination revealed grade III mobile 71 and 81, with minimal gingival inflammation and plaque deposits. There were no other dental findings and no significant medical history. Tooth numbers 71 and 81 exfoliated prematurely with no evidence of root resorption, shortly after presentation. Haematological and urinary investigations showed no abnormalities. Histological examination showed a complete absence of cementum. A diagnosis of OHP was made. After 10 months of dental follow-up, no further teeth have increased mobility. CONCLUSION.  Odontohypophosphatasia should be included as a differential diagnosis in children presenting with early loss of primary teeth. The dentist may be the first health care professional to whom the patient presents.

  9. Learning & Using British Sign Language: Current Skills & Training of Hearing Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, James G.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two aspects of a study of the problems hearing people have in acquiring British Sign Language (BSL) are described: (1) the measurement of current skills in BSL of professionals in the field, and (2) current training programs in BSL in the United Kingdom and results of some controlled teaching situations. (Author/PJM)

  10. Current aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR HUGO LOPES DE ANDRADE

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this article was to present a review of the literature by searching the databases Pubmed and Scielo, focusing on publications related to polycystic ovaries, including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic aspects, as well as its association with cardiovascular and arterial hypertensive disorders.

  11. Current Practices in Assessing Professionalism in United States and Canadian Allopathic Medical Students and Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittur, Nandini

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism is a critically important competency that must be evaluated in medical trainees but is a complex construct that is hard to assess. A systematic review was undertaken to give insight into the current best practices for assessment of professionalism in medical trainees and to identify new research priorities in the field. A search was conducted on PubMed for behavioral assessments of medical students and residents among the United States and Canadian allopathic schools in the last 15 years. An initial search yielded 594 results, 28 of which met our inclusion criteria. Our analysis indicated that there are robust generic definitions of the major attributes of medical professionalism. The most commonly used assessment tools are survey instruments that use Likert scales tied to attributes of professionalism. While significant progress has been made in this field in recent years, several opportunities for system-wide improvement were identified that require further research. These include a paucity of information about assessment reliability, the need for rater training, a need to better define competency in professionalism according to learner level (preclinical, clerkship, resident etc.) and ways to remediate lapses in professionalism. Student acceptance of assessment of professionalism may be increased if assessment tools are shifted to better incorporate feedback. Tackling the impact of the hidden curriculum in which students may observe lapses in professionalism by faculty and other health care providers is another priority for further study. PMID:28652951

  12. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cuesta, Carla; Sarrion-Pérez, Maria-Gracia; Bagán, Jose V

    2014-12-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidiasis and the virulence of the infection. Although nystatin and amphotericin b were the most drugs used locally, fluconazole oral suspension is proving to be a very effective drug in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Fluconazole was found to be the drug of choice as a systemic treatment of oral candidiasis. Due to its good antifungal properties, its high acceptance of the patient and its efficacy compared with other antifungal drugs. But this drug is not always effective, so we need to evaluate and distinguish others like itraconazole or ketoconazole, in that cases when Candida strains resist to fluconazole. Key words:Candidiasis, treatment, miconazole, fluconazole, nystatin.

  13. [Central blockades in Pediatrics: A review of current literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizaga Rebollar, R; García Palacios, M V; Morales Guerrero, J; Torres Morera, L M

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric neuraxial anesthesia is an effective tool that can be used as a supplement or alternative to general anesthesia. However, there have always been doubts about its usefulness and risk-benefit ratio. The purpose of this review is to describe the current role of central blockades in pediatric patients, upgrade practical and safety aspects, and review the latest technological advances applied to this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mindfulness-based mobile applications: literature review and analysis of current features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; García-Campayo, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria-a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of "walking meditation," and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools (17/108, 15.7%), audio tracks (15/108, 13

  15. Mindfulness-Based Mobile Applications: Literature Review and Analysis of Current Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Objective Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. Methods We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. Results The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria–a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of “walking meditation,” and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools

  16. Mindfulness, self-compassion, and empathy among health care professionals: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between mindfulness and self-compassion is explored in the health care literature, with a corollary emphasis on reducing stress in health care workers and providing compassionate patient care. Health care professionals are particularly vulnerable to stress overload and compassion fatigue due to an emotionally exhausting environment. Compassion fatigue among caregivers in turn has been associated with less effective delivery of care. Having compassion for others entails self-compassion. In Kristin Neff's research, self-compassion includes self-kindness, a sense of common humanity, and mindfulness. Both mindfulness and self-compassion involve promoting an attitude of curiosity and nonjudgment towards one's experiences. Research suggests that mindfulness interventions, particularly those with an added lovingkindness component, have the potential to increase self-compassion among health care workers. Enhancing focus on developing self-compassion using MBSR and other mindfulness interventions for health care workers holds promise for reducing perceived stress and increasing effectiveness of clinical care.

  17. Daily hassles, their antecedents and outcomes among professional first responders: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Gerry; Berglund, Anna Karin; Ohlsson, Alicia

    2016-08-01

    Occupational groups such as firefighters, military officers, paramedics and police officers are exposed to a combination of acute, severe and accumulated everyday stress. Drawing on the daily hassles perspective on stress, the aim was to synthesize existing research on daily hassles in professional first responder settings into a theoretical model. A systematic mixed studies review with an integrated design was undertaken. The selection process resulted in 40 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The selected papers represented two literature reviews, one qualitative study, eight longitudinal studies and 29 cross-sectional studies. Five superior categories emerged in the analysis: Individual antecedent and continuously framing factors, Environmental antecedent and continuously framing factors, Appraisal and coping processes, Daily hassles and Outcome. Suggestions for future research are presented.

  18. [Gestational diabetes in the light of current literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, Jarosław; Grafka, Agnieszka; Gęca, Tomasz; Łopucki, Maciej

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents current data on the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus, classification and new diagnostic methods. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance first detected during pregnancy. It is the most common metabolic disorder of pregnant women. The frequency of its occurrence depends on inter alia body weight, belonging to a particular ethnic group and diagnostic methods. GDM reveals usually between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The development of diabetes in pregnancy poses a threat to both the mother and the fetus. It is associated with an increased incidence of birth defects in newborns, impaired intrauterine fetal growth, higher incidence of premature births and greater percentage of the intrauterine fetus death. Amongst women complicated by gestational diabetes arterial hypertension more often unfolds. In the development of gestational diabetes mellitus important role apart from maternal and fetal hyperinsulinemia play: antagonistic to insulin placental hormones, TNFα, placental pro-inflammatory cytokines, resistin, leptin ghrelin.

  19. Contested professional role boundaries in health care: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Olivia; Nancarrow, Susan A; Borthwick, Alan M; Grace, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Across the Western world, demographic changes have led to healthcare policy trends in the direction of role flexibility, challenging established role boundaries and professional hierarchies. Population ageing is known to be associated with a rise in prevalence of chronic illnesses which, coupled with a reducing workforce, now places much greater demands on healthcare provision. Role flexibility within the health professions has been identified as one of the key innovative practice developments which may mitigate the effects of these demographic changes and help to ensure a sustainable health provision into the future. However, it is clear that policy drives to encourage and enable greater role flexibility among the health professions may also lead to professional resistance and inter-professional role boundary disputes. In the foot and ankle arena, this has been evident in areas such as podiatric surgery, podiatrist prescribing and extended practice in diabetes care, but it is far from unique to podiatry. A systematic review of the literature identifying examples of disputed role boundaries in health professions was undertaken, utilising the STARLITE framework and adopting a focus on the specific characteristics and outcomes of boundary disputes. Synthesis of the data was undertaken via template analysis, employing a thematic organisation and structure. The review highlights the range of role boundary disputes across the health professions, and a commonality of events preceding each dispute. It was notable that relatively few disputes were resolved through recourse to legal or regulatory mandates. Whilst there are a number of different strategies underpinning boundary disputes, some common characteristics can be identified and related to existing theory. Importantly, horizontal substitution invokes more overt role boundary disputes than other forms, with less resolution, and with clear implications for professions working within the foot and ankle arena.

  20. Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury in Professional American Football Players: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Bodil C; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K

    2017-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for the consequences Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has on cognitive, psychological, physical, and sports-related functioning in professional American Football players. We performed a systematic search in 2 databases, PubMed and SPORTDiscus, to obtain literature from January 1990 to January 2015. To be eligible for inclusion, a study had to examine the relationship between TBI and the consequences for several aspects of functioning in professional American football players older than 18 years. Methodological quality was assessed using a 5-item checklist which assessed selection bias, information bias, and correct reporting of the population and exposure characteristics. The search yielded 21 studies that met our inclusion criteria. An evidence synthesis was performed on the extracted data and resulted in 5 levels of evidence. The evidence synthesis revealed that there is strong evidence that concussions are associated with late-life depression and short-term physical dysfunctions. Evidence for the relationship between concussion and impaired sports-related function, prolonged reaction time, memory impairment, and visual-motor speed was inconclusive. Moderate evidence was found for the association between TBI and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and limited evidence was found for the association between TBI and executive dysfunction. There is strong evidence that a history of concussion in American football players is associated with depression later in life and short-term physical dysfunctions. Also cognitive dysfunctions such as MCI are seen in older players with a history of TBI. These results provide input for actions to prevent TBI and their consequences in (retired) American football players.

  1. Reducing mental illness stigma in health care students and professionals: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Alison

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce mental illness stigma among healthcare students and professionals. A literature search was conducted using the Cochrane Library and PubMed. Randomised controlled trial level evidence demonstrated that interventions involving direct contact, indirect filmed contact or an educational email effectively reduced stigma in the short term. Role play was the only intervention with randomised controlled trial level evidence demonstrating no effect. There was not enough evidence to suggest that any intervention can maintain stigma reduction over time. Stigma reduction in healthcare students and professionals needs to be sustained over time if it is to result in positive changes for people living with mental illness. Further research is needed to determine which interventions, if any, can achieve this. Only then will large-scale implementation of a stigma reduction intervention be feasible and beneficial to people living with mental illness. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  2. [Current audiovisual technologies are a constituent of the continuing professional development concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, E Iu; Zatsepa, S A

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the topical problems of using innovation, information and communication technologies (ICT) in the higher medical education system, including in postgraduate professional education. The paper shows the key principles for organizing an audiovisual technology-based educational process and gives numerous practical examples of the real use of ICT in the education of not only medical, but also other specialists and the results of studies of applying the current technical aids of innovation professional education. Since each area of manpower training has its specificity and unique goals, the authors propose the highly effective decisions to organize an educational process, which fully take into consideration of the specific features of professional education. These technologies substantially expand access to educational resources, which is of great importance for a strategy of continuing professional development.

  3. Current systemic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: Areview of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth mostcommon form of human cancer worldwide and the thirdmost common cause of cancer-related deaths. Thestrategies of various treatments for HCC depend onthe stage of tumor, the status of patient's performanceand the reserved hepatic function. The Barcelona ClinicLiver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is currently usedmost for patients with HCC. For example, for patientswith BCLC stage 0 (very early stage) and stage A (earlystage) HCC, the curable treatment modalities, includingresection, transplantation and radiofrequency ablation,are taken into consideration. If the patients are in BCLCstage B (intermediate stage) and stage C (advancedstage) HCC, they may need the palliative transarterialchemoembolization and even the target medicationof sorafenib. In addition, symptomatic treatment isalways recommended for patients with BCLC stage D(end stage) HCC. In this review, we will attempt tosummarize the historical perspective and the currentdevelopments of systemic therapies in BCLC stage Band C in HCC.

  4. Craniocerebral Gunshot Injuries; A Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Mirand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Craniocerebral gunshot injuries (CGI are increasingly encountered by neurosurgeons in civilian and urban settings. Unfortunately, more prevalent condition in developing countries, with major armed conflicts which is still persisting, since the main trigger is violence at the national or state level. Management goals of CGI should focus on aggressive resuscitation and correction of coagulopathy; those with stable vital signs should undergo CT scan head at the earliest possible opportunity. Neuroimaging is vital for planning of surgical management, especially to determine the type of surgery, routes of the approach to the surgical target area and extraction of the impacted foreign bodies, however, surgical management is not always indicated. Although subset of such cases may be managed even with non-surgical management. The treatment comprises of immediate life salvaging resuscitative measures including control of the persistent bleeding, care of associated injury, management of raised intracranial pressure, prevention of cerebrospinal fistula formation by primary watertight dural repair and prevention of infection, through extensive debridement of contaminated, macerated or ischemic tissues; preservation of nervous tissue and restoration of anatomic structures through the hermetic sealing of dural and scalp defect. Recently, only few studies of craniocerebral penetrating injuries are published that too involving smaller patients sample sizes; although classic studies in the military and civil situation noticed associated relatively very high mortality and morbidity and psychological as well as economic impact on the affected individual, the family and the health system in providing ongoing care to the sufferers and society at large. Currently various measures are advocated with aim to reduce the incidence of CGI especially in civilian populations. It is highly necessary and immensely urgent to promote research in a neurocritical care of CGI to

  5. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  6. Improving the Professional Status of Teaching: Perspectives of Future Teachers, Current Teachers, and Education Professors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Hsieh, Chia-lin

    1999-01-01

    Examined future teachers', current teachers', and teacher educators' attitudes regarding various suggestions for improving the professional status of teaching. All groups rated extrinsic and intrinsic rewards for teaching the most important. They considered raising the standards of preservice programs and teacher certification important and…

  7. Improving the Professional Status of Teaching: Perspectives of Future Teachers, Current Teachers, and Education Professors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Hsieh, Chia-lin

    1999-01-01

    Examined future teachers', current teachers', and teacher educators' attitudes regarding various suggestions for improving the professional status of teaching. All groups rated extrinsic and intrinsic rewards for teaching the most important. They considered raising the standards of preservice programs and teacher certification important and…

  8. Classroom Management and National Professional Standards for Teachers: A Review of the Literature on Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeberg, Helen M.; McConney, Andrew; Price, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the conceptual and empirical research on classroom management to ascertain the extent to which there is consistency between the "advice" found in the research literature and the professional standards for teachers and initial teacher education, in regards to knowledge and perspectives about effective classroom…

  9. Professional Carers' Experiences of Caring for Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Dementia: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Josephine; Doody, Owen

    2017-01-01

    The number of people with intellectual disability living into old age and developing dementia continues to increase. Dementia presents a wide range of challenges for staff due to progressive deterioration. This article presents the findings from a narrative literature review of professional caregivers' experiences of caring for individuals with…

  10. Healthcare professionals' organisational barriers to health information technologies-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Maria

    2011-12-01

    This literature review identifies and categorises, from an organisational management perspective, barriers to the use of HIT or ICT for health. Based on the review, it offers policy interventions. This systematic literature review was carried out during December 2009 and January 2010. Additional on-going reviews of updates through automated system alerts took place up until this paper was submitted. A total of thirty-one sources were searched including nine software platforms/databases, fifteen specialised websites/targeted databases, Google Scholar, ISI Science Citation Index and five journals hand-searched. The study covers seventy-nine articles on organisational barriers to ICT adoption by healthcare professionals. These are categorised under five main headings - (I) Structure of healthcare organisations; (II) Tasks; (III) People policies; (IV) Incentives; and (V) Information and decision processes. A total of ten subcategories are also identified. By adopting an organisational management approach, some recommendations to remove organisational management barriers are made. Despite their apparent promise, health information technologies (HIT) have proved difficult to implement. This systematic review reveals the implementation barriers associated to organisational management and their interrelations. Several important future directions in the field are also suggested: (1) there is a need for further research providing evidence of HIT cost-effectiveness as well as the development of optimal HIT applications; (2) more information is needed regarding organisational change, incentives, liability issues, end-users HIT competences and skills, structure and work process issues involved in realising the benefits from HIT. Future policy interventions should consider the five dimensions identified when addressing the impact of HIT in healthcare organisational systems, and how the impact of an intervention aimed at a particular dimension would interrelate with others. 2011

  11. The Role of Fitness Professionals in Public Health: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lyon, Alexander T. C.; Neville, Ross D.; Armour, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Kinesiology researchers have long had an interest in physical activity, fitness, and health issues and in the professional education and work practices of teachers and coaches. The professional development needs and practices of "fitness professionals," however, have not been a major concern for researchers in the field. The purpose of…

  12. Recertification of primary health care professionals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeringa, F.H.; Sluijs, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography contains literature about certification- and recertification of health care professionals. Certification and recertification are increasingly being used as quality assurance systems for professionals. As such (re)certification does fit in with the current developments towards quali

  13. Continuing professional development (CPD) in radiography: A collaborative European meta-ethnography literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareing, A; Buissink, C; Harper, D; Gellert Olesen, M; Soto, M; Braico, S; Van Laer, P; Gremion, I; Rainford, L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to complete a collaborative review of Radiography continuing professional development (CPD) research material to support the production of European Federation of Radiographer Societies (EFRS) CPD recommendations. A meta-ethnography approach to literature review was applied focussing upon commonalities rather than discrepancies between research outcomes. This facilitated exploration of context across the geographical region of Europe with national variations in CPD governance. The seven phases of the meta-ethnographic approach were followed by two independent experienced researchers. A third researcher mediated the findings which were then explored collaboratively with the EFRS CPD working group for concordance. Phase seven of the meta-ethnography involved interpreting an expression of the synthesis from the previous stages. Six main corroborating themes emerged in this process and following mediation were expressed as themes; knowledge, skills & competency, needs/gap analysis, multi-layered/multi-modal, barriers and drivers; regulation vs autonomy; fostering collaboration - harnessing technology. The primary feature of CPD activity should be the resulting impact - to patients, the service, the profession and the individual; with all stakeholders working in partnership. CPD activity must be flexible/multi-modal to support the changing growth/dynamic workforce. All stakeholders should utilise communication and technology resources and make efforts to improve collaboration between the management, regulators and educators to support Radiographers to develop meaningful CPD. Health services across Europe are under increasing stress and a principal factor going forwards will be managing increasing demands on healthcare staff whilst supporting enhancement of the knowledge, skills and competency base. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attitudes of health care professionals toward carrier screening for cystic fibrosis. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, S; De Paepe, A; Borry, P

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological developments in molecular genetics facilitate the large-scale detection of inherited genetic disorders and allow an increasing number of genetic conditions to be screened for (American College of Medical Genetics 2012). This technological evolution creates the background which makes reflection necessary about the desirability to offer community-based (preconception) carrier screening in the healthcare system. A positive attitude of potential providers is vital to the success of a screening program. Therefore, the objective of this article is to elaborate a review of the attitudes of healthcare professionals toward carrier screening. Examination of existing carrier screening programs could provide such information. The literature review will be focused on the attitudes toward carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF). The databases Pubmed and Web of Science, as well as the interface Google Scholar, were searched using the keywords for the period 1990-2011. Studies were selected if they were published in a peer-reviewed journal in English and described the attitudes of potential providers toward carrier screening. Eleven studies were retrieved describing the attitudes toward carrier screening for CF. In total, seven studies reported attitudes toward the best time for carrier screening; four studies described opinions toward the best setting to offer CF carrier screening; six studies investigated the willingness to be involved in a carrier screening program, and in total 11 articles reported the concerns about offering carrier screening. Ten papers described a general attitude toward carrier screening. We can conclude that health care providers state willingness to be involved in a carrier screening program, but there is need for appropriate education as well as adequate support given the time constraints already present in consultation. The prospect of an increasing number of genetic disorders for which screening becomes possible, and the

  15. Soft drinks and dental health: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmassebi, J F; Duggal, M S; Malik-Kotru, G; Curzon, M E J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the role of commercial soft drinks in dental diseases namely as dental caries and erosion. The objective of this paper has been to review the past and current literature to determine the present knowledge on this subject. The literature related to dental caries, erosion, drinks, soft drinks and fruit juices was reviewed. The literature shows efforts have been taken to modify soft drinks by either adding or deleting certain components so as to reduce their harmful effects on teeth. A rational protocol to encourage the sensible use of drinks and the modification of drinks to render them less harmful would be advisable.

  16. 'I think it will eventually be done away with': Attitudes among healthcare professionals towards the current system of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignon, Andrée

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a study of attitudes to the current system of animal experimentation (for the production of health interventions) among 52 UK healthcare professionals. These healthcare professionals participated in three separate focus groups (of 18, 17 and 17 participants) and were invited to respond to the question 'what is your opinion about the current system of animal testing?' The study focused specifically on their views of the current system (rather than their views of animal testing in general). The healthcare professionals were critical of the current system, particularly with regard to regulation, secrecy, validity, unnecessary suffering and welfare. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyn, M A; Pivonka, E

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiologic evidence of a protective role for fruits and vegetables in cancer prevention is substantial. The strength of this scientific base guides US national policymaking in diet and health issues and facilitates community and local programs that address national dietary goals to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Current scientific evidence also suggests a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of coronary heart disease, and evidence is accumulating for a protective role in stroke. In addition, a new scientific base is emerging to support a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of cataract formation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diverticulosis, and possibly, hypertension. This article provides an overview of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption for each of these conditions, including brief discussions of underlying protective mechanisms, identifies key scientific findings regarding the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and outlines applications of these findings for dietetics professionals. The evidence reviewed provides additional support for increased consumption of a wide variety of vegetables, in particular, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, and deep-yellow-orange ones, and a wide variety of fruits, in particular, citrus and deep-yellow-orange ones. Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a practical and important way to optimize nutrition to reduce disease risk and maximize good health.

  18. Professional communication competences of nurses -- a review of current practice and educational problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włoszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2013-01-01

    A dissonance between high 'technical' professionalism of nurses and a relatively low level of patient satisfaction with received care is a phenomenon observed in many countries. Theoretical concept and review of current published studies. Most reviewed studies show that a low level of patient satisfaction occurs in the case of an inadequate interpersonal communication between nurses and patients. Most studies indicate poor effectiveness of shaping communication competences of nurses based on standard education in the area of general psychology and communication knowledge, because this knowledge does not convert itself 'spontaneously' into communication competences during occupational activity. It is necessary to supplement educational programmes for nurses with practical courses in professional interpersonal communication. International experience exchange concerning the shaping of nurses' communication competences may be limited due to cultural, organizational and systems factors.

  19. Continuing professional development in nursing in Australia: current awareness, practice and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikitis, Mary; McAllister, Margaret; Sharman, Rachael; Raith, Lisa; Faithfull-Byrne, Annette; Priaulx, Rae

    2013-08-01

    Australian nurses and midwives are expected to compile a professional development portfolio during their annual registration process. This study aimed to ascertain the current understanding, practice and future continuing professional development (CPD) needs of nurses and midwives employed in a regional area of Queensland, Australia. Perceived barriers and incentives for CPD were also measured. 289 public and private hospital nurses and midwives responded to the survey. Results showed that participants understood the new requirements, valued ongoing learning, preferred education to occur within work hours, and considered their workplaces as accepting of change. Approximately two-thirds of participants believed CPD should be shared between them and their employers. Barriers to undertaking CPD included understaffing, and the concern that CPD would interfere with time outside work. Organisational support positively influenced attitudes to CPD. This study highlights the importance of supportive management in encouraging their workforce to embrace ongoing learning and change.

  20. Inclusive pedagogy in Australian universities: A review of current policies and professional development activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hitch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on activities undertaken by Australian universities to support academic staff to provide inclusive teaching. The findings of two lines of inquiry are reported - a desktop audit of the presence of inclusive teaching or universal design for learning (UDL in publically available policies and procedures documents, and a survey of the methods adopted to build staff capacity to provide inclusive teaching and learning. Just over a third (34.21% of Australian universities referred to inclusive teaching or UDL in their policies and procedures. A wide range of current practices in professional development for inclusive teaching was reported, with the most frequent being one-off workshops focussing on accommodating specific groups of students. Improved institutional support through policies, procedures and professional development would enable Australian higher education teachers to provide quality inclusive teaching to all students.

  1. Resident Involvement in Professional Otolaryngology Organizations: Current Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Jang, Minyoung; Gilad, Amir; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-08-01

    Involvement by residents in professional medical organizations can enrich their training, but little data exist regarding the number and types of involvement opportunities available to otolaryngology residents. We sought to fill this gap in knowledge by quantifying the extent to which major otolaryngology-related organizations in the United States provide involvement opportunities to otolaryngology residents. Our analysis included 23 organizations and subspecialty societies. Results showed that many opportunities exist for residents to attend conferences and present research; however, fewer involvement and funding opportunities existed in any other leadership, health policy, or service-learning experiences. These findings were consistent across general and subspecialty societies. Given the many purported benefits of resident involvement in otolaryngology outside of the standard training environment, future efforts may be warranted to increase the number and type of involvement opportunities currently available in professional societies.

  2. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  3. Professional Ethics in Vocational Education Research: An Annotated Bibliography of Related Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Judith, Comp.

    This 14-item annotated bibliography provides background information on the efforts of several professional groups to define codes of ethics for their members' guidance. It was prepared to aid the members of the American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) in their study of ethical principles and guidelines for professional behavior,…

  4. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  5. Exploring the current application of professional competencies in human resource management in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Human research (HR practitioners have an important role to play in the sustainability and competitiveness of organisations. Yet their strategic contribution and the value they add remain unrecognised.Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to explore the extent to which HR practitioners are currently allowed to display HR competencies in the workplace, and whether any significant differences exist between perceived HR competencies, based on the respondents’ demographic characteristics.Motivation for the study: Limited empirical research exists on the extent to which HR practitioners are allowed to display key competencies in the South African workplace.Research approach, design, and method: A quantitative research approach was followed. A Human Resource Management Professional Competence Questionnaire was administered to HR practitioners and managers (N = 481.Main findings: The results showed that HR competencies are poorly applied in selected South African workplaces. The competencies that were indicated as having the poorest application were talent management, HR metrics, HR business knowledge, and innovation. The white ethic group experienced a poorer application of all human research management (HRM competencies compared to the black African ethnic group.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of the research highlighted the need for management to evaluate the current application of HR practices in the workplace and also the extent to which HR professionals are involved as strategic business partners.Contribution/value-add: This research highlights the need for the current application of HR competencies in South African workplaces to be improved.

  6. The Use of Current Media in Literature and Composition at the Community College Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Jody

    Current media--films, videos, television programs, advertising in both print and television, and newspaper and magazine articles--can be successfully employed in college literature and composition classes, enhancing the learning environment by involving those students who might otherwise show disinterest. For example, a unit on pornography,…

  7. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross

    2017-03-01

    The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training

  8. Current state of ethics literature synthesis: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Marcel; Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel

    2016-10-03

    Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed. A systematic review was performed of all existing systematic or semi-systematic reviews for normative ethics literature on medical topics. The study further assessed how these reviews report on their methods for search, selection, analysis, and synthesis of ethics literature. We identified 84 reviews published between 1997 and 2015 in 65 different journals and demonstrated an increasing publication rate for this type of review. While most reviews reported on different aspects of search and selection methods, reporting was much less explicit for aspects of analysis and synthesis methods: 31 % did not fulfill any criteria related to the reporting of analysis methods; for example, only 25 % of the reviews reported the ethical approach needed to analyze and synthesize normative information. While reviews of ethics literature are increasingly published, their reporting quality for analysis and synthesis of normative information should be improved. Guiding questions are: What was the applied ethical approach and technical procedure for identifying and extracting the relevant normative information units? What method and procedure was employed for synthesizing normative information? Experts and stakeholders from bioethics, HTA, guideline development, health care professionals, and patient organizations should work together to further develop this area of evidence-based health care.

  9. Functioning and effectiveness of electronic control devices such as the TASER® M- and X-series: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Zinka, Bettina; Fieseler, Sybille; Graw, Matthias; Peschel, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) such as the TASER(®) M- and X-series deliver short high-voltage, low-current energy pulses to temporarily paralyze a person by causing electrical interruption of the body's normal energy pulses. Despite many scientific publications, which classify the health risks of an appropriate use of the TASER device as minor, there still is a continuous uncertainty about possible side effects with human application. Based on a literature search of the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database's PubMed system of current publications, the following article describes the mechanisms by which the device operates and discusses possible pathophysiological consequences. The majority of current human literature has not found evidence of clinical relevant pathophysiological effects during and after an exposure of professionally applied CEWs. However, to be able to exclude possible health risks, a medical checkup of people who have been exposed to CEWs is essential.

  10. Views on the Subject Literature Resource Construction from the Perspective of Utilization Rate of Professional Literature in the Collection%从馆藏专业文献的利用率看学科文献资源建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红文

    2013-01-01

    The use of professional literature in collection is closely related to the subject literature resource construction. The paper reflects the situation of subject literature resource construction, based on the utilization rate of professional literature in collection.%  馆藏专业文献的利用与学科文献资源建设密切相关,本文根据馆藏专业文献的利用率来反映学科文献资源建设情况。

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes and Challenges of Healthcare Professionals Managing People With Eating Disorders: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Xin Yi; Tham, Xiang Cong; Kamaruzaman, Netty Ryanie; Yobas, Piyanee Klainin

    2017-02-01

    This review consolidates findings regarding knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals, together with challenges faced while caring for patients with eating disorders. A rigorous and systematic approach was taken to identify 21 articles, which include 12 quantitative, 7 qualitative, and 2 mixed-method papers. Healthcare professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward patients with eating disorders will be discussed, while identifying if factors like age, gender, work experience or profession have an impact on these two variables. Challenges faced during care provision will also be examined. Methodological limitations and knowledge gaps from these articles will be discussed, together with implications of this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detecting diseases of neglected seminal vesicles using imaging modalities: A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagur, Gautam; Warren, Kelly; Suh, Yiji; Singh, Navjot; Khan, Sardar A

    2016-05-01

    Seminal vesicles (SVs) are sex accessory organs and part of male genitourinary system. They play a critical role in male fertility. Diseases of the SVs, usually results in infertility. Diseases of the SVs are extremely rare and are infrequently reported in the literature. We address the current literature of SV pathologies, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. We review the clinical importance of SVs from PubMed. The current imaging modalities and instrumentation that help diagnose SV diseases are reviewed. Common pathologies including, infection, cysts, tumors, and congenital diseases of the SVs are addressed. Many times symptoms of hematospermia, pain, irritative and obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms, and infertility are presented in patients with SV diseases.

  13. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour fo

  14. Perspectives on Age and Continuing Professional Development for Nurses: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Inge A.; Poell, Rob F.; ten Cate, Th. J.

    2013-01-01

    The need for nurses to participate in continuing professional development (CPD) is growing to keep abreast of rapid changes in nursing care. Concurrently, the nursing workforce is growing older. Ageing leads to changes in biological, psychological, and social functioning. Little is known about the effects of age-related changes on nurses'…

  15. A Review of the Literature: Professional Knowledge and Standards for Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The discussion of standards in this article reveals a number of common features. First, they all focus on macro-level statements about teachers' professional work rather than attempting to detail what that work may be based on. Second, they do not make specifications about the nature and standard of relevant disciplinary knowledge (as would be the…

  16. Enhancing Teacher Quality: Peer Coaching as a Professional Development Strategy. A Preliminary Synthesis of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenneth; Nicotera, Anna

    The use of effective professional development strategies to improve the quality of teaching has become a critical aspect of school improvement across states. This report covers many aspects of this idea including: (1) Types of Peer Coaching Programs, (2) Effective Peer Coaching Strategies, (3) Necessary Support for a Peer Coaching Program, and (4)…

  17. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour fo

  18. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuyama, A.; Wagner, C.; Bijnen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals’ speaking-up behaviour

  19. Mental Health Professionals and Behavioral Interventions for Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, Stephanie Grace; Ai, Amy L; Ainsworth, Sarah E; Ayers, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Adult obesity in the United States has risen to epidemic proportions, and mental health professionals must be called to action. The objectives of this article were to (a) synthesize outcomes of behavioral health interventions for adult obesity in recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews (MAs/SRs) as well as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and further, (b) evaluate the role of mental health professionals in these behavioral health interventions. Articles were included if published in English between January 1, 2004, and May 1, 2014, in peer-reviewed journals examining behavioral health interventions for adults with obesity. Data were subsequently extracted and independently checked by two authors. Included MAs/SRs utilized motivational interviewing, financial incentives, multicomponent behavioral weight management programs, as well as dietary and lifestyle interventions. Behavioral health interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were discussed across 3 major intervention types (educational, modified caloric intake, cognitive-based). Regarding the 1st study objective, multiple positive primary (e.g., weight loss) and secondary outcomes (e.g., quality of life) were found in both MAs/SRs and RCTs. However, the majority of included studies made no mention of interventionist professional background and little inference could be made regarding the effects of professional background on behavioral health intervention outcomes for adults facing obesity; an important limitation and direction for future research. Future studies should assess the effects of interventionist profession in addition to primary and secondary outcomes for adults facing obesity. Implications for mental health professionals' educational curricula, assessment, and treatment strategies are discussed.

  20. Comparing the Current and Desired State of Teaching Professional Ethics among Faculty Members; University of Sistan and Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenaabadi H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In the professional higher education system, one of the important health guarantee dimensions in the teaching-learning process is ethics and ethical component discourse. The university teachers need to be bounded by the ethical principles in their professions, including teaching professional ethics. The aim of this study was to compare between the current and the desired situations of the quality of teaching professional ethics in the faculty memebers of Sistan and Baluchestan University from the students’ viewpoints. Instrument & Methods: In the descriptive cross-sectional study, 318 graduate students of Sistan and Baluchestan University, who were studying at the second semester of 2014-15 academic year, were selected via Available Stratified Sampling Method in May 2015. The study tool was Teaching Professional Ethics Questionnaire. Data was analyzed in SPSS 21 software using Correlated Groups T test. Findings: There was a significant difference between mean scores of the current quality of teaching professional ethics and its components and the desired situation (p0.05. Conclusion: In the teachers of Sistan and Baluchestan University, teaching professional ethics is assessed slightly more than the average level. However, there is a gap between the current situation of teaching professional ethics and its desired situation.

  1. Healthcare professionals' organisational barriers to health information technologies—A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    LLUCH MARIA

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This literature review identifies and categorizes, from an organisational management perspective, barriers to the use of HIT or ICT for health. Based on the review, it offers policy interventions. Methods This systematic literature review was carried out during December 2009 and January 2010. Additional on-going reviews of updates through automated system alerts took place up until this paper was submitted. A total of thirty-one sources were searched including nine softwa...

  2. Contested professional role boundaries in health care: a systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    King, Olivia; Nancarrow, Susan A; Borthwick, Alan M; Grace, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Across the Western world, demographic changes have led to healthcare policy trends in the direction of role flexibility, challenging established role boundaries and professional hierarchies. Population ageing is known to be associated with a rise in prevalence of chronic illnesses which, coupled with a reducing workforce, now places much greater demands on healthcare provision. Role flexibility within the health professions has been identified as one of the key innovative practice ...

  3. Speaking up for patient safety by hospital-based health care professionals: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Ayako; Wagner, Cordula; Bijnen, Bart

    2014-02-08

    Speaking up is important for patient safety, but often, health care professionals hesitate to voice concerns. Understanding the influencing factors can help to improve speaking-up behaviour and team communication. This review focused on health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour for patient safety and aimed at (1) assessing the effectiveness of speaking up, (2) evaluating the effectiveness of speaking-up training, (3) identifying the factors influencing speaking-up behaviour, and (4) developing a model for speaking-up behaviour. Five databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) were searched for English articles describing health care professionals' speaking-up behaviour as well as those evaluating the relationship between speaking up and patient safety. Influencing factors were identified and then integrated into a model of voicing behaviour. In total, 26 studies were identified in 27 articles. Some indicated that hesitancy to speak up can be an important contributing factor in communication errors and that training can improve speaking-up behaviour. Many influencing factors were found: (1) the motivation to speak up, such as the perceived risk for patients, and the ambiguity or clarity of the clinical situation; (2) contextual factors, such as hospital administrative support, interdisciplinary policy-making, team work and relationship between other team members, and attitude of leaders/superiors; (3) individual factors, such as job satisfaction, responsibility toward patients, responsibility as professionals, confidence based on experience, communication skills, and educational background; (4) the perceived efficacy of speaking up, such as lack of impact and personal control; (5) the perceived safety of speaking up, such as fear for the responses of others and conflict and concerns over appearing incompetent; and (6) tactics and targets, such as collecting facts, showing positive intent, and selecting the person who has

  4. Taxonomic Review of Classical and Current Literature on the Perennial American Family Forest Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Straka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in American forest policy has been the small forest ownership problem. Early in the twentieth century, it was called the farm forestry problem, later, the nonindustrial private forest problem, and today, the family forest problem. Family forest owners are thought to manage their lands in a suboptimal manner resulting in low forest productivity relative to other ownership groups. This can lead to future timber supply problems. The exact nature of the problem, especially its social and economic basis, was a common subject of early forestry research studies. This article includes many of the major nonindustrial private forest or family forest studies, from early to current, and classifies them both by themes used by other authors and categories that relate to major research areas in the current literature. A major focus of this literature deals with promoting management on family forest holdings and possible land management incentives and disincentives. Natural trends in family forest ownership, like parcelization, also impact upon forest management opportunities. By developing a taxonomy that classifies these studies by research objective, methodology, owner motivation, and problem definition, this article serves to organize the family forest literature in a manner that provides a temporal framework for better understanding the historical motivation for and development of family forest research in the United States.

  5. Perspectives on care and communication involving incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, relatives and professionals: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaff Fuusje M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objective is to improve palliative care for Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands, by taking account of socio-cultural factors in the guidelines for palliative care. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken. The data sources were seventeen national and international literature databases, four Dutch journals dedicated to palliative care and 37 websites of relevant national and international organizations. All the references found were checked to see whether they met the structured inclusion criteria. Inclusion was limited to publications dealing with primary empirical research on the relationship between socio-cultural factors and the health or care situation of Turkish or Moroccan patients with an oncological or incurable disease. The selection was made by first reading the titles and abstracts and subsequently the full texts. The process of deciding which studies to include was carried out by two reviewers independently. A generic appraisal instrument was applied to assess the methodological quality. Results Fifty-seven studies were found that reported findings for the countries of origin (mainly Turkey and the immigrant host countries (mainly the Netherlands. The central themes were experiences and perceptions of family care, professional care, end-of-life care and communication. Family care is considered a duty, even when such care becomes a severe burden for the main female family caregiver in particular. Professional hospital care is preferred by many of the patients and relatives because they are looking for a cure and security. End-of-life care is strongly influenced by the continuing hope for recovery. Relatives are

  6. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Genetic update on inflammatory factors in ulcerative colitis: Review of the current literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Sarlos; Erzsebet; Kovesdi; Lili; Magyari; Zsolt; Banfai; Andras; Szabo; Andras; Javorhazy; Bela; Melegh

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis(UC) is one of the main types of inflammatory bowel disease, which is caused by dysregulated immune responses in genetically predisposed individuals. Several genetic factors, including interleukin and interleukin receptor gene polymorphisms and other inflammation-related genes play central role in mediating and modulating the inflammation in the human body, thereby these can be the main cause of development of the disease. It is clear these data are very important for understanding the base of the disease, especially in terms of clinical utility and validity, but summarized literature is exiguous for challenge health specialist that can used in the clinical practice nowadays. This review summarizes the current literature on inflammationrelated genetic polymorphisms which are associated with UC. We performed an electronic search of Pubmed Database among publications of the last 10 years, using the following medical subject heading terms: UC, ulcerative colitis, inflammation, genes, polymorphisms, and susceptibility.

