WorldWideScience

Sample records for current problems facing

  1. Current Welfare Problems Facing Horses in Great Britain as Identified by Equine Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Whay, Helen R

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about the welfare of horses in Great Britain (GB) there has been little surveillance of the welfare status of the horse population. Consequently we have limited knowledge of the range of welfare problems experienced by horses in GB and the situations in which poor welfare occurs. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with a cross -section of equine stakeholders, in order to explore their perceptions of the welfare problems faced by horses in GB. Welfare problems relating to health, management and riding and training were identified, including horses being under or over weight, stabling 24 hours a day and the inappropriate use of training aids. The interviewees also discussed broader contexts in which they perceived that welfare was compromised. The most commonly discussed context was where horses are kept in unsuitable environments, for example environments with poor grazing. The racing industry and travellers horses were identified as areas of the industry where horse welfare was particularly vulnerable to compromise. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were perceived to be the root cause of poor welfare by many interviewees. The findings give insight into the range of welfare problems that may be faced by horses in GB, the contexts in which these may occur and their possible causes. Many of the problems identified by the interviewees have undergone limited scientific investigation pointing to areas where further research is likely to be necessary for welfare improvement. The large number of issues identified suggests that some form of prioritisation may be necessary to target research and resources effectively.

  2. Current Welfare Problems Facing Horses in Great Britain as Identified by Equine Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horseman, Susan V.; Buller, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing concerns about the welfare of horses in Great Britain (GB) there has been little surveillance of the welfare status of the horse population. Consequently we have limited knowledge of the range of welfare problems experienced by horses in GB and the situations in which poor welfare occurs. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with a cross -section of equine stakeholders, in order to explore their perceptions of the welfare problems faced by horses in GB. Welfare problems relating to health, management and riding and training were identified, including horses being under or over weight, stabling 24 hours a day and the inappropriate use of training aids. The interviewees also discussed broader contexts in which they perceived that welfare was compromised. The most commonly discussed context was where horses are kept in unsuitable environments, for example environments with poor grazing. The racing industry and travellers horses were identified as areas of the industry where horse welfare was particularly vulnerable to compromise. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were perceived to be the root cause of poor welfare by many interviewees. The findings give insight into the range of welfare problems that may be faced by horses in GB, the contexts in which these may occur and their possible causes. Many of the problems identified by the interviewees have undergone limited scientific investigation pointing to areas where further research is likely to be necessary for welfare improvement. The large number of issues identified suggests that some form of prioritisation may be necessary to target research and resources effectively. PMID:27501387

  3. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  4. Problems facing developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)

  5. Very low resolution face recognition problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wilman W W; Yuen, Pong C

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the very low resolution (VLR) problem in face recognition in which the resolution of the face image to be recognized is lower than 16 × 16. With the increasing demand of surveillance camera-based applications, the VLR problem happens in many face application systems. Existing face recognition algorithms are not able to give satisfactory performance on the VLR face image. While face super-resolution (SR) methods can be employed to enhance the resolution of the images, the existing learning-based face SR methods do not perform well on such a VLR face image. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel approach to learn the relationship between the high-resolution image space and the VLR image space for face SR. Based on this new approach, two constraints, namely, new data and discriminative constraints, are designed for good visuality and face recognition applications under the VLR problem, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed SR algorithm based on relationship learning outperforms the existing algorithms in public face databases.

  6. New Zealand faces energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    New Zealand's known reserves of petroleum are rapidly depleting and yet, with an expanding economy, overall energy demand is expected to grow by 1.4 per cent per annum over the next 30 years. The difficulties centre on New Zealand's dependence on natural gas. Built up over the last 15-20 years, gas has become a key component in electricity generation, transport fuels (both as compressed natural gas and the synthesis of gasoline), and in the manufacture of petrochemicals as well as its use as a domestic and industrial fuel. But known reserves are limited. Latest assessments of economically recoverable reserves, albeit conservative, suggest that indigenous gas supply will last until about 2016. Competition among the major users is expected to begin to push up market prices by 2005, and at higher prices some of the current applications will simply stop. It is suggested, for instance, that the synfuels and petrochemical plants are unlikely to operate after 2008. Other gas customers will continue by becoming more energy efficient and some, depending on environmental pressures, will shift to coal, fuel oil and alternative sources like geothermal power. But perhaps the most interesting outcome -particularly for gas rich countries like Australia - is the possibility of New Zealand importing natural gas during the first decades of the new century in the form of liquefied natural gas. (author)

  7. Environmental problems facing the electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on the environmental problems facing the electricity industry was first presented at the World Electricity Conference, Nov. 1987. According to the author, the biggest immediate environmental challenge the electricity industry faces is the need for the role and importance of nuclear power to be reasserted clearly and unambiguously. The main environmental problems from electricity generation are air pollution and the carbon dioxide/greenhouse issue, and the author thinks that both could be reduced by an increased use of nuclear power as an energy source. (U.K.)

  8. Senge's Many Faces: Problem or Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortenblad, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss both possibilities and problems with Senge's (1990) many faces in The Fifth Discipline, i.e. the fact that different authors refer to different excerpts from his book as his version of the learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows that the authors' understandings of Senge,…

  9. [Current problems of deontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, A S

    2010-01-01

    The scope of knowledge in medical ethics continues to extend. Deontology as a science needs systematization of the accumulated data. This review may give impetus to classification of problems pertaining to this important area of medical activity.

  10. A Meta-Analytic and Qualitative Review of Online versus Face-to-Face Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewitsch, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instructional strategy that is poised for widespread application in the current, growing, on-line digital learning environment. While enjoying a track record as a defensible strategy in face-to-face learning settings, the research evidence is not clear regarding PBL in on-line environments. A review of the…

  11. Strategies For Dealing With Problems Faced By Men Participating In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify strategies for dealing with problems faced by men in Umkhanyakude using a participatory and inclusive approach. Men in Umkhanyakude were invited to a workshop in January 2004 to carefully think through the problems that they face, then to prioritize these problems using a ...

  12. Facing America's Problems: A Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Milton S.

    1981-01-01

    Points out ways in which science and technology have contributed to social change and stimulated massive social problems such as inflation, crime, unemployment, imbalances in international trade, and energy shortages suggests ways in which citizens can understand and cope with these problems. (DB)

  13. Problems pilots face involving wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  14. Technology Confidence, Competence and Problem Solving Strategies: Differences within Online and Face-to-Face Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon L.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2011-01-01

    This study identified the problem solving strategies used by students within a university course designed to teach pre-service teachers educational technology, and whether those strategies were influenced by the format of the course (i.e., face-to-face computer lab vs. online). It also examined to what extent the type of problem solving strategies…

  15. Problems facing Korean hospitals and possible countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Tae

    2004-07-01

    Korea has a unique health care system, of which the private sector comprises most of the country's health resources: 88% of the beds and 91% of specialists in Korea, but are funded by public financing, such as national health insurance and the national aid program. However, the public financing pays only 50% of actual costs and the patient's co-payment is still high. Healthcare organizations in Korea are categorized into four types; tertiary care hospitals, general hospitals, hospitals and clinics by scale of operator: number of beds. General hospitals must have 100 beds and over, and compulsorily specialties in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics-gynecology, pediatrics, dental service, other ancillary service units and an emergency care unit. General hospitals with 300 beds and more must operate an intensive care unit. There are many challenges facing the Korean healthcare system, such as reformation of primary healthcare system, enhancing hospitals' competitiveness, and permission of for-profit hospital, introduction of private health insurance, enhancement of geriatric care. These challenges can be resolved with long-term vision, willingness and strategies of the Korean government to ensure equitable financing and access to healthcare, combined with the active participation and utilization of the private sector.

  16. LDCs face another kind of health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H

    1977-10-06

    Early childbearing is increasing worldwide, in both the developed and the developing countries. In 1975, 13 million young women became mothers before their 18th birthday. Such early childbearing causes major health, economic, social, and demographic problems. The disadvantages are felt by the young women, their sexual partners, the babies born to these women, and society in general. Reasons why adolescents are engaging in earlier sexual activity and experiencing more early pregnancies are enumerated. The 1st Interhemispheric Conference on Adolescent Fertility, sponsored by the Agency for International Development and other involved organizations, was held in 1976. The Conference participants made recommendations concerned with the legal, educational, and social aspects of early childbearing. Many youth education programs have been established since the Conference. Research projects have been launched to study the social consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Many more family life education and family planning services must be offered. A significant hindrance to such developments is the reluctance of adults around the world to recognize and deal with the problem.

  17. Characteristics of Problem Drinkers in E-therapy versus Face-to-Face Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client–therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. Objective: To

  18. Characteristics of problem drinkers in e-therapy versus face-to-face treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. Ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client-therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. OBJECTIVE: To

  19. PROBLEMS FACED BY INDONESIAN EFL LEARNERS IN WRITING ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Rahmatunisa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out problems in writing argumentative essay faced by Indonesian EFL learners. It is carried out in a qualitative research design as it attempted to describe the problems and their ways out. The data were taken from university students’ writing task and interview. The participants are the second year of university Indonesia students who enrol their study in English Department. Results of the data indicated that Indonesian EFL learners faced the problems in three categories, those are linguistics problems, cognitive problems, and psychological problems. Mostly, students faced problems in linguistics related to the grammatical structure (23.2%, formatting words (30.2%, words classes (16.3%, error in using words (9.3%, and the use of article (21%. Second, cognitive problems are related to organizing paragraph, difficulties in remaining word classes, getting lost the generic structure, making a conclusion, and putting punctuation. Last, psychological problems which included laziness, egoism, bad mood, and difficulties to start writing also faced by Indonesian EFL learners. Data analysis also indicated the problem solving which hopefully will be beneficial for EFL teachers in writing class. It is strongly recommended that the EFL class should strengthen all the language skills in general and writing in particular, motivate the students to use English with the teachers, introduce pair work, peer-correction, and use dictionaries frequently etc.

  20. Characteristics of problem drinkers in e-therapy versus face-to-face treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Marloes G; de Haan, Hein A; Ter Huurne, Elke D; Becker, Eni S; de Jong, Cor A J

    2011-11-01

    The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client-therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. To determine whether e-therapy and face-to-face groups differed from each other and changed over time. We compared the baseline characteristics of four naturalistic groups (N = 4593): two e-therapy groups (2005-2006 and 2008-2009) and two consecutive series of ambulant face-to-face clients admitted for treatment as usual. The characteristics we were interested in were gender, age, education level, working situation, and earlier treatment for drinking problems. The results showed that the baseline characteristics of e-therapy and face-to-face clients differed by gender, education level, work situation, prior alcohol treatment, and age. We also found that both e-therapy groups differed over time by gender, work situation, and prior alcohol treatment. The e-therapy program successfully attracted clients who were different from those who were represented in regular face-to-face alcohol treatment services. This indicates that e-therapy decreases the barriers to treatment facilities and enhances the accessibility. However, the e-therapy population changed over time. Although the e-therapy program still reached an important new group of clients in 2008-2009, this group showed more overlap with the traditional face-to-face group of clients probably as a result of improved acceptance of e-therapy in the general population. Although e-therapy seems to be better accepted in the general population, anonymous treatment seems necessary to reach a broader range of problem drinkers.

  1. Correcting environmental problems facing the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses DOE's efforts to correct the environmental problems facing the nuclear weapons complex. It focuses on three main points. First, the weapons complex faces a variety of serious and costly environmental problems. Second, during the past year, DOE has made some important changes to its organization that should help change its management focus from one that emphasizes materials production to one that more clearly focuses on environmental concerns. Third, because resolution of DOE's environmental problems will require considerable resources during a period of budgetary constraints, it is imperative that DOE have internal controls in place to ensure that resources are spent efficiently

  2. Current problems of radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotkov, F.G.; Golikov, V.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Present status of radiation hygiene is considered and prospects of its further development are outlined in connection with the expansion of atomic energy use for peaceful purposes. Transfer to the new system of irradiation level reglamentation which is recommended by ICRP presupposes further investigations and data acquisition. Necessity of data acquisition on the frequency of stochastic effects of the doses not exceeding 100 rem, substantiations of methodical approaches to the assessment of the collective radiation doses of large human population groups at low levels of personal irradiation, obtaining of reliable information on the contribution of different sources into collective radiation doses are pointed out. Further investigations on the problems of radiation safety of patients and also prediction assessment of the existing systems of radioactive waste disposal, forecasting and insurance of radioactive wastes, forecasting and insurance of radiation accidents, connected with the injection of radionuclides into the biosphere deserve special attention. Perspective directions of scientific investigations in the field of occupational radiation hygiene are poined out

  3. Current problems of marine pollution. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1993-01-01

    During the lecture meeting of the working committee for waste water problems of the German Fishery Association, papers were presented on current problems of waste pollution and on the potential effects of climate changes on the fishing industry. (EF) [de

  4. Mimetic modulation for problem creases of the face

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühlbauer, W.; Fairley, J.; van Wingerden, J.

    1995-01-01

    Problem creases of the face such as frontal lines and frown lines, crow's feet, deep nasolabial and perioral folds, and cervical bands may be caused by the aging process, excessive exposure to the sun, disease, or genetic disposition. The condition may become aggravated by habitual hyperkinesia of

  5. Problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...

  6. Counting to 20: Online Implementation of a Face-to-Face, Elementary Mathematics Methods Problem-Solving Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Catherine Stein

    2012-01-01

    This study describes implementation of the same problem-solving activity in both online and face-to-face environments. The activity, done in the first class period or first module of a K-2 mathematics methods course, was initially used in a face-to-face class and then adapted later for use in an online class. While the task was originally designed…

  7. Inverse source problems for eddy current equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Ana Alonso; Valli, Alberto; Camaño, Jessika

    2012-01-01

    We study the inverse source problem for the eddy current approximation of Maxwell equations. As for the full system of Maxwell equations, we show that a volume current source cannot be uniquely identified by knowledge of the tangential components of the electromagnetic fields on the boundary, and we characterize the space of non-radiating sources. On the other hand, we prove that the inverse source problem has a unique solution if the source is supported on the boundary of a subdomain or if it is the sum of a finite number of dipoles. We address the applicability of this result for the localization of brain activity from electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography measurements. (paper)

  8. Computational methods in calculating superconducting current problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David John, II

    Various computational problems in treating superconducting currents are examined. First, field inversion in spatial Fourier transform space is reviewed to obtain both one-dimensional transport currents flowing down a long thin tape, and a localized two-dimensional current. The problems associated with spatial high-frequency noise, created by finite resolution and experimental equipment, are presented, and resolved with a smooth Gaussian cutoff in spatial frequency space. Convergence of the Green's functions for the one-dimensional transport current densities is discussed, and particular attention is devoted to the negative effects of performing discrete Fourier transforms alone on fields asymptotically dropping like 1/r. Results of imaging simulated current densities are favorably compared to the original distributions after the resulting magnetic fields undergo the imaging procedure. The behavior of high-frequency spatial noise, and the behavior of the fields with a 1/r asymptote in the imaging procedure in our simulations is analyzed, and compared to the treatment of these phenomena in the published literature. Next, we examine calculation of Mathieu and spheroidal wave functions, solutions to the wave equation in elliptical cylindrical and oblate and prolate spheroidal coordinates, respectively. These functions are also solutions to Schrodinger's equations with certain potential wells, and are useful in solving time-varying superconducting problems. The Mathieu functions are Fourier expanded, and the spheroidal functions expanded in associated Legendre polynomials to convert the defining differential equations to recursion relations. The infinite number of linear recursion equations is converted to an infinite matrix, multiplied by a vector of expansion coefficients, thus becoming an eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalue problem is solved with root solvers, and the eigenvector problem is solved using a Jacobi-type iteration method, after preconditioning the

  9. Current problems in chemical track etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A schematic survey is given on the current relevant problems of the etching (or revelation) of multi-track and single-track events in dielectric solids. Some aspects of the research trends and possible new applications of the effects observable here, are also considered. (author)

  10. Problems faced by Bangladesh in introducing a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Islam, A.B.M.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Hasnat, K.A.

    1977-01-01

    The per capita energy resources and consumption of energy in Bangladesh are among the lowest in the world as in the per capita GDP of the country. The need for and importance of nuclear power in providing cheaper and reliable energy for economic development of the country is discussed in the light of this situation. The constraints faced by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) in the initiation and development of a national nuclear power programme are detailed. Following the liberation of the country in 1971 its financial resources were mainly channelled to the rehabilitation and restoration of the economy. As the size of the national grid has remained relatively small, unit sizes in the range of 50-200MW(e) only could be considered for commissioning. Lack of vendor interest in such small sizes and the difficulty of arranging long-term investment for nuclear stations are the main constraints faced by the BAEC. Other bottlenecks are due to the uncertainty about the nature and extent of future economic development, pricing policy for available indigenous fossil fuel, and national energy planning criteria, which are mainly influenced by the limited financial resources, national priority for various essential non-development expenditures, which use up most of the country's own earnings and foreign aid, etc. Problems that are likely to be faced in future are discussed. These include public acceptability of nuclear power in Bangladesh, the obstacles to the transfer of nuclear technology that may be erected through the prospective growth of a cartel of nuclear-exporting countries, drainage of trained manpower, etc. (author)

  11. Solving the border control problem: evidence of enhanced face matching in individuals with extraordinary face recognition skills.

    OpenAIRE

    Bobak, Anna K.; Dowsett, A.; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called ?super recognisers? (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the ?Glasgow Face Matching Test?, and some case-by-ca...

  12. Problems the chemical industry of Japan faces and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Shin' ichi

    1989-01-01

    Industry proceeds for the fiscal 1988 are expected to increase remarkably as they did in the previous year with 4.9% increase in revenue and 18.8% increase in profit (ordinary profit) from the previous year. The conditions of material industry are especially favorable and chemical industry is also expected to prosper as it did in the previous year. Problems this prospering chemical industry is facing are introduced in this report. Firstly, it is necessary to improve productivity by adopting more information and promoting factory automation in order to strengthen competition. The future of chemical industry depends on the introduction of information. Secondly, as demands of users are becoming more diversified, and cycles of products shorter, shortening of development terms is essential. It is necessary, therefore, to predict the demands of users in advance and seek after custom products. Thirdly, selection of product bases is required; it might be necessary to consider producing some product items abroad. Moreover, it is desirable to increase investments in investigation and pursue creativity putting much stress on basic investigations. 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Problems facing promotion of astronomy in Arab countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Anas M. I.

    Promotion of astronomy in Arab countries is facing many scientific and technical problems. Teaching astronomy starts very late in schools, with very simple and limited courses. Many teachers lack a suitable astronomical background, which can lead to incorrect understanding by students of many astronomical ideas and phenomena. Teaching astronomy at higher levels is also very limited, for example: among the 16 universities in Egypt, astronomy is taught in only two faculties of science, just for two years. Graduate students find many difficulties in obtaining jobs related to astronomical activities and this is a serious limitation on the attraction of the study of astronomy. On the other hand, astronomical institutions are suffering from a serious lack of the new sophisticated equipment, while the budget allotted for maintenance is very small, and there is a serious shortage of technical staff. The training of astronomers and technicians is badly needed, since good research work depends on modern technological equipment and the complicated software used in controlling such equipment and in data analysis. Good libraries are needed for promotion of astronomy especially, the Internet facilities available for the staff is very limited. The effects of culture are very clear; many authorities in developing countries believe that astronomy is a luxury. Finally, most of astronomers are engaged with a lot of administration for all matters, so the free time left for science is very limited.

  14. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  15. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Katarzyna Bobak

    Full Text Available Photographic identity documents (IDs are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs, on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  16. [Problems with current hypertension definition in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco-Antić, Amira

    2008-01-01

    The Task Force data have added immeasurably to our understanding of the normal distribution of blood pressure in children. However, the manner in which arterial hypertension is defined in children is not without problems. The main problem is that the current definition of hypertension in children is not based on the end-organ damage assessment, but on the blood pressure height-related percentile distribution of healthy reference population. This could be overcome by introducing the relationship of blood pressure values with sensitive markers of hypertensive sequelae (such as carotid intimal-medial thickness, left ventricle mass index, retinal arteriolar narrowing and arteriovenous nicking as well as microalbumin urinary excretion) to define better the specific blood pressure values with outcomes. Furthermore, the current definition of hypertension based on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the reference population does not consider the normal evolution of reference population, as well as its ethnic differences. In addition, being based on the single occasion measurement in quite position it does not account for the possibility of transient, stress induced elevations in blood pressure known as white coat hypertension. Therefore, incorporation ambulatory 24 h blood pressure data into the definition of arterial hypertension in children may increase the definition reliability for clinical decision - making, although for such reliability the paediatric normative ambulatory blood pressure data should be improved.

  17. A comparison of problem identification interviews conducted face-to-face and via videoconferencing using the consultation analysis record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Aaron J; Collier-Meek, Melissa A; Bloomfield, Bradley; Erchul, William P; Gresham, Frank M

    2017-08-01

    School psychologists who experience challenges delivering face-to-face consultation may utilize videoconferencing to facilitate their consultation activities. Videoconferencing has been found to be an effective method of service delivery in related fields and emerging research suggests that it may be effective for providing teacher training and support in school settings. In this exploratory investigation, we used the Consultation Analysis Record (Bergan & Tombari, 1975) and its four indices to assess the effectiveness of conducting problem identification interviews via videoconferencing versus face-to-face. Overall, findings indicated significant differences across these two conditions, with videoconference interviews coded as having higher indices of content relevance, process effectiveness, and message control, but lower content focus, compared to face-to-face interviews. As these indices have been positively associated with favorable consultation outcomes, the results provide initial support for the effectiveness of consultation delivered via videoconferencing. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HappyFace - current status and future development plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Quadt, Arnulf [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.

    2013-07-01

    The HappyFace Project is a meta-monitoring tool, which is allow to monitor the Grid sites of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). It can also be used for any (complex) computing system, e.g. local or distributed computing resources. HappyFace provides fast access to all relevant monitoring sites and gets a complete overview about the status of all available sites on one page. It has an automatic querying system, a lot of testing modules can be plugged in and also the ability to design and add new modules is available. The project had been written in Python and PHP, but in the 3rd version of HappyFace the source code is fully migrated to Python and the web output uses only HTML templates, which makes it simpler.

  19. Recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face: a challenging clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati, Hossein; Davani, Sam Zeraatian Nejad; Johari, Hamed Ghoddusi

    2007-01-01

    In the neck or face, there are different causes for subcutaneous emphysema such as injury to the sinuses, the hypopharynx, the laryngotracheal complex, the pulmonary parenchyma, the esophagus or the presence of gas-forming organisms. However, factitious subcutaneous emphysema, a rare cause, must be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this clinical report, we discuss a 20-year-old girl who was under follow-up because of recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face and periorbital area. After 2 years of work-ups, including a period of close observation in the intensive care unit, self air injection by syringe was found as the cause of recurrent subcutaneous emphysema of the face, and the patient was labeled as having factitious recurrent subcutaneous emphysema. Therefore, when a patient presents with unexplained recurrent subcutaneous emphysema, one should suspect self-infliction and examine for puncture marks.

  20. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  1. Myth 15: High-Ability Students Don't Face Problems and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sidney M.

    2009-01-01

    One rationale for failure to address the needs of high-ability students in schools is that high-ability students do not need special services because they do not face any special problems or challenges. A more extreme corollary of this attitude is the notion that high ability is so protective that students with high ability do not face problems or…

  2. Current problems in the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, A.

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references

  3. Current problems of nuclear arms: some options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, I.F.

    1992-01-01

    Possible solutions of certain problems of the soviet nuclear weapons resulting from spontaneously changing military-political situation and social-economical living conditions on geostrategical space of the former USSR are discussed. Reliable stabilization of military-political situation on the former USSR territory is required for solving the above problems, which in its turn will possibly require active efforts of the international community. The idea on creation the Committee on non-prolifiration by the UN Security Council is proposed

  4. Problems faced by Bangladesh in introduction of nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Islam, A.B.M.; Quaiyum, M.A.; Hasnat, K.A.

    1977-01-01

    Bangladesh has one of the lowest per capita energy resources and consumption of energy. The per capita GDP of Bangladesh is also one of the lowest in the world. In view of this situation, the need and importance of nuclear power in providing cheaper and reliable energy for economic development of the country is discussed. Constraints being faced by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) in the initiation and development of a national nuclear power programme are dealt with. Following liberation of the country in 1971, its financial resources were mainly channelled for rehabilitation and restoration of its economy. As the size of the national grid has remained relatively small, unit sizes in the range of 100-200 MWe only could be considered for commissioning during the next decade. Lack of vendor interest in such small sizes and the difficulty of arranging long-term investment for nuclear station are the main constraints being faced by the BAEC. Other bottlenecks are due to the uncertainty about the nature and extent of future economic development, pricing policy for available indigenous fossil fuel, national energy planning criteria which are mainly influenced by financial resource constraint, drainage of trained man-power, national priority for various essential non-development expenditures which use up most of the country's own earnings and foreign aid, etc. The effect of the growth of opposition to nuclear power in developed countries on the public acceptability of nuclear power in Bangladesh is analysed. The paper also examines the prospective growth of a cartel of nuclear-exporting countries and its possible effect upon Bangladesh

  5. Radioactive residues. Current and prospective problems. Les residus radioactifs. Problems actuels et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauvenet, A.

    1975-07-01

    After having described the principal characteristics of radioactive residues, the author examined the current problems posed by liquid and gaseous effluents and stressed that nuclear installations are definitely much less polluting, with an identical power output, than conventional power stations. Research programs have been undertaken in the face of the predictable increase in activity. The gist of the matter is to maintain the absorbed doses at their present level and to study the problem of compounds with a long lifetime, the accumulation of which would create considerable danger on a world scale. With respect to the stockpiling of wastes, the author described the various techniques currently used and cited studies in progress, some of which--such as vitrification--have already come into the first stages of application. After having noted that the waste problem undoubtedly constitutes a technical difficulty and perhaps even more so on the psychological plane, the author defined in conclusion the conditions that should be established so that this problem does not hinder the short- and long-term development of nuclear energy.

  6. Problems Faced by Court Interpreters in Botswana | Miyanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 19 (2009) > ... The problems established include lack of training for interpreters, the absence of a job description and guidelines for interpreters, long hours of work, lack of a forum for interpreters to share ideas on their job, lack ... other staff, and lack of equipment such as microphones during interpreting.

  7. Reentry challenges facing women with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visher, Christy A; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2014-01-01

    Women entering the correctional system represent a population at high risk for mental health and the body of research on the mental health needs of women offenders is growing. These mental health problems pose challenges for women at every stage of the criminal justice process, from arrest to incarceration to community reentry and reintegration. In this article, we examined mental health status among a sample of 142 women leaving confinement and the role that mental health problems played in shaping their reentry outcomes using data collected between 2002 and 2005 in Houston, Texas. In the year after leaving prison, women with mental health problems reported poorer health, more hospitalizations, more suicidal thoughts, greater difficulties securing housing and employment, more involvement in criminal behavior, and less financial support from family than women with no indication of mental health problems. However, mental health status did not increase the likelihood of substance use relapse or reincarceration. The article concludes with a discussion of recommendations for improved policy and practice.

  8. Current problems in (n,2n) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindro, N; Frehaut, J

    1975-01-01

    Two kinds of problems related to (n,2n) reactions are briefly discussed. The first one is the understanding of the reaction mechanism. The nucleus evaporation formulas overestimate the experimental values of the cross sections. This difference can be accounted for either by reestimating the relative values of GAMMA sub(..gamma..) and GAMMA sub(n) or by adding nonequilibrium process contributions. The second problem is the Csikai-Petoe effect. A more extensive analysis of the data shows that they are not in agreement with its predictions.

  9. Current problems in (n,2n) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cindro, N.; Frehaut, J.

    1975-01-01

    Two kinds of problems related to (n,2n) reactions are briefly discussed. The first one is the understanding of the reaction mechanism. The nucleus evaporation formulas overestimate the experimental values of the cross sections. This difference can be accounted for either by reestimating the relative values of GAMMA sub(γ) and GAMMA sub(n) or by adding nonequilibrium process contributions. The second problem is the Csikai-Petoe effect. A more extensive analysis of the data shows that they are not in agreement with its predictions [fr

  10. Legal and institutional problems facing geothermal development in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The problems discussed confronting future geothermal development in Hawaii include: a seemingly insoluble mismatch of resource and market; the burgeoning land claims of the Native Hawaiian community; a potential legal challenge to the State's claim to hegemony over all of Hawaii's geothermal resources, regardless of surface ownership; resistance to any sudden, large scale influx of Mainland industry, and questionable economics for the largest potential industrial users. (MHR)

  11. Problems Faced by Mexican Asylum Seekers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anna Cabot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence in Mexico rose sharply in response to President Felipe Calderón’s military campaign against drug cartels which began in late 2006. As a consequence, the number of Mexicans who have sought asylum in the United States has grown significantly. In 2013, Mexicans made up the second largest group of defensive asylum seekers (those in removal proceedings in the United States, behind only China (EOIR 2014b. Yet between 2008 and 2013, the grant rate for Mexican asylum seekers in immigration court fell from 23 percent to nine percent (EOIR 2013, 2014b. This paper examines—from the perspective of an attorney who represented Mexican asylum seekers on the US-Mexico border in El Paso, Texas—the reasons for low asylum approval rates for Mexicans despite high levels of violence in and flight from Mexico from 2008 to 2013. It details the obstacles faced by Mexican asylum seekers along the US-Mexico border, including placement in removal proceedings, detention, evidentiary issues, narrow legal standards, and (effectively judicial notice of country conditions in Mexico. The paper recommends that asylum seekers at the border be placed in affirmative proceedings (before immigration officials, making them eligible for bond. It also proposes increased oversight of immigration judges.

  12. Online and face-to-face role-play simulations in promoting social work students’ argumentative problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Vapalahti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a teaching experiment in which social work students (n=38 practiced problem solving through argumentative tasks. A teaching experiment was carried out at a Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences in Finland in connection with a course concerning preventative work against alcohol- and drug abuse. This quasi- experimental study investigated whether role-play simulation conducted either online (15 students or face-to-face (14 students improved students’ problem solving on social issues. As a pre-test, the students wrote an essay after having watched a dramatization of problematic cases on elderly people’s use of alcohol. The students also attended lectures (30 x 45 min on the effect of substance abuse and preventive work, and after the role-play simulation they wrote another essay (post-test. Nine controls wrote an essay without participating in the role-play simulation. Lastly, the students filled out feedback questionnaires.

  13. Current problems of Bulgarian nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, A.A.; Vapirev, E.I.

    1996-01-01

    The main unsolved problems of Bulgarian nuclear power industry now are: a serious trouble that the WWER-440 units will have to be phased out before the end of their projected life since they do not meet contemporary safety requirements; heavy economic difficulties with the construction of the new NPP 'Belene'; accumulation of a considerable amount of spent fuel because of its interrupted export to Russia

  14. Problems facing the use of passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study will analyze the current state of the art in the reliability of passive systems for extensive use in future nuclear power plants. This case study uncovers the insights on the technological issues associated with the reliability of the systems based on thermal-hydraulics, for which, methods are still in developing phase. The paper is organized as follows: at first the current available methodologies are illustrated and compared, the open issues coming out from their analysis are identified. Five open issues have been identified: 1) the assessment of the uncertainties related to passive system performance; 2) the dependencies among parameters in thermo-hydraulics; 3) the integration of the passive systems within an accident sequence in combination with active systems; 4) the development of dynamic event tree to incorporate the evolution upon time of the physical processes; and 5) the comparison between active and passive systems, mainly on a functional viewpoint. For each open issue the state of the art and the outlook is presented; the relative importance of each of them within the evaluation process is presented as well. (authors)

  15. The most serious problem facing mankind on Pb pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Li, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Pb pollution is one of the most critical environmental issues in the world. This paper analyzed the content, pollution level and pollution source of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay based on investigation data in surface waters in 1987. Results showed that Pb contents in surface waters in May, July and November 1987 were 1.95-7.96 μg L-1, 5.02-61.61 μg L-1 and 3.98-24.64 μg L-1, respectively, and the pollution levels were moderate, heavy and relative heavy, respectively. The major Pb sources in this bay were river flow and marine current, whose source strengths could be as high as 61.61 μg L-1and 24.64 μg L-1, respectively. The pollution level of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay was serious enough in 1987, and the pollution control and environmental remediation were necessary.

  16. Unmasking the health problems faced by the police personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Jahnavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the health problems of the police personnel under Vijayawada police commisionerate 2. To make the health check ups regular and 3. To make the physical fitness programme mandatory for them.Study design: cross sectional study Methodology: Health check up was done for 617 police personnel from 12.11.09 to 4.12.09. In the morning hours, a group of junior doctors, paramedical staff and technicians visited the police dispensary to do the general check up, take blood samples and ECG. The following afternoon a group of specialists visited to check the same patients along with their reports to make the final diagnosis. Results: Out of 617 police personnel 259 (42% were overweight/obese, lack of physical activity was found in 397 (64% of them, alcohol consumption was present in 148 (24% and smoking in 136 (22% of the police personnel. Diabetes was diagnosed in 229 (37% and hypertension in 203 (33%. Anemia was detected in 154 (25%, visual abnormalities in 59 (10%, lipid abnormalities in 185 (30%, liver function test abnormalities in 31 (5%, ECG abnormalities in 25 (4%, renal function abnormalities in 6 (1%. Conclusion: A Physical fitness Schedule along with Stress alleviation techniques to be made mandatory for the police personnel to keep them physically and mentally fit, to perform critical job functions, to alleviate stress, and to improve their quality of life. Routine health checkups should be done to detect lurking dangers.

  17. Food irradiation: current problems and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of a set of processing technologies that can be used to increase the microbiological safety and shelf-life of a wide range of foods. Ionizing radiation is used to generate highly active chemical species within the food, which react with DNA. Under normal usage conditions, the food receives a pasteurizing treatment that gives a valuable reduction in common food-spoilage organisms and food pathogens. This review describes how the process is used in practice, including the benefits and limitations. The nature of changes to food components are outlined, together with the development of practical detection methods that utilize these changes. The legislative position of food irradiation is outlined, with the specific example of the introduction of the technology within the UK. The reasons for the slow uptake in the use of the technology are discussed, and the problem of consumer acceptance is addressed. (author)

  18. How a developing country is facing LLW disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.; Shao, Y.T.; Tsai, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Taiwan is a small island which measures about 36,000 square kilometers with over 70% mountainous area. Today over 90% of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is produced from six nuclear power units operated by the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower or TPC). The rest of the country's LLW is produced from medical, agricultural, industrial, educational and research programs. Due to the fact that over 90% of Taiwan's LLW is produced by Taipower, Taipower was designated by the Government to dispose of LLW for entire country. This paper will focus on the planning and implementation of the first phase. Through area screening and potential site evaluation, candidate sites will be selected based on currently available information and sites investigation. At the same time, the disposal methods will be evaluated in terms of safety, cost, and Taiwan's generic conditions of climate, geology, and topography. The conceptual design of the disposal method(s) will then be developed. Also, during site investigation, preliminary designs will be made

  19. Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe

    2018-01-01

    for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... already secured their popular status on the heterosexual marketplace in the broad context of the school. Thus SnapChat functions both as a challenge to beauty norms of ‘flawless faces’ and as a reinscription of these same norms by further manifesting the exclusive status of the popular girl...

  20. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedantam Rajshekhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues.

  1. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis) can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug) may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues. PMID:28139530

  2. Looking for myself: current multisensory input alters self-face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Manos

    2008-01-01

    How do I know the person I see in the mirror is really me? Is it because I know the person simply looks like me, or is it because the mirror reflection moves when I move, and I see it being touched when I feel touch myself? Studies of face-recognition suggest that visual recognition of stored visual features inform self-face recognition. In contrast, body-recognition studies conclude that multisensory integration is the main cue to selfhood. The present study investigates for the first time the specific contribution of current multisensory input for self-face recognition. Participants were stroked on their face while they were looking at a morphed face being touched in synchrony or asynchrony. Before and after the visuo-tactile stimulation participants performed a self-recognition task. The results show that multisensory signals have a significant effect on self-face recognition. Synchronous tactile stimulation while watching another person's face being similarly touched produced a bias in recognizing one's own face, in the direction of the other person included in the representation of one's own face. Multisensory integration can update cognitive representations of one's body, such as the sense of ownership. The present study extends this converging evidence by showing that the correlation of synchronous multisensory signals also updates the representation of one's face. The face is a key feature of our identity, but at the same time is a source of rich multisensory experiences used to maintain or update self-representations.

  3. Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU — Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  4. Rapid growth, maturity, current problems, future prospects of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    The early rapid growth, the attainment of maturity, current problems, and future prospects of NAA (neutron activation analysis) are discussed, each in reasonable detail. In particular, the nature and causes of its current problems are examined, and suggestions are presented for the solution of these problems. The author believes that vigorous action in suggested areas of concentration can reinvigorate the status of NAA as an important method of elemental analysis. (author)

  5. Problems Faced by Beginning Teachers in Private Elementary Schools: A Comparative Study between Spain and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Yolanda Cantú Tijerina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the problems faced by beginning teachers in private elementary schools in the Spanish city of Madrid and in the Mexican city of Monterrey, questionnaires were applied to private school teachers just starting out in both cities. The results indicate that in both contexts, as beginners, teachers face problems of an academic, organizational, social, and material and technological nature. However, it stresses the fact that Mexican teachers perceive more problems in all the categories than do their Spanish colleagues. Similarity in the results was found in the category of social problems, which was the one mentioned least by the teachers in both cities. This suggests that the cultural nature of these two countries may be a factor to be considered in connection with fostering beginning teachers’ adaptation process.

  6. On the Cutting Edge: Face-to-Face and Virtual Professional Development for Current and Future Geoscience Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Iverson, E. A.; Kirk, K. B.; Beane, R. J.; McConnell, D.; Wiese, K.; Wysession, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    On the Cutting Edge, a comprehensive, discipline-wide professional development program for current and future geoscience faculty, aims to develop a geoscience professoriate committed to high-quality instruction based on currency in scientific knowledge, good pedagogic practice, and research on learning. Our program provides an integrated workshop series and online teaching resources. Since 2002, we have offered more than 80 face-to-face workshops, virtual workshops and webinars, and hybrid events. Participants come from two-year colleges and four-year colleges and universities. The workshop series is designed to address the needs of faculty in all career stages at the full spectrum of institutions and covering the breadth of the geoscience curriculum. We select timely and compelling topics and create opportunities of interest to faculty. We offer workshops on course design, new geoscience research and pedagogical topics, core geoscience curriculum topics, and introductory courses as well as workshops for early career faculty and for future faculty. Our workshops are designed to model good teaching practice. We set workshop goals that guide workshop planning and evaluation. Workshops are interactive, emphasize participant learning, provide opportunities for participants to interact and share experience/knowledge, provide good resources, give participants time to reflect and to develop action plans, and help transform their ideas about teaching. We emphasize the importance of adaptation in the context of their specific situations. For virtual workshops and webinars we use icebreakers and other structured interactions to build a comfortable workshop community; promote interaction through features on webinar software, chat-aided question and answer, small-group synchronous interactions, and/or discussion boards; plan detailed schedules for workshop events; use asynchronous discussions and recordings of synchronous events given that participants are busy with their

  7. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  8. E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aktsoglou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the environmental problems related with the discarded electronic appliances, known as e-waste, are reviewed.Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential environmental problems associated with theirdisposal and management practices are discussed whereas the existing e-waste management schemes in Greece and othercountries (Japan, Switzerland are also quoted.

  9. Workshops and problems for benchmarking eddy current codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Davey, K.; Ida, N.; Rodger, D.; Kameari, A.; Bossavit, A.; Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-02-01

    A series of six workshops was held to compare eddy current codes, using six benchmark problems. The problems include transient and steady-state ac magnetic fields, close and far boundary conditions, magnetic and non-magnetic materials. All the problems are based either on experiments or on geometries that can be solved analytically. The workshops and solutions to the problems are described. Results show that many different methods and formulations give satisfactory solutions, and that in many cases reduced dimensionality or coarse discretization can give acceptable results while reducing the computer time required. 13 refs., 1 tab

  10. Eddy current inspection on heat exchanger tubes - problems and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilham Mukriz; Zainal Abidin Mohamed; Hairul Hasmoni Khairul Anuar; Mohd Salleh; Mahmood Dollah

    2005-01-01

    This paper focus on problems associated to eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubes. A brief review on heat exchanger design and operation is presented. Eddy current technique in identifying inhomogeneity in tested tubes is discussed, highlighting its limitation in distinguishing between real pit type defects and other mundane anomalies. The limitation of the eddy current probe and equipment pertinent to the inspection are identified and areas of improvement are discussed. (Author)

  11. Financial problems facing the manufacturers of small wind energy conversion systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, T G

    1979-11-01

    The financial barriers faced by the manufacturers of small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) are assessed and found to be similar to those faced by other start up businesses. However, these problems are found to be aggravated by the high expectations for accelerated SWECS industry growth in the face of moderate government support and lack of investment capital. The underlying conditions of limited SWECS entrepreneur business experience, the highly competitive venture capital market, the inability of existing financial institutions to aid infant busineses and public unawareness of SWECS are reviewed. Specific manufacturer-oriented recommendations and federal, state and regulatory policy-oriented recommendations are made. In addition, the dynamics of the SWECS commercialization process are assessed and the variety of financial institutions playing a role in this process is detailed. Issues related to inflation, tax policy, regulation and federal R and D procurement policies are analyzed.

