WorldWideScience

Sample records for current population trend

  1. European regional populations: current trends, future pathways and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, P.H.; van der Gaag, N.L.; de Beer, J.A.A.; Heins, F.

    2012-01-01

    Europe is currently experiencing an ageing population and slowing population growth of both the total and working-age populations. These trends are likely to continue. Even though population ageing will affect all European regions, different regions will be affected in different ways. Even under

  2. European Regional Populations: Current Trends, Future Pathways, and Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Philip; van der Gaag, Nicole; de Beer, Joop; Heins, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Europe is currently experiencing an ageing population and slowing population growth of both the total and working-age populations. These trends are likely to continue. Even though population ageing will affect all European regions, different regions will be affected in different ways. Even under favorable conditions, 35-40 % of all NUTS2 regions will face a labor force decline. If economic conditions are poor, some regions may continue to grow, but 55-70 % of the regions will see a labor force decline by 10 % or more. In most regions of Eastern Europe, the labor force may decrease by more than 30 %. To keep regions prosperous (maintaining competitiveness) and to avoid worse inequality (maintaining cohesion), policy-makers must find ways to cope with these challenges through new fiscal and social policies, though policies directly affecting demographic and migratory trends may also be needed.

  3. Current situation and population trend of the lesser spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongrácz Ádám

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prvé správy o velkosti populácie orla kriklavého v Madarsku sa objavili v rokoch 1978 až 1982. Na základe týchto údajov odhadujeme, že ich populácia bola vtedy tvorená asi 90 pármi. Do roku 2014 sa tento pocet znížil pod 40 párov. Druh zmizol z jeho predošlých hniezdísk v nížinách, z lužných lesov a tiež z niekolkých pahorkatinných a horských oblastí. Príciny úbytku jeho populácie v Madarsku sa zdajú byt komplexné. Zmeny v polnohospodárstve pokladáme za jeden z hlavných dôvodov tohto úbytku, co aj diskutujeme v tomto príspevku. Predpokladáme, že populácie jeho koristi boli tiež negatívne ovplyvnené. Úbytok nenarušených lesných porastov starších než 100 rokov je pravdepodobne tiež významným faktorom v hniezdnych habitatoch. Kedže madarská populácia orla kriklavého je populáciou na okraji areálu rozšírenia, je velmi závislá na väcších populáciách v okolitých krajinách; tiež je ovplyvnená mortalitou pocas migrácie. Pozitívne zmeny vo využívaní polnohospodárskej pôdy v posledných štyroch rokoch už spôsobili mierny nárast pocetnosti populácie. V blízkej budúcnosti by malo byt hlavnou úlohou zavedenie osobitného režimu dotácií, zacieleného na kvalitu potravných habitatov druhu.

  4. Current Characteristics and Trends of the Tracked Satellite Population in the Human Space Flight Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the Apollo program in 1972, human space flight has been restricted to altitudes below 600 km above the Earth s surface with most missions restricted to a ceiling below 400 km. An investigation of the tracked satellite population transiting and influencing the human space flight regime during the past 11 years (equivalent to a full solar cycle) has recently been completed. The overall effects of satellite breakups and solar activity are typically less pronounced in the human space flight regime than other regions of low Earth orbit. As of January 2006 nearly 1500 tracked objects resided in or traversed the human space flight regime, although two-thirds of these objects were in orbits of moderate to high eccentricity, significantly reducing their effect on human space flight safety. During the period investigated, the spatial density of tracked objects in the 350-400 km altitude regime of the International Space Station demonstrated a steady decline, actually decreasing by 50% by the end of the period. On the other hand, the region immediately above 600 km experienced a significant increase in its population density. This regime is important for future risk assessments, since this region represents the reservoir of debris which will influence human space flight safety in the future. The paper seeks to put into sharper perspective the risks posed to human space flight by the tracked satellite population, as well as the influences of solar activity and the effects of compliance with orbital debris mitigation guidelines on human space flight missions. Finally, the methods and successes of characterizing the population of smaller debris at human space flight regimes are addressed.

  5. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE PROVISION FOR RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P.V.Ramzaev”The article is devoted to the actual issues ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety providing at the present stage. The important role of radiation-hygienic passportization is underlined in the process of the obtaining of objective information of radiation situation in the country, of population exposure doses from the all sources: artificial and natural, from the use of ionizing irradiation sources in medicine. The leading role is shown of the natural ionizing irradiation sources in the level of the country population exposure. The main directions of activities are stated aimed on the decreasing of population exposure doses from the natural sources. The brief characteristics is given of the radiation situation on the territories radioactively contaminated after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP, in the Pacific Ocean basin after the accident on the “Fukushima-1”NPP, of the main measures for radiation protection providing and for counteraction to radiation terrorism during the period of international sports and mass actions which were carried out in Russia in the last years (XXVII World Summer Universiade in2013 inKazan, XXII Olympic and XI Winter Paralympics Games in2014 inSochi. The most important tasks are defined for the improvement ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety at the present stage.

  6. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  7. Suicide: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  8. Current trends in minilaparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Layne, Alyssa; Pinkard, Lauren; Shepherd, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to understand the current use of minilaparoscopy in the field and how minilaparoscopy compares with traditional laparoscopy in terms of operative times, complications, pain, and cosmesis. Although there are few randomized controlled trials comparing minilaparoscopy with traditional laparoscopy in gynecologic procedures, the results suggest that minilaparoscopy can be performed safely with improved cosmetic outcomes and similar complication rates and operating times. Postoperative pain may be decreased with minimizing incisions sizes. Recently, case reports and case series have been published demonstrating the use of minilaparoscopy across many subtypes of gynecologic surgery. Traditional laparoscopic surgery has become common practice in gynecology as it has been found to be a well tolerated procedure with improved outcomes and decreased morbidity when compared with laparotomy. Although minilaparoscopy has been used for over 2 decades, its role in gynecology is continuing to evolve. Minilaparoscopy is a growing surgical option in gynecology as we try to minimize the impact of surgery. Results of minilaparoscopy in gynecology mirror those found in urology and general surgery. Although research is limited, minilaparoscopy has proven to be a well tolerated alternative for gynecology.