  8. National and International Migration:Reflections on Literature and Some Current Research1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicholas Tapp(Wang Fuwen)

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a review on literature and some current research relevant to na-tional and international migration , and examines the connections between such research in a na-tional context , and the research on international migration .The approaches to migration in migra-tion studies are very complex , and the author suggested that we need to pay attention to all three approaches contrasted by Solinger:the one based on rational calculation , the one based on stress-ing the historico-structural conditions and the one based on social networking analysis .The au-thor also stresses the importance of a network approach taken from the sociology of John Urry in the studies of both national and international migration , and the need to see movement as prima-ry, and productive of place , as much recent anthropological literature has stressed .

  9. [Quality of life in dementia, opinions among people with dementia, their professional caregivers, and in literature].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsena, D.L.; Droes, R.M.; Ettema, T.P.; Boelens, E.; Bos, J.; Meihuizen, L.; Lange, J.; Schölzel-Dorenbos, C.J.M.; Hoogeveen, F.

    2010-01-01

    Different definitions of quality of life (QOL) are found in the literature. This raised the question which domains are viewed as really important by persons with dementia. In an explorative study the opinions of persons with dementia (community-dwelling and living in nursing homes), were compared to

  10. Continuing professional development and Irish hospital doctors: a survey of current use and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Bridget; Faruqui, Adnan; Horgan, Mary; Bergin, Colm; Tuathaigh, Colm O; Bennett, Deirdre

    2017-07-01

    Doctors rate clinical relevance and applicability as the most important determinants of continuing professional development (CPD) course selection. This study examined patterns of current CPD practice and perceived CPD needs among hospital doctors in Ireland across various clinical specialties. A cross-sectional survey was administered to doctors, focusing on the areas of training needs analysis, CPD course content and preferred course format. In total, 547 doctors identified doctor-patient communication as the skill ranked highest for importance and level of current performance. Workload/time organisation and stress management were areas where a skills deficiency was identified. Non-clinical CPD topics, including resilience training, management and communication skills, were preferred areas for future CPD offerings. All respondents favoured interactive, hands-on sessions. CPD course completion and preference patterns differed significantly across clinical specialties. These results highlight the importance of considering the individual needs and preferences of clinicians across clinical specialties to facilitate more effective CPD programmes. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  11. Osteoporosis - "a silent killer". A review of the current literature from clinician and physiotherapist perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Kocjan Janusz. Osteoporosis - "a silent killer". A review of the current literature from clinician and physiotherapist perspective. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(7):63-70. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.19173 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%287%29%3A63-70 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/576516 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.19173 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. Archives 2011 – 201...

  12. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouttebarge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour among current and retired professional footballers. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries across three continents. Results A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P < 0.05, as well as between number of working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P < 0.05. No other statistically significant associations were found among retired players. Among current professional footballers, level of education was not associated with symptoms of common mental disorders. Conclusions Among retired professional footballers, employment status as well as a higher number of working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority.

  13. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour) among current and retired professional footballers. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries across three continents. Results A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years) and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years) were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P < 0.05), as well as between number of working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P < 0.05). No other statistically significant associations were found among retired players. Among current professional footballers, level of education was not associated with symptoms of common mental disorders. Conclusions Among retired professional footballers, employment status as well as a higher number of working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority. PMID:27625749

  14. Exploring Current and Future Roles of Non-Dental Professionals: Implications for Dental Hygiene Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Hannah L; Farrell, Christine; Gwozdek, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The health care system is undergoing transformation in which oral health is not only valued as an aspect of overall health, but health care delivery systems are aligning to better deliver total patient care. As a result of this transformation, education for many non-dental professionals incorporates oral health content to prepare them to practice in comprehensive delivery models. While some non-dental professionals already incorporate oral health care in their service, many opportunities exist for expansion of oral health care delivery by other non-dental professionals, including radiologic technicians, nursing staff, and human services professionals. As non-dental professionals take on expanded roles in oral health care, the dental hygiene workforce must be prepared to practice in settings with new types of professionals. Dental hygiene curricula should prioritize interprofessional education to best prepare these students for practice in evolved delivery models. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  15. Drug-nutrient interactions in the intensive care unit: literature review and current recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldt, Tatiane; Loss, Sergio Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the interactions between drugs and nutrients and their frequency in the intensive care unit and to assess the professional team's awareness regarding this subject. Methods The keywords "drug interactions" and "nutrition therapy" were searched in the PubMed (specifically MeSH) electronic database. The studies were systematically reviewed for descriptions of the types of interactions between drugs and nutrients, including their frequency and consequences. Results Sixty-seven articles were found. Among these, 20 articles were appropriate for the methodology adopted and accomplished the objectives of the study. Of these 20 articles, 14 articles described interactions between drugs and enteral nutrition, three described interactions between drugs and parenteral nutrition, and three described the importance and care required to avoid such interactions. Conclusions The literature about drug and nutrient interactions is limited and suggests the inability of health care teams to recognize the potential for these interactions. Possibly, the elaboration of a protocol to evaluate drug-nutrient interactions will increase the safety and efficacy of therapeutics. PMID:23917982

  16. Chondral Rib Fractures in Professional American Football: Two Cases and Current Practice Patterns Among NFL Team Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Timothy R; Deimel, Jay F; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S; Beaulieu, Christopher F

    2016-02-01

    Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians' experiences. Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of competition as well. Our series combined with NFL team physician survey results can aid team

  17. Ictal epileptic headache: a review of current literature and differentiation from migralepsy and other epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitowitz, Zacharry; Flamini, Robert; Berenson, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Ictal headaches are increasingly becoming the focus of research as more data demonstrate headaches existing as a sole manifestation of an epileptic event. Due to the difficulty in diagnosing the event as an epileptic phenomenon as opposed to a migraine, the condition is often misdiagnosed. This paper seeks to review the current published literature on ictal epileptic headaches as well as provide differentiation between ictal headaches and similarly presenting conditions. In doing so, we hope to improve the diagnosis of ictal headaches and thus improve patient care. We review two case studies that exemplify the potential of multiple conditions with comparable symptoms to ictal headaches, and discuss how to differentiate the variable diagnoses. As of the writing of this paper, there is no universally agreed upon set of features of ictal headaches; however, reviewing the current literature, there do seem to be several features that should be noted when treating patients. More research on the pathophysiology of ictal epileptic headaches needs to be done before the condition can be fully understood.

  18. Volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy in lung cancer: Current literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy (VMAT is a novel radiation technique that delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target by allowing the simultaneous variation of gantry rotation speed, dose rate and multiple-leaf collimators leaf positions. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on two VMAT systems, RapidArc and SmartArc with main focus on planning studies of lung cancer. A systematic review of available data was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed with the keywords ′′lung′′ and "VMAT". The published data show that VMAT techniques have clear superiority over three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with regard to improving dose conformity and sparing of organs at risks (OARs. The data indicates that for lung tumor VMAT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT provide equivalent dose homogeneity, dose conformity and target volume coverage; however, contradictory results were obtained in terms of OARs sparing. The major advantages of VMAT over IMRT are the reduction in the number of monitor units and faster treatment delivery times without compromising the quality of the treatment plans. Moreover, faster delivery time is more patient-friendly and it minimizes intra-fractional patient motion allowing treatment volumes stay within their respective treatment margins. Current literature data shows that VMAT can be a good option to treat lung cancer; however, data on clinical trials are still lacking. The clinical trials are essential to confirm the safety and efficacy of VMAT techniques.

  19. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. Materials and Methods: We searched the published English literature and the PubMed (TM for published series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′ (RPN using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Results: The search yielded 15 major selected series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s, as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. Conclusions: RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T 1 renal neoplasm(s. It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.

  20. Parenthood, information and support on the internet. A literature review of research on parents and professionals online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneback Kristian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this article was to address questions on how parents use the internet to find information and support regarding children, health and family life. Another aim was to find out how professionals use the internet to provide support and information to parents. This was done by a literature review. Methods Articles were searched for in five databases with a search strategy called "building block" approach. Results The review showed that the majority of today's parents search for both information and social support on the internet. However, there are considerable differences due to gender, age and socio-economic differences. First time middle class mothers aged 30–35 are most active in looking up health and parent information on the internet. In the same time, several studies report diminishing class differences on parent web sites. An important reason to the increasing number of parents who turn to the internet for information and interaction has shown to be the weakened support many of today's parents experience from their own parents, relatives and friends. Professionals have recognized the parents' great interest for going online and offer both information and support on the net. Conclusion Many benefits are reported, for example the possibility to reach out to a wider audience and to increase access to organisations without an increase in costs. Other benefits include the possibility for parents to remain anonymous in their contacts with professionals and that parents' perceived need for information can be effectively met around the clock. Interventions for wider groups of parents, such as parent training on the net, are still very rare and more research is needed to evaluate different types of interventions on the net. However, most studies were empirical and lacked theoretical frameworks which leave questions on how we can more fully understand this phenomenon unanswered.

  1. Professional Development Portfolio: Perceptions of Nutrition and Dietetics Current Students and Recent Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouchilas, Gus; George, Gretchen

    2016-01-01

    The Professional Development Portfolio (PDP) in family and consumer sciences nutrition and dietetics programs is a tool that can help students in their transition to professionals. Significant issues in the portfolio development process are: content selection, decision to create paper or online formatting, determination of proper timing to begin…

  2. Preparation and Professional Development of Teacher Educators in Tanzania: Current Practices and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namamba, Adam; Rao, Congman

    2017-01-01

    Teacher educators play a key role in teacher education and education in general. Worldwide, little is known about preparation and professional development of teacher educators. This paper critically examined teacher educators' preparation and professional development in the context of educational reforms and mushrooming of teacher education…

  3. 论图书文献情报工作的职业道德%The Professional Ethics in Library ’s Literature Information Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔泳

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:This paper expounds the meanings of the ethics including the socialist ethics, professional ethics, teacher’s ethics, and literature information work’s ethics, and analyzes the connotations of the code of professional ethics of library’s literature information work, and discusses the significance of strengthening the construction of the professional ethics in library’s literature information work.%阐述了道德(包括社会主义道德、职业道德、教师道德以及文献情报工作的职业道德)的含义,分析了图书文献情报工作职业道德规范的内涵,讨论了加强图书馆职业道德建设的意义。

  4. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  5. Prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding due to stress ulceration: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, K B; Wagstaff, M J D; Greenwood, J E

    2012-03-01

    Our objective was to audit our current stress ulcer prophylaxis protocol (routine prescription of ranitidine and early enteral feeding) by identifying whether routine prescription of histamine-2 receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors as prophylaxis against stress-related mucosal disease and subsequent upper gastrointestinal bleeding is supported in the literature. We also aimed to ascertain what literature evidence supports the role of early enteral feeding as an adjunctive prophylactic therapy, as well as to search for burn-patient specific evidence, since burn patients are at high risk for developing this condition, with the aim of changing our practice. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles, yielding seven randomised controlled trials comparing histamine-2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors in the prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with stress-related mucosal disease and three separate meta-analyses. Despite level 1 clinical evidence, no significant difference in efficacy between histamine-2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitor treatment groups was demonstrated. No significant difference was demonstrated in the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia between the two drugs given in this indication. However, enteral feeding was found to be safe and effective in preventing clinically significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients able to tolerate feeds demonstrated no additional benefit with concomitant pharmacological prophylactic therapy. Since all burn patients at the Royal Adelaide Hospital are fed from very early in their admission, the literature suggests that we, like our intensive care unit colleagues, should abolish our reliance on pharmacological prophylaxis, the routine prescription of which is not supported by the evidence.

  6. The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal marijuana has already been legalized in over 23 states with more considering legalization. Despite the trend toward legalization, to date, there has been no systematic review of the existing literature for the efficacy of medicinal marijuana for many of the conditions for which it is proposed to treat. This study seeks to understand the current literature regarding the use of medicinal marijuana in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched until April 2014 for articles outlining outcomes of case files, control studies, and observational studies regarding the efficacy of medicinal marijuana in treating PTSD. Various combinations of the following search terms were used: marijuana, medicinal marijuana, cannabis, cannabinoid, PTSD, efficacy, trial, and neurobiology. Full text of each article was reviewed, and those directly addressing the question of efficacy of medicinal marijuana on PTSD symptomatology were included. Data were extracted from a total of 46 articles. Analysis revealed that most reports are correlational and observational in basis with a notable lack of randomized, controlled studies. Many of the published studies suggest a decrease in PTSD symptoms with marijuana use. Though the directionality of cannabis use and PTSD could not be fully differentiated at this time, there appears to also be a correlation between PTSD and problematic cannabis use. Despite this finding, there is a growing amount of neurobiological evidence and animal studies suggesting potential neurologically based reasons for the reported efficacy. Posttraumatic stress disorder is 1 of the approved conditions for medicinal marijuana in some states. While the literature to date is suggestive of a potential decrease in PTSD symptomatology with the use of medicinal marijuana, there is a notable lack of large-scale trials, making any final conclusions difficult to confirm at this time.

  7. When experts educate, what do their metaphors say? Complex metaphor structure in the professional conflict resolution literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Smith

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This metaphoric analysis of a quarter-million word corpus of an expert literature (conflict resolution and professional mediation suggests certain implicit assumptions of the experts and gives us an alternate view of the structure of their thinking. Seven highly conventional metaphors are repeatedly used to frame descriptions and explanations, making a complex subject matter more accessible to learners. They have been reported widely in other literatures and genres and are not particular to the field of expertise covered. These metaphors were found in some instances to oversimplify and mislead, mitigated to a degree when combinations of metaphors reconstituted some of the necessary complexity. The seven principal metaphor source domains found are containers, objects, terrain, seeing/viewing, moving, journeying, and structuring. Evidence of frequent and diverse mappings argues that these are conceptual metaphors, revealing possible thinking patterns. The combining and alternating of metaphors in mutually complementary ways shows an interdependence among the seven metaphors. These naturally occurring conceptual groupings clarify and elaborate meaning in the texts in a way comparable to inheritance hierarchies. The discussion of the results focuses on ways these metaphors both help and hinder understanding of the field in question.

  8. The influence of motivation in recruitment and retention of rural and remote allied health professionals: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N; McAllister, L; Eley, D

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals (AHPs) to remote and rural Australia is challenging and correlates with poorer health status of remote and rural residents. While much has been written about the recruitment and retention problem, this study took a new approach by reviewing the literature describing the motivation of AHPs to work in remote and rural areas and then analyzing the findings from the perspective of motivation theory using Herzberg's extrinsic and intrinsic classification. Intrinsic motivation incentives are known to contribute to job satisfaction and come from within the individual, for example the pleasure derived from autonomy or challenge at work. In contrast, extrinsic motivation incentives are provided by the job and include such factors as salary and professional development provisions. Extrinsic incentives are important because they prevent job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction has been shown to be linked with increased retention. Thirty-five articles, including 26 from Australia, met the inclusion criteria. The key findings related to motivation from each article are outlined and the results classified into the extrinsic-intrinsic framework. The incentives are then further analyzed as having a positive or a negative influence. In total, 38 different incentives were described a total of 246 times. Of the total, almost half (n=115) comprised extrinsic incentives with a negative influence, with poor access to professional development, professional isolation and insufficient supervision the most frequently reported. Rural lifestyle and diverse caseloads were the most frequently mentioned positive extrinsic incentives, while autonomy and community connectedness were the most cited positive intrinsic incentives. Negative intrinsic incentives were mentioned least frequently (n=18); however, of these, feeling overwhelmed and that your work was not valued by the community were the most commonly reported. The results demonstrate the

  9. The Impact of Sarcopenia on Survival and Complications in Surgical Oncology: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOGLEKAR, SAVITA; NAU, PETER N.; MEZHIR, JAMES J.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the subclinical loss of skeletal muscle and strength and has been extensively studied in both the cancer and surgical literature. Specifically, sarcopenia has gained significant recognition as an important prognostic factor for both complications and survival in cancer patients. Herein, we review the current literature to date highlighting the specific impact of sarcopenia in patients undergoing oncologic procedures. PMID:26310812

  10. The impact of sarcopenia on survival and complications in surgical oncology: A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Savita; Nau, Peter N; Mezhir, James J

    2015-10-01

    Sarcopenia is the subclinical loss of skeletal muscle and strength and has been extensively studied in both the cancer and surgical literature. Specifically, sarcopenia has gained significant recognition as an important prognostic factor for both complications and survival in cancer patients. Herein, we review the current literature to date highlighting the specific impact of sarcopenia in patients undergoing oncologic procedures.

  11. Current Debates on Variability in Child Welfare Decision-Making: A Selected Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Keddell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers selected drivers of decision variability in child welfare decision-making and explores current debates in relation to these drivers. Covering the related influences of national orientation, risk and responsibility, inequality and poverty, evidence-based practice, constructions of abuse and its causes, domestic violence and cognitive processes, it discusses the literature in regards to how each of these influences decision variability. It situates these debates in relation to the ethical issue of variability and the equity issues that variability raises. I propose that despite the ecological complexity that drives decision variability, that improving internal (within-country decision consistency is still a valid goal. It may be that the use of annotated case examples, kind learning systems, and continued commitments to the social justice issues of inequality and individualisation can contribute to this goal.

  12. Treatment of pediculosis capitis: a critical appraisal of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, Hermann

    2014-10-01

    Pediculosis capitis is the most common ectoparasitic disease in children in industrialized countries and extremely common in resource-poor communities of the developing world. The extensive use of pediculicides with a neurotoxic mode of action has led to the development and spread of resistant head lice populations all over the world. This triggered the development of compounds with other modes of action. The current literature on treatment approaches of head lice infestation was searched, and published randomized controlled trials were critically analyzed. The following compounds/family of compounds were identified: spinosad, a novel compound with a new neurotoxic mode of action, isopropyl myristate, 1,2-octanediol, ivermectin, plant-based products, and dimeticones. The efficacy and safety of these compounds are reviewed and recommendations for the treatment of pediculosis capitis in individuals as well as the interruption of ongoing epidemics are provided.

  13. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis: Current criteria for diagnosis and differentiation (Clinical case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Mendelevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a 44-year-old male patient with an about 6-year history of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. The major clinical symptoms were characterized by headache, exophthalmos, and blindness in one eye. The data for differential diagnosis of the disease are given. The current literature on the clinical manifestations of hypertrophic pachymeningitis, its differential diagnosis, and the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is reviewed. Diagnostic difficulties at the stage of a clinical observation are due to the nonspecificity of neurological manifestations and the need for a comprehensive examination to detect a somatic disease. MRI can diagnose the disease-specific phenomenon of damage to the meninges, which calls for further careful differentiation. Clinicians must be familiar with alternative differential diagnosis, as a rapid specific therapeutic approach will help avoid long-term or irreversible neurological complications.

  14. Teachers' professional development needs and current practices at the Alexander Science Center School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargus, Gerald Vincent

    This investigation represents an in-depth understanding of teacher professional development at the Alexander Science Center School, a dependent charter museum school established through a partnership between the California Science Center and Los Angeles Unified School District. Three methods of data collection were used. A survey was distributed and collected from the school's teachers, resulting in a prioritized list of teacher professional development needs, as well as a summary of teachers' opinions about the school's existing professional development program. In addition, six key stakeholders in the school's professional development program were interviewed for the study. Finally, documents related to the school's professional development program were analyzed. Data collected from the interviews and documents were used to develop an understand various components of the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program. Teachers identified seven areas that had a high-priority for future professional development including developing skills far working with below-grade-level students, improving the analytical skills of student in mathematics, working with English Language Learners, improving students' overall reading ability levels, developing teachers' content-area knowledge for science, integrating science across the curriculum, and incorporating hands-on activity-based learning strategies to teach science. Professional development needs identified by Alexander Science Center School teachers were categorized based on their focus on content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, or curricular knowledge. Analysis of data collected through interviews and documents revealed that the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program consisted of six venues for providing professional development for teachers including weekly "banked time" sessions taking place within the standard school day, grade-level meetings, teacher support

  15. An Investigation of the Variety and Complexity of Statistical Methods Used in Current Internal Medicine Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Roshni; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines require internal medicine residents to develop skills in the interpretation of medical literature and to understand the principles of research. A necessary component is the ability to understand the statistical methods used and their results, material that is not an in-depth focus of most medical school curricula and residency programs. Given the breadth and depth of the current medical literature and an increasing emphasis on complex, sophisticated statistical analyses, the statistical foundation and education necessary for residents are uncertain. We reviewed the statistical methods and terms used in 49 articles discussed at the journal club in the Department of Internal Medicine residency program at Texas Tech University between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013. We collected information on the study type and on the statistical methods used for summarizing and comparing samples, determining the relations between independent variables and dependent variables, and estimating models. We then identified the typical statistics education level at which each term or method is learned. A total of 14 articles came from the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 11 from the New England Journal of Medicine, 6 from the Annals of Internal Medicine, 5 from the Journal of the American Medical Association, and 13 from other journals. Twenty reported randomized controlled trials. Summary statistics included mean values (39 articles), category counts (38), and medians (28). Group comparisons were based on t tests (14 articles), χ2 tests (21), and nonparametric ranking tests (10). The relations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed with simple regression (6 articles), multivariate regression (11), and logistic regression (8). Nine studies reported odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, and seven analyzed test performance using sensitivity and specificity calculations

  16. Intercultural Communicative Competence: A Brief Review of Current Thinking and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kermani Kojour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to review current thinking and understanding of the issue of Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC especially in foreign language education contexts. There are serious stances on the part of scholars in foreign language contexts, which must be given some serious thinking and consideration in order to uncover the hidden agendas regarding ICC. After all, it seems still unclear in English as a Foreign Language (EFL contexts whether to try to improve the way of thinking regarding the perspective of current intercultural communicative competence, whether there should be a separation of the cultural values from the target language and only integrate language learners’ native culture with the target language. Given the development of technology and globalization, what is the right thing to do? This is a serious issue which needs much attention and contemplation by the interested scholars. By presenting the existing gaps in the literature, the paper maneuvers on the challenging notes on benefiting from culture in English Language Teaching (ELT and, on the other hand, dividing language and culture by merely elaborating on the communicative aspect of language learning and teaching. The study puts the audience into question that although recent views are focusing on taking English as an international means of communication, there exist serious beliefs regarding the separation of language and culture, which demands more thinking and probably serious revisions.

  17. Assessing the contribution of prescribing in primary care by nurses and professionals allied to medicine: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanbhro Sadiq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and timely access to effective and appropriate medication through primary care settings is a major concern for all countries addressing both acute and chronic disease burdens. Legislation for nurses and other professionals allied to medicine to prescribe exists in a minority of countries, with more considering introducing legislation. Although there is variation in the range of medicines permitted to be prescribed, questions remain as to the contribution prescribing by nurses and professionals allied to medicine makes to the care of patients in primary care and what is the evidence on which clinicians, commissioners of services and policy makers can consider this innovation. Methods A integrative review of literature on non-medical prescribing in primary care was undertaken guided by dimensions of health care quality: effectiveness, acceptability, efficiency and access. Results 19 papers of 17 empirical studies were identified which provided evidence of patient outcome of non medical prescribing in primary care settings. The majority were undertaken in the UK with only one each from the USA, Canada, Botswana and Zimbabwe. Only two studies investigated clinical outcomes of non-medical prescribing. Seven papers reported on qualitative designs and four of these had fewer than ten participants. Most studies reported that non medical prescribing was widely accepted and viewed positively by patients and professionals. Conclusions Primary health care is the setting where timely access to safe and appropriate medicines is most critical for the well-being of any population. The gradual growth over time of legislative authority and in the numbers of non-medical prescribers, particularly nurses, in some countries suggests that the acceptability of non-medical prescribing is based on the perceived value to the health care system as a whole. Our review suggests that there are substantial gaps in the knowledge base to help evidence

  18. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd; Layton, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    The number of publications about myofascial pain and trigger points (TrP) seems to increase every year. In the current overview we include 27 articles published in past months. The Basic Review section includes articles about the presence and characteristics of TrPs in various neck and shoulder muscles, the correlation between referred pain from active TrPs and knee osteoarthritis, and an anatomical study exploring whether the location of TrPs may be related to the nerve innervation of muscles. Zuil-Escobar and colleagues from Spain considered the intra-rater reliability of the identification of latent TrPs in several leg muscles and the possible correlation of TrP and the presence of a lower medial longitudinal arch. In the section on manual approaches, contributing author Rob Grieve and colleagues continue their studies of TrPs in the lower extremity muscles, while Méndez-Rebolledo and colleagues studied the impact of cross taping and compression. Dry needling (DN) continues to be a topic of interest. We included twelve papers addressing a wide range of topics, such as the effectiveness and safety of DN, and the impact of DN on proprioception, spasticity, and fibromyalgia. Two papers investigated the utilization of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and laser on TrPs, The final section on other clinical studies and reviews includes 8 papers. The studies originated in thirteen different countries with Spain leading the charts with 7 contributions to the literature, followed by Brazil with four. As we have mentioned in previous editions of this literature overview, many studies suffer from very small sample sizes, which makes it difficult to reach definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, myofascial pain continues to be a topic of interest to researchers and clinicians around the globe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strengthening the nurses' and healthcare professionals' capacity to deliver culturally competent and compassionate care - An integrative literature review from the IENE4 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Agnete

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to better prepare nursing and other caring professionals for compassionate and culturally competent care. The IENE4 project aims to adress this need. The authors conducted an review of literature pertaining to three aspects, i.e. universal components of compassion; measuring...... compassion; and learning culturally competent compassion....

  20. Staying Current in a Changing Profession: Evaluating Perceived Change Resulting from Continuing Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles A.; Cohen-Callow, Amy; Dia, David A.; Bliss, Donna Leigh; Gantt, Ann; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.; Harrington, Donna

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 230 licensed social workers participated in a cross-sectional survey to examine participants' self-perceived change in knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) following formal and informal continuing professional education (CPE). Self-perceived change scores were significantly higher for informal than formal CPE. Higher motivational…

  1. Current role of rufinamide in the treatment of childhood epilepsy: literature review and treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Besag, Frank; Cusmai, Raffaella; Dulac, Olivier; Kluger, Gerhard; Moavero, Romina; Nabbout, Rima; Nikanorova, Marina; Pisani, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; von Stülpnagel, Celina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    The literature on the efficacy and safety of rufinamide in childhood-onset epilepsy syndromes currently includes approximately 600 paediatric patients. This paper summarizes the views of a panel of experienced European epileptologists with regard to the current role of rufinamide in the treatment of childhood epilepsies. Rufinamide is effective in decreasing the seizure frequency in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), especially tonic and atonic seizures. It might consequently be preferred to other drugs as a second-line treatment for LGS when drop-attacks are frequent. The mean responder rate in the published studies is 38% with seizure freedom achieved in 2.4% of patients. Rufinamide has shown some efficacy in epileptic encephalopathies other than LGS. It can be also effective as adjunctive therapy in children and adolescents with drug-resistant partial seizures. The available data suggest that rufinamide has an acceptable risk/benefit ratio with quite a low risk of aggravating seizures. Common adverse effects (somnolence, nausea and vomiting) are usually mild and self-limiting; they are more frequently observed during titration than in the maintenance phase, suggesting that low escalation rates might be associated with fewer adverse effects. Rufinamide appears to have a favourable cognitive profile compared with other antiepileptic drugs. Rufinamide is only approved for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with LGS in children 4 years of age and older. There are very few data on rufinamide treatment at the onset of LGS or early in the course of the disorder; whether early treatment will improve outcome has yet to be determined. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perception of community pharmacists toward their current professional role in the healthcare system of Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Rayes, Ibrahim Khalid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abduelmula R Abduelkarem

    2014-01-01

    The new paradigm to pharmacy profession has changed the focus of pharmacists from product-centered to patient-oriented. This change has brought new set of beliefs and assumptions on the way services should be delivered to pharmacy clients. The main aim of this study was to explore the perception of community pharmacists on their current professional role in Dubai. Key findings show that community pharmacists are more directed toward business than patients. They almost dispense all categories ...

  3. Efficacy, safety, acceptability and affordability of cryotherapy: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, E C; Blumenthal, P D

    2012-04-01

    As a result of widespread screening and treatment programs, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased by as much as 75% in the developed world. Commonly used treatment modalities for precancerous lesions include cone biopsy, the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP), laser ablation and cryotherapy. In recent years LEEP has replaced cryotherapy as a commonly provided outpatient procedure in many places; however increased awareness of the burden of cervical cancer in the developing world and increased awareness of long term consequences of LEEP ‑ such as cervical insufficiency ‑ have renewed interest in cryotherapy. We reviewed current literature addressing the technique, efficacy, safety and acceptability of cryotherapy, as well as special topics such as cost effectiveness, HIV, and low resource settings. Among studies we reviewed, cure rates ranged from 56.8-96.6% among prospective controlled trials and from 70-95.5% among observational studies. Cryotherapy has very low complication rates and serious complications requiring medical intervention or affecting future reproductive outcomes are extremely rare. Side effects including vaginal discharge and cramping are temporary, generally self-limited, and well tolerated after anticipatory patient counseling. When surveyed, women find cryotherapy highly acceptable. Compared to other treatment modalities, cryotherapy is very affordable and feasible to integrate into cervical cancer screening and treatment programs.

  4. Enhanced depth imaging-OCT of the choroid: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviers, H; Zambarakji, H

    2014-12-01

    With the advent of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), detailed visualisation of the choroid in vivo is now possible. Measurements of choroidal thickness (CT) have also enabled new directions in research to study normal and pathological processes within the choroid. The aim of the present study is to review the current literature on choroidal imaging using EDI-OCT. Studies were identified by a systematic search using Medline ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed ). Papers were also identified based on the reference lists of relevant publications. Papers were included in the review if the focus of the study involved imaging of the choroid using EDI-OCT. Recent studies have demonstrated successful imaging of the choroid and high reproducibility of measurements of CT using EDI-OCT. There are much data confirming that abnormalities in choroidal structure and function contribute to major ocular diseases and patterns of CT variation may be observed in certain disease states and may be influenced by treatment. However, it is not clear whether these variations are a contributing factor or a consequence of the disease. While more invasive methods such as indocyanine green (ICG) angiography remain the gold standard for detecting abnormalities of the choroidal vasculature in normal eyes and disease states, EDI-OCT has become an important adjunctive clinical tool in providing three-dimensional anatomical information of the choroid.

  5. [Amalgam--a question of belief? A review and assessment of the current literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, H; Metzler, C

    1998-01-01

    Several hundred written sources have been researched regarding old and new findings. Forgotten and new facts are covered in four chapters. One of the authors is a retired industrial chemist, and the other a dental surgeon. In the first section the natural and synthetic sources of mercury are explained. In every scientific study the ubiquity of mercury for billions of years must be taken into consideration. The second chapter looks at the toxicology of mercury and its compounds. Well known catastrophies in Japan and Iraq are depicted. Individual intoxications are hardly mentioned in literature. The third chapter is devoted to the dental amalgam, a silver alloy with both physical-chemical properties, and corrosive and thermal behaviour. An attempt is made to define the mercury balance. The forth paragraph deals with the disposal and recycling of mercury. Many dental associations are currently discussing the possibility of recycling amalgam, which is rather a stable silver alloy than a volatile mercury compound. A controlled landfill disposal of dental amalgam will absorb a certain quantity of mercury during its life cycle, and is positive. Recycling is expensive, energy consuming and causes additional exposure. Unless silver and mercury become rare metals, recycling should not be considered. As yet no worldwide regulatory procedures exist.

  6. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in fibrous dysplasia: A case report and review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole MD Riddle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicole MD Riddle1, Hideko Yamauchi2, Jamie T Caracciolo4, David Johnson2, G Douglas Letson2, Ardeshir Hakam1,3, Prudence V Smith1,2,3, Marilyn M Bui1,2,31Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Department of Sarcoma, 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, 4Department of Radiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USABackground: Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone disease that has rare but clear potential for malignant transformation. The frequency is increased in polyostotic forms, McCune–Albright syndrome, Mazabraud’s syndrome, and previously irradiated sites. Rapidly progressing pain unrelated to trauma is the most concerning symptom. The early radiological features of sarcomatous transformation are moth-eaten or cystic areas of osteolysis, cortical destruction, and gradual formation of a soft tissue mass. The prognosis is unfavorable as most of the cases are in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis.Methods: This case was diagnosed at a large cancer center in Florida. Pertinent clinical findings were obtained from chart review and inter-departmental consultation.Results: Histopathological examination revealed dysplastic lamellar bone with no osteoblastic rimming and “Chinese letter” shapes, areas composed of lobulated hyaline cartilage with mild to severe nuclear atypia, and areas of poorly differentiated cells with a spindled appearance, consistent with chondrosarcoma arising within fibrous dysplasia.Conclusions: Sarcomatous transformation of fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon occurrence, yet has significant importance for those with the disease. There may be difficulty with diagnosis given the symptoms and radiologic findings of benign fibrous dysplasia. We report a case of chondrosarcoma rising in fibrous dysplasia and review the current literature. This case is of interest due to the fact that the diagnosis of monostotic fibrous dysplasia was first made at the age of 59 and

  7. Conflicts Between Parents and Health Professionals About a Child's Medical Treatment: Using Clinical Ethics Records to Find Gaps in the Bioethics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind; Notini, Lauren; Phillips, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child's medical treatment. We identified, analysed, and compared cases of this type from the clinical ethics records with cases of this type discussed in bioethics journals. While the cases from journals tended to describe situations involving imminent risk to the child's life, a significant proportion of the clinical ethics records cases involved different stakes for the child involved. These included distress, poorer functional outcome, poorer psychosocial outcome, or increased risk of surgical complications. Our analysis suggests that one type of case that warrants more detailed ethics research is parental refusal of recommended treatment, where the refusal does not endanger the child's life but rather some other aspect of the child's well-being.

  8. Diversity Management Interventions and Organizational Performance: A Synthesis of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ellen Foster; Dreachslin, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature focused on diversity management and its implications for career experiences and perceptions, team dynamics, customer service, and other dimensions of organizational performance, a significant gap remains. To address the gap, this article reviews the managing diversity literature published between January 2000…

  9. Social Work Literature Searching: Current Issues with Databases and Online Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; McQuilkan, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the performance of a range of search facilities; and to illustrate the execution of a comprehensive literature search for qualitative evidence in social work. Context: Developments in literature search methods and comparisons of search facilities help facilitate access to the best available evidence for social workers.…

  10. Direct-to-consumer genomic testing from the perspective of the health professional: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Lesley; Jackson, Leigh; O'Connor, Anita; Skirton, Heather

    2013-04-01

    Since the 1990s, there has been a rapid expansion in the number and type of genetic tests available via health professionals; the last 10 years, however, have seen certain types of genetic and genomic tests available direct-to-consumer. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the topic of direct-to-consumer genetic testing from the health professional perspective. Search terms used to identify studies were 'direct-to-consumer', personal genom*, health* professional*, physician* 'genomic, genetic' in five bibliographic databases, together with citation searching. Eight quantitative papers were reviewed. Findings indicate a low level of awareness and experience of direct-to-consumer testing in health professionals. Inconsistent levels of knowledge and understanding were also found with two studies showing significant effects for gender and age. Concerns about clinical utility and lack of counselling were identified. Health professionals specialising in genetics were most likely to express concerns. There was also evidence of perceived increased workload for health professionals post-testing. However, some health professionals rated such tests clinically useful and cited benefits such as the increased opportunity for early screening. Despite limited awareness, knowledge and experience of actual cases, we concluded that the concerns and potential benefits expressed may be warranted. It may be useful to explore the attitudes and experiences of health professionals in more depth using a qualitative approach. Finally, it is essential that health professionals receive sufficient education and guidelines to equip them to help patients presenting with the results of these tests.

  11. Radiology Physician Extenders: A Literature Review of the History and Current Roles of Physician Extenders in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Vicki L; Flanagan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the literature review was to assess the origins of radiology physician extenders and examine the current roles found in the literature of advanced practice physician extenders within medical imaging. Twenty-six articles relating to physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), radiologist assistants (RAs), and nuclear medicine advanced associates (NMAAs) were reviewed to discern similarities and differences in history, scope of practice, and roles in the medical imaging field. The literature showed PAs and NPs are working mostly in interventional radiology. PAs, NPs, and RAs perform similar tasks in radiology, including history and physicals, evaluation and management, preprocedure work-up, obtaining informed consent, initial observations/reports, and post-procedure follow-up. NPs and PAs perform a variety of procedures but most commonly vascular access, paracentesis, and thoracentesis. RAs perform gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nonvascular invasive fluoroscopy procedures, and vascular access procedures. The review revealed NMAAs are working in an advanced role, but no specific performances of procedures was found in the literature, only suggested tasks and clinical competencies. PAs, NPs, and RAs are currently the three main midlevel providers used in medical imaging. These midlevel providers are being used in a variety of ways to increase the efficiency of the radiologist and provide diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures to patients. NMAAs are being used in medical imaging but little literature is available on current roles in clinical practice. More research is needed to assess the exact procedures and duties being performed by these medical imaging physician extenders.

  12. Current Understanding of Non-Diabetic Ketoacidosis Development in Children. Part 2 (Analytic Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Pypa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analytic review of the literature regarding the terminology, clinical manifestations, modern principles of treatment of non-diabetic ketoacidosis in children was conducted in the article.

  13. Current Understanding of Non-Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children. Part 1 (Analytic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Pypa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analytic review of the literature regarding the mechanisms of non-diabetic ketoacidosis in children, particularly on the background of acute intestinal infections, has been carried out in the article.

  14. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Finnegan, Michelle; Hooks, Todd

    2016-07-01

    The overview of the myofascial pain literature includes a wide variety of basic and clinical studies, ranging from assessing muscle activation patterns to the impact of platelet-rich plasma injections. Contributions to the literature once again came from all corners of the world, such as Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, Greece, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, and the USA. A total of 30 papers are included in this overview.