  12. Current problems of the nuclear power - society relationship in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin

    2004-01-01

    The present work tries to make an analysis of the current aspects of the interaction between the nuclear field, environment and society. One starts from the general conception of sustainable development. The analysis focusses mainly the social side of the sustainable development and the environmental protection issues. As prominent appears the sensitive problem of radioactive waste management. The papers analyses the current public perception, the mutations expected in the public opinion as well as the problems which the nuclear industry and decision makers confront to harmonize the requirements in the nuclear power sector and those imposed by society. Particularly focused is the situation in Romania

  13. Workshops and problems for benchmarking eddy current codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, L.R.; Davey, K.; Ida, N.; Rodger, D.; Kameari, A.; Bossavit, A.; Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-08-01

    A series of six workshops was held in 1986 and 1987 to compare eddy current codes, using six benchmark problems. The problems included transient and steady-state ac magnetic fields, close and far boundary conditions, magnetic and non-magnetic materials. All the problems were based either on experiments or on geometries that can be solved analytically. The workshops and solutions to the problems are described. Results show that many different methods and formulations give satisfactory solutions, and that in many cases reduced dimensionality or coarse discretization can give acceptable results while reducing the computer time required. A second two-year series of TEAM (Testing Electromagnetic Analysis Methods) workshops, using six more problems, is underway. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Workshops and problems for benchmarking eddy current codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.; Davey, K.; Ida, N.; Rodger, D.; Kameari, A.; Bossavit, A.; Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-08-01

    A series of six workshops was held in 1986 and 1987 to compare eddy current codes, using six benchmark problems. The problems included transient and steady-state ac magnetic fields, close and far boundary conditions, magnetic and non-magnetic materials. All the problems were based either on experiments or on geometries that can be solved analytically. The workshops and solutions to the problems are described. Results show that many different methods and formulations give satisfactory solutions, and that in many cases reduced dimensionality or coarse discretization can give acceptable results while reducing the computer time required. A second two-year series of TEAM (Testing Electromagnetic Analysis Methods) workshops, using six more problems, is underway. 12 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Opinions of UK rescue shelter and rehoming center workers on the problems facing their industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stavisky, Jenny; Brennan, Marnie L.; Downes, Martin J.; Dean, Rachel S.

    2017-01-01

    Animal shelters exist worldwide to care for and rehome unwanted or straying pets. Previous studies have examined why owners breed unwanted animals, or relinquish their pets to shelters. However, the views of shelter workers, who receive and care for these animals, have previously been largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of animal shelter workers on the problems facing their industry. A sampling frame was constructed, consisting of every identified shel...

  16. A study of fuzzy logic ensemble system performance on face recognition problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, A.; Lipinskiy, L.

    2017-02-01

    Some problems are difficult to solve by using a single intelligent information technology (IIT). The ensemble of the various data mining (DM) techniques is a set of models which are able to solve the problem by itself, but the combination of which allows increasing the efficiency of the system as a whole. Using the IIT ensembles can improve the reliability and efficiency of the final decision, since it emphasizes on the diversity of its components. The new method of the intellectual informational technology ensemble design is considered in this paper. It is based on the fuzzy logic and is designed to solve the classification and regression problems. The ensemble consists of several data mining algorithms: artificial neural network, support vector machine and decision trees. These algorithms and their ensemble have been tested by solving the face recognition problems. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection.

  17. AACSB Accreditation in China--Current Situation, Problems, and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinrui; Gao, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This paper first introduces the background of the AACSB (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) accreditation, and then analyzes the current status of the participation of Chinese business schools in AACSB accreditation. Based on the data analysis, the paper points out that there are two main problems in the Chinese business…

  18. Capacity Building for School Development: Current Problems and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dora; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical discussion on the current problems and future challenges of school capacity building in early childhood education (ECE), aiming to highlight some key areas for future research. In recent years, there has been a notable policy shift from monitoring quality through inspection to improving quality through school…

  19. The Current Practices and Problems of School Based Supervision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the current practice and problems of school based supervision in government primary schools of Jile Timuga Woreda of Oromia Zone. A descriptive survey design of research methodology was employed. Regarding sampling, there were 39 primary schools grouped in 10 cluster ...

  20. Teachers’ Perceptions of the Problems faced in the Teaching of History in Senior High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Boadu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available History is an important school subject which conveys invaluable lessons from the past and whose worth transcends regional, national and cultural boundaries. Such a subject needs to be taught well in order to make learners gain deep appreciation of the relevance of their learning. However, effective teaching of history in Ghanaian schools has long been blighted by problems and challenges that have often gone unaddressed. With little empirical literature emerging from Ghana, this study, drawing on 32 history teachers from 18 senior high schools, examined history teachers’ perceptions of the problems faced in the teaching of history in the Cape Coast metropolis and Komenda, Edina, Eguafo, Abrim district in the Central Region of Ghana. The descriptive cross-sectional research design was used for the study and data were collected through questionnaires. The study found that overloaded syllabus, insufficient human and material resources, lack of support for the subject and large classes were the major problems facing the teaching of history. Based on the findings, the study concluded that the problems confronting the teaching of history in the two districts are administrative and pedagogical in nature. On this conclusion, it was recommended, among others, that syllabus content should be integrated to make it sync with the period given for its implementation. Also, the necessary resources should be provided to enhance the teaching of the subject.

  1. Problem in the surgical correction of long-face with vertical open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-face cases usually need both treatment of orthodontic and surgery. The problem appearing in the correction of long-face might be able to be related with some difficult factors such as the crowded teeth and excessive vertical height. A class III malocclusion and excessive open bite can be also followed in long face. This situation might worsen the facial aesthetic condition and increase the difficulty in orthodontic treatment. The orthodontic approach is oriented toward positioning the teeth pre-surgically to facilitate the surgical plan. The form of mandible which has grown in the downward direction in the area of mandible angle makes an extreme vertical open bite. The maxilla is usually presented with a maxillary hypolasia. Double-jaw surgery was done as the correction of the lower jaw alone would produce a flattened face appearance and difficulty in repositioning the mandible to achieve a good facial performance. Several cephalometric points were measured to observe the facial situation progress after surgery. Two cases of longface are reported, and the same surgical treatments were performed and showed different results.

  2. Difficulties faced by eighth grade students in the learning of linear equation problems at a high school in Heredia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Chavarría Arroyo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article presents the results of a study that aimed to analyze the difficulties faced by eighth grade students when learning to solve algebraic problems based on linear equations with one unknown variable. The participants were learners with low average performance in mathematics at a high school in Heredia. The research followed a naturalistic paradigm and the case study method with a qualitative approach. Different techniques like class observations, questionnaires to students, non-structured interviews to teachers and interviews to the learners were applied. The research helped to identify the main causes of difficulty when learning to solve algebraic problems. Some of the causes that were identified are affective aspects, lack of previous knowledge, poor relational understanding, fatigue, diversion, reading deficiencies and misunderstanding of terminology.

  3. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor. PMID:21264164

  4. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  5. Weighted piecewise LDA for solving the small sample size problem in face verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyperountas, Marios; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2007-03-01

    A novel algorithm that can be used to boost the performance of face-verification methods that utilize Fisher's criterion is presented and evaluated. The algorithm is applied to similarity, or matching error, data and provides a general solution for overcoming the "small sample size" (SSS) problem, where the lack of sufficient training samples causes improper estimation of a linear separation hyperplane between the classes. Two independent phases constitute the proposed method. Initially, a set of weighted piecewise discriminant hyperplanes are used in order to provide a more accurate discriminant decision than the one produced by the traditional linear discriminant analysis (LDA) methodology. The expected classification ability of this method is investigated throughout a series of simulations. The second phase defines proper combinations for person-specific similarity scores and describes an outlier removal process that further enhances the classification ability. The proposed technique has been tested on the M2VTS and XM2VTS frontal face databases. Experimental results indicate that the proposed framework greatly improves the face-verification performance.

  6. The most common problem facing by the maintenance department: A case Study between Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazam Yasin, Mohd; Mohamad Zin, Rosli; Halid Abdullah, Abd; Shafiq Mahmad, Muhammad; Fikri Hasmori, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    From time to time, the maintenance works become more challenging due to construction of new building and also aging of the existing buildings. University buildings without any exception require proper maintenance services to support their function requirements and this can be considered as major responsibilities to be fulfilled by the maintenance department in the universities. Maintenance department specifically will face various kinds of problems in their operation works and thus this might influence the maintenance work operations itself. This study purposely to identify the common problem facing by the maintenance department and also to examine the current status of the maintenance department. In addition, this study would also propose any suitable approach that could be implemented to overcome the problem facing by the maintenance department. To achieve the objectives of this study, a combination of deep literature study and carrying out a survey is necessary. Literature study aimed to obtain deeper information about this study, meanwhile a survey aimed at identifying the common problem facing by the maintenance department and also to provide the information of the maintenance department’s organization. Several methods will be used in analyzing the data obtained through the survey, including Microsoft Office Excel and also using mean index formula. This study has identified three categories of problem in the maintenance department, which are management problems, human resource problem, and technical problems. Following the findings, several solutions being proposed which can be implemented as the solution to the problem facing. These suggestions have the potential to improve the maintenance department work efficiency, thus could help to increase the department productivity.

  7. Experimental instruction in photonics for high school students: approaches to managing problems faced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Zhengyang

    2017-08-01

    Student research projects are increasingly common at the K-12 level. However, students often face difficulties in the course of their school research projects such as setting realistic timelines and expectations, handling problems stemming from a lack of self-confidence, as well as being sufficiently disciplined for sustained communication and experimentation. In this work, we explore manifestations of these problems in the context of a photonics project, characterising the spectrum of the breakdown flash from Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes. We report on the process of planning and building the setup, data collection, analysis and troubleshooting, as well as the technical and human problems at each step. Approaches that were found to be helpful in managing the aforementioned problems are discussed, including an attention to detail during experimental work, as well as communicating in a forthcoming manner. Œe former allowed for clearer planning and the setting of quantifiable proximal goals; the latter helped in motivating discipline, and also helped in the understanding of research as an iterative learning process without a clear definition of success or failure.

  8. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to

  9. FCL: A solution to fault current problems in DC networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cointe, Y; Tixador, P; Villard, C

    2008-01-01

    Within the context of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to AC ones. New energy landscapes open the way of a diversified production. Innovative interconnection diagrams, in particular using DC buses, are under development. In this case it is not possible to defer the fault current interruption in the AC side. DC fault current cutting remains a difficult problem. FCLs (Fault Current Limiters) enable to limit the current to a preset value, lower than the theoretical short-circuit current. For this application Coated Conductors (CC) offer an excellent opportunity. Due to these promising characteristics we build a test bench and work on the implementation of these materials. The test bench is composed by 10 power amplifiers, to reach 4 kVA in many configurations of current and voltage. We carried out limiting experiments on DyBaCuO CC from EHTS, samples are about five centimeters long and many potential measuring points are pasted on the shunt to estimate the quench homogeneity. Thermal phenomena in FCLs are essential, numerical models are important to calculate the maximum temperatures. To validate these models we measure the CC temperature by depositing thermal sensors (Cu resistance) above the shunt layer and the substrate. An electrical insulation with a low thermal resistivity between the CC and the sensors is necessary. We use a thin layer of Parylene because of its good mechanical and electrical insulation properties at low temperature. The better quench behaviour of CC for temperatures close to the critical temperature has been confirmed. The measurements are in good agreement with simulations, this validates the thermal models

  10. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  11. EXPLORING THE PROBLEMS FACED BY TECHNICAL SCHOOL STUDENTS IN LEARNING ENGINEERING COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMLEE MUSTAPHA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of engineering courses is relatively challenging due to the nature of the courses that are perceived as “difficult courses” by a number of students. Thus, the purpose of this action research was to explore the problems faced by electrical and electronic engineering (PKEE students studying a difficult topic–transistor. This research was also aimed at identifying the students’ attitude towards Problem-based Learning (PBL. Literature has shown that PBL could enhance students’ understanding and make the learning more meaningful. The theoretical framework of this study was based on Kemmis and Mc Taggart model. Cooperative learning method was also utilised in this study consisted of Jigsaw technique in the first and second rounds of the study. In the final round, the discussion method was used. In an action research design, a classroom is a usual research site. Thus, an engineering class of 30 Form 5 students in a Technical School was selected. The PBL method was applied in the class for a nine-week duration. Empirical data were gathered from peer assessment, observation, and pre- and post-tests. The data were described descriptively using frequency, mean and standard deviation. The main results show that the students were more interactive and their post-test result shows significant increases. In terms of the attitude towards PBL, the participants rated PBL highly. The participants also assert that the main benefits of PBL include enhancing their collaborative and problem-solving skills.

  12. Problems of Face Recognition in Patients with Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Patwardhan, Ketaki; Pai, Anupama Ramakanth

    2017-01-01

    Faces are very special as they are most essential for social cognition in humans. It is partly understood that face processing in its abstractness involves several extra striate areas. One of the most important causes for caregiver suffering in patients with anterior dementia is lack of empathy. This apart from being a behavioral disorder could be also due to failure to categorize the emotions of the people around them. Inlusion criteria: DSM IV for Bv FTD Tested for prosopagnosia - familiar faces, famous face, smiling face, crying face and reflected face using a simple picture card (figure 1). Advanced illness and mixed causes. 46 patients (15 females, 31 males) 24 had defective face recognition. (mean age 51.5),10/15 females (70%) and 14/31males(47. Familiar face recognition defect was found in 6/10 females and 6/14 males. Total- 40%(6/15) females and 19.35%(6/31)males with FTD had familiar face recognition. Famous Face: 9/10 females and 7/14 males. Total- 60% (9/15) females with FTD had famous face recognition defect as against 22.6%(7/31) males with FTD Smiling face defects in 8/10 female and no males. Total- 53.33% (8/15) females. Crying face recognition defect in 3/10 female and 2 /14 males. Total- 20%(3/15) females and 6.5%(2/31) males. Reflected face recognition defect in 4 females. Famous face recognition and positive emotion recognition defect in 80%, only 20% comprehend positive emotions, Face recognition defects are found in only 45% of males and more common in females. Face recognition is more affected in females with FTD There is differential involvement of different aspects of the face recognition could be one of the important factor underlying decline in the emotional and social behavior of these patients. Understanding these pathological processes will give more insight regarding patient behavior.

  13. The determination of the mixing height. Current progress and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.; Beyrich, F.; Batchvarova, E. [eds.

    1997-10-01

    This report contains extended abstracts of presentations given at a EURASAP Workshop on The Determination of the Mixing Height - Current Progress and Problems. The Workshop, initiated from discussions with Peter Builtjes, was held at Risoe National Laboratory 1-3 October 1997 within the framework of EURASAP (European Association for the Sciences of Air Pollution). The specific topics and chairpersons of the Workshop were: Theoretical Considerations (Sven-Erik Gryning), Mixing Height Estimation from Turbulence Measurements and In-Situ Soundings (Douw Steyn), Mixing Height Determination from NWP-Models (Han van Dop), Climatology and Global Aspects (Werner Klug), Mixing Height Determination from Remote Systems (Werner Klug), Verification of Mixing Height Parameterizations and Models (Frank Beyrich), Mixing Height over Complex Terrain (Ekaterina Batchvarova), Internal Boundary Layers: Mixing Height in Coastal Areas and Over Cities (Allen White). The discussion at the end of the Workshop was chaired by Robert Bornstein. (au)

  14. International Workshop on Current Problems in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Current Problems in Condensed Matter

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the International Workshop on the Cur­ rent Problems in Condensed Matter: Theory and Experiment, held at Cocoyoc, More­ los, Mexico, during January 5-9, 1997. The participants had come from Argentina, Austria, Chile, England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Switzerland, and the USA. The presentations at the Workshop provided state-of-art reviews of many of the most important problems, currently under study, in condensed matter. Equally important to all the participants in the workshop was the fact that we had come to honor a friend, Karl Heinz Bennemann, on his sixty-fifth birthday. This Festschrift is just a small measure of recognition of the intellectualleadership of Professor Bennemann in the field and equally important, as a sincere tribute to his qualities as an exceptional friend, college and mentor. Those who have had the privilege to work closely with Karl have been deeply touched by Karl's inquisitive scientific mind as well as by bis k...

  15. What language is your doctor speaking? Facing the problems of translating medical documents into English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićović Dragoslava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available What is translation - a craft, an art, a profession or a job? Although one of the oldest human activities, translation has not still been fully defined, and it is still young in terms of an academic discipline. The paper defines the difference between translation and interpreting and then attempts to find the answer to the question what characteristics, knowledge and skills a translator must have, particularly the one involved in court translation, and where his/her place in the communication process (both written and oral communication is. When translating medical documentation, a translator is set within a medical language environment as an intermediary between two doctors (in other words, two professionals in the process of communication which would be impossible without him, since it is conducted in two different languages. The paper also gives an insight into types of medical documentation and who they are intended for. It gives practical examples of the problems faced in the course of translation of certain types of medical documentation (hospital discharge papers, diagnoses, case reports,.... Is it possible to make this kind of communication between professionals (doctors standardized, which would subsequently make their translation easier? Although great efforts are made in Serbia regarding medical language and medical terminology, the conclusion is that specific problems encountered by translators can hardly be overcome using only dictionaries and translation manuals.

  16. Conversion disorder: current problems and potential solutions for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jon; LaFrance, W Curt; Brown, Richard; Spiegel, David; Levenson, James L; Sharpe, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Conversion disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) describes neurological symptoms, including weakness, numbness and events resembling epilepsy or syncope, which can be positively identified as not being due to recognised neurological disease. This review combines perspectives from psychiatry, psychology and neurology to identify and discuss key problems with the current diagnostic DSM-IV criteria for conversion disorder and to make the following proposals for DSM-5: (a) abandoning the label "conversion disorder" and replacing it with an alternative term that is both theoretically neutral and potentially more acceptable to patients and practitioners; (b) relegating the requirements for "association of psychological factors" and the "exclusion of feigning" to the accompanying text; (c) adding a criterion requiring clinical findings of internal inconsistency or incongruity with recognised neurological or medical disease and altering the current 'disease exclusion' criteria to one in which the symptom must not be 'better explained' by a disease if present, (d) adding a 'cognitive symptoms' subtype. We also discuss whether conversion symptoms are better classified with other somatic symptom disorders or with dissociative disorders and how we might address the potential heterogeneity of conversion symptoms in classification. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical and psychological problems faced by young Australian gap year travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Mills, Deborah; Sheridan, Sarah; Lau, Colleen

    2017-09-01

    Gap year travellers can potentially be exposed to many infectious diseases and other travel-related health problems including injuries and psychological problems. Currently, there is little information on health and wellbeing of this particular group of travellers. Participants were recruited from an organization that specialized in organising international gap year placements. Gap year travellers were asked to complete a pre-departure survey on demographics, placement destination and duration, previous travel experience, hobbies, risk taking behaviour, anticipated problems during the placement, and pre-travel preparations. After the placement, participants were asked to complete a post-trip survey on their experiences, problems, health issues, and medical treatment required. The 88 and 34 gap year travellers aged 17-23 years completed pre- and post-placement surveys respectively. The duration of placements ranged from 3 to 12 months. Psychological stressors were frequently reported [ n = 26 (76.5%) felt home sick; n = 18 (52.9%) experienced culture shock; n = 17 (50.0%) had difficulty communicating with the locals]. The majority of participants (91.2%) tried to work out a solution for the stressor on their own. Twenty-eight (82.4%) participants reported medical problems during their placement; the most common problems were sunburn ( n = 19; 55.9%), respiratory infections ( n = 15; 44.1%), weight change ( n = 14; 41.2%), and diarrhoea/food poisoning ( n = 13; 38.2%). Three participants (3.4%) were admitted to hospital; for a muscle injury, head injury and skin infection after getting a tribal tattoo. Psychological stressors were common, but most did not seek help. Some medical problems encountered during their placement may have been preventable with improved pre-departure preparation. Gap year, pre-departure, preparation. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  18. Some Current Problems in Optimisation of Radiation Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Prlic, I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The current system of radiation protection is generally based on recommendations promulgated in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 60. These principles and recommendations were subsequently adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). However, in recent years certain problems have arisen such as application of risk factors at low doses, use and interpretation of a collective dose, concept of dose commitment, optimisation of all types of occupational exposure and practices, implementation of ALARA approach in the common occupational as well as in quite complex situations etc. In this paper are presented some of the issues that have to be addressed in the development of the new ICRP Recommendations that are planned to be developed in next four or five years. As the new radiation protection philosophy shifts from society-based control of stochastic risks to an individual-based policy, consequently it will require introduction of modified approach to optimisation process and probably introduction of some new dosimetric quantities. (author)

  19. Current problems and perspectives of maintenance at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia Ruperez, F.; Garcia, R.; Manso Osuna, R.

    1994-01-01

    The highest levels of availability and efficiency for a plant in service, together with other, not less important, objectives such as improving plant safety, reliability and operability cannot be achieved if there is no adequate maintenance of plant systems and equipment. The combination of the large number of such system and equipment, diversity of their design, complexity of their interrelations and operation and maintenance requirements, make it difficult at times to obtain the right degree of technical and economic effectiveness. From the regulatory point of view, mention must be made of the Maintenance Rule (10/CFR/50.65) entitled ''Requirements for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants'' published on 10 July 1991 by the NRC. This Rule will come into force in the USA in 1996. This paper presents, on the one hand, a general view of the current status of NPP maintenance, enumerating the problems, difficulties and complications affecting its workability and, on the other, outlines new trends and methodologies (RAM, RCM, PRA, Remaining Lifetime Management, etc), for analysing and evaluating maintenance programmes, improving and optimizing them, and at the same time enhancing plant availability and lifetime. (Author)

  20. SCHOOLS AND CYBERBULLYING: PROBLEM PERCEPTION, CURRENT ACTIONS AND FUTURE NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Vandebosch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst young people. It exhibits many similarities to traditional school bullying, with a potentially serious impact on the mental health and school functioning of victims. For this reason, action by schools is often recommended. The aim of this article is to provide a better picture of what schools are currently doing to address cyberbullying and of what schools will need to continue doing so in the future. An online survey was conducted among staff members of 309 primary and secondary schools in Flanders, which is the Dutch speaking part of Belgium. The questionnaire measured the schools’ experiences with cyberbullying and their perceived responsibility and efficacy in dealing with this issue as well as their concrete preventive, detective, and reactive actions. The results indicate that, although most schools are aware of relatively few cases of cyberbullying, they do consider cyberbullying to be a problem. Many schools consider it their duty to inform students about cyberbullying and to help find solutions to cyberbullying incidents involving students, even if they take place away from the school grounds or outside school hours. Although most schools organize concrete actions with regard to cyberbullying, they often seem uncertain about the appropriateness and effectiveness of their actions. They would welcome evidence-based intervention programmes that would appeal to their students.

  1. Electronic money in russia: current state and problems of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Bondarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to urgent problems of non-cash methods of calculation development by using electronic money – as one of the modern economically developed state strategic tasks. On modern economic science strong influence appears informatization process. The control expansion tendency, influence and distribution of commerce due to informatization of society led to emergence of the new phenomenon – information economy. Information economy brought new economic events which owing to their novelty are insufficiently studied to life. It is possible to carry electronic money to such phenomena of modern network economy Relevance and, in our opinion, timeliness of this scientific work, consisting in novelty of this non-cash payment method, its prospects and innovation within non-cash methods of calculations. Authors set as the purpose – studying of problems and the prospects of development of electronic money in the Russian Federation. In article theoretical bases of electronic money functioning are described. Determinations and classifications dismissed non-cash a method, and also the principles of electronic money functioning are considered, the questions of their historical development are raised.Authors analyzed statistical data on development of electronic services and channels of their using. Features, benefits and shortcomings of the current state of the market of electronic money are studied. The emphasis on that fact that in modern conditions considerable number of economic actors perform the activities, both in the real environment of economy, and within the virtual environment that promotes expansion of methods of their customer interaction by means of technical devices of personal computers, mobile phones is placed. In article common problems and tendencies of payments with using an electronic money are designated, the research on assessment of the current state and the prospects of electronic money

  2. Advanced Curation: Solving Current and Future Sample Return Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Calaway, M.; Evans, C.; McCubbin, F.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Curation is a wide-ranging and comprehensive research and development effort at NASA Johnson Space Center that identifies and remediates sample related issues. For current collections, Advanced Curation investigates new cleaning, verification, and analytical techniques to assess their suitability for improving curation processes. Specific needs are also assessed for future sample return missions. For each need, a written plan is drawn up to achieve the requirement. The plan draws while upon current Curation practices, input from Curators, the analytical expertise of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) team, and suitable standards maintained by ISO, IEST, NIST and other institutions. Additionally, new technologies are adopted on the bases of need and availability. Implementation plans are tested using customized trial programs with statistically robust courses of measurement, and are iterated if necessary until an implementable protocol is established. Upcoming and potential NASA missions such as OSIRIS-REx, the Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM), sample return missions in the New Frontiers program, and Mars sample return (MSR) all feature new difficulties and specialized sample handling requirements. The Mars 2020 mission in particular poses a suite of challenges since the mission will cache martian samples for possible return to Earth. In anticipation of future MSR, the following problems are among those under investigation: What is the most efficient means to achieve the less than 1.0 ng/sq cm total organic carbon (TOC) cleanliness required for all sample handling hardware? How do we maintain and verify cleanliness at this level? The Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP) predicts that organic carbon, if present, will be present at the "one to tens" of ppb level in martian near-surface samples. The same samples will likely contain wt% perchlorate salts, or approximately 1,000,000x as much perchlorate oxidizer as organic carbon

  3. [The current problems and cross-cultural perspectives of patient-doctor relation: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Eckhardt; Turgut, Tolga

    2004-01-01

    The success of the treatment in medicine, especially in psychiatry is based on the form and the strength of the patient-doctor relation. This complex and dynamic relation is changing in accordance with the social and technological development of the society. The context of the patient-doctor relation is determined by the present day culture as well as the traditional background. An overview of current patient-doctor relation and of problems that physicians and in particular psychiatrists meet is presented. Physicians have responsibilities in building patient-doctor relation. The ethical and legal aspects of these responsibilities are presented. The former paternalistic type of patient-doctor relation is evolving into a more equal and democratic relation. New problems are being encountered continuously in the changing process. Beside the of the process itself, the effects of progress in medical technology and communication systems on patient-doctor relation and the pressure, put from the insurance companies and/or authorities on physicians, which impair the trust between the physician and his patient, are making the process more difficult. The issues of compliance, sexual harassment and unique problems of patient-doctor relations in psychiatry are the other subtopics in the article. The cross-cultural aspects of patient-doctor relations and encountered clinical problems are discussed with case examples particularly about Turkish immigrants, who live in Germany. Suggestions for psychiatrists in Germany to work out the challenges facing them are presented in the conclusion.

  4. Chemical Disarmament: Current Problems in Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek, J.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC is briefly characterised by stressing its main pillars, such as verified destruction ofCWstockpiles and destruction/conversion ofCWproduction facilities (CWPFs, verified non-production of CW by the chemical industries, assistance and protection, and international cooperation. The CWC´s leading principle in defining theCW(protecting it generally against scientific and technological development, i. e. so called General Purpose Criterion is thoroughly elucidated showing its relation to the CWC´s sophisticated verification system. Status of implementation (as of August 2005 shows main data obligatory declared by the States Parties (SP, among them 6 possessors of CW stockpiles (Russia, USA, India, South Korea, Albania and Libya. From the declared 71 373 agent-tons, 12 889 have been destroyed, from the declared 8 679 M items of munitions (containers, 2 420 have been destroyed, which means that the anticipated 10 years deadline for CW destruction (after entry into force – EIF will be not managed. For Russia and USA the allowed extension by another 5 years has been already agreed. From the 64 CWPFs (operational after 1946, declared by 12 SPs, 53 have been certified as destroyed/converted. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW is briefly presented and main results of the First Review Conference (2003 analysed on the base of the adopted principal documents. Future problems of implementing the CWC are connected in the first line with its universality, because among 16 non-SPs, several countries (located mainly in the Near East and on the Korean peninsula are presumed to be CW-possessors. Special emphasis is laid on both, threats and benefits of the scientific and technological development for current implementing the CWC as well as of its implementation in future after all CW stockpiles have been destroyed.

  5. Geology and religion - historical perspective and current problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl-Ebert, Martina

    2010-05-01

    Today, when referring to the relationship between geology and religion, people usually at once think of Christian (and other) fundamentalists and their chronic palaeontological illiteracy leading to Creationism, to Intelligent Design, and a distrust of science in general among them most prominently geology, palaeontology and evolutionary biology. Thus the relationship of geology and religion is usually considered to be under strain. In former times things used to be quite different, and for most of human history the observation of geological phenomena and the acquisition of geological expertise was intimately connected with religious ideas. The Judeo-Christian sense of a finite Earth history prepared the ground for accepting the Earth's different strata as testimony to the development of our globe through time. It was this religious, theological framework, from which the early geology started to evolve. However, with increasing observations there was a growing mismatch between what was expected according to ancient, scriptural authorities and the actual data. The release of geology from religious connotations or associations was a development closely connected with the Enlightenment, when geology and religion started to drift apart not with a violent rupture but in a subtle and sometimes circuitous manner. However, outside the group of people with geological expertise, not all was smooth and peaceful, and some conservative clergymen as well as laypersons were rather shocked by the new ideas that came with geology: the immensity of the timescale, a dynamic Earth, not just a ruin shaped by the Deluge, and a dynamic biology too with the Darwinian theory of evolution, which was founded in part on palaeontological evidence and the assumption of a long geological time scale. Nevertheless and interestingly the Creationism we face today is a rather recent phenomenon influenced by a number of motives, most of them philosophical and theological in nature. And so, the current

  6. Effect of Face-to-face Education, Problem-based Learning, and Goldstein Systematic Training Model on Quality of Life and Fatigue among Caregivers of Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Reza; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Baraz, Shahram; Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Chan, Yiong H

    2017-01-01

    Education is a fundamental component for patients with diabetes to achieve good glycemic control. In addition, selecting the appropriate method of education is one of the most effective factors in the quality of life. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of face-to-face education, problem-based learning, and Goldstein systematic training model on the quality of life (QOL) and fatigue among caregivers of patients with diabetes. This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Hajar Hospital (Shahrekord, Iran) in 2012. The study subjects consisted of 105 family caregivers of patients with diabetes. The participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (35 caregivers in each group). For each group, 5-h training sessions were held separately. QOL and fatigue were evaluated immediately before and after the intervention, and after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of intervention. There was a significant increase in QOL for all the three groups. Both the problem-based learning and the Goldstein method showed desirable QOL improvement over time. The desired educational intervention for fatigue reduction during the 4-month post-intervention period was the Goldstein method. A significant reduction was observed in fatigue in all three groups after the intervention ( P problem-based learning and Goldstein systematic training model improve the QOL of caregivers of patients with diabetes. In addition, the Goldstein systematic training model had the greatest effect on the reduction of fatigue within 4 months of the intervention.

  7. Current problems in applied mathematics and mathematical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarskii, A. A.

    Papers are presented on such topics as mathematical models in immunology, mathematical problems of medical computer tomography, classical orthogonal polynomials depending on a discrete variable, and boundary layer methods for singular perturbation problems in partial derivatives. Consideration is also given to the computer simulation of supernova explosion, nonstationary internal waves in a stratified fluid, the description of turbulent flows by unsteady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, and the reduced Galerkin method for external diffraction problems using the spline approximation of fields.

  8. Development of high current density neutral beam injector with a low energy for interaction of plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masahiro; Ueda, Yoshio; Goto, Seiichi

    1991-01-01

    A high current density neutral beam injector with a low energy has been developed to investigate interactions with plasma facing materials and propagation processes of damages. The high current density neutral beam has been produced by geometrical focusing method employing a spherical electrode system. The hydrogen beam with the current density of 140 mA/cm 2 has been obtained on the focal point in the case of the acceleration energy of 8 keV. (orig.)

  9. Domestic Violence – a Current Problem of Romanian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Mihaela Luminița

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of domestic violence phenomenon and its severity were recently acknowledged worldwide, most European Union countries faced with significant increase in cases of domestic violence. Due to the inefficient public social services in combating and preventing domestic violence, services like this are taken mostly by civil society. However, help victims of domestic violence, there are several protection services, and a range of social services targeting the aggressors.

  10. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchaud, Grégory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M; Noti, Mario; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Kimber, Ian; Verhoeckx, Kitty; O'Mahony, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured.

  11. Current problems of prevention diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of increasing interest to the problems of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness are presented. On the basis of recent publications some new aspects as quantitative criteria in radiobiology, organization problems of medical aid at radiation incidents estimation of efficiency of preventive medicine and radiation sickness therapy, theoretical development of radiotherapy of different organs et al., are characterized

  12. Problems and limitations of eddy current tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Mohamed Hairul Hasmoni

    2003-01-01

    Incomplete appreciation of eddy current limitations has contributed to both under-utilization and misapplication of the technique. A brief review on the physical principle of eddy current is presented. Eddy current technique in identifying inhomogeneity in tested tubes is discussed, highlighting its limitation in distinguishing between real pit type defects and other mundane anomalies. The variables responsible for limitation in eddy current tube inspection are discussed and alternative approaches, where they exist, are suggested. (Author)

  13. Radiological protection in medicine: Current problems in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiswara, E.

    2001-01-01

    The medical applications of ionizing radiation in Indonesia have been introduced in the early 20th century. Since then it dominates the application of radiation in various fields. By several regulations, the government has tried to control these applications. However, some problems are still persisting. This paper presents the safety-related regulations that are in place in Indonesia, authorization status regarding medical applications, the existing problems and the efforts to tackle them. Even though the funds are always the scapegoat, it is believed that the real reason for all problems concerning radiation protection in Indonesia is lack of safety culture among the users. (author)

  14. Certain problems in the current theory of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. A.

    1984-04-01

    A number of problems (considered by the author to be the most significant) connected with the possible role of gravitation in the elementary-particle physics and cosmology are examined. Particular attention is given to the problems of self-energy, the limit mass of elementary particles, maximons and the evolution of the universe, the origin of the universe, and the physical meaning of Planck's length.

  15. Problems of Face Recognition in Patients with Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Patwardhan, Ketaki; Pai, Anupama Ramakanth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Faces are very special as they are most essential for social cognition in humans. It is partly understood that face processing in its abstractness involves several extra striate areas. One of the most important causes for caregiver suffering in patients with anterior dementia is lack of empathy. This apart from being a behavioral disorder could be also due to failure to categorize the emotions of the people around them. Patients and Methods: Inlusion criteria: DSM IV for Bv FTD ...

  16. The current account as a dynamic portfolio choice problem

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, Tatiana; Lowenkron, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    The current account can be understood as the outcome of investment decisions made by domestic and foreign investors. These decisions can be decomposed into a portfolio rebalancing and a portfolio growth component. This paper provides empirical evidence of the importance of portfolio rebalancing for the dynamics of the current account. The authors evaluate the predictions of a partial-equil...

  17. Feature- and Face-Exchange illusions: New insights and applications for the study of the binding problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gilman Shapiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The binding problem is a longstanding issue in vision science: i.e., how are humans able to maintain a relatively stable representation of objects and features even though the visual system processes many aspects of the world separately and in parallel? We previously investigated this issue with a variant of the bounce-pass paradigm, which consists of two rectangular bars moving in opposite directions; if the bars are identical and never overlap, the motion could equally be interpreted as bouncing or passing. Although bars of different colors should be seen as passing each other (since the colors provide more information about the bars’ paths, we found Feature Exchange: observers reported the paradoxical perception that the bars appear to bounce off of each other and exchange colors. Here we extend our previous findings with three demonstrations. Peripheral Feature-Exchange consists of two colored bars that physically bounce (they continually meet in the middle of the monitor and return to the sides. When viewed in the periphery, the bars appear to stream past each other even though this percept relies on the exchange of features and contradicts the information provided by the color of the bars. In Face-Exchange two different faces physically pass each other. When fixating centrally, observers typically report the perception of bouncing faces that swap features, indicating that the Feature Exchange effect can occur even with complex objects. In Face-Go-Round, one face repeatedly moves from left to right on the top of the monitor, and the other from right to left at the bottom of the monitor. Observers typically perceive the faces moving in a circle--a percept that contradicts information provided by the identity of the faces. We suggest that Feature Exchange and the paradigms used to elicit it can be useful for the investigation of the binding problem as well as other contemporary issues of interest to vision science.

  18. Current problems regarding abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn-Tatić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current ethical and legal issues with regard to abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy are discussed in this paper. These problems are considered from the legal theory point of view as well as from the standpoint of the Serbian Law, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, European Court of Human Rights, legal regulations of several EU countries, the USA, Japan, and their judicial practice. First, the pregnancy termination standards that exist in Serbia are introduced. Then the following issues are explained separately: the pro life and pro choice approaches to abortion; abortion according to the legal approach as a way of survival; the moral and legal status of the fetus; prenatal genetic testing, and finally matters regarding managing pregnancy today. Moral and legal principals of autonomy, namely freedom of choice of the individual, privacy and self-determination give women the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies. In addition, the basic question is whether the right of the woman to abortion clashes with the rights of others. Firstly, with the right of the "fetus to life". Secondly, with the right of the state to intervene in the interest of protecting "the life of the fetus". Third, with the rights of the woman’s partner. The fetus has the moral right to life, but less in relation to the same right of the woman as well as in relation to her right to control her life and her physical and moral integrity. On the other hand, the value of the life of the fetus increases morally and legally with the maturity of gestation; from the third trimester, the interest of the state prevails in the protection of the "life of the fetus" except when the life or health of the pregnant woman are at risk. As regards the rights of the woman’s partner, namely the husband’s opinion, there is no legal significance. The law does not request his participation in the decision on abortion because

  19. More than just a problem with faces: altered body perception in a group of congenital prosopagnosics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Lawson, Rebecca P; Palermo, Romina

    2017-02-01

    It has been estimated that one out of 40 people in the general population suffer from congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty identifying people by their faces. CP involves impairment in recognizing faces, although the perception of non-face stimuli may also be impaired. Given that social interaction depends not only on face processing, but also on the processing of bodies, it is of theoretical importance to ascertain whether CP is also characterized by body perception impairments. Here, we tested 11 CPs and 11 matched control participants on the Body Identity Recognition Task (BIRT), a forced-choice match-to-sample task, using stimuli that require processing of body-specific, not clothing-specific, features. Results indicated that the group of CPs were as accurate as controls on the BIRT, which is in line with the lack of body perception complaints by CPs. However, the CPs were slower than controls, and when accuracy and response times were combined into inverse efficiency scores (IESs), the group of CPs were impaired, suggesting that the CPs could be using more effortful cognitive mechanisms to be as accurate as controls. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CP may not generally be limited to face processing difficulties, but may also extend to body perception.

  20. Terminology of economics in Albanian: Current state, problems and tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Mulaj, Isa

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to analyze the state of terminology of economics in Albanian language, and depending on the problems identified, to address some recommendations as tasks that are deemed necessary for future research that would contribute to its standardization. The paper begun from the hypothesis that the terminology in question is relatively rich, but finds that academic and scientific research are very limited or largely neglected, thus creating a vacuum in its broader and...

  1. Unsolved problems in biology--The state of current thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Sukhendu B

    2015-03-01

    Many outstanding problems have been solved in biology and medicine for which scientists have been awarded prestigious prizes including the Nobel Prize, Lasker Award and Breakthrough Prizes in life sciences. These have been the fruits of years of basic research. From time to time, publications have appeared listing "unsolved" problems in biology. In this article, I ask the question whether it is possible to have such a list, if not a unique one, at least one that is analogous to the Millennium Prize in mathematics. My approach to finding an answer to this question was to gather views of leading biologists. I have also included my own views. Analysis of all the responses received over several years has convinced me that it is difficult, but not impossible, to have such a prize. Biology is complex and very interdisciplinary these days at times involving large numbers of teams, unlike mathematics, where Andrew Wiles spent seven years in complete isolation and secrecy solving Fermat's last theorem. Such an approach is simply not possible in biology. Still I would like to suggest that a similar prize can be established by a panel of distinguished scientists. It would be awarded to those who solved one of the listed problems in biology that warrant a verifiable solution. Despite many different opinions, I found that there is some commonality in the responses I received - I go on to discuss what these are and how they may impact future thinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Study of Potentials and Problems in Reading Faced By the Eighth Grade Students of Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Istri Utami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowing students’ problems, especially in reading, is very important to design an appropriate and meaningful learning. From the problem identification, teacher can find the potency of designing and developing material to meet students’ need. Therefore, this study was aimed to identify the potentials and problems toward reading lesson faced by the eighth grade students of Junior High School. This study was based on the result of classroom observation, document study, and also checklists. The identification of potency and problems through classroom observation was done to obtain data on how existing reading material was used in teaching reading on the classroom. There was also document study to evaluate existing reading material and syllabus used for teaching reading. Then, the data from the teacher and students had been gathered by administering checklists. From the result of the study, it can be identified that the problems faced by the eighth grade students of Junior High School in reading dealt with topic selection, pictures or illustration, and reading activities, while the potency was to develop new reading material by using those problems as consideration.