  9. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  10. [Trends in population aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovics, E

    1990-11-01

    The age structure of the world population between 1950 and 1985 is analyzed according to changes in fertility, mortality, and international migration in developing and developed countries. "Relying on the results of the medium scenario of the population forecasts prepared by the U.N. Division of International Economic and Social Affairs, the author demonstrates that aging of the world population will become a global phenomenon, characteristic of every region and county of the world, between 1985 and 2025." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  11. Current Trends in Sinonasal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Benjamin Y; Senior, Brent A; Castillo, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    As endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has evolved since its introduction to the United States, so has technology for imaging the sinonasal cavities. Although imaging is most frequently performed for evaluating chronic sinusitis refractory to medical therapy, its uses have expanded beyond inflammatory sinus disease. Multidetector Computed Tomography is the current workhorse for both diagnosis and preoperative planning in prospective ESS patients, while MR imaging remains a complementary tool for evaluating suspected tumors or intracranial and orbital complications of rhinosinusitis. In this article, the authors review current trends and potential future directions in the use of these modalities for sinus imaging.

  12. Studying disability trends in aging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Danan; Gomez-Redondo, Rosa; Dupre, Matthew E

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the current literature on disability trends in aging populations and proposes a framework for studying disability trends built upon existing models of disablement. In addition to considering disablement and its associated factors, our framework also includes factors at population level and the interplays among personal resources and health behaviors, intervention programs, technological advances, and the consequences of disability trends in the context of life course and socio-ecological perspective. The framework is abbreviated FE-BRIT-SE to denote individual-level (F)ixed attributes, including genetic factors, personality, age, sex, and earlier life conditions, and the (E)nvironment; individual (B)ehaviors, (R)esources, (I)nterventions, (T)echnology; and (S)ocioeconomic and (E)cological consequences of disability trends. The overview offers an integrated framework for understanding the disablement process, trends and their complex milieu of causes and consequences.

  13. Brucellosis in Mexico: current status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Martínez, J Eduardo; Mejía-Terán, Claudia

    2002-12-20

    Traditionally, Mexico has been recognized as endemic with brucellosis. The improvements in diagnostics techniques and vaccination strategies and the enforcement of a national eradication policy have contributed significantly to making progress in the control of brucellosis. The current status of brucellosis and its risk factors, in the different production species as well as in human population is reviewed. Also the trends in control and eventual eradication strategies and perspectives for the near future of Mexico are presented.

  14. Current trends of banking innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Karminskiy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of the global banking system development takes place in an increasingly competitive environment and unstable financial markets. One of the key factors of bank's successful development is a policy of continuous innovative behavior. Nowadays innovation is a key factor of bankingnstability, competitiveness and sustainable growth.The aim of the article. The main goal of this article is to examine key trends of banking innovations and innovative in Russia. Experience in the development of new banking products, services and technologies in the Russian market is mainly based on international practice. Noteworthy is the fact that Russian banks take over not only the successful practice of new product lines, but also information technology as well as key methodological aspects of bank management and the technological aspects related the business processes.The results of the analysis. Innovative policy in the credit institution must not take place spontaneously. The positive effect of innovation can be achieved only if there is the possibility of managing the innovation process, which is not possible without a clearly highlighted definition and characteristics of banking innovation, which at least would allow distinguishing of innovation and modification. The paper describes the main aspects of the morphology of banking innovation with the detailed classification depended on the variety of attributes from its origin to the direction of action and highlights the major trends of current banking innovation, such as:development of information and cyber technology (and hence the possibility of the emergence of computational complexity and risk prediction models, the development of information security tools,etc.;implementation of customer-oriented model as the best practice;optimization of its own business processes.The article shows a number of real examples of each kind of banking innovation including the innovations in the non

  15. CURRENT TRENDS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality industry is a complex product-service economic activity which besides accommodation, food and beverages offers a variety of complementary and ancillary services in order to meet modern needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers. Contemporary needs, demands and desires of tourists consumers (increased need for security and preservation of health; emphasis on ecology and healthy food; pure nature stay; growing demand for adventure activities and excitement; convention facilities and incentive offerings; visits to towns, big sports, cultural, religious, business events; new travel motivation have led to the emergence of new trends in hospitality offering design. Wellness and spa hotels, boutique hotels, all inclusive hotels, slow-food restaurants, and wine and lounge bars are just some of the main trends, and successful hoteliers and caterers will examine each of the trends and devise development politics in accordance with the new requirements and global market needs.

  16. CURRENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Ryabinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological bases of researchof international business are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on analysis of main trends in development of international. The comparison of competitiveness to of most used forms ofinternational business, as well as identified the main problems and barriers of theinternational business structures.

  17. CURRENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeny V. Ryabinin

    2015-01-01

    The methodological bases of researchof international business are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on analysis of main trends in development of international. The comparison of competitiveness to of most used forms ofinternational business, as well as identified the main problems and barriers of theinternational business structures.

  18. The Soviet Union: population trends and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, M

    1982-08-01

    Focus in this discussion of population trends and dilemmas in the Soviet Union is on demographic problems, data limitations, early population growth, geography and resources, the 15 republics of the Soviet Union and nationalities, agriculture and the economy, population growth over the 1950-1980 period (national trend, regional differences); age and sex composition of the population, fertility trends, nationality differentials in fertility, the reasons for fertility differentials (child care, divorce, abortion and contraception, illegitimacy), labor shortages and military personnel, mortality (mortality trends, life expectancy), reasons for mortality increases, urbanization and emigration, and future population prospects and projections. For mid-1982 the population of the Soviet Union was estimated at 270 million. The country's current rate of natural increase (births minus deaths) is about 0.8% a year, higher than current rates of natural increase in the U.S. (0.7%) and in developed countries as a whole (0.6%). Net immigration plays no part in Soviet population growth, but emigration was noticeable in some years during the 1970s, while remaining insignificant relative to total population size. National population growth has dropped by more than half in the last 2 decades, from 1.8% a year in the 1950s to 0.8% in 1980-1981, due mostly to declining fertility. The national fertility decline masks sharp differences among the 15 republics and even more so among the some 125 nationalities. In 1980, the Russian Republic had an estimated fertility rate of 1.9 births/woman, and the rate was just 2.0 in the other 2 Slavic republics, the Ukraine and Belorussia. In the Central Asian republics the rates ranged up to 5.8. Although the Russians will no doubt continue to be the dominant nationality, low fertility and a relatively higher death rate will reduce their share of the total population by less than half by the end of the century. Soviet leaders have launched a

  19. Current trends and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Peter G.; Madsen, Sabine; Svejvig, Per

    2012-01-01

    This book is an attempt to gather current state-of-the-art research on project management from multiple universities and university colleges in Denmark. This chapter first discuss a literature review of Danish and Scandinavian research on project management thereby complementing the short review...