  15. Views of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers and Their Managers Related to Professional and Organizational Socialization Processes of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet; Arslan, M. Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Turkish effectively and successfully is one of the main functions of all the teaching phases of Turkish education system. In secondary education, this duty mostly depends on Turkish Language and Literature teachers. The aim of the research named "Socialization of Turkish Language and Literature teachers" is to evaluate the…

  16. Types and severity of medication errors in Iran; a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Ava; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Kargar, Mona; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2013-06-20

    Medication error (ME) is the most common single preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. ME prevalence is a valuable safety indicator in healthcare system. Inadequate studies on ME, shortage of high-quality studies and wide variations in estimations from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. In order to clarify the status of MEs, we aimed to review current available literature on this subject from Iran. We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and also Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID) up to October 2012 to find studies on adults and children about prescription, transcription, dispensing, and administration errors. Two authors independently selected and one of them reviewed and extracted data for types, definitions and severity of MEs. The results were classified based on different stages of drug delivery process. Eighteen articles (11 Persian and 7 English) were included in our review. All study designs were cross-sectional and conducted in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most frequent populations under observation (12 studies; 66.7%). Most of studies did not report the overall frequency of MEs aside from ME types. Most of studies (15; 83.3%) reported prevalence of administration errors between 14.3%-70.0%. Prescribing error prevalence ranged from 29.8%-47.8%. The prevalence of dispensing and transcribing errors were from 11.3%-33.6% and 10.0%-51.8% respectively. We did not find any follow up or repeated studies. Only three studies reported findings on severity of MEs. The most reported types of and the highest percentages for any type of ME in Iran were administration errors. Studying ME in Iran is a new area considering the duration and number of publications. Wide ranges of estimations for MEs in different stages may be because of the poor quality of studies with diversity in definitions, methods, and populations. For gaining

  17. Types and Severity of Medication Errors in Iran; a Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Mansouri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is the most common single preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. ME prevalence is a valuable safety indicator in healthcare system. Inadequate studies on ME, shortage of high-quality studies and wide variations in estimations from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. In order to clarify the status of MEs, we aimed to review current available literature on this subject from Iran. We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and also Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID up to October 2012 to find studies on adults and children about prescription, transcription, dispensing, and administration errors. Two authors independently selected and one of them reviewed and extracted data for types, definitions and severity of MEs. The results were classified based on different stages of drug delivery process. Eighteen articles (11 Persian and 7 English were included in our review. All study designs were cross-sectional and conducted in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most frequent populations under observation (12 studies; 66.7%. Most of studies did not report the overall frequency of MEs aside from ME types. Most of studies (15; 83.3% reported prevalence of administration errors between 14.3%-70.0%. Prescribing error prevalence ranged from 29.8%-47.8%. The prevalence of dispensing and transcribing errors were from 11.3%-33.6% and 10.0%-51.8% respectively. We did not find any follow up or repeated studies. Only three studies reported findings on severity of MEs. The most reported types of and the highest percentages for any type of ME in Iran were administration errors. Studying ME in Iran is a new area considering the duration and number of publications. Wide ranges of estimations for MEs in different stages may be because of the poor quality of studies with diversity in definitions, methods, and populations

  18. Can Online Learning Communities Achieve the Goals of Traditional Professional Learning Communities? What the Literature Says. REL 2013-003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    For more than a decade practitioners have promoted professional learning communities (PLCs) as an effective structure for providing teachers with professional development (Chappuis, Chappuis, & Stiggins, 2009; DuFour, Eaker, & DuFour, 2005). These collaborative networks are believed to be effective because they expose teachers to new ideas…

  19. Current Status of Human Resource Training Program for Fostering RIBiomics Professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Eun; Jang, Beom-Su; Choi, Dae Seong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tai-jin [Radiation Research Division, Korea Radioisotope Association, Seoul 132-822, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Hyun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Research Division, Korea Radioisotope Association, Seoul 132-822, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiobiotechnology and Applied Radioisotope Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Deajeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    training program for fostering RI-Biomics professionals in the following key fields; (1) Radio-pharmaceuticals synthesis and labeled compound development, (2) Development of RI-ADME in the living object and image assessment technology. Personnel training program that carries out theoretical education and practical training in the field related to RI-Biomics in parallel is being conducted. Internship training for university students has been administered twice already while educational program for the existing professionals in the RI-Biomics field will be carried out during the summer of 2014. The human resource training program for combination of RIADME and different molecular imaging techniques can offer synergistic advantages to facilitate understanding RIADME and fostering RI-ADME professionals. (authors)

  20. Perception of community pharmacists toward their current professional role in the healthcare system of Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayes, Ibrahim Khalid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abduelkarem, Abduelmula R

    2015-07-01

    The new paradigm to pharmacy profession has changed the focus of pharmacists from product-centered to patient-oriented. This change has brought new set of beliefs and assumptions on the way services should be delivered to pharmacy clients. The main aim of this study was to explore the perception of community pharmacists on their current professional role in Dubai. Key findings show that community pharmacists are more directed toward business than patients. They almost dispense all categories of medicines over-the-counter without the need of prescriptions. However, a new trend of pharmacists in Dubai is to provide enhanced pharmacy services such as consultation to patients upon request.

  1. Audiologia do envelhecimento: revisão da literatura e perspectivas atuais Audiology and aging: literature review and current horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Peixoto Veras

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura sobre a perda auditiva associada ao envelhecimento e suas implicações, numa perspectiva atual. REVISÃO DA LITERATURA: Nos estudos realizados no Brasil, a presbiacusia vem sendo apontada como causa mais freqüente da deficiência auditiva em pessoas idosas, implicando em uma dificuldade de compreensão durante a comunicação verbal. Estudos internacionais também mostram alta prevalência da perda auditiva em pessoas idosas. DISCUSSÃO: Segundo pesquisas recentes, à medida que o quantitativo da população idosa vem aumentando, também aumenta a prevalência da presbiacusia que interfere na qualidade de vida do idoso. Mesmo entre os profissionais de saúde, ainda é grande o desconhecimento em relação às vantagens e ganhos que a reeducação auditiva específica para idosos com perda auditiva pode oferecer. CONCLUSÃO: Os artigos aqui analisados mostraram que os serviços de saúde da rede pública, que envolvem médicos e fonoaudiólogos, devem estabelecer diretrizes para o desenvolvimento de programas de diagnóstico, aquisição de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individual e, principalmente, de reeducação auditiva para os idosos portadores de presbiacusia, para que eles possam participar e desfrutar das relações sociais, mantendo uma boa qualidade de vida. Entretanto, no Brasil, os estudos e pesquisas nesta área estão apenas começando.AIM: to review the literature on aging-related hearing loss and its current impacts. LITERATURE REVIEW: In studies carried out in Brazil, presbycusis has been blamed for being the most frequent cause of hearing loss in the elderly, causing verbal communication impairment. International studies also show the high prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly. DISCUSSION: According to recent investigations, as the number of elderly people increase, the prevalence of presbycusis interfering in the life quality of this population also increases. Even among health care

  2. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  3. Lumbar stabilization: a review of core concepts and current literature, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Karen P; Griggs, Miriam; Cadby, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Lumbar-stabilization exercise programs have become increasingly popular as a treatment for low-back pain. In this article, we outline an evidence-based medicine approach to evaluating patients for a lumbar-stabilization program. We also discuss typical clinical components of this type of program and the rationale for including these particular features based on the medical literature.

  4. ADHD, Substance Use Disorders, and Psychostimulant Treatment: Current Literature and Treatment Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This review explores the relationship between ADHD and substance use disorder (SUD), factors that determine the abuse potential of psychostimulants, and strategies for identifying and treating at-risk ADHD patients. Method: This study uses a Medline review of literature. Results: Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and…

  5. The Current Scope of Health Disparities in the U.S.: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; Nienhaus, Alyson R.

    2010-01-01

    This review of literature examines leading contributors and mediators of health disparities in the United States. Specifically, poverty, education, and health are addressed. Special emphasis is placed on implications of health risk behaviors and health education for select populations and settings. Existing and suggested strategies for addressing…

  6. The role of teamwork in the professional education of physicians: current status and assessment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David P; Salas, Eduardo; King, Heidi; Battles, James; Barach, Paul

    2005-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has recommended that organizations establish interdisciplinary team training programs that incorporate proven methods for team management. Teamwork can be assessed during physician medical education, board certification, licensure, and continuing practice. Team members must possess specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs), such as the ability to exchange information, which enable individual team members to coordinate. KSAs might be elicited and assessed across a physician's career, starting in medical school and continuing through licensure and board certification. Professional bodies should be responsible for the development of specific team knowledge and skill competencies and for promoting specific team attitude competencies. Tools are available to assess medical student, resident, and physician competence in these critical team KSAs. For teamwork skills to be assessed and have credibility, team performance measures must be grounded in team theory, account for individual and team-level performance, capture team process and outcomes, adhere to standards for reliability and validity, and address real or perceived barriers to measurement.

  7. Current Issues Relating to the Professional Practice of Engineering Geology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, David

    The continuing internationalisation of the construction industry in which Engineering Geologists work has resulted in significant changes in the way we work, in the way we demonstrate to others our ability to do the work, and the environment in which we carry out our work. The pace of these changes is increasing and, shortly, few of us will be able to recall the relatively relaxed and informal ways in which we worked, even as recently as the beginning of the1990s. The formalisation of engineering geologists work and reporting has come about through increasing codification of technical activities, in description of soils and rocks, in field and laboratory testing. This codification has also seen the introduction of minimum qualifications for practitioners, and this links with moves towards the international recognition of professional qualifications. The Directives on recognition have been around for comment since about 2001, and are likely to appear in European Law towards the end of 2004. This then begs the question of the need for Registration, and whether such a step would offer sufficient advantages to be of overall benefit.

  8. FACTORS OF RESISTANCE AGAINST AIR CURRENT ESTABLISHED BY MEASUREMENT AND FACTOR ESTIMATED BY LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rendulić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific resistance (R100 for underground mine rooms can he calculated by the constant (C. Constant (C enables defining of the resistance for any relation of dimensions F3/U in similar mine rooms. Considerable anomalies were found by comparison of the resistance factor calculated from measurement data with estimated value of the factor from specialized literature on planning similar ventilation structures (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Autopsy report for a caffeine intoxication case and review of the current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takuma; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Kubo, Shin-ichi; EMOTO, Yuko; Hara, Kenji; Waters, Brian; Umehara, Takahiro; Murase, Takehiko; Ikematsu, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a popular mild central nervous system stimulant found in the leaves, seeds and fruits of various plants and in foodstuffs such as coffee, tea, and chocolate, among others. Caffeine is widely used and is not associated with severe side effects when consumed at relatively low doses. Although rarely observed, overdoses can occur. However, only a few fatal caffeine intoxication cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report the pathological exa...

  10. Declaring Conflict of Interest - Current State of Affairs in the Ophthalmic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jamie Lea; Aubert Bonn, Noemie; Craenen, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The importance of transparency with financial ties in biomedical research is widely recognized, and most peer-reviewed journals require declarations of Conflicts of Interest (COI). Nonetheless, variability in the consistency of declarations of COI has been sparsely assessed. To assess consistency and rates of COI declarations in the ophthalmic literature and the effectiveness of journal COI policies. We analyzed consistency and completeness of declaration of COI in the ophthalmic literature and compared the levels of completeness to specific journal requirements. Six-hundred forty-two peer reviewed articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. In 64%, COIs were unreported, in 25% declaration of COI was incomplete, and 11% of the articles reviewed had complete declaration of COI. Of the 33 journals in which the most frequently published authors' articles appeared, 10 required the authors to complete the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) form or an equivalent form, but this did not affect the rates of COI declaration. In a random sampling of the most frequently published authors in the field of ophthalmology, declaration of COI was low and highly inconsistent. Requiring a standardized COI form has no significant effect on the rate of accurate COI reporting. Our findings lend support to the growing body of literature that shows that journals and editors may need to take a more active role in ensuring accurate and consistent COI reporting.

  11. Anticoagulant therapy in patients undergoing dental interventions: a critical review of the literature and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, G; Matarese, G; Cordasco, G; Rotondo, F; Crupi, A; Ramaglia, L

    2015-02-01

    Patients treated with oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) represent an issue to the dentist, as an increasing number of people are using anticoagulant drugs for cardiovascular disease. The choice of an eventual suspension or continuation of anticoagulant therapy is important when considering an efficient management of the patient. Patients in anticoagulant therapy and requiring dental procedures sometimes represent therapeutic concerns especially concerning the suspension of the anticoagulant treatment. At the moment there is no consensus among international experts of a possible discontinuation of therapy before invasive dental procedures. In this paper, the authors try to focus on this topic through a critical review of the literature. Most of the studies suggest the continuation of the anticoagulant treatment with heparin before invasive oral surgical interventions. Based on the data of the literature, two rules must be adopted in clinical practice: 1) maintenance of anticoagulation related to the international normalized ratio (INR); 2) local application of antifibrinolytic agents to ensure a proper hemostatic process. Given the widespread use of anticoagulant drugs in cardiovascular disease, dentists must often face the problem of the therapy and, since there is no consensus on the management of these patients, the authors propose, after a thorough critical review of the literature, the implementation of a multiphase protocol of surgical approach to be implemented with safety in daily clinical practice.

  12. Waldenström Macroglobulinemia in Hepatitis C: Case Report and Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Nipp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent literature has associated hepatitis C virus with the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hepatitis C virus infection appears to promote lymphoproliferation, providing a plausible mechanism for a causative association; however, despite prior reports of patients with comorbid hepatitis C infection and Waldenström macroglobulinemia, the literature is in disagreement regarding whether there exists an association between these two conditions. Case Presentation. This case report describes a 57-year-old African-American male with chronic hepatitis C infection and cryoglobulinemia who presented with several episodes of transient confusion and paralysis and was found to have symptomatic hyperviscosity. The recognition of his condition was facilitated by characteristic findings on ophthalmologic examination. He was subsequently diagnosed with Waldenström macroglobulinemia on bone marrow biopsy. Conclusions. An up to date, comprehensive review of the literature suggests an association between hepatitis C and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Data on optimal treatment of patients with comorbid hepatitis C infection and Waldenström macroglobulinemia is limited. We have provided a comprehensive review of previously explored treatment options to guide management of other similar patients. Our patient has since been treated with repeated plasmapheresis with a plan to pursue antiviral therapy.

  13. Evidence-based medicine in bovine, equine and canine reproduction: quality of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, C; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate deficits and differences of published literature on reproduction in cattle, horses, and dogs. A literature search was conducted in the databases Medline and Veterinary Science. Approximately five times more articles on clinical bovine reproduction (n = 25 910) were found compared to canine (n = 5 015) and equine (n = 5 090) reproduction. For the evaluation of the literature, a checklist was used. A subset of 600 articles published between 1999 and 2008 was randomly selected. After applying exclusion criteria, a total of 268 trials (86 for cattle, 99 for horses, and 83 for dogs) were evaluated and used for further analysis. For the field of canine and equine reproduction, there were fewer clinical trials with a control group compared to bovine reproduction (cattle 66%, horses 41%, and dogs 41%). For all three species investigated, few publications were identified (4%) with the highest level of evidence, i.e., controlled, randomized, and blinded trials, or meta-analyses. In cattle 33% of the publications were graded adequate to draw sound conclusions; however, only 7 and 11% were graded adequate in dogs and horses, respectively. Therefore, the veterinarian should always assess the quality of information before implementing results into practice to provide best available care for the animals. In conclusion, improvement of the quality of well-designed, conducted and reported clinical trails in animal reproduction is required.

  14. Current methods of sedation in dental patients - a systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; López-Jiménez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Objetive The main objective of this systematic literature review is to identify the safest and most effective sedative drugs so as to ensure successful sedation with as few complications as possible. Study Design A systematic literature review of the PubMed MEDLINE database was carried out using the key words “conscious sedation,” “drugs,” and “dentistry.” A total of 1,827 scientific articles were found, and these were narrowed down to 473 articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. These 473 studies were then individually assessed for their suitability for inclusion in this literature review. Results A total of 21 studies were selected due to their rigorous study design and conduciveness to further, more exhaustive analysis. The selected studies included a total of 1,0003 patients classified as ASA I or II. Midazolam was the drug most frequently used for successful sedation in dental surgical procedures. Ketamine also proved very useful when administered intranasally, although some side effects were observed when delivered via other routes of administration. Both propofol and nitrous oxide (N2O) are also effective sedative drugs. Conclusions Midazolam is the drug most commonly used to induce moderate sedation in dental surgical procedures, and it is also very safe. Other sedative drugs like ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol have also been proven safe and effective; however, further comparative clinical studies are needed to better demonstrate which of these are the safest and most effective. Key words:Conscious sedation, drugs, dentistry. PMID:27475684

  15. Understanding factors that impact on health care professionals' risk perceptions and responses toward Clostridium difficile and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a structured literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Emma; Kearney, Nora; Johnston, Bridget; Corlett, Joanne; MacGillivray, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most common health care-associated infection. Despite considerable efforts to prevent and manage C difficile, poor clinical practice and nonadherence to policy continues to compromise patient safety. Risk perception research is essential in gaining understanding about how health care professionals respond. A structured literature review examined empirical evidence regarding health care professionals' risk perceptions and responses toward C difficile. Because of limited evidence available, the review was extended to include other health care-associated infections. Only studies related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) could be identified. Eleven studies were included. Four were specific to C difficile and 7 to MRSA. All studies found that technical understanding of C difficile was poor and that staff were concerned about risks to patients and themselves. Technical understanding for MRSA, however, was good, and staff were less concerned about their own health. Information provision was perceived to be inadequate and untrustworthy, which included the media. Practice in most studies was poor. There is a need to build on the efforts of risk perception research from other disciplines to understand how health care professionals think and make decisions about C difficile. This can help inform the development of effective management and communication strategies to maximize the quality of care provided. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding the Neuro-ophthalmology of Head Trauma: A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Khawla Abu

    2014-01-01

    Head trauma is a major medical, social, economic, national, and public health priority issue in the United States. In severe head trauma, the overwhelming clinical manifestations are so compelling that damage to the visual system is most likely to be ignored. Both the afferent and efferent visual systems are susceptible to injury after head trauma, and physicians should be aware of the visual system and perform a thorough neuro-ophthalmic evaluation in patients presenting with head trauma.Most of the data available on neuro-ophthalmic complications of head trauma including cortical blindness, Horner's syndrome, traumatic internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and ocular motor palsy, comes from case reports highlighting the need for future studies to better understand these complications.This review summarizes some of the most important neuro-ophthalmic complications of head trauma including cortical blindness, Horner's syndrome, traumatic internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and ocular motor palsy. Search of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted using MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, Global Health, and MD Consult.

  17. Are the dental health needs of adults with illegal drug dependence being met by current service provision in the United Kingdom?: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Victoria; Wray, Jane

    2012-10-01

    This literature review outlines the current issues and debates relating to the dental health of adults with drug dependence. The dental health of adults with illegal drug dependence (IDD) continues to be under debate throughout dental practice, and the most appropriate model of care suitable to meet the high complex needs of this client group remains uncertain. The study aims to review and critically analyze available research relating to the oral health effects of illegal drug misuse and the dental health needs and status of adults with drug dependence. Second, it aims to identify and critically evaluate current models of dental service/care delivery, including relevant best practice guidance and potential barriers to dental access for adults with IDD. The available literature pertaining to dental health and adults with drug dependence are systematically reviewed and critically analyzed and evaluated in order to execute a rigorous investigation. The oral effects along with general medical complications associated with IDD are increasingly being recognized. There are substantive negative effects of IDD on oral health, particularly for those with opioid dependence; therefore, these clients have high complex dental needs and low use of dental services. Adults with drug dependence comprise a group with special dental needs and therefore need greater access to dental care than most people due to their high level of need. A high awareness of the implications for oral health care for adults with drug dependence is essential. Dental professionals have a key role in supporting the rehabilitation of these patients from potentially severe or fatal addictions. There is a distinct lack of national policy and guidance relating specifically to adults with drug dependence, and therefore, problems persist. Key findings and recommendations are presented to enhance the development of dental services for adults with IDD.

  18. Assessing dental students' competence: best practice recommendations in the performance assessment literature and investigation of current practices in predoctoral dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Judith E N; Young, Stephen K; Neumann, Laura M; Kramer, Gene A; Andrieu, Sandra C; Henson, Lindsey; Horn, Bruce; Hendricson, William D

    2008-12-01

    In this article, the Task Force on Student Outcomes Assessment of the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education describes the current status of student outcomes assessment in U.S. dental education. This review is divided into six sections. The first summarizes the literature on assessment of dental students' performance. Section two discusses catalysts, with a focus on problem-based learning, for development of new assessment methods, while the third section presents several resources and guides that can be used to inform selection of assessment techniques for various domains of competence. The fourth section describes the methodology and results of a 2008 survey of current assessment practices in U.S. dental schools. In the fifth section, findings from this survey are discussed within the context of competency-based education, the educational model for the predoctoral curriculum endorsed by the American Dental Education Association and prescribed by the Commission on Dental Accreditation. The article concludes with a summary of assessments recommended as optimal strategies to measure three components of professional competence based on the triangulation model. The survey of assessment practices in predoctoral education was completed by 931 course directors, representing 45 percent of course directors nationwide, from fifty-three of the fifty-six U.S. dental schools. Survey findings indicate that five traditional mainstays of student performance evaluation-multiple-choice testing, lab practicals, daily grades, clinical competency exams, and procedural requirements-still comprise the primary assessment tools in dental education. The survey revealed that a group of newer assessment techniques, although frequently identified as best practices in the literature and commonly used in other areas of health professions education, are rarely employed in predoctoral dental education.

  19. What do we know about student resilience in health professional education? A scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Brooke; Brewer, Margo

    2017-11-01

    Resilience has been identified as a key capability to thrive in the complex changing work environment of the 21st century. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review was to investigate how resilience is understood in the context of pre-qualifying health education, if there is a need to build student resilience, and what approaches to enhancing student resilience are described in the literature. Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) literature scoping review design was adopted as it enables researchers to review, summarise and analyse the literature on a given topic. The databases searched were Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Proquest, Medline, Science Direct, and Education Resources Information Centre. Four research questions informed the literature review: (1) how is resilience conceptualised in the literature?, (2) what evidence exists for the need for resilience enhancement?, (3) what resilience factors should inform resilience enhancement?, and (4) what resilience enhancement programs are described in the literature? A total of 36 papers were reviewed in detail. Whilst the need for a focus on resilience across the health professions was evident an array of definitions and conceptualisations of resilience were described. A small number of approaches to enhancing resilience were identified. Whilst widespread recognition of the importance of resilience in the health professions exists the area remains under theorised with limited conceptual models and robust interventions published to date. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspectives on care and communication involving incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, relatives and professionals: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, F.M.; Mistiaen, P.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Francke, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objectiv

  1. Nutrition and the Elderly: A Selected Annotated Bibliography for Nutrition and Health Professionals. Bibliographies of Literature and Agriculture No. 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Evelyn, Comp.; Sandberg, Janet, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography of information on nutrition and the elderly was written for nutrition professionals, health care providers, and organizations that work with older adults. The focus is primarily on nutrition in the United States. The bibliography includes 399 citations of both print and nonprint resources that are readily available to…

  2. Perspectives on care and communication involving incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, relatives and professionals: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, F.M. de; Mistiaen, P.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Francke, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to obtain a clearer picture of the relevant care experiences and care perceptions of incurably ill Turkish and Moroccan patients, their relatives and professional care providers, as well as of communication and decision-making patterns at the end of life. The ultimate objecti

  3. Leading the Student Experience: Academic and Professional Services in Partnership Literature Review and Overview of Results. Leading the Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Sarah; Young, Julie Blackwell; Cleaver, Elizabeth; Archibald, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    This research project explored how academic and professional personnel work together in new ways to deliver the best possible student experience. The project analysed why certain models of good working practice seemed to work well. The research investigated: how the change management process was perceived and managed by key stakeholders; the role…

  4. The role of stereopsis (three-dimensional vision) in dentistry: review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrimi, M; Ali, N

    2015-05-22

    Clinical dental work is placing increasing demands on a clinician's vision as new techniques that require fine detail become more common. High hand-eye coordination requires good visual acuity as well as other psychological and neurological qualities such as stereopsis. Stereopsis (three-dimensional vision) is the highest form of depth perception obtained by visual disparity of images formed in the retinas of two eyes. It is believed to confer functional benefits on everyday tasks such as hand-eye coordination. Although its role in depth perception has long been established, little is known regarding the importance of stereopsis in dentistry. This article reviews the role of stereopsis in everyday life and the available literature on the importance of stereopsis in dentistry.

  5. Pharmacological and analytical aspects of withaferin A:A concise report of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanika Patel; Ravi B Singh; Dinesh K Patel

    2013-01-01

    Withaferin A is an important phytoconstituents of Withania somnifera (W. Somnifera) belonging to the category of withanolides, that are a group of naturally occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids. Withaferin A has been used in the traditional and indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various disorders. In view of its unique therapeutic potential, it has gained much attention in the modern science. In the couple of the years, Withaferin A has been scientifically validated for different pharmacological activities including anti-cancer, adaptogenic, anti-stress, anti-convulsant, immunomodulatory, neurological, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective activities. Pharmacological and analytical aspects of Withaferin A were highlighted in the present article. From the literature review it was found that Withaferin A has a very impressive pharmacological profile especially against cancer and could be useful for the development of the new drug in the future for the treatment of cancer and other metabolic disorders.

  6. The Optimal Pain Management Approach for a Laboring Patient: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Albert; Tran, Quang

    2017-05-10

    There is a general agreement that a patient in labor should be given the option to have an epidural block for pain management. Despite this consensus, there are differences in practice patterns as to when to initiate an epidural and how to minimize its impact on the duration and outcome of a patient's labor. A review of the literature suggests epidural analgesia does prolong stages one and two of labor, but not significantly. Cesarean delivery rates are not affected by the early initiation of epidural analgesia. The use of various adjuvants such as opioids, clonidine, and neostigmine in conjunction with local anesthetics solution can significantly reduce the severity of motor blockade and the need for assisted vaginal delivery.

  7. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  8. Experimentally determined mechanical properties of, and models for, the periodontal ligament: critical review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Ted S; Carey, Jason P; Toogood, Roger W; Major, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This review is intended to highlight and discuss discrepancies in the literature of the periodontal ligament's (PDL) mechanical properties and the various experimental approaches used to measure them. Methods. Searches were performed on biomechanical and orthodontic publications (in databases: Compendex, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). Results. The review revealed that significant variations exist, some on the order of six orders of magnitude, in the PDL's elastic constants and mechanical properties. Possible explanations may be attributable to different experimental approaches and assumptions. Conclusions. The discrepancies highlight the need for further research into PDL properties under various clinical and experimental loading conditions. Better understanding of the PDL's biomechanical behavior under physiologic and traumatic loading conditions might enhance the understanding of the PDL's biologic reaction in health and disease. Providing a greater insight into the response of the PDL would be instrumental to orthodontists and engineers for designing more predictable, and therefore more efficacious, orthodontic appliances.

  9. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work reviews the current knowledge of aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. DATA: Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour emanating from the breath. The condition is multifactorial and may involve both oral and non-oral conditions. SOURCES: A private, monthly with ke

  10. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work reviews the current knowledge of aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. DATA: Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour emanating from the breath. The condition is multifactorial and may involve both oral and non-oral conditions. SOURCES: A private, monthly with ke

  11. Current Literature on Venereal Disease, 1972. Number Two. Abstracts and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Mildred V., Ed.

    Presented are abstracts of documents and research pertaining to the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, management, and therapy of syphilis and gonorrhea. Abstracted case studies of other minor venereal and related diseases are also included, as are bibliographies on current research and evaluation, public health methods, and behavioral…

  12. Current Literature on Venereal Disease, 1972. Number Three. Abstracts and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Mildred V., Ed.

    Presented are abstracts of documents and research pertaining to the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, management, and therapy of syphilis and gonorrhea. Abstracted case studies of other minor venereal and related diseases are also included, as are bibliographies on current research and evaluation, public health methods, and behavioral…

  13. Current Literature on Venereal Disease, 1972. Number One. Abstracts and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Mildred V., Ed.

    Presented are abstracts of documents and research pertaining to the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, management, and therapy of syphilis and gonorrhea. Abstracted case studies of other minor venereal and related diseases are also included, as are bibliographies on current research and evaluation, public health methods, and behavioral…

  14. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work reviews the current knowledge of aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. DATA: Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour emanating from the breath. The condition is multifactorial and may involve both oral and non-oral conditions. SOURCES: A private, monthly with

  15. Current status of laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal cancer patients : a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parry, K.; Ruurda, J. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; van der Sluis, P. C.; van Hillegersberg, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242

    Minimally invasive techniques in transhiatal esophagectomy (THE) were introduced to reduce morbidity and enhance postoperative recovery. Aim of this study was to systematically review the current status and possible beneficial effects of the minimally invasive approach in THE. A systematic search

  16. LMFBR safety. 6. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1977)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1978-07-13

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development. Selected bibliographic information on LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the year 1977. The bibliography consists of approximately 198 abstracts covering research and development, operating experience, and design practices. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  17. Do Professional Interpreters Improve Clinical Care for Patients with Limited English Proficiency? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karliner, Leah S; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Chen, Alice Hm; Mutha, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    .... A systematic literature search, limited to the English language, in PubMed and PsycINFO for publications between 1966 and September 2005, and a search of the Cochrane Library. Study Design. Any peer...

  18. Teachers' Voice: A Needs Analysis of Teachers' Needs for Professional Development with the Emergence of the Current English Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Qahtani, Hind M.

    2015-01-01

    The study attempts to reveal the attitudes' of the English teachers toward teachers' professional development, to identify the needs of English teachers for Teachers' professional development, to clarify the challenges that faced by English teachers throughout their teachers' professional development. The study uses a descriptive methods to…

  19. Combined Heart Lung Transplantation: An Updated Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupneti, Shravani; Dhillon, Gundeep; Reitz, Bruce; Khush, Kiran

    2017-10-01

    Heart lung transplantation is a viable treatment option for patients with many end-stage heart and lung pathologies. However, given the complex nature of the procedure, it is imperative that patients are selected appropriately, and the clinician is aware of the many unique aspects in management of this population. This review seeks to describe updated organ selection policies, perioperative and postoperative management strategies, monitoring of graft function, and clinical outcomes for patients after combined heart-lung transplantation in the current era.

  20. Balancing selection on immunity genes: review of the current literature and new analysis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Myriam; Živković, Daniel; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Balancing selection has been widely assumed to be an important evolutionary force, yet even today little is known about its abundance and its impact on the patterns of genetic diversity. Several studies have shown examples of balancing selection in humans, plants or parasites, and many genes under balancing selection are involved in immunity. It has been proposed that host-parasite coevolution is one of the main forces driving immune genes to evolve under balancing selection. In this paper, we review the literature on balancing selection on immunity genes in several organisms, including Drosophila. Furthermore, we performed a genome scan for balancing selection in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster using coalescent simulations of a demographic model with and without selection. We find very few genes under balancing selection and only one novel candidate gene related to immunity. Finally, we discuss the possible causes of the low number of genes under balancing selection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of colchicine on pericardial diseases: a review of the literature and current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Raza Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine, extracted from the colchicum autumnale plant, used by the ancient Greeks more than 20 centuries ago, is one of the most ancient drugs still prescribed even today. The major mechanism of action is binding to microtubules thereby interfering with mitosis and subsequent modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. Colchicine has long been of interest in the treatment of cardiovascular disease; however, its efficacy and safety profile for specific conditions have been variably established in the literature. In the subset of pericardial diseases, colchicine has been shown to be effective in recurrent pericarditis and post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS. The future course of treatment and management will therefore highly depend on the results of the ongoing large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of colchicine for the primary prevention of several postoperative complications and in the perioperative period. Also, given the positive preliminary outcomes of colchicine usage in pericardial effusions, the future therapeutical use of colchicine looks promising. Further study is needed to clarify its role in these disease states, as well as explore other its role in other cardiovascular conditions.

  2. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - March 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Hooks, Todd; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide interest in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and trigger points (TrPs) is reflected in the increasing number of publications. In this overview of the literature, we included 26 studies, case reports and review articles by authors from 18 different countries. Several research groups are exploring the characteristic of TrPs such as Chen and colleagues, who continued their work on the quantification of the taut bands. Meng and colleagues studied the relationships between TrPs and central sensitization, while Yu and colleagues examined the electrophysiological characteristics that occur as a result of active TrPs. Several researchers used objective measurements to determine clinical outcomes, such as Koppenhaver and colleagues who measured objective changes in the function and nociceptive sensitivity of lumbar multifidus muscle subjects with low back pain. Turo and colleagues quantified muscle tissue changes after dry needling in chronic myofascial pain using elastography. Multiple studies explored various treatment options for TrPs, such as dry needling, injections with lidocaine or granisetron, traditional Thai massage, self-myofascial release, kinesiotaping, and monochromatic infrared photo energy, among others.

  3. Current State of Development of Electricity-Generating Technologies: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Lenzen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is perhaps the most versatile energy carrier in modern economies, and it is therefore fundamentally linked to human and economic development. Electricity growth has outpaced that of any other fuel, leading to ever-increasing shares in the overall mix. This trend is expected to continue throughout the following decades, as large—especially rural—segments of the world population in developing countries start to climb the “energy ladder” and become connected to power grids. Electricity therefore deserves particular attention with regard to its contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, which is reflected in the ongoing development of low-carbon technologies for power generation. The focus of this updated review of electricity-generating technologies is twofold: (a to provide more technical information than is usually found in global assessments on critical technical aspects, such as variability of wind power, and (b to capture the most recent findings from the international literature. This report covers eight technologies. Seven of these are generating technologies: hydro-, nuclear, wind, photovoltaic, concentrating solar, geothermal and biomass power. The remaining technology is carbon capture and storage. This selection is fairly representative for technologies that are important in terms of their potential capacity to contribute to a low-carbon world economy.

  4. Life-threatening complications after ureteroscopy for urinary stones: survey and revision of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindolo, Luca; Castellan, Pietro; Primiceri, Giulia; Hoznek, Andras; Cracco, Cecilia M; Scoffone, Cesare M; Galfano, Antonio; Petralia, Giovanni; DE Angelis, Michele; Annino, Filippo; Malacasa, Emilio; Cormio, Luigi; Acquati, Pietro; DE Lorenzis, Elisa; Maugeri, Orazio; Arena, Giuseppe; Celia, Antonio; Giusti, Guido; Schips, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    Retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) has become a common procedure for the management of urinary stones. Although its efficacy and safety are well known, the literature about major complications is still poor. This study highlighted some cases of life-threatening complications after semirigid ureteroscopy (s-URS) or flexible ureteroscopy (f-URS). We enrolled experienced endourologists (more than 75 cases/year in the last 3 years) and we performed a survey asking to review their series and report the cases encumbered by major complications (Clavien-Dindo IIIb-IV grade). Eleven urologists reported on 12 major complications (4 after s-URS, 8 after f-URS). Eight patients developed a kidney injury, 1 an arteriovenous fistula, 2 a ureter avulsion and 1 acute sepsis. Six patients underwent open nephrectomy, two surgical repair, one open pyeloplasty, one coil artery embolization and two superselective artery embolization. Guidelines and clinical practice give useful recommendations about intraoperative safety and prevention of life-threatening events. The careful postoperative observation and the surgical active treatment of this complications play a key role in reducing morbidity, kidney loss and mortality. This study encourages a strict and active care of patients, supports a routine reporting of complications, and highlights the need for systematic use of standardized classification systems.

  5. Effects of colchicine on pericardial diseases: a review of the literature and current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Raza; Alweis, Richard; Shah, Syed Arbab; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Manji, Adil Al-Karim; Arfeen, Arham Amir; Javed, Maheen; Shujauddin, Syed Muhammad; Irfan, Rida; Shabbir, Sakina; Shaikh, Shehryar

    2016-01-01

    Colchicine, extracted from the colchicum autumnale plant, used by the ancient Greeks more than 20 centuries ago, is one of the most ancient drugs still prescribed even today. The major mechanism of action is binding to microtubules thereby interfering with mitosis and subsequent modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. Colchicine has long been of interest in the treatment of cardiovascular disease; however, its efficacy and safety profile for specific conditions have been variably established in the literature. In the subset of pericardial diseases, colchicine has been shown to be effective in recurrent pericarditis and post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS). The future course of treatment and management will therefore highly depend on the results of the ongoing large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of colchicine for the primary prevention of several postoperative complications and in the perioperative period. Also, given the positive preliminary outcomes of colchicine usage in pericardial effusions, the future therapeutical use of colchicine looks promising. Further study is needed to clarify its role in these disease states, as well as explore other its role in other cardiovascular conditions. PMID:27406462

  6. Transcutaneous Ultrasound: Elastographic Lymph Node Evaluation. Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorean, Liliana; Barr, Richard G; Braden, Barbara; Jenssen, Christian; Cui, Xin-Wu; Hocke, Michael; Schuler, Andreas; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing malignant versus benign lymphadenopathies is a major diagnostic dilemma in clinical medicine. Metastatic deposits in normal-sized lymph nodes (LNs) can be smaller than a millimeter, thus presenting a diagnostic challenge. In most clinical settings, however, enlarged LNs detected on imaging need to be classified as malignant or benign. Ultrasound seems to be a very reliable method for LN characterization because of the high resolution, especially in the subcutaneous areas. However, B-mode and Doppler-ultrasound criteria for characterization of a lymphadenopathy as benign or malignant are lacking specificity. Newer methods such as elastography seem to be valuable for identifying metastatic deposits within LNs and may help discriminate malignant and benign LNs. This review summarizes the different elastographic methods available and provides an overview of the relevant publications. According to the literature, elastography can be used for identifying metastatic deposits, to guide fine needle aspiration and to non-invasively choose the most suspicious LN of a group of enlarged LNs for targeted biopsy.

  7. Review of the current literature as a preparatory tool for the trauma content of the Orthopaedic in-Training Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjoodi, Payam; Marker, David R; McCallum, Jeremy R; Frassica, Frank J; Mears, Simon C

    2011-05-18

    Currently, the only standardized evaluation of trauma knowledge throughout orthopedic training is found in the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination, which is administered annually to all residents by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Our goals were to assess the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination to (1) determine the content of the trauma questions, (2) identify the content of the 3 most frequently referenced journals on the answer keys, and (3) evaluate the correlation between those contents.We reviewed the trauma-related Orthopaedic In-Training Examination questions and answer keys for 2002 through 2007. Content for test questions and cited literature was assessed with the same criteria: (1) category type, (2) anatomic location, (3) orthopedic focus, and (4) treatment type. For each of the 3 most frequently referenced journals, we weighted content by dividing the number of times it was referenced by the number of its trauma-related articles. We then compared the journal data individually and collectively to the data from the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination trauma questions. A chi-square analysis with Yates correction was used to determine differences. Questions and literature were similar in the most frequently addressed items in each of the 4 areas: category type (taxonomy 3, treatment), 52.4% and 60.7%, respectively; anatomic location (femur), 23.3% and 27.7%, respectively; orthopedic focus (fracture), 51.0% and 56.5%, respectively; and treatment type (multiple/nonspecific), 39.0% and 35.4%, respectively.The content correlation found between the questions and literature supports the idea that reviewing current literature may help prepare for the trauma content on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination.