  3. Power Quality Problems Due to Transformer Inrush Current

    OpenAIRE

    Tokić, A.; Uglešić, I.

    2017-01-01

    Transformer energization can produce a large nonsinuoidal inrush current which contains both odd and higher order harmonic components that can put transformer winding under mechanical stress. Additionally, they can cause irregular tripping of harmonic protection relays. Furthermore, in relatively weak power systems, such as is the Bosnian system, the superposition of harmonic components with system resonance frequencies may produce temporary overvoltages (TOV). Transformer wind...

  4. Feature- and Face-Exchange illusions: new insights and applications for the study of the binding problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Arthur G; Caplovitz, Gideon P; Dixon, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    i.e., how are humans able to maintain a relatively stable representation of objects and features even though the visual system processes many aspects of the world separately and in parallel? We previously investigated this issue with a variant of the bounce-pass paradigm, which consists of two rectangular bars moving in opposite directions; if the bars are identical and never overlap, the motion could equally be interpreted as bouncing or passing. Although bars of different colors should be seen as passing each other (since the colors provide more information about the bars' paths), we found "Feature Exchange": observers reported the paradoxical perception that the bars appear to bounce off of each other and exchange colors. Here we extend our previous findings with three demonstrations. "Peripheral Feature-Exchange" consists of two colored bars that physically bounce (they continually meet in the middle of the monitor and return to the sides). When viewed in the periphery, the bars appear to stream past each other even though this percept relies on the exchange of features and contradicts the information provided by the color of the bars. In "Face-Exchange" two different faces physically pass each other. When fixating centrally, observers typically report the perception of bouncing faces that swap features, indicating that the Feature Exchange effect can occur even with complex objects. In "Face-Go-Round," one face repeatedly moves from left to right on the top of the monitor, and the other from right to left at the bottom of the monitor. Observers typically perceive the faces moving in a circle-a percept that contradicts information provided by the identity of the faces. We suggest that Feature Exchange and the paradigms used to elicit it can be useful for the investigation of the binding problem as well as other contemporary issues of interest to vision science.

  5. Current problems of foreign practice-related educational psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Andreeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the questions of scientific-methodological provision of psychologist’s activity in an educational settlement which are urgent for the activity of practical educational psychologist in Russia as well. The presented information concerns the psychologist’s particular strands of work which can be both developing (development of ABM and psycho-correcting (reasons and forms of school phobias, bullying displays, lying. The ethical problems of psychologist’s work with families namely in case of the parent-child conflicts is also reviewed in the article.

  6. SCHOOLS AND CYBERBULLYING: PROBLEM PERCEPTION, CURRENT ACTIONS AND FUTURE NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Vandebosch; Karolien Poels; Gie Deboutte

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a common phenomenon amongst young people. It exhibits many similarities to traditional school bullying, with a potentially serious impact on the mental health and school functioning of victims. For this reason, action by schools is often recommended. The aim of this article is to provide a better picture of what schools are currently doing to address cyberbullying and of what schools will need to continue doing so in the future. An online survey was conducted among staff memb...

  7. Problems faced by Western expatriate managers in Eastern Europe: Evidence provided by Finnish expatriates in Russia and Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Suutari, Vesa

    1998-01-01

    A common human resource management strategy among Western companies in international operations is the use of home-country expatriate managers although expatriate adjustment has been found to involve difficulties. In the light of this the present study analyses the issues faced by Finnish expatriate managers working in Russia or Estonia. Three aspects were studied: adaptation to society, adaptation at the work place, and company-level management problems with which expatriates have to deal in...

  8. The Implementation of Inclusive Education and Problems Faced by Teachers in Teaching in Inclusive Education Provider Kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Joppy Liando

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to find out the problems faced by teachers in teaching. The study was conducted on July 2012 to December 2012. The research subjects were teachers teaching in inclusive kindergarten. The design of this study was a case study using a qualitative approach. The data were collected using questionnaires, interviews and documentation. Data analysis was conducted during the data collection and after data collection. The research results showed that in general, teachers who taught in ...

  9. Wind effect on currents in a thin surface layer of coastal waters faced open-sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masanao; Isozaki, Hisaaki; Isozaki, Tokuju; Nemoto, Masashi; Hasunuma, Keiichi; Kitamura, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Two-years of continuous observation of wind and current were carried out to investigate the relationship between them in the coastal waters off Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Three instruments to measure the current were set in a thin surface layer of 3 m above the strong pycnocline, which is a common feature in coastal waters. Both of the power spectra of wind and currents showed very similar features, an outstanding high peak at 24-hour period and a range of high peaks longer than several-days period. The long term variation of the wind field always contained north-wind component, which contributed to forming the southward current along the shore throughout the year. A high correlation coefficient (0.64) was obtained between the wind and the current at a depth of 0.5 m on the basis of the two-year observation. Harmonic analysis revealed that an outstanding current with 24-hour period was the S 1 component (meteorological tide), and was driven by land and sea breezes. These breezes also contained solar tidal components such as K 1 , P 1 and S 2 . These wind components added their own wind driven currents on the original tidal currents. This meant that land and sea breezes generated wind driven currents with solar tidal periods which behaved like astronomical tidal currents. As result, coastal currents contained pseudo tidal currents which behaved like astronomical tidal currents. (author)

  10. Current problems of nuclear power radiation ecology and hygiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorob' ev, E I; Il' in, L A; Knizhnikov, V A; Aleksakhin, R M

    1979-10-01

    Perspectiveness of different kinds of energetics is mainly defined by their effect on environment and human health. Hygiene and ecology at present time can not give an objective characteristic of detriment because of the effluents from the fuel-energy cycle facilities, especially from facilities of the traditional energetics. The role of the radiactive effluents into environment is defined by their possible effect on the human health, but not the ecological effects. Meanwhile, the development of the principles of ecological normalization is an actual problem. It is important to carry out a quantitative stady of the dose-effect dependencies of the effluents of cancerogens of the physical and chemical nature into environment. It is advisable to estimate the possible effect of cancerogens from the positions of thresholdlessness of their action.

  11. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  12. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  13. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liushuai Hua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  14. Current problems of nuclear power radiation ecology and hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Il'in, L.A.; Knizhnikov, V.A.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Perspectiveness of different kinds of energetics is mainly defined by their effect on environment and human health. Hygiene and ecology at present time can not give an objective characteristic of detriment because of the effluents from the fuel-energy cycle facilities, especially from facilities of the traditional energetics. The role of the radiactive effluents into environment is defined by their possible effect on the human health, but not the ecological effects. Meanwhile, the development of the principles of ecological normalization is an actual problem. It is important to carry out a quantitative stady of the dose-effect dependencies of the effluents of cancerogens of the physical and chemical nature into environment. It is advisable to estimate the possible effect of cancerogens from the positions of thresholdlessness of their action

  15. Current problems associated with nuclear plant construction contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, Raffaele.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of nuclear electricity generating programmes has brought to the fore the problems associated with construction of this type of power plant. The paper analyses the contracts for such construction and describes the most common, the turnkey contract. The present tendency is to limit the scope of turnkey contracts to the nuclear system or simply to the reactor and this is especially common in advanced nuclear countries such as the US, Canada, Japan, UK and France, and this is also the case in Italy where the question of contracting nuclear plants is debated. In Germany the power utilities hold a large number of shares in the manufacturing industry and the turnkey contract is therefore more economically attractive. A detailed description of the contracting procedure is provided, including the suppliers' and purchasers' responsibilities, plant commissioning tests and handing over of the plant to the operator. (NEA) [fr

  16. Problems of the current law concerning official plan approval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The booklet presents lectures held in October 1985 at the Speyer University for Administration Science, on the subject of the law concerning official plan approval. The lectures have been selected for their common interest in the requirements of nature conservation and landscape protection. These requirements and the current practice of plan approval procedure are the main issue of the lectures which discuss aspects of environmental impact statements, consideration of ecological requirements, and the role of the landscape conservation plan accompanying official project planning documents. (HSCH) [de

  17. [Transplantation in diabetes type 1--current problems and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasikowa, Renata; Noczyńska, Anna; Basiak, Aleksander

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes type 1 is, as we know, a chronic progressive disease, which requires a substitutional therapy with insulin for the whole life. The cause is a definite destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. For many years there have been intensive investigations on the possibility to obtain a complete, persistent withdrawal of the symptoms. Substitution of the destroyed, not active cells, could take place after transplantation of the whole pancreas, transplantation of pancreatic islets or transplantation of stem cells. This is now the only method which may cause an independence from exogenous insulin, persistent normoglycemia, normal HbA1c level, without risk of hypoglycemia. Pancreas and islets transplantations, however, are connected till now with the necessity of an immunosuppressive therapy for the whole life, with the toxicity of the drugs, incidence of frequent infections and malignancy. Pancreas transplantation is a serious surgical intervention, connected with numerous risks and complications, considerably less risk appears in islet cell transplantations. Since 2000 exclusively islet cell transplantations have been performed. One of the leading centers is Edmonton, where professor Shapiro prepared the so called. Edmonton protocol which is characterized by using corticosteroid-free immunosuppressive drugs, islet cells from two or more donors, repeated till the attainment of insulin dependence. A problem now is that the islets are obtained from cadavers. Therefore intensive research is conducted for alternative sources of beta cells. At this moment it is mostly preferred for receiving a sufficient number of insulin producing cells to develop stem cells with a subsequent differentiation to insulin producing cells. The mentioned cells have an unlimited ability of reproduction, in this case also immunosuppressive therapy is not necessary. Alternative sources of beta cells are cells achieved on the genetic engineering, embryonic or adult somatic stem cells. It is

  18. Faces of Change: Do I Have a Problem with Alcohol or Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Do About Drugs And Alcohol In Your Life? Know if there’s a problem: • Are drugs or alcohol affecting your work or health? • Do you feel like you need alcohol or drugs to get through the day? • Are your friends or family members telling you there’s a problem? ...

  19. [The current state of the brain-computer interface problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurkhay, V A; Aleksandrova, E V; Potapov, A A; Goryainov, S A

    2015-01-01

    It was only 40 years ago that the first PC appeared. Over this period, rather short in historical terms, we have witnessed the revolutionary changes in lives of individuals and the entire society. Computer technologies are tightly connected with any field, either directly or indirectly. We can currently claim that computers are manifold superior to a human mind in terms of a number of parameters; however, machines lack the key feature: they are incapable of independent thinking (like a human). However, the key to successful development of humankind is collaboration between the brain and the computer rather than competition. Such collaboration when a computer broadens, supplements, or replaces some brain functions is known as the brain-computer interface. Our review focuses on real-life implementation of this collaboration.

  20. Cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. Current understandings and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The cosmic gamma-ray background radiation is one of the most fundamental observables in the gamma-ray band. Although the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation has been a mystery for a long time, the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has recently measured it at 0.1-820 GeV and revealed that the cosmic GeV gamma-ray background is composed of blazars, radio galaxies, and star-forming galaxies. However, Fermi still leaves the following questions. Those are dark matter contribution, origins of the cosmic MeV gamma-ray background, and the connection to the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events. In this proceeding, I will review the current understandings of the cosmic gamma-ray background and discuss future prospects of cosmic gamma-ray background radiation studies. (author)

  1. The concept of electronegativity. The current state of the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasov, Artem R; Galkin, Vladimir I; Zueva, Ekaterina M; Cherkasov, Rafael A

    1998-01-01

    A systematic account is given of the current ideas about atomic and group electronegativities and the trends in the development of the concept of electronegativity are analysed. Attention is concentrated on the latest approaches to the definition of electronegativity - the concept of 'orbital' electronegativities and the density functional theory. A procedure is proposed for the determination of 'inductive' electronegativities, which permits a correct theoretical calculation of the electronegativity of a substituent from the electronegativities of individual atoms and the steric structure. It is shown that the approach developed has a series of important advantages - for example, it makes it possible to calculate the group electronegativities of isomeric substituents avoiding the principle of the equalisation of electronegativities. A survey of literature data and generalisation of the method proposed by the authors have made it possible to formulate the concept of electronegativity as an unchanging fundamental immanent characteristic of a chemical element. The bibliography includes 222 references.

  2. Mixed arrays - problems with current methods and rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    1987-01-01

    Simplified methods are used to control the criticality safety of mixed arrays (non-identical units) in storage or in transport. The basis for these methods is that the analyses of arrays of identical units are sufficient for drawing proper conclusions on mixed arrays. In a recent study of the rules for transport, two general flaws in such methods have been identified. One flaw is caused by increased neutron return rate to the central part of the array. The other flaw is caused by increased neutron coupling between two or more fissile units in an array. In both cases, replacement of fissile units with other units, which appear to be less reactive, can lead to criticality. This paper shows that the two flaws are common in also in current methods used for storage of fissile materials. (author)

  3. [Current situation and existing problems of acupuncture for primary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Wei, Pengfei; Chen, Shaozong

    2018-03-12

    To analyze the present situation and existing problems of acupuncture for primary hypertension (PH) based on clinical research literature in recent 20 years. The clinical research literature regarding acupuncture for PH were searched from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP data network (VIP) and Wanfang database from 1997 through 2016; a total of 218 papers met the inclusive criteria. Microsoft Excel and Apriori algorithm of SPSS Clementine software were applied to analyze the data. The main acupoints of acupuncture for PH were Taichong (LR 3), Quchi (LI 11), Zusanli (ST 36) and Hegu (LI 4), but its support degree was only 12.21%. 127 papers were randomized controlled trials, accounting for 58.26%. 158 papers had clear diagnostic criteria, accounting for 72.48%. 138 papers had clear efficacy evaluation criteria, accounting for 63.30%. Only 5.05% of the papers were classified as high-quality literature by using Jadad scale. In recent 20 years, some rules existed in acupoint selection for PH, but the support degree was low so it could not accurately guide clinical treatment. Although the clinical literature quality of acupuncture for PH was gradually increasing, the proportion of high-quality literature was low, therefore modern medical research model and foreign similar research should be followed to design a more rigorous trial protocol. As a result, the quality of clinical research is increased to provide reference for future clinical treatment.

  4. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers’ health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment.

  5. Problems faced by host nations in accepting visits by nuclear powered merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancher, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    An international Code of Practice would make a major contribution to the effective regulation of nuclear merchant ships. Ensuring compliance with such a Code would be a significant problem for host nations. An impediment to the development of nuclear shipping is the absence of third party liability provision. There are also problems in host port acceptance into crowded ports and some limitations may be imposed until there is more confidence. There are indications that ship accidents will become the predominant risk and considerably more attention to the problem is required. Waste management need not be a major issue to the acceptance of nuclear merchant ships

  6. Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants.

  7. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-07-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  8. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  9. Inverse problems in eddy current testing using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, N.; Cheng, W.; Miya, K.

    2000-05-01

    Reconstruction of crack in conductive material is one of the most important issues in the field of eddy current testing. Although many attempts to reconstruct cracks have been made, most of them deal with only artificial cracks machined with electro-discharge. However, in the case of natural cracks like stress corrosion cracking or inter-granular attack, there must be contact region and therefore their conductivity is not necessarily zero. In this study, an attempt to reconstruct natural cracks using neural network is presented. The neural network was trained through numerical simulated data obtained by the fast forward solver that calculated unflawed potential data a priori to save computational time. The solver is based on A-φ method discretized by using FEM-BEM A natural crack was modeled as an area whose conductivity was less than that of a specimen. The distribution of conductivity in that area was reconstructed as well. It took much time to train the network, but the speed of reconstruction was extremely fast after once it was trained. Well-trained network gave good reconstruction result.

  10. PHYLLOID TUMORS OF MAMMARY GLANDS. CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Zikiryakhodzhaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylloid (leaf-shaped breast tumors are a rare disease and constitute 0.3–0.5% of all breast tumors. Due to the rare frequency of occurrence, as well as the small number of randomized studies that have been conducted on this pathology, there is currently no standardized approach to the diagnosis and treatment of phylloid tumors. The reports about these rare cases appearing in the literature are, as a rule, descriptive, which only emphasizes the difficulty of differential diagnosis, the development of the correct tactics for treating such patients. In connection with the rarity, it is very difficult to diagnose correctly this pathology, which requires a highly qualified doctor as a diagnostician in the initial contact with such a patient, and a pathologist doctor who establishes the final morphological diagnosis. Often, leaf-shaped tumors are mistaken for mammary fibroadenomas. Such difficulties in correct diagnosis in the preoperative period can lead to errors in the planning of treatment. Also, the recommendations for the treatment of patients with this diagnosis are not fully understood, since up to now there are no accepted treatment standards in both Russian and foreign recommendations. Due to the fact that this pathology of mammary glands is rare, the principles of treatment are based on small retrospective studies and clinical observations. In this review, we will discuss the results of major retrospective studies, including data on epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic approach, strategies and results of treatment of this complex group of breast pathologies.

  11. Aerial wildfire fighting: history, current situation, problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bryukhanov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays aviation is among the most effective ways of early detection and suppression of wildfires. At the moment for the aerial wildfire fighting a few dozen models of aircraft are used worldwide, which are regularly modernized and renewed. In this article, authors give information about the history of fighting wildfires from the air, as well as analyze the current state of the issue with the use of aircraft and helicopter airtankers for firefighting, both at international level and in the territory of the Russian Federation. It is revealed that the most popular in the world still are the ground-based firefighting aircraft (regardless of the class of the carrying capacity. Amphibious firefighting aircraft now exist only in light (carrying capacity up to 5 tons and in medium type (capacity up to 15 tons. Among the helicopter aviation, heavy firefighting helicopters are mostly widely spread, as well as medium multipurpose helicopters, which are, apart from suppression, involved into delivery of people and goods to forest fire sites. The article is devoted to the main directions, according to which the development of aircraft tanker equipment abroad and in Russia occurs. The attention is directed to the most promising developments, and specific recommendations on how to increase the effectiveness of the fire aviation usage in Russia are given. Based on the studies carried out, a conclusion is drawn that for different countries there can be promising different types of firefighting aircraft, considering their landing field infrastructure, characteristics of forests and hydro systems, as well as the total area of the forest fund.

  12. Problems facing the radiologist tendering for a hospital wide PACS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilling, John

    1999-01-01

    As PACS becomes a reality the practical difficulties of installing the new technology become evident. The practical issues of developing a strategy, understanding the market, writing a business case, and an outline based specification are considered. The complexities of European procurement, the evaluation of responses, the contracting process and the problems of implementation, training, assessing the benefits and foreseeing the problems are covered. Provided there is careful attention to detail a hospital can expect to implement a successful PACS system

  13. Current problems of VVER-1000 reactor core operation in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Planned control rod drop time registration was passed two times a year per reactor unit. In 1992-1993 some control rods at almost all WWER-1000 units exceed the prescribed 4 second time limit. More than 7000 individual control rod time tests were made from the main correction measures. The following conclusions have been made from the current statistics data: (a) The main role of the vibration factor is proven in the fuel assembly (FA) bowing process. The greatest drop times and maximum of bowing values are concentrated at the vibration zone (2-4 FA rows from the reactor partition). The first FA row seems to be stable due to the interaction with the reactor partition; (b) Bowing relaxation will proceed during several fuel cycles (estimated value is 4-6), and depends on previous FA use history. It seems to be proven that previously bowed FAs effect the new FA, so previously bowed FAs are straightened until the middle of the fuel cycle. At some reactor units small drop time reduction is observed up to half of the fuel cycle from the start time values; (c) Control rod drop medium time (t) has almost linear dependence on operation time (τ) (t=k x τ + b]. Estimated by the method of least squares, values of k and b differ from unit to unit and from cycle to cycle. Values of k and b are in following ranges: b=2.0 - 2.6 seconds, k=5-50x10 -4 seconds per effective operation day; (d) Control rod drop time distribution changes through operation time. The position of maximum starts to shift after 240 effective days, and the form of the distribution start to change at the same time. Before 240 effective days, the distribution essentially does not change. To guarantee that the control rod system reliability is now within prescribed limits, we should continue testing. Additional analysis is needed. Test frequency can be reduced to avoid additional unreasonable transients. (authors)

  14. CURRENT ISSUES FACING THE INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINE IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Sam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain human papillomavirus (HPV types are strongly associated with cervical cancer. Recently-described effective vaccines against these HPV types represent a great medical breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer. In Malaysia, the vaccine has just received regulatory approval. We are likely to face similar barriers to implementing HPV vaccination as reported by countries where vaccination has been introduced. Most women have poor understanding of HPV and its link to cervical cancer. Physicians who will be recommending HPV vaccines may not have extensive knowledge or experience with HPV-related disease. Furthermore, a vaccine against a sexually-transmitted infection may elicit negative reactions from potential recipients or their carers, particularly in a conservative society. Given the high cost of the vaccine, reaching the most vulnerable women is a concern. To foster broad acceptance of HPV vaccine, education must be provided to health care providers, parents and young women about the risks of HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination.

  15. Animal models of binge drinking, current challenges to improve face validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Rolland, Benjamin; Gierski, Fabien; Martinetti, Margaret P; Naassila, Mickael

    2018-05-05

    Binge drinking (BD), i.e., consuming a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time, is an increasing public health issue. Though no clear definition has been adopted worldwide the speed of drinking seems to be a keystone of this behavior. Developing relevant animal models of BD is a priority for gaining a better characterization of the neurobiological and psychobiological mechanisms underlying this dangerous and harmful behavior. Until recently, preclinical research on BD has been conducted mostly using forced administration of alcohol, but more recent studies used scheduled access to alcohol, to model more voluntary excessive intakes, and to achieve signs of intoxications that mimic the human behavior. The main challenges for future research are discussed regarding the need of good face validity, construct validity and predictive validity of animal models of BD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The different faces of one's self: an fMRI study into the recognition of current and past self-facial appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Matthew A J; Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Turley, Grainne; Tsakiris, Manos

    2012-11-15

    Mirror self-recognition is often considered as an index of self-awareness. Neuroimaging studies have identified a neural circuit specialised for the recognition of one's own current facial appearance. However, faces change considerably over a lifespan, highlighting the necessity for representations of one's face to continually be updated. We used fMRI to investigate the different neural circuits involved in the recognition of the childhood and current, adult, faces of one's self. Participants viewed images of either their own face as it currently looks morphed with the face of a familiar other or their childhood face morphed with the childhood face of the familiar other. Activity in areas which have a generalised selectivity for faces, including the inferior occipital gyrus, the superior parietal lobule and the inferior temporal gyrus, varied with the amount of current self in an image. Activity in areas involved in memory encoding and retrieval, including the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate gyrus, and areas involved in creating a sense of body ownership, including the temporo-parietal junction and the inferior parietal lobule, varied with the amount of childhood self in an image. We suggest that the recognition of one's own past or present face is underpinned by different cognitive processes in distinct neural circuits. Current self-recognition engages areas involved in perceptual face processing, whereas childhood self-recognition recruits networks involved in body ownership and memory processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The different faces of one’s self: an fMRI study into the recognition of current and past self-facial appearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Matthew A. J.; Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Turley, Grainne; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    Mirror self-recognition is often considered as an index of self-awareness. Neuroimaging studies have identified a neural circuit specialised for the recognition of one’s own current facial appearance. However, faces change considerably over a lifespan, highlighting the necessity for representations of one’s face to continually be updated. We used fMRI to investigate the different neural circuits involved in the recognition of the childhood and current, adult, faces of one’s self. Participants viewed images of either their own face as it currently looks morphed with the face of a familiar other or their childhood face morphed with the childhood face of the familiar other. Activity in areas which have a generalised selectivity for faces, including the inferior occipital gyrus, the superior parietal lobule and the inferior temporal gyrus, varied with the amount of current self in an image. Activity in areas involved in memory encoding and retrieval, including the hippocampus and the posterior cingulate gyrus, and areas involved in creating a sense of body ownership, including the temporo-parietal junction and the inferior parietal lobule, varied with the amount of childhood self in an image. We suggest that the recognition of one’s own past or present face is underpinned by different cognitive processes in distinct neural circuits. Current self-recognition engages areas involved in perceptual face processing, whereas childhood self-recognition recruits networks involved in body ownership and memory processing. PMID:22940117

  18. Investigating the Difficulties and Problems Faced by the English Language Students of Al Quds Open University in Legal Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Maher Mahmoud Al-Nakhalah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following experimental descriptive method, the paper explores the difficulties and problems faced by the English language students of Al Quds Open University in legal translation process; that is, while translating legal terms/documents from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. A test was designed by the researcher in order to explore and investigate the difficulties and problems faced by the students. The test included four questions: 1 Translating English legal paragraph, 2 Translating Arabic legal paragraph, 3 Translating ten Arabic legal terms and 4 Translating ten English legal terms. The test was applied on the English language students of Al Quds Open University in Gaza Region in Palestine during the second course of the academic year 2010/2011. The samples of the study were chosen and selected randomly. Following suitable statistical methods, the paper offers the obtained results with critical discussion. Possible solutions, recommendations and suggestions to overcome these difficulties and problems also form important parts of the discussion in the paper.

  19. Saving Face: Managing Rapport in a Problem-Based Learning Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leslie; Harris, Ann; Burton, Rob

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the complex social aspects of communication required for students to participate effectively in Problem-Based Learning and explored how these dynamics are managed. The longitudinal study of a group of first-year undergraduates examined interactions using Rapport Management as a framework to analyse communication…

  20. The main problems faced Ukraine in case of low-carbon economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemenko L. P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main thoughts covering the process of implementation of low-carbon economy principles in Ukraine, presented main problems towards this aim and proposes one of the main steps to be taken on this long-term way. In case of the damaged limit of the natural recourses to be developed in Ukraine nowadays (especially gas, oil, coil, etc., lost of competitive position on international market to be always placed by Ukrainian manufactories, disability to cut the value of carbon gases and then, as a result, disability to ensure Ukrainian obligations by the Kyoto protocol, Ukrainian Government needs to find better solution for solving the problems mentioned above. In this case we should take into account that the main part of these problems appeared in case of the low-carbon economy movement in the world. As we declare our desire to be next to the leaders countries, than we have to find solutions for our problems based on the main international best practices.

  1. Nuclear power faces up to competition. A textbook on current controversial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, R.W.; Oesterwind, D.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power plants should face up to competition in the energy sector, and nuclear power reactor technology should at last be discussed without bias. The criteria to be applied are: environmental effects, availability, economics, safety and general acceptance. For decades now nuclear power plant operation has been proving to meet the first three of the above criteria. But although the engineered safety concepts and the available operating data proved successful and reliable, the safety philosophy underlying nuclear reactor technology still could not win general acceptance among the population. There have been considerable advances in engineered nuclear safety over the last few years. Reactors have been designed on the basis of a novel safety philosophy. Such novel concepts deserve a new approach for assessment, taking into account the worldwide population explosion, increasing energy consumption, and rising environmental hazards. The book in hand reviews and explains the advanced safety concepts, so that readers can get insight into the safety qualities of novel reactor types and thus criteria for novel assessment. (orig.) [de

  2. Maximizing work integration in job placement of individuals facing mental health problems: Supervisor experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarpaas, Lisebet Skeie; Ramvi, Ellen; Løvereide, Lise; Aas, Randi Wågø

    2015-01-01

    Many people confronting mental health problems are excluded from participation in paid work. Supervisor engagement is essential for successful job placement. To elicit supervisor perspectives on the challenges involved in fostering integration to support individuals with mental health problems (trainees) in their job placement at ordinary companies. Explorative, qualitative designed study with a phenomenological approach, based on semi-structured interviews with 15 supervisors involved in job placements for a total of 105 trainees (mean 7, min-max. 1-30, SD 8). Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Superviors experience two interrelated dilemmas concerning knowledge of the trainee and degree of preferential treatment. Challenges to obtaining successful integration were; motivational: 1) Supervisors previous experience with trainees encourages future engagement, 2) Developing a realistic picture of the situation, and 3) Disclosure and knowledge of mental health problems, and continuity challenges: 4) Sustaining trainee cooperation throughout the placement process, 5) Building and maintaining a good relationship between supervisor and trainee, and 6) Ensuring continuous cooperation with the social security system and other stakeholders. Supervisors experience relational dilemmas regarding pre-judgment, privacy and equality. Job placement seem to be maximized when the stakeholders are motivated and recognize that cooperation must be a continuous process.

  3. [Bullet and shrapnel injuries in the face and neck regions. Current aspects of wound ballistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, T; Huschitt, N; Kulla, M; Kneubuehl, B; Willy, C

    2011-08-01

    A basic understanding of the ballistic behaviour of projectiles or fragments after entering the human body is essential for the head and neck surgeon in the military environment in order to anticipate the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of this type of injury. Although a large number of factors influence the missile in flight and after penetration of the body, the most important factor is the amount of energy transmitted to the tissue. Long guns (rifles or shotguns) have a much higher muzzle energy compared to handguns, explaining why the remote effects beyond the bullet track play a major role. While most full metal jacket bullets release their energy after 12-20 cm (depending on the calibre), soft point bullets release their energy immediately after entry into the human body. This results in a major difference in extremity wounds, but not so much in injuries with long bullet paths (e.g. diagonal shots). Shrapnel wounds are usually produced with similarly high kinetic energy to those caused by hand- and long guns. However, fragments tend to dissipate the entire amount of energy within the body, which increases the degree of tissue disruption. Of all relevant injuries in the head and neck region, soft tissue injuries make up the largest proportion (60%), while injuries to the face are seen three times more often than injuries to the neck. Concomitant intracranial or spinal injury is seen in 30% of cases. Due to high levels of wound contamination, the infection rate is approximately 15%, often associated with a complicated and/or multiresistant spectrum of germs.

  4. Current problems arising from the new law relating to franchise duties; Aktuelle Probleme des neuen Konzessionsabgabenrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P.

    1996-12-31

    The contribution examines the advantages and drawbacks of the new ordinance in German law relating to payment of franchise duties. The ordinance may bring about new problems if abused as a means of bringing pressure to bear in negotiations for takeover of existing electric or gas supply systems by local governments. The author analyses the legitimation of such exploitation of the franchise duty and in this context the general legal framework. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Beitrag untersucht Vor- und Nachteile der neuen Verordnung im Konzessionsabgabenrecht, die im Hinblick auf Auseinandersetzungen um die ``Ubernahme von Strom- oder Gasversorgungssystemen durch Gemeinden neue Probleme mit sich bringen koennte, wenn Konzessionsabgaben als Druckmittel eingesetzt werden. Der Autor analysiert die Zulaessigkeit eines derartigen Einsatzes und in diesem Zusammenhang auch die rechtliche Basis der Konzessionsabgaben. (orig./CB)

  5. Facing operational problems in a biodigester in Yuvientsa - Amazonian region of Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragundy, J.

    2007-07-01

    Yuvientsa is a Shuar indigenous community located in the Morona Santiago Province in the southwestern part of the Amazonian region of Ecuador. Two types of alternative energies have being implemented in Yuvientsa to satisfy people's needs. Solar panels provide electricity to the community. A biodigester to treat the school lavatories' brown-water (fecal water) and to provide gas for cooking to the communal kitchen was built as well. During the operational phase the biodigester faced some difficulties as: being perforated by people of the community as started inflating, being fumigated against malaria, and not having enough organic matter to produce biogas. As a result in this time the biodigester did not operate satisfactorily and the community did not believe that it could work and produce biogas. A biodigester should not be built without an awareness campaign or showing a direct benefit to the community that ensures its adequate operation and maintenance. Before constructing the reactor the organic matter source to operate the biodigester should be clearly identified and its amount should be enough. (orig.)

  6. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrita, H.

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  7. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...

  8. Alcohol and the young: how does the press face the problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Concina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: alcohol is an important component of the Mediterranean diet and its moderate use is protective against cardiovascular risk. Binge drinking, i.e. the heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time, is the main consumption pattern of young people in Western countries and may lead to severe toxic effects in many organs. Mass media often address the issue by suggesting prevention measures; however, they may also have the unintended effect of encouraging alcohol misuse. This study aims to assess how the Italian press faces excessive alcohol consumption in young people, comparing the messages given by the press with scientific recommendations.Methods: articles published by the 6 best-selling Italian newspapers and the 4 best-selling Italian magazines were collected from October 15th to November 14th 2009. Medline database, governmental and non-governmental sources were searched for scientific recommendations regarding primary prevention of alcohol misuse. Press articles were described and analysed by filling out a predefined form.Results: fourteen newspaper articles regarding alcohol were found, 79% belonging to the news section. Six quotations of scientific recommendations were found: two about drink-driving, two about raising public awareness, one about Monitoring and Evaluation, and one about community and workplace action.Conclusions: scientific recommendations were often inadequately reported by the Italian press. The most covered recommendations, designed driver and public educational intervention, are also the least effective according to international literature. Therefore, a further effort is needed to tackle this issue in a more scientifically sound way.

  9. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Goel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

  10. The area-of-interest problem in eyetracking research: A noise-robust solution for face and sparse stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Roy S; Kemner, Chantal; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T C

    2016-12-01

    A problem in eyetracking research is choosing areas of interest (AOIs): Researchers in the same field often use widely varying AOIs for similar stimuli, making cross-study comparisons difficult or even impossible. Subjective choices while choosing AOIs cause differences in AOI shape, size, and location. On the other hand, not many guidelines for constructing AOIs, or comparisons between AOI-production methods, are available. In the present study, we addressed this gap by comparing AOI-production methods in face stimuli, using data collected with infants and adults (with autism spectrum disorder [ASD] and matched controls). Specifically, we report that the attention-attracting and attention-maintaining capacities of AOIs differ between AOI-production methods, and that this matters for statistical comparisons in one of three groups investigated (the ASD group). In addition, we investigated the relation between AOI size and an AOI's attention-attracting and attention-maintaining capacities, as well as the consequences for statistical analyses, and report that adopting large AOIs solves the problem of statistical differences between the AOI methods. Finally, we tested AOI-production methods for their robustness to noise, and report that large AOIs-using the Voronoi tessellation method or the limited-radius Voronoi tessellation method with large radii-are most robust to noise. We conclude that large AOIs are a noise-robust solution in face stimuli and, when implemented using the Voronoi method, are the most objective of the researcher-defined AOIs. Adopting Voronoi AOIs in face-scanning research should allow better between-group and cross-study comparisons.

  11. Past challenges faced: An overview of current educational activities of IUTOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybing, Erik; MacGregor, Judith; Malmfors, Torbjoern; Chipman, J. Kevin; Wright, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, educational programmes have been the main focus of the activities of the International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX). The IUTOX educational programmes are dynamic and have been growing in scope and frequency each year. It is envisaged that this growth will continue with guidance from our member societies and the continuing support of our sponsors. Presently, IUTOX is engaged in the following educational programmes: (1) International congresses that provide the opportunity for direct communication of current toxicological information. Fellowships are sponsored to facilitate attendance at these congresses for toxicologists in need. (2) Workshops that permit interaction on a more localised level of topics of more regional interest. Workshops have served to help stimulate formation of toxicology societies by bringing together sufficient scientists to facilitate these discussions. (3) Continuing educational (CE) programmes at member society meetings. Topics are prioritised based on input received from the local societies. Programmes often are those from CE courses given at meetings, such as conferences of the US Society of Toxicology (US SOT) and EUROTOX from the previous year. (4) Biennial Risk Assessment Summer School (RASS), an intensive week-long interaction between senior toxicologists who serve as faculty with attendees providing individual training. (5) Dissemination of donated printed toxicological books from publishers and syllabi from continuing education courses to regional locations. (6) Web-based interactive training programmes in regions where formal toxicological educational programmes are limited or lacking. (7) Preparation and distribution of monographs on selected topics of very current interest. Monographs on environmental oestrogens and genetically-modified foods have been published. The recent activities in each of these programmes are reviewed in this paper

  12. Collaborative Systems Thinking: A Response to the Problems Faced by Systems Engineering's 'Middle Tier'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phfarr, Barbara B.; So, Maria M.; Lamb, Caroline Twomey; Rhodes, Donna H.

    2009-01-01

    Experienced systems engineers are adept at more than implementing systems engineering processes: they utilize systems thinking to solve complex engineering problems. Within the space industry demographics and economic pressures are reducing the number of experienced systems engineers that will be available in the future. Collaborative systems thinking within systems engineering teams is proposed as a way to integrate systems engineers of various experience levels to handle complex systems engineering challenges. This paper uses the GOES-R Program Systems Engineering team to illustrate the enablers and barriers to team level systems thinking and to identify ways in which performance could be improved. Ways NASA could expand its engineering training to promote team-level systems thinking are proposed.

  13. Education of a Future Human is the Key to Solving the Global Problems Facing Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrystenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research considers two Global problems of the humanity:intercivilizational contradictions and the pandemic of abortion as serious conflicts, the solution of which depends on the relevant public educational policies. The tension in the relationship between the Islamic World and the West, caused by the so-called “caricature scandal”, encourages to understanding the conflict and the ways of its solution. There is also the problem of massive numbers of abortions in the world that requires a scientific analysis and relevant conclusions. The research revealed that both sides of intercivilizational conflicts are responsible for it. The freedom of speech as an ingredient of democracy cannot exist only for itself. It should be based on the human values, including respect for other nations, religions, cultures, as well as the protection of human life. The second part of the research concerns the pandemic of abortion. Based on the achievements of modern embryology, sociology and bioethics, four levels of this conflict were defined. The first level is a conflict concerning the life of the unborn child. The second one is a conflict concerning a mother. The third one is a conflict with the nation. The fourth one is a conflict with God. On these issues, the survey was conducted among the first year medical students at Ternopil State Medical University. It was also concluded that it would have been useful to present the model of state policy aimed to prevent conflictsbetween civilizations, aswellasthepandemicofabortiontothestudents. Thispolicy should include: information policy (promotion of the idea that human life is the highest value, and human relationships should be based on the principles of tolerance; education policy (education in today’s youth of the culture of interpersonal relationships based on honesty, responsibility; social policy (creation of the material conditions for young families, single mothers; policy in the health sector

  14. Mould deterioration of agricultural commodities during transit: problems faced by developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, R V

    1988-12-01

    Huge quantities of agricultural commodities are being either imported or exported by the developing countries. The commodities have to be transported from the fields of cultivation to the centres of consumption, considerable time being taken for the movement not only because of long distances but also because of various socio-economic, environmental and biological reasons. These commodities are likely to be damaged by mould growth and subsequent aflatoxin accumulation. If the contamination occurs during transit, often no insurance cover for the risk is available. Because of different methods of sampling followed in the exporting and importing countries it is often difficult to define the exact responsibility of the development of aflatoxin as having taken place during transit. The statistics of the export of aflatoxin high-risk commodities like red pepper (chillies), cotton seed and groundnut extractions clearly, for the last decade, demonstrate the extent of loss suffered by the exporting countries because of aflatoxins. The problem of mould damage and mycotoxin contamination can be minimised by improving facilities for storage at ports and transit points as well as on ships.