  20. Current trends and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Peter G.; Madsen, Sabine; Svejvig, Per

    2012-01-01

    This book is an attempt to gather current state-of-the-art research on project management from multiple universities and university colleges in Denmark. This chapter first discuss a literature review of Danish and Scandinavian research on project management thereby complementing the short review...

  1. Pediatric thoracic trauma: Current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Erik G; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Santore, Matthew T

    2017-02-01

    Pediatric thoracic trauma is relatively uncommon but results in disproportionately high levels of morbidity and mortality when compared with other traumatic injuries. These injuries are often more devastating due to differences in children׳s anatomy and physiology relative to adult patients. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance at the time of presentation because many significant thoracic injuries will have no external signs of injury. With proper recognition and management of these injuries, there is an associated improved long-term outcome. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the initial evaluation, current management practices, and future directions in pediatric thoracic trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Current trends in dental practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dubravka; Blazić, Larisa; Durić, Milanko; Vucinić, Predrag; Blagojević, Duska; Bajkin, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews recent trends in basic dental disciplines and advantages of new clinical procedures over conventional. Post and core restoration is one of the most common treatment modalities applied when the remaining coronal tooth structure is not sufficient to provide the necessary retention form for restoration. Nowadays, the restoration of endodontically treated teeth is based on the use of materials with a modulus of elasticity similar to that of dentin. Polymerization contraction stress of resin based composite during light-activation process may be reduced by various illumination schemes. Successful curing depends on the calculated energy density values (spatial irradiance x irradiation period - J/cm2) rather than on light irradiance levels (mW/cm2). It is well documented that various systemic diseases have a profound effect on periodontal tissues. Recently, it has been speculated that periodontal disease may influence systemic health and represent the risk factor for cardiovascular diseases or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Computer systems, which will automatically identify relevant skeletal and soft tissue roentgencephalometric landmarks, will represent a great improvement in the field of orthodontic diagnosis. By using the Active Appearance Model, it is possible to identify most of roentgencephalometric bony landmarks with an average error well below 2 mm. Chemomechanical caries removal was introduced as an alternative to conventional mechanical procedures. Its advantages are: selective removal of carious tissue, absence of pain, reduced need for local anesthesia and less potentially negative effects on the dental pulp. The introduction of the surgical operating microscope, microsurgical instruments, ultrasonic retrotips for root-end cavity preparation and new root-end filling materials opened a new era in periapical surgery, even on multi-rooted teeth, often called endodontic microsurgery.

  3. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2016-05-31

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  4. 西藏人口老龄化现状与发展趋势预测%Analysis on Current Status and Trends of Population Ageing in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉珊; 王娜; 李伟旭

    2013-01-01

    Population ageing is a common issue of world population development. As its falling fertility rates and increasing life expectancy,the ageing problems of Tibet begin to show up. Using data from The Six National Population Census of Tibet,it is found that the whole Tibet is not an ageing society at present,but some minorities have become typical ageing population,and some regions have present trends of ageing. The features of population aging in Tibet are as following:Tibetan is the main part of older people,native minorities are high in ageing level and ageing levels of regions are imbalance. Although Tibet is at the initial stage of ageing society, it is necessary to deal with ageing problems strategically and in advance. So it is necessary to make a judgment of the trends of the population ageing of Tibet and put forward some measurements to deal with the problem.%人口老龄化是世界人口发展面临的共同问题。随着生育率的下降和人均预期寿命的延长,西藏的人口老龄化问题逐渐显露出来。通过对西藏自治区2010年人口普查资料的分析发现,虽然西藏整体尚未进入老龄化社会,但个别民族已经成为典型的老年型人口,局部地区也呈现出老龄化形态。西藏人口老龄化具有老年人口以藏族为主、世居民族老龄化程度高、老龄化程度地区发展不平衡等特点。尽管西藏还处在老龄化的初期,但应对老龄化问题必须具有战略性和超前性,鉴于此,本文对西藏未来40年人口老龄化的发展趋势进行了预测,并结合西藏的实际情况,提出探索应对西藏人口老龄化的途径。

  5. Digital library research : current developments and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Shiri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This column gives an overview of current trends in digital library research under the following headings: digital library architecture, systems, tools and technologies; digital content and collections; metadata; interoperability; standards; knowledge organisation systems; users and usability; legal, organisational, economic, and social issues in digital libraries.

  6. Current Trends in Higher Education Technology: Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damewood, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on how technology in use changes over time, and the current trend of simulation technology as a supported classroom technology. Simulation-based training as a learning tool is discussed within the context of adult learning theories, as is the technology used and how today's higher education technology administrators support…

  7. Current Trends in Leisure Sports in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凯伦·丹尼贾克

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the current trends in leisure sports in Canada. Based on physical activity and sport participation levels investigation conducted by Statistics Canada and the Ca-nadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute,this paper provided an overview of the most recent findings on participation of leisure,sport,physical activity,and exercise of Canadians.

  8. Current trends in Bayesian methodology with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Satyanshu K; Dey, Dipak K; Loganathan, Appaia

    2015-01-01

    Collecting Bayesian material scattered throughout the literature, Current Trends in Bayesian Methodology with Applications examines the latest methodological and applied aspects of Bayesian statistics. The book covers biostatistics, econometrics, reliability and risk analysis, spatial statistics, image analysis, shape analysis, Bayesian computation, clustering, uncertainty assessment, high-energy astrophysics, neural networking, fuzzy information, objective Bayesian methodologies, empirical Bayes methods, small area estimation, and many more topics.Each chapter is self-contained and focuses on

  9. CURRENT TRENDS OF MICRO- AND NANOMECHANICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanlin Guo; Huiming Xie; Quanshui Zheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Scaling down to the micro- and nanoscale is a strong current trend in the development of science and technology. 'Small is energy efficient and cost effective' has long been for the motto of the semiconductor industry, including micro- and nanoelectronics, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nano- electro-mechanical systems (NEMS). But shrinking to small scales brings big challenges to traditional disciplines, including mechanics.