  8. Occlusion in implant dentistry. A review of the literature of prosthetic determinants and current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, M D

    2008-06-01

    Today the clinician is faced with widely varying concepts regarding the number, location, distribution and inclination of implants required to support the functional and parafunctional demands of occlusal loading. Primary clinical dilemmas of planning for maximal or minimal numbers of implants, their axial inclination, lengths and required volume and quality of supporting bone remain largely unanswered by adequate clinical outcome research. Planning and executing optimal occlusion schemes is an integral part of implant supported restorations. In its wider sense this includes considerations of multiple inter-relating factors of ensuring adequate bone support, implant location number, length, distribution and inclination, splinting, vertical dimension aesthetics, static and dynamic occlusal schemes and more. Current concepts and research on occlusal loading and overloading are reviewed together with clinical outcome and biomechanical studies and their clinical relevance discussed. A comparison between teeth and implants regarding their proprioceptive properties and mechanisms of supporting functional and parafunctional loading is made and clinical applications made regarding current concepts in restoring the partially edentulous dentition. The relevance of occlusal traumatism and fatigue microdamage alone or in combination with periodontal or peri-implant inflammation is reviewed and applied to clinical considerations regarding splinting of adjacent implants and teeth, posterior support and eccentric guidance schemes. Occlusal restoration of the natural dentition has classically been divided into considerations of planning for sufficient posterior support, occlusal vertical dimension and eccentric guidance to provide comfort and aesthetics. Mutual protection and anterior disclusion have come to be considered as acceptable therapeutic modalities. These concepts have been transferred to the restoration of implant-supported restoration largely by default. However, in

  9. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  10. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  11. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  12. Breast reconstruction with anatomical implants: A review of indications and techniques based on current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gardani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One important modality of breast cancer therapy is surgical treatment, which has become increasingly less mutilating over the last century. Breast reconstruction has become an integrated part of breast cancer treatment due to long-term psychosexual health factors and its importance for breast cancer survivors. Both autogenous tissue-based and implant-based reconstruction provides satisfactory reconstructive options due to better surgeon awareness of “the ideal breast size”, although each has its own advantages and disadvantages. An overview of the current options in breast reconstruction is presented in this article.

  13. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  14. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  15. Developing an Integrated Conceptual Framework of Pro-Environmental Behavior in the Workplace through Synthesis of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye V. McDonald

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have begun to bridge the gap between general and workplace pro-environmental behavior by adapting specific existing behavioral models to the workplace environment. This conceptual article proposes a different approach by synthesizing the current general and workplace literature to develop a new model of the antecedents to pro-environmental behavior. Guided by this approach, this paper combines the insights of the current general and workplace models to develop an integrated framework of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. In doing so, an overview of the current general and workplace literatures will be provided as well as their similarities and differences highlighted. The proposed framework will provide further insights into the antecedents of workplace pro-environmental behavior and identify common findings across the different existing workplace models. This theory can be the basis for further research in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the antecedents of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. Lastly, implications for specific interventions to develop targeted Human Resource Management practices and work towards achieving environmental sustainability will be discussed.

  16. Heat waves and morbidity: current knowledge and further direction-a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-05-18

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions.

  17. Physician Scientist Training in the United States: A Survey of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosik, R O; Tran, D T; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen; Mandell, G A; Tarng, D C; Hsu, H S; Chen, Y S; Su, T P; Wang, S J; Chiu, A W; Lee, C H; Hou, M C; Lee, F Y; Chen, W S; Chen, Q

    2016-03-01

    The declining number of physician scientists is an alarming issue. A systematic review of all existing programs described in the literature was performed, so as to highlight which programs may serve as the best models for the training of successful physician scientists. Multiple databases were searched, and 1,294 articles related to physician scientist training were identified. Preference was given to studies that looked at number of confirmed publications and/or research grants as primary outcomes. Thirteen programs were identified in nine studies. Eighty-three percent of Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) graduates, 77% of Clinician Investigator Training Program (CI) graduates, and only 16% of Medical Fellows Program graduates entered a career in academics. Seventy-eight percent of MSTP graduates succeeded in obtaining National Institute of Health (NIH) grants, while only 15% of Mayo Clinic National Research Service Award-T32 graduates obtained NIH grants. MSTP physician scientists who graduated in 1990 had 13.5 ± 12.5 publications, while MSTP physician scientists who graduated in 1975 had 51.2 ± 38.3 publications. Additionally, graduates from the Mayo Clinic's MD-PhD Program, the CI Program, and the NSRA Program had 18.2 ± 20.1, 26.5 ± 24.5, and 17.9 ± 26.3 publications, respectively. MSTP is a successful model for the training of physician scientists in the United States, but training at the postgraduate level also shows promising outcomes. An increase in the number of positions available for training at the postgraduate level should be considered.

  18. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maagaard, Marie; Heiberg, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3-168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5-33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22-34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  19. Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-Related Issues Facing Professional Team-Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim

    2015-11-01

    While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.

  20. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the past year, the number of publications on myofascial pain continues to increase in a steady rate. The current review includes 30 basic and clinical studies, case reports, reviews, and reports from fifteen different countries about trigger points (TrP), myofascial pain (MP), dry needling (DN) and other related interventions. We are pleased that during 2015 this article made the top 15 of most downloaded articles as many as three times! In general, the quality of published papers is improving as well. Nevertheless, several papers included in this overview, mention the application of "ischemic compression", which is a questionable concept in the context of TrP inactivation. As we have outlined previously, in the current thinking about myofascial pain, TrPs feature significant hypoxia and a lowered pH (Ballyns et al., 2011; Shah and Gilliams, 2008), and attempts to induce more ischemia would be counterproductive. Already in 1999, Simons, Travell and Simons changed the terminology from ischemic compression to TrP compression (Simons et al., 1999) and we recommend that contemporary researchers and clinicians adopt the new terminology and stop using the term "ischemic compression."

  1. The impacts of trail infrastructure on vegetation and soils: Current literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-12-01

    Reflecting the popularity of nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking, there are thousands of kilometres of recreational trails worldwide traversing a range of natural areas. These trails have environmental impacts on soils and vegetation, but where has there been research, what impacts have been found and how were they measured? Using a systematic quantitative literature review methodology, we assessed the impacts of trails on vegetation and soils, highlighting what is known, but also key knowledge gaps. Of the 59 original research papers identified on this topic that have been published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals, most were for research conducted in protected areas (71%), with few from developing countries (17%) or threatened ecosystems (14%). The research is concentrated in a few habitats and biodiversity hotspots, mainly temperate woodland, alpine grassland and Mediterranean habitats, often in the USA (32%) or Australia (20%). Most examined formal trails, with just 15% examining informal trails and 11% assessing both types. Nearly all papers report the results of observational surveys (90%), collecting quantitative data (66%) with 24% using geographic information systems. There was an emphasis on assessing trail impacts at a local scale, either on the trail itself and/or over short gradients away from the trail edge. Many assessed changes in composition and to some degree, structure, of vegetation and soils with the most common impacts documented including reduced vegetation cover, changes in plant species composition, trail widening, soil loss and soil compaction. There were 14 papers assessing how these local impacts can accumulate at the landscape scale. Few papers assessed differences in impacts among trails (7 papers), changes in impacts over time (4), species-specific responses (3) and only one assessed effects on plant community functioning. This review provides evidence that there are key research gaps

  2. Towards a conceptual framework demonstrating the effectiveness of audiovisual patient descriptions (patient video cases: a review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Damian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological advances have enabled the widespread use of video cases via web-streaming and online download as an educational medium. The use of real subjects to demonstrate acute pathology should aid the education of health care professionals. However, the methodology by which this effect may be tested is not clear. Methods We undertook a literature review of major databases, found relevant articles relevant to using patient video cases as educational interventions, extracted the methodologies used and assessed these methods for internal and construct validity. Results A review of 2532 abstracts revealed 23 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and a final review of 18 of relevance. Medical students were the most commonly studied group (10 articles with a spread of learner satisfaction, knowledge and behaviour tested. Only two of the studies fulfilled defined criteria on achieving internal and construct validity. The heterogeneity of articles meant it was not possible to perform any meta-analysis. Conclusions Previous studies have not well classified which facet of training or educational outcome the study is aiming to explore and had poor internal and construct validity. Future research should aim to validate a particular outcome measure, preferably by reproducing previous work rather than adopting new methods. In particular cognitive processing enhancement, demonstrated in a number of the medical student studies, should be tested at a postgraduate level.

  3. Trigger factors of cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęch, J; Samotij, D; Werth, V P; Reich, A

    2017-01-01

    It is currently believed that autoimmune conditions are triggered and aggravated by a variety of environmental factors such as cigarette smoking, infections, ultraviolet light or chemicals, as well as certain medications and vaccines in genetically susceptible individuals. Recent scientific data have suggested a relevant role of these factors not only in systemic lupus erythematosus, but also in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). A variety of environmental factors have been proposed as initiators and exacerbators of this disease. In this review we focused on those with the most convincing evidence, emphasizing the role of drugs in CLE. Using a combined search strategy of the MEDLINE and CINAHL databases the following trigger factors and/or exacerbators of CLE have been identified and described: drugs, smoking, neoplasms, ultraviolet radiation and radiotherapy. In order to give a practical insight we emphasized the role of drugs from various groups and classes in CLE. We also aimed to present a short clinical profile of patients with lesions induced by various drug classes.

  4. Transdermal delivery of combined hormonal contraception: a review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galzote RM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosanna M Galzote,1 Sally Rafie,2 Rachel Teal,1 Sheila K Mody1 1Section of Family Planning, Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 2Department of Pharmacy, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The transdermal patch provides an effective and convenient option for hormonal contraception. The patch currently on the US market contains 150 µg norelgestromin and 35 µg ethinylestradiol (EE. The 20 cm2 patch is applied once weekly for 3 weeks, followed by a patch-free week, for a 21–7 cycle. Typical failure rates are similar to that of combined oral contraceptives (COCs. Transdermal delivery results in less peaks and troughs of estrogen, but a higher total estrogen exposure compared with COCs. Though studies show mixed results, the risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE is about twice as high with the patch as with COCs; however, the absolute risk of VTE remains low. The side effect profile is similar to that of COCs, with slightly higher rates of breast tenderness plus a unique adverse effect of application site reactions. Two new patches have been developed, one containing gestodene and EE in Europe and another containing levonorgestrel and EE. Overall, the patch provides an alternative to COCs for women who want autonomy and the benefit of not needing to take a pill daily, with similar efficacy and tolerability. Keywords: contraceptive patch, Ortho-Evra, transdermal, levonorgestrel patch, gestodene patch, hormonal patch 

  5. Patient reported outcomes measures in neurogenic bladder and bowel: A systematic review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darshan P; Elliott, Sean P; Stoffel, John T; Brant, William O; Hotaling, James M; Myers, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    To describe existing bladder and bowel specific quality of life (QoL) measurement tools, QoL in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), Parkinson's Disease (PD), stroke, or spina bifida (SB) affected by bladder or bowel dysfunction, and the impact of specific bladder and bowel management on QoL. We performed a systematic review in PubMed/Medline databases in accordance with the PRISMA statement for English publications between January 1, 2000 and January 1, 2014. Articles were first screened based on their abstract and select full-text articles were then reviewed for eligibility. Articles with no QoL or PROM assessing urinary or bowel dysfunction were excluded. Risk of bias assessment included randomization, incomplete outcomes data, selective outcomes reporting, and other biases. All articles were graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system as per the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The most common QoL measurement tool for urinary and bowel dysfunction was the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36. Twelve (24%) studies used only non-validated QoL questionnaires. Only three urinary or bowel specific QoL measures were found: the Qualiveen questionnaire, the FICQoL, and the QoL-BM. Several studies identified instances were clinical and patient-reported outcomes were inconsistent particularly with indwelling urinary catheter usage and reconstructive surgery. Additionally, certain clinical outcomes surrogates commonly used as primary outcomes measures may not correlate with the patient reported outcomes (PRO). Current PRO measures (PROM) and QoL assessments are heterogeneous and several inconsistencies in clinical and PRO for various management options exist. Standardized PROM will help identify optimal bladder and bowel management for patients with neurologic conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Academic Writing in Reflexive Professional Writing: Citations of Scientific Literature in Supervised Pre-Service Training Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Chaves de Melo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate citation practices of scientific literature in reflexive writing from the genre of supervised pre-service training report produced by pre-service teachers enrolled in the mandatory pre-service training subject of English Language Teaching, at an undergraduate language teaching course. The aim of this research is to analyze how these pre-services teacher represent themselves based on citation practices of scientific literature, and characterize some of the functions deployed by the citations in the reflexive writing emerging in the academic sphere. We use the dialogic approach to language from Bakhtinian studies as a theoretical base, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions regarding types of sequences and of discourse proposed by Adam and Bronckart. The results of this research show that the practice of citation of scientific literature is an invocation of authority as a form of erudition, amplification and ornamentation of the discourse produced. This practice can also guide pedagogical action developed by pre-service teachers in their supervised training.

  7. Risk factors and current recommendations for prevention of infections associated with central venous catheters: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Mendonça Henrique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Infections related to central venous catheter (CVC use constitute an important a problem. It is estimated that approximately 90% of bloodstream infections (BSI are caused by CVC use. This study aims at reviewing the risk factors and current recommendations for prevention of infections associated with central venous catheter use. Methods: A total of 12 articles published in the last 5 years and indexed in the databases of the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS, Nursing Database (BDENF, International Literature on Health Sciences (Medline/Pubmed were selected, as well as publications related to the recommendations for BSI prevention, such as: Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA. Results: Two categories were identified: prevention and control measures and risk factors for BSI associated with central venous catheter use. Conclusions: Some recommendations that were well-defined over the years have been questioned by some authors and continuing training and education of the multidisciplinary team are the most important factors for the prevention of bloodstream infections associated with CVC use.

  8. Does high level youth sports participation increase the risk of femoroacetabular impingement? A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Viran; Swain, Michael; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien

    2016-03-11

    Sports participation can be an integral part of adolescent development with numerous positive short and long-term effects. Despite these potential benefits very high levels of physical activity, during skeletal maturation, have been proposed as a possible cause of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The influence of physical activity on the developing physis has been previously described both in animal studies and epidemiological studies of adolescent athletes. It is therefore important to determine whether the development of FAI is secondary to excessive physical activity or a combination of a vulnerable physis and a set level of physical activity. A review of the current literature suggests that adolescent males participating in ice-hockey, basketball and soccer, training at least three times a week, are at greater risk than their non-athletic counterparts of developing the femoral head-neck deformity associated with femoroacetabular impingement.

  9. Emergency preparedness in high school-based athletics: a review of the literature and recommendations for sport health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi

    2013-05-01

    Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies.

  10. Primary health care and disasters-the current state of the literature: what we know, gaps and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Abrahams, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    The 2009 Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction/Emergency Preparedness (DRR/EP) and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 demonstrate increased international commitment to DRR/EP in addition to response and recovery. In addition, the World Health Report 2008 has re-focused the world's attention on the renewal of Primary Health Care (PHC) as a set of values/principles for all sectors. Evidence suggests that access to comprehensive PHC improves health outcomes and an integrated PHC approach may improve health in low income countries (LICs). Strong PHC health systems can provide stronger health emergency management, which reinforce each other for healthier communities. The global re-emphasis of PHC recently necessitates the health sector and the broader disaster community to consider health emergency management from the perspective of PHC. How PHC is being described in the literature related to disasters and the quality of this literature is reviewed. Identifying which topics/lessons learned are being published helps to identify key lessons learned, gaps and future directions. Fourteen major scientific and grey literature databases searched. Primary Health Care or Primary Care coupled with the term disaster was searched (title or abstract). The 2009 ISDR definition of disaster and the 1978 World Health Organization definition of Primary Health Care were used. 119 articles resulted. Literature characteristics; 16% research papers, only 29% target LICs, 8% of authors were from LICs, 7% clearly defined PHC, 50% used PHC to denote care provided by clinicians and 4% cited PHC values and principles. Most topics related to disaster response. Key topics; true need for PHC, mental health, chronic disease, models of PHC, importance of PHC soon after a natural disaster relative to acute care, methods of surge capacity, utilization patterns in recovery, access to vulnerable populations, rebuilding with the PHC approach and using current PHC infrastructure to build

  11. Keeping up with Dental Literature: A Study on Continuing Professional Development among Dental Practitioners in Hubli-Dharwad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nandita Subba; Ali, Anzil K S; Thadeethra, Mathews Jude

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Continuing Professional Development (CPD) refers to skills and knowledge attained for both personal development and career advancement. In India, very few studies have been documented to discover the patterns of information update by dental practitioners. Aim To discover the educational tools that dentists of Hubli - Dharwad, Karnataka, India, prefer for updating their knowledge on new therapeutic methods and to assess the perceived usefulness of these CPD activities. Materials and Methods Face to face interview was carried out using questionnaire comprising questions on various CPD activities among all the practicing dentists. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to evaluate any association between the frequency of information update and perceived usefulness with gender, qualification, practice types and academic attachments. Results Out of 112 practicing dentists in Hubli-Dharwad, 104 consented for the study. Mean age group of the study population was 32.3±7.56 (SD) years. Discussion with colleagues and discussion with medical sales representatives were the most frequently utilized information sources. On the other hand, attending dental fairs was found to be the most rarely utilized method of information access. Discussion with colleagues, reading textbooks and accessing internet were rated as most useful CPD activities and discussion with sales representatives and attending dental fairs were rated as least useful CPD activities. Conclusion Both conventional methods of information sources like discussions with colleagues and textbook reading as well as contemporary information sources like accessing internet were the preferred methods of information update by dental practitioners of Hubli-Dharwad. PMID:28571256

  12. Current Requirements of the Society to the Professional Training of Specialists in Information Technology Industry in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pododimenko Inna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of professional training of skilled human personnel in the industry of information communication technology, the urgency of which is recognized at the state level of Ukraine and the world, has been considered. It has been traced that constantly growing requirements of the labour market, swift scientific progress require the use of innovative approaches to the training of future ІТ specialists with the aim to increase their professional level. The content of standards of professional training and development of information technologies specialists in foreign countries, particularly in Japan, has been analyzed and generalized. On the basis of analysis of educational and professional standards of Japan, basic requirements to the engineer in industry of information communication technology in the conditions of competitive environment at the labour market have been comprehensively characterized. The competencies that graduate students of educational qualification level of bachelor in the conditions of new state policy concerning upgrading the quality of higher education have been considered. The constituents of professional competence in the structure of an engineer-programmer’s personality, necessary on different levels of professional improvement of a specialist for the development of community of highly skilled ІТ specialists, have been summarized. Positive features of foreign experience and the possibility of their implementation into the native educational space have been distinguished. Directions for modernization and upgrading of the quality of higher education in Ukraine and the prospects for further scientific research concerning the practice of specialists in information technologies training have been suggested

  13. Learning from research on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals: a review of the literature 2004-2008 with a focus on emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Ina

    2009-09-01

    A review, focusing on emotion, was conducted of reported studies on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals (2004-2008). Findings were intended to offer guidelines on information services and information literacy training, to note gaps in research and to raise research interest. Databases were searched for literature published from January 2004 to December 2008 and indexed on eric, Library and Information Science Abstracts, medline, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts; Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection; Social Work Abstracts; SocINDEX with Full Text; SPORTDiscus; cinhal; and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Key journals were manually scanned and citations followed. Literature was included if reporting on issues concerning emotion. Emotion in information behaviour in healthcare contexts is scantily addressed. This review, however, offers some insight into the difficulty in identifying and expressing information needs; sense making and the need to fill knowledge gaps; uncertainty; personality and coping skills; motivation to seeking information; emotional experiences during information seeking; self-confidence and attitude; emotional factors in the selection of information channels; and seeking information for psychological or emotional reasons. Suggestions following findings, address information literacy programs, information services and research gaps.

  14. Expanding the (kaleido)scope: exploring current literature trends for translating electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney-Lang, E.; Auyeung, B.; Escudero, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults. Further inspection highlights limited literature pursuing research in the field, especially outside of neurofeedback paradigms. Then the question naturally arises, do current literature trends indicate that EEG based BCI motor rehabilitation applications could be translated to children? To provide further evidence beyond the available literature for this particular topic, we present an exploratory survey examining some of the indirect literature related to motor rehabilitation BCI in children. Our goal is to establish if evidence in the related literature supports research on this topic and if the related studies can help explain the dearth of current research in this area. The investigation found positive literature trends in the indirect studies which support translating these BCI applications to children and provide insight into potential pitfalls perhaps responsible for the limited literature. Careful consideration of these pitfalls in conjunction with support from the literature emphasize that fully realized motor rehabilitation BCI applications for children are feasible and would be beneficial. • BCI intervention has improved motor recovery in adult patients and offer supplementary rehabilitation options to patients. • A systematic literature search revealed that essentially no research has been conducted bringing motor rehabilitation BCI applications to children, despite advances in BCI. • Indirect studies discovered

  15. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the Minimal Risk Level (MRL defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium. Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  16. Conceptualising professionalism in occupational therapy through a Western lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordichuk, Chelsea J; Robinson, Allison J; Sullivan, Theresa M

    2015-06-01

    The term professionalism is embedded within curriculum and occupational therapy documents, yet, explicit discussion of the concept is lacking in the literature. This paper strives for a greater understanding of how professionalism is currently conceptualised within Western occupational therapy literature. A broad literature search was conducted and included international peer-reviewed and grey literature from Western cultures including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. To enrich understanding, some documents from medicine were also included. Professionalism is widely upheld as a core construct of occupational therapy. However, an evidence-based consensus of the specific elements of professionalism guiding occupational therapy practice is lacking. Currently, understanding of professionalism is largely based on multiple, isolated concepts presented in Western professional association documents. Acknowledging the multifaceted and multicultural nature of professionalism is essential to begin systematically delineating and conceptualising elements of professionalism specific to occupational therapy. This review has been conducted from a solely Western cultural lens. Additional work to highlight differences specific to international contexts, cultures, and societal influences is needed to enrich the understanding of professionalism in occupational therapy practice. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  17. On the Cutting Edge: Face-to-Face and Virtual Professional Development for Current and Future Geoscience Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Iverson, E. A.; Kirk, K. B.; Beane, R. J.; McConnell, D.; Wiese, K.; Wysession, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    On the Cutting Edge, a comprehensive, discipline-wide professional development program for current and future geoscience faculty, aims to develop a geoscience professoriate committed to high-quality instruction based on currency in scientific knowledge, good pedagogic practice, and research on learning. Our program provides an integrated workshop series and online teaching resources. Since 2002, we have offered more than 80 face-to-face workshops, virtual workshops and webinars, and hybrid events. Participants come from two-year colleges and four-year colleges and universities. The workshop series is designed to address the needs of faculty in all career stages at the full spectrum of institutions and covering the breadth of the geoscience curriculum. We select timely and compelling topics and create opportunities of interest to faculty. We offer workshops on course design, new geoscience research and pedagogical topics, core geoscience curriculum topics, and introductory courses as well as workshops for early career faculty and for future faculty. Our workshops are designed to model good teaching practice. We set workshop goals that guide workshop planning and evaluation. Workshops are interactive, emphasize participant learning, provide opportunities for participants to interact and share experience/knowledge, provide good resources, give participants time to reflect and to develop action plans, and help transform their ideas about teaching. We emphasize the importance of adaptation in the context of their specific situations. For virtual workshops and webinars we use icebreakers and other structured interactions to build a comfortable workshop community; promote interaction through features on webinar software, chat-aided question and answer, small-group synchronous interactions, and/or discussion boards; plan detailed schedules for workshop events; use asynchronous discussions and recordings of synchronous events given that participants are busy with their

  18. ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review of the current literature and its potential utility in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Katherine; O'Brien, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Advanced imaging of veterinary cancer patients has evolved in recent years and modalities once limited to human medicine have now been described for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine (positron emission tomography/computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, whole body magnetic resonance imaging). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing technique that is well described in the human medical literature and is most frequently used to evaluate the metabolic activity of tissues with questionable malignant transformation. Differentiation of neoplastic tissue from surrounding normal tissue is dependent on variations in cellular metabolism. Positive identification of malignancy can be made when neoplastic alterations are occurring at the cellular level prior to gross anatomic changes. This improved, early detection of cancer occurrence (or recurrence) can improve patient survival and direct medical therapy. MRS techniques are largely underutilized in veterinary medicine, with current research predominantly limited to the brain (both evaluation of normal and diseased tissue). Given the clinical utility of MRS in humans, the technique may also be useful in the staging of cancer in veterinary medicine.

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Gunalp; Mutluoglu, Mesut; Ersen, Omer; Yildiz, Senol

    2016-01-01

    To review the current literature on the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We searched PubMed, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), EMBASE, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL and MEDLINE through April 2015. We hand-searched relevant textbooks, conference proceedings and the reference lists of review articles and clinical studies Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies (cohort study, case-control study, case series) that reported the outcome of patients who received HBO₂therapy for ONFH were included. Only English-language articles were included. Study quality was not used as an exclusion criterion. Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and presented to other authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. We identified eight clinical studies; two randomized controlled trials (RCTs); one historically controlled study; and five case series. The majority of the studies were small-scale, heterogeneous and methodologically weak. In four of the studies HBO₂therapy was combined with other treatment modalities, making it impossible to draw firm conclusions on the specific effects of HBO₂therapy. Hip survivorship in studies wherein HBO₂therapy was used alone was 95.5% in Steinberg Stage I lesions, 89% in Steinberg Stage II lesions and 100% in Ficat Stage II lesions. There is a room for HBO₂therapy in the management ONFH. Further RCTs, however, are required to better elucidate the role of HBO₂therapy in the treatment of ONFH.

  20. Connecting Professional Development to Current Practices: An Examination of Implementation of Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlovsky, Kelly R.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a basic qualitative research design to uncover and understand how early childhood teachers apply developmentally appropriate practices and what successes and barriers they encounter. The new knowledge produced might help professional development practitioners by increasing their understanding of how developmentally appropriate…

  1. Library and Information Professionals as Knowledge Engagement Specialists. Theories, Competencies and Current Educational Possibilities in Accredited Graduate Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Javier Calzada; Marzal, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The role of library and information science professionals as knowledge facilitators is solidly grounded in the profession's theoretical foundations as much as connected with its social relevance. Knowledge science is presented in this paper as a convenient theoretical framework for this mission, and knowledge engagement…

  2. [Current Status of Preoperative Professional Oral Care by Dentists for Elderly Patients Undergoing Lung Resection and Occurrence of Postoperative Pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Tanda, Naoko; Matsuda, Yasushi; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Notsuda, Hirotsugu; Watanabe, Tatsuaki; Niikawa, Hiromichi; Noda, Masafumi; Sakurada, Akira; Kondo, Takashi; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia in elderly people is mainly caused by silent aspiration due to an age-related impairment of cough and swallowing reflexes. Because most of the patients with lung cancer are elderly people, we hypothesized that the age-related impairment of these protective reflexes might exist or occur in patients undergoing lung surgery, and cause postoperative pneumonia. We revealed that many elderly patients showed depressed swallowing reflex even before surgery and transient attenuation of cough reflex after surgery, and that postoperative pneumonia occurred only in the patients whose cough and/or swallowing reflex was abnormal postoperatively. Then, we prospectively showed that 30 elderly patients who received perioperative intensive oral care, including professional assessment of oral status, dental cleaning, and patient education for self-oral care by dentists, followed by intensive oral care by intensive care unit nurses, and encouragement of self-oral care by floor nurses, did not develop pneumonia after lung resection. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the execution status of professional oral care by dentists and the occurrence of postoperative pneumonia in 159 consecutive patients aged 65 or older undergoing lung resection from 2013 to 2014. Thoracic surgeons in our institute asked dentists to provide professional oral care before lung resection only in 30.3% of the subjects in 2013, and 45.8% in 2014. Postoperative pneumonia occurred in 3 out of 76 subjects(3.9%)in 2013, and 1 out of 83(1.2%) in 2014. In 2013, 1 patient who did not receive preoperative professional oral care developed aspiration pneumonia postoperatively followed by acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in-hospital death. We need to make an effective system to provide preoperative professional oral care by dentists especially for elderly patients and high-risk patients before lung resection.

  3. 文学创作品牌的当下构建%Current Construction of Literature Creation Brand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟

    2011-01-01

    realization of the actual results and the possible problems must be examined and tracked,the value of literary creation brand construction,will play a more and more obvious,more and more important and more and more indispensable role in the current and future literature survival and development.

  4. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Mayank Mohan; Singh, Shwaran K; Mavuduru, Ravimohan; Mandal, Arup K

    2011-07-01

    Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research.

  5. Genetic and epigenetic changes in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trietsch, Marjolijn D; Nooij, Linda S; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare gynecologic malignancy with an annual incidence in developed countries of approximately 2 per 100,000 women. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has two etiological pathways: a high risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent route, which has usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) as a precursor lesion, and an HPV-independent route, which is associated with differentiated VIN (dVIN), lichen sclerosus, and genetic alterations, such as TP53 mutations. Research on the molecular etiology of vulvar cancer has increased in the past years, not only regarding genetic alterations, but also epigenetic changes. In genetic alterations, a mutation irreversibly changes the nucleotide sequence of the DNA, or the number of copies of chromosomes per cell is altered. In epigenetics, the nucleotide sequence remains the same but genes can be 'switched' on or off by, for example, DNA methylation or histone modification. We searched the current literature on genetic and epigenetic alterations in VSCC and its precursor lesions. Many studies have reported a higher incidence of somatic mutations in HPV-negative tumors compared to HPV-positive tumors, with TP53 mutations being the most frequent. Allelic imbalances or loss of heterozygosity are more frequently found in higher stages of dysplasia and in invasive carcinomas, but it is not exclusive to HPV-negative tumors. A limited number of studies are available on epigenetic changes in vulvar lesions, with hypermethylation of CDKN2A being the most frequently investigated change. For most genes, hypermethylation occurs more frequently in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas than in precursor lesions. As most studies have focused on HPV infection and TP53 mutations, we suggest that more research should be performed using whole genome or next generation sequencing to determine the true landscape of genetic and epigenetic alterations in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Preventive fluid and dietary therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Mohan Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of fluid and dietary intake habits is essential in comprehensive preventive management of urolithiasis. However, despite large body of epidemiological database, there is dearth of good quality prospective interventional studies in this regard. Often there is conflict in pathophysiological basis and actual clinical outcome. We describe conflicts, controversies and lacunae in current literature in fluid and dietary modifications in prevention of urolithiasis. Adequate fluid intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis-prevention; its positive effects are seen even at low volumes. Of the citrus, orange provides the most favorable pH changes in the urine, equivalent to therapeutic alkaline citrates. Despite being richest source of citrate, lemon does not increase pH significant due to its acidic nature. Fructose, animal proteins and fats are implicated in contributing to obesity, which is an established risk factor for urolithiasis. Fructose and proteins also contribute to lithogenecity of urine directly. Sodium restriction is commonly advised since natriuresis is associated with calciuresis. Calcium restriction is not advisable for urolithiasis prevention. Adequate calcium intake is beneficial if taken with food since it reduces absorption of dietary oxalate. Increasing dietary fiber does not protect against urolithiasis. Evidence for pyridoxine and magnesium is not robust. There is no prospective interventional study evaluating effect of many dietary elements, including citrus juices, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, sodium, etc. Due to lack of good-quality prospective interventional trials it is essential to test the findings of pathophysiological understanding and epidemiological evidence. Role of probiotics and phytoceuticals needs special attention for future research.

  7. Features of a Mobile Support App for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Literature Review and Current Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Nada; Kayyali, Reem; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Pierscionek, Barbara; Vaes, Anouk W; Spruit, Martijn A; Kaimakamis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious long-term lung disease in which the airflow from the lungs is progressively reduced. By 2030, COPD will become the third cause of mortality and seventh cause of morbidity worldwide. With advances in technology and mobile communications, significant progress in the mobile health (mHealth) sector has been recently observed. Mobile phones with app capabilities (smartphones) are now considered as potential media for the self-management of certain types of diseases such as asthma, cancer, COPD, or cardiovascular diseases. While many mobile apps for patients with COPD are currently found on the market, there is little published material on the effectiveness of most of them, their features, and their adoption in health care settings. Objectives The aim of this study was to search the literature for current systems related to COPD and identify any missing links and studies that were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of COPD mobile apps. In addition, we reviewed existing mHealth apps from different stores in order to identify features that can be considered in the initial design of a COPD support tool to improve health care services and patient outcomes. Methods In total, 206 articles related to COPD management systems were identified from different databases. Irrelevant materials and duplicates were excluded. Of those, 38 articles were reviewed to extract important features. We identified 214 apps from online stores. Following exclusion of irrelevant apps, 48 were selected and 20 of them were downloaded to review some of their common features. Results Our review found that out of the 20 apps downloaded, 13 (65%, 13/20) had an education section, 5 (25%, 5/20) consisted of medication and guidelines, 6 (30%, 6/20) included a calendar or diary and other features such as reminders or symptom tracking. There was little published material on the effectiveness of the identified COPD apps. Features such as

  8. Current Situation and Discussion of Chinese Football Professionalism Reform%中国足球职业化改革的现状分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云广

    2012-01-01

    The main problems in Chinese football professionalism reform current situation was studied by the methods of documentary. The reform direction was pointed out at the same time, in order to provide some validity advices for healthy and rapid development of the Chinese football professionalism reform.%运用文献资料法对现行中国当前足球职业化改革现状中存在的主要问题进行分析,并指出相应的改革方向,为我国足球职业化改革、快速发展提供一些有效性的建议。

  9. Evaluation of Current Decision Rules and Healthcare Professional Practices for Detecting Osteoporosis Risk in the Young Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Willig, Amanda Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is caused by a multitude of factors. An individual¡¯s risk for experiencing a bone fracture as a senior citizen increases without early intervention. Healthcare professionals do not have access to validated survey tools to identify young adults in need of osteoporosis prevention education, although survey tools to identify postmenopausal women at high risk for low bone mass are available. The purposes of this study were to evaluate three of these survey tools for use in a yo...

  10. Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society (RESNA) position on the application of wheelchair standing devices: 2013 current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicianno, Brad E; Morgan, Amy; Lieberman, Jenny; Rosen, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America Board of Directors on December 23, 2013, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of wheelchair standers.

  11. A systematic literature review of the current trends and challenges of internationalization of higher education in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Brand, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to consolidate a sample of existing academic literature on the modes, trends, risks and challenges of the internationalization of higher education in Latin America published over the last 15 years -- Following a systematic literature review methodology, it was seeking to analyze and synthesize a sample of 25 published academic articles on the specifically chosen topic -- As a consequence of this review, it was found that progress has been made on the subject and there is an aw...

  12. Considerations on Tatczëzna. Literackie przestrzenie Kaszub by Adela Kuik-Kalinowska and Current Studies on Kashubian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Derlatka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the authoress of the monograph Tatczëzna. Literackie przestrzenie Kaszub (Tatczëzna. Literary Spaces of Kashubia is to elaborate and present the anthropological outline of the Kashubian literature. He focuses on selected (anthropological points of reference, i.e. leading motives in the Kashubian culture/literature. They are, on the one hand, childhood, femininity, masculinity, and on the other hand, the values which are fundamentally related to the spiritual culture of Kashubia: the native land (tatczëzna, rodnô zemia and the Kashubian language (rodnô mòwa. Presentation of these motifs occurs in the cultural conditions of Polish tradition. The anthropological outline of the Kashubian literature is presented by Kuik-Kalinowska from two perspectives: in the “local” plane, i.e. in the context of social and cultural phenomena specific only for the Kashubian culture, and in a more general context, by emphasizing its universal aspects. Both perspectives are to show both what in the Kashubian culture and literature is regional, ethnic, own, as well as what is universal, of a general character, often unconscious to the writers. According to the researcher, the variety of themes and motifs of the Kashubian literature indicates its maturity and artistic self-sufficiency, and this puts it on an equal grounds with other literatures.

  13. Implementing a Grant Proposal Writing Exercise in Undergraduate Science Courses to Incorporate Real-World Applications and Critical Analysis of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kathryn E.; Inada, Maki; Smith, Andrew M.; Haaf, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is an essential part of a successful career in science. As such, many undergraduate science courses have begun to implement writing assignments that reflect "real-world" applications and focus on a critical analysis of current literature; these assignments are often in the form of a review or a research proposal. The…

  14. Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

  15. A comparison of professional-level faculty and student perceptions of active learning: its current use, effectiveness, and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Active learning is an instructional method in which students become engaged participants in the classroom through the use of in-class written exercises, games, problem sets, audience-response systems, debates, class discussions, etc. Despite evidence supporting the effectiveness of active learning strategies, minimal adoption of the technique has occurred in many professional programs. The goal of this study was to compare the perceptions of active learning between students who were exposed to active learning in the classroom (n = 116) and professional-level physiology faculty members (n = 9). Faculty members reported a heavy reliance on lectures and minimal use of educational games and activities, whereas students indicated that they learned best via the activities. A majority of faculty members (89%) had observed active learning in the classroom and predicted favorable effects of the method on student performance and motivation. The main reported barriers by faculty members to the adoption of active learning were a lack of necessary class time, a high comfort level with traditional lectures, and insufficient time to develop materials. Students hypothesized similar obstacles for faculty members but also associated many negative qualities with the traditional lecturers. Despite these barriers, a majority of faculty members (78%) were interested in learning more about the alternative teaching strategy. Both faculty members and students indicated that active learning should occupy portions (29% vs. 40%) of face-to-face class time. PMID:25179615

  16. 现行准则下会计人员职业判断能力研究%Study on Accounting Professional Judgment Under Current Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁海帆

    2015-01-01

    The existing accounting standards conform to the trend of internationalization, changing from the rule-oriented mode to principle-oriented mode, which no longer carries out provisions for specific operations of the business and only gives accounting principles. This change not only expands the space of judgment of accounting personnel, but also imposes higher requirements of accounting personnel professional knowledge and skills. This paper analyzes the current standards of accounting professional judgment ability, in order to improve the account-ing professional judgment.%现有会计准则顺应了国际化趋势,由原有的规则导向模式转变为原则导向模式,不再对业务的具体操作进行细节性的规定,而仅给出会计核算的原则性要求。这一转变虽然扩大了会计人员的职业判断空间,但也对会计人员的专业知识和技能提出了更高的要求。本文对现有准则下会计人员职业判断能力进行分析,以期对会计职业判断的提高起到一定的推动作用。

  17. A structured literature review of the burden of illness and unmet needs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter C; Moore, Adam; Vasilescu, Radu; Alvir, Jose; Tarallo, Miriam

    2016-05-01

    While rheumatologists often focus on treatment targets, for many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), control over pain and fatigue, as well as sustaining physical function and quality of life (QoL), is of primary importance. This literature review aimed at examining patients' and physicians' treatment aspirations, and identifying the unmet needs for patients with RA receiving ongoing treatment. Searches were performed using MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Econlit literature databases for articles published from 2004 to 2014 in the English language. Published literature was screened to identify articles reporting the unmet needs in RA. We found that, despite the wide range of available treatments, RA continues to pose a substantial humanistic and economic burden on patients, and there are still unmet needs across key domains such as pain, physical function, mental function, and fatigue. These findings suggest that there is a need for further treatment advances in RA that address these domains of contemporary unmet need.