  15. Next generation of novel psychoactive substances on the horizon - A complex problem to face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Andrzejczak, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has seen a rapid and continuous growth in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) across the world. Although various products are labeled with warnings "not for human consumption", they are intended to mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. Once some compounds become regulated, new analogues appear in order to satisfy consumers' demands and at the same time to avoid criminalization. This review presents updated information on the second generation of NPS, introduced as replacements of the already banned substances from this class, focusing on their pharmacological properties and metabolism, routes of administration, and effects in humans. Literature search, covering years 2013-2015, was performed using the following keywords alone or in combination: "novel psychoactive substances", "cathinones", "synthetic cannabinoids", "benzofurans", "phenethylamines", "2C-drugs", "NBOMe", "methoxetamine", "opioids", "toxicity", and "metabolism". More than 400 NPS have been reported in Europe, with 255 detected in 2012-2014. The most popular are synthetic cannabimimetics and psychostimulant cathinones; use of psychedelics and opioids is less common. Accumulating experimental and clinical data indicate that potential harms associated with the use of second generation NPS could be even more serious than those described for the already banned drugs. NPS are constantly emerging on the illicit drug market and represent an important health problem. A significant amount of research is needed in order to fully quantify both the short and long term effects of the second generation NPS, and their interaction with other drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumer demands: Major problems facing industry in a consumer-driven society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, G

    1994-01-01

    Demand is driven by conventional market forces over much of the world among consumers with strong positive attitudes to meat as a nutritious, tasty and premium food; price in relation to income, availability, quality (including leanness) and relevance to life-style remain the dominant forces operating. But in the developed world, there are emerging concerns about how meat is produced, which are likely to have negative effects on demand, particularly that of the current younger generation, and which may well begin to affect Government policies towards the meat industry. The industry needs to establish strong information and education programmes, but also to examine its procedures to provide greater consumer assurance about practises and controls. Also the scientists and technologists serving the industry need to help it move towards sustainable lower input, less environmentally damaging systems, less reliance on drugs, stimulants and additives, sensitive exploitation of the new genetics and with more consideration for the animals involved. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. On the solution of fluid flow and heat transfer problem in a 2D channel with backward-facing step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Fomin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The stable stationary solutions of the test problem of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a plane channel with the backward-facing step have been considered in the work for extremely high Reynolds numbers and expansion ratio of the stream $ER$. The problem has been solved by numerical integration of the 2D Navier–Stokes equations in ‘velocity-pressure’ formulation and the heat equation in the range of Reynolds number $500 \\leqslant \\mathrm{ Re} \\leqslant 3000$ and expansion ratio $1.43 \\leqslant ER \\leqslant 10$ for Prandtl number $\\mathrm{ Pr} = 0.71$. Validity of the results has been confirmed by comparing them with literature data. Detailed flow patterns, fields of stream overheating, and profiles of horizontal component of velocity and relative overheating of flow in the cross section of the channel have been presented. Complex behaviors of the coefficients of friction, hydrodynamic resistance and heat transfer (Nusselt number along the channel depending on the problem parameters have been analyzed.

  18. Problems faced with the use of the WASP model in least cost and alternative electricity system expansion planning in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazu, F [Institute of Power Studies and Design, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-09-01

    Romanian experience with the use of IAEA planning methodologies was effectively initiated in 1989 with the launching of a Technical Cooperation project of the IAEA for the study of the energy demand and optimal expansion plans for the electricity generation system. The experience gathered during this project was crucial for the Romanian experts who conducted the studies. As a results, now Romania has a team of well trained experts in the use of the IAEA planning models. This paper describes the principal problems faced by Romanian planners in the use of these models with emphasis on the WASP package. Suggestions for future enhancements of the package are also part of this report. (author). 5 figs.

  19. The Case of Web-Based Course on Taxation: Current Status, Problems and Future Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhigang

    This paper mainly introduces the case of the web-based course on taxation developed by Xiamen University. We analyze the current status, problems and future improvement of the web-based course. The web-based course has the basic contents and modules, but it has several problems including unclear object, lacking interaction, lacking examination module, lacking study management module, and the learning materials and the navigation are too simple. According to its problems, we put forward the measures to improve it.

  20. Solution of 3D inverse scattering problems by combined inverse equivalent current and finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılıç, Emre; Eibert, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained

  1. Solution of 3D inverse scattering problems by combined inverse equivalent current and finite element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kılıç, Emre, E-mail: emre.kilic@tum.de; Eibert, Thomas F.

    2015-05-01

    An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained.

  2. Current Problems of Trade Union-Party Relations in Switzerland: Reorientation Versus Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Jurg K.

    1975-01-01

    The postwar realignment of union-party relations in Switzerland severed old formal ties but left some important links undisturbed; practical and effective cooperation on legislative items supports current informal union-party alliances. Major current problems include the unions' demand for codetermination in industry and the huge numbers of…

  3. EDDYMULT: a computing system for solving eddy current problems in a multi-torus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Ozeki, Takahisa

    1989-03-01

    A new computing system EDDYMULT based on the finite element circuit method has been developed to solve actual eddy current problems in a multi-torus system, which consists of many torus-conductors and various kinds of axisymmetric poloidal field coils. The EDDYMULT computing system can deal three-dimensionally with the modal decomposition of eddy current in a multi-torus system, the transient phenomena of eddy current distributions and the resultant magnetic field. Therefore, users can apply the computing system to the solution of the eddy current problems in a tokamak fusion device, such as the design of poloidal field coil power supplies, the mechanical stress design of the intensive electromagnetic loading on device components and the control analysis of plasma position. The present report gives a detailed description of the EDDYMULT system as an user's manual: 1) theory, 2) structure of the code system, 3) input description, 4) problem restrictions, 5) description of the subroutines, etc. (author)

  4. What is the comparative effectiveness of current standard treatment, against an individually tailored behavioural programme delivered either on the Internet or face-to-face for people with acute whiplash associated disorder? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Annika; Åsenlöf, Pernilla; Söderlund, Anne

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the comparative effectiveness of current standard treatment, against an individually tailored behavioural programme delivered via the Internet or face-to-face for people with acute whiplash associated disorders. A multicentre, randomized, three-group design, with concealed allocation. A total of 55 participants (37 female), age 18-65, with acute Whiplash Associated Disorder (Grade I-II), recruited at two emergency clinics in Sweden. Before randomization all participants received standard self-care instructions. The Internet and face-to-face groups followed a seven-week behavioural programme involving individual tailoring, via email (Internet group), or in sessions at a physical therapy unit (face-to-face group). The control group only received the self-care instructions. Pain-related disability, pain intensity, self-efficacy in daily activities, catastrophizing and fear of movement/(re)injury. Assessments were performed at baseline (2-4 weeks postinjury) and at three, six and 12 months postintervention. Both the Internet (n = 16) and face-to-face (n = 14) group showed a larger decrease in pain-related disability than the control group (n = 16); -12 and -11, respectively, compared with -5 in the control group at 12-months follow-up. Significant differences between the groups in overall treatment effect were shown in all outcomes except pain intensity. All groups improved significantly over time in all outcomes, except for fear of movement/(re)injury and catastrophizing in the control group. An individually tailored behavioural programme improved biopsychosocial factors in patients with whiplash associated disorders up to 12 months after treatment. Internet-delivered intervention was as effective as clinic-based face-to-face therapy sessions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Turkey’s Current Account Deficit Problem and Its Effects on the European Union Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Zekayi Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, long-term current account deficits may cause serious problems in the economy. Turkey's current account deficit and the financing of this deficit is one of the most widely debated issues in recent years. There are two different views about the emergence of the current account deficit. According to the first view, the current account deficit is due to the increase in demand created by economic growth after the 2001 crisis. According to the other opinion, this deficit is a result of an overvalued domestic currency, which is created by high interest rates accelerating the flow of short-term speculative capital. Since the current account deficit is financed with debt, the increasing external debt of the country is threatening the future of the economy. In this study, firstly the current account deficit problem in Turkey and the factors affecting the current operations which play an important role in financing the short-term capital movements are explained. Secondly, the policies to ensure the current account balance are defined. Finally the effects of the current account deficit problem on the European Union accession is discussed.

  6. Current state and problems of integrated development of mineral resources base in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, I. V.; Eder, L. V.; Mishenin, M. V.; Mamakhatov, T. M.

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of integrated development of subsoil resources taking into account the actual problems facing the Russian oil and gas complex. The key factors determining the need for integrated development of subsoil resources have been systematized and investigated. These factors are the change of the hydrocarbon resource base quality, the improvement of the depletion degree of basic (unique and major) oil fields, the increase in the number of small and smallest oil fields discovered and introduced into development, the increased capital intensity and the riskiness of geological exploration, and the territorial location of new subsoil use facilities.

  7. BUSINESS CLIMATE OF FOOD FIRMS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROBLEMS FACED BY FOOD MANUFACTURERS, WHOLESALERS, RETAILERS AND SERVICE INSTITUTIONS IN NEW JERSEY

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Tank, Karen Rose; Schilling, Brian J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the problems facing food firms using information from focus groups of industry executives from New Jersey. The leading problems for food manufacturers are related to regulation, taxation, economic development, and high business costs. For food wholesalers the leading problems are transportation, regulation, labor quality, training and education, and public relations. Food retailers cite litigation and liability, high business costs, regulation, and insurance costs as leadi...

  8. Exploring individual differences in online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions in case of impending mental health problems: The role of adult attachment, perceived social support, psychological distress and self-stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Apolinário-Hagen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Even though common mental health problems such as depression are a global burden calling for efficient prevention strategies, still many distressed individuals face hurdles to access public mental healthcare. Thus, computerized Internet-based psychological services have been suggested as viable approach to overcome barriers, such as self-stigma, and to inform the access to professional support on a large scale. However, little research has targeted predictors of online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Objective: This study aimed at determining whether associations between attachment insecurity and the willingness to seek online versus face-to-face counselling in case of impending emotional problems are mediated by both perceived social support and psychological distress and moderated by self-stigma. Methods: Data was collected from 301 adults from the German-speaking general population (age: M = 34.42, SD = 11.23; range: 18 - 65 years; 72.1% female through an anonymous online survey. Determinants of seeking help were assessed with the self-report measures Experiences in Close Relationship-Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, ENRICHD-Social Support Inventory and an adapted version of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire (i.e. case vignette. Mediation analyses were performed with the SPSS-macro PROCESS by Hayes. Results: About half of the sample indicated being not aware of online counselling. As expected, insecure attachment was associated with less perceived social support and increased psychological distress. Mediational analyses revealed negative relationships between both attachment avoidance and self-stigma with face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Moreover, the relationship between attachment anxiety and the willingness to seek face-to-face counselling was mediated by social support. In contrast, none of the predictors of online counselling was statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, this study identified

  9. Eddy current imaging. Simplifying the direct problem. Analysis of a 2D case with formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spineanu, A.; Zorgati, R.

    1995-01-01

    Eddy current non-destructive testing is used by EDF to detect faults affecting conductive objects such as steam generator tubes. A new technique, known as eddy current imaging, is being developed to facilitate diagnosis in this context. The first stage in this work, discussed in the present paper, consists in solving the direct problem. This entails determining the measurable quantities, on the basis of a thorough knowledge of the material considered. This was done by formulating the direct problem in terms of eddy currents in general 3D geometry context, applying distribution theory and Maxwell equations. Since no direct problem code was available we resorted to simplified situations. Taking care not to interfere with previous developments or those to be attempted in an inversion context, we studied the case of a flaw affecting a 2D structure, illuminated by a plane wave type probe. For this configuration, we studied the exact model and compared results with those of a linearized simplified model. This study emphasizes the ill-posed situation of the eddy current inverse problem related with the severe electromagnetic field attenuation. This means that regularization of the inverse problem, although absolutely necessary, will not be sufficient. Owing to the simplicity of the models available and implemented during the inversion process, processing real data would not yet be possible. We must first focus all our efforts on the direct 3 D problem, in conformity with the requirements of the inverse procedure ad describing a realistic eddy current NDT situation. At the same time, consideration should be given to the design of a specific probe customized for eddy current imaging. (authors). 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 appends

  10. Applications of intelligent optimization in biology and medicine current trends and open problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grosan, Crina; Tolba, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides updated, in-depth material on the application of intelligent optimization in biology and medicine. The aim of the book is to present solutions to the challenges and problems facing biology and medicine applications. This Volume comprises of 13 chapters, including an overview chapter, providing an up-to-date and state-of-the research on the application of intelligent optimization for bioinformatics applications, DNA based Steganography, a modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Capacitated Maximal Covering Location Problem in Healthcare Systems, Optimization Methods for Medical Image Super Resolution Reconstruction and breast cancer classification. Moreover, some chapters that describe several bio-inspired approaches in MEDLINE Text Mining, DNA-Binding Proteins and Classes, Optimized Tumor Breast Cancer Classification using Combining Random Subspace and Static Classifiers Selection Paradigms, and Dental Image Registration. The book will be a useful compendium for a broad...

  11. Exact solution for a two-phase Stefan problem with variable latent heat and a convective boundary condition at the fixed face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Julieta; Tarzia, Domingo A.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, in Tarzia (Thermal Sci 21A:1-11, 2017) for the classical two-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem an equivalence between the temperature and convective boundary conditions at the fixed face under a certain restriction was obtained. Motivated by this article we study the two-phase Stefan problem for a semi-infinite material with a latent heat defined as a power function of the position and a convective boundary condition at the fixed face. An exact solution is constructed using Kummer functions in case that an inequality for the convective transfer coefficient is satisfied generalizing recent works for the corresponding one-phase free boundary problem. We also consider the limit to our problem when that coefficient goes to infinity obtaining a new free boundary problem, which has been recently studied in Zhou et al. (J Eng Math 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10665-017-9921-y).

  12. Taxonomic Review of Classical and Current Literature on the Perennial American Family Forest Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Straka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in American forest policy has been the small forest ownership problem. Early in the twentieth century, it was called the farm forestry problem, later, the nonindustrial private forest problem, and today, the family forest problem. Family forest owners are thought to manage their lands in a suboptimal manner resulting in low forest productivity relative to other ownership groups. This can lead to future timber supply problems. The exact nature of the problem, especially its social and economic basis, was a common subject of early forestry research studies. This article includes many of the major nonindustrial private forest or family forest studies, from early to current, and classifies them both by themes used by other authors and categories that relate to major research areas in the current literature. A major focus of this literature deals with promoting management on family forest holdings and possible land management incentives and disincentives. Natural trends in family forest ownership, like parcelization, also impact upon forest management opportunities. By developing a taxonomy that classifies these studies by research objective, methodology, owner motivation, and problem definition, this article serves to organize the family forest literature in a manner that provides a temporal framework for better understanding the historical motivation for and development of family forest research in the United States.

  13. Solution of magnetic field and eddy current problem induced by rotating magnetic poles (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. J.; Low, T. S.

    1996-04-01

    The magnetic field and eddy current problems induced by rotating permanent magnet poles occur in electromagnetic dampers, magnetic couplings, and many other devices. Whereas numerical techniques, for example, finite element methods can be exploited to study various features of these problems, such as heat generation and drag torque development, etc., the analytical solution is always of interest to the designers since it helps them to gain the insight into the interdependence of the parameters involved and provides an efficient tool for designing. Some of the previous work showed that the solution of the eddy current problem due to the linearly moving magnet poles can give satisfactory approximation for the eddy current problem due to rotating fields. However, in many practical cases, especially when the number of magnet poles is small, there is significant effect of flux focusing due to the geometry. The above approximation can therefore lead to marked errors in the theoretical predictions of the device performance. Bernot et al. recently described an analytical solution in a polar coordinate system where the radial field is excited by a time-varying source. A discussion of an analytical solution of the magnetic field and eddy current problems induced by moving magnet poles in radial field machines will be given in this article. The theoretical predictions obtained from this method is compared with the results obtained from finite element calculations. The validity of the method is also checked by the comparison of the theoretical predictions and the measurements from a test machine. It is shown that the introduced solution leads to a significant improvement in the air gap field prediction as compared with the results obtained from the analytical solution that models the eddy current problems induced by linearly moving magnet poles.

  14. Analyzing the problems with the current adoption of IFRS in the companies among India, China, Germany, Russia and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mosomi Ombati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting information provides past and current financial information of an economic unit for business managers, potential investors, and other interested parties. Internally generated accounting information helps business managers with planning, controlling, and making decisions referred to as managerial accounting information. However, if the companies, which have adopted International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS globally, cannot generate the same information then the accounting practices need to be improved. For this purpose, the current study was performed with the objectives of measuring relationship between profitability and market capitalization and to analyze the challenges faced by listed firms of various countries in association with the implementation of IFRS. For this purpose, 15 companies were selected from 5 countries including India, China, Germany, Russia and Kenya. The secondary data regarding the correlation between profitability and market capitalization were analyzed to calculate the correlations. The primary data regarding the managers perception were analyzed with multiple regression method using SPSS-19 software to find out the company related variables, investors’ related variables and government agency related variables responsible for problems in the current adoption of IFRS.

  15. The Academic, Administrative, Economic, Social, and Psychological Problems Faced by Students of Textile and Clothing Major at King Abdul-Aziz University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubyani, Noor Abdulhadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic, administrative, economic, social, and psychological problems faced by students of Textile and fabric major at King Abdul-Aziz University. To achieve this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of students in the Textile and fabric major, after the use of…

  16. Teacher Opinions on the Problems Faced in Reading and Writing by Syrian Migrant Children in Their First Class at Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Necla Isikdogan; Kayhan, Nilay

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate, according to the opinions of teachers, the problems faced by the children of Syrian families who have taken refuge in Turkey since 2011 with regard to their linguistic and communication skills, as well as their reading and writing process in Turkish as a foreign language. The research group is composed…

  17. Fractal-Based Methods and Inverse Problems for Differential Equations: Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb E. Kunze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate, in this short survey, the current state of the art of fractal-based techniques and their application to the solution of inverse problems for ordinary and partial differential equations. We review several methods based on the Collage Theorem and its extensions. We also discuss two innovative applications: the first one is related to a vibrating string model while the second one considers a collage-based approach for solving inverse problems for partial differential equations on a perforated domain.

  18. Crack problem in superconducting cylinder with exponential distribution of critical-current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Xu, Chi; Shi, Liang

    2018-04-01

    The general problem of a center crack in a long cylindrical superconductor with inhomogeneous critical-current distribution is studied based on the extended Bean model for zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) magnetization processes, in which the inhomogeneous parameter η is introduced for characterizing the critical-current density distribution in inhomogeneous superconductor. The effect of the inhomogeneous parameter η on both the magnetic field distribution and the variations of the normalized stress intensity factors is also obtained based on the plane strain approach and J-integral theory. The numerical results indicate that the exponential distribution of critical-current density will lead a larger trapped field inside the inhomogeneous superconductor and cause the center of the cylinder to fracture more easily. In addition, it is worth pointing out that the nonlinear field distribution is unique to the Bean model by comparing the curve shapes of the magnetization loop with homogeneous and inhomogeneous critical-current distribution.

  19. Investigation of protection problems due to geomagnetically induced currents (solar magnetic disturbances, transformers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The problems with geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) flowing in power systems during solar magnetic disturbances were studied. Transformers can overheat as a result of GIC because they can cause offset saturation of power system transformers. Harmonic currents can also be introduced into the system which then affect the relay and protection systems. Several studies have been conducted using simplified transformer core models to predict the transformer response to DC excitation. In this study, an accurate transformer core model was developed and validated by comparing the recorded waveforms during GIC events with simulated waveforms using the model. The new transformer core model was used to evaluate the performance of different protection schemes under GIC

  20. Analysis of critical thinking ability in direct current electrical problems solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono; Sunarno, Widha; Sarwanto; Arya Nugraha, Dewanta

    2017-11-01

    This study concern on analyzing the ability of students in critical thinking skills on the subject matter of direct current electricity. Samples were taken using purposive random sampling consisted of 32 students of grade XI, Multimedia 1, SMK Negeri 3 Surakarta in academic year 2016/2017. This study used descriptive quantitative method. The data were collected using tests and interviews regarding the subject matter of direct current electricity. Based on the results, students are getting some difficulties in solving problem in indicator 4. The average of students’ correct answer is 62.8%.

  1. Applications of integral equation methods for the numerical solution of magnetostatic and eddy current problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, C.W.

    1976-06-01

    Various integral equation methods are described. For magnetostatic problems three formulations are considered in detail, (a) the direct solution method for the magnetisation distribution in permeable materials, (b) a method based on a scalar potential and (c) the use of an integral equation derived from Green's Theorem, i.e. the so-called Boundary Integral Method (BIM). In the case of (a) results are given for two-and three-dimensional non-linear problems with comparisons against measurement. For methods (b) and (c) which both lead to a more economic use of the computer than (a) some preliminary results are given for simple cases. For eddy current problems various methods are discussed and some results are given from a computer program based on a vector potential formulation. (author)

  2. Applications of integral equation methods for the numerical solution of magnetostatic and eddy current problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, C W

    1976-06-01

    Various integral equation methods are described. For magnetostatic problems three formulations are considered in detail, (a) the direct solution method for the magnetisation distribution in permeable materials, (b) a method based on a scalar potential, and (c) the use of an integral equation derived from Green's Theorem, i.e. the so-called Boundary Integral Method (BIM). In the case of (a) results are given for two-and three-dimensional non-linear problems with comparisons against measurement. For methods (b) and (c), which both lead to a more economical use of the computer than (a), some preliminary results are given for simple cases. For eddy current problems various methods are discussed and some results are given from a computer program based on a vector potential formulation.

  3. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Syed Shah; Nor Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad Maisarah; Hashim Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-01-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to gener...

  4. Two numerical methods for the solution of two-dimensional eddy current problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddlecombe, C.S.

    1978-07-01

    A general method for the solution of eddy current problems in two dimensions - one component of current density and two of magnetic field, is reported. After examining analytical methods two numerical methods are presented. Both solve the two dimensional, low frequency limit of Maxwell's equations for transient eddy currents in conducting material, which may be permeable, in the presence of other non-conducting permeable material. Both solutions are expressed in terms of the magnetic vector potential. The first is an integral equation method, using zero order elements in the discretisation of the unknown source regions. The other is a differential equation method, using a first order finite element mesh, and the Galerkin weighted residual procedure. The resulting equations are solved as initial-value problems. Results from programs based on each method are presented showing the power and limitations of the methods and the range of problems solvable. The methods are compared and recommendations are made for choosing between them. Suggestions are made for improving both methods, involving boundary integral techniques. (author)

  5. On the Inverse EEG Problem for a 1D Current Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dassios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Albanese and Monk (2006 have shown that, it is impossible to recover the support of a three-dimensional current distribution within a conducting medium from the knowledge of the electric potential outside the conductor. On the other hand, it is possible to obtain the support of a current which lives in a subspace of dimension lower than three. In the present work, we actually demonstrate this possibility by assuming a one-dimensional current distribution supported on a small line segment having arbitrary location and orientation within a uniform spherical conductor. The immediate representation of this problem refers to the inverse problem of electroencephalography (EEG with a linear current distribution and the spherical model of the brain-head system. It is shown that the support is identified through the solution of a nonlinear algebraic system which is investigated thoroughly. Numerical tests show that this system has exactly one real solution. Exact solutions are analytically obtained for a couple of special cases.

  6. Current suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking individuals in the United Kingdom with gambling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Potenza, Marc N; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2017-11-01

    Studies show higher lifetime prevalence of suicidality in individuals with pathological gambling. However, less is known about the relationship between pathological gambling and current suicidal ideation. We investigated socio-demographic, clinical and gambling-related variables associated with suicidality in treatment-seeking individuals. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were generated on data from 903 individuals to identify measures associated with aspects of suicidality. Forty-six percent of patients reported current suicidal ideation. People with current suicidal thoughts were more likely to report greater problem-gambling severity (psuicidality. Logistic regression models suggested that past suicidal ideation (psuicidality. Our findings suggest that the severity of anxiety disorder, along with a lifetime history of suicidal ideation, may help to identify treatment-seeking individuals with pathological gambling with a higher risk of suicidality, highlighting the importance of assessing suicidal ideation in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic evaluation of Internet-based problem-solving guided self-help treatment in comparison with enhanced usual care for depressed outpatients waiting for face-to-face treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovos, Spyros; Kenter, Robin M F; Bosmans, Judith E

    2016-01-01

    at outpatient clinics. METHODS: An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up. Outcomes were improvement in depressive symptom severity (measured by CES-D), response to treatment and Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs). Statistical uncertainty around cost......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for depression in comparison with usual care. However, evidence on the cost-effectiveness of these interventions when delivered in outpatient clinics is lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate...... the cost-effectiveness of an Internet-based problem-solving guided self-help intervention in comparison with enhanced usual care for outpatients on a waiting list for face-to-face treatment for major depression. After the waiting list period, participants from both groups received the same treatment...

  8. Neurotoxins: Current Concepts in Cosmetic Use on the Face and Neck--Jawline Contouring/Platysma Bands/Necklace Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Phillip M

    2015-11-01

    The platysma muscle acts as a major depressor in the lower face with subsequent inaesthetic implications. Botulinum toxin-A can be very useful to reverse some of these and this chapter describes how to (1) sharpen the jawline with the Nefertiti Lift, (2) treat anterior neck bands, and (3) soften necklace lines.

  9. Prevalence, putative mechanisms, and current management of sleep problems during chemotherapy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palesh O

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxana Palesh,1 Luke Peppone,2 Pasquale F Innominato,3–5 Michelle Janelsins,2 Monica Jeong,1 Lisa Sprod,7 Josee Savard,6 Max Rotatori,1 Shelli Kesler,1 Melinda Telli,1 Karen Mustian21Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 2University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 3INSERM, UMRS 776, Biological Rhythms and Cancers, Villejuif, France; 4Faculty of Medicine, Universite Paris Sud, le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; 5APHP, Chronotherapy Unit, Department of Oncology, Paul Brousse Hospital, Villejuif, France; 6Laval University, Quebec, Canada; 7University of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC, USAAbstract: Sleep problems are highly prevalent in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. This article reviews existing evidence on etiology, associated symptoms, and management of sleep problems associated with chemotherapy treatment during cancer. It also discusses limitations and methodological issues of current research. The existing literature suggests that subjectively and objectively measured sleep problems are the highest during the chemotherapy phase of cancer treatments. A possibly involved mechanism reviewed here includes the rise in the circulating proinflammatory cytokines and the associated disruption in circadian rhythm in the development and maintenance of sleep dysregulation in cancer patients during chemotherapy. Various approaches to the management of sleep problems during chemotherapy are discussed with behavioral intervention showing promise. Exercise, including yoga, also appear to be effective and safe at least for subclinical levels of sleep problems in cancer patients. Numerous challenges are associated with conducting research on sleep in cancer patients during chemotherapy treatments and they are discussed in this review. Dedicated intervention trials, methodologically sound and sufficiently powered, are needed to test current and novel treatments of sleep problems in cancer patients

  10. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  11. Specific transport and storage solutions: Waste management facing current and future stakes of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, Helene; Gagner, Laurent; Gendreau, Francoise; Presta, Anne

    2006-01-01

    logistics skills and supporting producers to achieve their waste management targets. The different entities of the AREVA Business Unit Logistics have indeed proven their ability to mobilize expertise at key steps of the waste logistical chain in supplying efficient, reliable and safe transport solutions. These entities constitute a world-wide transport network able to supply both tailor made and standardized solutions, under constant and strict compliance with international regulations. The AREVA Business Unit Logistics is indeed the only one player in the nuclear world able to cover the whole waste management policy with competencies at all technical levels. The next 10 years will be a cornerstone for waste management: industrial producers will have to cope with many challenges, such as larger flows of LLW and VLLW issued of dismantling operations. The AREVA Business Unit Logistics will be the partner of producers facing with them the future challenges, by improving current solutions and developing innovative solutions

  12. Is emotion recognition the only problem in ADHD? effects of pharmacotherapy on face and emotion recognition in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Esra; Erdogan, Ayten

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate both face and emotion recognition, to detect differences among attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subgroups, to identify effects of the gender and to assess the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine treatment on both face and emotion recognition in patients with ADHD. The study sample consisted of 41 male, 29 female patients, 8-15 years of age, who were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD (N = 26), hyperactive/impulsive type ADHD (N = 21) or inattentive type ADHD (N = 23) but had not previously used any medication for ADHD and 35 male, 25 female healthy individuals. Long-acting methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was prescribed to 38 patients, whereas atomoxetine was prescribed to 32 patients. The reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET) and Benton face recognition test (BFRT) were applied to all participants before and after treatment. The patients with ADHD had a significantly lower number of correct answers in child and adolescent RMET and in BFRT than the healthy controls. Among the ADHD subtypes, the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in the RMET than the inattentive subtypes, and the hyperactive/impulsive subtype had a lower number of correct answers in short and long form of BFRT than the combined and inattentive subtypes. Male and female patients with ADHD did not differ significantly with respect to the number of correct answers on the RMET and BFRT. The patients showed significant improvement in RMET and BFRT after treatment with OROS-MPH or atomoxetine. Patients with ADHD have difficulties in face recognition as well as emotion recognition. Both OROS-MPH and atomoxetine affect emotion recognition. However, further studies on the face and emotion recognition are needed in ADHD.

  13. Associations between causal attributions and personal stigmatizing attitudes in untreated persons with current mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Susanne; Freitag, Simone; Schmidt, Silke; Schomerus, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Past research has shown that among the general public, certain causal explanations like biomedical causes are associated with stronger desire for social distance from persons with mental illness. Aim of this study was to find out how different causal attributions of persons with untreated mental health problems regarding their own complaints are associated with stigmatizing attitudes, anticipated self-stigma when seeking help and perceived stigma-stress. Altogether, 207 untreated persons with a current depressive syndrome were interviewed. Biomedical causes, but also belief in childhood trauma or unhealthy behavior as a cause of the problem, were associated with stronger personal stigma and with more stigma-stress. Similarities and differences to findings among the general population and implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Current problems in semiconductor detectors for high energy physics after particle irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, Ionel

    2002-01-01

    The use of semiconductor materials as detectors in high radiation environments, as expected in future high energy accelerators or in space missions, poses severe problems in long-time operations, due to changes in the properties of the material, and consequently in the performances of detectors. This talk presents the major theoretical areas of current problems, reviews the works in this field and the stage of their understanding, including author's contributions The mechanisms of interaction of the projectile with the semiconductor, the production of primary defects, the physical quantities and the equations able to characterise and describe the radiation effects, and the equations of kinetics of defects are considered. Correlation between microscopic damage and detector performances and the possible ways to optimise the radiation hardness of materials are discussed. (author)

  15. Storage and treatment of SNF of Alfa class nuclear submarines: current status and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Sviatoslav; Zabudko, Alexey; Pankratov, Dmitry; Somov, Ivan; Suvorov, Gennady

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The current status and main problems associated with storage, defueling and following treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Nuclear Submarines (NS) with heavy liquid metal cooled reactors are considered. In the final analysis these solutions could be realized in the form of separate projects to be funded through national and bi- and multilateral funding in the framework of the international collaboration of the Russian Federation on complex utilization of NS and rehabilitation of contaminated objects allocated in the North-West region of Russia. (authors)

  16. Finite element solution of nonlinear eddy current problems with periodic excitation and its industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Oszkár; Koczka, Gergely; Preis, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    An efficient finite element method to take account of the nonlinearity of the magnetic materials when analyzing three-dimensional eddy current problems is presented in this paper. The problem is formulated in terms of vector and scalar potentials approximated by edge and node based finite element basis functions. The application of Galerkin techniques leads to a large, nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations in the time domain. The excitations are assumed to be time-periodic and the steady-state periodic solution is of interest only. This is represented either in the frequency domain as a finite Fourier series or in the time domain as a set of discrete time values within one period for each finite element degree of freedom. The former approach is the (continuous) harmonic balance method and, in the latter one, discrete Fourier transformation will be shown to lead to a discrete harmonic balance method. Due to the nonlinearity, all harmonics, both continuous and discrete, are coupled to each other. The harmonics would be decoupled if the problem were linear, therefore, a special nonlinear iteration technique, the fixed-point method is used to linearize the equations by selecting a time-independent permeability distribution, the so-called fixed-point permeability in each nonlinear iteration step. This leads to uncoupled harmonics within these steps. As industrial applications, analyses of large power transformers are presented. The first example is the computation of the electromagnetic field of a single-phase transformer in the time domain with the results compared to those obtained by traditional time-stepping techniques. In the second application, an advanced model of the same transformer is analyzed in the frequency domain by the harmonic balance method with the effect of the presence of higher harmonics on the losses investigated. Finally a third example tackles the case of direct current (DC) bias in the coils of a single-phase transformer.

  17. Treatment of multi-word lexical items in the dictionary: the current situation and the potential problems facing dictionary users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Vrbinc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first discuss the inclusion of idioms in the latest printed editions of monolingual learner’s dictionaries; we then consider and evaluate the success of look-up operations in connection with the recognition of the correct part of speech. The central part of the article discusses and justifies the macro- and microstructural treatment of multi-word lexical items. Finally, we address the issue of including idioms in the microstructure as special senses of the lemma, as usage examples and/or in the idioms section. The inclusion and treatment of multi-word lexical items depends on the needs of potential dictionary users. Lexicographers should therefore strive to adopt a pragmatic approach that would help the user to locate a multi-word lexical item with minimal effort. When compiling a bilingual dictionary, contrastive differences between source and target languages should also be taken into consideration. http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa7.15

  18. Current Crisis in Science Education? Women in Science and Problems for the Behavioral Scientists. Some Perspectives of a Physicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    A number of problems exist in society which require the cooperation of physical and social scientists. One of these problems is the current crisis in science education. There are several aspects to this problem, including the declining interest of students in math and science at a time when functioning in our society requires more, not less,…

  19. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, the report addresses the problem of detecting faces in color images in the presence of various lighting conditions and complex backgrounds as well as recognizing faces under variations...

  20. Problems and complications of full-face carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for pathological lesions of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read-Fuller, Andrew M; Yates, David M; Vu, David D; Hoopman, John E; Finn, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Facial resurfacing with a CO 2 laser has been used for treatment of pathologic lesions and for cosmetic purposes. Postoperative complications and problems after laser resurfacing include infections, acneiform lesions, and pigment changes. This retrospective study describes the most common problems and complications in 105 patients and assesses postoperative pain in 38 patients. All patients received CO 2 laser resurfacing for treatment of malignant/premalignant lesions and had postoperative follow-up to assess problems and complications. Some had follow-up to assess postoperative pain. All patients had Fitzpatrick I-III skin types and underwent the same perioperative care regimen. There were 11 problems and 2 complications. Problems included infection, acneiform lesion/milia, and uncontrolled postoperative pain. Complications included hyperpigmentation. Among the postoperative pain group, 53% reported no pain and the rest had mild or moderate pain. Complications are rare. Infection and acneiform lesions/milia were the most common problems, as previously reported. Most patients do not experience postoperative pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A steady state solution for ditch drainage problem with special reference to seepage face and unsaturated zone flow contribution: Derivation of a new drainage spacing eqaution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Ammar; Mechergui, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    The seepage face is an important feature of the drainage process when recharge occurs to a permeable region with lateral outlets. Examples of the formation of a seepage face above the downstream water level include agricultural land drained by ditches. Flow problem to these drains has been investigated extensively by many researchers (e.g. Rubin, 1968; Hornberger et al. 1969; Verma and Brutsaert, 1970; Gureghian and Youngs, 1975; Vauclin et al., 1975; Skaggs and Tang, 1976; Youngs, 1990; Gureghian, 1981; Dere, 2000; Rushton and Youngs, 2010; Youngs, 2012; Castro-Orgaz et al., 2012) and may be tackled either using variably saturated flow models, or the complete 2-D solution of Laplace equation, or using the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation; the most widely accepted methods to obtain analytical solutions for unconfined drainage problems. However, the investigation reported by Clement et al. (1996) suggest that accounting for the seepage face alone, as in the fully saturated flow model, does not improve the discharge estimate because of disregarding flow the unsaturated zone flow contribution. This assumption can induce errors in the location of the water table surface and results in an underestimation of the seepage face and the net discharge (e.g. Skaggs and Tang, 1976; Vauclin et al., 1979; Clement et al., 1996). The importance of the flow in the unsaturated zone has been highlighted by many authors on the basis of laboratory experiments and/or numerical experimentations (e.g. Rubin, 1968; Verma and Brutsaert, 1970; Todsen, 1973; Vauclin et al., 1979; Ahmad et al., 1993; Anguela, 2004; Luthin and Day, 1955; Shamsai and Narasimhan, 1991; Wise et al., 1994; Clement et al., 1996; Boufadel et al., 1999; Romano et al., 1999; Kao et al., 2001; Kao, 2002). These studies demonstrate the failure of fully saturated flow models and suggested that the error made when using these models not only depends on soil properties but also on the infiltration rate as reported by Kao et

  2. Current situation and problems of cancer-reproductive therapy from the standpoint of male reproductive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Takeshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Nishio, Koujiro; Arai, Manabu; Okada, Horoshi; Nozaki, Miwako; Kaji, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviewed the current situation and problems of cancer - reproductive therapy from the standpoint of male reproductive therapy. Common causes for male infertility include spermatogenic dysfunction, seminal duct dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. Causes of male infertility in cancer patients include the presence of cancer itself, as well as pathological conditions due to surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy for cancer, namely spermatogenic dysfunction, seminal duct dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) presents the risk classification of infertility due to anti-cancer drugs or radiotherapy. Cancer treating physicians evaluate infertility risk associated with treatment according to this risk classification and provide patients with information. If a patient wishes to preserve fertility, it is recommended in ASCO's fertility preservation guidelines to introduce the facilities that can store frozen sperm. Questionnaire surveys on sperm cryopreservation to blood physician show that the description of sperm cryopreservation is made at only about two-thirds of facilities and there is a problem that the systemization of cryopreservation has not progressed. The only way to acquire a baby in a patient who has undergone cancer treatment without cryopreservation and became permanent azoospermia is microscopic testis sperm collection and microinsemination. (A.O.)

  3. The current status and problems confronted in delivering precision medicine in Japan and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hideaki

    Precision medicine has been defined as "a predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory health care service delivery model." Today, developments in next-generation sequencing and information technology have made precision medicine possible, with massive amounts of genetic, "omics," clinical, environmental, and lifestyle data now available. Unfortunately, differences in governmental support and health care regulations have resulted in heterogeneous progress among countries. In Japan, for example, precision cancer screening and treatments are increasingly being promoted, with collaboration among research, governmental, and pharmaceutical agencies taking place in the nationwide SCRUM-Japan cancer genome screening project. The missions of SCRUM-Japan are to deliver the most appropriate therapeutic agents to the most suitable patients, and to play key roles in the development of multiplex diagnostic products and new indications for targeted therapy. Starting in February 2015 and ending in March 2017, the aim is to enroll 4750 patients with cancer (2350 patients with lung cancer and 2400 patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer). Compared with other developed countries, investments in scientific innovation for biomedical and omics research are matched or even surpassed in Europe, but regulatory differences in each countries are a major hurdle to rapid implementation. Although market approval for pharmaceuticals is centralized through the European Medicines Agency, access to health care is heterogeneously regulated at national levels, which undermines the consistency, comparability, and quality of precision medicine for cancer patients in Europe. In this review, we focus on the current progress of precision medicine in Japan and Europe, and clarify the differences in progress and the hurdles faced moving forward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High aspect ratio problem in simulation of a fault current limiter based on superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, A V; Coombs, T A

    2006-01-01

    We are offering a solution for the high-aspect-ratio problem relevant to the numerical simulation of AC loss in superconductors and metals with high aspect (width-to-thickness) ratio. This is particularly relevant to simulation of fault current limiters (FCLs) based on second generation YBCO tapes on RABiTS. By assuming a linear scaling of the electric and thermal properties with the size of the structure, we can replace the real sample with an effective sample of a reduced aspect ratio by introducing size multipliers into the equations that govern the physics of the system. The simulation is performed using both a proprietary equivalent circuit software and a commercial FEM software. The correctness of the procedure is verified by simulating temperature and current distributions for samples with all three dimensions varying within 10 -3 -10 3 of the original size. Qualitatively the distributions for the original and scaled samples are indistinguishable, whereas quantitative differences in the worst case do not exceed 10%

  5. High aspect ratio problem in simulation of a fault current limiter based on superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velichko, A V; Coombs, T A [Electrical Engineering Division, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    We are offering a solution for the high-aspect-ratio problem relevant to the numerical simulation of AC loss in superconductors and metals with high aspect (width-to-thickness) ratio. This is particularly relevant to simulation of fault current limiters (FCLs) based on second generation YBCO tapes on RABiTS. By assuming a linear scaling of the electric and thermal properties with the size of the structure, we can replace the real sample with an effective sample of a reduced aspect ratio by introducing size multipliers into the equations that govern the physics of the system. The simulation is performed using both a proprietary equivalent circuit software and a commercial FEM software. The correctness of the procedure is verified by simulating temperature and current distributions for samples with all three dimensions varying within 10{sup -3}-10{sup 3} of the original size. Qualitatively the distributions for the original and scaled samples are indistinguishable, whereas quantitative differences in the worst case do not exceed 10%.

  6. A study of some political problems considering current geographical analytical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Adolfo Dupuy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.