  10. Heroin users in Australia: population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, C Yalçin; Tugai, Yuliya; Filar, Jerzy A; Agrawal, Manju R; Ali, Robert L; Gowing, Linda R; Cooke, Richard

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify certain important population trends among heroin users in Australia for the period 1971 - 97, such as: population growth, initiation, i.e. the number who were initiated to heroin in a given year, and quitting, i.e. the number that quit using heroin. For this purpose, we summarize and extract relevant characteristics from data from National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS 1998) conducted in Australia in 1998. We devise a systematic procedure to estimate historical trends from questions concerning past events. It is observed from our findings that the size of the heroin user population in Australia is in a sharp increase, especially from the early 1980s onwards. The general trend obtained for the period 1971 - 97 is strikingly similar to that obtained by Hall et al. (2000) for the dependent heroin user population in Australia, even though their study was based on different datasets and a different methodology. In our reconstruction of the time history we also detect a levelling-off prior to 1990. Initiation is also observed to be on a sharp increase. The latter trend is accompanied by a similar trend of quitting, perhaps indicating a relatively short heroin use career. A sharp decrease in both initiation and quitting is observed after 1990. In conclusion, in the case of the trend in the population of heroin users a high rate of growth has been identified that is consistent with the existing literature. In the process, we demonstrated that even a static survey such as NDSHS 1998 can, sometimes, be used to extract historical (dynamic) trends of certain important variables.

  11. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magera, Anna M; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B; Lotze, Heike K

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of

  12. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  13. Ethernet Networks: Current Trends and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Abdulqader M

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet topology discovery has gained increasing interest in the recent years. This trend is motivated mostly by increasing number of carrier Ethernet networks as well as the size of these networks, and consequently the increasing sales of these networks. To manage these networks efficiently, detailed and accurate knowledge of their topology is needed. Knowledge of a network's entities and the physical connections between them can be useful in various prospective. Administrators can use topology information for network planning and fault detecting. Topology information can also be used during protocol and routing algorithm development, for performance prediction and as a basis for accurate network simulations. From a network security perspective, threat detection, network monitoring, network access control and forensic investigations can benefit from accurate network topology information. In this paper, we analyze market trends and investigate current tools available for both research and commercial purposes...

  14. Current Trends in Tactical Missile Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vathsal

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tactical missile guidance is very challenging and has been treated using several basic metlfodologies in the past four decades. Major techniques can be grouped underclassical guidance laws, modern guidance laws, l'aws for manoeuvring targets, predictive guidance for endgame scenario, and guidance laws based on intelligent control methods. Each technique has some advantages and disadvantages while implementing in a practical system. Guidance law selection is dictated by nature of flight profile like boost, midcourse, terminal homing, etc, and also miss-distance and a single-shot kill probability. This paper presents a brief survey of the existing techniques and current trends in tactical missile guidance.

  15. Current trends in context-aware applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Loayza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/10/07 - Accepted: 2013/12/10Context-aware applications adapt their behavior and settings according to the environment conditions and to the user preferences. This state-of-the-art survey identifies the current trends related to the technics and tools for the development of this kind of software, as well as the areas of interest of the scientific community on the subject. It stands out the research on multimodal interfaces, localization, activity detection, interruptions control, predictive and wellbeing applications.

  16. Filtering Spam: Current Trends and Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geerthik S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview about latest trend and techniques in spam filtering. We analyzed the problems which is introduced by spam ,what spam actually do and how to measure the spam .This article mainly focuses on automated, non-interactive filters, with a broad review ranging from commercial implementations to ideas confined to current research papers. The solutions using both machine and non –machine learning approaches are reviewed and taxonomy of different approaches is presented. While a range of different techniques have and continue to be evaluated in academic research, heuristic and Bayesian filtering, along with its variants provide the greatest potential for future spam prevention.

  17. Current Trends in Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodwig, Volker; Kulzer, Bernhard; Schnell, Oliver; Heinemann, Lutz

    2014-03-01

    The market introduction of systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) some 15 years ago did not immediately revolutionize the treatment of diabetes; however, for a given group of patients, it would almost be inconceivable nowadays to imagine life without CGM. One day the development of insulin pumps together with CGM could culminate in an artificial pancreas system. The performance of the glucose sensors used for glucose measurement in the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue and the algorithms employed to analyze these data have improved so much over the past decade that current CGM systems by far outperform those of the first generations. This commentary discusses a number of aspects about what we have learned since CGM systems entered the market and what current trends exist in their usage. Some of these are major hurdles facing a more widespread usage of CGM.

  18. Current best estimates of planet populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leslie A.

    2016-05-01

    Exoplanets are revolutionizing planetary science by enabling statistical studies of a large number of planets. Empirical measurements of planet occurrence rates inform our understanding of the ubiquity and efficiency of planet formation, while the identification of sub-populations and trends in the distribution of observed exoplanet properties provides insights into the formation and evolution processes that are sculpting distant Solar Systems. In this paper, we review the current best estimates of planet populations. We focus in particular on η⊕, the occurrence rate of habitable zone rocky planets, since this factor strongly influences the design of future space based exoplanet direct detection missions.

  19. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A; Novak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    .... Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes...

  20. Cycles and trends in cod populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnstad, O N; Fromentin, J M; Stenseth, N C; Gjøsaeter, J

    1999-04-27

    Year-to-year fluctuations in fish stocks are usually attributed to variability in recruitment, competition, predation, and changes in catchability. Trends in abundance, in contrast, are usually ascribed to human exploitation and large-scale environmental changes. In this study, we demonstrate, through statistical modeling of survey data (1921-1994) of cod from the Norwegian Skagerrak coast, that both short- and long-term variability may arise from the same set of age-structured interactions. Asymmetric competition and cannibalism between cohorts generate alternating years of high and low abundance. Intercohort interactions also resonate the recruitment variability so that long-term trends are induced. The coupling of age-structure and variable recruitment should, therefore, be considered when explaining both the short- and long-term fluctuations displayed by the coastal cod populations. Resonant effects may occur in many marine populations that exhibit this combination of traits.