  18. A professional curriculum vitae will open career doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D S

    1999-01-01

    In today's challenging healthcare environment, it is essential for nurse practitioners to be able to describe themselves professionally on paper to compete for practice and academic opportunities. Nurse practitioners are competing with physician assistants as well as physicians for primary and acute care positions. A carefully compiled curriculum vitae will present the individual in the best light possible to help open career doors and enhance chances of success. Preparing a curriculum vitae will serve to highlight relevant professional accomplishments, whatever the setting, toward the fulfillment of professional goals. This article reviews the current professional print and electronic literature on preparing a curriculum vitae to assist the nurse practitioner in developing this vital document.

  19. Chondral Rib Fractures in Professional American Football: Two Cases and Current Practice Patterns Among NFL Team Physicians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAdams, Timothy R; Deimel, Jay F; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S; Beaulieu, Christopher F

    2016-01-01

    ...: To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Study Design: Case series...

  20. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European integ

  1. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European

  2. Can Online Learning Communities Achieve the Goals of Traditional Professional Learning Communities? What the Literature Says. Summary. REL 2013-003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs)--teams of educators who get together regularly to exchange ideas--have sprung up to meet school districts' growing interest in promoting professional development that engages teachers and administrators. PLCs meet to develop lesson plans, monitor student progress, assess instructional effectiveness, and…

  3. Being Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Winther

    to other health professionals, when they are in the work place setting. The analysis indicates that the care work programme still struggles to make a clear distinction between the former non-paid female domestic work and the current work carried out by the care workers. The analysis mobilises the concept...

  4. Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Gordon I.; Jervis, Robert

    Resulting in part from a project designed to identify and describe comprehensive programs of excellence in career education, this booklet is the eighth in a series describing current, successful career education practices. A successful career education program is dependent upon professional development. Based on this premise, the monograph: (1)…

  5. Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: a search for clarity in a conflicting literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2013-06-01

    Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as heightened autonomic activity, an exaggerated startle response, reduced basal cortisol levels and cognitive impairments. We have reviewed primary research in this area, noting that factors involved in the susceptibility and expression of PTSD symptoms are more complex and heterogeneous than is commonly stated, with extensive findings which are inconsistent with the stereotypic behavioral and biological profile of the PTSD patient. A thorough assessment of the literature indicates that interactions among myriad susceptibility factors, including social support, early life stress, sex, age, peri- and post-traumatic dissociation, cognitive appraisal of trauma, neuroendocrine abnormalities and gene polymorphisms, in conjunction with the inconsistent expression of the disorder across studies, confounds attempts to characterize PTSD as a monolithic disorder. Overall, our assessment of the literature addresses the great challenge in developing a behavioral and biomarker-based diagnosis of PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. [Current situation on fertility preservation in cancer patients in Spain: Level of knowledge, information, and professional involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Colino, Carmen; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Vazquez, María Ángeles; Echevarria, Aizpea; Gutierrez, Ignacio; Andión, Maitane; Berlanga, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    The estimated risks of infertility in childhood cancer due to radiation, chemotherapy and surgery are well known. The involvement of professionals and advances in the different methods of preservation are increasing. However, many patients do not receive information or perform any method of preservation. Questionnaires to paediatric onco-haematology institutions throughout Spain. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions assessing their usual practices and knowledge about fertility preservation. Fifty members of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, representing 24 of 43 centres, responded. These represented 82% of centres that treated higher numbers of patients. The effect of treatment on fertility was known by 78% of those who responded, with 76% admitting not knowing any guideline on fertility in children or adolescents. As for the ideal time and place to inform the patient and/or family, only 14% thought it should be done in the same cancer diagnosis interview. In clinical practice, 12% of those surveyed never referred patients to Human Reproduction Units, another 12% only did so if the patients showed interest, and 38% only refer patients in puberty. Just over one-third (34%) of those referrals were going to receive highly gonadotoxic treatment. There are clear differences between pre-puberty and puberty patients. The frequency with which some method of fertility preservation is performed in patients is low. All respondents believe that the existence of national guidelines on the matter would be of interest. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. The international marketing of professional service projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo

    2003-01-01

    Many types of commercial professional services are commonly sold as projects. Therefore this article draws on the project marketing literature to elucidate the international marketing of professional service projects. After an initial literature review, the project marketing milieu concept...

  8. The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations: Review of the Literature & Current Training of U.S. Special Operations Medical Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    8) 8 mg twice daily starting the day before the ascent to 4,559 m throughout the 2-day study Dexamethasone improved VO2 - max (pɘ.05) and...4,559 m Dexamethasone improved VO2 - max (p=0.025); no significant difference existed in arterial O2 saturation during maximal exercise...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2013-0006 The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations: Review of the Literature & Current

  9. Categorizing Health Websites: E-Knowledge, E-Business and E-Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Wayne; Skinner, James

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three types of health website categories (e-knowledge, e-business and e-professional) which are currently being used to disseminate health-related information, services and medical literature to the health consumer and professional. Moreover, criteria which have been used to establish a health website's category is…

  10. Categorizing Health Websites: E-Knowledge, E-Business and E-Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Wayne; Skinner, James

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three types of health website categories (e-knowledge, e-business and e-professional) which are currently being used to disseminate health-related information, services and medical literature to the health consumer and professional. Moreover, criteria which have been used to establish a health website's category is…

  11. The physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on the different skin layers: a current status of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, Peter; Anthonissen, Mieke; Meirte, Jill; Van Daele, Ulrike; Maertens, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum massage is a non-invasive mechanical massage technique performed with a mechanical device that lifts the skin by means of suction, creates a skin fold and mobilises that skin fold. In the late 1970s, this therapy was introduced to treat traumatic or burn scars. Although vacuum massage was invented to treat burns and scars, one can find very little literature on the effects of this intervention. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present an overview of the available literature on the physical and physiological effects of vacuum massage on epidermal and dermal skin structures in order to find the underlying working mechanisms that could benefit the healing of burns and scars. The discussion contains translational analysis of the results and provides recommendations for future research on the topic. An extended search for publications was performed using PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Two authors independently identified and checked each study against the inclusion criteria. Nineteen articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. The two most reported physical effects of vacuum massage were improvement of the tissue hardness and the elasticity of the skin. Besides physical effects, a variety of physiological effects are reported in literature, for example, an increased number of fibroblasts and collagen fibres accompanied by an alteration of fibroblast phenotype and collagen orientation. Little information was found on the decrease of pain and itch due to vacuum massage. Although vacuum massage initially had been developed for the treatment of burn scars, this literature review found little evidence for the efficacy of this treatment. Variations in duration, amplitude or frequency of the treatment have a substantial influence on collagen restructuring and reorientation, thus implying possible beneficial influences on the healing potential by mechanotransduction pathways. Vacuum massage may release the mechanical tension associated with

  12. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...

  13. Research on road traffic noise and human health in India: Review of literature from 1991 to current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on research conducted during the last two decades on traffic noise impacts in India. Road traffic noise studies in India are fewer and restricted only to the metropolitan areas. The studies over the years have also focused on the monitoring, recording, analysis, modeling, and to some extent mapping related themes. Negligible studies are observed in areas of physiological and sleep research exposure-effect context. Most impact studies have been associated with annoyance and attitudinal surveys only. Little scientific literature exists related to effects of traffic noise on human physiology in the Indian context. The findings of this review search and analysis observe that very little studies are available relating to traffic noise and health impacts. All of them are subjective response studies and only a small portion of them quantify the exposure-effect chain and model the noise index with annoyance. The review of papers showed that road traffic noise is a cause for annoyance to a variety of degree among the respondents. A generalization of impacts and meta-analysis was not possible due to variability of the study designs and outputs preferred.

  14. Does deforestation promote or inhibit malaria transmission in the Amazon? A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Vittor, Amy; Rifai, Sami; Valle, Denis

    2017-06-05

    Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite. Assessing malaria risk requires examination of dynamic processes among three main components: (i) the environment (i.e. LULC and landscape transformations), (ii) vector biology (e.g. mosquito species distributions, vector activity and life cycle, plasmodium infection rates), and (iii) human populations (e.g. forest-related activity, host susceptibility, movement patterns). In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on malaria risk and deforestation in the Amazon focusing on these three components. We explore key features that are likely to generate these contrasting results using the reviewed articles and our own data from Brazil and Peru, and conclude with suggestions for productive avenues in future research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Does deforestation promote or inhibit malaria transmission in the Amazon? A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M.; Vittor, Amy; Rifai, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite. Assessing malaria risk requires examination of dynamic processes among three main components: (i) the environment (i.e. LULC and landscape transformations), (ii) vector biology (e.g. mosquito species distributions, vector activity and life cycle, plasmodium infection rates), and (iii) human populations (e.g. forest-related activity, host susceptibility, movement patterns). In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on malaria risk and deforestation in the Amazon focusing on these three components. We explore key features that are likely to generate these contrasting results using the reviewed articles and our own data from Brazil and Peru, and conclude with suggestions for productive avenues in future research. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. PMID:28438914

  16. Cancer survivorship research: a review of the literature and summary of current NCI-designated cancer center projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, J Phil; Dean, Julie A; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-10-01

    The number of cancer survivors and the amount of cancer survivorship research have grown substantially during the past three decades. This article provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  17. Nutrition training in medical and other health professional schools in West Africa: the need to improve current approaches and enhance training effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health professionals play a key role in the delivery of nutrition interventions. Improving the quality of nutrition training in health professional schools is vital for building the necessary human resource capacity to implement effective interventions for reducing malnutrition in West Africa. This study was undertaken to assess the current status of nutrition training in medical, nursing and midwifery schools in West Africa. Design: Data were collected from 127 training programs organized by 52 medical, nursing, and midwifery schools. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we collected information on the content and distribution of nutrition instruction throughout the curriculum, the number of hours devoted to nutrition, the years of the curriculum in which nutrition was taught, and the prevailing teaching methods. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: Nutrition instruction occurred mostly during the first 2 years for the nursing (84%, midwifery (87%, and nursing assistant (77% programs and clinical years in medical schools (64%. The total amount of time devoted to nutrition was on average 57, 56, 48, and 28 hours in the medical, nursing, midwifery, and nursing assistant programs, respectively. Nutrition instruction was mostly provided within the framework of a dedicated nutrition course in nursing (78%, midwifery (87%, and nursing assistant programs (100%, whereas it was mainly embedded in other courses in medical schools (46%. Training content was heavily weighted to basic nutrition in the nursing (69%, midwifery (77%, and nursing assistant (100% programs, while it was oriented toward clinical practice in the medical programs (64%. For all the programs, there was little focus (<6 hours contact time on public health nutrition. The teaching methods on nutrition training were mostly didactic in all the surveyed schools; however, we found an integrated model in some medical schools (12%. None of the

  18. 十年教师专业学习共同体研究文献述评%Literature Review of the 10 Years'Research on Teachers'professional Learning Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立平

    2015-01-01

    Teachers'professional development is one of the focuses of global education and it has been replaced by teacher professional learning since the beginning of 21st century .Consequently ,professional individualism is turning to the practice of professional learning communities .By sorting related literature at home and abroad ,we have found the hotspots of this field .Moreover ,we attempt to analyze these researches further from the angle of ontology ,epistemology and methodology .%教师专业发展是全球教育领域关注的焦点之一。进入21世纪以来,教师专业发展这个术语逐渐被教师专业学习取代,专业个人主义也开始转向学习共同体。通过对国际和国内教师专业学习共同体文献的梳理,我们发现了近十年来该领域的研究热点,同时从本体论、认识论和方法论三个层面,对教师专业学习共同体进行了更深层次的探索。

  19. Quantification of Global Left Ventricular Function: Comparison of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A Meta-analysis and Review of the Current Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vleuten, P.A. van der; Willems, T.P.; Goette, M.J.; Tio, R.A.; Greuter, M.J.; Zijlstra, F.; Oudkerk, M. [Univ. Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands). Depts. of Cardiology and Radiology

    2006-12-15

    Cardiac morbidity and mortality are closely related to cardiac volumes and global left ventricular (LV) function, expressed as left ventricular ejection fraction. Accurate assessment of these parameters is required for the prediction of prognosis in individual patients as well as in entire cohorts. The current standard of reference for left ventricular function is analysis by short-axis magnetic resonance imaging. In recent years, major extensive technological improvements have been achieved in computed tomography. The most marked development has been the introduction of the multidetector CT (MDCT), which has significantly improved temporal and spatial resolutions. In order to assess the current status of MDCT for analysis of LV function, the current available literature on this subject was reviewed. The data presented in this review indicate that the global left ventricular functional parameters measured by contemporary multi-detector row systems combined with adequate reconstruction algorithms and post-processing tools show a narrow diagnostic window and are interchangeable with those obtained by MRI.

  20. The Changing Instructional Role of the High School Library Media Specialist: 1950-84; A Survey of Professional Literature, Standards, and Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Kathleen W.

    1986-01-01

    Although a review of the literature on the instructional role of the media specialists reveals a pattern of progression from 1950 to 1984, analysis of the research in this area indicates a time lag between actual practice and the instructional role espoused by the standards and the literature. (EM)

  1. Prevalence of primary aldosteronism in patient's cohorts and in population-based studies--a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, A; Wallaschofski, H

    2012-03-01

    There is an ongoing controversy on the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA). We aimed to update a meta-analysis published in 2008, that compiled studies reporting the prevalence of positive ARR screening tests and PA. We therefore reviewed original studies published in 2008 or later to examine whether current reports provide similar, higher or lower prevalences of elevated ARRs or PA than reports included in the original meta-analysis. A systematic review of English articles using PubMed was conducted. Search and extraction of articles were performed by one review author; the second review author checked all extracted data. We identified 11 eligible studies. The updated, weighted mean prevalences of elevated ARRs and PA in primary care (prevalence of high ARRs 16.5%; prevalence of PA 4.3%) and referred patients (prevalence of high ARRs 19.6%; prevalence of PA 9.5%) were only marginally different from the mean values obtained in the original meta-analysis. Among the current studies the maximum values for the prevalence of elevated ARRs and PA were substantially lower than among the older studies. Our results confirm the main conclusions from the original meta-analysis. The prevalence of PA increases with the severity of hypertension and the inclusion of current study results did not alter the mean prevalences of elevated ARRs and PA in primary care and referred patients. Additionally, we found that current studies focus increasingly on patients in referral centers or special subgroups, while the prevalence of PA in the general hypertensive population is yet unknown.

  2. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in psychiatric disorders: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Pierluigi; Rocchetti, Matteo; Emanuele, Enzo; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Barale, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are clinically useful in patients with psychiatric disorders. In the present review, we summarize the findings of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that have focused on the potential therapeutic utility of ω-3 PUFAs in patients with mental illnesses. We searched the PubMed database for placebo-controlled clinical trials using the keywords "PUFAs", "omega-3", "eicosapentaenoic acid", and "docosahexaenoic acid" in combination with the following terms: "anxiety disorders", "mood disorders", "autism", "attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder" (ADHD), "personality disorders", and "schizophrenia". The literature review indicated that personality disorders, autism, and anxiety disorders have been investigated less frequently than mood disorders, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn on the therapeutic efficacy of ω-3 PUFAs in the majority of the psychiatric illnesses examined here, the evidence suggests that these molecules have a potential preventive role in people at extremely high risk for developing psychosis. Future studies in the field should examine ω-PUFAs turnover in neural membranes. Moreover, special attention should be paid to potential confounds, such as smoking and dietary habits.

  3. Role of Motorcycle Running Lights in Reducing Motorcycle Crashes during Daytime; A Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Rasoul Davoodi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to other transportation modes, riding motorcycle is prone to accidents. Motorcyclists are more exposed to physical injury than the car drivers. Many multi-vehicle motorcycles crashes occur, there is right-of- way violation takes place in which another vehicle turns in fronts of a motorcycle, or a sudden cross of path of an on-coming motorcycle. One main factor which leads to high rate of motorcycle crashes is lack of conspicuity of motorcycles by other road users especially during day time traffic. This paper highlights previous studies on the implementation of motorcycle DRLs, focusing on the efficacy of the DRLs to improve motorcycle conspicuity. This paper reviews the impacts of DRL by motorcyclists on multi-vehicle motorcycle crash. The three categories of effects of motorcycle DRLs were reviewed. All literature, supporting that operating headlights during daytime appears to be an influential and effective approach to reduce rate of collision by improving motorcycle’s conspicuity in traffic. The motorcycle DRLs managed to reduce about 4 to 20% of motorcycle crash risk. This paper also recommends that motorcycle DRLs must be used globally, especially in countries with high motorcycle accidents to improve the safety of the riders as well as their pillion riders.

  4. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status of Legislation and Policies in 27 African Countries and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthumbi, Jane; Svanemyr, Joar; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen; Say, Lale

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the results of a literature review that has assessed the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) legislation in 28 countries (27 in Africa and Yemen) where FGM is concentrated. Evidence on the impact of FGM legislation was available on prevalence of FGM; changes in societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM; knowledge and awareness of FGM legislation and consequences, and the impact on medicalization. While the majority of countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM, these measures have been ineffective in preventing and/or in accelerating the abandonment of the practice. Anti-FGM laws have had an impact on prevalence in only two countries where strict enforcement of legal measures has been complemented by robust monitoring, coupled with robust advocacy efforts in communities. Owing to poor enforcement and lax penalties, legal measures have had a limited impact on medicalization. Similarly, legal frameworks have had a limited impact on societal attitudes and perceptions of FGM, with evidence suggesting rigid enforcement of FGM laws has in some instances been counterproductive. Although evidence suggests legislation has not influenced the decline in FGM in the majority of countries, legal frameworks are nevertheless key components of a comprehensive response to the elimination and abandonment of the practice, and need to be complemented by measures that address the underlying socio-cultural norms that are the root of this practice.

  5. Current state of professional and core competency in pediatric residency program at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences: A local survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Sedigheh; Rezaee, Rita

    2015-10-01

    programs. According to this study the current status of the pediatrics department of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences was desirable leading to a satisfactory level in general. However, additional educational development will be needed in order to achieve a widespread change and improvement.

  6. Service Idea of Library of Higher Professional Education Institution Based on Diversity of Literature Information%基于文献信息多元化的高等职业院校图书馆服务理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩屹松

    2012-01-01

    The paper expounded the trend of diversity of literature information and orientation of readers' need of library of higher professional education institutions based on lots of information.Service ideas of library of higher professional education institutions were put forwarded which included four aspects of people oriented,high quality and efficient,thought of power change and social collaboration.%以信息时代为背景,阐述了文献信息多元化趋势,以及高等职业院校图书馆读者需求取向,提出了从以人为本、优质高效、权变思想、社会协作等4个方面改善高等职业院校图书馆服务的理念。

  7. The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management in the nursing profession: an evidence based literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, C; Griffiths, P

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of current approaches to workplace stress management for nurses was assessed through a systematic review. Seven randomised controlled trials and three prospective cohort studies assessing the effectiveness of a stress management programmes were identified and reviewed. The quality of research identified was weak. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of programmes based on providing personal support than environmental management to reduce stressors. However, since the number and quality of studies is low, the question as to which, if any, approach is more effective cannot be answered definitively. Further research is required before clear recommendations for the use of particular interventions for nursing work related stress can be made. PMID:12499451

  8. Patient-centered professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapport F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hayley A Hutchings, Frances RapportCollege of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, United KingdomIntroduction: Although the concept of patient-centered professionalism has been defined in the literature and adopted to some extent by key health care regulatory bodies, there has been little research that has identified what the concept means to professionals and patients.Aim: The purpose of this paper is to identify the key concepts of patient-centered professionalism as identified in the literature and to discuss these within the context of existing research across a variety of health care settings.Findings: Key documents have been identified from within nursing, medicine, and pharmacy, which outline what is expected of professionals within these professional groups according to their working practices. Although not defined as patient-centered professionalism, the principles outlined in these documents mirror the definitions of patient-centered professional care defined by Irvine and the Picker Institute and are remarkably similar across the three professions. While patients are identified as being at the heart of health care and professional working practice, research within the fields of community nursing and community pharmacy suggests that patient and professional views diverge as regards what is important, according to different group agendas. In addition, the delivery of patient-centered professional care is often difficult to achieve, due to numerous challenges to the provision of patient-centric care.Conclusion: According to the literature, patient-centered professionalism means putting the patient at the heart of care delivery and working in partnership with the patient to ensure patients are well informed and their care choices are respected. However, limited research has examined what the concept means to patients and health care professionals working with patients and how this fits with literature definitions. Further work is

  9. Potential health effects of gasoline and its constituents: A review of current literature (1990-1997) on toxicological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, L; Togna, G I

    1998-03-01

    We reviewed toxicological studies, both experimental and epidemiological, that appeared in international literature in the period 1990-1997 and included both leaded and unleaded gasolines as well as their components and additives. The aim of this overview was to select, arrange, and present references of scientific papers published during the period under consideration and to summarize the data in order to give a comprehensive picture of the results of toxicological studies performed in laboratory animals (including carcinogenic, teratogenic, or embryotoxic activity), mutagenicity and genotoxic aspects in mammalian and bacterial systems, and epidemiological results obtained in humans in relation to gasoline exposure. This paper draws attention to the inherent difficulties in assessing with precision any potential adverse effects on health, that is, the risk of possible damage to man and his environment from gasoline. The difficulty of risk assessment still exists despite the fact that the studies examined are definitely more technically valid than those of earlier years. The uncertainty in overall risk determination from gasoline exposure also derives from the conflicting results of different studies, from the lack of a correct scientific approach in some studies, from the variable characteristics of the different gasoline mixtures, and from the difficulties of correctly handling potentially confounding variables related to lifestyle (e.g., cigarette smoking, drug use) or to preexisting pathological conditions. In this respect, this paper highlights the need for accurately assessing the conclusive explanations reported in scientific papers so as to avoid the spread of inaccurate or misleading information on gasoline toxicity in nonscientific papers and in mass-media messages.

  10. Current Methods in Health Behavior Research Among U.S. Community College Students: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-06-01

    The majority of health behavior research involving college students in the United States has focused on 4-year college students. Two-year or community college students have been less studied, although a significant proportion of U.S. undergraduates, primarily those from disadvantaged socioeconomic and/or racial/ethnic background, are enrolled in community colleges. Thus, there is a need to enhance health behavior and health promotion research among community college students. This study systematically reviewed 42 published, peer-reviewed health behavior studies conducted among U.S. community college students in order to determine the current state of research in the area with regard to behaviors studied, research designs used, recruitment and data collection strategies practiced, rates of student participation, and characteristics of the participants represented. Findings identified the methodological limitations of current research and suggested optimal recruitment and data collection methods suitable for various research needs. Findings are discussed in the context of enhancing health behavior research among U.S. community college students.

  11. How the risk of liver cancer changes after alcohol cessation: A review and meta-analysis of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckley Gawain A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that drinking alcohol raises the risk of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it has not been sufficiently established as to whether or not drinking cessation subsequently reduces the risk of liver cancer and if it does reduce the risk how long it takes for this heightened risk to fall to that of never drinkers. This question is important for effective policy design and evaluation, to establish causality and for motivational treatments. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis using the current available evidence and a specific form of Generalised Least Squares is performed to assess how the risk of liver cancer changes with time for former drinkers. Results Four studies are found to have quantified the effect of drinking cessation on the risk of liver cancer. The meta-analysis suggests that the risk of liver cancer does indeed fall after cessation by 6-7% a year, but there remains a large uncertainty around this estimate both statistically and in its interpretation. As an illustration it is estimated that a time period of 23 years is required after drinking cessation, with a correspondingly large 95% confidence interval of 14 to 70 years, for the risk of liver cancer to be equal to that of never drinkers. Conclusion This is a relatively under researched area and this is reflected in the uncertainty of the findings. It is our view that it is not possible to extrapolate the results found here to the general population. Too few studies have addressed this question and of the studies that have, all have significant limitations. The key issue amongst the relevant studies is that it appears that current drinkers, abstainers and former drinkers are not composed of, or effectively adjusted to be, similar populations making inferences about risk changes impossible. This is a very difficult area to study effectively, but it is an important topic. More work is required to reduce both statistical

  12. Currently Available Tools and Teaching Strategies for the Interprofessional Education of Students in Health Professions: Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nelofar S; Shahnaz, Syed I; Gomathi, Kadayam G

    2016-08-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is designed to provide students from different health sectors with opportunities to work together to enhance future collaboration. The implementation of IPE activities is a current trend in various countries. This review exclusively targets IPE issues involving undergraduate health profession students and highlights various approaches in different regions. A total of 28 articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2012 and July 2015 were assessed to determine recent trends in IPE implementation. Nine main strategies were identified: simulation-based education programmes; rotations in rural and community settings; interprofessional training wards; patient-centred case studies; theme-centred workshops; student seminars; student-delivered lectures; health promotion activities; and interactive lectures in a common setting. Many of these institutions had not restricted themselves to a single strategy and supplemented these activities with additional teaching or learning methods. Recommendations gathered from these diverse approaches may assist the development of sustainable strategies for implementing IPE in undergraduate medical curricula.

  13. Conceptualizing Teacher Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, V. Darleen; Pedder, David

    2011-01-01

    This article adopts a complexity theory framework to review the literature on teachers' professional development practices, the generative systems of these practices, and the impact that learning experiences have on their knowledge and changes in classroom practices. The review brings together multiple strands of literature on teacher professional…

  14. 专业知识嵌入中医药文献检索课的实践及评价%Embedment of professional knowledge into literature retrieval course of traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳玲; 杨继红; 程树英; 张凡

    2014-01-01

    将专业知识嵌入文献检索课程的教学环节中,并在此基础上建立在线教学质量评价系统,让学生学会获取与利用所需文献信息的方法和技巧,了解其专业学科的基本知识。%The online teaching quality assessment system that was established by embedding the professional knowledge into the teaching of literature retrieval course, can help the students master the methods and skills to ac-cess and use the literature information they need and the basic knowledge of subjects in which they major .

  15. Health outcomes of children born after IVF/ICSI: a review of current expert opinion and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P; Diedrich, K; Balaban, B; Bonduelle, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A; Estella, C; Ezcurra, D; Geraedts, J P M; Howles, C M; Lerner-Geva, L; Serna, J; Wells, D

    2014-02-01

    The Sixth Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Group Meeting was held to evaluate the impact of IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection on the health of assisted-conception children. Epidemiologists, reproductive endocrinologists, embryologists and geneticists presented data from published literature and ongoing research on the incidence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities and congenital malformations in assisted-conception versus naturally conceived children to reach a consensus on the reasons for potential differences in outcomes between these two groups. IVF-conceived children have lower birthweights and higher peripheral fat, blood pressure and fasting glucose concentrations than controls. Growth, development and cognitive function in assisted-conception children are similar to controls. The absolute risk of imprinting disorders after assisted reproduction is less than 1%. A direct link between assisted reproduction and health-related outcomes in assisted-conception children could not be established. Women undergoing assisted reproduction are often older, increasing the chances of obtaining abnormal gametes that may cause deviations in outcomes between assisted-conception and naturally conceived children. However, after taking into account these factors, it is not clear to what extent poorer outcomes are due to the assisted reproduction procedures themselves. Large-scale, multicentre, prospective epidemiological studies are needed to investigate this further and to confirm long-term health consequences in assisted-conception children. Assisted reproduction treatment is a general term used to describe methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial means and includes IVF and sperm implantation. The effect of assisted reproduction treatment on the health of children born using these artificial methods is not fully understood. In April 2011, fertility research experts met to give presentations based on research in this area and to look carefully at the evidence

  16. Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy with glass microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and updated literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanic, Lourdes [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (United States); Cho, Sung Ki [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Div. of Hepatology, Dept. of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cho, Sung-Ki [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351 (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Cell Transplantation and Neuroengineering Approach for Spinal Cord Injury Treatment: A Summary of Current Laboratory Findings and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Yi; Lai, Bi-Qin; Zeng, Xiang; Che, Ming-Tian; Ling, Eng-Ang; Wu, Wutian; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause severe traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Current therapeutic effects achieved for SCI in clinical medicine show that there is still a long way to go to reach the desired goal of full or significant functional recovery. In basic medical research, however, cell transplantation, gene therapy, application of cytokines, and biomaterial scaffolds have been widely used and investigated as treatments for SCI. All of these strategies when used separately would help rebuild, to some extent, the neural circuits in the lesion area of the spinal cord. In light of this, it is generally accepted that a combined treatment may be a more effective strategy. This review focuses primarily on our recent series of work on transplantation of Schwann cells and adult stem cells, and transplantation of stem cell-derived neural network scaffolds with functional synapses. Arising from this, an artificial neural network (an exogenous neuronal relay) has been designed and fabricated by us-a biomaterial scaffold implanted with Schwann cells modified by the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene and adult stem cells modified with the TrkC (receptor of NT-3) gene. More importantly, experimental evidence suggests that the novel artificial network can integrate with the host tissue and serve as an exogenous neuronal relay for signal transfer and functional improvement of SCI.

  19. Currently Available Tools and Teaching Strategies for the Interprofessional Education of Students in Health Professions; Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed I. Shahnaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Interprofessional education (IPE is designed to provide students from different health sectors with opportunities to work together to enhance future collaboration. The implementation of IPE activities is a current trend in various countries. This review exclusively targets IPE issues involving undergraduate health profession students and highlights various approaches in different regions. A total of 28 articles published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2012 and July 2015 were assessed to determine recent trends in IPE implementation. Nine main strategies were identified: simulation-based education programmes; rotations in rural and community settings; interprofessional training wards; patient-centred case studies; theme-centred workshops; student seminars; student-delivered lectures; health promotion activities; and interactive lectures in a common setting. Many of these institutions had not restricted themselves to a single strategy and supplemented these activities with additional teaching or learning methods. Recommendations gathered from these diverse approaches may assist the development of sustainable strategies for implementing IPE in undergraduate medical curricula.

  20. Surviving Troubled Times: Five Best Practices for Training Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villachica, Steven W.; Stepich, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    With the current economic downturn and signs of an emerging recovery, executives are trying to determine how to best use their organizations' funds and resources. This may mean downsizing human resource departments and eliminating positions for training personnel. The authors offer five strategies drawn from the professional literature to survive…

  1. Current Usage of Relative Pronouns in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozete, Oscar

    1981-01-01

    Examines variations in current usage that pose problems in teaching Spanish relative pronouns. Discusses their treatment in first-year college textbooks, in the professional literature and in newspapers and magazines prose. Attempts to provide a description of the use of these pronouns applicable to classroom presentation. (MES)

  2. Scripting Professional Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how individual accountants subjectively interpret competing logics of professionalism as they transform from practicing accountants to managerial roles and as their organizations transform from traditional professional partnerships to more corporate organizational forms. Based...... on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts...... logics is based less of inter-subjective interactions, as prior literature has assumed, and is, instead, based on individual cognition and interpretive subjectivity. We also contribute to research in professional service firms by offering a conceptual model of the individual micro-processes required...

  3. New Thoughts about the Theoretical System of Current Comparative Literature%比较文学学科理论体系新思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵渭绒; 曹顺庆

    2012-01-01

    本文从三个方面对当前的比较文学学科理论体系进行新的思考。首先,指出学科发展第一、二阶段存在的理论缺陷及不足,指出影响研究既有实证性特点又有非实证性特点;平行研究认为不同文明之间不具备可比性,使其本身不具备"世界性胸怀"。其次,将差异性作为可比性提出来,学界不宜仅仅"求同"更应关注差异,笔者提出的比较文学变异学理论将进一步地完善比较文学学科理论体系。最后,指出比较文学的未来和发展趋势是进入世界文学发展阶段,在这一阶段中国学者将担任重要使命。%This article provides a new thought about the theoritical system of current comparative literature in three aspects. Firstly, it points out the drawbacks and weaknesses of the 1st and 2nd phases of the development of this discipline, namely the positivist and non-positivist characteristic of influence study, and the lack of a "world mind" in parallel study by claiming that there's no comparability between different cultures. Secondly, the cultural diversity should be highlighted as comparability since we should not only seek the common ground but also pay attention to the differences. The variation theory in eomparative literature raised by the present author can help complete the theoretical system of comparative literature. Thirdly, this artiele points out that eom- parative literature will enter the phase of world literature, in which Chinese scholars will play an important role.

  4. Tax Professional Internships and Subsequent Professional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Blackwood, B. J.; Landy, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    How do internships influence the socialization and performance of accounting students employed in the tax department of a CPA firm? Previous research on accounting internships primarily focuses on auditing personnel. There is evidence in the literature that indicates audit and tax professionals have different work cultures. This paper examines the…

  5. Use of {sup 99m}Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denmeade, Kristie A [Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Department, Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, New South Wales (Australia); Constable, Chris [Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren M [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Department, Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS.

  6. Volunteered Geographic Information in Natural Hazard Analysis: A Systematic Literature Review of Current Approaches with a Focus on Preparedness and Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Klonner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of new technologies, citizens can contribute to scientific research via Web 2.0 applications for collecting and distributing geospatial data. Integrating local knowledge, personal experience and up-to-date geoinformation indicates a promising approach for the theoretical framework and the methods of natural hazard analysis. Our systematic literature review aims at identifying current research and directions for future research in terms of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI within natural hazard analysis. Focusing on both the preparedness and mitigation phase results in eleven articles from two literature databases. A qualitative analysis for in-depth information extraction reveals auspicious approaches regarding community engagement and data fusion, but also important research gaps. Mainly based in Europe and North America, the analysed studies deal primarily with floods and forest fires, applying geodata collected by trained citizens who are improving their knowledge and making their own interpretations. Yet, there is still a lack of common scientific terms and concepts. Future research can use these findings for the adaptation of scientific models of natural hazard analysis in order to enable the fusion of data from technical sensors and VGI. The development of such general methods shall contribute to establishing the user integration into various contexts, such as natural hazard analysis.

  7. HENOCH-SCHÖNLEIN PURPURA WITH AN ATYPICAL PRESENTATION OF THE DISEASE – presentation of three case reports and review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daša Kumprej

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Henoch-Schönlein purpura is the most common vasculitis of small blood vessels in children. The diagnosis of the disease is confirmed in a patient with a specific rash, joint inflamation, abdominal pain or renal disease. The specific rash is necesary for the confirmation of the diagnosis. Henoch-Schönlein purpura can rarely present with a complication withot a prior presentation of the rash. In these cases diagnosis is difficult until the presentation of the specific skin manifestation. In the majority of patients the disease course is not complicated and has a good prognosis.Conclusion: In this article we present three patients with an atypical presentation of the disease and a review of current literature on the topic.

  8. Service-user and professional issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, S

    2002-05-01

    A review of the current literature on service-user and professional issues revealed a distinctive pattern of concerns. Whilst these mainly have an origin in the wider world of disability, they have a relevance for forensic services. Advocacy, sexuality, abuse, offending, victimology, emergency management of behaviour, law, social exclusion, models of disability and research ethics dominated the literature. There was a paucity of work on professional development or service design, although this may have been an artefact resulting from the search methodology. In the view of the present author, the striking omissions were economics, the ethics of treatment and confidentiality, and the role of society in making decisions for those who cannot make decisions for themselves. The emphasis was on the 'libertarian' disability agenda and the more 'paternalistic' concerns of forensic services were somewhat neglected.

  9. The current status of diabetes professional educational standards and competencies in the UK--a position statement from the Diabetes UK Healthcare Professional Education Competency Framework Task and Finish Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, N; George, S; Priest, L; Deakin, T; Vanterpool, G; Karet, B; Simmons, D

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes is a significant health concern, both in the UK and globally. Management can be complex, often requiring high levels of knowledge and skills in order to provide high-quality and safe care. The provision of good, safe, quality care lies within the foundations of healthcare education, continuing professional development and evidence-based practice, which are inseparable and part of a continuum during the career of any health professional. Sound education provides the launch pad for effective clinical management and positive patient experiences. This position paper reviews and discusses work undertaken by a Working Group under the auspices of Diabetes UK with the remit of considering all health professional educational issues for people delivering care to people with diabetes. This work has scoped the availability of education for those within the healthcare system who may directly or indirectly encounter people with diabetes and reviews alignment to existing competency frameworks within the UK's National Health Service.

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTANT IN ETHICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelariu Alin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the psychological profile of the professional accountant in an ethical context through the speciality literature. The starting point of this paper was Carl Gustav Jung’s book, Psychological Types. In the book, Jung presented the idea of personality type. As methodology, relevant articles of speciality literature from international databases have been used. According to literature, the most used methods for realizing a psychological profile are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test (MBTI test and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II (KTS test. The MBTI test focuses on way of thinking and perception while focuses on behaviour. Through this article we propose the improvement of the speciality literature regarding the multidisciplinary aspect or research in Accounting-Psychology. We also highlight the need to improve ethical behaviour in the Accounting profession. Currently the general public perceives a lack of transparency regarding the professional accountants’ activity worldwide.

  11. "When can I return to driving?": a review of the current literature on returning to driving after lower limb injury or arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, K; Lingham, A; Chatha, H; Lewis, J; Parkes, A; Grange, S; Smitham, P J

    2013-03-01

    Clinicians are often asked by patients, "When can I drive again?" after lower limb injury or surgery. This question is difficult to answer in the absence of any guidelines. This review aims to collate the currently available evidence and discuss the factors that influence the decision to allow a patient to return to driving. Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE were searched using the following terms: 'brake reaction time', 'brake response time', 'braking force', 'brake pedal force', 'resume driving', 'rate of application of force', 'driving after injury', 'joint replacement and driving', and 'fracture and driving'. Of the relevant literature identified, most studies used the brake reaction time and total brake time as the outcome measures. Varying recovery periods were proposed based on the type and severity of injury or surgery. Surveys of the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency, the Police, insurance companies in the United Kingdom and Orthopaedic Surgeons offered a variety of opinions. There is currently insufficient evidence for any authoritative body to determine fitness to drive. The lack of guidance could result in patients being withheld from driving for longer than is necessary, or returning to driving while still unsafe.