  7. Current identification in vacuum circuit breakers as a least squares problem*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzi Luca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a magnetostatic inverse problem is solved, in order to reconstruct the electric current distribution inside high voltage, vacuum circuit breakers from measurements of the outside magnetic field. The (rectangular final algebraic linear system is solved in the least square sense, by involving a regularized singular value decomposition of the system matrix. An approximated distribution of the electric current is thus returned, without the theoretical problem which is encountered with optical methods of matching light to temperature and finally to current density. The feasibility is justified from the computational point of view as the (industrial goal is to evaluate whether, or to what extent in terms of accuracy, a given experimental set-up (number and noise level of sensors is adequate to work as a “magnetic camera” for a given circuit breaker. Dans cet article, on résout un problème inverse magnétostatique pour déterminer la distribution du courant électrique dans le vide d’un disjoncteur à haute tension à partir des mesures du champ magnétique extérieur. Le système algébrique (rectangulaire final est résolu au sens des moindres carrés en faisant appel à une décomposition en valeurs singulières regularisée de la matrice du système. On obtient ainsi une approximation de la distribution du courant électrique sans le problème théorique propre des méthodes optiques qui est celui de relier la lumière à la température et donc à la densité du courant. La faisabilité est justifiée d’un point de vue numérique car le but (industriel est d’évaluer si, ou à quelle précision, un dispositif expérimental donné (nombre et seuil limite de bruit des senseurs peut travailler comme une “caméra magnétique” pour un certain disjoncteur.

  8. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement : Current Challenges Facing Research and Therapeutic Advances in Airway Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Y S; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud; Panettieri Jr., Reynold A; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Penn, Raymond B; Burgess, Janette K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling (AR) is a prominent feature of asthma and other obstructive lung diseases that is minimally affected by current treatments. The goals of this Official American Thoracic Society (ATS) Research Statement are to discuss the scientific, technological, economic, and

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND STRESS FACED BY SOLDIERS WHO OPERATE IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE ENVIRONMENTS: EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of anxiety, stress and psychological discomfort that can affect soldiers sent on asymmetric warfare operations. It is based on secondary analysis of the data of two important field researches whose results have recently (2013 been published. Although the two researches adopted different methodologies, the testimonies are fully comparable and show that soldiers from different countries and cultures display common or similar reactions when they are placed in the stress conditions that the asymmetric environment involves. The approach of the paper is drawn up in such a way as to make the reader a participating observer of the reality of such missions. It is therefore centered on the personal testimonies of the soldiers interviewed in the two researches, testimonies reported just as they are, in their simplicity and, often, drama, with comments by the author kept to a minimum in order to give readers ample opportunity to evaluate and interpret the reported texts on their own. The research data, drawn from the declarations of those directly concerned, reveal the existence of a problem of psychological distress resulting from deployment in asymmetric warfare situations that is in part different in the causes of the problems resulting from deployment in traditional combat and affects percentages of participating soldiers that are not high but definitely significant. The highest incidence appears to be constituted by problems relating to reintegration into normal social and working life upon returning from the mission. This is followed in percentage terms by anxiety situations relating to life far from the family, due in large part to a sense of powerlessness for the scant possibility of managing family situations that may have cropped up or already existed beforehand.

  10. Lecturers’ perception on students’ critical thinking skills development and problems faced by students in developing their critical thinking skills

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti Muh. Amin; Romi Adiansyah

    2018-01-01

    Critical thinking emerges when learners attempt to use their background knowledge to construct meaning through interpreting, analyzing, and manipulating information in responding to a problem or a question that requires more than a single correct answer. Two factors that affect the improvement of the students’ critical thinking skills are lecturers’ activities and students’ activities. This study was a descriptive quantitative study which aimed to investigate (1) how lecturers perceive the de...

  11. Economic evaluation of Internet-based problem-solving guided self-help treatment in comparison with enhanced usual care for depressed outpatients waiting for face-to-face treatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovos, Spyros; Kenter, Robin M F; Bosmans, Judith E; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Cuijpers, Pim; Kok, Robin N; van Straten, Annemieke

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for depression in comparison with usual care. However, evidence on the cost-effectiveness of these interventions when delivered in outpatient clinics is lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of an Internet-based problem-solving guided self-help intervention in comparison with enhanced usual care for outpatients on a waiting list for face-to-face treatment for major depression. After the waiting list period, participants from both groups received the same treatment at outpatient clinics. An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up. Outcomes were improvement in depressive symptom severity (measured by CES-D), response to treatment and Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs). Statistical uncertainty around cost differences and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated using bootstrapping. Mean societal costs for the intervention group were €1579 higher than in usual care, but this was not statistically significant (95% CI - 1395 to 4382). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the maximum probability of the intervention being cost-effective in comparison with usual care was 0.57 at a ceiling ratio of €15,000/additional point of improvement in CES-D, and 0.25 and 0.30 for an additional response to treatment and an extra QALY respectively, at a ceiling ratio of €30,000. Sensitivity analysis showed that from a mental healthcare provider perspective the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 0.68 for a ceiling ratio of 0 €/additional unit of effect for the CES-D score, response to treatment and QALYs. As the ceiling ratio increased this probability decreased, because the mean costs in the intervention group were lower than the mean costs in the usual care group. The patients in the intervention group showed low adherence to the Internet-based treatment

  12. What makes people decide who to turn to when faced with a mental health problem? Results from a French survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovess-Masféty Viviane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unequal use of mental health care is a great issue, even in countries with universal health coverage. Better knowledge of the factors that have an impact on the pathway to mental health care may be a great help for designing education campaigns and for best organizing health care delivery. The objective of this study is to explore the determinants of help-seeking intentions for mental health problems and which factors influence treatment opinions and the reliance on and compliance with health professionals' advice. Methods 441 adults aged 18 to 70 were randomly selected from the general population of two suburban districts near Paris and agreed to participate in the study (response rate = 60.4%. The 412 respondents with no mental health problems based on the CIDI-SF and the CAGE, who had not consulted for a mental health problem in the previous year, were asked in detail about their intentions to seek help in case of a psychological disorder and about their opinion of mental health treatments. The links between the respondents' characteristics and intentions and opinions were explored. Results More than half of the sample (57.8% would see their general practitioner (GP first and 46.6% would continue with their GP for follow-up. Mental health professionals were mentioned far less than GPs. People who would choose their GP first were older and less educated, whereas those who would favor mental health specialists had lower social support. For psychotherapy, respondents were split equally between seeing a GP, a psychiatrist or a psychologist. People were reluctant to take psychotropic drugs, but looked favorably on psychotherapy. Conclusion GPs are often the point of entry into the mental health care system and need to be supported. Public information campaigns about mental health care options and treatments are needed to educate the public, eliminate the stigma of mental illness and eliminate prejudices.

  13. The Multiple Faces of Interparental Conflict: Implications for Cascades of Children’s Insecurity and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T.; Hentges, Rochelle F.; Coe, Jesse L.; Martin, Meredith J.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2016-01-01

    This multi-study paper examined the relative strength of mediational pathways involving hostile, disengaged, and uncooperative forms of interparental conflict, children’s emotional insecurity, and their externalizing problems across two longitudinal studies. Participants in Study 1 consisted of 243 preschool children (M age = 4.60 years) and their parents, whereas Study 2 consisted of 263 adolescents (M age = 12.62 years) and their parents. Both studies utilized multi-method, multi-informant assessment batteries within a longitudinal design with three measurement occasions. Across both studies, lagged, autoregressive tests of the mediational paths revealed that interparental hostility was a significantly stronger predictor of the prospective cascade of children’s insecurity and externalizing problems than interparental disengagement and low levels of interparental cooperation. Findings further indicated that interparental disengagement was a stronger predictor of the insecurity pathway than was low interparental cooperation for the sample of adolescents in Study 2. Results are discussed in relation to how they inform and advance developmental models of family risk. PMID:27175983

  14. Sleep and Recovery in Team Sport: Current Sleep-Related Issues Facing Professional Team-Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim

    2015-11-01

    While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.

  15. Overview of the problems related to the impact of geomagnetic induced current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Vojin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs can cause a range of adverse consequences related to the normal functioning of a power system, e.g. the saturation of power transformers, unusual flows of active and reactive power, voltage fluctuations, the appearance of the third harmonic, a shift of power frequency and erroneous operation of the protection relay. In the worst case, the above mentioned malfunctions may result in thermal destruction of the power transformers and heavy damage of parts or even the entire national power system. The same effect is particularly pronounced in high-voltage power facilities, whose neutral is effectively grounded, as is the case with substations rated voltage of 110 kV (owned by PE EPS, or 220 kV and 400 kV (owned by Joint Stock Company EMS. This paper gives a short overview of the problems related to the presence of GIC and possible preventive actions aimed at countering the potential adverse consequences caused by GIC.

  16. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Syed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government’s initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  17. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Shah; Nor, Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad, Maisarah; Hashim, Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-05-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government's initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  18. The current situation of uranium resources exploration in East China: Problems, thought and countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaomei; Mao Mengcai

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyzing the current situation of uranium resources and exploration effort in East China, the main existing problems, technical thought and countermeasure for the future exploration in East China are discussed in this paper. The degree of both uranium exploration and study in East China is relatively high, philosophy of scientific mineral-prospecting should be established in the new round of mineral prospecting. Under guidance of metallogenic theory of large mineralization cluster area and uranium metallogenic theory of multi-sources, previous data and research achievement should be analyzed and summarized. With the help of metallogenic model, useful methods and means should be applied to set up exploration model in order to realize news phase of model exploration, comprehensive exploration, 3D exploration and quantitative exploration. Efficiency of exploration of uranium resources should be strugglingly increased. High profitable uranium resources will be actively found with rich, shallow, near and easy features. The prospecting targets and strategy reserves of uranium resources will be increased in East China. (authors)

  19. Additional Insights Into Problem Definition and Positioning From Social Science Comment on "Four Challenges That Global Health Networks Face".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quissell, Kathryn

    2017-09-10

    Commenting on a recent editorial in this journal which presented four challenges global health networks will have to tackle to be effective, this essay discusses why this type of analysis is important for global health scholars and practitioners, and why it is worth understanding and critically engaging with the complexities behind these challenges. Focusing on the topics of problem definition and positioning, I outline additional insights from social science theory to demonstrate how networks and network researchers can evaluate these processes, and how these processes contribute to better organizing, advocacy, and public health outcomes. This essay also raises multiple questions regarding these processes for future research. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  20. Australia is Facing a HousingAffordability Crisis: Is the Solution to this Problem the Singapore Model of Housing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McLaren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia is pricing young buyers out of the housing market. Unfortunately, debt-free home ownership in the retirement years is a key part of the Australian welfare system. This paper provides one possible solution to the current housing predicament of Australia. In doing so, the paper examines the housing strategy in Singapore, where residents are provided with accommodation at a reasonable cost. This strategy is examined and translated for use in Australia. In conclusion the paper proposes that the Singapore model of home ownership is worthy of consideration by the government of Australia.

  1. Enfrentamento de problemas conceituais e de planejamento ao final da formação inicial Facing conceptual and planning problems at the end of initial training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Rogério Vargas Ustra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentase uma reflexão sobre o processo de enfrentamento de problemas por futuros professores de Física, no período de estágio supervisionado, a partir de modelos construídos numa pesquisa desenvolvida junto a um grupo de professores em formação continuada. A atuação em grupo também foi preferida pelos estagiários para enfrentar problemas relacionados ao planejamento didático e de ordem conceitual. Os professores, quanto aos problemas conceituais, são mais persistentes ao tentarem resolvê-los, o que está associado ao contexto próprio de sua atuação, distinto daquele dos estagiários. O engajamento dos estagiários no enfrentamento de problemas genuínos associados ao planejamento, à semelhança do que ocorreu no grupo de professores, representou um processo importante para a construção do conhecimento profissional, individual e coletivo. As contribuições do trabalho apontam para o fortalecimento das disciplinas de práticas de ensino na formação inicial e sugerem atividades para a formação continuada.This article presents a discussion about the process of facing problems experienced by future teachers of physics in the period of supervised probation, from models found among a group of teachers in continuing training. The action group was also in method most used by the trainees to face problems related to didactic planning and conceptual order. Teachers when confronted with conceptual problems are more persistent when trying to solve them than the trainees; this is linked to the context itself. The engagement of trainees in facing genuine problems related to planning, as it occurred in the group of teachers, represented an important process for the construction of professional knowledge, individually and collectively. The contributions of this work strengthen the disciplines of teaching practices in initial education and suggest activities for the continuing training of teachers.

  2. Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  3. O expressionismo de Erwartung diante do problema do fetichismo musical Erwartung's expressionism facing the problem of musical fetishism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Curimbaba Freitas

    2013-06-01

    Erwartung, showing that the problem of convention, objectivism and fetishism still remains in a piece which leads the radicalization of expression through denial of convention to the ultimate consequences.

  4. [POSTRESUSCITATION CICATRICIAL TRACHEAL STENOSIS. CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM - THE SUCCESSES, THE HOPES AND DISAPPOINTMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, V D; Vyzhigina, M A; Rusakov, M A; Parshin, V V; Titov, V A; Starostin, A V

    2016-09-01

    , the principle of "every patient his own version of operation" allows to minimize the risk oftreatment and to get a good lasting result. Proof of such provision may be the fact that the frequency of complications and postoperative mortality at our patients have had a tendency to decrease and currently stands at 12.9 and 0.7 %, respectively for many years. It is 2.3 and 9.6 times less, respectively, than in the periodfrom 1963 to 2000. It appears that further reduction of these indicators will be at a slower pace, afurther solution of the CTS problem will be based on the prevention of disease. Prevention of cicatricial tracheal stenosis in the departments of reanimation and intensive care is currently inadequate. It requires fundamentally new approaches, but reform still has not brought the desired results. Diagnosis of the CTS at an early stage allows early treatment and to avoid complex and risky operations. Increasingly important, apart tracheoscopy for diagnosis of tracheomalacia purchase dynamic computed tomography and magnetic resonance - tomography. Treatment ofpatients with CTS requires a multidisciplinary approach, individual selection operations for a particular patient. The general trend of the further development of tracheal surgery is associated with an increase in the number of simultaneous resections, including at the long, two-level stenosis, as well as at relapse. The patients who had refused treatment or have elected him palliative options made possible surgery. The frequency of postoperative comnlications and mortality decreased significantiv, including after extensive and traumatic operations on the trachea.

  5. Problem of construction of the operator of the electromagnetic current of a nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchin, A.Y.; Shebeko, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The idea of R. G. Sachs [Phys. Rev. 74, 433 (1948)] in the phenomenological theory of exchange currents in nuclei is developed to obtain an expression for the Hamiltonian of a nucleus. An expression is obtained for the current which has the same isospin structure as the pion and seagull currents in the theory of meson exchange currents. Sachs' result follows for the case of point nucleons

  6. Use of the internet in international emergency management: current problems and possible improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Internet has during the last decade grown rapidly to become one of the main tools for exchanging information in a modern society. This has been in parallel with similar growth in communication technology, providing both wired and wireless high capacity communication channels. Many special applications and services have been developed making use of the new technology. International emergency management is however currently only making use of a part of the possibilities the internet can offer. This is due to lack of co-operation, harmonization and not using recent standards for information exchange. This problem can be solved simply by more co-operation and active use of modern standards. The problem for international emergency management arises from the wide variety of users and their needs. On one hand there are users in countries with nuclear power plants and sophisticated decision support systems, on the other hand there are countries without nuclear reactors within or near their boarders. The latter may not be able to justify developing or setting up complex decision support systems, but in most cases they would want to be able to make use of internationally distributed information in some efficient way. Many of the sophisticated web based applications have been excellently tailored for the needs of the owners, but are often less suitable for others. Some of the typical problems are: too large files, integration of content and layout information in one file, device and web browser specific solutions, inconsistent structure. The HTML language traditionally used for web pages has tags to identify different types of information. But modern HTML web pages are generally loaded with nonstandard device specific formatting instructions. Having two web pages that look the same does not mean that the underlying code is the same. The author conducted a test a couple of years ago where commercial software was used to transform web pages from a few emergency

  7. Parents facing school violence problem. Los padres frente al fenómeno de la violencia escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª del Carmen Pérez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    It is important to emphasize the role that parents play in their children development process together with their involvement in the emerging antisocial behaviors. That is the reason why parents have been considered, in all researches, as one of the involved agents in school violence, together with teachers and students themselves. From this fact, we can gather that it will be significant to know parents’ opinion on the different questions related to school violence. For this purpose, this research analyses parents’ opinion regarding questions related to school violence such as: the origin, the current situation, the role performed by their own children (aggressors, victims or observers and the people needed to get involved to eliminate this type of behaviors. In order to make this research, we have used the “Predicting factors of school violence Questionnaire for parents” in a sample of 414 fathers/mothers/guardians between 23 and 60 years old; an average age of 41,8 years (DT=5,9. The results show that the majority of parents point out that school violence has risen regarding when they were children. Parents also add that school violence is rising year after year highlighting the social context of the individual as main field which influences in its etiology and considering as necessary the joined intervention of parents and teachers. Parents consider their intervention as more important than teacher’s intervention or parents and teachers joined intervention.

    Keyword: School violence, parents, origin, intervention, prevalence.

    Es importante hacer hincapié en el papel que los padres poseen en el proceso de desarrollo de sus hijos así como su implicación en la emergencia de conductas antisociales. De ahí que sean considerados, en todos los estudios como uno de los agentes implicados en la violencia escolar, junto con los docentes y los propios alumnos. De ello, se desprende que también será significativo conocer

  8. A current value Hamiltonian Approach for Discrete time Optimal Control Problems arising in Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Rehana

    2018-01-01

    Pontrygin-type maximum principle is extended for the present value Hamiltonian systems and current value Hamiltonian systems of nonlinear difference equations for uniform time step $h$. A new method termed as a discrete time current value Hamiltonian method is established for the construction of first integrals for current value Hamiltonian systems of ordinary difference equations arising in Economic growth theory.

  9. Courses for tutors in problem-based learning. Current challenges at four Swedish universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Susan Setterud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The key role of the tutor in problem-based learning (PBL is to help students become selfregulated learners. Tutors need training to acquire the necessary facilitating skills for this task. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how PBL tutor training is currently arranged at four universities in Sweden: Linköping University, Lund Medical Faculty, Uppsala Medical School and Örebro School of Medicine. Moreover, we seek to analyse how the content and format of the tutor training courses correspond to the desired skills and competencies for PBL tutors described in the literature. We draw especially on work coming out of three pioneering universities for PBL: McMaster University, Canada; Maastricht University, The Netherlands; and Linköping University, Sweden. One aim has been to construct a framework for analysis that uses categories specifying the knowledge base, capabilities and skills to support students’ learning processes which characterise the full-fledged PBL tutor. For this framework, we have used the following categories: Knowledge of PBL and pedagogical theories, Personal traits, Student-centeredness, Ability to handle group processes, and Subject knowledge. We collected descriptions of the course design and content from the four universities, and assessed to what extent these categories were represented within the courses. Our results show that all categories inform the course content at all four universities, though the design varies between courses. In summary, we show that the four PBL tutor training courses are all designed to enable participants to experience PBL first-hand both as members of a tutorial group and as tutors. They all also include a theoretical base and offer opportunities for discussion and reflection with peers; however, there are some differences in design between the courses. According to participants, all four courses provide good preparation for the tutor role. Yet, we see a need for the

  10. Buzz: Face-to-Face Contact and the Urban Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Storper; Anthony J. Venables

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...

  11. Current problems of teaching spelling in the first cycle of Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Valcárcel González

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents from the theoretical point of view the spelling problem as one of the main difficulties that there is in Primary Education and in which teachers intensively work searching for solutions.

  12. THE POTENTIAL OF APPLYING UTILITARIANISM IN BUSINESS ETHICS: THE CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ларионов, Larionov Igor, Игорь Юрьевич

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the use of utilitarianism in contemporary business ethics is described and the conditions under which it could be applied in business ethics most effectively are identified. In order to provide the conditions for its application the scope of problems that should be taken into account and solved are identified. The types of rationality in utilitarian ethics and utilitarian approach to the role of moral subject are also analyzed. Along with that the problem of moral motivation in...

  13. Stigma, Subsistence, Intimacy, Face, Filial Piety, and Mental Health Problems Among Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex With Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haochu Howard; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    High rates of mental health problems among people living with HIV (PLWH) have been widely reported in the literature; however, an understanding of the socioecological contexts of these presentations remains limited, particularly in China. In order to explore potential socioecological factors associated with mental health problems among newly diagnosed HIV-infected migrant men who have sex with men (MSM), we employed a life profile approach conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews with 31 newly diagnosed HIV-infected MSM residing in a city in Southern China. Participants' life profile accounts outlined their concerns, including internalized stigma, subsistence living, difficulties finding a lover or a stable partner, loss of face, and deviation from filial piety. We contend that targeted interventions should address socio-ecological issues such as migrant adversities, social suffering, and cultural trauma when providing culturally based mental health services for this marginalized population within the context of Chinese society. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Informing future research priorities into the psychological and social problems faced by cancer survivors: a rapid review and synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, N; Scott, I; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Brearley, S; Hodges, L; Richardson, A; Sharpe, M; Stamataki, Z; Stark, D; Siller, C; Ziegler, L; Foster, C

    2013-10-01

    To establish what is known regarding the psychological and social problems faced by adult cancer survivors (people who are living with and beyond a diagnosis of cancer) and identify areas future research should address. A rapid search of published literature reviews held in electronic data bases was under taken. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, and removal of duplicated papers, reduced the initial number of papers from 4051 to 38. Twenty-two review papers were excluded on grounds of quality and 16 review papers were selected for appraisal. The psychological and social problems for cancer survivors are identified as depression, anxiety, distress, fear of recurrence, social support/function, relationships and impact on family, and quality of life. A substantial minority of people surviving cancer experience depression, anxiety, and distress or fear associated with recurrence or follow up. There is some indication that social support is positively associated with better outcomes. Quality of life for survivors of cancer appears generally good for most people, but an important minority experience a reduction in quality of life, especially those with more advanced disease and reduced social and economic resources. The majority of research knowledge is based on women with breast cancer. The longer term implications of cancer survival have not been adequately explored. Focussing well designed research in the identified areas where less is already known about the psychological and social impact of cancer survival is likely to have the greatest impact on the wellbeing of people surviving cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-view Face Detection Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Farfade, Sachin Sudhakar; Saberian, Mohammad; Li, Li-Jia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of multi-view face detection. While there has been significant research on this problem, current state-of-the-art approaches for this task require annotation of facial landmarks, e.g. TSM [25], or annotation of face poses [28, 22]. They also require training dozens of models to fully capture faces in all orientations, e.g. 22 models in HeadHunter method [22]. In this paper we propose Deep Dense Face Detector (DDFD), a method that does not require pose/lan...

  16. Petroleum industry's current progress and challenges in dealing with the year 2000 problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, D.I.; Radu, C.G.; McKenzie, S.; Stuart, K.

    1998-01-01

    The steps that some major oil companies in Canada have taken to prepare their computers and automated equipment for the year 2000 (Y2K) are described. It is acknowledged that with 1700 retail service stations, over 300 wholesale operations, and 26 terminals, the extent of the problem is great. In addition some 38 upstream and 65 downstream applications have been identified as mission critical, not counting the 30 mission critical control systems in the upstream field operations and approximately the same number of operations in the downstream refinery. The good news is that remediation and testing is well underway nationally and the Calgary test laboratory will be commercially available in 1999. Getting management on-side, selling the positive aspects of Y2K, making good use of reputable consulting companies, keeping employees properly informed of problems and progress, are some of the key criteria in solving Y2K problems successfully

  17. Current ethical and other problems in the practice of African traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omonzejele, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Medicine in Africa is regarded as possessing its own "life force", not just using a system of prescribing. This is because health problems are not only attributed to pathological explanations alone, but also to other "forces". Hence, traditional healers utter incantations to take care of negative forces which militate against achieving cure. Treatment in African traditional medicine (ATM) is holistic. It seeks to strike a balance between the patients' body, soul and spirit. The problems arise from the infiltration of charlatans into the field, the practice of using mystical explanations for ill-health, and inadequate knowledge of the properties and clinical use of herbal remedies. Despite its problems, ATM can work in parallel with orthodox medicine using its strengths rather than its weaknesses. ATM has to be applied within a uniform ethical system. Practitioners of ATM must follow the principles of autonomy and confidentiality.

  18. Sausage instabilities in electron current channels and the problem of fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.

    2002-01-01

    In the fast ignition concept of laser fusion, an intense picosecond laser pulse incident on an overdense pellet is absorbed by nonlinear mechanisms and gets converted into inward propagating fast electron currents. PIC simulations show that the return shielding currents due to cold plasma interact with the incoming currents and intense Weibel, tearing and coalescence instabilities take place, which organize the current into a few current channels. The stability of these current channels is thus a topic of great interest. We have carried out linear and nonlinear studies of 2 - dimensional sausage instabilities of a slab model of the current channels in the framework of electron magnetohydrodynamic fluid approximation. The analytic calculations and numerical simulations for some simple velocity profiles show the presence of linear instability driven by velocity shear. Nonlinear studies on the saturation of instabilities and their reaction back on the relaxation of the velocity profile have also been made. A discussion of the consequences of such EMHD turbulence induced relaxation and stopping of fast electrons, for the fast ignition concept will be presented. (author)

  19. A novel finite element method for moving conductor eddy current problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Eastham, A.R.; Dawson, G.E. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    A novel finite element method, as an alternative to upwinding, is proposed based on the elimination of the factors which could cause numerical oscillation and instability by properly choosing a set of unconventional weighting functions. The proposed method is first developed and verified for a one dimensional case and then extended to two dimensional problems. The calculation results for a 2D problem, along with the exact solutions and those obtained from Galerkin's and ''optimal'' upwinding methods, show that the proposed method is superior to the other two methods in terms of accuracy and freedom from oscillation.

  20. Perturbation-polynomial expansion formulation of 3-D eddy current problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.

    1977-01-01

    A pulsed magnetic field is required in Tokamak fusion machines. Eddy currents produced by the pulsed field may produce undesirable effects, e.g., in the mechanical loading of the vacuum vessel, heating in the magnet and structure, and field ripple in the plasma region. A method has been developed earlier to calculate the eddy current produced in a thin object by the linear ramping of a magnetic dipole. We report here extension of the method to calculate the eddy current induced in three-dimensional objects and by pulse coils of general shape. Examples are given

  1. The current situation and related problems of percutaneous vertebroplasty in clinical treatment of osteoporosis vertebral compression fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luchang; Wu Chungen; Cheng Yongde

    2011-01-01

    As an effective, safe and less-invasive technique in interventional radiology, percutaneous vertebroplasty has satisfactory therapeutic results with fewer complications in treating osteoporosis vertebral compression fracture. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review of the current situation and related problems of percutaneous vertebroplasty in clinical treatment of osteoporosis vertebral compression fracture. (authors)

  2. Collaborative problem structuring using MARVEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, G.A.; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Logtens, T.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    When faced with wicked and messy problems, practitioners can rely on a variety of problem structuring methods (PSMs). Although previous efforts have been made to combine such methods with simulation, currently, few exist that integrate a simulation capability within problem structuring. Our

  3. Bully/Victim Problems among Preschool Children: A Review of Current Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Maria; Andreou, Eleni; Botsoglou, Kafenia; Didaskalou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with negative short- and long-term effects on children's psychosocial adjustment (Smith 1999; Ttofi and Farrington, "Aggressive Behav" 34(4):352-368, 2008). Entering kindergarten is a crucial developmental step in many children's lives mainly because it…

  4. Presymplectic current and the inverse problem of the calculus of variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khavkine, I.

    2013-01-01

    The inverse problem of the calculus of variations asks whether a given system of partial differential equations (PDEs) admits a variational formulation. We show that the existence of a presymplectic form in the variational bicomplex, when horizontally closed on solutions, allows us to construct a

  5. Self-Monitoring Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; McDaniel, Sara; Kreigh, Christi

    2015-01-01

    Explicitly teaching skills associated with self-determination has been promoted to support students' independence and control over their own lives. This is especially important for students with behavior problems. One self-determination skill or behavior that has been studied widely is self-monitoring. Although multiple reviews of various…

  6. Stroke care in Central Eastern Europe: current problems and call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Laura; Brainin, Michael; Titianova, Ekaterina; Morovic, Sandra; Demarin, Vida; Kalvach, Pavel; Skoloudik, David; Kobayashi, Adam; Czlonkowska, Anna; Muresanu, Dafin F; Shekhovtsova, Ksenia; Skvortsova, Veronica I; Sternic, Nadezda; Beslac Bumbasirevic, Ljiljana; Svigelj, Viktor; Turcani, Peter; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2013-07-01

    Stroke is a major medical problem and one of the leading causes of mortality and disability all over in Europe. However, there are significant East-West differences in stroke care as well as in stroke mortality and morbidity rates. Central and Eastern European countries that formerly had centralized and socialist health care systems have serious and similar problems in organizing health and stroke care 20 years after the political transition. In Central and Eastern Europe, stroke is more frequent, the mortality rate is higher, and the victims are younger than in Western Europe. High-risk patients live in worse environmental conditions, and the socioeconomic consequences of stroke further weaken the economic development of these countries. To address these issues, a round table conference was organized. The main aim of this conference was to discuss problems to be solved related to acute and chronic stroke care in Central and Eastern European countries, and also, to exchange ideas on possible solutions. In this article, the discussed problems and possible solutions will be summarized, and introduce 'The Budapest Statement of Stroke Experts of Central and Eastern European countries'. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  7. Current Situation, Problems and Solution Proposals of Kiwi Producer Associations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal SIRAY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Producer associations have an important role in adoption and implementation of new agricultural technologies. In Turkey, associations have contributed significantly to increase of kiwi production and its consumption in recent years. The most important function of kiwi producer associations is to assist their members in marketing of products as well as to try to provide solutions to problems related to kiwi production techniques. The data of this research was obtained from the 12 kiwi producer associations. According to the research results, the most important problem of kiwi producer associations is having financial difficulties. The associations, getting 79.4% of their incomes from the subscriptions, are unable to sufficiently perform their duties due to their limited budgets. The associations have indicated that the main problems in kiwi production are lack of knowledge for production techniques and qualified technical staff. There is no marketing problem of the product due to adequate domestic demand. But, the products should be disposed immediately due to lack of cold storage facilities and they are not sold at desired price.

  8. Convolutional neural networks and face recognition task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochenkova, A.; Sochenkov, I.; Makovetskii, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2017-09-01

    Computer vision tasks are remaining very important for the last couple of years. One of the most complicated problems in computer vision is face recognition that could be used in security systems to provide safety and to identify person among the others. There is a variety of different approaches to solve this task, but there is still no universal solution that would give adequate results in some cases. Current paper presents following approach. Firstly, we extract an area containing face, then we use Canny edge detector. On the next stage we use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to finally solve face recognition and person identification task.

  9. Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

  10. Face to Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leckey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artículo utiliza la teoría Queer, más concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislación propuesta en Quebec en relación al velo. La teoría Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carácter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prácticas sociales; legislación frente a estado; mayoría versus minoría; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradicción no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace más fuerte y más ágil.

  11. The Effect of Postpartum Depression and Current Mental Health Problems of the Mother on Child Behaviour at Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa-Monasterolo, R; Gispert-Llaurado, M; Canals, J; Luque, V; Zaragoza-Jordana, M; Koletzko, B; Grote, V; Weber, M; Gruszfeld, D; Szott, K; Verduci, E; ReDionigi, A; Hoyos, J; Brasselle, G; Escribano Subías, J

    2017-07-01

    Background Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) could affect children's emotional development, increasing later risk of child psychological problems. The aim of our study was to assess the association between child's emotional and behavioural problems and mother's PPD, considering maternal current mental health problems (CMP). Methods This is a secondary analysis from the EU-Childhood Obesity Project (NCT00338689). Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at, 2, 3 and 6 months after delivery and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to assess CMP once the children reached the age of 8 years. EPDS scores > 10 were defined as PPD and GHQ-12 scores > 2 were defined as CMP. The psychological problems of the children at the age of eight were collected by mothers through the Child's Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results 473, 474 and 459 mothers filled in GHQ-12 and CBCL tests at 8 years and EPDS at 2, 3 and 6 months, respectively. Anxiety and depression was significantly increased by maternal EPDS. Children whose mothers had both PPD and CMP exhibited the highest levels of psychological problems, followed by those whose mothers who had only CMP and only PPD. PPD and CMP had a significant effect on child's total psychological problems (p = 0.033, p mothers had PPD did not differ from children whose mothers did not have any depression. Conclusions Maternal postpartum depression and current mental health problems, separately and synergistically, increase children's psychological problems at 8 years.

  12. Face to Face

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5 ... email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or 'academy.ias.ernet.in') to 'ias.ac.in'.

  13. Existing contradictions and problems in China's current economic and social development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tongsan

    2014-01-01

    Since the 18th National Congress of Communist Party of China (CPC),China has made important achievements and headway in economic and social development.However,now more than ever the focus should be on the conflicts and problems that continue to exist in China's economy.This paper examines six of them:(1) lack of a firm foundation for sustaining steady economic growth;(2) risks and hidden dangers in the financial,banking,and real estate sectors and massive overcapacity in some industries;(3) increasing difficulty in increasing agricultural production and raising rural incomes;(4) severe air,water,and soil pollution in certain regions and the arduous task of energy conservation and emissions reduction;(5) major structural problems constraining employment;and (6) issues of people's livelihood that have been the source of dissatisfaction for many Chinese citizens.

  14. Psychoeducational Services for Children and Youth in the Orient: Current Status, Problems, and some Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, T; Hu, S

    1989-01-01

    Utilizing information obtained through an international survey and existing literature, patterns in the practices, research, and preparation of professionals who deliver psychoeducational services to children and youth in six Oriental countries (i.e., China, Hong Kong(1), Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand) are described. Services are provided by many professional groups. While few formal programs exist for the preparation of psychologists to work in schools, those providing such services have at least a bachelor's degree. Services commonly provided include assessment, vocational and educational guidance, counseling, parent education, and teaching. School psychological services generally are not governed by legislation or professional standards. Research tends to be applied and directed toward the construction and translations of tests and toward the needs of the mentally retarded, learning disabled, and behaviorally disordered. Ten major problems creating barriers for the delivery of psychoeducational services are identified. Three suggestions to help resolve these problems are offered.

  15. Two-dimensional effects in the problem of tearing modes control by electron cyclotron current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comisso, L.; Lazzaro, E.

    2010-01-01

    The design of means to counteract robustly the classical and neoclassical tearing modes in a tokamak by localized injection of an external control current requires an ever growing understanding of the physical process, beyond the Rutherford-type zero-dimensional models. Here a set of extended magnetohydrodynamic nonlinear equations for four continuum fields is used to investigate the two-dimensional effects in the response of the reconnecting modes to specific inputs of the localized external current. New information is gained on the space- and time-dependent effects of the external action on the two-dimensional structure of magnetic islands, which is very important to formulate applicable control strategies.

  16. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in camelids: old problems, current solutions and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J; Bezos, J; Juan, L de; Vordermeier, M; Rodriguez, S; Fernandez-de-Mera, I G; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L

    2012-02-01

    In spite of great efforts for its control and eradication, tuberculosis remains one of the most important zoonosis worldwide. Its causative agents, the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, have a wide host range that complicates the epidemiology of this disease. Among susceptible species to these pathogens, camelids from the New World (llama, alpaca and vicuña) and Old World (Bactrian camel and dromedary) are acquiring an increasing importance in several European countries because of its growing number and could act as reservoirs of the disease for livestock and humans in their natural habitat. In addition, tuberculosis caused by a number of M. tuberculosis complex members is a life-threatening disease in these animal species. Although tuberculosis has been known to affect camelids for a long time, ante-mortem diagnosis is still challenging because of the lack of standardized diagnostic techniques and the limited sensitivity and specificity of the most widely applied tests. However, in recent years, several techniques that can at least partially overcome these limitations have been developed. This paper reviews the results and advances achieved in tuberculosis diagnosis in camelids in the last decade as well as the progresses on ongoing investigations, with special attention to the remaining challenges that still have to be faced to assure the availability of reliable tools for the detection of tuberculosis-infected animals and herds. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Measuring External Face Appearance for Face Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, David; Lapedriza, Agata; Vitria, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the importance of the external features in face classification problems, and propose a methodology to extract the external features obtaining an aligned feature set. The extracted features can be used as input to any standard pattern recognition classifier, as the classic feature extraction approaches dealing with internal face regions in the literature. The resulting scheme follows a top-down segmentation approach to deal with the diversity inherent to the extern...

  18. Eddy current imaging. Limits of the born approximation and advantages of an exact solution to the inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamman, E.; Zorgati, R.

    1995-01-01

    Eddy current non-destructive testing is used by EDF to detect flaws affecting conductive objects such as steam generator tubes. With a view to obtaining ever more accurate information on equipment integrity, thereby facilitating diagnosis, studies aimed at using measurements to reconstruct an image of the flaw have been proceeding now for about ten years. In this context, our approach to eddy current imaging is based on inverse problem formalism. The direct problem, involving a mathematical model linking measurements provided by a probe with variables characterizing the defect, is dealt with elsewhere. Using the model results, we study the possibility of inverting it, i.e. of reconstructing an image of the flaw from the measurements. We first give an overview of the different inversion techniques, representative of the state of the art and all based on linearization of the inverse problem by means of the Born approximation. The model error resulting from an excessive Born approximation nevertheless severely limits the quantity of the images which can be obtained. In order to counteract this often critical error and extend the eddy current imaging application field, we have to del with the non-linear inverse problem. A method derived from recent research is proposed and implemented to ensure consistency with the exact model. Based on an 'optimization' type approach and provided with a convergence theorem, the method is highly efficient. (authors). 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 append

  19. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  20. Adaptation of eddy current methods to the multiple problems of reactor testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumm, W.

    1975-01-01

    In reactor testing, the eddy current method is mainly used for the testing of surface regions inside the pressure vessel, on welds and joints, and for the testing of thin-walled pipes, e.g. the heat exchanger pipes. (RW/AK) [de

  1. A Synthesis of Language Learning Strategies: Current Issues, Problems and Claims Made in Learner Strategy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjesteh, Hamed; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Vaseghi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presented theoretical assumptions behind language learning strategies (LLS) and an overview of methods used to identify learners' strategies, first, and then summarized what have been reported from large number of descriptive studies of strategies by language learners. Moreover, the paper tried to present the variety of…

  2. Monitoring of radioactive ferrous scarp and products, current practices and regulatory problems in North-Eastern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbina, V.; Bianco, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive scrap metal is a major source of concern among the steel industries of northeastern Italy, since most of the scrap supply comes from east-European countries and may originate from dismantled nuclear installations or dismissed radioactive devices. In this respect reliable monitoring procedures and consistent regulations are essential to face the many economic, legal and safety problems involved in the control and management of radioactive scrap and products. The authors describe the monitoring methods developed in more than two years practice at the steel works Ferriere Nord, Osoppo UD, Italy, as a realistic compromise between reliability, radiation protection and cost. They also discuss the drawbacks sometimes due to the lack of coherent monitoring protocols and exemption levels in Italian regulations, which leave some ways out for the uncontrolled recycling of radioactive metal scrap. (author)

  3. Survey of the Economic Efficiency of Agricultural Cooperatives in the Buinzahra City and Prioritization of Their Problems Faced in the Management Process and the Marketing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Mozaffari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study Stochastic Data Envelopment Analysis method was used in order to estimate the economic efficiency of agricultural cooperatives in the Buinzahra city. Moreover, the Analytical Hierarchy Process method and Entropy criteria were used in order to prioritizate the agricultural cooperatives problems of this city in management and marketing system. The required dates were related to the years 2012-2013 during which data were collected by interviewing and completing questionnaires for 43 members of the cooperatives. The Random Sampling method and the Cochran formula were used to determine the sample size and from the Cronbach's Alpha method was used in order to evaluate the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The results showed that the random efficiency average of agricultural cooperatives in Buinzahra city is at the low level (79 Percent and animal husbandry units have the lowest level of the efficiency. Also the results showed that inappropriate policies in the pricing and price volatility of agricultural products, the low level of services of packaging, processing, marketing and distribution of the products and the lack of long-term comprehensive planning by managers have the first, second and third ranks in the inefficiency of the management process and the marketing system of cooperatives in the study area respectively. Finally, the site locating studies before the establishment of cooperatives, providing funding and loans with low interest rates to animal husbandry units, transferring the experiences and expertise of successful cooperatives to inefficient cooperatives and strengthening and supporting the marketing system in order to resolve the problems facing the agricultural cooperatives of city Buinzahra were proposed based on the results obtained.

  4. [Current situations and problem analysis of influencing factors of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on forming quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Nian; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Wan, Na; Li, Yuan-Hui; Li, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming

    2018-04-01

    The compressibility of tablets is the essential operating unit during the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, as well as a complicated process. Therefore, it is of great significance to comprehensively study the influencing factors on the formation process. This paper aimed to review the evaluation methods for the tablet forming quality and highlight the effects of material powder properties, excipients and preparation technology on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on the basis of relevant literatures. Furthermore, the common problems in tablet forming process are also analyzed to provide useful references for the development of tablet forming quality of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Current challenges and problems in teaching pathophysiology in Ukraine - another reaction to Churilov's paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman, Oleksandr V

    2017-12-01

    Pathophysiology in Ukraine has rich traditions and achievements in the scientific areas, as well as in teaching academic discipline. Its history, the main Ukrainian scientific schools and their famous representatives are briefly described. The content of existing study program, the main approaches to teaching, and some methodological and organizational problems needed to be solved are characterized. The necessity and usefulness of developing and implementing the three separate courses of discipline (Essential, Clinical and Advanced Pathophysiology) are substantiated. The place of Pathophysiology in the training of physicians with different kinds of their future activity is discussed. Relation of teaching Pathophysiology to Translational and Personalized Medicine is tried to be shown.