  1. Management of infantile hemangiomas: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomathy Sethuraman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantile hemangiomas (IH are common vascular tumours. IH have a characteristic natural course. They proliferate rapidly during the early infantile period followed by a period of gradual regression over several years. Most of the uncomplicated IH undergo spontaneous involution, with a small proportion of cases requiring intervention. These are children with IH in life-threatening locations, local complications like haemorrhage, ulceration and necrosis and functional or cosmetic disfigurements. Systemic corticosteroids have been the first line of treatment for many years. Recently, non-selective beta-blockers, such as oral propranalol and topical timolol, have emerged as promising and safer therapies. Other treatment options include interferon α and vincristine which are reserved for life-threatening haemangiomas that are unresponsive to conventional therapy. This review mainly focuses on the current trends and evidence-based approach in the management of IH.

  2. Computational approaches to analogical reasoning current trends

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is known as a powerful mode for drawing plausible conclusions and solving problems. It has been the topic of a huge number of works by philosophers, anthropologists, linguists, psychologists, and computer scientists. As such, it has been early studied in artificial intelligence, with a particular renewal of interest in the last decade. The present volume provides a structured view of current research trends on computational approaches to analogical reasoning. It starts with an overview of the field, with an extensive bibliography. The 14 collected contributions cover a large scope of issues. First, the use of analogical proportions and analogies is explained and discussed in various natural language processing problems, as well as in automated deduction. Then, different formal frameworks for handling analogies are presented, dealing with case-based reasoning, heuristic-driven theory projection, commonsense reasoning about incomplete rule bases, logical proportions induced by similarity an...

  3. Current Market Trends Maritime Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dan Puscaciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transport services is a fundamental component of international logistics, given that approximately 80% of world trade is carried by sea. Also, considering the spatial distribution of resources according to the processing sites and disposal of finished goods and the fact that nearly two thirds of the globe is covered by water, has led a Norwegian ship-owner, Erling Næss, to claim that "Divinity has been very generous with ship owners."In the 3rd millennium, when this study was done, there were a number of trends representing some sequels of a prior period and also a series of phenomenon of the current period. We aim to address key market segments of shipping. In order to carry out the graphs and determine the indicators we used Matlab software.

  4. Current status of the Mallard population in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Clausen, Preben

    indicators suggest that the Nordic Mallard population is currently in good condition. However major knowledge gaps were identified with regard to release of hand-reared Mallards and the effect of short stopping for the trends observed locally. A detailed assessment of the effect of releases is urgently...... needed as well as an assessment of the role of short stopping in explaining current trends in winter population in certain parts of the European flyway....

  5. Global population trends and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

    2012-07-14

    Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended.

  6. Trends in Current Tobacco Use, Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts among Saudi Population during Periods of 17 Years (1996-2012: Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M Almutairi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the causes behind increase trends in smoking and extent of tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. We also explored the issues related to and its impact tobacco control research and policy in the Kingdom.Data were collected from various published articles, public data based such as WHO, Geneva and CDC Atlanta. Data were also obtained from surveys conducted by various institutions under The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS for high school students and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS for medical student. Tobacco importation data and death rates were estimated by various International Organizations.Tobacco importation in Saudi Arabia increased from 1996 to 2012. The proportion of smokers in the KSA almost doubled especially in males from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2012. Mortality attributable to tobacco in the KSA was estimated to account for 280, 000 premature deaths over the same period (without accounting for smuggled tobacco. The economic burden of tobacco consumption over the last 10 years (2001-2010 in the KSA was 20.5 billion US dollars (based on 2011 prices. Anti-tobacco measures in KSA have been reinforced by the enactment of anti-tobacco laws and collaboration among different government agencies and ministries.If effective tobacco control strategies are not enacted, serious consequences, increasing premature mortality rates among them, will continue to threaten the KSA.

  7. Cholangiocarcinoma:principles and current trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George N Zografos; Athanasios Farfaras; Flora Zagouri; Dimosthenis Chrysikos; Kostas Karaliotas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal cancer ofthebiliaryepithelium,originatingfromtheliver(intrahepatic), at the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts (hilar) or in the extrahepatic bile ducts. It is a rare malignancy associated with poor prognosis. DATA SOURCES: WesearchedthePubMed/MEDLINEdatabase for relevant articles published from 1989 to 2008. The search terms used were related to "cholangiocarcinoma" and its"treatment". Although no language restrictions were imposed initially, for the full-text review and final analysis, our resources only permitted the review of articles published in English. This review deals with the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma, the principles and the current trends. RESULTS:  The risks and prognostic factors, symptoms and differential diagnosis are thoroughly discussed. In addition, the tools of preoperative diagnosis such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, digital image analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography are reviewed. Moreover, the treatment of CCA is discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The only curative treatment available is surgical management. Unfortunately, many patients present with unresectable tumors, the majority of whom die within a year of diagnosis. Surgical treatment involves major resections of the liver, pancreas and bile duct, with considerable mortality and morbidity. However, in selected cases and where indicated, appropriate management with aggressive surgery may achieve a good outcome with a prolonged survival expectancy.

  8. Trend estimation in populations with imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, Marc; Dorazio, Robert M.; Soldaat, Leo; Van Strien, Arco; Zuiderwijk, Annie; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    1. Trends of animal populations are of great interest in ecology but cannot be directly observed owing to imperfect detection. Binomial mixture models use replicated counts to estimate abundance, corrected for detection, in demographically closed populations. Here, we extend these models to open populations and illustrate them using sand lizard Lacerta agilis counts from the national Dutch reptile monitoring scheme. 2. Our model requires replicated counts from multiple sites in each of several periods, within which population closure is assumed. Counts are described by a hierarchical generalized linear model, where the state model deals with spatio-temporal patterns in true abundance and the observation model with imperfect counts, given that true state. We used WinBUGS to fit the model to lizard counts from 208 transects with 1–10 (mean 3) replicate surveys during each spring 1994–2005. 3. Our state model for abundance contained two independent log-linear Poisson regressions on year for coastal and inland sites, and random site effects to account for unexplained heterogeneity. The observation model for detection of an individual lizard contained effects of region, survey date, temperature, observer experience and random survey effects. 4. Lizard populations increased in both regions but more steeply on the coast. Detectability increased over the first few years of the study, was greater on the coast and for the most experienced observers, and highest around 1 June. Interestingly, the population increase inland was not detectable when the observed counts were analysed without account of detectability. The proportional increase between 1994 and 2005 in total lizard abundance across all sites was estimated at 86% (95% CRI 35–151). 5. Synthesis and applications. Open-population binomial mixture models are attractive for studying true population dynamics while explicitly accounting for the observation process, i.e. imperfect detection. We emphasize the important