  12. Certifying Enrollment Management Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…

  13. Nursing professionalism: a national survey of professionalism among Japanese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Michiko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the professionalism of nurses in Japan. The Japanese version of the Behavioural Inventory for Professionalism in Nursing was conducted as a national survey. Computer-generated random selection of nurses in Japan obtained responses from 1501 nurses. A descriptive design examined the levels of and differences in nursing professionalism. Comparisons of the total level of professionalism in educational preparation, current position, years of experience, and current practice setting were analysed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test. The results revealed that Japanese nurses had low levels of professionalism, and professionalism was related significantly to higher educational preparation, years of experience as a nurse, and current position as a nursing administrator or faculty. The results can be used as a benchmark for continued assessments of the level of nursing professionalism and for further development of nursing professionalism. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. 我国中小学初任体育教师的专业发展现状%The current situation of professional development of newly employed physical education teachers in elementary and middle schools in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国永; 王健; 翟寅飞; 王涛; 鲁长芬

    2015-01-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the current situation of professional development of newly em-ployed physical education teachers in elementary and middle schools in China, the authors investigated the profes-sional ideal, professional knowledge structure, ability structure, research ability and such of newly employed physi-cal education teachers in elementary and middle schools in China, and revealed that the current situation of profes-sional development of newly employed physical education teachers in elementary and middle schools in China mainly showed the following characteristics: unordered professional guidance; occupation recognition crisis; having extensive and new knowledge, but lacking in practical knowledge; having solid sports skills, but inadequate profes-sional ability; being frustrated in interpersonal communication, having poor professional independency and weak teaching research awareness. In order to boost the professional development of physical education teachers in ele-mentary and middle schools in China, the authors put forward the following strategies for development: lifetime learning; action study; teaching retrospection; mutual helping between colleagues; professional guidance etc.%为全面了解我国中小学初任体育教师的专业发展现状,对中小学初任体育教师的专业理想、专业知识结构、能力结构、科研意识等方面进行调研,结果表明我国初任体育教师专业发展现状主要呈现以下特征:专业引领无序;职业认同危机;知识面广而新,但实践性知识缺乏;运动技能扎实,但专业能力不适;人际交往受挫;专业自主性较差,教学科研意识淡薄.为更好地促进我国中小学体育教师的专业发展,研究提出了终身学习、行动研究、教学反思、同事互助、专业引领等发展策略.

  15. The Current Status and Improvement Strategies of Medical Professional Ethics in Hubei%湖北省医院医务人员职业伦理现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少哲; 向伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析湖北省医务人员职业伦理现状和存在的问题,提出提升医务人员职业伦理的政策建议.方法:采用自制的调查工具对患者和医务人员进行现场问卷调查和知情人深度访谈,对问卷调查的数据进行描述性统计分析.结果:医务人员职业伦理总体情况较好,但存在医务人员职业责任感缺失、职业定位偏差和人文关怀缺乏等问题.结论:应加强医务人员职业伦理培训,健全职业伦理相关制度规范,完善绩效考核体系,开展职业伦理提升活动.%Objective: The current status and problems of medical professional ethics were analyzed to provide suggestions for the improvement of medical professional ethics. Methods: Questionnaire survey and key informant interview were conducted among patients and medical staff. Descriptive analysis was adopted to analyze the collected data. Results: The general situation of medical professional ethics now is comparatively fine. However, there are still some problems including the lack of professional responsibility and humanistic care, deviated professional location and so on. Conclusions: Medical professional ethics should be improved in an all around way through many ways such as strengthening professional ethics training, perfecting related regulations and performance appraisal system and carrying out various ethics-improving activities.

  16. The current and future role of the medical oncologist in the professional care for cancer patients: a position paper by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, R A; Schäfer, R; Califano, R; Eckert, R; Coleman, R; Douillard, J-Y; Cervantes, A; Casali, P G; Sessa, C; Van Cutsem, E; de Vries, E; Pavlidis, N; Fumasoli, K; Wörmann, B; Samonigg, H; Cascinu, S; Cruz Hernández, J J; Howard, A J; Ciardiello, F; Stahel, R A; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of cancer patients in Europe is rising and significant advances in basic and applied cancer research are making the provision of optimal care more challenging. The concept of cancer as a systemic, highly heterogeneous and complex disease has increased the awareness that quality cancer care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of highly qualified healthcare professionals. Cancer patients also have the right to benefit from medical progress by receiving optimal treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled medical professionals. Built on the highest standards of professional training and continuing medical education, medical oncology is recognised as an independent medical specialty in many European countries. Medical oncology is a core member of the MDT and offers cancer patients a comprehensive and systemic approach to treatment and care, while ensuring evidence-based, safe and cost-effective use of cancer drugs and preserving the quality of life of cancer patients through the entire 'cancer journey'. Medical oncologists are also engaged in clinical and translational research to promote innovation and new therapies and they contribute to cancer diagnosis, prevention and research, making a difference for patients in a dynamic, stimulating professional environment. Medical oncologists play an important role in shaping the future of healthcare through innovation and are also actively involved at the political level to ensure a maximum contribution of the profession to Society and to tackle future challenges. This position paper summarises the multifarious and vital contributions of medical oncology and medical oncologists to today's and tomorrow's professional cancer care.

  17. In Other Professional Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine M.

    1992-01-01

    Lists current articles, appearing in major journals on language teaching and learning, applied psycholinguistics, linguistics, curriculum development, computer science, psychology, educational technology, and general education, of particular interest to foreign language instruction professionals. (CB)

  18. Missing of Language and Literature Skill in Professional Universities and Solution%应用性本科院校学生语言文字表达能力缺失的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单青; 王静欣

    2011-01-01

    应用性本科院校语言文字环境建设薄弱,学生语言文字表达能力缺失已成为普遍现象.语言学习环境薄弱、课程设置的功利性等因素均会影响大学生语言文字能力.语言文字是人类最重要的交际工具和思维的工具,语言文字能力是复合型人才必备的一项重要技能.%Professional universities have a common problem that teaching for language and literature skill is weak, students has less ability in terms of language and writing skills. Weakness of Chinese language and literature teaching as well as business mind during course arrangement will all have big impacts on student's expression capability of university. Language and writing skill is most important tool of communication and thinking for human beings, to master language expression and writing skill is one of mandatory needs for tenants.

  19. Trastornos músculo-esqueléticos en músicos profesionales: revisión bibliográfica Musculoskeletal disorders in professional musicians: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Almonacid-Canseco

    2013-03-01

    muscle overload, nerve compressions, and occupational focal dystonias. This group of disorders in musicians is not included in the Spanish Index of Occupational Diseases to this day. Aim: to review the available scientific literature on musculoskeletal disorders in professional musicians, arising from their professional activity. Methods and materials: a bibliographical review of the scientific literature published in the period 2006-2012 is undertaken. MEDLINE, OSH UPDATE, IBECS, the Cochrane Library, Scielo, LILACS, and CISDOC databases were consulted. Results: 24 articles were selected: an experimental study, two systematic reviews, four case-control studies, 16 cross-section studies and one series of cases study. Prevalence rates ranging 25,5%-86% for musculoskeletal disorders were found, with no consensus on risk factors. Main affected body parts were neck, back and arms. Women were more frequently affected, except for focal dystonias, which were more prevalent in men. Conclusions: musculoskeletal disorders are very prevalent among professional musicians. Further research is needed on this area, and there is a need to put a stress on implementation of preventative measures from the very early stages of the development of these disorders. A point of discussion for the inclusion of these disorders in musicians within the Spanish Index of Professional Disorders should be encouraged.

  20. [Biomechanical aspects of load-bearing capacity after total endoprosthesis replacement of the hip joint. An evaluation of current knowledge and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, D C; Heller, K D; Niethard, F U

    1998-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to summarize the current scientific knowledge of the interaction between rehabilitative procedures and the periprosthetic bone remodeling processes in the early postoperative phase of total hip arthroplasties. In a comprehensive review of the international literature we analysed the interdependence between osseointegration, primary implant stability, relative micromotion of implant versus bone, and joint loading forces during mobilisation or physiotherapy. Accordingly, guidelines for the rehabilitation of cemented as well as cementless hip arthroplasties were established in order to eliminate factors disturbing prosthetic integration and hence provide for the best long-term stability of the implanted prosthesis possible. Osseointegration of cementless implants is impossible if relative micromotions exceed > 150 microns. Furthermore, torsional stresses (i.e. alternate climbing of stairs, rising from seated position without arm support) will destabilize uncemented femoral shaft implants. Cemented prostheses may be loaded with full body weight. Uncemented implants should be loaded only partially for at least 6 weeks. Loadings of the hip joint with more than twice the body-weight (i.e. walking without crutches, physical exercise against high resistances or long levers) are to be avoided for 3 months. The transition from the three-points walking to the two-points walking technique depends particularly on the conditions of the muscles stabilizing the hip joint. The rehabilitation of patients after total hip arthroplasty has to be brought into line with the changed biomechanical situation, the particulars of the implants and the individual requirements of the patients.

  1. Optimizing fitness for duty and post-combat clinical services for military personnel and combat veterans with ADHD—a systematic review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyan Ivanov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder, most often diagnosed in childhood, and characterized by hyperactivity and inattention that negatively impacts one's ability to function and fulfill social and personal obligations. Individuals with past history of ADHD may enlist in the military under certain conditions, however the full impact of military training and deployment of later in life ADHD symptoms is unclear. It is of particular interest how military experience may affect ADHD in remission and if such individuals might be at elevated risk for relapse of ADHD symptoms. Method: We performed a systematic review f the available literature including the Department of Defense (DOD guidelines for both eligibility to enlist and fitness for deployment based on reported history and current symptomatology of ADHD. Results: The after care for veterans with ADHD relapse is inconsistent and presents with number of challenges. We evaluate the DOD policies regarding the implications of ADHD for fitness for military service and post-combat mental health. Conclusion: The full extend of the interaction between pre-existing ADHD and post-combat PTSD are not fully understood. The development of comprehensive and clear algorithms for diagnosing and treating ADHD in the military before and after deployment will have a strong positive impact on the quality of care delivered to soldiers and veterans.

  2. Rapid acquisition and modulation of colistin-resistance by an extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: case report and review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Intra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. It commonly expresses clinical resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents, and hence, it is considered the paradigm of an extensively drug-resistant (XDR bacterium. XDR A. baumannii is a rapidly emerging pathogen, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU, causing nosocomial infections including sepsis, ventilatorassociated pneumonia, meningitis, peritonitis, urinary tract infection, and central venous catheter-related infection. In the present report, we described an in vivo evolution of A. baumannii strain from a colistinsusceptibility to a colistin-resistance state. A 65-year-old male, who suffered a duodenal ulcer, two days after hospitalization and during the stay in ICU, contracted a pneumonia and peritoneal infection by a carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strain. After a combination treatment with colistin, vancomycin plus imipenem, and within seven days, the pathogen rapidly evolved in seven days to a pandrug-resistant phenotype. As the antimicrobial treatment was stopped, the A. baumannii isolate changed another time its profile to colistin, becoming newly susceptible, showing a very high level of adaptability to external conditions. We also have reviewed here the current literature on this worryingly public health threat.

  3. 我国临床医学专业硕士学位研究生课程体系设置现状的分析及设想%Analysis and Design of Course System Settings for Clinical Professional Degree Postgraduate Education on the Current Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟吉

    2014-01-01

    临床医学专业硕士学位课程是医学研究生培养过程中的重要环节。本文通过文献研究的方法分析了目前我国临床医学专业硕士学位研究生课程体系设置现状,构建了基于核心能力培养的临床医学专业硕士学位课程体系,通过该体系中所包含的课程目标、课程内容、课程结构、课程实施和课程评价等五个要素,进行详实的分析论证并明确其要求,对当今临床医学研究生教育具有一定的指导意义。%Clinical medicine professional course is an important segment in the process of master ’s de-gree cultivation .This paper ,by means of literature research ,analyzing the current domestic profes-sional degree of clinical medicine postgraduate course system ,rebuilding the course system based on the core competence ability training of the professional degree of clinical medicine .Analyzed and dem-onstrated the requirements by detailed analyzing the most important five factors , like curriculum goal ,curriculum content ,curriculum structure ,curriculum implementation and curriculum evalua-tion .Give a certain guiding significance for the current clinical medicine graduate education research .

  4. Automated Medical Literature Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hawking

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The constantly growing publication rate of medical research articles puts increasing pressure on medical specialists who need to be aware of the recent developments in their field. The currently used literature retrieval systems allow researchers to find specific papers; however the search task is still repetitive and time-consuming. Aims In this paper we describe a system that retrieves medical publications by automatically generating queries based on data from an electronic patient record. This allows the doctor to focus on medical issues and provide an improved service to the patient, with higher confidence that it is underpinned by current research. Method Our research prototype automatically generates query terms based on the patient record and adds weight factors for each term. Currently the patient’s age is taken into account with a fuzzy logic derived weight, and terms describing blood-related anomalies are derived from recent blood test results. Conditionally selected homonyms are used for query expansion. The query retrieves matching records from a local index of PubMed publications and displays results in descending relevance for the given patient. Recent publications are clearly highlighted for instant recognition by the researcher. Results Nine medical specialists from the Royal Adelaide Hospital evaluated the system and submitted pre-trial and post-trial questionnaires. Throughout the study we received positive feedback as doctors felt the support provided by the prototype was useful, and which they would like to use in their daily routine. Conclusion By supporting the time-consuming task of query formulation and iterative modification as well as by presenting the search results in order of relevance for the specific patient, literature retrieval becomes part of the daily workflow of busy professionals.

  5. Bringing Professional Responsibility Back in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Research on how higher education institutions work with professional formation indicates that insufficient attention is currently paid to issues of professional responsibility and ethics. In the light of such findings, there is increasing concern about issues related to learning professional responsibility. This article concentrates on different…

  6. Teaching Professionalism: Passing the Torch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, William A.; Dickey, Nancy W.

    1998-01-01

    Medical faculty must ensure that students understand the appropriate balance between financial and professional considerations. Faculty should place financial considerations in proper perspective and should teach the basic components of professionalism, how current cost-containment efforts may threaten medicine's professional status, appropriate…

  7. Subject Departments as Professional Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Adrie J.; Witziers, Bob

    2004-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that when schools become professional communities there are expected benefits in terms of teacher learning, school improvement and student achievement. In this article the concept of professional communities is examined for certain subject departments in Dutch secondary schools. The authors report on research…

  8. Subject departments as professional communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Adrie J.; Witziers, Bob

    2004-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that when schools become professional communities there are expected benefits in terms of teacher learning, school improvement and student achievement. In this article the concept of professional communities is examined for certain subject departments in Dutch s

  9. Beyond Interpersonal Competence: Teaching and Learning Professional Skills in Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Brundiers

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful careers in sustainability are determined by positive real-world change towards sustainability. This success depends heavily on professional skills in effective and compassionate communication, collaborative teamwork, or impactful stakeholder engagement, among others. These professional skills extend beyond content knowledge and methodical expertise. Current sustainability programs do not sufficiently facilitate students’ acquisition of such skills. This article presents a brief summary of professional skills, synthesized from the literature, and why they are relevant for sustainability professionals. Second, it presents how these skills have been taught in an undergraduate course in sustainability at Arizona State University, USA. Third, it critically discusses the effectiveness and challenges of that exemplary course. Finally, the article concludes with outlining the lessons learned that should be incorporated into future course offerings.

  10. Social media and medical professionalism: rethinking the debate and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Tara

    2014-10-01

    This Perspective addresses the growing literature about online medical professionalism. Whereas some studies point to the positive potential of social media to enhance and extend medical practice, the dominant emphasis is on the risks and abuses of social media. Overall evidence regarding online medical professionalism is (as with any new area of practice) limited; however, simply accumulating more evidence, without critically checking the assumptions that frame the debate, risks reinforcing negativity toward social media. In this Perspective, the author argues that the medical community should step back and reconsider its assumptions regarding both professionalism and the digital world of social media. Toward this aim, she outlines three areas for critical rethinking by educators and students, administrators, professional associations, and researchers. First she raises some cautions regarding the current literature on using social media in medical practice, which sometimes leaps too quickly from description to prescription. Second, she discusses professionalism. Current debates about the changing nature and contexts of professionalism generally might be helpful in reconsidering notions of online medical professionalism specifically. Third, the author argues that the virtual world itself and its built-in codes deserve more critical scrutiny. She briefly summarizes new research from digital studies both to situate the wider trends more critically and to appreciate the evolving implications for medical practice. Next, the author revisits the potential benefits of social media, including their possibilities to signal new forms of professionalism. Finally, the Perspective ends with specific suggestions for further research that may help move the debate forward.

  11. Invisalign: current guidelines for effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncio, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Invisalign is an increasingly popular technique for aligning teeth and correcting malocclusions orthodontically. This article analyzes the current professional literature published on Invisalign and the benefits and risks of using the technique for both patients and doctors. The steady increase in the number of cases treated with Invisalign and where the technique is going in the future is investigated. Ten guidelines for Invisalign treatment and patient selection are given, along with case examples.

  12. Effective professional networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Mary Jo; Knestrick, Joyce M

    2017-08-01

    The reasons for nurse practitioners to develop a professional network are boundless and are likely to change over time. Networking opens doors and creates relationships that support new opportunities, personal development, collaborative research, policy activism, evidence-based practice, and more. Successful professional networking involves shared, mutually beneficial interactions between individuals and/or individuals and groups, regardless of whether it occurs face to face or electronically. This article combines nuggets from the literature with guidance based on the authors' combined experience in networking activities at the local, national, and international levels. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. A View of Professional Learning Communities through Three Frames: Leadership, Organization, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Schunk, Dale H.

    2010-01-01

    In this discussion of professional learning communities (PLCs) in North American public schools, we examine three theoretical frames--leadership, organization, and culture. Issues related to learning are infused throughout our presentation of the frames. Based on our analysis of the current literature on this topic, PLCs offer a promising tool for…

  14. An Analysis of the Market Potential for Distance Learning Opportunities in Transportation Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkop, Brooke R.; Jasek, Debbie; Kuhn, Beverly T.

    The feasibility and sustainability of a distance learning program at the Texas Transportation Institute, which is part of the Texas A&M University system, was investigated. A literature review and online survey of current transportation professionals were conducted to examine the market potential for a distance learning program and to identify…

  15. [Medical ethics as professional ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivo

    2012-09-25

    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.

  16. 中国现代文学教学与学生能力培养%On the Teaching of Modern Chinese Literature and the Cultivation of College Students' Professional Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建玲; 丁东粮

    2011-01-01

    大学教育应该加强对大学生实际能力的培养,这已成为近年来社会的共识。具体到中国现代文学大学课程的教学,最重要的任务就是要培养学生的文学感受能力和分析、理解作品的能力。为实现此目标,教师必须根据低年级大学生的思维特点和知识层次,根据现代文学学科特性和教学内容,寻找行之有效的途径和方法。第一要转变学生的学习心理和学习习惯,让学生走出应试教育思维定式;第二要纠正"文学无用"偏见,肯定文学及文学学习的价值,唤起学生研读文学的热情;第三也是最重要的一点就是通过大量文本阅读和文本鉴赏分析活动,把提高学生素质和能力落到实处;第四强化训练,以练促读、促思,促进综合能力的提高。%University education should focus on the cultivation of students' practical competence,a consensus reached by the public in recent years.In terms of the instruction of modern Chinese literature courses,the most important task lies in fostering the students' ability of literary perception and the ability to analyze and appreciate literary works.Teachers must explore every avenue to accomplish that task in light of the characteristics of thinking and knowledge structure of lower-level college students while taking into account the curriculum features and content of instruction of modern Chinese literature courses.Efforts should be made to 1) transform the students' learning psychology and learning habits and let them break through the exam-oriented stereotype;2) put right the prejudiced conception of "futility of literature",reinstate the value of literature and literature learning,and stimulate the students' enthusiasm for literature learning;3) enhance the students' overall competence and professional quality through enormous amounts of text reading and text appreciation activities;and 4) intensify training activities to give students

  17. The international marketing of professional service projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo

    2003-01-01

    Many types of commercial professional services are commonly sold as projects. Therefore this article draws on the project marketing literature to elucidate the international marketing of professional service projects. After an initial literature review, the project marketing milieu concept......, and representations to another national milieu with similarly well-developed norms, rules, and representations, yet that there also exist global milieux. Managerial implications concerning professional service firms' preparation for entering a foreign milieu as well as subsidiary or office establishment abroad...

  18. How will e-health affect patient participation in the clinic? A review of e-health studies and the current evidence for changes in the relationship between medical professionals and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedding, Christine; van Doorn, Roesja; Winkler, Lex; Reis, Ria

    2011-01-01

    In this report we discuss the consequences of e-health for patient-clinician encounters. On the basis of an analysis of the literature, we propose an analytical framework, composed of five different themes, regarding the impact of e-health on the relationship between patients and their health professionals. Internet health sites can: be or come to be a replacement for face-to-face consultations; supplement existing forms of care; create favorable circumstances for strengthening patient participation; disturb relations; and/or force or demand more intense patient participation. Though there is as yet insufficient empirical evidence supporting these effects, we believe that distinguishing the proposed themes will help to guide an in-depth discussion and further research. We conclude that in particular the redistribution of tasks and responsibilities to patients in their daily lives requires more attention in future research.

  19. 新形势下高职外语教师发展途径研究%The Ways of Foreign Language Teacher’s Professional Development in Current Situation in Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力鸥

    2013-01-01

    Foreign language teacher ’s professional development is a key topic in study of foreign language teachers .In current situation, the following are effective ways of foreign language teacher ’s professional development in vocational colleges:teachers should change their teaching belief and conduct reflective teaching .For the college administration , they should en-courage teachers’ cooperation with each other and try to learn technical English , as well as provide more training opportunities for teachers to promote their professional development .%  外语教师发展是外语教师研究中的一个主要话题。新形势下高职外语教师发展,有以下几方面的有效途径:转变教学理念;不断进行反思性教学;提教师之间的团队协作;鼓励学习行业英语及学校管理部门提供给教师更多进修学习的机会,以此来促进教师的发展。

  20. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  1. The Current Situation of Education and Continuing Professional Development of RE Teachers in Poland in the Context of the Social Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Osewska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents Religious Education teachers continuing professional development in Poland in the context of political, social, economic, cultural and educational changes. During the last years, Poland has developed a national strategy for teacher training and introduced many new regulations. The aim of the new legal solutions is to prepare RE teachers as will be competent specialists in theology, accomplished in didactics and pedagogy and capable of caring for – and contributing to – the upbringing of pupils of varying needs; as well as organizers of social activities in class and school, also in effective cooperation with the local parish. Despite the many changes, RE teachers still have very difficult situation in Poland and face many challenges.

  2. Physicians' professionalism at primary care facilities from patients' perspective: The importance of doctors' communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Merry Indah; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Claramita, Mora

    2016-01-01

    Professionalism is the core duty of a doctor to be responsible to the society. Doctors' professionalism depicts an internalization of values and mastery of professionals' standards as an important part in shaping the trust between doctors and patients. Professionalism consists of various attributes in which current literature focused more on the perspective of the health professionals. Doctors' professionalism may influence patients' satisfaction, and therefore, it is important to know from the patients' perspectives what was expected of medical doctors' professionalism. This study was conducted to determine the attributes of physician professionalism from the patient's perspective. This was a qualitative research using a phenomenology study design. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 patients with hypertension and diabetes who had been treated for at least 1 year in primary care facilities in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The results of the interview were transcribed, encoded, and then classified into categories. Communication skills were considered as the top priority of medical doctors' attributes of professionalism in the perspectives of the patients. This study revealed that communication skill is the most important aspects of professionalism which greatly affected in the process of health care provided by the primary care doctors. Doctor-patient communication skills should be intensively trained during both basic and postgraduate medical education.

  3. Current considerations on teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cristina Manfré

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy has acquired significant proportions. It is estimated that 20 to 25% of all pregnant women in Brazil are teenagers. The present study, through an analysis of the current literature, examines the main aspects involving pregnancy during adolescence, along with its consequences on the life of young mothers, their children and social environment. We conclude that the efforts of health care professionals, parents and educators are crucial to increase awareness of adolescent sexuality. The application of this knowledge is a way to prevent teen pregnancy, thus avoiding the harmful effects on young mothers and their children.

  4. Toward a Linguistically Responsive Teacher Identity: An Empirical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adrian D.; Strom, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite current demographic imperatives, little is known about how teachers understand, construct, and enact their professional identities in relation to teaching English learners (ELs). This article, an empirical review of the literature on teacher identity and ELs, examines how teacher identity has been investigated among educators working in…

  5. Toward a Linguistically Responsive Teacher Identity: An Empirical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adrian D.; Strom, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite current demographic imperatives, little is known about how teachers understand, construct, and enact their professional identities in relation to teaching English learners (ELs). This article, an empirical review of the literature on teacher identity and ELs, examines how teacher identity has been investigated among educators working in…

  6. Disabled Children and Child Protection: Learning from Literature through a Non-Tragedy Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Susan; McGregor, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Disabled children experience unique vulnerabilities in the context of child protection and welfare services. Current research alludes to strong concerns about social inequality, professional responses, judgement, knowledge and awareness limitations, and practical constraints. This article presents a focused commentary on the literature pertaining…

  7. Montessori Education and Practice: A Review of the Literature, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagby, Janet H.; Jones, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review, a continuation of the first one published in "Montessori Life" (Bagby, 2007), identifies articles published in non-Montessori professional periodicals that included information about Maria Montessori and/or the Montessori method of education. While conducting the current search, the authors discovered 12 articles published…

  8. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    This contribution revisits traditional models of professionalism through the glasses of a 'role-professionalism' perspective. In doing so, the authors' main argument is that it is not appropriate to conceptualise adult education as one profession or as one professional field tout court. There exist...... several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  9. Achieving professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.E. Thompson

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available In approaching the subject of professionalism the author has chosen to focus on the practical aspects rather than the philosophical issues. In so doing an attempt is made to identify criteria which demonstrate the achievement of the essence of professionalism.

  10. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  11. Revisión bibliográfica exploratoria sobre síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño y conducción profesional An exploratory literature review on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and professional drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariholy Carolina Hernández García

    2012-06-01

    while driving is common among professional drivers, affecting their performance and safety of the population. It was conducted an exploratory literature review to determine: the prevalence of the disease in professional drivers, the risk factors involved, the methods used in diagnosis and its relation with traffic accidents. There were selected nine databases, PubMed, IBECS, LILACS, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus, SciELO, WOS and WOK, to carry out the research between October 2011 and January 2012. After applying the criteria of inclusion / exclusion 12 articles were analyzed. The prevalence of the syndrome is similar in most studies but higher than general population. The most significant Risk factors and its impact were obesity, excessive sleepiness, snoring. There is no consensus among the diagnostic tests used and their effectiveness. However the most used is the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. The relationship between job accidents and sleep apnea has been not studied a lot in professional drivers.

  12. Impermeable boundaries? Developments in professional and inter-professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ailsa

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the professional task in welfare services is constantly changing. These changes are not confined to Britain but are widespread across the developed world and include initiatives to develop new professional roles and redesign existing services. Central to these initiatives is an assumption that the professions, and the individual professionals involved, will be willing and able to adapt their professional practice. The challenges inevitably posed by these developments appear to have been played down, particularly in respect of the role played by the boundaries between professions. This article considers the nature of boundaries before exploring these service developments as a means to highlight the issues they raise. The article contends that for these developments to work we need to move beyond the current focus on the role of education, training and regulation which structure professional boundaries to appreciate the 'human and social aspects' of these changes in order to understand how individual professionals perceive and experience the boundaries between professional groups.

  13. Los profesionales de urgencias y emergencias: perfil actual y posibilidades de desarrollo Urgencies and emergencies professionals: current profile and potential development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toranzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los servicios de urgencias, tanto hospitalarios como extrahospitalarios, son dispositivos asistenciales que se han desarrollado, sobre todo, a raíz de la publicación de la Ley General de Sanidad en 1986. Tienen una alta frecuentación y gran sobrecarga asistencial, a la vez que dispensan una elevada calidad asistencial y son elementos estratégicos en el funcionamiento del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Sin embargo, sus profesionales, elementos básicos y sustanciales en su funcionamiento han estado relegados en cuanto a la planificación estratégica y, sobre todo, sin una formación especializada reglada en Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias que garantice que, desde el mismo momento en que asumen responsabilidades asistenciales, tienen todas las competencias, habilidades y actitudes que las necesidades de los enfermos les demandan. Esta carencia también impide un correcto desarrollo profesional y es la base de la viabilidad futura de los propios servicios de urgencias. Para solventar este dilema, además de buscar soluciones a los problemas laborales y organizativos de los distintos servicios, la creación de la Especialidad de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias, en el marco de la troncalidad, es un requisito imprescindible. En ese sentido lo están abordando los países de nuestro entorno y así lo han reconocido, desde el Parlamento Español, hasta la mayoría de los sectores políticos, sociales y profesionales.Emergency services, both hospital based and pre-hospital, are care mechanisms that have been developed above all as a result of the General Health Law of 1986. They are in high demand and have a care overload, while they provide high quality care and are strategic elements in the working of the National Health System. However, their professionals, basic and substantial elements in their tasks, have been relegated in strategic planning and, above all, do not receive regulated specialised training in Emergency Medicine. This would

  14. Professional confidence: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kathlyn; Middleton, Lyn; Uys, Leana

    2012-03-01

    Professional confidence is a concept that is frequently used and or implied in occupational therapy literature, but often without specifying its meaning. Rodgers's Model of Concept Analysis was used to analyse the term "professional confidence". Published research obtained from a federated search in four health sciences databases was used to inform the concept analysis. The definitions, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of professional confidence as evidenced in the literature are discussed. Surrogate terms and related concepts are identified, and a model case of the concept provided. Based on the analysis, professional confidence can be described as a dynamic, maturing personal belief held by a professional or student. This includes an understanding of and a belief in the role, scope of practice, and significance of the profession, and is based on their capacity to competently fulfil these expectations, fostered through a process of affirming experiences. Developing and fostering professional confidence should be nurtured and valued to the same extent as professional competence, as the former underpins the latter, and both are linked to professional identity.

  15. Under Current Development of the New Media Background College Foreign Language Teachers' professional Development%浅析新媒体环境下高校外语教师专业的发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣

    2015-01-01

    With the development of science and technology,new media are widely used in colleges and universities in their daily work.Under the new media environment,college foreign language professional development space is being expanded,and the content of foreign language teaching is getting rich.The article analyzes the current situation of College English Teachers Profes-sional Development in the new media environment,proposing appropriate policy for the current problems.%随着我国科学技术的发展,新媒体在高校日常工作中得到广泛应用.新媒体环境下,高校外语专业的发展空间得到扩展,外语教学的内容得到丰富.文章中分析了在新媒体环境中高校外语教师专业的发展现状,针对当下的问题提出相应的策略.

  16. Problem of professional personality formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryazhnikova E.Yu.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current approaches to the problem of professional personality formation. It ana-lyzes the impact of professional identity of students on the choice of the specialist field they make. The article highlights certain aspects of the educational environment which promote to formation of compe-tences in students, relating to their choice of professional occupations. The article presents the analysis of students’ internal and external strivings after graduation from the university and their fulfillment.

  17. Transforming physics educator identities: TAs help TAs become teaching professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretton, Anneke L.; Bridges, Terry; Fraser, James M.

    2017-05-01

    Research-based instructional strategies have been shown to dramatically improve student learning, but widespread adoption of these pedagogies remains limited. Post-secondary teaching assistants (TAs), with their current positions in course delivery and future roles as academic leaders, are an essential target group for teacher training. However, the literature suggests that successful TA professional development must address not only pedagogical practices but also the cultivation of physics educator identity. The primary goal of this study is to build a framework for TA professional development that strengthens the TA's identity as a physics educator. We base this framework on Etienne Wenger's model for communities of practice and Côté and Levine's personality and social structure identity perspective. We explore this framework in the context of a 12-week, low-cost, TA-led and TA-centered professional development intervention. Our qualitative and quantitative data suggest that this efficient community-based intervention strengthened TAs' identification as physics educators.

  18. PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE TERMS OF MICROENTERPRISES: PROCESS MODELLING OF EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Fedorov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this article is to understand the current issues of pedagogical training situation of a potential employee an experienced professional when using the internal resources of micro-enterprises. The relevance of the research problem dues to the needs of the labour market, terms of developing economy situation of micro-entrepreneurship and the demands of the subject of labour activity to vocational training without discontinuing work.Methodology and research methods. A leading approach to the study of this problem is a system-activity one, which allows us to represent the process of professional training in terms of the micro-enterprise as a system activity of subjects for the development of professional competence of the employee. The following research methods are used to solve the set tasks: theoretical study and analysis of psychological, pedagogical, sociological, scientific-methodical and special literature on the problem under study; a systematic approach to the disclosure of the nature of the problem and the formation of conceptual-terminological apparatus of the research; study and analysis of legislative and normative-legal acts; empirical – pedagogical observation, generalization and study of teaching experience, pedagogical design, questionnaire, interview, interviews, analysis of results, method of expert evaluations and their generalization.Results. The results of the research showed that the process of training and professional interaction of the micro-enterprise employees will be effective if training and professional interaction of the micro-enterprise employees to be considered as a productive mutual agreed actions of subjects of labour, aimed at solving the educational and professional problems in the process of joint labour activity. Developed structural-functional model of training and professional interaction of employees of micro-enterprises allows us to introduce the process of professional training as a

  19. Professional Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    True professionals develop and create together a better future by their human endeavors in synergy. They must operate comfortably in two cultures--the industrial culture which is disappearing, and the superindustrial or cyberculture which is emerging. (CT)

  20. Literature and Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Olher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Literature and Institution. The aim of this paper is to discuss concepts and beliefs about what is understood by “literature”. Based, at first, on post-modern views of some literary critics and philosophers such as: Terry Eagleton and Jacques Derrida, this work does not intend to define literature precisely, but, mainly, put in doubt or raise questions which are highly relevant to the reflection of the professionals who work with Brazilian and Foreign Literature, as well as for the theoreticians and literary critics, who contribute to the continuity of prescriptive and pre-conceived thoughts and, at the same time, restrain the thinking of a different and more critical view of institutionalized, established values. Keywords: literature; literary text; values; institution.

  1. Botulinum neurotoxin type A injection of the pelvic floor muscle in pain due to spasticity: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Alka A; Puccini, Federica; Khullar, Vik; Elneil, Suzy; Digesu, G Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    The role of muscle spasm is not a new concept in the genesis of pain. Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) has been successfully employed in a variety of muscular and inflammatory conditions. The aim of our study was to review the published literature on the role of BoNTA injection of the pelvic floor muscle in the management of women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). A systematic search of the literature published up to June 2012 on the use of BoNTA in the treatment of female pelvic floor muscle spasm was carried out using relevant search terms in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The results were limited to full-text English language articles. Relevant trials as well as relevant reviews were selected and analyzed by two independent reviewers. Five studies (2 case reports, 1 prospective pilot study, 1 retrospective study and 1 randomised double-blind placebo controlled study) were included in this systematic review. Overall, BoNTA has shown to be beneficial in relieving CPP related to pelvic floor spasm. The role of BoNTA as a treatment of CPP has been recognized for more than 10 years. Although data are still scarce preliminary results are encouraging. BoNTA is an attractive option for refractory CPP related to pelvic floor muscle spasm, but further studies using validated and reproducible outcome measures are needed, to establish its effectiveness, safeness, technique, optimal dosage, and duration of symptom relief.

  2. 当前教育学硕士研究生的职业角色定位%The Current Position of the Professional Role of the Master Graduates of Pedagogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超

    2011-01-01

    教育学硕士研究生职业角色不仅涉及自身学习的动向,而且与硕士生培养制度的改革密切相关。读研期间,明确自身职业角色定位,分析当前理论型硕士生面临的就业压力,指明实践性的职业角色成为当下大部分教育学硕士生的归宿,并以此确立教育学硕士研究生职业动力,为自我的发展打下良好的基础,也为教育学专业的弘扬起到铺垫和基石之意义。%The position of the professional role of master graduates of pedagogy not only involves how to own study trend, but is also closely related to the reform of the cultivating system. While studying for the master degree, master candates should define the position of professional role of master graduates of pedagogy, analyze current theory - type master graduates who will face the stress of employment, and be directed that a practical professional role is the aim of the master graduates of pedagogy. Then master graduates will establish their career motives, lay a good foundation for pedagogy,and become the cornerstone of carrying forward pedagogy.

  3. 安徽省体育专业教练员外语学习现状调查研究%Current foreign language learning situation of professional sports coaches in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕夏萌; 吴筱珍

    2014-01-01

    应用调查分析方法,对安徽省体育专业教练员外语学习现状进行研究。研究认为,安徽省体育专业教练员对对学习外语的目的和作用认识不足,主动意识不强,学习时间不够,学习渠道和方法不够丰富;外语能力偏低。建议管理部门和教练员要引起重视,应认识到现代竞技体育的发展中外语水平提高的重要性,丰富外语学习渠道,不断改进学习方法,持续、稳定的提高专业教练员的外语水平。%The current foreign language learning situation of the professional sports coaches in Anhui province was investiga-ted and analyzed. It was found that the professional sports coaches in Anhui province lack the understanding of the purpose and role of learning a foreign language, and they also have such problems as the weak awareness of learning initiatives, the insufficient learn-ing time, the narrow learning channels and methods, and the low level of foreign language proficiency. It was suggested that admin-istration department and the coaches should realize the importance of improving foreign language level in the modern competitive sports development, enrich foreign language learning channels, and continuously improve the learning methods to stably promote the foreign language level of the professional coaches.

  4. Professional perspectives on animal hoarding.

    OpenAIRE

    Burniston, Francesca A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although theoretical conceptualisations of animal hoarding have been published, few empirical studies have been conducted. The current study investigated animal hoarding from the perspectives of professionals who come into contact with people who hoard animals through their employment in various capacities, primarily in animal welfare. Design A qualitative research design was employed using inductive thematic analysis. Methods Twelve professionals who had experienc...