  6. TREATMENT OF ULCER GASTRODUODENAL BLEEDINGS: CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM (A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Antonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The problem of ulcer gastro-duodenal bleeding therapy is one of the most essential in urgent surgery. The bleeding is the most serious complication of peptic ulcer desease. It is observed in 15– 20% cases when patients have peptic ulcer diagnosis determined. In general the issues of bleeding therapy in gastroduodenal sphere are surveyed imperfectly. Some patulous endoscopic hemostasis methods don’t fully meet safety and confidence reqirements that preserves high level of general and post-operational lethality in our country and in the rest of the world. 

  7. Effects of waves and currents on the siltation problem of Damietta harbour, Nile Delta coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABO BAKER.I. ABO ZED

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of prevailing dynamic factors on the sedimentation process in Damietta Harbour along the Nile delta coast of Egypt. The monitoring program spanned the period between 1978 and 1999 and included measurements of waves, currents and bathymetric profiles. The evaluation was based on determination of erosion and accretion rates, current regime, sediment transport, wave characteristics and wave refraction. Results revealed that the predominant wave direction from N-NW sector (86 % throughout the year is responsible for generation of a longshore eastward current. Less frequent waves from the N-NE sector generate an opposing longshore westward current. The refraction pattern for the prevailing wave direction indicates that the harbour and its navigation channel are located within a divergence of wave orthogonal and in an accretion sediment sink area. The annual net rate of littoral drift on the western side of the harbour is about 1.43 * 105 m3 (accretion, while the annual net rate of littoral drift on the eastern side is about 2.54 * 105 m3 (erosion. Currents fluctuate tremendously in speed and direction, especially during the winter months. Hence, sediment transport takes place in offshore, eastward, and onshore directions. Progressive vector diagrams show that the largest near bottom offshore, onshore and easterly net drift occurs during summer, spring and winter respectively. The onshore sediment transport generated during spring and summer plays an important role in the redistribution of eroded sediments during the winter. The overall study of dynamic factors indicated that the harbour site is characterized by eastern, western, offshore and onshore sediment movements. Therefore, the north-south orientation of the navigation channel, with its depth greater than the surrounding area, interrupts sediment drift from different directions and reduces the current speed. Consequently, the sediments sink within the navigation

  8. [Problems of work world and its impact on health. Current financial crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasina, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Health and work are complex processes. Besides, they are multiple considering the forms they take. These two processes are linked to each other and they are influenced by each other. According to this, it is possible to establish that work world is extremely complex and heterogeneous. In this world, "old" or traditional risks coexist with "modern risks", derived from the new models of work organization and the incorporation of new technologies. Unemployment, work relationships precariousness and work risks outsourcing are results of neoliberal strategies. Some negative results of health-sickness process derived from transformation in work world and current global economic crisis have been noticed in current work conditions. Finally, the need for reconstructing policies focusing on this situation derived from work world is suggested.

  9. Problems of software financial resources agrarian sector in the current economic conditions of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grischuk Nadiya Viktorivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of financial science on questions providing of financial resources does not exhaust and needs a further study that acquires new descriptions and vectors of development constantly, what costing illuminations in the conditions of present time. Research of the state of provision of financial resources agrarian to the sector of economy with allocating of main segment – loan and attracted financial resources, today topically. In the article the essence funds are considered sources of agricultural enterprises financial resources and problems associated with the formation and use of financial resources in the modern world. Also the problems arising in improving the process of raising funds agricultural enterprises. Revealed that an effective tool to attract financial resources is the issue of convertible bonds and the introduction of agricultural receipts. It is well-proven that in the conditions of unstable environment forward development of the system of agrarian relations must be carried out on the basis of the government programs, and normatively-legal adjusting that take into account not only the existent state of affairs at the market of agroindustrial products but also economic provision of enterprises national agrarian to the sector.

  10. Current treatment of chronic hepatitis C in China: Dilemma and potential problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qun-Ying; Liu, Zheng-Wen

    2016-05-21

    Major advances have been made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with the advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). China has the most cases of HCV infection worldwide, but none of the DAAs has been approved in mainland China so far, and interferon (IFN)-α-based treatment remains the standard of care. HCV patients without response or with contraindications to IFN-based therapy have no alternative options. However, many patients buy DAAs, especially the generic forms of sofosbuvir, from other countries or areas. Under these circumstances, the use of these drugs may cause many predictable and unpredictable problems in ethics, law and medical practice. Given the obstacles of legal accessibility to DAAs and the potential problems of obtaining and using DAAs in China, the early launching of the DAAs in China or the legalization of buying drugs from areas outside China and using these drugs in China is an urgent issue and needs to be dealt with as soon as possible, in the interest of the patients.

  11. [Current issues, problems and prospects of tension-free hernioplasty (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the present study there are discussed modern methods of the tension free hernioplastics, the complications associated with them and technical difficulties, up-to-date views and the perspectives of the issue development in terms of avoiding infectious complications, positioning of implants and their fixation. Hernia is one of the widespread surgical pathologies as it is found in 4% of the population and its share among the inpatient surgical diseases is about 18-30%. Consequently annually up to 20-21 mln hernioplasties are carried out worldwide. Despite of many years of experience in the field of hernia surgical treatment there still exist many unsolved problems such as safe closure of defects of abdominal cavity wall. Up to 200 methods of hernioplastics, various implantations and application of synthetic materials refer to lack of the optimal surgical strategy. In modern herniology priorities are given to tension free plastics. The merge of the synthetic implants and "tension free hernioplastics" concepts enabled sharp reduction of the side effects list, making it possible to perform successful surgeries in that contingent whose treatment by the method of tissue-plasty was related with high risk of lethality. Large scale introduction of tension free hernioplastics caused intensification of the associated problems such as migration, dissection and shortening of the net.

  12. [Current situations and problems of quality control for medical imaging display systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Setojima, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Katsumi; Takada, Katsumi; Okuno, Teiichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Nakajima, Tadashi; Fujisawa, Ichiro

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic imaging has been shifted rapidly from film to monitor diagnostic. Consequently, Japan medical imaging and radiological systems industries association (JIRA) have recommended methods of quality control (QC) for medical imaging display systems. However, in spite of its need by majority of people, executing rate is low. The purpose of this study was to validate the problem including check items about QC for medical imaging display systems. We performed acceptance test of medical imaging display monitors based on Japanese engineering standards of radiological apparatus (JESRA) X-0093*A-2005 to 2009, and performed constancy test based on JESRA X-0093*A-2010 from 2010 to 2012. Furthermore, we investigated the cause of trouble and repaired number. Medical imaging display monitors had 23 inappropriate monitors about visual estimation, and all these monitors were not criteria of JESRA about luminance uniformity. Max luminance was significantly lower year-by-year about measurement estimation, and the 29 monitors did not meet the criteria of JESRA about luminance deviation. Repaired number of medical imaging display monitors had 25, and the cause was failure liquid crystal panel. We suggested the problems about medical imaging display systems.

  13. Finite element circuit theory of the numerical code EDDYMULT for solving eddy current problems in a multi-torus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yukiharu; Ozeki, Takahisa

    1986-07-01

    The finite element circuit theory is extended to the general eddy current problem in a multi-torus system, which consists of various torus conductors and axisymmetric coil systems. The numerical procedures are devised to avoid practical restrictions of computer storage and computing time, that is, the reduction technique of eddy current eigen modes to save storage and the introduction of shape function into the double area integral of mode coupling to save time. The numerical code EDDYMULT based on the theory is developed to use in designing tokamak device from the viewpoints of the evaluation of electromagnetic loading on the device components and the control analysis of tokamak equilibrium. (author)

  14. Anodal Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum Reduces Cerebellar Brain Inhibition but Does Not Influence Afferent Input from the Hand or Face in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Young, Jessica; Bradnam, Lynley V

    2016-08-01

    The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem. The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults. Data from two studies evaluating effects of cerebellar anodal and sham tDCS are presented. The first study used a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol to investigate CBI and combined TMS and cutaneous stimulation of the digit to assess SAI. The second study evaluated effects on trigemino-cervical and trigemino-masseter reflexes using peripheral nerve stimulation of the face. Fourteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 1. CBI was observed at baseline and was reduced by anodal cerebellar DCS only (P < 0.01). There was SAI at interstimulus intervals of 25 and 30 ms at baseline (both P < 0.0001), but cerebellar tDCS had no effect. Thirteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 2. Inhibitory reflexes were evoked in the ipsilateral masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. There was no effect of cerebellar DCS on either reflex. Anodal DCS reduced CBI but did not change SAI or TRs in healthy adults. These results require confirmation in individuals with neurological impairment.

  15. CURRENT PROBLEMS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Karkashadze

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical pediatrics specialists paid wrongly little attention to identification and treatment of cognitive disorders in children. At the same time it is difficult to overestimate the influence of cognitive functions on the formation of human personality and social maladjustment in this part of population. The paper is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairments. In addition, the classification of this pathology, highlighting aetiopathogenetic factors, prognosis are showed. One of the important problems of early revealing of cognitive impairments and appropriate management of children with this pathology according to the authors opinion are the following: the deficiency of educational programs for training specialists in neurology, lack of knowledge concerning the possibilities of psychological-pedagogical correction, inefficient system of neurological techniques for primary care. Key words: cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, classification, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, social maladjustment, psychopedagogical support, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 37–41.

  16. Presymplectic current and the inverse problem of the calculus of variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavkine, Igor

    2013-11-01

    The inverse problem of the calculus of variations asks whether a given system of partial differential equations (PDEs) admits a variational formulation. We show that the existence of a presymplectic form in the variational bicomplex, when horizontally closed on solutions, allows us to construct a variational formulation for a subsystem of the given PDE. No constraints on the differential order or number of dependent or independent variables are assumed. The proof follows a recent observation of Bridges, Hydon, and Lawson [Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 148(01), 159-178 (2010)] and generalizes an older result of Henneaux [Ann. Phys. 140(1), 45-64 (1982)] from ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to PDEs. Uniqueness of the variational formulation is also discussed.

  17. Presymplectic current and the inverse problem of the calculus of variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khavkine, Igor, E-mail: i.khavkine@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht, Leuvenlaan 4, NL-3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    The inverse problem of the calculus of variations asks whether a given system of partial differential equations (PDEs) admits a variational formulation. We show that the existence of a presymplectic form in the variational bicomplex, when horizontally closed on solutions, allows us to construct a variational formulation for a subsystem of the given PDE. No constraints on the differential order or number of dependent or independent variables are assumed. The proof follows a recent observation of Bridges, Hydon, and Lawson [Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 148(01), 159–178 (2010)] and generalizes an older result of Henneaux [Ann. Phys. 140(1), 45–64 (1982)] from ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to PDEs. Uniqueness of the variational formulation is also discussed.

  18. Symposium on Decoherence and No-Signalling : Current Interpretational Problems of Quantum Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Adrian; New vistas on old problems : recent approaches to the foundations of quantum mechanics

    2017-01-01

    Quantum theory has been a subject of interpretational debates ever since its inception. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, the empirical violation of Bell's inequalities, and recent activities to exploit quantum entanglement for technological innovation only exacerbate a long-standing philosophical debate. Despite no-signaling theorems and theories of decoherence, deep- rooted conflicts between special relativistic principles and observed quantum correlations as well as between definite measurement outcomes and quantum theoretical superpositions persist. This collection of papers, first presented at an international symposium at the University of Bern in 2011, highlights some recent approaches to the old problems of a philosophy of quantum mechanics. The authors address the issues from a variety of perspectives, ranging from variations of causal theory and system theoretic interpretations of the observer to an empirical test of whether entanglement itself can be entangled. The essays demonstrate that the di...

  19. Single Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier for Traction: Control System Design and Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives. This paper presents converters control structure design and simulations. The proposed converter control is based on the mathematical model and due to possible interaction with railway signaling and required low switching frequency employs synchronous PWM. The simulation results are verified by experimental tests performed on designed laboratory prototype of power of 7kVA

  20. Cognitive-behavior therapy for problem gambling: a critique of current treatments and proposed new unified approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolchard, Barry

    2017-06-01

    There is evidence supporting the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of problem gambling. Despite this, little is known about how CBT works and which particular approach is most effective. This paper aims to synthesize the evidence for current CBT and propose a more unified approach to treatment. A literature review and narrative synthesis of the current research evidence of CBT for the treatment of problem gambling was conducted, focusing on the underlying mechanisms within the treatment approach. Several CBT approaches were critiqued. These can be divided into forms of exposure therapy (including aversion techniques, systematic desensitization and other behavioral experiments) those focusing on cognitive restructuring techniques (such as reinforcement of nongambling activity, use of diaries, motivational enhancement and audio-playback techniques and third wave techniques including mindfulness. Findings, in relation to the treatment actions, from this synthesis are reported. The debate surrounding the treatment of problem gambling has been conducted as an either/or rather than a both/and discourse. This paper proposes a new, unified approach to the treatment of problem gambling that incorporates the best elements of both exposure and cognitive restructuring techniques, alongside the use of techniques borrowed from mindfulness and other CBT approaches.

  1. [Reimbursement of intensive care services in the German DRG system : Current problems and possible solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessen, R; Hermes, C; Bodmann, K-F; Janssens, U; Markewitz, A

    2018-02-01

    The reimbursement of intensive care and nursing services in the German health system is based on the diagnosis-related groups (G-DRG) system. Due to the lack of a central hospital planning, the G‑DRG system has become the most important influence on the development of the German health system. Compared to other countries, intensive care in Germany is characterized by a high number of intensive care beds, a low nurse-to-patient ratio, no official definition of the level of care, and a minimal available data set from intensive care units (ICUs). Under the given circumstances, a shortage of qualified intensive care nurses and physicians is currently the largest threat for intensive care in Germany. To address these deficiencies, we suggest the following measures: (1) Integration of ICUs into the levels of care which are currently developed for emergency centers at hospitals. (2) Mandatory collection of structured data sets from all ICUs including quality criteria. (3) A reform of intensive care and nursing reimbursement under consideration of adequate staffing in the individual ICU. (4) Actions to improve ICU staffing and qualification.

  2. US patent interferences vs. international first-to-file patent systems, and current GATT problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, R.W.; Serbinowski, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous superconductivity research activities by different entities have resulted in numerous US patent applications, some of which may claim identical inventions and thus likely will be involved in interference proceedings in the US Patent and Trademark Office to determine which inventors are entitled to priority of invention and the resulting US patent. The determination in an interference proceeding of what inventors were the first-to-invent a patentable invention is contrasted with the patent systems in the rest of the world where the first inventor to file his patent application automatically gains priority. This issue and other aspects of US patent law are the subjects of criticism of US patent law and practice in the current Uruguay round of talks on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). Interesting aspects of each of these subjects will be discussed

  3. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    criteria of recycling processes. A lack of information in current waste characterisation practise on polymer resin composition, black coloured material content and the influence of surface adherent material on physico-chemical characteristics of plastic packaging waste were identified. These shortcomings...... were addressed by a resin type-based sorting analysis and a washing test for plastic packaging material from Danish household waste. Preliminary results show that, for a quarter of the hand sorted material, no resin type could be identified and that Polypropylene and Polyethylene terephthalate were...... the dominating resin types in plastic packaging. The suggested washing procedure caused a decrease of 70% of the ash content of the plastic material. The analysed metals and nutrients were reduced by up to 24%...

  4. Skin, eye, and testis: current exposure problems and recent advances in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Three organs, the skin, eye and testis are potentially at risk from poorly penetrating radiations such as beta particles or low energy X-Rays. They may be preferentially irradiated in fields with steep depth - dose gradients and thereby dictate radiological protection procedures. Since there is not a wide margin of safety in the annual permissible dose limits for these organs it is important to have clearly defensible methods of dose assessment. This requires both an adequate understanding of the radiobiology of these organs and the availability of experimental techniques for measuring doses at various depths near the surface of the body. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge in this field, drawing partly on information from two recent CEC workshops on the 'Dosimetry of Beta Particles and Low Energy X-Rays' and 'Radiation Damage to the Skin'. It is concluded that protection criteria for the limitation of skin dose are in need of revision. (author)

  5. Chloramphenicol Derivatives as Antibacterial and Anticancer Agents: Historic Problems and Current Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Dinos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol (CAM is the D-threo isomer of a small molecule, consisting of a p-nitrobenzene ring connected to a dichloroacetyl tail through a 2-amino-1,3-propanediol moiety. CAM displays a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic activity by specifically inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis. In certain but important cases, it also exhibits bactericidal activity, namely against the three most common causes of meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Resistance to CAM has been frequently reported and ascribed to a variety of mechanisms. However, the most important concerns that limit its clinical utility relate to side effects such as neurotoxicity and hematologic disorders. In this review, we present previous and current efforts to synthesize CAM derivatives with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, we highlight potentially broader roles of these derivatives in investigating the plasticity of the ribosomal catalytic center, the main target of CAM.

  6. The longitudinal space charge problem in the high current linear proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a linear proton accelerator peak currents of 200 mA lead to high space charge densities and the resultant space charge forces reduce the effective focussing considerably. In particular the longitudinal focussing is affected. A new concept based on linear theory is proposed that restricts the influence of the space charge forces on the longitudinal focussing by increasing a, the mean transverse bunch radius, as a proportional(βγ)sup(3/8). This concept is compared with other concepts for the Alvarez (1 MeV - 100 MeV) and for the high energy part (100 MeV - 1100 MeV) of the SNQ linear accelerator. (orig.)

  7. Roman Criminal Law. Contributions to Current Problems in Connection with “Crimes against Public Administration”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Espitia Garzón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The secular and detailed study of Roman Private Law institutions has, for centuries, diverted the attention to institutions pertaining to the Public Law sphere. Such studies were a consequence of the triumph of bourgeois ideas from the Enlightenment, which were structured on a set of principles (separation of powers, the principle of legality both considered absolute truths, even though today they seem more like myths. This understanding shifted during the second half of the twentieth century, when scholars of Roman Law began to more comprehensively analyze Rome’s constitutional institutions as well as its criminal repression. This paper begins with a review of some of the most important works and articles produced since the fifties until present day about the so called ‘general ’and ´special’ Criminal Law, and the Law of Criminal Procedure, it then focuses on how useful those texts are in order to solve actual problems, taking as an example the subject of crimes against public administration, given the actual need to pursue the assets obtained from such activities, despite the perpetrator’s death, which means going beyond the principle of the individual nature of penalties.

  8. ETHICAL REVIEW OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH IN BELARUS: CURRENT STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenka, Andrei

    2011-04-01

    The paper provides description of the system of ethical review for biomedical research in Belarus, with special emphasis on its historical background, legal and regulatory framework, structure and functioning. It concludes that the situation with research ethics in Belarus corresponds to the tendency of bureaucratic approach to establishment of systems of ethical review for biomedical research, observed in a number of countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Different social, economical and political factors of transition have major impact on capacities of the Belarusian RECs to ensure adequate protection of human subjects. Among the main problems identified are non-equivalent stringency of ethical review for different types of biomedical research; lack of independence, multidisciplinarity, pluralism and lay representation experienced by RECs; low level of research ethics education and transparency of RECs activities. Recommendations are made to raise the issue of research ethics on the national agenda in order to develop and maintain the research ethics system capable to effectively protect research participants and promote ethical conduct in research.

  9. Wetland Planning: Current Problems and Environmental Management Proposals at Supra-Municipal Scale (Spanish Mediterranean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa Sebastiá-Frasquet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The policies that define the use and management of wetlands in Spain have undergone tremendous changes in recent decades. During the period of 1950–1980, Land Reform Plans promoted filling and draining of these areas for agricultural use. In 1986, with the incorporation of Spain to the European Union (EU, there was a sudden change of direction in these policies, which, thereafter, pursued restoring and protecting these ecosystems. This change, combined with increasing urban development and infrastructure pressures (e.g., roads, golf courses, etc., creates a conflict of uses which complicates the management of these ecosystems by local governments. This study analyzes the effectiveness of policies and management tools of important coastal wetlands at the local scale in the Valencian Community (Western Mediterranean Sea using a strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats (SWOT methodology. A supra-municipal model of environmental planning is proposed to enable consistent management at a regional scale. This model enhances local government’s effectiveness and it can be applied in other areas with similar problems.

  10. Observations on the current status of Orobanche and Striga problems worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Chris

    2009-05-01

    Species of Orobanche and Striga are among the most damaging parasitic weed species worldwide, but there are few reliable statistics on the full extent of the economic losses they cause. The distribution, host range and economic importance of the major species of Orobanche and Striga are briefly summarised. A review of literature over the period since 1991 suggests that many million hectares are infested and that the losses amount to $ US billions annually. Unfortunately there are almost no fully reliable figures on which to base these figures precisely. Meanwhile, there is little evidence of any significant change in intensity, range or losses caused over this period. Any reduction in the importance of these damaging weeds is sporadic, and alleviation of the problems is mostly localised. Furthermore, while the importance of Orobanche species may be broadly static, Striga species on cereals continue to become more serious in many countries owing to continued loss of soil fertility. It is suggested that new techniques may be needed for measurement of the extent of losses caused by these genera and their economic impact. There is continued urgency to develop control measures appropriate to the farming systems involved, and to reduce the risk of spread of both groups of parasite to new areas.

  11. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  12. [Mixed affective states in the juvenile age (historical aspects, current state of the problem, psychopathology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeĭko, G I

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed the problem in historical, diagnostic and psychopathological aspects and presented the results of his own study. The aim was to study the structure and dynamics of endogenous juvenile mixed states in order to work out the psychopathological typology and to clarify the criteria of diagnosis, differential treatment and clinical-social prognosis. The study included 174 patients, 118 men and 56 women, aged from 17 to 25 years (mean age 20, 4 years). Depressive states were found in 65%, mania in 16% and mixed in 19% of patients. The clinical differentiation of mixed states was carried out basing on the dominating pole of affective disorders and the following types were singled out and described: mania type (dysphoria-like mania)--34%, depressive type (association-driven depression)--38%; alternating type of mixed states--28%. The preference of the formation of alternating and atypical variants of mixed states in the juvenile age demonstrated in the study may reflect the pathogenetic and pathoplastic effect of biological features characteristic of this age--lability and polymorphism of clinical presentations as well as immaturity of emotional and cognitive spheres.

  13. Current state of the effectiveness of problem-based learning in prosthodontics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ehsan; Bassir, Seyed Hossein; Sadr-Eshkevari, Pooyan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the available literature on the effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in prosthodontics. Both electronic and manual searches were performed by two reviewers. Of the 440 studies identified, ten met the inclusion criteria (Kappa=0.83). Various assessment tools such as standardized examinations (National Board Dental Examination and North East Regional Board of Dental Examiners exam) (22 percent), tutor evaluation (practical and examinations performance) (20 percent), curriculum time (20 percent) and number of units (10 percent), peer evaluation (10 percent), and self-evaluation (100 percent) were used in the included studies. Thirty percent of the studies adopted a control group for all measurements, 30 percent did for only some measurements, and the others lacked any control group. Although 30 percent of the studies implemented a hybrid PBL, the other studies did not mention the type of PBL. Based on the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP), all of the included studies were rated as being of weak quality. Heterogeneity across these studies in outcome variables, study designs, levels of PBL intervention, and study population limits any attempt to generalize the outcomes. The generally poor quality assessment outcomes warrant further studies on the effectiveness of PBL in prosthodontics education compared to a non-PBL curriculum.

  14. Temperature in non-equilibrium states: a review of open problems and current proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas-Vazquez, J; Jou, D

    2003-01-01

    The conceptual problems arising in the definition and measurement of temperature in non-equilibrium states are discussed in this paper in situations where the local-equilibrium hypothesis is no longer satisfactory. This is a necessary and urgent discussion because of the increasing interest in thermodynamic theories beyond local equilibrium, in computer simulations, in non-linear statistical mechanics, in new experiments, and in technological applications of nanoscale systems and material sciences. First, we briefly review the concept of temperature from the perspectives of equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Afterwards, we explore which of the equilibrium concepts may be extrapolated beyond local equilibrium and which of them should be modified, then we review several attempts to define temperature in non-equilibrium situations from macroscopic and microscopic bases. A wide review of proposals is offered on effective non-equilibrium temperatures and their application to ideal and real gases, electromagnetic radiation, nuclear collisions, granular systems, glasses, sheared fluids, amorphous semiconductors and turbulent fluids. The consistency between the different relativistic transformation laws for temperature is discussed in the new light gained from this perspective. A wide bibliography is provided in order to foster further research in this field

  15. CURRENT TRENDS AND PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF YOUTH TRAVEL IN RUSSIA ON THE EXAMPLE OF KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria V. Sidorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To consider tendencies and problems of development of youth travel in Russia in general and in Krasnodar region in particular, and also possible solutions of the revealed problems. Methods. The comparative and geographical method, statistical processing, population poll were applied. Results. Data on current trends of development of youth travel in Russia and in Krasnodar region are submitted and factors, constraining his full development are revealed. The description of the actions directed to promoting of this type of tourism in Krasnodar region is given. Recommendations about the solution of the problems existing in the sphere of youth travel of Krasnodar region are provided. Conclusions. In the modern world more and more popular is a youth travel. His popularity is caused by such qualities of youth as activity, aspiration to training and knowledge, the need for new feelings. Relevance of a research of this type of tourism is caused by the increasing youth share in tourist streams, and also insufficiency of methodical developments of a problem of complex development of system of youth travel. Krasnodar region is the most perspective from the point of view of development of all types of tourism, including youth. The region has a unique environment, modern infrastructure, the developed tourist and recreational complex. At the same time during the research a number of the problems constraining development of this type of tourism is revealed.

  16. Current problems of raw fish material processing while manufacturing dried products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashonkov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The substantiation for using techniques of fish raw material canning has been presented, raw fish being caught or farmed in aquaculture. The main problems in raw fish canning have been reviewed, including significant reduction in thermolabile vitamins in the ultimate product as compared with the raw material due to the thermal processing. Promising canning technique – vacuum drying – has been proposed. This technique makes possible to reduce the temperature of thermal processing down to 50…55 °С and significantly enlarge preservation of thermolabile vitamins from the raw fish. Sampling of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, including preparation for analysis has been conducted by standard methods. Disadvantages of this way have been found, it is low energy efficiency of the process. The way to intensify the vacuum drying of aquatic organisms has been proposed based on the method of preliminary pore-forming due to augmenting the area of moisture evaporation. The design of the pilot plant has been proposed in order to research the process of pore forming and vacuum drying. Target species for processing have been suggested. They are as follows: Azov goby (fillet for food products and Black Sea sprat for feeds. The recipes of the feed mixture for granulated floating food for trout have been developed. The results of the first series of the pilot research have been provided. The experiments have proved that preliminary pore forming immediately before vacuum drying makes possible to enlarge the surface area of moisture evaporation by 15…25 %. By processing photomicrographs of sections by means of a special software the authors have got the results demonstrating that when manufacturing dried products by pore forming and drying under pressure 10 kPa the pore take 35...38 % of the inner volume of the product and with drying under pressure 10 kPa – only 18...21 %, and when drying under the atmospheric pressure – 11...13 %.

  17. Face Attention Network: An Effective Face Detector for the Occluded Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianfeng; Yuan, Ye; Yu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The performance of face detection has been largely improved with the development of convolutional neural network. However, the occlusion issue due to mask and sunglasses, is still a challenging problem. The improvement on the recall of these occluded cases usually brings the risk of high false positives. In this paper, we present a novel face detector called Face Attention Network (FAN), which can significantly improve the recall of the face detection problem in the occluded case without comp...

  18. Łagodne zaburzenia poznawcze – aktualny problem geriatryczny = Mild cognitive impairment – current geriatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Beck

    2016-04-01

      Streszczenie Artykuł przedstawia aktualny stan wiedzy dotyczący łagodnych zaburzeń poznawczych (Mild Cognitive Impairment, MCI. Termin ten, początkowo uważany za stan przejściowy pomiędzy prawidłowym funkcjonowaniem poznawczym a objawami choroby Alzheimera (Alzheimer’s disease, AD, obecnie oznacza heterogenną grupę widocznych i obiektywnych deficytów kognitywnych u pacjentów bez rozpoznanego otępienia. Deficyty te, choć zauważalne zarówno dla osób nimi dotkniętych, jak i ich otoczenia, są na tyle nieznaczne, że nie wpływają na podstawowe czynności życia codziennego i zdolność do samodzielnej egzystencji. Rozpowszechnienie MCI szacuje się na 15 – 30% wśród osób powyżej 60 roku życia; rośnie ono wraz z wiekiem. Łagodnym zaburzeniom poznawczym – zwłaszcza ich postaci amnestycznej - przypisuje się podwyższone ryzyko rozwinięcia się otępienia, wynoszące 10 – 15% rocznie (przy 1 – 2% dla populacji ogólnej. Z tego powodu identyfikacja osób z MCI jest obecnie najważniejszą strategią opóźniania postępu otępień i zapobiegania im.   Słowa kluczowe: łagodne zaburzenia poznawcze, funkcjonowanie poznawcze, wiek podeszły, otępienie       Summary The article describes current state of knowledge on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. The term, initially considered a transitional state between normal cognitive aging and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, currently covers heterogenous group of noticeable and objective cognitive deficits in patients without the diagnosis of dementia. These deficits, although apparent for both afflicted persons and their environment, do not interfere substantially with basic activities of daily living nor result in inability to live independently. The prevalence of MCI is estimated between 15 and 30% in individuals over 60 years old. Subjects with MCI constitute a high risk group because they develop dementia at a rate of 10% to 15% per year compared with 1% to 2% per year in the general

  19. Advanced 3-dimensional electron kinetic calculations for the current drive problem in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Bers, A.; Ram, A.; Harvey, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate and fast electron kinetic calculations is a challenging issue for realistic simulations of thermonuclear tokamak plasmas. Relativistic corrections and electron trajectory effects must be fully taken into account for high temperature burning plasmas, while codes should also consistently describe wave-particle resonant interactions in presence of locally large gradients close to internal transport barrier. In that case, neoclassical effects may come into play and self-consistent evaluation of both the radio-frequency and bootstrap currents must be performed. In addition, a complex interplay between momentum and radial electron dynamics may take place, in presence of a possible energy dependent radial transport. Besides the physics needs, there are considerable numerical issues to solve, in order to reduce computer time consumption and memory requirements at an acceptable level, so that kinetic calculations may be valuably incorporated in a chain of codes which determines plasma equilibrium and wave propagation. So far, fully implicit 3-dimensional calculations based on a finite difference scheme and an incomplete L and U matrices factorization have been found to be so most effective method to reach this goal. A review of the present status in this active field of physics is presented, with an emphasis on possible future improvements. (authors)

  20. Some current problems in atmospheric ozone chemistry; role of chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    A review is given on selected aspects of the reaction mechanisms of current interest in the chemistry of atmospheric ozone. Atmospheric ozone is produced and removed by a complex series of elementary gas-phase photochemical reactions involving O/sub x/, HO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, CIO/sub x/ and hydrocarbon species. At the present time there is a good knowledge of the basic processes involved in ozone chemistry in the stratosphere and the troposphere and the kinetics of most of the key reactions are well defined. There are a number of difficulties in the theoretical descriptions of observed ozone behaviour which may be due to uncertainties in the chemistry. Examples are the failure to predict present day ozone in the photochemically controlled region above 35 Km altitude and the large reductions in the ozone column in the Antartic Spring which has been observed in recent years. In the troposphere there is growing evidence that ozone and other trace gases have changed appreciably from pre-industrial concentrations, due to chemical reactions involving man-made pollutants. Quantitative investigation of the mechanisms by which these changes may occur requires a sound laboratory kinetics data base.

  1. Öğretmenlerin Güncel Sorunları Teachers In The Current Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim HABACI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Education has a significant role in the development of a country.As it is widely accepted , Countries investing in education have been developing fast in all aspects of life . There are many factors affecting education, but they are not effective as much as a teacher . Without teacher , other factors can’t be significant enough as much as they are supposed to be . He is the teacher who trains doctor , scientist , politician , architect , worker , officer and so on . Teachers are not only the insructors working in school to make students be the future’s professionals but also they are the pedagogues who are trying to be the best real role models for their students with their thoughts , life styles and attitudes and above all they have a crucial role in the formation and development of their student’s characters during their school lives . As teachers are devoloping and forming the members of the population ,they are also developing and forming the population they are living in . The better new generations are trained , the wealthier and happier population we will have . To be able to do all these things mentioned above , of course , there are some conditions to be done completely . In return a teacher should have strong self - confidence , good field information , good pedagogical formation and in addition to these s/he should be aware of the importance of the profession s/he will do . If the teachers are trained well and their working conditions are developed in accordance with the today’s needs , quality of the education can be increased . This also opens the ways taking us to a developed , peaceful and wealthy country .The aim of this study is to determine the teachers’ problems and put them forward .This study has a great significance as it can be helpful and make a contribution to solution of teachers’ problems . Bir ülkenin gelişmesinde eğitimin payı büyüktür. Eğitime yatırım yapan ülkeler her açıdan geli

  2. Successful decoding of famous faces in the fusiform face area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Axelrod

    Full Text Available What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition.

  3. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  4. Characterization and implementation of OSL dosimeters for use in evaluating the efficacy of organ-based tube current modulation for CT scans of the face and orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R. M.; Silosky, M., E-mail: michael.silosky@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to characterize commercially available optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters for general clinical applications and apply the results to the development of a method to evaluate the efficacy of a vendor-specific organ-based tube current modulation application for both phantom and clinical computed tomography (CT) scans of the face and orbits. Methods: This study consisted of three components: (1) thorough characterization of the dosimeters for CT scans in phantom, including evaluations of depletion, fading, angular dependence, and conversion from counts to absorbed dose; (2) evaluation of the efficacy of using plastic glasses to position the dosimeters over the eyes in both phantom and clinical studies; and (3) preliminary dosimetry measurements made using organ-based tube current modulation in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and anthropomorphic phantom studies. Results: (1) Depletion effects were found to have a linear relationship with the output of the OSL dosimeters (R{sup 2} = 0.96). Fading was found to affect dosimeter readings during the first two hours following exposure but had no effect during the remaining 60-h period observed. No significant angular dependence was observed for the exposure conditions used in this study (with p-values ranging from 0.9 to 0.26 for all t-tests). Dosimeter counts varied linearly with absorbed dose when measured in the center and 12 o’clock positions of the CTDI phantoms. These linear models of counts versus absorbed dose had overlapping 95% confidence intervals for the intercepts but not for the slopes. (2) When dosimeters were positioned using safety glasses, there was no adverse effect on image quality, and there was no statistically significant difference between this placement and placement of the dosimeters directly on the eyes of the phantom (p = 0.24). (3) When using organ-based tube current modulation, the dose to the lens of the eye was reduced between 19% and

  5. Characterization and implementation of OSL dosimeters for use in evaluating the efficacy of organ-based tube current modulation for CT scans of the face and orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, R. M.; Silosky, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to characterize commercially available optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters for general clinical applications and apply the results to the development of a method to evaluate the efficacy of a vendor-specific organ-based tube current modulation application for both phantom and clinical computed tomography (CT) scans of the face and orbits. Methods: This study consisted of three components: (1) thorough characterization of the dosimeters for CT scans in phantom, including evaluations of depletion, fading, angular dependence, and conversion from counts to absorbed dose; (2) evaluation of the efficacy of using plastic glasses to position the dosimeters over the eyes in both phantom and clinical studies; and (3) preliminary dosimetry measurements made using organ-based tube current modulation in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) and anthropomorphic phantom studies. Results: (1) Depletion effects were found to have a linear relationship with the output of the OSL dosimeters (R 2 = 0.96). Fading was found to affect dosimeter readings during the first two hours following exposure but had no effect during the remaining 60-h period observed. No significant angular dependence was observed for the exposure conditions used in this study (with p-values ranging from 0.9 to 0.26 for all t-tests). Dosimeter counts varied linearly with absorbed dose when measured in the center and 12 o’clock positions of the CTDI phantoms. These linear models of counts versus absorbed dose had overlapping 95% confidence intervals for the intercepts but not for the slopes. (2) When dosimeters were positioned using safety glasses, there was no adverse effect on image quality, and there was no statistically significant difference between this placement and placement of the dosimeters directly on the eyes of the phantom (p = 0.24). (3) When using organ-based tube current modulation, the dose to the lens of the eye was reduced between 19% and 43

  6. Prevalence of face recognition deficits in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Rachel J; Murray, Ebony; Boyce, Tian; Bate, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 2-2.5% of the adult population is believed to show severe difficulties with face recognition, in the absence of any neurological injury-a condition known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP). However, to date no research has attempted to estimate the prevalence of face recognition deficits in children, possibly because there are very few child-friendly, well-validated tests of face recognition. In the current study, we examined face and object recognition in a group of primary school children (aged 5-11 years), to establish whether our tests were suitable for children and to provide an estimate of face recognition difficulties in children. In Experiment 1 (n = 184), children completed a pre-existing test of child face memory, the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Kids (CFMT-K), and a bicycle test with the same format. In Experiment 2 (n = 413), children completed three-alternative forced-choice matching tasks with faces and bicycles. All tests showed good psychometric properties. The face and bicycle tests were well matched for difficulty and showed a similar developmental trajectory. Neither the memory nor the matching tests were suitable to detect impairments in the youngest groups of children, but both tests appear suitable to screen for face recognition problems in middle childhood. In the current sample, 1.2-5.2% of children showed difficulties with face recognition; 1.2-4% showed face-specific difficulties-that is, poor face recognition with typical object recognition abilities. This is somewhat higher than previous adult estimates: It is possible that face matching tests overestimate the prevalence of face recognition difficulties in children; alternatively, some children may "outgrow" face recognition difficulties.

  7. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After ...

  8. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic ...

  9. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  10. Current Problems in Schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Adam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we try to analyze two things: (1 the characteristics of the neoliberal attack on school in general, in the age of “human capital”, and (2 what form this attack has acquired in our society. Today, one can see the subjugation of the school to economy in all developed capitalist countries, but if this subjugation is going on in some of the most developed countries, with unabated investment in education, then this attack is much more direct and raw in our society where government expects the subjugation of the school to the market while minimizing input into it. In both cases, it is a fact that this attack, which subordinates school to capital, could not have happened, or at least would have been less likely to occur, if it had not been accompanied by a new school discourse, to which teachers themselves contribute, either by remaining passive or by misunderstanding the contemporary school reality. The article mainly relies on the work of Christian Laval – L'École n'est pas une entreprise: Le néo-libéralisme à l'assaut de l'enseignement public.

  11. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled...

  12. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  13. Impact of radioactivity on the environment: problems, state of current knowledge and approaches for identification of radioprotection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently a revitalized concern about the potential impact of ionizing radiation on the environment that calls for the construction of a system ensuring an adequate radioprotection of the non-human biota and their associated biotopes. This paper first sets the context of the problem both, with respect to the general philosophy of environmental protection as a whole, but also with respect to the consideration of the environment achieved so far in the purpose of human radioprotection. The current accumulated knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiation to biota (fauna and flora) is then briefly reviewed, encompassing effects at individual and community/ecosystem level, situations of acute and chronic exposure to high and low doses, finally leading to the identification of the most critical gaps in scientific knowledge: effects of mixed low dose rates in chronic exposure to communities and ecosystems. The most significant current international efforts towards the identification of environmental radioprotection criteria and standards are finally presented along with some relevant national examples. (author)

  14. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our ...

  15. About Face

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    Full Text Available ... not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD ...

  16. About Face

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    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  17. About Face

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    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos Learn ...