  9. Common Stochastic Trends in the Current Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumah, F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Solow residuals are used as proxies for productivity shocks in many empirical studies.Considering the shortcomings of this approach this paper proposes the common trends approach as an alternative.The common trends econometric technique is utilized here in an attempt to identify and analyze the long

  10. Russian Population Ethnic Structure: Trends and Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safronov S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the census data from 1989, 2002 and 2010, the article analyzes the evolution of the ethnic structure of the population of the post-Soviet Russia from the territorial perspective. The stability of the ethnic structure of the “Russian mega nucleus” and indigenization of the national regions are considered in view of the differences in migration trends during the two inter-census periods and the socioeconomic situation in the regions. The urbanization rate of major ethnic groups is an indirect indicator of the prospects of traditional “primordial” ethnic identities in different ethnic groups. Special attention is paid to new trends — an increase in the number of people refraining from answering the question about their ethnic identity or giving an unclear answer. Alongside serious census errors, this phenomenon can be a result of growing complexity of the ethnic identity structures and the processes of modernization, which occur at different rates in Russian and national regions. Based on the 2010 census data, the article analyses the differences in polyethnicity between the rural and urban population, which are accounted for by the historical background, particularities of regional development, settlement features, and migration processes of the past two decades.

  11. Drafting: Current Trends and Future Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C.

    1976-01-01

    Various research findings are reported on drafting trends which the author feels should be incorporated into teaching drafting: (1) true position and geometric tolerancing, (2) decimal and metric dimensioning, (3) functional drafting, (4) automated drafting, and (5) drawing reproductions. (BP)

  12. Tuberculosis: current trends in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, A K; Njoku, C H; Njoku, A K

    2005-12-01

    Among communicable diseases, tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death worldwide, killing nearly 2 million people each year. It is estimated that about one-third of the world population are infected with TB (2 billion people) and about 10% of this figure will progress to disease state. Most cases are in the less-developed countries of the world. Tuberculosis incidence has been on the increase in Africa, mainly as a result of the burden of HIV infection. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis remains based on culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but rapid diagnosis of infectious tuberculosis by simple sputum smear for acid fast bacilli remains an important tool, as more rapid molecular techniques are being developed. Treatment with several drugs for 6 months or more can cure more than 95% of patients. Direct observation of treatment, a component of the recommended five-element DOTS strategy, is judged to be the standard of care by most authorities. Currently only a third of cases worldwide are treated using this approach. There may be need to modify the treatment modalities especially with the choice of drugs and duration of therapy when TB infection occurs in special situation like pregnancy, liver disease, renal failure or even in coexistence with HlV/AIDS or the drug resistant state.

  13. World population trends in 1960-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabah, L; Kono, S

    1974-01-01

    burdens are associated with child-rearing while welfare for the aged is the great concern in the more developed areas of the world. The great trend toward urbanization in all parts of the world means that the population problems commanding greatest attention are those associated with large and fast-growing cities.

  14. Current Trends in Nuclear and Radiation Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold R. McHugh and William Quam

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of radiation detector history, a summary of the present state of the art, and some speculation on future developments in this field. Trends in the development of radiation detectors over the years are analyzed. Rapid progress in detection technology was experienced between WWII and the 1970s. Since then, fewer dramatic improvements have been seen. The authors speculate about the reasons for this trend and where the technology might take us in the next 20 years. Requirements for radiation detection equipment have changed drastically since 9/11; this demand is likely to accelerate detector development in the near future.

  15. Trend of the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Eberhardt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellowstone's grizzlies (Ursus arctos have been studied for more than 40 years. Radiotelemetry has been used to obtain estimates of the rate of increase of the population, with results reported by Schwartz et al. (2006. Counts of females with cubs-of-the-year “unduplicated” also provide an index of abundance and are the primary subject of this report. An exponential model was fitted to n=24 such counts, using nonlinear leastsquares. Estimates of the rate of increase, r, were about 0.053. 95% confidence intervals, were obtained by several different methods, and all had lower limits substantially above zero, indicating that the population has been increasing steadily, in contrast to the results of Schwartz et al. (2006, which could not exclude a decreasing population. The grizzly data have been repeatedly mis-used in current literature for reasons explained here.

  16. Current trends in free software research

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Bosch, Ramon; Vila Marta, Sebastià

    2009-01-01

    This report analyzes how scientific research is studying free software. We find which research is being done on free software by looking into scientific journals and conferences publications. The data thus obtained is analized and the most salient trends related to free software discovered. We also reviewed the main works published in each free software research area.

  17. Obesity in Nigeria: Current trends and management | Akpa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity in Nigeria: Current trends and management. ... The objective of the study is to review the current knowledge on the problems associated with obesity, ... of obesity, its epidemiology, risk factors, clinical complications and treatment ...

  18. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  19. Sustainable Biomaterials: Current Trends, Challenges and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Gupta, Girish; De, Sudipta; Franco, Ana; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael

    2015-12-30

    Biomaterials and sustainable resources are two complementary terms supporting the development of new sustainable emerging processes. In this context, many interdisciplinary approaches including biomass waste valorization and proper usage of green technologies, etc., were brought forward to tackle future challenges pertaining to declining fossil resources, energy conservation, and related environmental issues. The implementation of these approaches impels its potential effect on the economy of particular countries and also reduces unnecessary overburden on the environment. This contribution aims to provide an overview of some of the most recent trends, challenges, and applications in the field of biomaterials derived from sustainable resources.