  5. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  6. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  7. Professional competencies in health promotion and public health: what is common and what is specific? Review of the European debate and perspectives for professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, Alessandra; Sotgiu, Alessandra; Buja, Alessandra; Casuccio, Alessandra; Cecconi, Rosaria; Fabiani, Leila; Guberti, Emilia; Lorini, Chiara; Minelli, Liliana; Pocetta, Giancarlo; Contu, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    According to the Nairobi Call to Action, the growth of practitioners' skills can be favoured by setting accreditation standards and by reorienting professional competencies of current and future health workers. This will make it possible to develop a critical mass of competent practitioners, foster training, and increase visibility of the professional field. Through a review of the literature, the authors offer an overview of competency-based strategies for professional development in health promotion. The main research questions discussed were as follows: Is there a shared definition of public health?; Is there a shared definition of health promotion?; Who are the main stakeholders for public health and health promotion in Europe?; What is the meaning of professional competencies in education and practice for public health and health promotion?; Is there a shared system of professional core competencies in public health and health promotion?;What is common and what is specific between the two systems of professional competencies?; Is it useful and feasible to create specific strategies of professional development for public health and health promotion? A transformative use of competencies makes it possible to inform students, professionals, employers, and political decision-makers about what is expected from a specific profession and its values.

  8. [Factors Associated with Suicide in Adolescents and Young People Self-Identified as Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual: Current State of the Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda Roa, Carlos Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A framework within sexual and reproductive health is presented to understand the mental health issues of the population of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents and young people. Different ways of understanding the nature of internalized homophobia were developed. On the other hand, in suicidology studies it is understood that the risk of suicide consists of the steps of ideation, planning and attempted suicide, and that there is an increased risk of suicide in the LGB population. Numerous factors have been associated with suicide risk in this population, one of the main internalized homophobia and other mental health problems. By means of a literature review, to establish the possible relationship between internalized homophobia and ideation and attempted suicide in the LGB population, as well as to identify the mental health problems associated to suicide risk in sexually diverse communities. Articles in English and Spanish, mainly within the last five years, were reviewed. They included articles in peer reviewed journals, and databases, such as Google Scholar, Redalyc, Byreme, Ovid, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Ebsco. It was found in the available literature that internalized homophobia is associated with suicide ideation and attempts in adults. A state of science of the major mental health problems associated with suicide risk in young LGB people reported contradictory findings. While some studies showed an association between depression, anxiety and distress and suicidal ideation and attempts, in others, the data do not allow such a conclusion. The theoretical framework presents the most important conceptualizations of suicide risk and emphasizes the social type. It identifies issues of suicide prevention, protective factors that contribute towards this, as well as elements of psychotherapy for LGB consultants. It concludes and discusses the importance of studying the sexually diverse as regards determining factors

  9. Premature ejaculation: current and future treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levent Gurkan; Matthew Oommen; Wayne J. G. Hellstrom

    2008-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is recognized to be the most common male sexual disorder. PE provides difficulties for professionals who treat this condition because there is neither a universally accepted definition nor a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite these shortcomings, physicians continue to diagnose their patients with PE according to major guidelines and treat them with either behavioral therapies or off-label medications. This review focuses on current and emerging treatment options and medications for PE. Advantages and limitations of each treatment option are discussed in the light of current published peer-reviewed literature.

  10. 高职英语教师行业化发展的现状及措施%Current Situation and Measures of the English Teachers’Professional Development in Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莎

    2014-01-01

    增强行业英语教师的专业化水平是提高高职英语课程教学质量的重要工作,也是高职院校实现人才培养目标的必然趋势。高职院校行业英语师资现状、教学现状制约着行业英语课程的开设和实施。以宜春职业技术学院外语系的现状为基础,讨论高职行业英语教师的培养策略。%Enhancement of English teachers’ professional level is an important work to improve the teaching quality of English course in higher vocational colleges, also is the inevitable trend of higher vocational colleges ’personnel training goal. The current situation of English teachers and teaching in higher vocational colleges restricts the opening and the implementation of professional English course. Based on the status of the foreign language department of yichun vocational technical college as the foundation,the teacher discusses the strategies of cultivating higher vocational English teachers.

  11. 我国新型职业农民培育研究:现状反思与发展方向%Research on New Professional Farmers Cultivation in China:Reflection on Current Situation and Development Orientation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳忠明; 李国颖

    2016-01-01

    新型职业农民是推进农业现代化的重要力量,其培育是一个系统工程。为此,新型职业农民培育研究是一个庞大、综合的领域。通过中国知网的相关文献检索和梳理,国内研究者从新型职业农民的内涵、类型、政策和培育方面进行了探讨,但是在成果方面存在诸多不足:内涵界定存在模糊现象,类型样本尚不丰富,政策研究深度不够,培育方向较为狭隘。基于上述缺憾,我国新型职业农民培育研究应该从“观念”研究向“实在”研究拓展,在研究方法方面逐步完善;从多学科视角向学科交叉视角转变,形成整合性的研究成果;在研究内容框架方面逐步完善,丰富现有的研究领域。%New professional farmers are the important forces in promoting agricultural modernization, the cultivation of whom is a systematic engineering. Hence, the research on new professional farmers ' cultivation is a huge and comprehensive field. The searching and sorting to the CNKI literature shows that, the researchers at home discussed the connotation, types, policy and cul-tivation of the new professional farmers, but there are still some problems in the studies, such as the indistinct definition, short-ness of representative samples, lacking depth of policy studies, and relatively narrow directions in cultivation. Based on the above shortcomings, the research methods should be improved by transforming from "concept" to the "empirical". At the same time, the future research should turn its perspective from multidisciplinarity to interdisciplinarity in order to produce integrated research outcomes, and gradually perfect the framework of research contents to enrich present research field.

  12. Teaching Literature to Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Richard W.; Appleman, Deborah; Hynds, Susan; Wilhelm, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This text for pre-service and in-service English education courses presents current methods of teaching literature to middle and high school students. The methods are based on social constructivist/socio-cultural theories of literacy learning, and incorporate research on literary response conducted by the authors. "Teaching Literature to…

  13. Mobile Learning in Maths Teacher Education: Using iPads to Support Pre-Service Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Matthew; Maher, Damian

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of literature explores mobile learning in teacher education contexts. A common theme is the facilitation of collaborative, authentic professional learning experiences, often leveraged by the immediate and spontaneous nature of learning in informal settings. This paper takes a snapshot of current developments with mobile learning…

  14. 数学专业英语的现状及教学%A Study of the Current Situation of Professional Mathematical English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洁; 茹静

    2012-01-01

    With the development of science and technology,mathematical English has become an important course in the university.This paper is aimed to find the problems by studying the current situation about mathematical English teaching in anticipation of getting solutions which can benefit the teaching of mathematical English.%随着科学技术的不断发展,专业英语已经成为大学一门非常重要的课程,本文通过对目前数学专业英语现状的研究,找出其中存在的问题,结合我院学生的实际情况,从几个方面找出解决方案,希望能对数学专业英语的教学起到促进作用。

  15. Professional practice among woman dentist

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This review aims to give an inside view of professional career of a women dentist, addresses the unique demands of being a woman dentist, and highlight ways to address these issues. Materials and Methods: The Medline database, scholarly literature, and informal literature were considered for this review. Results: Working hours of female dentists do not differ significantly from the working hours of their male counterparts, until they have children. The female dentists’ working hour...

  16. Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christy Sadreameli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS. Secondhand smoke is also associated with pulmonary function abnormalities in children with SCD who are already at risk for pulmonary function abnormalities on the basis of SCD. TSE is emerging as one of the few modifiable risk factors of SCD. This review discusses the current state of the evidence with respect to TSE and SCD morbidity, discusses potential mechanisms, and highlights current gaps in the evidence and future research directions.

  17. Educating professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the professional bachelor’s degree is to qualify the students to act competently in a subsequent job situation. Anecdotal experience and research have shown that limited transfer between what is learned during the coursework and the subsequent professional practice. This article...... does that look in practice? Based on interviews with newly-educated social workers, I have analyzed which competences the social worker (hereafter ‘he’) uses in practice, how these competences are developed, and how the student learns to apply the competences acquired in the educational program....

  18. Literature Reviews and the Hermeneutic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boell, Sebastian K.; Cecez-Kecmanovic, Dubravka

    2010-01-01

    Conducting a literature review is a vital part of any research. Library and information science (LIS) professionals often play a central role in supporting academics in their efforts to locate relevant publications and in teaching novice researchers skills associated with literature reviews. This paper examines literature review processes with the…

  19. Integrating Children's Literature in Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynsey; Feng, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this professional development project was to train teachers in using children's literature for math instruction and to also examine its effect on student math learning at an elementary school. Teachers were taught how to use children's literature to instruct and enhance their math curriculum through the use of literature pieces,…

  20. Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma): towards minimally invasive surgery and multi-modality treatment strategies - an updated critical review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacharalampous, G X; Vlastarakos, P V; Chrysovergis, A; Saravakos, P K; Kotsis, G P; Davilis, D I

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma) was first described by Berger and Luc in 1924. It is considered to be an uncommon malignancy of the nasal cavity. The tumor arises from the specialized sensory epithelial olfactory cells, normally situated at the upper part of the nasal cavity, including the superior nasal concha, the roof of the nose and the cribriform plate. The imaging modalities of choice are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Combination of surgery and radiotherapy (either conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery), with or without chemotherapy is considered to be the standard of care for primary site disease by the majority of researchers. Combined transfacial and neurosurgical conventional approaches are also adopted in many reported cases, mainly due to the endocranial extension and the close anatomic relationship of esthesioneuroblastomas with the ethmoid roof and cribriform plate. Recent literature supports that endoscopic resection correlates with similar oncologic control rates compared with conventional open surgery, provided that basic oncologic surgical principles with clearance of margins and intradural dissection (when required) are completely maintained.

  1. Does the initiation of urate-lowering treatment during an acute gout attack prolong the current episode and precipitate recurrent attacks: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, Fatma; La-Crette, Jonathan; Jones, Adrian; Abhishek, A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on effect of initiating urate-lowering treatment (ULT) during an acute attack of gout on duration of index attack and persistence on ULT. OVID (Medline), EMBASE and AMED were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ULT initiation during acute gout attack published in English language. Two reviewers appraised the study quality and extracted data independently. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (RR) were used to pool continuous and categorical data. Meta-analysis was carried out using STATA version 14. A total of 537 studies were selected. A total of 487 titles and abstracts were reviewed after removing duplicates. Three RCTs were identified. There was evidence from two high-quality studies that early initiation of allopurinol did not increase pain severity at days 10-15 [SMDpooled (95 % CI) 0.18 (-0.58, 0.93)]. Data from three studies suggested that initiation of ULT during an acute attack of gout did not associate with dropouts [RRpooled (95 % CI) 1.16 (0.58, 2.31)]. There is moderate-quality evidence that the initiation of ULT during an acute attack of gout does not increase pain severity and risk of ULT discontinuation. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings so that patients with acute gout can be initiated on ULT with confidence.

  2. [CPM--Continuous Passive Motion: treatment of injured or operated knee-joints using passive movement. A meta-analysis of current literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, P

    2004-04-01

    There is still a controversial discussion in literature about the use of motor driven splints in knee surgery--as the principle of continuous passive motion, CPM. For this reason it seemed useful for an evaluation to look through the papers which were published since 1990. It was obvious, that negative results were published often before this year, but this papers are still quoted standard works. In medical data bases subito-doc.de, medscape.com, medica.de and zbmed.de 230 papers were found by search CPM, continuous passive motion and arthromot. Coincidentally there was a search for authors who were already quoted in other papers. 36 papers concerning CPM after knee surgery were utilized. The role of CPM regarding the range of motion, swelling, duration of hospital stay, use of analgesics, costs, postoperative manipulations, wound healing and thrombo embolic complications was evaluated. Although the results of this partial retrospective, partial prospective, sometimes randomized or double blinded studies are in contradiction, there can only be found a trend to better results. New clinical studies for evidence based guidelines in the handling of continuous passive motion after knee surgery are necessary.

  3. A Review of Homework Literature as a Precursor to Practitioner-Led Doctoral Research in a Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Nicholas Paul Charles

    2014-01-01

    Homework in the primary school is a subject much debated by teachers, parents and pupils. This paper offers a brief critique of key issues in the current homework debate with particular reference to research literature, theoretical perspectives, educational policy and other professional publications. Consequently, a discourse between homework in…

  4. Adding value? A review of the international literature on the role of higher education in police training and education

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Craig

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the current English-language literature on developments in police training and education in order to identify common areas where higher education ‘adds value’ to police learning and development. Reforms in training and education are constituent parts of the ongoing shift to a service-oriented professional police in a number of countries. A comparative analysis of the literature on police training and education is provided here which focuses primarily on the U...

  5. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Characterization of Cardiac Anatomy and Function—Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Omar; Beckett, Morgan Q.; James, Aaron W.; Loehr, Megan N.; Lewis, Taylor G.; Hassan, Tahmin; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV) function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects. Application of RT3DE includes analysis of the pericardium, right ventricular (RV) and LV cavities, wall motion, valvular disease, great vessels, congenital anomalies, and traumatic injury, such as myocardial contusion. RT3DE, through a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), allows for increasingly accurate volume and valve motion assessment, estimated LV ejection fraction, and volume measurements. Chamber motion and LV mass approximation have been more accurately evaluated by RT3DE by improved inclusion of the third dimension and quantification of volumetric movement. Moreover, RT3DE was shown to have no statistical significance when comparing the ejection fractions of RT3DE to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Analysis of RT3DE data sets of the LV endocardial exterior allows for the volume to be directly quantified for specific phases of the cardiac cycle, ranging from end systole to end diastole, eliminating error from wall motion abnormalities and asymmetrical left ventricles. RT3DE through TTE measures cardiac function with superior diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV mass, systolic function, along with LV and RV volume when compared with 2DE with comparable results to CMR.

  6. Diagnosing Lung Cancers through Examination of Micro-RNA Biomarkers in Blood, Plasma, Serum and Sputum: A Review and Summary of Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gyoba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, the vast majority of lung cancers are diagnosed at a late stage, when patients become symptomatic leading to dismal, less than 15% five-year survival rates. Evidence has demonstrated that screening computed tomography scans can be used to detect lung cancer, but these scans have high false positive rates. Therefore, there is a continued need for the development of minimally-invasive methods to screen the high risk population and diagnose lung cancer at an earlier, curable stage. One such promising area is the use micro-RNAs. These are short, non-coding RNA molecules that have been shown in previous research to be dysregulated in cancers. This review will focus on the potential use of miRNA levels in various biological fluids (whole blood, plasma, serum, and sputum and demonstrate their potential utility as screening and diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer. Current research will be analyzed and compared, and future directions in establishing the use of miRNAs for detecting lung cancer will be discussed.

  7. Diagnosing Lung Cancers through Examination of Micro-RNA Biomarkers in Blood, Plasma, Serum and Sputum: A Review and Summary of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoba, Jennifer; Shan, Shubham; Roa, Wilson; Bédard, Eric L R

    2016-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, the vast majority of lung cancers are diagnosed at a late stage, when patients become symptomatic leading to dismal, less than 15% five-year survival rates. Evidence has demonstrated that screening computed tomography scans can be used to detect lung cancer, but these scans have high false positive rates. Therefore, there is a continued need for the development of minimally-invasive methods to screen the high risk population and diagnose lung cancer at an earlier, curable stage. One such promising area is the use micro-RNAs. These are short, non-coding RNA molecules that have been shown in previous research to be dysregulated in cancers. This review will focus on the potential use of miRNA levels in various biological fluids (whole blood, plasma, serum, and sputum) and demonstrate their potential utility as screening and diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer. Current research will be analyzed and compared, and future directions in establishing the use of miRNAs for detecting lung cancer will be discussed.

  8. Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment" is designed to help school systems evaluate their current Professional Growth & Support strategy. The self-assessment is organized around the "Eight Principles of Strategic Professional Growth & Support." Each section allows school leaders to identify the…

  9. Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

  10. Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Susan M; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A; Knoche, Lisa L

    2009-05-01

    In light of the current policy context, early childhood educators are being asked to have a complex understanding of child development and early education issues and provide rich, meaningful educational experiences for all children and families in their care. Accountability for outcomes is high, and resources for professional support are limited. As such, the early education field needs well-conducted empirical studies on which to base professional development practices. In this paper, we offer research directions associated with the processes underlying professional development, including areas in need of investigation that can inform the early childhood education field in terms of how professional development efforts exert their influence and produce meaningful change in practitioners' skills, behaviors, and dispositions. The paper highlights representative research from the professional development literature on its various forms/approaches and offers an agenda for research on the professional development process. Broad issues associated with the conduct of research on professional development, including considerations of professional development processes, participant characteristics, relationships, and sustainability are discussed.

  11. Neonicotinoids in the Canadian aquatic environment: a literature review on current use products with a focus on fate, exposure, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J C; Dubetz, C; Palace, V P

    2015-02-01

    Developed to replace organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids are structurally similar to nicotine. The three main neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, are being re-evaluated by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). An important aspect of the re-evaluation is the potential for effects in non-target organisms, including aquatic organisms. Leaching into surface waters is one of the major concerns surrounding extensive use of neonicotinoids, especially in close proximity to water bodies. The PMRA has classified IMI as 'persistent' with a 'high' leaching potential. Globally, neonicotinoids have been detected in a variety of water bodies, typically at concentrations in the low μg/L range. While IMI has been included in some monitoring exercises, there are currently very few published data for the presence of CLO and THM in Canadian water bodies. The majority of neonicotinoid toxicity studies have been conducted with IMI due to its longer presence on the market and high prevalence of use. Aquatic insects are particularly vulnerable to neonicotinoids and chronic toxicity has been observed at concentrations of IMI below 1 μg/L. Acute toxicity has been reported at concentrations below 20 μg/L for the most sensitive species, including Hyalella azteca, ostracods, and Chironomus riparius. Fish, algae, amphibians, and molluscs are relatively insensitive to IMI. However, the biological effects of THM and CLO have not been as well explored. The Canadian interim water quality guideline for IMI is 0.23 μg/L, but there is currently insufficient use, fate, and toxicological information available to establish guidelines for CLO and THM. Based on concentrations of neonicotinoids reported in surface waters in Canada and globally, there is potential for aquatic invertebrates to be negatively impacted by neonicotinoids. Therefore, it is necessary to address knowledge gaps to inform decisions around guidelines

  12. Orienting Mid-Level Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Peter C.; Bryan, Stephen P.; Faulkner, William O.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-level managers comprise a large proportion of student affairs organizations. They are often the most overlooked when it comes to professional orientation and institutional introduction when entering new positions. Accordingly, information is presented from the professional literature that speaks to the characteristics and unique needs of this…

  13. Peer Coaching: Professional Development for Experienced Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Therese; Weaver, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    The professoriate, as a whole, is growing older and more experienced; yet institutions often overlook the professional development needs of mid-career and senior faculty. This article, based on a review of the literature and the development of a peer coaching project, examines peer coaching as a professional development opportunity for experienced…

  14. Discussing Terms: Professions, Professionals, Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledstein, Burton J.

    Throughout history there have always been confusion and even contradictions concerning professionalism. An occupation can be considered a profession in one country and not another, and in one historical period and not another. One contribution to this confusion is the explanation of the social system by Talcott Parsons and others, which has framed…

  15. Discussing Terms: Professions, Professionals, Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledstein, Burton J.

    Throughout history there have always been confusion and even contradictions concerning professionalism. An occupation can be considered a profession in one country and not another, and in one historical period and not another. One contribution to this confusion is the explanation of the social system by Talcott Parsons and others, which has framed…

  16. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moorhead, Anne

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  17. Weight Care Project: Health professionals' attitudes and ability to assess body weight status - Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Kathy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may

  18. Predictive factors for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients under 21 years of age and a meta-analysis of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ning; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Zhong-Wu; Ji, Qing-Hai; Yang, Shu-Wen; Wei, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The influence of predictors for recurrence in relation to recurrence-free survival was analyzed retrospectively in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients under 21 years of age who underwent primary surgical treatment and who had a pathological diagnosis of DTC between 1983 and 2012 at Fudan University Cancer Hospital. Recurrences were retrospectively analyzed using a Cox regression model for the hazard ratio (HR) according to the clinicopathological features. A meta-analysis was performed with respect to the potential predictors for recurrence from current related studies. In the present study, there were 146 young patients aged from 7 to 20 years, with a female/male ratio of 2.65/1. Female gender was the only factor significantly associated with recurrence according to univariate (HR = 2.812, P = 0.037) and multivariate (HR = 4.107, P = 0.024) Cox regression analyses. Meta-analyses revealed that multifocality (HR = 1.91, P < 0.05) and presentation at diagnosis (HR = 1.39, P < 0.05) were highly associated with recurrence in young DTC patients. However, female gender and other factors, such as age (≤10 vs. 11-20 years), PTC (PTC vs. FTC), extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastasis, total thyroidectomy (total vs. less than total), radioiodine therapy, and radiation history, were not associated with recurrence in young DTC patients. In conclusion, multifocality and presentation at diagnosis are strong predictive factors of recurrence in relation to recurrence-free survival. We recommend studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up to verify the influence of predictors for disease recurrence in young patients.

  19. CONTEMPORARYFOREIGN LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence Bue; Marshall Brown; Alfred Hornung; James Phelan; Elizabeth Schultz; David Attwell

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Foreign Literature ( CFL,CN32-1087/I,ISSN 1001-1757 ),originated in 1980,is a journal of articles and reviews on contemporary literature except that of China.Peer-reviewed and published quarterly,in January,April,July and October,by the Institute of Foreign Literature,Nanjing University and the Yilin Press,CFL is indexed in the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index (CSSCI).

  20. 自我專業評估研究─以圖書館事業為例 Study on Self-Assessment of Professionalism-An Example of Current Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Tzeng

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available 在現代知識爆炸e化時代裡,「專業」已是存在的必要,而扮演縱貫古今、繼往開來的圖書館,其專業性更不容忽視。究竟專業與非專業間有何差異呢?本文以「圖書館事業」為例,經相關文獻探討後試圖提出若干專業構成要件,透過圖書館員對於專業之自我評估。進而檢測圖書館員對於專業構成條件的認知,由結論分析可得目前圖書館在各項專業條件如:正規教育機構、知識體系、專業性組織、專業資格、專業自主權、立法保障、服務性質導向、共同認知及價值觀、在職進修管道確已達到了專業的標準,彰顯出專業的內涵,可視為專業之屬性。This study uses Librarianship as an example and attempts to recommend several prerequisites of professionalism after investigation of related papers. Through librarian s self-assessment in professionalism, this research examines librarian s recognition of conditions constituting to professionalism. From this analysis it can be concluded that the channels of present professionalism conditions for library such as formal educational programs, knowledge system for professionalism, professional organizations, professional qualifications, professional autonomy, legal protection,library service, common recognition and value perception, and on-job training have already achieved the standard of professionalism. It shows the content of professionalism can be viewed as attributes of professionalism. The conditions that could not completely achieve professional standard such as professional regulations, professional job and skill differentiation, employment channel, and professional types and attributes need further reinforcement. Finally, some recommendations such as reinforcing the functionality of Library association of Republic of China, demonstration of effectiveness of Library Law , career plan of librarian,and reinforcing training method of

  1. 上海市精神卫生服务专业机构医生队伍现状分析%Investigation and analysis of the current status of doctor team in shanghai mental health professional institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈圣祺; 谢飞; 张广岐

    2015-01-01

    Objective At the end of 2013,the survey studied the current status and future demands of doctor team from 24 men-tal health professional institutions in Shanghai in an effect to provide scientific basis for the relevant governmental authorities to better implement the training project for standardization of residency psychiatrists. Methods Investigations and studies were conducted in 24 public mental health professional institutions in Shanghai by using self-prepared questionnaire. In-depth interviews and verifications were employed to follow up on the figures from such questionnaire. Results The 24 specialized hospitals actually have 13159 in-pa-tient beds open to public. There are 1046 doctors in all,among which 609 hold intermediate or higher level of qualifications. 323 are residency doctors,and 114 are of other subjects. The ratio of number of beds and number of doctors is 12. 58:1. In the past 4 years, 171 residency doctors standardization trainees have been recruited,however,331 psychiatrists are required for Shanghai mental health medical professional institutions at all levels for the in-coming 3 years,which demand excludes that of mental health/psychology de-partment of comprehensive hospitals and other private mental health specialized medical institutions. Conclusion The lack of psychia-trists in Shanghai is obvious and the professional qualification structure is unreasonable.%目的:调查截止2013年底止,上海市24家精神卫生专业机构医生队伍现状及未来需求,以便为更好地实施精神科住院医师规范化培训项目提供科学依据。方法采用问卷调查方法,对上海市24家公立精神卫生专业机构进行问卷调查和个别深入访谈、核实,内容包括床位数量、医生数量、职称情况、需求情况等。结果24家专科医院实际开放床位13159张,医生数为1046人,床位数与医生数之比为12.58:1;其中具有中、高级职称的医师609人;住院医师323人

  2. Medizinhistorische Literatur [Medical history literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2012 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on medical history literature. In six articles special collections and recent projects of medical history libraries in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Vienna and Zurich are presented. The authors in this issue are Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (From Augusta to Klingsor, from Luise to Benjamin – past, present and future of the library of the Institute of the History of Medicine in Berlin, Alexandra Veith (Library of the Institute for History of Medicine and Ethics of Medicine, Heidelberg, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Historic collections of the Medical Library of the University of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and their deacidification, Dagmar Geithner (Library of the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science, Leipzig – a Historical Review, Harald Albrecht, Bruno Bauer & Walter Mentzel (The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna and Monika Huber & Ursula Reis (Library of the Institute and Museum of the History of Medicine Zurich.[german] Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2012von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information ist medizinhistorische Literatur. In sechs Beiträgen werden Bestände und aktuelle Projekte medizinhistorischer Bibliotheken in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Wien und Zürich vorgestellt. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (Von August zu Klingsor, von Luise zu Benjamin – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin in Berlin, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Medizinhistorische Buchbestände am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und ihre Entsäuerung, Ara Veith (Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin in Heidelberg, Dagmar Geithner

  3. Professional Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews five books: "Garbage Pizza, Patchwork Quilts and Math Magic" (Ohanian), about elementary math instruction; "Ready for What?" (Graue), on school readiness; "The Braid of Literature: Children's Worlds of Reading" (Wolf and Heath); "The Best Years of Their Lives" (Zvirin), a book of resources for teenagers; and "Teaching and Learning in the…

  4. Grey Literature and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation standards for professional schools offering social work degrees mandate curriculum content that provides students with skills to analyze, formulate, and influence social policies. An important source of analytical thinking about social policy is the "grey" literature issued by public policy organizations, think tanks,…

  5. Professionalizing Intelligence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current state of professionalism in national security intelligence analysis in the U.S. Government. Since the introduction of major intelligence reforms directed by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA in December, 2004, we have seen notable strides in many aspects of intelligence professionalization, including in analysis. But progress is halting, uneven, and by no means permanent. To consolidate its gains, and if it is to continue improving, the U.S. intelligence community (IC should commit itself to accomplishing a new program of further professionalization of analysis to ensure that it will develop an analytic cadre that is fully prepared to deal with the complexities of an emerging multipolar and highly dynamic world that the IC itself is forecasting. Some recent reforms in intelligence analysis can be assessed against established standards of more fully developed professions; these may well fall short of moving the IC closer to the more fully professionalized analytical capability required for producing the kind of analysis needed now by the United States.

  6. Professional C++

    CERN Document Server

    Gregoire, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Master complex C++ programming with this helpful, in-depth resource From game programming to major commercial software applications, C++ is the language of choice. It is also one of the most difficult programming languages to master. While most competing books are geared toward beginners, Professional C++, Third Edition, shows experienced developers how to master the latest release of C++, explaining little known features with detailed code examples users can plug into their own codes. More advanced language features and programming techniques are presented in this newest edition of the book,

  7. The Current Problems and Strategies on Professional Development of English Teachers in Minority Regions%民族地区英语教师专业发展存在的问题与策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭学文

    2012-01-01

    Several strategies have been put forward in this paper through profound exploration on current problems of professional development of English teachers in minority regions.There are three strategies including transformation of conception via reinforcement of modern educational theories,consolidation of English expertise and improvement of English teaching and learning ability via practical training,and promotion of research ability via exploration and studies on school-based curriculum program.%通过剖析民族地区英语教师专业发展存在的问题,提出了提高民族地区英语教师专业化水平的策略:加强现代教育理论学习,转变教育观念;加强英语专业知识、技能学习,通过实训提高英语教学能力;加强校本课程开发研究,促进科研能力提升。

  8. How Do Pharmacists Construct, Facilitate and Consolidate Their Professional Identity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Dawodu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacy profession continues to experience change regarding roles and responsibilities. The supply of medicines still remains a central function, but patient-facing, clinical roles are now becoming more commonplace, where pharmacists use their expert knowledge to maximise patient use of medicines. This transitional state from supplier of medicines to medicines expert raises questions over the contemporary professional identity of pharmacists. This literature-informed commentary highlights the current situation regarding how pharmacists’ identity is formed and reinforced. The authors suggest that the profession needs to be clearer in articulating what pharmacy does, and advocate the need for strong branding that the profession, public and other healthcare practitioners understand.

  9. Charting a professional course: a review of mentorship in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Ann Marie; Straus, Sharon E

    2011-02-01

    Developing physicians require firm knowledge of the clinical science and technical procedures within their specialties, a knowledge base founded in residency and supplemented throughout training. However, the day-to-day practice of medicine demands the skillful balance of various leadership, administrative, educational, and research roles, and expertise that cannot be obtained from a textbook. This professional curriculum is increasingly being sought through mentorship, a relationship between a junior physician and an experienced advisor or mentor. The authors review the current literature for mentorship in medicine, including characteristics of successful mentors and their mentees, and the emerging role of formal institution-wide mentorship programs.

  10. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH TEACHING PORTFOLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Widayati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that teachers as professionals should be aware of the importance of profes­sional development since professional development is a key tool that keeps teachers abreast of current issues in education, helps them implement innovation, and refines their practice. Reflective practice, one of which is compiling teaching portfolio, could be the basis for professional development. By as­sembling the teaching portfolio teachers can reflect on their past and plan for their future action. Teach­ing portfolio could be assembled for the purpose of promotion or self assessment.

  11. The Current State of Medical Malpractice in Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Benjamin A; Coogan, Christopher L

    2015-07-01

    Medical malpractice can present an unwelcome professional, emotional, and economic burden to the practicing urologist. To date, there is a paucity of data specific to urologic malpractice in the literature. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify and evaluate recent studies related to urologic malpractice. We also analyzed 6249 closed urologic claims from the largest available specialty-specific data set gathered by Physician Insurers Association of America from 1985 to 2012. The resulting comprehensive review seeks to raise awareness of current trends in the malpractice environment specific to urologic surgery while also helping urologists identify opportunities for risk management and improved patient care.

  12. Learning, Motivation, and Transfer: Successful Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lex

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I am concerned with three key issues of teacher professional development--teacher learning, motivation, and transfer of learning. Each issue has received minimal attention in teacher professional development literature. The three issues are discussed, and a model of an integrative professional development approach is outlined,…

  13. A Case Study of Student Affairs in Professional Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overly, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of conducting this study is to explore how student affairs professionals in professional schools acquire the knowledge and skill set to be effective in such positions. The need for such research arose after a review of the literature revealed inattention to the practice of student affairs in professional schools. Qualitative…

  14. Helping Teachers Help Themselves: Professional Development That Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Tannehill, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    For school administrators to facilitate impactful teacher professional development, a shift in thinking that goes beyond the acquisition of new skills and knowledge to helping teachers rethink their practice is required. Based on review of the professional development literature and our own continued observations of professional development, this…

  15. Learning, Motivation, and Transfer: Successful Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lex

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I am concerned with three key issues of teacher professional development--teacher learning, motivation, and transfer of learning. Each issue has received minimal attention in teacher professional development literature. The three issues are discussed, and a model of an integrative professional development approach is outlined,…

  16. On Current Master/Doctor Students’ Professional Identity as College Substitute Teachers%在读硕士博士大学代课教师专业身份认同探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹敏; 陈红

    2013-01-01

    The number of current master or doctor students employed by those independent university is rapid -ly increasing .This is a new group .These students as teachers have the same puzzle of professional identity . Because of lack of experience , they are hard to avoid diverse difficulties which lead to their psychology confu-sion in job.Through the way of interview and talk , the purpose is to understand their current identity situation and the confusion as well as reasons in their teaching work .By discussing the strategies for problems , it is helpful to their individual development and to promote school teaching and management standards .%独立学院聘任在读硕士博士研究生为代课教师现象日渐增多。这是一个新兴的群体,作为教师,他们同样涉及教师职业身份认同问题,作为没有经验的教师,他们难免在工作中遇到各种困难,产生心理困惑。通过访谈等方式,了解这一群体的职业身份认同状况,了解他们在教学工作中的职业困惑及困惑产生的原因,探讨解决问题的策略,有利于他们个人的发展,提升学校教学和管理水平。

  17. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.

  18. Elm Street School:A Case Study of Professional Development Expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alix Gallagher

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how much is spent on teachers' professional development.  A review of the literature finds two problems that have frequently led to inaccurate estimates of professional development spending: 1 the accounting codes that are used in many studies provide little description of spending, and 2 studies generally focus on district or state expenditures for professional development, but do not collect data on school-level spending.  These problems are compounded by the fact that studies define professional development spending differently, and thus it is difficult to compare findings across studies.  In an effort to begin to address this problem, this study utilizes a detailed cost structure to analyze both district and school site expenditures on professional development across cost categories.  The study found that school-level expenditures were a significant source of professional development for teachers.  This has implications for the methodologies used to estimate current professional development expenditures and what level of expenditures would be necessary to generate dramatic improvements in student achievement.

  19. Fostering values: four stages towards developing professional ethics for future accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zaleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The many accounting scandals occurred in the last three decades have change the perspective of accountant globally. As such, the higher institutions have to play their role in nurturing professional ethics in order to change the misconception towards the profession. Our observation of the literature indicates that incorporating professional ethics in higher institutions is a way forward towards developing future accountants with values. Henceforth, we conducted a generic inquiry study to explore how higher institutions could inculcate accounting graduates with professional ethics. Our findings show a conceptual framework which depicted four stages towards incorporating professional ethics at tertiary level education there are: 1 value development, 2 ethics maturation, 3 professionalism development and 4 ownership through effective implementation and enforcement. Consequently, the findings contribute to expanding the current knowledge in our conceptualisation of the professional ethics concept. In addition, the findings support the development of ethics education for accounting graduates in higher institutions in Malaysia. We consider that this study provides evidence to educators and policy makers that teaching methods and pedagogical policies should ensure professional ethics education in business schools in Malaysia is treated as a pervasive element of curricula rather than an optional choice.

  20. The role of professional journalism in protecting against questionable practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, John P

    2003-01-01

    The editor in chief of the Journal of the Canadian Dental Association explains that professional journalism alone cannot be expected to protect against questionable practice but it plays a vital role in the network of resources that define standards of excellent and ethical care. According to some, the explosion of biomedical information has created a crisis as emerging science overwhelms practitioners' capacity to intelligently evaluate it and incorporate it into practice. Research in medicine shows that journals play only a part in decisions regarding practice patterns. Some initiatives taken by the Canadian Dental Association to publish professional literature relevant to practitioners' needs to remain current in order to prevent questionable dental practice are described.

  1. Significance of Wang Shuo’s Novel Writing Mode for the Current Literature%王朔小说创作模式的当下文学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周树国

    2013-01-01

    Wang Shuo's novels in a sense, to create a new fiction narrative mode, in order to cater to the public's kitsch sexual psychology, is one of the popular novels and a new writing mode of the popular contemporary literature development. Despite the mixed reviews and literary critics for“Wang Shuo Phenomenon", Wang Shuo's creation has a certain significance for the development of the current literature.%  王朔的小说创作在某种意义上创造了新的小说叙述模式,以迎合大众的“媚俗”性心理在社会上显示了它独特的价值,成为当时人们喜闻乐道的小说样式之一,也为当代通俗文学发展提供了新的书写模式。尽管文学界和评论界对于“王朔现象”的评论褒贬不一,但王朔的创作对于当下文学的发展具有一定的意义。

  2. Professional literature production and information science education in Santa Catarina State, BrazilProdução de literatura profissional e educação em informação documentária no estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rasche

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a analysis about the professional literature production at library and information science in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from 1973 to 1990 and its insertion on the professional education curriculum of the undergraduated library and information science schools of the UFSC [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina] and UDESC [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina], from 1973 to 1993. The tables and graphics present a low insertion of this literature on the curriculum.Análise de pesquisa acerca da produção de literatura por profissionais da informação documentária em Santa Catarina e de sua inserção nos programas e planos de ensino dos cursos de Biblioteconomia da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – UFSC – e Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina – UDESC. Para a análise foram construídas duas bases de dados; a primeira refere-se à identificação da produção no período de 1973 a 1990 e a segunda refere-se à identificação da literatura citada nos programas e planos e ensino de Biblioteconomia das duas Universidades. Os resultados indicam baixa inserção da produção local, de 1973 a 1990, nos programas e planos de ensino ministrados de 1973 a 1993, apontando para um processo educacional reprodutivista e desestimulador da produção escrita.

  3. Chronic Constipation: a Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbahi, Hani; Cash, Brooks D

    2015-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a common health condition representing a substantial proportion of primary care visits and referrals to specialist providers. Chronic constipation can have a significant negative effect on health-related quality of life and has been associated with psychological distress in severely affected patients. It has the potential to cause patients to curtail work, school, and social activities. While different pathophysiological mechanisms have been implicated in the development of chronic constipation, in some instances, the causes of chronic constipation are not easily determined. Expenditures for the evaluation and management of chronic constipation represent a significant burden on patients and payers, and it is important for clinicians to have a clear understanding of the different pathophysiological mechanisms associated with constipation, understand the different testing modalities and treatments that are available including their appropriateness and limitations, and tailor that knowledge to the management of individual patients.

  4. Twenty-five-year-old Woman with Bilateral Borderline Ovarian Tumour Desiring to Preserve Fertility - Case Report and Literature Review on the Current State of Fertility Preservation in Women with Borderline Ovarian Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeklee, S; Lotz, L; Heusinger, K; Hoffmann, I; Dittrich, R; Beckmann, M W

    2016-11-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are semimalignant tumours occurring unilaterally or bilaterally with a peak incidence among women of reproductive age. Since the affected women often wish to preserve fertility, particular precautions must be taken when counselling the patient and obtaining consent prior to planning an individual treatment. Options for preserving fertility include an organ-sparing surgical procedure and cryopreservation of oocytes and/or ovarian tissue. In this article, we report on a 25-year-old patient with a bilateral seromucinous borderline tumour who desired all fertility-preserving options. In order to perform the procedure without delay, we opted to perform luteal phase stimulation prior to oocyte retrieval. We conclude by discussing the current literature on the state of fertility preservation in the treatment of borderline ovarian tumours.