  18. The Influence of Problems Faced during Internships on Interns' Views of Their Profession and Their Intention to Work in the Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasli, Mehmet; Ilban, Mehmet Oguzhan

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The problem of this research is identifying the difficulties that undergraduate students experience during their internships and assessing their future intention to work in the tourism industry. Purpose of Study: This research aims to identify the problems undergraduate students encounter as interns in tourism programs and to…

  19. Towards Robust and Accurate Multi-View and Partially-Occluded Face Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Junliang; Niu, Zhiheng; Huang, Junshi; Hu, Weiming; Zhou, Xi; Yan, Shuicheng

    2018-04-01

    Face alignment acts as an important task in computer vision. Regression-based methods currently dominate the approach to solving this problem, which generally employ a series of mapping functions from the face appearance to iteratively update the face shape hypothesis. One keypoint here is thus how to perform the regression procedure. In this work, we formulate this regression procedure as a sparse coding problem. We learn two relational dictionaries, one for the face appearance and the other one for the face shape, with coupled reconstruction coefficient to capture their underlying relationships. To deploy this model for face alignment, we derive the relational dictionaries in a stage-wised manner to perform close-loop refinement of themselves, i.e., the face appearance dictionary is first learned from the face shape dictionary and then used to update the face shape hypothesis, and the updated face shape dictionary from the shape hypothesis is in return used to refine the face appearance dictionary. To improve the model accuracy, we extend this model hierarchically from the whole face shape to face part shapes, thus both the global and local view variations of a face are captured. To locate facial landmarks under occlusions, we further introduce an occlusion dictionary into the face appearance dictionary to recover face shape from partially occluded face appearance. The occlusion dictionary is learned in a data driven manner from background images to represent a set of elemental occlusion patterns, a sparse combination of which models various practical partial face occlusions. By integrating all these technical innovations, we obtain a robust and accurate approach to locate facial landmarks under different face views and possibly severe occlusions for face images in the wild. Extensive experimental analyses and evaluations on different benchmark datasets, as well as two new datasets built by ourselves, have demonstrated the robustness and accuracy of our proposed

  20. Series 'Facing Radiation'. 2 Facing radiation is facing residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 2 is reported by an officer of Date City, which localizes at 60 km northern west of the Plant, borders on Iitate Village of Fukushima prefecture, and is indicated as the important area of contamination search (IACS), which the reporter has been conducted for as responsible personnel. In July 2011, the ambient dose was as high as 3.0-3.5 mc-Sv/h and the tentative storage place of contaminated materials was decided by own initiative of residents of a small community, from which the real decontamination started in the City. The target dose after decontamination was defined to be 1.0 mc-Sv/h: however, 28/32 IACS municipalities in the prefecture had not defined the target although they had worked for 2 years after the Accident for their areas exceeding the standard 0.23 mc-Sv/h. At the moment of decontamination of the reporter's own house, he noticed that resident's concerns had directed toward its work itself, not toward the target dose, and wondered if these figures had obstructed to correctly face the radiation. At present that about 2.5 years have passed since the Accident, all of Date citizens have personal accumulated glass dosimeters for seeing the effective external dose and it seems that their dose will not exceed 1 mSv/y if the ambient dose estimated is 0.3-5 mc-Sv/h. Media run to popularity not to face radiation, experts tend to hesitate to face media and residents, and radiation dose will be hardly reduced to zero, despite that correct understanding of radiation is a shorter way for residents' own ease: facing radiation is facing residents. (T.T.)

  1. Efficient solution of 3D electromagnetic eddy-current problems within the finite volume framework of OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstein, Pascal; Galindo, Vladimir; Vukčević, Vuko

    2017-09-01

    Eddy-current problems occur in a wide range of industrial and metallurgical applications where conducting material is processed inductively. Motivated by realising coupled multi-physics simulations, we present a new method for the solution of such problems in the finite volume framework of foam-extend, an extended version of the very popular OpenFOAM software. The numerical procedure involves a semi-coupled multi-mesh approach to solve Maxwell's equations for non-magnetic materials by means of the Coulomb gauged magnetic vector potential A and the electric scalar potential ϕ. The concept is further extended on the basis of the impressed and reduced magnetic vector potential and its usage in accordance with Biot-Savart's law to achieve a very efficient overall modelling even for complex three-dimensional geometries. Moreover, we present a special discretisation scheme to account for possible discontinuities in the electrical conductivity. To complement our numerical method, an extensive validation is completing the paper, which provides insight into the behaviour and the potential of our approach.

  2. Current problems of the Bulgarian energy industry against the background of global short-term energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The energy demand during the next century due first of all to the expected growth of population necessitates more efficient technologies and huge investments. The production of nuclear energy requires higher safety as well as reduction of costs. A new form of partnership between the developed and developing countries is needed for transferring capital and technologies at special framework terms in order to avoid errors in the process of transition. The Energy Forum'99 highlights the current problems of Bulgarian energy branch and the projects for its future including better utilization of the existing energy resources, for development of new or renewable energy sources, not well utilized at present, and to harmonize the sector with better environmental protection. The most important problems discussed are: 1. Structure and restructuring strategy of the energy sector. Prices and tariffs. Privatization aspects. Construction of new replacement generating capacities; 2. Thermal power plants; 3. Nuclear power plants; 4. District heating and natural gas supply; 5. Efficient energy utilization; 6. Renewable energy sources; 7. Environmental protection and 8. Education

  3. ITER plasma facing materials. Some critical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, V.; Dietz, K.J.; Federici, G.; Janeschitz, G.; Matera, R.; Tanaka, S.

    1995-01-01

    The description of current status with the choice of materials for ITER plasma facing components is presented. The main problem with lifetime of divertor elements is the particle and energy-induced erosion of armour materials. A solution for the first operation phase consists in using Be as an armour for the first wall and the divertor, however other possible materials (e.g. W) could be considered. (orig.)

  4. Pose-invariant face recognition using Markov random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Huy Tho; Chellappa, Rama

    2013-04-01

    One of the key challenges for current face recognition techniques is how to handle pose variations between the probe and gallery face images. In this paper, we present a method for reconstructing the virtual frontal view from a given nonfrontal face image using Markov random fields (MRFs) and an efficient variant of the belief propagation algorithm. In the proposed approach, the input face image is divided into a grid of overlapping patches, and a globally optimal set of local warps is estimated to synthesize the patches at the frontal view. A set of possible warps for each patch is obtained by aligning it with images from a training database of frontal faces. The alignments are performed efficiently in the Fourier domain using an extension of the Lucas-Kanade algorithm that can handle illumination variations. The problem of finding the optimal warps is then formulated as a discrete labeling problem using an MRF. The reconstructed frontal face image can then be used with any face recognition technique. The two main advantages of our method are that it does not require manually selected facial landmarks or head pose estimation. In order to improve the performance of our pose normalization method in face recognition, we also present an algorithm for classifying whether a given face image is at a frontal or nonfrontal pose. Experimental results on different datasets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European union legislations: Current situation, problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of the current situation in the area of certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European Union legislation referring to the placement of wood and wood products on this market. The objective of the research was to observe the situation, phases which Serbia implemented in the process of forest and wood products certification until now, as well as the problems and challenges the companies in this process face. Based on research results, future development of the market of certified wood products in Serbia was assessed and the proposal of measures which should be realized in order for Serbia to become a country whose companies will be ready for the moment when provisions and measures of the new EU legislation become effective was given. The selection of the abovementioned objective was conditioned by the fact that from January 1st, 2013 new legislation takes effect, with significantly stricter terms for the placement of wood and wood products from other countries on this market. One of the conditions which will have to be fulfilled by the companies wishing to export their products on this market refers to proving their origin. Since the EU is the most significant market for wood products exported from Serbia, fulfillment of the stated and other terms from the new EU legislation is of great importance to Serbian companies. Until the beginning of September 2010, only 387,000 ha were certified, namely 17.2% of the total area under forests. In the same period, only 33 wood processing companies in Serbia possessed CoC certificates for their products. Such a small number of companies possessing certificates for their wood products compared to competitive neighboring countries can represent a serious limitation in achieving their satisfactory competitiveness on the EU market in the following period.

  6. Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers.

  7. Facing competitive pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the problems facing the electric power industry and professional personnel as a result of economic downturn and the resulting down sizing of individual companies and utilities. The author proposes that the most efficient use of technology will have greater impact in making a utility more competitive than reducing the head count

  8. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, ...

  9. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — ... you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is ...

  10. Yazma Eğitiminde Karşılaşılan Sorunlar Üzerine Bir İnceleme A Review On The Problems Faced In The Writing Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir TAĞA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find out the problems faced in thewriting instruction. The data of research is collected by "WritingChallenges Facing Education Questionnaire" which is prepared by theresearchers. Questionnaire consists of 31 the substances (all negative,and the four dimensions (students, teachers, programs, and externalfactors totally which was held with a five-point Likert-style. The totalvariance explanation of the scale was found as 41.54%. In the context ofthe validity, the value of Cronbach's alpha which is internal consistencycoefficient was found to be 0.83 totally. The study group is consisted by158 Turkish teachers. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test forindependent samples, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and nosignificant difference in the F values, Tukey-HSD test was used toidentify the source. When the findings are analyzed at sub-dimensionlevel, the problem about students is that the lack reading habits,problem from the teacher is that not to follow the developments in thefield, in terms of the program the applied method is not appropriate asa time, problems derived from the lack of external factors detract fromthe language used in the Internet and the mobile phone can be called asa first problem. Significant difference according to gender views onproblems of teachers to the t test to examine whether the differenceswere not significant. Significant difference was found in the the one-wayanalysis of variance (ANOVA done to examine problems according toseniority and education by the views regarding the problems ofteachers.

  11. How far are we from solving the 2D & 3D Face Alignment problem? (and a dataset of 230,000 3D facial landmarks)

    OpenAIRE

    Bulat, Adrian; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how far a very deep neural network is from attaining close to saturating performance on existing 2D and 3D face alignment datasets. To this end, we make the following 5 contributions: (a) we construct, for the first time, a very strong baseline by combining a state-of-the-art architecture for landmark localization with a state-of-the-art residual block, train it on a very large yet synthetically expanded 2D facial landmark dataset and finally evaluate it on all other 2...

  12. Treatment of multi-word lexical items in the dictionary : the current situation and the potential problems facing dictionary users / Alenka Vrbinc, Marjeta Vrbinc

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vrbinc, Alenka

    2011-01-01

    Analüüsitakse mitmesõnaliste leksikaalsete üksuste esitust ükskeelsetes (inglise keele) sõnaraamatutes eesmärgiga töötada välja nende esitusviis kodeeriva kakskeelse (inglise-sloveeni) sõnastiku jaoks

  13. Computer-mediated and face-to-face communication in metastatic cancer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhauer, Ruvanee P

    2014-08-01

    To compare the experiences of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in computer-mediated and face-to-face support groups. Interviews from 18 women with MBC, who were currently in computer-mediated support groups (CMSGs), were examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The CMSGs were in an asynchronous mailing list format; women communicated exclusively via email. All the women were also, or had previously been, in a face-to-face support group (FTFG). CMSGs had both advantages and drawbacks, relative to face-to-face groups (FTFGs), for this population. Themes examined included convenience, level of support, intimacy, ease of expression, range of information, and dealing with debilitation and dying. CMSGs may provide a sense of control and a greater level of support. Intimacy may take longer to develop in a CMSG, but women may have more opportunities to get to know each other. CMSGs may be helpful while adjusting to a diagnosis of MBC, because women can receive support without being overwhelmed by physical evidence of disability in others or exposure to discussions about dying before they are ready. However, the absence of nonverbal cues in CMSGs also led to avoidance of topics related to death and dying when women were ready to face them. Agendas for discussion, the presence of a facilitator or more time in CMSGs may attenuate this problem. The findings were discussed in light of prevailing research and theories about computer-mediated communication. They have implications for designing CMSGs for this population.

  14. Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing the problems of the twenty-first century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...

  15. Face Verification for Mobile Personal Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we presented a detailed study of the face verification problem on the mobile device, covering every component of the system. The study includes face detection, registration, normalization, and verification. Furthermore, the information fusion problem is studied to verify face

  16. Cultural Observations facing Women Managers: A South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology used was of a quantitative approach. The findings showed that there are many cultural barriers and recommended some organisational change approach that could be relevant in addressing the current problems faced by management in providing solutions in addressing their diverse workforce, especially ...

  17. A case against bio markers as they are currently used in radioecological risk analyses: a problem of linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Brechignac, F.

    2005-01-01

    Bio-markers are successfully used in human risk analyses as early indicators of contaminant exposure and predictors of deleterious effects. This has boosted the search for bio-markers in determining ecological risks to non-human biota, and particularly for assessments related to radioactive contaminants. There are difficulties, however, that prevent an easy transfer of the bio-marker concept from humans to non-human biota, as there are significant differences in endpoints of concern, units of observation and dose response relationships between human and ecological risk analyses. The use of bio-markers in ecological risk analyses currently lacks a linkage between molecular-level effects and quantifiable impacts observed in individuals and populations. This is important because ecological risk analyses generally target the population level of biological organisation. We highlight various examples that demonstrate the difficulties of linking individual responses to population-level impacts, such as indirect effects and compensatory interactions. Eco-toxicologists cope with such difficulties through the use of uncertainty or extrapolation factors. Extrapolation factors (EF) typically range from 1 to 1000 when linking effects observed in individuals to those predicted to occur in populations. We question what magnitude of EF will be required when going from a molecular level effect, measured by a bio-marker, all the way up to the population level of biological organisation. Particularly, we stress that a successful application of bio-markers to radioecological risk assessment can only be achieved once the connection has been made between changes in individual resource allocation-based life histories and population dynamics. This clearly emphasises the need to quantify the propagation of molecular and cellular level effects to higher levels of biological organisation, especially in the long-term via several generations of exposure. Finally, we identify pertinent research

  18. Survey of the Economic Efficiency of Agricultural Cooperatives in the Buinzahra City and Prioritization of Their Problems Faced in the Management Process and the Marketing System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mahdi Mozaffari

    2016-01-01

    In this study Stochastic Data Envelopment Analysis method was used in order to estimate the economic efficiency of agricultural cooperatives in the Buinzahra city. Moreover, the Analytical Hierarchy Process method and Entropy criteria were used in order to prioritizate the agricultural cooperatives problems of this city in management and marketing system. The required dates were related to the years 2012-2013 during which data were collected by interviewing and completing questionnaires for 4...

  19. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions; Reponse en courant des detecteurs silicium aux particules chargees et aux ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  20. BmTx3, a scorpion toxin with two putative functional faces separately active on A-type K+ and HERG currents.

    OpenAIRE

    Huys, Isabelle; Xu, Chen-Qi; Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Vacher, Hélène; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Chi, Cheng-Wu; Tytgat, Jan

    2004-01-01

    A novel HERG channel blocker was isolated from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, sequenced and characterized at the pharmacological level after chemical synthesis. According to the determined amino acid sequence, the cDNA and genomic genes were then cloned. The genomic gene consists of two exons interrupted by an intron of 65 bp at position -6 upstream from the mature toxin. The protein sequence of this toxin was completely identical with that of a known A-type K+ current bloc...

  1. Odorant binding proteins of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: an example of the problems facing the analysis of widely divergent proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gotzek

    Full Text Available We describe the odorant binding proteins (OBPs of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, obtained from analyses of an EST library and separate 454 sequencing runs of two normalized cDNA libraries. We identified a total of 18 putative functional OBPs in this ant. A third of the fire ant OBPs are orthologs to honey bee OBPs. Another third of the OBPs belong to a lineage-specific expansion, which is a common feature of insect OBP evolution. Like other OBPs, the different fire ant OBPs share little sequence similarity (∼ 20%, rendering evolutionary analyses difficult. We discuss the resulting problems with sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, and tests of selection. As previously suggested, our results underscore the importance for careful exploration of the sensitivity to the effects of alignment methods for data comprising widely divergent sequences.

  2. Report on the second Congress of the Russian nuclear medicine society and on International conference Current problems of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Chernov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the work of Second Congress of Russian Nuclear Medicine Society and International Conference - Current problems of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceuticals, - held in Obninsk in October, 2000, is adduced. Reports presented in the conference are dedicated to various aspects of application of radionuclide methods to cardiology, angiology, oncology, surgery, hematology, endocrinology, pediatrics and neurology. Problems in the development of radiopharmaceutical, training and skill advancement of experts, dosimetry and radiation safety in nuclear medicine were discussed. Congress considered the organizational problems in Russian nuclear medicine [ru

  3. Protected areas in the Atlantic facing the hazards of micro-plastic pollution: first diagnosis of three islands in the Canary Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baztan, Juan; Carrasco, Ana; Chouinard, Omer; Cleaud, Muriel; Gabaldon, Jesús E; Huck, Thierry; Jaffrès, Lionel; Jorgensen, Bethany; Miguelez, Aquilino; Paillard, Christine; Vanderlinden, Jean-Paul

    2014-03-15

    Coastal zones and the biosphere as a whole show signs of cumulative degradation due to the use and disposal of plastics. To better understand the manifestation of plastic pollution in the Atlantic Ocean, we partnered with local communities to determine the concentrations of micro-plastics in 125 beaches on three islands in the Canary Current: Lanzarote, La Graciosa, and Fuerteventura. We found that, in spite of being located in highly-protected natural areas, all beaches in our study area are exceedingly vulnerable to micro-plastic pollution, with pollution levels reaching concentrations greater than 100 g of plastic in 1l of sediment. This paper contributes to ongoing efforts to develop solutions to plastic pollution by addressing the questions: (i) Where does this pollution come from?; (ii) How much plastic pollution is in the world's oceans and coastal zones?; (iii) What are the consequences for the biosphere?; and (iv) What are possible solutions? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Problems Facing Disabled People in Malawi : A Critical Reflection on My Encounter with a Disabled Woman in a Rural Area in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memory J. Tembo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This critical reflection is based on my encounter with a disabled woman in a district in Malawi, and how I have reflected and analyzed the encounter using social work theories. The essay reflects on the story of the disabled woman and my own perception at that time, in addition to my analysis of these perceptions using different perspectives in social work based on my current understanding of these perspectives. In line with Fook’s (2002; 68 critical reflection techniques, social work theories will be applied to deconstruct and reconstruct the critical incident. The essay highlights the challenges and dilemmas I encountered in attempting to make meaning out of this encounter, which left me helpless and powerless, as I could not offer her any sustainable help at the time.

  5. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  6. International Conference 'Current Problems in Nuclear Physics and Atomic Energy'. May 29 - Jun 03 2006. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyshnevskyi, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The collective processes in atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions and processes with exotic nuclei, rare nuclear processes, relativistic nuclear physics, neutron physics, physics of nuclear reactors, problems of atomic energy and reactors of the future, applied nuclear physics and technique of experiments was discussed in this conference

  7. Current Problems of Improving the Environmental Certification and Output Compliance Verification in the Context of Environmental Management in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhambaev, Yerzhan S.; Sagieva, Galia K.; Bazarbek, Bakhytzhan Zh.; Akkulov, Rustem T.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the issues of improving the activity of subjects of environmental management in accordance with international environmental standards and national environmental legislation. The article deals with the problem of ensuring the implementation of international environmental standards, the introduction of eco-management, and the…

  8. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear friction calculated from nucleon currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Vinas, X.; Barranco, M.; La Rana, G.; Leray, S.; Lucas, R.; Ngo, C.; Tomasi, E.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear friction can be connected to the number of nucleons exchanged between two interacting nuclei. The proximity scaling allows to reduce this problem to a calculation of the nucleon current between two semi infinite slabs of nuclear matter facing each other. In this paper we review the approximations and the results concerning this problem with a special emphasis on the physical ideas. Applications of nucleons currents to Fermi jets and to the calculation of a part of the imaginary potential are also discussed

  10. Magnetic diagnostics: General principles and the problem of reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    Restrictions on magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, these follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is analysed. The general rule is emphasized that information obtained from external magnetic measurements is insufficient for reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks and in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the self-field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface alone. (author)

  11. Magnetic diagnostics: general principles and the problem of reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2000-04-01

    The restrictions of the magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, they follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of particular examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is given and analyzed. A general rule is emphasized that the information obtained from external magnetic measurements is obviously insufficient for the reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks or in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the own field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface only. (author)

  12. Virtual & Real Face to Face Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta

    2016-01-01

    In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…

  13. Semantic analisis on faces using deep neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Federico Pellejero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the problem of automatic emotion recognition and classification through video. Nowadays there are excellent results focused on lab-made datasets, with posed facial expressions. On the other hand there is room for a lot of improvement in the case of `in the wild' datasets, where light, face angle to the camera, etc. are taken into account. In these cases it could be very harmful to work with a small dataset. Currently, there are not big enough datasets of adequately labeled faces for the task.\\\\ We use Generative Adversarial Networks in order to train models in a semi-supervised fashion, generating realistic face images in the process, allowing the exploitation of a big cumulus of unlabeled face images.

  14. Analyzing the problems with the current adoption of IFRS in the companies among India, China, Germany, Russia and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Mosomi Ombati; Anita Shukla

    2018-01-01

    Accounting information provides past and current financial information of an economic unit for business managers, potential investors, and other interested parties. Internally generated accounting information helps business managers with planning, controlling, and making decisions referred to as managerial accounting information. However, if the companies, which have adopted International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) globally, cannot generate the same information then the accounting p...

  15. Several problems of algorithmization in integrated computation programs on third generation computers for short circuit currents in complex power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, V.A.; Pisarenko, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of modeling complex power networks with short circuits in the networks are described. The methods are implemented in integrated computation programs for short circuit currents and equivalents in electrical networks with a large number of branch points (up to 1000) on a computer with a limited on line memory capacity (M equals 4030 for the computer).

  16. Identifying criteria for multimodel software process improvement solutions : based on a review of current problems and initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelemen, Z.D.; Kusters, R.J.; Trienekens, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we analyze current initiatives in multimodel software process improvement and identify criteria for multimodel solutions. With multimodel, we mean the simultaneous usage of more than one quality approach (e.g. standards, methods, techniques to improve software processes). This paper

  17. A Socio-Cultural Reframing of Science and Dis/ability in Education: Past Problems, Current Concerns, and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, David J.; Valle, Jan W.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we assert the value of a socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education. We begin by problematizing current issues in education pertaining to the often-unquestioned concept of dis/ability and the impact that has upon research, theory, practice, and policy. As our topic is broad, we have chosen to focus upon four…

  18. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  19. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Floyd, R Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically.

  20. Depression and Associated Suicidal Behaviour in Children and Adolescents: Current Views and the Problem State Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Rymsha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been performed the analytical analysis of the world literature dedicated to the epidemiology, etiology, current approaches to the pathogenesis, clinical picture and diagnosis criteria for the depressive disorders in children and adolescents as well as the associated suicidal behavior and the social significance of this disease with its consequences. Key recommendations on the treatment and prophylaxis of depression in children and adolescents according to the last evidence-base European and American guidelines are considered.

  1. Current and future prospects for the application of systematic theoretical methods to the study of problems in physical oceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, A., E-mail: adrian.constantin@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Johnson, R.S., E-mail: r.s.johnson@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mathematics & Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-07

    Highlights: • Systematic theoretical methods in studies of equatorial ocean dynamics. • Linear wave-current interactions in stratified flows. • Exact solutions – Kelvin waves, azimuthal non-uniform currents. • Three-dimensional nonlinear currents. • Hamiltonian formulation for the governing equations and for structure-preserving/enhancing approximations. - Abstract: This essay is a commentary on the pivotal role of systematic theoretical methods in physical oceanography. At some level, there will always be a conflict between theory and experiment/data collection: Which is pre-eminent? Which should come first? This issue appears to be particularly marked in physical oceanography, to the extreme detriment of the development of the subject. It is our contention that the classical theory of fluids, coupled with methods from the theory of differential equations, can play a significant role in carrying the subject, and our understanding, forward. We outline the philosophy behind a systematic theoretical approach, highlighting some aspects of equatorial ocean dynamics where these methods have already been successful, paving the way for much more in the future and leading, we expect, to the better understanding of this and many other types of ocean flow. We believe that the ideas described here promise to reveal a rich and beautiful dynamical structure.

  2. Current Economic and Financial Crisis – New Issues or Returning to the Old Problems? Paradigms, Causes, Effects and Solutions Adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix TOTIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ideological level, the current crisis, as the others in history, has triggered an intellectual debate among several applicable ideas: ultra-liberal theory of the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith, Keynes's theory of state interventionism and even neo-Marxist theories. Globalization, with all its core components, generates a chain reaction when the phenomenon occurs, either positive or negative. The origin of the current financial crisis should be sought in the effects of massive cross-border capital flows and the use of more complex derivatives. Reaching the saturation of the three engines of economic growth worldwide in the period after the collapse of the socialist bloc is another important cause of all the failures that currently exist worldwide. Acquisition of toxic assets from bank balance sheets, their recapitalization and takeover by the state, but also the reinforcement of the prudential supervision of capitalization, liquidity and risk management system, improved transparency and speed the process of evaluating or reinforcing authorities' response to risk, can be considered short or long term anti-crisis measures, as appropriate.

  3. Beyond Faces and Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  4. Problems facing a first nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.

    1986-01-01

    Requirement of nuclear power generation. Reason for considering a nuclear power programme. Decision to 'go nuclear'. Existing antecedents in the country (nuclear research institution, conventional generating plants, other nuclear utilities). - First organizational steps. Feasibility studies. Site selection and power module. Eventual reactor type decision. Site approval. - Pre-purchasing activities. Eventual selection of a consultant. Domestic participation capabilities. Pre-qualification bids. - Definition of contract type and scopes. Turn-key/non-turn-key. Architect Engineer organization. Bidding documentation. Financing. Warranties. Role of the owner. Licensing procedures and regulations. (orig./GL)

  5. How Hungary is Facing Waste Disposal Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormai, P.; Frigyesi, F.; Gresits, I.; Solymosi, J.; Vincze, A.

    1999-01-01

    Management of radioactive waste of nuclear power plant origin comprises two main tasks: management of the high-level (spent fuel) and the low-and intermediate-level waste (LILW). With a plan to start operation of a repository for low-and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at the beginning of the next century, a site investigation programme was started in 1993. The site selection procedure. Between 1993-1995 some 300 geological objects were identified as potentially suitable for either near surface or tunnel-type disposal. The first stage of the site exploration has been performed and the decision on the continuation of the programme is due to by the end of 1998

  6. 4. International Conference on Current Problems in Nuclear Physics and Atomic Energy (NPAE-Kyiv2012). Proceedings. Part I and Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyshnevskyi, Ivan M.

    2012-01-01

    Such wide area of topics, discussed during the Conference, is closely connected with the interests of our country to develop the fundamental research in the field of nuclear physics, which is the base of nuclear energy. The purpose of the Conference was to bring together scientists to share their knowledge in the current problems in nuclear physics and atomic energy. consideration of the spherical ground-state proton emitters, while nuclear deformations are supposed to be further included by standard way

  7. Currents and the energy-momentum tensor in classical field theory: a fresh look at an old problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forger, Michael; Roemer, Hartmann

    2004-01-01

    We give a comprehensive review of various methods to define currents and the energy-momentum tensor in classical field theory, with emphasis on a geometric point of view. The necessity of 'improving' the expressions provided by the canonical Noether procedure is addressed and given an adequate geometric framework. The main new ingredient is the explicit formulation of a principle of 'ultralocality' with respect to the symmetry generators, which is shown to fix the ambiguity inherent in the procedure of improvement and guide it towards a unique answer: when combined with the appropriate splitting of the fields into sectors, it leads to the well-known expressions for the current as the variational derivative of the matter field Lagrangian with respect to the gauge field and for the energy-momentum tensor as the variational derivative of the matter field Lagrangian with respect to the metric tensor. In the second case, the procedure is shown to work even when the matter field Lagrangian depends explicitly on the curvature, thus establishing the correct relation between scale invariance, in the form of local Weyl invariance 'on shell', and tracelessness of the energy-momentum tensor, required for a consistent definition of the concept of a conformal field theory

  8. Tunnel Face Stability & New CPT Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broere, W.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly all tunnels bored in soft soils have encountered problems with the stability of the tunnel face. In several cases these problems led to an extended stand-still of the boring process. A better understanding of the face stability, and of the soil conditions around the tunnel boring machine, can

  9. Current approaches to improve the anticancer chemotherapy with alkylating agents: state of the problem in world and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsyshyna A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are frequently used in many established anticancer chemotherapies. They alkylate the genomic DNA at various sites. Alkylation of the guanine at the O6-position is cytotoxic, it has the strongest mutagenic potential, as well as can cause the tumor development. Alkyl groups at the O6-position of guanine are removed by the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. The effectiveness of alkylating chemotherapy is limited by MGMT in cancer cells and adverse toxic side effects in normal cells. Different approaches consisting in the modulation of the MGMT expression and activity are under development now to improve the cancer chemotherapy. They include two main directions, in particular, the increase in chemosensitivity of cancer cells to alkylating drugs and the protection of normal cells from the toxic side effects of chemotherapy. This review is focused on current attempts to improve the alkylating chemotherapy of malignant tumours worldwide and state of the issue in Ukraine

  10. Customer-centered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Q B

    1999-11-01

    If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.

  11. [Current status and problems of regional maternal and child health education in the curriculum of midwifery education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, I

    1989-01-01

    According to the evaluations made by medical Technical Junior Colleges in Japan, general objectives in midwifery education are met, but their curriculum does not cater to each region's health care needs sufficiently. Japanese midwifery students can either attend a 6 month training program offered at 80 different locations, or enroll in a 1 year special-major program at one of the 10 Medical Technical Junior Colleges affiliated with National Universities. According to the curriculum revised in 1971, midwifery students are required to take the following courses and hours in 6 months. Intro. to Maternal and Child Health (15 hours), Maternal and Child Health Medicine (60 hours), Lecture on Midwifery (105 hrs), Practice in Midwifery (135 hrs), Midwifery Business Administration (60 hrs), Maternal and Child Health Administration including internship (225 hrs), Regional Maternal and Child Health including internship (105 hrs) and Family Sociology (15 hours). Regional Maternal and Child Health course (RMCH) is effectively taught only if all the maternal and child health courses and lecture on midwifery are taken beforehand. Objectives for RMCH course are becoming able to assess the state of maternal and child health care in the region and give constructive criticism and suggestions for improvement including legal aspects, acquiring positive attitudes and necessary skills for advancing and having understanding of regional health care and that of midwives' role of it. While the curriculum prepares the students for meeting the patients' physical needs, the students are not ready to cope with their psychological and socio-physiological problems surrounding individuals, families and communities. Changes and diversification of regional communities should be taken into consideration also in the curriculum. Increase in nuclear families, increase in working wives, isolation and/or over-crowding of high rise apartment living are some of the examples. Midwifery activity is also

  12. Eldercare at Home: Communication Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Communication Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem Communication ... when the older person is most alert. Talk face-to-face and maintain eye contact. A good way to ...

  13. How artificial intelligence tools can be used to assess individual patient risk in cardiovascular disease: problems with the current methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi Enzo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years a number of algorithms for cardiovascular risk assessment has been proposed to the medical community. These algorithms consider a number of variables and express their results as the percentage risk of developing a major fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event in the following 10 to 20 years Discussion The author has identified three major pitfalls of these algorithms, linked to the limitation of the classical statistical approach in dealing with this kind of non linear and complex information. The pitfalls are the inability to capture the disease complexity, the inability to capture process dynamics, and the wide confidence interval of individual risk assessment. Artificial Intelligence tools can provide potential advantage in trying to overcome these limitations. The theoretical background and some application examples related to artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been reviewed and discussed. Summary The use of predictive algorithms to assess individual absolute risk of cardiovascular future events is currently hampered by methodological and mathematical flaws. The use of newer approaches, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, linked to artificial intelligence, seems to better address both the challenge of increasing complexity resulting from a correlation between predisposing factors, data on the occurrence of cardiovascular events, and the prediction of future events on an individual level.

  14. Computer-aided detection in computed tomography colonography. Current status and problems with detection of early colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakijima, Yasuo; Iinuma, Gen; Arai, Yasuaki; Shiraishi, Junji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Beddoe, G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computer-aided detection (CAD) in diagnosing early colorectal cancer using computed tomography colonography (CTC). A total of 30 CTC data sets for 30 early colorectal cancers in 30 patients were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists. After primary evaluation, a second reading was performed using CAD findings. The readers evaluated each colorectal segment for the presence or absence of colorectal cancer using five confidence rating levels. To compare the assessment results, the sensitivity and specificity with and without CAD were calculated on the basis of the confidence rating, and differences in these variables were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The average sensitivities for the detection without and with CAD for the three readers were 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively. Among the three readers, only one reader improved sensitivity with CAD compared to that without. CAD decreased specificity in all three readers. CAD detected 100% of protruding lesions but only 69.2% of flat lesions. On ROC analysis, the diagnostic performance of all three readers was decreased by use of CAD. Currently available CAD with CTC does not improve diagnostic performance for detecting early colorectal cancer. An improved CAD algorithm is required for detecting fiat lesions and reducing the false-positive rate. (author)

  15. Elevated vaginal pH in the absence of current vaginal infection, still a challenging obstetrical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Javadian, Pouya; Shariat, Mamak; Amini, Elaheh; Abdollahi, Alireza; Kashanian, Maryam

    2014-04-01

    To assess the association of vaginal pH ≥ 5 in the absence of vaginal infection with systemic inflammation and adverse pregnancy outcome. Four-hundred sixty pregnant women completed the study, upon enrollment Vaginal pH was measured for all women, maternal and umbilical sera were obtained for determining C-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid levels. Umbilical blood was tested for gas parameters, 1 and 5 min Apgar scores, the need for neonatal resuscitation and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were recorded. Elevated vaginal pH was significantly associated with preterm birth (odds ratio (OR), 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-4.76), emergency cesarean section (OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.32-5), neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room (OR 2.85; 95% CI 1.1-7.38), elevated cord base deficit (OR 8.01; 95% CI 1.61-39.81), low cord bicarbonate (OR 4.16, 95% CI 1.33-12.92) and NICU admission (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.12-3.66). Increased vaginal pH was also significantly associated with maternal leukocytosis, hyperuricemia and elevated CRP levels in maternal and umbilical sera. Elevated vaginal pH in the absence of current vaginal infection still constitutes a risk for adverse pregnancy outcome which is mediated by systemic inflammatory response.

  16. A socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education: past problems, current concerns, and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, David J.; Valle, Jan W.

    2015-12-01

    In this article we assert the value of a socio-cultural reframing of science and dis/ability in education. We begin by problematizing current issues in education pertaining to the often-unquestioned concept of dis/ability and the impact that has upon research, theory, practice, and policy. As our topic is broad, we have chosen to focus upon four interconnected areas: (1) the historical mistrust of science and pseudo-science by people with dis/abilities; (2) the pervasive use of pseudo-science within the contemporary field of special education; (3) the use of dis/ability studies in education (DSE) to provide a contrast between a traditional positivist framing and a socio-cultural framing of dis/ability, and; (4) a brief exploration of what a DSE/socio-cultural grounding looks like for both schools and classroom teachers. In sum, our intention is to engage science educators to reject deficit-notions of dis/ability in favor of understanding it as part of human variation, and consider the personal and professional benefits of this shift.

  17. How artificial intelligence tools can be used to assess individual patient risk in cardiovascular disease: problems with the current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Enzo

    2006-05-03

    In recent years a number of algorithms for cardiovascular risk assessment has been proposed to the medical community. These algorithms consider a number of variables and express their results as the percentage risk of developing a major fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event in the following 10 to 20 years The author has identified three major pitfalls of these algorithms, linked to the limitation of the classical statistical approach in dealing with this kind of non linear and complex information. The pitfalls are the inability to capture the disease complexity, the inability to capture process dynamics, and the wide confidence interval of individual risk assessment. Artificial Intelligence tools can provide potential advantage in trying to overcome these limitations. The theoretical background and some application examples related to artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been reviewed and discussed. The use of predictive algorithms to assess individual absolute risk of cardiovascular future events is currently hampered by methodological and mathematical flaws. The use of newer approaches, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, linked to artificial intelligence, seems to better address both the challenge of increasing complexity resulting from a correlation between predisposing factors, data on the occurrence of cardiovascular events, and the prediction of future events on an individual level.

  18. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  19. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  20. Karl Rahner, Walter Kasper and Hans Kung on the Current State, Problems and Dimensions of Contemporary theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipenko Evgenii

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Political history, philosophy, culture and science of the 19th century came to be very important factors in the development of Christian theology, primarily in Western Europe. Major issues of correlation between modern science, philosophical concepts of the modern period, secular ethics and Christianity led to a revision of many traditional theological concepts. There were suggested new methods of solving urgent theological, pastoral and missionary problems. The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council of Roman Catholic Church represented a vivid and constructive response to contemporary challenges. German theologians were among those who contributed significantly to the dialogue between the Church and modern world. The central fi gure among them was Karl Rahner. Using achievements of modern European thought, especially transcendental and existential philosophy, Rahner made Christian theology tenable for modern historical criticism and placed the person and the experience of faith as a crucial object of theological investigation. It may seem a paradox, but the unity of Catholic dogma in the 20th century came to be established not on the unity of the formal scholastic doctrine, proclaimed straightforwardly by Church magisterium, but on theological pluralism and historical dynamism, as well as on hermeneutical analysis of the dogma and inexpressible mystical experience of Revelation proclaimed by Rahner. Walter Kasper used Rahner’s ideas when he pointed to scientific rigour, ecclesiasticism and willingness to be opened to the world as main features of modern theology. At the same time, he considers it impossible to reject metaphysics and to reduce theology to a number of disparate academic studies. He sees the Holy Scriptures and church tradition as the essential foundation for systematic theology and argues that it is necessary to restore the balance between the freedom of theological investigation and the hierarchical control of Church magisterium

  1. [Current state of training in pharmacy education using a problem-based learning/tutorial model with simulated patients and standardized patients at National University Corporation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Tetsumi; Nitta, Atsumi; Akaike, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    Simulated/standardized patient-based (SP) education and problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial education become a powerful tool to heighten the pharmacy students' will to learn in order to cultivate the responsibility to contribute to public health and welfare as a clinical professional and to facilitate students' competences to solve problems by themselves. What this program is trying to do is: 1) to establish the system to train, educate and supply SP who are effective in the training and education of pharmacy students in close cooperation with the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals; 2) to improve the quality of the current PBL tutorial education and thereby establish it as an advanced education program in the education of senior students. We carried out the questionnaire to National University Corporation which establishes a school of pharmacy, as to the training and education of SP. The analysis of the answers to the questionnaire revealed the present status of SP in the Pharmaceutical Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in the Pharmaceutical Common Achievement Test, and the existence of the problems on how to standardize SP as well as how to cover such expenses. Furthermore, the activity of the first year consisted of the exchange and sharing of information regarding the existing method of training and education of SP and PBL tutorial education and the identification of the problems to be solved in order to improve the quality of the educational program.

  2. Avaliação dos problemas enfrentados no manejo do caramujo gigante africano Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata no Brasil Evaluation of the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Colley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Paraná, Brazil, in the 1980s. Since then, it has spread across the country, despite its known invasive status on a global scale. The main objective of this study was to assess the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail. To accomplish that, we gathered and analyzed information available on the internet, scientific databases, field studies, as well as interviews and consultations with official agencies, NGOs, museums, the scientific community and people that coexist with the species. Despite the fact that extensive information has been generated regarding A. fulica (1,340 articles, 65 summaries in national annals, 40,700 pages on the internet, essential to promote control measures to hinder the propagation of this species, the majority of the available information remains inaccessible to the world at large. Moreover, the environmental, economic and health impacts of this species remain unclear, which may contribute to discouraging the initiation of management actions. Finally, control measures are still inefficient due to the generalist profile of this species and the lack of knowledge concerning its biology and ecology. Thus, in conclusion, even though A. fulica has been an invasive species for over a century in many other countries, it is difficult to find evidence supporting the need to subsidize its management. This may be an indication that many other, poorly known exotic species will have time and the proper conditions to become established and cause problems before they come to be recognized as invasive.

  3. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  4. IntraFace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/.

  5. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  6. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi-Taka Matsuda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.

  7. The complex duration perception of emotional faces: Effects of face direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Martina Kliegl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009 reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented towards the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance and an evolutionary context.

  8. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  9. [The problems of antihypertensive balneotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirskiĭ, E V; Fil'tsagina, T N

    2013-01-01

    This review is devoted to the challenging problems of balneotherapeutics, such as the mechanisms of antihypertensive balneotherapy and its optimization. The experience of the authors with the practical application of chloride - sodium, iodine - bromide, and hydrogen sulfide mineral baths is analysed in comparison with the literature data. The role, dosage regimen, and duration of balneotherapeutic treatment as well as the effectiveness of its combination with medicamental therapy are considered. The authors hope that the discussion of these issues will be conducive to the solution of problems currently facing modern antihypertensive balneotherapy.

  10. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians......: A qualitative study consisting of ten individual interviews with Danish midwives, all of whom had taken part in late TOP. RESULTS: Current practice of late TOP resembles the practice of normal deliveries and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...

  11. View based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    Face recognition is a challenging problem for surveillance view images commonly encountered in a forensic face recognition case. One approach to deal with a non-frontal test image is to synthesize the corresponding frontal view image and compare it with frontal view reference images. However, it is

  12. Robust online face tracking-by-detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comaschi, F.; Stuijk, S.; Basten, T.; Corporaal, H.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of online face tracking from unconstrained videos is still unresolved. Challenges range from coping with severe online appearance variations to coping with occlusion. We propose RFTD (Robust Face Tracking-by-Detection), a system which combines tracking and detection into a single

  13. Editing faces in videos

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Editing faces in movies is of interest in the special effects industry. We aim at producing effects such as the addition of accessories interacting correctly with the face or replacing the face of a stuntman with the face of the main actor. The system introduced in this thesis is based on a 3D generative face model. Using a 3D model makes it possible to edit the face in the semantic space of pose, expression, and identity instead of pixel space, and due to its 3D nature allows...