  20. [Trends in smoking in an urban population over recent decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartoll, Xavier; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Borrell, Carme

    2016-05-06

    The objective of this study is to describe the distribution of smoking in the population and to assess changes and trends over recent decades. Cross sectional study in a sample of the non-institutionalized resident population (n=3,509) in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) using data from persons over 14 years of age from the health survey of 2011, and assessing trends for 1983-2011 using previous surveys. Dependent variables are having ever been a smoker, having quit, being a current smoker, and smoking daily. Independent variables include sex, age, and time. Prevalence and proportions are estimated, stratifying or adjusting for age. The prevalence of daily smokers is 18.8% in 2011: 22.2% for men and 15.9% for women. The age groups with higher smoking prevalence are 25-34 years for men and 15-24 for women. From 1983 to 2011 the reduction among men has been intense, and for women the prevalence has been decreasing since the survey of 2000. Among smokers, the proportion of both genders who do not smoke daily has increased. The smoking epidemic over the last years shows promising trends. The data do not lend support to the hardening hypothesis for current smokers. Smokers are a shrinking minority, although to improve public health it would be desirable to speed the process of change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Employee Training: Current Trends, Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovitz, Elizabeth

    1983-01-01

    Issues currently affecting employee training are the impact of high technology, worker adaptability, the communications revolution, job satisfaction, underinvestment in human capital, demographic shifts, and interest in productivity improvement. (SK)

  2. Current trends in Irish perinatal mortality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahony, R

    2010-06-01

    This was a retrospective review of normally formed perinatal deaths among 176,620 births at the National Maternity Hospital (1984-2007). Prelabor stillbirths were categorised by presumed cause of death including unexplained, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), placental abruption, red cell alloimmunisation (RCA) and deaths related to prematurity. Peripartum deaths included intrapartum and first week neonatal deaths. The post-mortem rate, initially almost 100%, fell to 60%. Data were analysed using the Mantel-Haenszel chi square test for trends. In the study period there was a significant reduction in the PNM, largely because of a fall in death related to prematurity, term peripartum death, death at 42 weeks or greater, placental abruption, death related to IUGR and RCA (P < 0.01). Overall the unexplained still birth rate was unchanged throughout the study period (p = 0.8) despite a highly significant (p < 0.001) increase in obstetric intervention particularly induction of labor and caesarean section.

  3. Current trends in chloroplast genome research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... organization and promising ability for transgenic expression. Therefore, cpDNA ... highly conserved in size, structure and gene content. (Olmstead and ... contain only 10% of the genes required for fully functional organelle whereas the ... concept (McFadden, 1999; Maliga, 2003; Howe, 2008). Currently 170 ...

  4. Current trends in robotic surgery for otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J Kenneth; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2013-09-01

    As minimally invasive surgery has become common in head and neck surgery, the role of robotic surgery has expanded from thyroid surgery and transoral robotic surgery (TORS) of the oropharynx and supraglottic to other areas. Surgeons have advanced the limits of TORS, adapting lasers to the Da Vinci robot for glottic cancer, and combining existing techniques for transoral supraglottic laryngectomy and hypopharyngectomy to perform transoral total laryngectomy. Skull base approaches have been reported with some success in case reports and cadaver models, but the current instrument size and configuration limit the applicability of the current robotic system. Surgeons have reported reconstruction of the head and neck via local and free flaps. Using the previously reported approaches for thyroidectomy via modified facelift incision, neck dissection has also been reported. Future applications of robotic surgery in otolaryngology may be additionally expanded, as several new robotic technologies are under development for endolaryngeal work and neurotology.

  5. Current Trends in Wireless Sensor Network Design

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Jain; Agrawal, Dharma P.

    2005-01-01

    The self-organizing nature of sensor networks, their autonomous operation and potential architectural alternatives make them suitable for different data-centric applications. Their wider acceptance seems to be rising on the horizon. In this article, we present an overview of the current state of the art in the field of wireless sensor networks. We also present various open research issues and provide an insight about the latest developments that need to be explored in greater depth that could...

  6. Sensing technology current status and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun

    2014-01-01

    This book is written for academic and industry professionals working in the field of sensing, instrumentation and related fields, and is positioned to give a snapshot of the current state of the art in sensing technology, particularly from the applied perspective.  The book is intended to give a broad overview of the latest developments, in addition to discussing the process through which researchers go through in order to develop sensors, or related systems, which will become more widespread in the future.  

  7. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru LUCA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we aim at highlighting the benefits of international trade on economic growth and development. In the first part of the paper, we will outline the seminal theories in the doctrine of international trade. In the second part, we will focus on current developments in the exports and imports of goods and services. We will also consider several indicators meant to emphasize the various aspects of research. Our approach is a transversal-comparative one and static models pertain to uni- and multivariate analysis.

  8. Solar photovoltaics: current state and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milichko, V. A.; Shalin, A. S.; Mukhin, I. S.; Kovrov, A. E.; Krasilin, A. A.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Belov, P. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basic aspects of current solar photovoltaics (PVs) are reviewed, starting from the recently developed already-on-the-market first-generation solar cells and ending with promising but not yet commercialized third-generation cells and materials possibly leading to new cell designs. The emphasis is on the physical principles of operation of various solar cells, which are divided into several groups according to our classification scheme. To make the picture complete, some technological and economic aspects of the field are discussed. A separate chapter considers antireflection coatings and light-trapping textures — structures which, while not having appeared yet in the PV review literature, are an integral part of the solar cells.

  9. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends: e86814

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neil Paprocki; Julie A Heath; Stephen J Novak

    2014-01-01

    .... Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes...

  10. Population trends of red-cockaded woodpeckers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2006-01-01

    tracked population trends of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas from 1983 through 2004. After declining precipitously during the 1980s, woodpecker population trends on federal lands (National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, but excluding the Big Thicket National Preserve) increased between 1990 and 2000, and have been...

  11. Current Trends in Computer-Based Education in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Barbara B.; Votaw, Robert G.