  5. Take Charge of Your Personal and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Carla B.; Horm, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The need for professional development is universal, whatever a person's profession. Professionals must continually enrich their knowledge and increase their sense of professionalism over the course of their careers so as to implement current research-based practice. Early childhood professional development brings to the forefront the significance…

  6. EVALUATION OF TEACHER PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rıza ERDEM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the responsibilities of the teacher in terms of professional ethics by examining related literature, encountered problems and possible sources. In this study, some inferences are made by cross-examining teacher professional ethics and encountered problems. Ethics refers to the norms of a society, a culture or a group behavior that is accepted by various influences. Professional ethics comprises of rules and regulations restricting profession members' actions and telling what to do and what not to do. Teaching profession necessitates intense human interactions and requires high moral responsibilities. Ethics in teaching profession is a set of rules and guidelines that must be followed while interacting with students, society and colleagues. Teaching “professional ethics” is getting more important and elements of teaching (students, parents, administrators, education experts and teachers are more sensitive towards the challenges faced in this regard. The cause of problems encountered in teacher professional ethics may vary. While performing its duty teacher who is the strategic member of educational system is assuming important responsibilities in terms of “professional ethics”.

  7. Neuromuscular dressing effects: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calero PA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The kinesio taping is a technique that was created in 1979 by Doctor Kenzo Kase I’m looking through it that could generate a new therapeutic option to control pain, improve athletic performance and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal disorders. From the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, this technique as a therapeutic alternative PTO and is composed of health professionals in the field of sport and physical rehabilitation.Objetive: This article aims to identify theoretical approaches on the bandage neuromuscular. Material and methods: held today, for which conducted a literature search of databases such as como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs.The paper proposes a scheme of contextualization of the current landscape of the use and effects of kinesio taping in the management of different pathologies of the musculo-skeletal system in sports. Conclusion: it is concluded that currently many health professionals, and take the neuromuscular bandage a good therapeutic option in the management of diseases affecting the human body is investigated and every day more about the subject, which makes these new therapeutic methods to acquire a scientific value and transcends knowledge.

  8. Professional behaviours and factors contributing to nursing professionalism among nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Michiko; Taketomi, Kikuko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Kawamoto, Rieko

    2016-01-01

    To examine the perception of professional behaviours and factors contributing to nursing professionalism among nurse managers. Professional behaviours influence nursing professionalisation and managers' behaviours strongly impact professional development. In Japan, few studies have examined professional nursing behaviours from the nurse managers' perspective. The Behavioural Inventory for Professionalism in Nursing was performed with 525 nurse managers representing 15 facilities in Japan. The highest professional behaviours score obtained was 'competence and continuing education' and the lowest behavioural score was 'publication and communication'. The results demonstrate that higher nursing professionalism is related significantly to the increased length of nursing experience, a higher level of educational preparation and the current position as a nurse administrator. This study demonstrated that nursing professionalism is influenced by years of experience and nursing management education. Awareness of extrinsic professional factors is important continually to maintain nursing professionalism. The findings of our study may help nurse managers to continue their self-development and to realise the potential of their nursing staff by developing professionalism. These findings also provide an understanding of international professionalism trends to achieve higher levels of nursing professionalism through the evaluation of professional nursing behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Current Developments in Public Relations and a Review of their Implications on Public Relations Curriculum in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Sandra Judith Abiola

    Intended to review the recent professional developments in public relations as they are documented in the literature and to explore the implications of these developments for public relations education in Canada at the university level, this thesis is in six chapters, as follows: (1) Introduction; (2) Defining Public Relations; (3) Current Public…

  10. Community professionals' management of client care: a mixed-methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Niina; Francis, Jill; Duncan, Edward; Fraser, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    To review the literature on individual community professionals' caseload management (behaviours related to assessment, treatment and discharging of clients) to identify the main themes and concepts, and to synthesize the findings to inform practice, policy and research. Publications were systematically identified from electronic databases, hand searches of bibliographies, and contact with professional organizations. There were no restrictions on language, the nature of publications or publication year. Procedures were systematically applied for quality appraisal and data extraction. Qualitative and descriptive quantitative methods were used for data analysis and synthesis. Search criteria yielded 2048 papers of which 42 papers met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-five percent of these were based on research, the rest on professionals' experiences. The papers covered 16 professional and 20 client populations, and their quality was generally poor. Analysis identified six broad themes: definitions of caseload management, caseload measurement and 'tools', models of caseload management practice, client-professional relationship, discharging and professional guidance. Six papers presented issues that related to but did not fit within these themes. Current caseload management tools and models of caseload management practice had a poor evidence base. Five papers described benefits of team-based approaches. Professional guidance for caseload management is limited in detail and relevance to daily practice. Although there is a considerable literature on caseload management, it is not possible to make summative conclusions. Policy-makers and professional bodies should encourage and support development of research evidence about the ways to achieve effective, efficient and equitable caseload management. Health and social care services considering implementing caseload management tools or models of practice should critically appraise their basis, and consider their potential

  11. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  12. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  13. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  14. Mandatory continuing professional education: what is the prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ainsley; Francis, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Each year registered nurses apply for registration renewal The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia stipulate all nurses and midwives are expected to take responsibility and accountability for participating in continuing professional development (CPD) as a declaration that their practice is current, safe and competent. The code of professional conduct and Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (ANMC) competencies governing registered nurses and midwives, outline the professional and personal responsibility nurses hold in order to maintain clinical competence; which may be achieved through continuing nurse education and professional development. As the health care industry shifts focus to keep up with changes in technology, economics, demographics and culture, the nursing profession must respond accordingly. With the implementation of a national registration scheme in Australia, this paper provides a review of the literature relating to mandatory CPD and how CPD may assist nurses to respond to the changing needs of the health care system and its consumers, to ensure the best possible health outcomes. Suggestions of possible avenues of research into the concept of CPD are also offered.

  15. Family-health professional relations in pediatric weight management: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnesi, B C; Ball, G D C; Newton, A S

    2012-06-01

    In this integrative review, we examined contemporary literature in pediatric weight management to identify characteristics that contribute to the relationship between families and health professionals and describe how these qualities can inform healthcare practices for obese children and families receiving weight management care. We searched literature published from 1980 to 2010 in three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL). Twenty-four articles identified family-health professional relationships were influenced by the following: health professionals' weight-related discussions and approaches to care; and parents' preferences regarding weight-related terminology and expectations of healthcare delivery. There was considerable methodological heterogeneity in the types of reports (i.e. qualitative studies, review articles, commentaries) included in this review. Overall, the findings have implications for establishing a positive clinical relationship between families and health professionals, which include being sensitive when discussing weight-related issues, using euphemisms when talking about obesity, demonstrating a non-judgmental and supportive attitude and including the family (children and parents) in healthcare interactions. Experimental research, clinical interventions and longitudinal studies are needed to build on the current evidence to determine how best to establish a collaborative partnership between families and health professionals and whether such a partnership improves treatment adherence, reduces intervention attrition and enhances pediatric weight management success.

  16. Sustaining and promoting professional growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    The aim of this study is to design responsive and supportive interventions across a school to embed practice initiated through participation in a previous professional development program. An initial survey and focus group discussions were used to identify teachers' current understandings...... and classroom practices and to determine the teachers' perceptions of their own needs for embedding professional learning in practice. The results were used to design further researcher-practitioner collaboration and ongoing school-based support to assist teachers in enacting their professional learning....... This is a two-year project. At this early stage, changes have been identified in cross-school curriculum planning to incorporate professional learning; classroom practices are being shared among researchers and teachers through modelled lessons and discussions; the school leadership team are supporting ongoing...

  17. Dutch Arthurian literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Ironically, the currently flourishing study of Arthurian literature in the Low Countries had a false start, as L.G. Visscher’s 1838 publication of Ferguut, the thirteenth-century Middle Dutch rendition of Guillaume le Clerc’s Fergus, was full of flaws.1 The many inaccuracies in this first complete e

  18. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeny, Angela M

    2014-07-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA's Ethics Code or current research.

  19. Literature Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of literature circles, a student-led reading and discussion method that encourages students to see stories in various ways. Explains the student selection of titles, roles of group members, and collaborative projects that complete the activity. (LRW)

  20. Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  1. Literature Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  2. Rethinking Professional Standards to Promote Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Christine; McMahon, Margery Anne; Hamilton, Gillian; Murray, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    This article explores some of the key issues that emerged in the revision of the professional standards in Scottish education. The revision of the professional standards was part of a wider project to build teacher professional learning in ways that had an impact on practice and on pupil learning. The article begins by examining the international…

  3. Trust and Professional Skepticism in the Relationship between auditors and Clients: Overcoming the dichotomy Myth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschauer, Ewald; Fink, Matthias; Andrea, Moro

    2017-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the relationship between auditors' identification-based trust in client firm's managers and their perceptions of auditors' professional skepticism. We employ a multimethod approach broken Down into two studies. First, in study 1, we approached auditors and clie......This study empirically investigates the relationship between auditors' identification-based trust in client firm's managers and their perceptions of auditors' professional skepticism. We employ a multimethod approach broken Down into two studies. First, in study 1, we approached auditors...... and clients using narrative interviews in order to identify the working definitions of interpersonal trust and professional skepticism and also to develop an empirical and testable hypothesis against the backdrop of the current literature. Second, in Study 2, an ordinary least Squares regression based on data...

  4. Literature in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Viires

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society has become an information society and hence it makes sense to interpret various changes in the cultural sphere. Connections between computer technology and literature are one aspect of the complicated global set of problems in tackling the adaptation of texts with the media. The article focuses on what happens with literary texts in cyberspace, how they adapt to that environment, and it examines the forms of “cyberliterature”. The most comprehensive definition of cyberliterature derives from the concept of digital literature, i.e. literature created on the computer and presented by means of the computer. Trying to narrow the concept of cyberliterature, it can be characterised by certain computer-specific qualities: multi-linearity, different parts of hypertexts connected by links, uniting the written text with multimedia, interactivity etc. The second part of the article analyses a specific sub-category, one of the most intriguing border areas of cyberliterature – fanfiction. Fanfiction signifies texts mainly created as ‘pseudo-sequels’ to a book, comic strip, TV-series or film, and that are not written by professional authors but by fans. A separate section of fanfiction consists of texts written by aficionados of a pop or rock group – this is the case of “real person fiction”. Cyberliterature is part of a larger set of problems, the most general background of which is the increasing role of technology in our society. Other factors include the myriad opportunities that characterise the postmodernist cultural situation, the expansion of the concept of literature and the emergence of new forms of literature.

  5. Innovative Professional Development: Expanding Your Professional Learning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    To assume the role of technology leaders and information literacy specialists in their schools, librarians need access to the most current information. And, they do this by helping each other. There are many definitions, but professional learning networks (PLNs) involve sharing work-related ideas with a network of colleagues via various digital…

  6. The Role of the Arts in Professional Education: Surveying the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Christine; Gouthro, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Many educators of professionals use arts-based approaches, but often explore this within the confines of their own professional disciplines. This paper consists of a thematic review of the literature on arts and professional education, which cuts across professional disciplines in an attempt to identify the specific contribution the arts can make…

  7. 贯通不同层次会计专业人才培养的研究--基于十堰地区会计专业人才培养现状的调查分析%Study on Training of Accounting Professional in Different Levels Talent ---Based on Analysis of Current Training Status of Accounting Professionals in Shiyan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽琴; 罗惠月

    2014-01-01

    "National Medium and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development Plan" put forward that the secondary and higher lifelong modern occupation education system will be formed by 2020, to adapt to the changing economic development mode and the adjustment of industrial structure. The accounting education with secondary and higher vocational training and undergraduate education is of practical significance and value for accelerating the construction of the modern occupation education system. Based on the analysis of the current training status of accounting professionals in each level, this article puts forward suggestions on training goals and curriculum system for talents of different levels.%《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要》提出“到2020年,形成适应经济发展方式转变和产业结构调整要求、体现终身教育理念、中等和高等职业教育协调发展的现代职业教育体系”[1]。贯通中职、高职、应用本科专业教育对加快构建“现代职业教育体系”具有重要的现实意义和实践价值。文章首先分析了中职、高职、应用本科院校会计专业人才培养现状,在此基础上对不同层次会计专业人才培养目标的确立、课程体系的构建等提出了意见和建议。

  8. Literature review :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-03-01

    Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

  9. Sustaining and promoting professional growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    The aim of this study is to design responsive and supportive interventions across a school to embed practice initiated through participation in a previous professional development program. An initial survey and focus group discussions were used to identify teachers' current understandings and cla...

  10. New Landscapes in Professional Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth; Zemliansky, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This special issue examines theories and practices of professional communication outside the US. In this editorial, we preview each articleof this issue and place those articles in the context of current practices and theories in the fielf. We also outline crucial questions and directions...

  11. Mandatory continuing professional development requirements: what does this mean for Australian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kay; Barr, Jennieffer; Stevens, John

    2013-03-27

    This paper presents a discussion related to the recent decision in Australia to introduce mandatory Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for nurses. Historically there has been international debate surrounding mandatory CPD requirements; this debate is ongoing as Australian nurses face a diverse range of CPD offerings from a variety of providers. The purpose of this paper is to examine how mandatory CPD requirements for national nursing registration in Australia have evolved and to present an analysis of what this will mean for Australian nurses. What is yet to be determined is how to measure professional development and the effectiveness of professional development education. This is important to the international community with consensus in the literature that professional development is linked to ongoing education. Contradicting arguments are presented about whether this professional development should be mandatory. Presenting a contemporary discussion about the current and potential impact of mandatory CPD requirements for nurses, this discussion paper utilises the case of Australia's current national policy and CPD operation to examine the choices that nurses make in order to fulfil their legislative requirements. Additional arguments are presented about the barriers nurses face in undertaking CPD. The quest for effective CPD is complex and should incorporate different situations for nurses and individual learning styles.

  12. Professional social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options.

  13. Percepção dos profissionais que atuam na Estratégia de Saúde da Família quanto à assistência prestada aos idosos: revisão integrativa da literatura Perception of Family Health Strategy professionals about the service rendered to the elderly: an integrating literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Junior Aparecido de Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação é uma revisão integrativa cujo objetivo foi buscar na literatura e avaliar a percepção dos profissionais quanto ao atendimento dispensado ao idoso pelas equipes da Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF. Para a seleção dos trabalhos, utilizaram-se duas bases de dados, Medline e Lilacs, compondo a amostra que se constitui de dez publicações. Após a análise dos trabalhos incluídos na revisão, os resultados evidenciaram que os profissionais da ESF reconheceram a falta de preparo da equipe em relação à pessoa idosa, enfatizaram a dificuldade da estrutura organizacional e política da ESF no que se refere à velhice e admitiram a falta de integralização do cuidado das equipes à assistência ao idoso.This investigation is an integrating review that aims to search in the literature and evaluate the professionals' perception about the service rendered to the elderly by professionals working at the Family Health Strategy. Two databases have been used to select the works, Medline and Lilacs, amounting to a sample group of 10 publications. After the analysis of the works included in the review, the results show that FHS professionals acknowledge the team's lack of preparation in relation to the elderly, and emphasize the organizational and FHS policy difficulties concerning the care offered to senior citizens.

  14. Evidence-based risk recommendations for best practices in the training of qualified exercise professionals working with clinical populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Darren E R; Bredin, Shannon S D; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Foulds, Heather J A; McKenzie, Don C; Shephard, Roy J

    2011-07-01

    This systematic review examines critically "best practices" in the training of qualified exercise professionals. Particular attention is given to the core competencies and educational requirements needed for working with clinical populations. Relevant information was obtained by a systematic search of 6 electronic databases, cross-referencing, and through the authors' knowledge of the area. The level and grade of the available evidence was established. A total of 52 articles relating to best practices and (or) core competencies in clinical exercise physiology met our eligibility criteria. Overall, current literature supports the need for qualified exercise professionals to possess advanced certification and education in the exercise sciences, particularly when dealing with "at-risk" populations. Current literature also substantiates the safety and effectiveness of exercise physiologist supervised stress testing and training in clinical populations.

  15. First update of the current evidence for the management of ankylosing spondylitis with non-pharmacological treatment and non-biologic drugs: a systematic literature review for the ASAS/EULAR management recommendations in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Rosaline; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Braun, Jürgen; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2012-08-01

    To perform a systematic literature review as a basis for the update of the Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society and European League Against Reumatism (ASAS/EULAR) recommendations for the management of AS with non-pharmacological interventions and non-biologic drugs. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane between 1 January 2005 and 1 December 2009, and in abstracts of EULAR and ACR meetings (2007-09). Effect sizes for outcomes on pain, disease activity, spinal mobility and physical function and level of evidence were presented. Of 2383 papers, 35 with complete data were included. Physical therapy exercises in various modalities have positive effects on BASFI, BASDAI, pain and mobility function. Various NSAIDs including coxibs improve BASDAI, disease activity and BASFI. No effect of SSZ and MTX on any variable was found. Surgical interventions of the spine and the hip can give excellent results by restoring function. This concise summary of current evidence for non-pharmacological interventions and non-biologic drugs formed the basis for the update of the ASAS/EULAR recommendations for the management of AS.

  16. Research on the Cultivation of College Students' Professional Core Competence and CVCC Certification Mode--A Case Study of Chinese Language and Literature Major%大学生职业核心能力培养及CVCC认证模式研究--以汉语言文学专业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁华

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of college students is the basis for learning, knowledge shift ability and quality, promote the growth of social development and wealth is final, there are the specific abilities of professional special inherent ability of transformation and base pillar on the role of general ability (i.e., vocational core ability). This study is to take the Chinese language and litera-ture in Chongqing University of Science and Technology as an example, the development of professional ability of students to carry out the study of the core competence of college students.%大学生知识学习是基础,知识转变为能力素质、推动社会发展及财富增长才是最后的目的,转化的能力中主要有专业特别固有的特定能力,以及起基础支柱依托作用的通用能力(即职业核心能力)。本研究就是以重庆科技学院汉语言文学专业学生职业能力发展为例,开展大学生职业核心能力研究。

  17. Professional development by scientists and teachers' understanding of the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Dwight A.

    university-based professional development for science educators can be improved, helping to actualize the collaborative relationships that need to exist between staff developers and discipline specialists. In conclusion, I use the findings from this study to expand the current literature and suggest how improved university-based professional development contexts can be created.

  18. Effective Professional Development for Technology Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2001-01-01

    Effective professional development has the learning of all students at its core, focuses on expert and unique knowledge, recognizes that principles for improving student learning also guide professional learning, acknowledges learners' current understanding, and aligns with system-based changes. (JOW)

  19. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Waddell

    Full Text Available The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016 has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations 56.6% (132/233, pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis 38.2% (89/233 and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus 18.5% (43/233. There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233, surveillance for ZIKV (13/233, diagnostic tests (12/233 and transmission (10/233. Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233, of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233 used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health.

  20. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Lisa A; Greig, Judy D

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health.

  1. Scoping Review of the Zika Virus Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The global primary literature on Zika virus (ZIKV) (n = 233 studies and reports, up to March 1, 2016) has been compiled using a scoping review methodology to systematically identify and characterise the literature underpinning this broad topic using methods that are documented, updateable and reproducible. Our results indicate that more than half the primary literature on ZIKV has been published since 2011. The articles mainly covered three topic categories: epidemiology of ZIKV (surveillance and outbreak investigations) 56.6% (132/233), pathogenesis of ZIKV (case symptoms/ outcomes and diagnosis) 38.2% (89/233) and ZIKV studies (molecular characterisation and in vitro evaluation of the virus) 18.5% (43/233). There has been little reported in the primary literature on ZIKV vectors (12/233), surveillance for ZIKV (13/233), diagnostic tests (12/233) and transmission (10/233). Three papers reported on ZIKV prevention/control strategies, one investigated knowledge and attitudes of health professionals and two vector mapping studies were reported. The majority of studies used observational study designs, 89.7% (209/233), of which 62/233 were case studies or case series, while fewer (24/233) used experimental study designs. Several knowledge gaps were identified by this review with respect to ZIKV epidemiology, the importance of potential non-human primates and other hosts in the transmission cycle, the burden of disease in humans, and complications related to human infection with ZIKV. Historically there has been little research on ZIKV; however, given its current spread through Australasia and the Americas, research resources are now being allocated to close many of the knowledge gaps identified in this scoping review. Future updates of this project will probably demonstrate enhanced evidence and understanding of ZIKV and its impact on public health. PMID:27244249

  2. Effective Professional Development of Teachers: A Guide to Actualizing Inclusive Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Trisha

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how inclusive education activities can be facilitated through coaching as a means of professional development. A review of literature on effective professional development practices is discussed, and a recent study focused on individualized peer coaching is examined.

  3. 应用型本科院校汉语言文学专业实践教学的思考%The Thinking about Chinese Language and Literature Professional Practice Teaching of Applied Undergraduate Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳翠

    2016-01-01

    The practice teaching is one of the most important teaching link in cultivating applied talents,how as a liberal arts major in higher colleges of science technology can overcome the weakness,improve the quality of practice teaching.Mainly from several aspects of the curriculum,the practice teaching base,teachers training,this paper suggests that we build a reason-able teaching practice system,which is intended to identify the problems of professional premise through the aspects of measures to further standardize the practice teaching,improve teaching quality and cultivate applied talents to satisfy the needs of the so-ciety.%实践教学是培养应用型人才最重要的教学环节之一,作为传统文科专业如何能克服专业弱点,提高实践教学质量,本文主要从课程设置,实践教学基地,师资力量培养,专业技能大赛等几方面,提出构建合理化教学实践体系的建议,旨在认清当前专业存在问题前提下,通过此方面的措施,进一步规范实践教学,提高教学质量,培养出适应社会需要的应用型人才。

  4. Healthcare professionals' perspectives on environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2014-06-01

    Human health is dependent upon environmental sustainability. Many have argued that environmental sustainability advocacy and environmentally responsible healthcare practice are imperative healthcare actions. What are the key obstacles to healthcare professionals supporting environmental sustainability? How may these obstacles be overcome? Data-driven thematic qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews identified common and pertinent themes, and differences between specific healthcare disciplines. A total of 64 healthcare professionals and academics from all states and territories of Australia, and multiple healthcare disciplines were recruited. Institutional ethics approval was obtained for data collection. Participants gave informed consent. All data were de-identified to protect participant anonymity. Qualitative analysis indicated that Australian healthcare professionals often take more action in their personal than professional lives to protect the environment, particularly those with strong professional identities. The healthcare sector's focus on economic rationalism was a substantial barrier to environmentally responsible behaviour. Professionals also feared conflict and professional ostracism, and often did not feel qualified to take action. This led to healthcare professionals making inconsistent moral judgements, and feeling silenced and powerless. Constraints on non-clinical employees within and beyond the sector exacerbated these difficulties. The findings are consistent with the literature reporting that organisational constraints, and strong social identification, can inhibit actions that align with personal values. This disparity can cause moral distress and residue, leading to feelings of powerlessness, resulting in less ethical behaviour. The data highlight a disparity between personal and professional actions to address environmental sustainability. Given the constraints Australian healthcare professionals encounter, they are unlikely to

  5. Literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size...... among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge...

  6. 'What is professional ethics?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Bob

    2014-03-01

    The very term 'professional ethics' is puzzling with respect to what both 'professional' and 'ethics' might mean. I argue (1) that professionalism is ambiguous as to whether or not it is implicitly committed to ethical practice; (2) that to be 'professionally' ethical is at best ambiguous, if not in fact bizarre; and (3) that, taken together, these considerations suggest that professional ethics is something to be avoided rather than lauded.

  7. A Thinking of the Research on Foreign Professional Ethics of Teachers from the Perspective of Big Data: based on the Relevant Literatures from SSCI as carrier%大数据视野下的国外教师职业道德研究思考:以SSCI相关文献为载体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春; 曾晓娟; 宁先达

    2015-01-01

    The era of big data makes education face severe challenges, and professional ethics of teachers is also suffering great moral accountability. According to the academic consensus, selected the related literatures which the topic on " professional ethics of teachers "from SSCI to focus on main disciplines, main source journals, knowledge networks, and exploring the important theoretical clues from clusters of hot research topics: professionalism of teachers, concept of moral integration, ethics caring, education of spiritual care, and moral of teaching. From the perspective of big data to think the research achievements of foreign professional ethics that could we gain enlightenment: try our best to pursue opportunities of disciplinary boundary-crossing, pay attention to the trend of academic frontier domains all the time, explore expanding research category owing to changing knowledge networks, and continue to expand the depth and thickness of academic thoughts in the our research.%大数据时代使教育界面对严峻挑战,教师职业道德同样经受巨大拷问.本文以SSCI"教师职业道德"为研究主题的相关文献为载体,聚焦该研究的主要学科领域、主要来源期刊、知识网络,并从热点主题聚类中发现了重要的理论线索,即教师专业主义、道德整合理念、伦理关心、精神关怀教育和教学道德.基于大数据视角,思考国外教师职业道德研究成果,使我们获得深刻启示:在科学研究中,要尽力寻求学科跨界的契机,时刻关注研究前沿的发展动态,深入探索因动态化的知识网络而逐渐扩大的研究范畴,不断拓展学术思想的深度与厚度.

  8. Promoting Professional Socialization Within the Experiential Curriculum: Implementation of a High-stakes Professionalism Rubric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Kim; Dintzner, Matthew

    2017-02-25

    Objectives. To describe the implementation of a high-stakes rubric to assess student professionalism in introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs and APPEs) to promote the professional socialization of students in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at Western New England University (WNE). Findings. A professionalism rubric was adapted from the literature to assess the professional behavior of students enrolled in experiential courses based on evaluation of the following criteria: appropriate communication skills with patients and providers, appearance and dress code, timeliness, and initiative. The rubric was implemented in the fall semester of 2013 as a high-stakes component of the assessment within all experiential courses. Students were required to meet expectations for each of the four criteria in order to pass the practice experience, independent of their performance in other course components. Students were assessed by their preceptors at the midpoint and end of each practice experience using the appropriate evaluation tool. Each of the IPPE and APPE evaluation tools included the professionalism rubric as a requirement for assessment. Use of the Professionalism Rubric as a high-stakes assessment tool highlighted professionalism as an important component of the program, making expectations explicit to students and providing leverage to preceptors for holding students accountable. Summary. The Office of Experiential Affairs at WNE has raised awareness of the importance of professionalism and promoted the professional socialization of PharmD students with the use of a high-stakes professionalism rubric.

  9. Investigating the experience: A case study of a science professional development program based on Kolb's experiential learning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian L.

    Professional development for educators has been defined as the process or processes by which teachers achieve higher levels of professional competence and expand their understanding of self, role, context and career (Duke and Stiggins, 1990). Currently, there is limited research literature that examines the effect a professional development course, which uses David Kolb's experiential learning model, has on the professional growth and teaching practice of middle school science teachers. The purpose of this interpretive case study is to investigate how three science teachers who participated in the Rivers to Reef professional development course interpreted the learning experience and integrated the experience into their teaching practice. The questions guiding this research are (1) What is the relationship between a professional development course that uses an experiential learning model and science teaching practice? (2) How do the Rivers to Reef participants reflect on and describe the course as a professional growth experience? The creation of the professional development course and the framework for the study were established using David Kolb's (1975) experiential learning theory and the reflection process model designed by David Boud (1985). The participants in the study are three middle school science teachers from schools representing varied settings and socioeconomic levels in the southeastern United States. Data collected used the three-interview series interview format designed by Dolbere and Schuman (Seidman, 1998). Data was analyzed for the identification of common categories related to impact on science teaching practice and professional growth. The major finding of this study indicates the years of teaching experience of middle school science teachers significantly influences how they approach professional development, what and how they learn from the experience, and the ways in which the experience influences their teaching practices.

  10. Teacher Professional Development: International Perspectives and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bautista

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nations around the world are currently embarked in deep reforms of their education systems. There is widespread agreement among policymakers, scholars, and educators that one of the keys for success during these reforms is promoting the professional development (PD of in-service teachers. Every year, governments invest astronomical amounts of money on teacher continuous learning. However, the literature shows that much of the PD offered to teachers is inefficient, having small or no effect on teaching practices and/or student learning. This monograph describes the perspectives and approaches to teacher PD of five nations heavily committed to research and/or practice in this field. Understanding how PD is structured in these nations may guide others in designing more favorable learning opportunities for their teachers. The article from United States provides a general framework regarding the features of high-quality PD and offers examples of recent effective initiatives. The four following articles describe the PD models of Australia, Hong Kong, Finland, and Singapore, among the highest-achievers in education presently. Because teacher continuous learning is a high priority in these nations, strong infrastructures for high-quality PD have been built to meet teachers’ needs and interests. The monograph closes with a contribution from Spain, the country where the journal Psychology, Society and Education is edited. The author discusses the five prior articles and reflects on how the ideas presented could improve the PD currently offered to teachers in other nations, particularly Spain.

  11. Integrating professionalism into the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Helen; van Mook, Walther; Fewtrell, Ray; Wass, Val

    2012-01-01

    Professional values and behaviours are intrinsic to all medical practice yet remain one of the most difficult subjects to integrate explicitly into a curriculum. Professionalism in the twenty-first century raises challenges not only for the adaptation of the medical training programme to changing societal values but also for ensuring that trainees gain the skills for self-directed continuous development and future revalidation. This article is an introduction to the AMEE Guide in Medical Education No 61: Integrating Professionalism into the Curriculum ( www.amee.org ), which is based on the extensive contemporary available literature. An evidence-based approach has been taken throughout the Guide as it focuses on instilling professionalism positively into both undergraduate and postgraduate training. It takes a structured, stepwise approach and sequentially addresses: (i) agreeing an institutional definition, (ii) structuring the curriculum to integrate learning across all years, (iii) suggesting learning models, (iv) harnessing the impact of the formal, informal and hidden curricula and (v) assessing the learning of the trainee. A few well-evaluated case studies for both teaching and assessment have been selected to illustrate the recommendations.

  12. Professional competencies in health sciences education: from multiple intelligences to the clinic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, India F

    2010-03-01

    Nontechnical competencies identified as essential to the health professional's success include ethical behavior, interpersonal, self-management, leadership, business, and thinking competencies. The literature regarding such diverse topics, and the literature regarding "professional success" is extensive and wide-ranging, crossing educational, psychological, business, medical and vocational fields of study. This review is designed to introduce ways of viewing nontechnical competence from the psychology of human capacity to current perspectives, initiatives and needs in practice. After an introduction to the tensions inherent in educating individuals for both biomedical competency and "bedside" or "cageside" manner, the paper presents a brief overview of the major lines of inquiry into intelligence theory and how theories of multiple intelligences can build a foundation for conceptualizing professional and life skills. The discussion then moves from broad concepts of intelligence to more specific workplace skill sets, with an emphasis on professional medical education. This section introduces the research on noncognitive variables in various disciplines, the growing emphasis on competency based education, and the SKA movement in veterinary education. The next section presents the evidence that nontechnical, noncognitive or humanistic skills influence achievement in academic settings, medical education and clinical performance, as well as the challenges faced when educational priorities must be made.

  13. Professionalism and the role of medical colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J; Grigg, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    There has been substantial interest and emphasis on medical professionalism over the past twenty years. This speaks to the history of the medical profession, but increasingly to a broader understanding of the importance of socialisation and professional identity formation. A literature review was undertaken of professionalism and the role of professions and medical professional organisations. A key outcome has been the recognition that medical professionalism must be actively taught and assessed. Substantial effort is required to improve the educational environment, so that it nurtures the development of professionalism within the work-place. Although medical colleges have been prominent in identifying and progressing the recent developments within professionalism there is still much to be done to deliver fully on the societal contract between the public and the profession. There are key gaps to address, particularly with regards to self-regulation, civil behaviour and effective leadership and advocacy. Medical colleges need to take direct responsibility for the professionalism of their members. The expectations of the community are increasingly clear in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Living Circumstances of Current Professional Women in China from the Perspective of “Super Advertisements”%励志还是加压--由“超能广告”看当前中国职业女性的生存境遇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志华

    2015-01-01

    With professional women as their narrative objects, “super advertisements” have seemingly deliv-ered the inspirational effect by narrating the successful stories of professional women and by properly selecting nar-rators and their narrative tone, but they have definitely imposed certain pressure on professional women in a deep manner. From those ads can be discerned the essence of“super women”, i. e. women should return to their fami-lies apart from their success in their profession, and they should at least embrace the awareness and ability of housekeeping. This case is highly reflective of the true living circumstances of current professional women in China.%“超能广告”以职业女性为对象叙述职业女性事业成功的故事,通过叙述者及叙述语气的恰当选择等方面传达出励志的功效。与其说是励志不如说是加压。这让我们清晰地看到了“超能女人”的实质内涵:“女人”事业成功外还需回归家庭,至少要具备持家的意识和能力。这深刻反映了当前中国职业女性真实的生存境遇。

  15. Education Regarding Ethics in the Accounting Profession – A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Chelariu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to group authors from the specialty literature which approach education regarding ethics in the accounting profession in currents of thought, intrinsic and extrinsic in order to offer a view on current theories regarding ethics education in the accounting profession and the ways to improve it. In order to achieve this article’s objective we used conceptual content analysis through a positive approach. The research involved the analysis of recent and representative articles indexed in international databases with the purpose of identifying trends and authors which contributed actively on our theme or research. A trend towards “extrinsic” visions can be seen with: enforcing the legislation of the profession, modifying the curriculum, putting the accent on the ethical part in teaching by professors, introducing an interactive reply system for students; and “intrinsic” visions like: offering models of ethical professional accountants, paying attention to the social and economical context in which professional accountants work, paying attention to the moral and cognitive development of the student as future professional. The key contribution of the paper presented is grouping the authors from the specialty literature in the currents of thought, intrinsic and extrinsic.

  16. Revisión bibliográfica exploratoria sobre los criterios de aptitud en conductores profesionales con enfermedad psiquiátrica Literature review on the fitness criteria of professional drivers with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Álava Urrburu

    2011-03-01

    accidents and mental disorders will be the main health problems in the first third of the XXI Century. The Spanish Law for drivers (RD 818/2009 Reglamento General de Conductores mentions the necessity of meeting certain psychophysical requirements to obtain a driving license. Psychological tests approved in Spain are: ASDE Driver Test N-845, 100 and Coordinator LNDETER 2000. Objectives: Investigate the driving ability of people with mental disorders and know the legal aspects of professional drivers' fitness assessment. Methods: We conducted a research in different databases, libraries and out of a collection of 909 articles, 17 of them were selected for full revision. Mental disorders were classified according to Spanish regulation for drivers into 11 groups. We selected 8, because we considered them to be the most relevant. Results: RD 818/2009 strictly regulates the fitness for work of patients with mental disorders. Around 80% of patients with mental disorders do not pass the fitness tests, unless they have few symptoms, or those patients who have a favourable psychiatrist or psychologist report. Conclusions: The Spanish Law for drivers mentions that driving limitations must be accredited by a specialized physician. There is not enough evidence of the sensitivity and specificity of psycho-technical tests used in detecting mental disorders. The patient has a moral duty to inform his doctor about his pathology if it implies danger for others, but there is not a legal obligation.

  17. Teaching professionalism in orthopaedic residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, R

    2001-04-01

    Two residents, wearing white coats with their names and "Department of Orthopaedics" conspicuously embroidered on them, boarded a hospital elevator crowded with physicians, employees, and visitors. In a clearly audible voice, one resident began a story: "You should have seen the patient I saw in my clinic the other day. She was beautiful. I should send her to see Dr. W. He would love to see her!" This comment drew the undivided attention of everyone in the elevator and cast a ghastly silence over the rest of the ride. In recent years, interest has expanded regarding professionalism and its importance in medicine and surgery. Orthopaedic surgery is no exception, as the topic has recently reached prominence in our literature and policies. It is unlikely that professionalism is a universal and innate characteristic of college students entering medical school, yet it becomes a necessary value in medical practice. Somewhere in the ongoing process of medical education, the issue must be addressed.

  18. Current considerations on teenage pregnancy Considerações atuais sobre gravidez na adolescência

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Cristina Manfré; Sara Gomes de Queiróz; Ângelo do Carmo Silva Matthes

    2011-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy has acquired significant proportions. It is estimated that 20 to 25% of all pregnant women in Brazil are teenagers. The present study, through an analysis of the current literature, examines the main aspects involving pregnancy during adolescence, along with its consequences on the life of young mothers, their children and social environment. We conclude that the efforts of health care professionals, parents and educators are crucial to increase awareness of adolesc...

  19. Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareerat Rakwichitkul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Teacher professional development are the teachers’ learning process throughout their career stages to ensure that teachers have knowledge, skills and needed competencies for teaching among rapid changes in social, economic and technology which have the impact on learning and teaching. This article deals with the topics of the framework for teaching, teacher career stages and teacher professional development. The research findings related to teacher professional development, teacher professional development activities, suggestions for planning the professional development. Those research findings can be applied and implemented by the school principals, educational supervisors and other professional developers.

  20. Exploring Professional Identity in Response to Curriculum Reform and Professional Development: The Teaching Life Stories of Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gayle D.

    This study contributes to the existing literature in teacher education on teacher professional identity (Beijaard, Meijer & Verloop, 2004; Lamote & Engels, 2010; Rots, 2007), particularly in response to curriculum change and professional development. It proposes to offer a much better understanding of how chemistry teachers’ professional identities have evolved through their school and work experiences, and the tensions they experience associated with their beliefs about teaching and learning and their actual practice. Specifically, this study aims to identify how teachers' professional identities have evolved following the introduction of the latest chemistry curricula in Manitoba. These latest chemistry curricula advocate for a more learner focused 'tetrahedral orientation' (Mahaffy, 2004) teaching practice that supports chemistry learning through the use of Johnstone's (1991) three modes of representation - the symbolic, macroscopic and molecular levels - as well as a human element dimension. This study also aims to identify how teachers' professional identities have evolved following their participation in long-term professional development offered by teacher educators at the University of Manitoba. Additionally, this study aims to determine whether teachers feel they have experienced tensions associated with their beliefs about teaching and learning and their current teaching practices as a result of sustained professional development. Finally, this study aims to determine whether the curriculum changes and associated professional development have led teachers to think about and reflect more on their teaching practice and whether this has led to a change in their beliefs about teaching and learning and their teaching practice. Urie Bronfenbrenner's (1979) Model of the Ecology of Human Development was used as a theoretical framework for this study. This study was informed by semi-structured interviews involving 32 teachers of chemistry that were conducted