  14. A case of pneumonia and sepsis in cirrhosis as paradigm of the problems in the management of bacterial infections in cirrhosis and of the limitations of current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tufoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are a major problem in the management of liver cirrhosis. They represent the first precipitating cause of death since patients with cirrhosis carry an increased risk of sepsis, sepsis-induced organ failure and death. Although the clinical presentation is often misleading, the presence of bacterial infection should always be actively searched and ruled out with certainty whenever a cirrhotic patient is admitted to the hospital with an acute clinical deterioration. Major changes in the epidemiology of bacterial infections have also occurred in the last decade making the choice of empirical antibiotic therapy a challenge. We report a paradigmatic case of a 54-year old man with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis admitted to the hospital for worsening of his ascites and onset of hepatic encephalopathy, an excellent example for the difficulties of management of sepsis in cirrhosis and the limits of current knowledge.

  15. Continuum model of tensile fracture of metal melts and its application to a problem of high-current electron irradiation of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Alexander E.; Mayer, Polina N.

    2015-01-01

    A continuum model of the metal melt fracture is formulated on the basis of the continuum mechanics and theory of metastable liquid. A character of temperature and strain rate dependences of the tensile strength that is predicted by the continuum model is verified, and parameters of the model are fitted with the use of the results of the molecular dynamics simulations for ultra-high strain rates (≥1–10/ns). A comparison with experimental data from literature is also presented for Al and Ni melts. Using the continuum model, the dynamic tensile strength of initially uniform melts of Al, Cu, Ni, Fe, Ti, and Pb within a wide range of strain rates (from 1–10/ms to 100/ns) and temperatures (from melting temperature up to 70–80% of critical temperature) is calculated. The model is applied to numerical investigation of a problem of the high-current electron irradiation of Al, Cu, and Fe targets

  16. Face Gear Technology for Aerospace Power Transmission Progresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The use of face gears in an advanced rotorcraft transmission design was first proposed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company during their contracted effort with the U.S. Army under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program. Face gears would be used to turn the corner between the horizontal gas turbine engine and the vertical output rotor shaft--a function currently done by spiral bevel gears. This novel gearing arrangement would substantially lower the drive system weight partly because a face gear mesh would be used to split the input power between two output gears. However, the use of face gears and their ability to operate successfully at the speeds and loads required for an aerospace environment was unknown. Therefore a proof-of-concept phase with an existing test stand at the NASA Lewis Research Center was pursued. Hardware was designed that could be tested in Lewis' Spiral Bevel Gear Test Rig. The initial testing indicated that the face gear mesh was a feasible design that could be used at high speeds and load. Surface pitting fatigue was the typical failure mode, and that could lead to tooth fracture. An interim project was conducted to see if slight modifications to the gear tooth geometry or an alternative heat treating process could overcome the surface fatigue problems. From the initial and interim tests, it was apparent that for the surface fatigue problems to be overcome the manufacturing process used for this component would have to be developed to the level used for spiral bevel gears. The current state of the art for face gear manufacturing required using less than optimal gear materials and manufacturing techniques because the surface of the tooth form does not receive final finishing after heat treatment as it does for spiral bevel gears. This resulted in less than desirable surface hardness and manufacturing tolerances. An Advanced Research and Projects Agency (ARPA) Technology Reinvestment Project has been funded to investigate

  17. [Treatment goals in FACE philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  18. Processing of emotional faces in social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kristjansen Rosenberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that individuals with social phobia differ from controls in their processing of emotional faces. For instance, people with social phobia show increased attention to briefly presented threatening faces. However, when exposure times are increased, the direction of this attentional bias is more unclear. Studies investigating eye movements have found both increased as well as decreased attention to threatening faces in socially anxious participants. The current study investigated eye movements to emotional faces in eight patients with social phobia and 34 controls. Three different tasks with different exposure durations were used, which allowed for an investigation of the time course of attention. At the early time interval, patients showed a complex pattern of both vigilance and avoidance of threatening faces. At the longest time interval, patients avoided the eyes of sad, disgust, and neutral faces more than controls, whereas there were no group differences for angry faces.

  19. Discrimination between smiling faces: Human observers vs. automated face analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Líbano, Mario; Calvo, Manuel G; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Recio, Guillermo

    2018-05-11

    This study investigated (a) how prototypical happy faces (with happy eyes and a smile) can be discriminated from blended expressions with a smile but non-happy eyes, depending on type and intensity of the eye expression; and (b) how smile discrimination differs for human perceivers versus automated face analysis, depending on affective valence and morphological facial features. Human observers categorized faces as happy or non-happy, or rated their valence. Automated analysis (FACET software) computed seven expressions (including joy/happiness) and 20 facial action units (AUs). Physical properties (low-level image statistics and visual saliency) of the face stimuli were controlled. Results revealed, first, that some blended expressions (especially, with angry eyes) had lower discrimination thresholds (i.e., they were identified as "non-happy" at lower non-happy eye intensities) than others (especially, with neutral eyes). Second, discrimination sensitivity was better for human perceivers than for automated FACET analysis. As an additional finding, affective valence predicted human discrimination performance, whereas morphological AUs predicted FACET discrimination. FACET can be a valid tool for categorizing prototypical expressions, but is currently more limited than human observers for discrimination of blended expressions. Configural processing facilitates detection of in/congruence(s) across regions, and thus detection of non-genuine smiling faces (due to non-happy eyes). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  1. Comparing word and face recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Ro Julia; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    included, as a control, which makes designing experiments all the more challenging. Three main strategies have been used to overcome this problem, each of which has limitations: 1) Compare performances on typical tests of the three stimulus types (e.g., a Face Memory Test, an Object recognition test...... this framework to classify tests and experiments aiming to compare processing across these categories, it becomes apparent that core differences in characteristics (visual and semantic) between the stimuli make the problem of designing comparable tests an insoluble conundrum. By analyzing the experimental...

  2. Physiology-based face recognition in the thermal infrared spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddharaju, Pradeep; Pavlidis, Ioannis T; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Bazakos, Mike

    2007-04-01

    The current dominant approaches to face recognition rely on facial characteristics that are on or over the skin. Some of these characteristics have low permanency can be altered, and their phenomenology varies significantly with environmental factors (e.g., lighting). Many methodologies have been developed to address these problems to various degrees. However, the current framework of face recognition research has a potential weakness due to its very nature. We present a novel framework for face recognition based on physiological information. The motivation behind this effort is to capitalize on the permanency of innate characteristics that are under the skin. To establish feasibility, we propose a specific methodology to capture facial physiological patterns using the bioheat information contained in thermal imagery. First, the algorithm delineates the human face from the background using the Bayesian framework. Then, it localizes the superficial blood vessel network using image morphology. The extracted vascular network produces contour shapes that are characteristic to each individual. The branching points of the skeletonized vascular network are referred to as Thermal Minutia Points (TMPs) and constitute the feature database. To render the method robust to facial pose variations, we collect for each subject to be stored in the database five different pose images (center, midleft profile, left profile, midright profile, and right profile). During the classification stage, the algorithm first estimates the pose of the test image. Then, it matches the local and global TMP structures extracted from the test image with those of the corresponding pose images in the database. We have conducted experiments on a multipose database of thermal facial images collected in our laboratory, as well as on the time-gap database of the University of Notre Dame. The good experimental results show that the proposed methodology has merit, especially with respect to the problem of

  3. Face time: educating face transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparello, Brooke M; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients' needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care.

  4. Dissociating Face Identity and Facial Expression Processing Via Visual Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Face identity and facial expression are processed in two distinct neural pathways. However, most of the existing face adaptation literature studies them separately, despite the fact that they are two aspects from the same face. The current study conducted a systematic comparison between these two aspects by face adaptation, investigating how top- and bottom-half face parts contribute to the processing of face identity and facial expression. A real face (sad, “Adam” and its two size-equivalent face parts (top- and bottom-half were used as the adaptor in separate conditions. For face identity adaptation, the test stimuli were generated by morphing Adam's sad face with another person's sad face (“Sam”. For facial expression adaptation, the test stimuli were created by morphing Adam's sad face with his neutral face and morphing the neutral face with his happy face. In each trial, after exposure to the adaptor, observers indicated the perceived face identity or facial expression of the following test face via a key press. They were also tested in a baseline condition without adaptation. Results show that the top- and bottom-half face each generated a significant face identity aftereffect. However, the aftereffect by top-half face adaptation is much larger than that by the bottom-half face. On the contrary, only the bottom-half face generated a significant facial expression aftereffect. This dissociation of top- and bottom-half face adaptation suggests that face parts play different roles in face identity and facial expression. It thus provides further evidence for the distributed systems of face perception.

  5. Current srate and problems in Japanese petroleum development. ; International trends in petroleum development and problems in Japanese devepment business. Waga kuni sekiyu kaihatsu no genjyo to mondai ten. ; Sekiyu kaihatsu no kokusai doko to waga kuni kaihatsu jigyo no kasai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-05

    Petroleum production and its supply and demand require ever closer coordinations among the countries involved. On the other hand, however, there a large number of difficult questions as the problems of global environmental pollution and greenhouse effects increase their seriousness and the economic resources in the petroleum business become scarcer. This paper describes the current state of the Japanese petroleum development, the necessity of spontaneous petroleum development, the international trends in the petroleum development business, and the tasks for Japan in the petroleum development business. Japan is a late comer in the petroleum development business. There are such difficulties as sizes of oil fields being discoverd are becoming smaller, the natural conditions in development target areas are getting severer, and the economic effects are inferior. Japan, whose petroleum self-supply rate is about 0.3%, whose petroleum dependency is heightening as a result of increase in nuclear power generation, and who is the third largest petroleum consuming country next to the U.S.A and Soviet, must use efficiently her financial and technical powers to vitalize her spontaneous petroleum development. Japan has a duty to contribute to the world {prime}s future stabilized supply of oil. The Japanese Government has launched the five-year fund development plan to perform basic surveys for ail in the north-east part of the Japan Sea and the pacific Ocean.

  6. The Secrets of Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    1998-01-01

    This is a comment on an article by Perrett et al., on the same issue of Nature, investigating face perception. With computer graphics, Perrett and colleagues have produced exaggerated male and female faces, and asked people to rate them with respect to femininity or masculinity, and personality traits such as intelligence, emotionality and so on. The key question is: what informations do faces (and sexual signals in general) convey? One view, supported by Perrett and colleagues, is that all a...

  7. Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures. To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH, are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER at a given depth of field (DoF and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones.

  8. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  9. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clustering Millions of Faces by Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Charles; Wang, Dayong; Jain, Anil K

    2018-02-01

    Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0.87 on the LFW benchmark (13 K faces of 5,749 individuals), which drops to 0.27 on the largest dataset considered (13 K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0.71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.

  11. Trust and Understanding in Face-to-Face and Synchronous Online Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Yvonne; van der Wijst, Per; Damen, Debby; van Amelsvoort, Marije; Zaraté, P.; Camilleri, G.; Kamissoko, D.; Amblard, F.

    This study investigates to what extent the synchronous character of chat communication overcomes the problems in creating mutual understanding and trust between conflicting parties. An experimental study was conducted in which participants negotiated with a confederate in either a face-to-face or

  12. Learning Opportunities in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication and Face-to-Face Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yeong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) and face-to-face (F2F) oral interaction influence the way in which learners collaborate in language learning and how they solve their communicative problems. The findings suggest that output modality may affect how learners produce language, attend to linguistic forms,…

  13. Face-to-face versus computer-mediated communication in a primary school setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijden, H.A.T. van der; Veenman, S.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication is increasingly being used to support cooperative problem solving and decision making in schools. Despite the large body of literature on cooperative or collaborative learning, few studies have explicitly compared peer learning in face-to-face (FTF) versus

  14. Emotion Regulation Enhancement of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Student Problem Drinkers: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Grasso, Damion J.; Levine, Joan; Tennen, Howard

    2018-01-01

    This pilot randomized clinical trial tested an emotion regulation enhancement to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with 29 college student problem drinkers with histories of complex trauma and current clinically significant traumatic stress symptoms. Participants received eight face-to-face sessions of manualized Internet-supported CBT for problem…

  15. Description vs. Interpretation: The Attitudes of Traditional and Current Archaeology Towards the Problem of Impresso-Barbotine in the Early Neolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Vuković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the relationship impresso-barbotine has been chosen here, as an excellent example to illustrate the tendencies and shortcomings of the Yugoslav/Serbian archaeology during the major part of the 20th century, as well as the results forming the base for future research and new conclusions. The impresso-barbotine problem has been recognized as one of the important aspects of research into the Early Neolithic as early as in the 1950s, and formed the base for the formation of several relative chronological system. However, although the culture-historical approach is based upon detailed description and stylistic-typological analyses, these phenomena are defined and described in a number of different ways (if at all, causing great confusion. The highly simplified notion about the production and usage of ceramic ware, as well as the negligence for the functional and technological aspects, resulted in the absence of a clear statement if these techniques are in fact a form of decoration or surface treatment. On the other hand, paradoxically, these "elusive" phenomena have been taken as very precise chronological markers. The conclusions are not questionable even today, since the recent research has proven the chronological primacy of impresso over barbotine. Here, however, the shortcomings of the culture- historical method are most obvious: after the establishment of the relative chronological sequence and the identification of a change in the material culture, the reasons that induced the changes are not considered – interpretation is completely absent. However, the current archaeological trends focus upon the processes leading to changes in the material culture, the ones that cannot be explained without considering technology – from forming techniques to modes of usage. Bearing in mind that impresso, and afterwards barbotine appear on the same functional classes of pottery (storage, transportation, it may seem that the same idea

  16. Current status and problems of decontamination by municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture. Records from four and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Kota

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses the current status and problems of decontamination by 52 municipalities out of 59 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture, four and a half years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, mainly based on the results of a questionnaire survey. The area corresponds to in all municipalities except for the 7 whose entire administrative area has been designated as Special Decontamination Area. This study reveals that (1) the number of municipalities which planned, ordered and implemented decontamination work has peaked although decontamination work of public facilities, housing, roads, farmland and forests has been still carried out in many municipalities, (2) about half of the municipalities have not secured enough temporary storage sites for contaminated soil and waste, (3) many municipalities recognize that construction of interim storage facilities, transfer of contaminated soil and waste from each municipality to interim storage facilities, and maintenance of temporary storage sites are major challenges concerning decontamination work, (4) about half of the municipalities regard efforts concerning decontamination work by the national government and the Fukushima prefectural government office as inadequate, (5) not a few municipalities recognize that residents cannot live their lives with a sense of safety and security unless air radiation dose is reduced to the level before the accident, and (6) most municipalities recognize that safe living environments can be recovered by decontamination work. Finally, based on these results, this study points out early completion of interim storage facilities and development of conditions to maintain and manage temporary storage sites, the end of decontamination work based on the air radiation dose rate, and establishment of decontamination policies concerning forests, rivers and waterways, as main future challenges concerning decontamination work by municipalities. (author)

  17. Morphing morphing faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, R.J. van

    2009-01-01

    We have made cyclic morphing animations using two different faces. The morphing animations gradually evolved from one face to the other, and vice versa. When free viewing, the perceived changes were not very large, but the changes could easily be observed. Observers were asked to fixate on a dot

  18. EEG source imaging assists decoding in a face recognition task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus S.; Eliasen, Anders U.; Pedersen, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    of face recognition. This task concerns the differentiation of brain responses to images of faces and scrambled faces and poses a rather difficult decoding problem at the single trial level. We implement the pipeline using spatially focused features and show that this approach is challenged and source...

  19. Interference among the Processing of Facial Emotion, Face Race, and Face Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-01-01

    People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender). PMID:27840621

  20. Interference among the Processing of Facial Emotion, Face Race, and Face Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-01-01

    People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender).

  1. FaceIt: face recognition from static and live video for law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atick, Joseph J.; Griffin, Paul M.; Redlich, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in image and pattern recognition technology- -especially face recognition--are leading to the development of a new generation of information systems of great value to the law enforcement community. With these systems it is now possible to pool and manage vast amounts of biometric intelligence such as face and finger print records and conduct computerized searches on them. We review one of the enabling technologies underlying these systems: the FaceIt face recognition engine; and discuss three applications that illustrate its benefits as a problem-solving technology and an efficient and cost effective investigative tool.

  2. Challenges faced by NRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longoria, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The Mexican Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) played an important role in setting up of nuclear power plants (two) and development of fuel technology. However, with no current plans for expansion of this programme, the Institute is looking mainly into multi-cycle fuel management and life extension issues. The Institute focuses on programmes related to radioisotope and radiation applications and on the use of nuclear technologies for non-nuclear applications. The ININ is the major provider of radioisotopes for medical uses. It also promotes and uses nuclear analytical techniques for addressing a variety of problems. In non-nuclear areas some R and D examples include: the use of thermal plasma for hazardous waste incineration, biodegradation of polymers and development of separation techniques for treating industrial effluents. For preservation of knowledge, the Institute has instituted PhD. programmes in materials science, medical physics and nuclear science in collaboration with a university. (author)

  3. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIU Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.

  4. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon. While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  5. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  6. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  7. Assessing Student Performance and Perceptions in Lecture Capture vs. Face-to-Face Course Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euzent, Patricia; Martin, Thomas; Moskal, Patrick; Moskal, Patsy

    2011-01-01

    Public universities are currently facing a challenge in determining how to deliver quality instruction in the face of severe fiscal constraints. With recent technological advances, courses streamed over the Internet (i.e., lecture capture) are now becoming common. However, little research has been published that specifically examines student…

  8. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  9. RGB-D-T based Face Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikisins, Olegs; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Greitans, Modris

    2014-01-01

    Facial images are of critical importance in many real-world applications from gaming to surveillance. The current literature on facial image analysis, from face detection to face and facial expression recognition, are mainly performed in either RGB, Depth (D), or both of these modalities. But......, such analyzes have rarely included Thermal (T) modality. This paper paves the way for performing such facial analyzes using synchronized RGB-D-T facial images by introducing a database of 51 persons including facial images of different rotations, illuminations, and expressions. Furthermore, a face recognition...... algorithm has been developed to use these images. The experimental results show that face recognition using such three modalities provides better results compared to face recognition in any of such modalities in most of the cases....

  10. Collaborative Random Faces-Guided Encoders for Pose-Invariant Face Representation Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming; Zhang, Yizhe; Fu, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Learning discriminant face representation for pose-invariant face recognition has been identified as a critical issue in visual learning systems. The challenge lies in the drastic changes of facial appearances between the test face and the registered face. To that end, we propose a high-level feature learning framework called "collaborative random faces (RFs)-guided encoders" toward this problem. The contributions of this paper are three fold. First, we propose a novel supervised autoencoder that is able to capture the high-level identity feature despite of pose variations. Second, we enrich the identity features by replacing the target values of conventional autoencoders with random signals (RFs in this paper), which are unique for each subject under different poses. Third, we further improve the performance of the framework by incorporating deep convolutional neural network facial descriptors and linking discriminative identity features from different RFs for the augmented identity features. Finally, we conduct face identification experiments on Multi-PIE database, and face verification experiments on labeled faces in the wild and YouTube Face databases, where face recognition rate and verification accuracy with Receiver Operating Characteristic curves are rendered. In addition, discussions of model parameters and connections with the existing methods are provided. These experiments demonstrate that our learning system works fairly well on handling pose variations.

  11. A multi-view face recognition system based on cascade face detector and improved Dlib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongjun; Chen, Pei; Shen, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In this research, we present a framework for multi-view face detect and recognition system based on cascade face detector and improved Dlib. This method is aimed to solve the problems of low efficiency and low accuracy in multi-view face recognition, to build a multi-view face recognition system, and to discover a suitable monitoring scheme. For face detection, the cascade face detector is used to extracted the Haar-like feature from the training samples, and Haar-like feature is used to train a cascade classifier by combining Adaboost algorithm. Next, for face recognition, we proposed an improved distance model based on Dlib to improve the accuracy of multiview face recognition. Furthermore, we applied this proposed method into recognizing face images taken from different viewing directions, including horizontal view, overlooks view, and looking-up view, and researched a suitable monitoring scheme. This method works well for multi-view face recognition, and it is also simulated and tested, showing satisfactory experimental results.

  12. Chinese Characters Elicit Face-Like N170 Inversion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Ying; Kuo, Bo-Cheng; Cheng, Shih-Kuen

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of both faces and Chinese characters is commonly believed to rely on configural information. While faces typically exhibit behavioral and N170 inversion effects that differ from non-face stimuli (Rossion, Joyce, Cottrell, & Tarr, 2003), the current study examined whether a similar reliance on configural processing may result in similar…

  13. Can Individuals with Autism Abstract Prototypes of Natural Faces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Wilkinson, Desiree A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with face processing. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie face processing difficulties is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype formation with natural faces using eye-tracking in high-functioning adults with…

  14. Faces capture attention: Evidence from Inhibition-of-return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; van der Stigchel, S.

    2006-01-01

    The human face is a visual pattern of great social and biological importance. While previous studies have shown that attention may be preferentially directed and engaged longer by faces, the current study presents a new methodology to test the notion that faces can capture attention. The present

  15. Comparative Analysis of Potential Risk Factors for at-Risk Gambling, Problem Gambling and Gambling Disorder among Current Gamblers—Results of the Austrian Representative Survey 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Buth

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk of developing a problem gambling behavior is distributed unequally among the population. For example, individuals who report stressful life events, show impairments of mental health or belong to a socio-economically deprived group are affected more frequently by gambling problems. The aim of our study is to investigate whether these risk factors are equally relevant for all gambling groups (social = 0 DSM-5 criteria, at risk = 1 DSM-5 criterion, problem = 2–3 DSM-5 criteria, disordered = 4–9 DSM-5 criteria.Methods: Of a total of 10,000 participants in the representative gambling survey in Austria in 2015, 4,082 individuals reported gambling during the last 12 months and were allocated to the four gambling groups according to DSM-5. With social gamblers as the reference group, relevant risk factors for the other three groups were identified by means of bi- and multivariate multinomial logistic regression.Results: Significant risk factors for gambling disorder are at-risk alcohol use (OR = 4.9, poor mental health (OR = 5.9, young age (≤26 years, OR = 2.1, a low level of formal education (OR = 2.4, having grown up with a single parent (OR = 2.5, parents with addiction problems (OR = 2.3 and belonging to the working class (OR = 2.9. Risk factors for problem gambling are parents with addiction problems (OR = 3.8, poor mental health (OR = 2.6 and a young age (OR = 2.2. With regard to at-risk gambling, only growing up with a single parent was relevant (OR = 2.4.Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest, that the number and the influence of the included risk factors differ between gambling problem groups. Apparently, the development of severe gambling problems is to a lesser extent facilitated by specific risk factors than by their cumulative presence. Therefore, future prevention and treatment measures should place a particular focus on individuals who have experienced growing up in a difficult family situation

  16. Comparative Analysis of Potential Risk Factors for at-Risk Gambling, Problem Gambling and Gambling Disorder among Current Gamblers-Results of the Austrian Representative Survey 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, Sven; Wurst, Friedrich M; Thon, Natasha; Lahusen, Harald; Kalke, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a problem gambling behavior is distributed unequally among the population. For example, individuals who report stressful life events, show impairments of mental health or belong to a socio-economically deprived group are affected more frequently by gambling problems. The aim of our study is to investigate whether these risk factors are equally relevant for all gambling groups (social = 0 DSM-5 criteria, at risk = 1 DSM-5 criterion, problem = 2-3 DSM-5 criteria, disordered = 4-9 DSM-5 criteria). Methods: Of a total of 10,000 participants in the representative gambling survey in Austria in 2015, 4,082 individuals reported gambling during the last 12 months and were allocated to the four gambling groups according to DSM-5. With social gamblers as the reference group, relevant risk factors for the other three groups were identified by means of bi- and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results: Significant risk factors for gambling disorder are at-risk alcohol use (OR = 4.9), poor mental health (OR = 5.9), young age (≤26 years, OR = 2.1), a low level of formal education (OR = 2.4), having grown up with a single parent (OR = 2.5), parents with addiction problems (OR = 2.3) and belonging to the working class (OR = 2.9). Risk factors for problem gambling are parents with addiction problems (OR = 3.8), poor mental health (OR = 2.6) and a young age (OR = 2.2). With regard to at-risk gambling, only growing up with a single parent was relevant (OR = 2.4). Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study suggest, that the number and the influence of the included risk factors differ between gambling problem groups. Apparently, the development of severe gambling problems is to a lesser extent facilitated by specific risk factors than by their cumulative presence. Therefore, future prevention and treatment measures should place a particular focus on individuals who have experienced growing up in a difficult family situation, have poor

  17. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...

  18. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing...... in Spanish and address forms in European Portuguese, we view P1 and P2 as being far more complex than the literature suggests, with subgroups (different types of laypersons and researchers, respectively). At the micro-level we will describe the roles each subgroup plays in the interpretative process...

  19. Face to Face Wise Decisions Under Uncertainty

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    to science, highlighting the factors and circumstances that ... is the author of 14 books and 475 research papers, several of which are recognized as classics. .... The current scientific era is defined by its dependence on large amounts of.

  20. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An exploration into pedagogic frailty: Transitioning from face-to-face to online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Niculescu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogic frailty and concept mapping can simultaneously encourage personal and organisational change by supporting critical reflection and resilience. These ideas are nascent within higher education institutions and currently, at the University of Surrey, are only developed through face-to-face sessions. This revealed the need for a scalable intervention which engages academics with the discourse on introspective and professional development practices. In response, we have created the design for a blended programme of online foundation for concept mapping leading to face-to-face workshops to explore the pedagogic frailty model. This paper will discuss some significant challenges arising from transitioning self-reflective practices from face-to-face to online spaces. In the process, we will consider ways in which learning design can take the learner context into account.

  2. Tolerance of geometric distortions in infant's face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study is to reveal the effect of global linear transformations (shearing, horizontal stretching, and vertical stretching) on the recognition of familiar faces (e.g., a mother's face) in 6- to 7-month-old infants. In this experiment, we applied the global linear transformations to both the infants' own mother's face and to a stranger's face, and we tested infants' preference between these faces. We found that only 7-month-old infants maintained preference for their own mother's face during the presentation of vertical stretching, while the preference for the mother's face disappeared during the presentation of shearing or horizontal stretching. These findings suggest that 7-month-old infants might not recognize faces based on calculating the absolute distance between facial features, and that the vertical dimension of facial features might be more related to infants' face recognition rather than the horizontal dimension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

  4. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Crookes

    Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  5. Eye Tracking Reveals a Crucial Role for Facial Motion in Recognition of Faces by Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge about face processing in infancy comes largely from studies using static face stimuli, but faces that infants see in the real world are mostly moving ones. To bridge this gap, 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old Asian infants (N = 118) were familiarized with either moving or static Asian female faces, and then their face recognition was…

  6. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  7. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  8. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  9. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36) = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  10. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Kohske Takahashi; Katsumi Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cuei...

  11. CAMAC - the Janus face of digital equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, R.

    1977-01-01

    A problem which arises when many instruments are found in major systems is that of communication between them. The CAMAC system is constructed on the principle of the addressable bus, obtained from data-technique. The system has adopted the well-known Janus faces as a symbol to denote: 'equality towards everyone'. (A.D.N.)

  12. On the problem of internal optical loss and current leakage in laser heterostructures based on AlGaInAs/InP solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselov, D. A.; Shashkin, I. S.; Bakhvalov, K. V.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Rastegaeva, M. G.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Bechvay, E. A.; Strelets, V. A.; Shamakhov, V. V.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers based on MOCVD-grown AlGaInAs/InP separate-confinement heterostructures are studied. It is shown that raising only the energy-gap width of AlGaInAs-waveguides without the introduction of additional barriers results in more pronounced current leakage into the cladding layers. It is found that the introduction of additional barrier layers at the waveguide–cladding-layer interface blocks current leakage into the cladding layers, but results in an increase in the internal optical loss with increasing pump current. It is experimentally demonstrated that the introduction of blocking layers makes it possible to obtain maximum values of the internal quantum efficiency of stimulated emission (92%) and continuouswave output optical power (3.2 W) in semiconductor lasers in the eye-safe wavelength range (1400–1600 nm).

  13. On the problem of internal optical loss and current leakage in laser heterostructures based on AlGaInAs/InP solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselov, D. A., E-mail: dmitriy90@list.ru; Shashkin, I. S.; Bakhvalov, K. V.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Rastegaeva, M. G.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Bechvay, E. A.; Strelets, V. A.; Shamakhov, V. V.; Tarasov, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Semiconductor lasers based on MOCVD-grown AlGaInAs/InP separate-confinement heterostructures are studied. It is shown that raising only the energy-gap width of AlGaInAs-waveguides without the introduction of additional barriers results in more pronounced current leakage into the cladding layers. It is found that the introduction of additional barrier layers at the waveguide–cladding-layer interface blocks current leakage into the cladding layers, but results in an increase in the internal optical loss with increasing pump current. It is experimentally demonstrated that the introduction of blocking layers makes it possible to obtain maximum values of the internal quantum efficiency of stimulated emission (92%) and continuouswave output optical power (3.2 W) in semiconductor lasers in the eye-safe wavelength range (1400–1600 nm).

  14. Face-blind for other-race faces: Individual differences in other-race recognition impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Dawel, Amy; Pidcock, Madeleine; Hall, Ashleigh; McKone, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i.e., even for own-race faces); but not applying less individuating effort to other-race than own-race faces. Findings provide a potential resolution of contradictory evidence concerning the importance of the other-race effect (ORE), by explaining how it is possible for the mean ORE to be modest in size (suggesting a genuine but minor problem), and simultaneously for individuals to suffer major functional consequences in the real world (e.g., eyewitness misidentification of other-race offenders leading to wrongful imprisonment). Findings imply that, in legal settings, evaluating an eyewitness's chance of having made an other-race misidentification requires information about the underlying face recognition abilities of the individual witness. Additionally, analogy with prosopagnosia (inability to recognize even own-race faces) suggests everyday social interactions with other-race people, such as those between colleagues in the workplace, will be seriously impacted by the ORE in some people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Robust Statistical Face Frontalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that excellent results can be achieved in both facial landmark localization and pose-invariant face recognition. These breakthroughs are attributed to the efforts of the community to manually annotate facial images in many different poses and to collect 3D facial data. In

  16. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  17. Face-Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sun damage, you might also consider a skin-resurfacing procedure. A face-lift can be done in combination with some other cosmetic procedures, such as a brow lift or eyelid surgery. Why it's done As you get older, your facial skin changes — sagging and becoming loose. This can make ...

  18. Mechanical Face Seal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE -,1 - " P V 7 V - • ... f -N- PRE FACE This final...dimensionless mass m and support damping 1), ~ at-e aisas M"= -1,,i -4 4) y positive. ’he damping D is Ihe tinplete system of momeints acting on tile

  19. Sensual expressions on faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roek, M.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the possibility that an emotional facial expression exists specifically for signalling sexual interest. We selected photographs of twenty-eight fashion models (male and female) with large portfolios (range 81 - 1593), choosing only face photographs in which the model was looking into the

  20. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2012-11-07

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.

  1. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  2. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  3. Anatomy of safety-critical computing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swu Yih; Fan Chinfeng; Shirazi, Behrooz

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the obstacles faced by current safety-critical computing applications. The major problem lies in the difficulty to provide complete and convincing safety evidence to prove that the software is safe. We explain this problem from a fundamental perspective by analyzing the essence of safety analysis against that of software developed by current practice. Our basic belief is that in order to perform a successful safety analysis, the state space structure of the analyzed system must have some properties as prerequisites. We propose the concept of safety analyzability, and derive its necessary and sufficient conditions; namely, definability, finiteness, commensurability, and tractability. We then examine software state space structures against these conditions, and affirm that the safety analyzability of safety-critical software developed by current practice is severely restricted by its state space structure and by the problem of exponential growth cost. Thus, except for small and simple systems, the safety evidence may not be complete and convincing. Our concepts and arguments successfully explain the current problematic situation faced by the safety-critical computing domain. The implications are also discussed

  4. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  5. Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective

  6. Face-to-Face Activities in Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette

    While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues...... that it is not only the online activities in blended learning that provide new opportunities for rethinking pedagogy in higher education, it is also imperative to reconsider the face-to-face activities when part of the learning is provided online. Based on a review of blended learning in business and management...... education, we identify what forms of teaching and learning are suggested to take place face-to-face when other activities are moved online. We draw from the Community of Inquiry framework to analyze how face-to-face activities contribute to a blended learning pedagogy and discuss the implications...

  7. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech?Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers.These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle

  8. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  9. This presentation will discuss how PLOS ONE collaborates with many different scientific communities to help create, share, and preserve the scholarly works produced by their researchers with emphasis on current common difficulties faced by communities, practical solutions, and a broader view of the importance of open data and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroffe, K.

    2017-12-01

    The mission of the Public Library of Science is to accelerate progress in science and medicine by leading a transformation in research communication. Researchers' ability to share their work without restriction is essential, but critical to sharing is open data, transparency in peer review, and an open approach to science assessment. In this session, we will discuss how PLOS ONE collaborates with many different scientific communities to help create, share, and preserve the scholarly works produced by their researchers with emphasis on current common difficulties faced by communities, practical solutions, and a broader view of the importance of open data and reproducibility.

  10. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  11. Explaining Sad People's Memory Advantage for Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J; Marquardt, Zoe; Young, Isabel; Goodenough, Imogen

    2017-01-01

    Sad people recognize faces more accurately than happy people (Hills et al., 2011). We devised four hypotheses for this finding that are tested between in the current study. The four hypotheses are: (1) sad people engage in more expert processing associated with face processing; (2) sad people are motivated to be more accurate than happy people in an attempt to repair their mood; (3) sad people have a defocused attentional strategy that allows more information about a face to be encoded; and (4) sad people scan more of the face than happy people leading to more facial features to be encoded. In Experiment 1, we found that dysphoria (sad mood often associated with depression) was not correlated with the face-inversion effect (a measure of expert processing) nor with response times but was correlated with defocused attention and recognition accuracy. Experiment 2 established that dysphoric participants detected changes made to more facial features than happy participants. In Experiment 3, using eye-tracking we found that sad-induced participants sampled more of the face whilst avoiding the eyes. Experiment 4 showed that sad-induced people demonstrated a smaller own-ethnicity bias. These results indicate that sad people show different attentional allocation to faces than happy and neutral people.

  12. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J.; Dai, B.; Peng, D.; Zhu, C.; Liu, L.; Lu, C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...

  13. Multi-task pose-invariant face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changxing; Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-03-01

    Face images captured in unconstrained environments usually contain significant pose variation, which dramatically degrades the performance of algorithms designed to recognize frontal faces. This paper proposes a novel face identification framework capable of handling the full range of pose variations within ±90° of yaw. The proposed framework first transforms the original pose-invariant face recognition problem into a partial frontal face recognition problem. A robust patch-based face representation scheme is then developed to represent the synthesized partial frontal faces. For each patch, a transformation dictionary is learnt under the proposed multi-task learning scheme. The transformation dictionary transforms the features of different poses into a discriminative subspace. Finally, face matching is performed at patch level rather than at the holistic level. Extensive and systematic experimentation on FERET, CMU-PIE, and Multi-PIE databases shows that the proposed method consistently outperforms single-task-based baselines as well as state-of-the-art methods for the pose problem. We further extend the proposed algorithm for the unconstrained face verification problem and achieve top-level performance on the challenging LFW data set.

  14. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 安吉白茶产业发展面临的主要问题及其对策%The Major Problem Facing the Development of Anji White Tea Industry and Its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任富丽; 王文龙; 杨国庆

    2015-01-01

    内在的优良品质和政府严格的质量控制、积极的品牌塑造与推广使安吉白茶异军突起,短短20年间跻身国内名茶行列,成为安吉县的支柱产业,有力支持了安吉美丽乡村建设,为中国农业产业化树立了新标杆。但随着产业扩张,安吉白茶也面临发展瓶颈,只有对安吉白茶进行合理定位,处理好产业发展与生态保护的关系,加强质量控制,选择好合理的生产经营主体进行扶植,与外地白茶建立共生关系,坚持专卖店、国内市场为主的销售战略,安吉白茶产业才能维护产品质量和品牌声誉,巩固市场地位,实现可持续发展。%In the past short period of 20 years,the white tea has entered the rank of famous tea at home,and has become a pillar industry in the Anji County,which has greatly helped the construction of the beautiful countryside and set a new standard for the agricultural industrialization in China.But with industrial expansion,Anji white tea is also facing development bottlenecks and only by setting a reason-able position to Anji white tea,correctly handling the relationship between industrial development and ecological protection,strengthening quality control,choosing to foster good and reasonable production business entities,establishing a co existence relationship with the white tea producers in other regions and adhering to special sales shops and strategy with the internal market as the main sales channel can the Anji white tea industry maintain its product quality and brand reputation,strengthen its market po-sition and achieve sustainable development.

  16. Problems of noise modeling in the presence of total current branching in high electron mobility transistor and field-effect transistor channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiktorov, P; Starikov, E; Gružinskis, V; Varani, L; Sabatini, G; Marinchio, H; Reggiani, L

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of analytical and hydrodynamic models for the description of carrier transport and noise in high electron mobility transistor/field-effect transistor channels the main features of the intrinsic noise of transistors are investigated under continuous branching of the current between channel and gate. It is shown that the current-noise and voltage-noise spectra at the transistor terminals contain an excess noise related to thermal excitation of plasma wave modes in the dielectric layer between the channel and gate. It is found that the set of modes of excited plasma waves can be governed by the external embedding circuits, thus violating a universal description of noise in terms of Norton and Thevenin noise generators

  17. Recognition of Face and Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Tayyib Kadak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a genetically transferred neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe and permanent deficits in many interpersonal relation areas like communication, social interaction and emotional responsiveness. Patients with autism have deficits in face recognition, eye contact and recognition of emotional expression. Both recognition of face and expression of facial emotion carried on face processing. Structural and functional impairment in fusiform gyrus, amygdala, superior temporal sulcus and other brain regions lead to deficits in recognition of face and facial emotion. Therefore studies suggest that face processing deficits resulted in problems in areas of social interaction and emotion in autism. Studies revealed that children with autism had problems in recognition of facial expression and used mouth region more than eye region. It was also shown that autistic patients interpreted ambiguous expressions as negative emotion. In autism, deficits related in various stages of face processing like detection of gaze, face identity, recognition of emotional expression were determined, so far. Social interaction impairments in autistic spectrum disorders originated from face processing deficits during the periods of infancy, childhood and adolescence. Recognition of face and expression of facial emotion could be affected either automatically by orienting towards faces after birth, or by “learning” processes in developmental periods such as identity and emotion processing. This article aimed to review neurobiological basis of face processing and recognition of emotional facial expressions during normal development and in autism.

  18. Anatomy of ageing face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilankovan, V

    2014-03-01

    Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IntraFace

    OpenAIRE

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that i...

  20. Trismus in Face Transplantation Following Ballistic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, Nicco; Alhefzi, Muayyad; Perry, Bridget; Aycart, Mario A; Tasigiorgos, Sotirios; Bueno, Ericka M; Green, Jordan R; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Caterson, Edward J

    2018-06-01

    Trismus can be a challenging consequence of ballistic trauma to the face, and has rarely been described in the setting of face transplantation. Almost half of all current face transplant recipients in the world received transplantation to restore form and function after a ballistic injury. Here we report our experience and challenges with long standing trismus after face transplantation. We reviewed the medical records of our face transplant recipients whose indication was ballistic injury. We focused our review on trismus and assessed the pre-, peri- and postoperative planning, surgery and functional outcomes. Two patients received partial face transplantation, including the midface for ballistic trauma. Both patients suffered from impaired mouth opening, speech intelligibility, and oral competence. Severe scarring of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) required intraoperative release in both patients, and additional total condylectomy on the left side 6 months posttransplant for 1 patient. Posttransplant, both patients achieved an improvement in mouth opening; however, there was persistent trismus. One year after transplantation, range of motion of the jaw had improved for both patients. Independent oral food intake was possible 1 year after surgery, although spillage of liquids and mixed consistency solids persisted. Speech intelligibility testing showed impairments in the immediate postoperative period, with improvement to over 85% for both patients at 1 year posttransplant. Ballistic trauma to the face and subsequent reconstructive measures can cause significant scarring and covert injuries to structures such as the TMJ, resulting in long standing trismus. Meticulous individual planning prior to interventions such as face transplantation must take these into account. We encourage intraoperative evaluation of these structures as well as peri- and postoperative treatment when necessary. Due to the nature of the primary injury, functional outcomes after face