    1978-01-01

    Important current trends in the use of computer technology to enhance medical education are reported in the areas of simulation and assessment of clinical competence, curriculum integration, financial support, and means of exchanging views and scientific information. (RAO)

  12. Current trends in high temperature design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.L. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    A review of high temperature design guidelines has been carried out in preparation for designing a solar storage module for the Freedom Spacelab. Three major guidelines, N47, R5 and RCC-MR form the basis of the survey. The main issues with current, mature design in the power industry appear to be adequately covered by these guidelines. A significant finding is that long established models of material damage have survived the test of time very well. A new design regime referred to as Very High Temperature Design (VHTD) is identified. The characteristics of this regime are changing material properties which require some changes in philosophy in drafting of future codes, particularly in regard to definitions of yield strengths and other design allowables. Finally, there is some discussion of the more general use of the stress/strain plane, e.g. isochronous curves, for representation of very complex material constitutive behaviour. A concept called the 'Relaxation Locus', which summarizes essential local constrained component behavior, is introduced and its application to high temperature design problems is discussed briefly. (author).

  13. Current trends to measure implant stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Vasanthi; Vijayaraghavan, Vasantha; Swami, Vinit

    2016-01-01

    Implant stability plays a critical role for successful osseointegration. Successful osseointegration is a prerequisite for functional dental implants. Continuous monitoring in an objective and qualitative manner is important to determine the status of implant stability. Implant stability is measured at two different stages: Primary and secondary. Primary stability comes from mechanical engagement with cortical bone. Secondary stability is developed from regeneration and remodeling of the bone and tissue around the implant after insertion and affected by the primary stability, bone formation and remodelling. The time of functional loading is dependent upon the implant stability. Historically the gold standard method to evaluate stability were microscopic or histologic analysis, radiographs, however due to invasiveness of these methods and related ethical issues various other methods have been proposed like cutting torque resistance, reverse torque analysis, model analysis etc. It is, therefore, of an utmost importance to be able to access implant stability at various time points and to project a long term prognosis for successful therapy. Therefore this review focuses on the currently available methods for evaluation of implant stability.

  14. Current Trends in the Management of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayyam Kıratlı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor of early childhood, and 95% of all cases are diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Tumors are evaluated and classified based on laterality, genetic features, the number, location and size of foci. Currently, systemic and intaarterial chemotherapy are the most commonly used management options worldwide. Group A tumors are treated with focal techniques including transpupillary thermotherapy, cryotherapy, or laser photocoagulation. Groups B and C tumors are managed with systemic chemotherapy and focal consolidation techniques. Group D lesions are best treated with systemic chemotherapy, subtenon carboplatin injection or external beam radiotherapy. Alternatively, groups B, C and D tumors can be primarily treated with intraarterial chemotherapy. Intravitreal melphalan injection can be an alternative treatment for eyes with recurrent or persistent vitreous seeding. Group E eyes are often enucleated, however, depending on the fellow eye, systemic or intraarterial chemotherapy may be administered. Systemic chemotherapy is also mandatory if high-risk histopathological features are found after enucleation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 22-8

  15. CURRENT TRENDS IN PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Tajane et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose for this review on pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS is to compile the recent literatures with special focus on the different types and approaches involved in the development of the formulation. Pulsatile drug delivery system is the most interesting time and site-specific system. This system is designed for chronopharmacotherapy. Thus, to mimic the function of living systems and in view of emerging chronotherapeutic approaches, pulsatile delivery, which is meant to release a drug following programmed lag phase, has increasing interest in the recent years. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, and attention deficit syndrome in children, cancer, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Pulsatile drug delivery system divided into 2 types’ preplanned systems and stimulus induced system, preplanned systems based on osmosis, rupturable layers, and erodible barrier coatings. Stimuli induced system based on electrical, temperature and chemically induced systems. This review also summarizes some current PDDS already available in the market. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  16. Exploring Managerial Implications of Current DoD Contracting Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Managerial Implications of Current DoD Contracting Trends Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...SUBTITLE Exploring Managerial Implications of Current DoD Contracting Trends 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...COMMUNICATION − Transparent − Information Sharing − Publish Best Practices & Strategic Sourcing Methods • INDUSTRY − Outreach − Economic Impacts

  17. Current trends in staging rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdus Samee; Chelliah Ramachandran Selvasekar

    2011-01-01

    Management of rectal cancer has evolved over the years.In this condition preoperative investigations assist in deciding the optimal treatment.The relation of the tumor edge to the circumferential margin (CRM) is an important factor in deciding the need for neoadjuvant treatment and determines the prognosis.Those with threatened or involved margins are offered long course chemoradiation to enable R0 surgical resection.Endoanal ultrasound (EUS) is useful for tumor (T) staging;hence EUS is a useful imaging modality for early rectal cancer.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for assessing the mesorectum and the mesorectal fascia which has useful prognostic significance and for early identification of local recurrence.Computerized tomography (CT) of the chest,abdomen and pelvis is used to rule out distant metastasis.Identification of the malignant nodes using EUS,CT and MRI is based on the size,morphology and internal characteristics but has drawbacks.Most of the common imaging techniques are suboptimal for imaging following chemoradiation as they struggle to differentiate fibrotic changes and tumor.In this situation,EUS and MRI may provide complementary information to decide further treatment.Functional imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) is useful,particularly PET/CT fusion scans to identify areas of the functionally hot spots.In the current state,imaging has enabled the multidisciplinary team of surgeons,oncologists,radiologists and pathologists to decide on the patient centered management of rectal cancer.In future,functional imaging may play an active role in identifying patients with lymph node metastasis and those with residual and recurrent disease following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

  18. Current trends with natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, A M; Michel, P A; Wagner, J; Baud, R

    1995-01-01

    Natural Language Processing in the medical domain becomes more and more powerful, efficient, and ready to be used in daily practice. The needs for such tools are enormous in the medical field, due to the vast amount of written texts for medical records. In the authors' point of view, the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) is achieved neither with Information Systems of all kinds nor with commercially available word processing systems. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is one dimension of the EPR, as well as Image Processing and Decision Support Systems. Analysis of medical texts to facilitate indexing and retrieval is well known. The need for a generation tool is to produce progress notes from menu driven systems. The computer systems of tomorrow cannot miss any single dimension. Since 1988, we've been developing an NLP system; it is supported by the European program AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine) within the GALEN and HELIOS consortium and the CERS (Commission d'Encouragement á la Recherche Scientifique) in Switzerland. The main directions of development are: a medical language analyzer, a language generator, a query processor, and dictionary building tools to support the Medical Linguistic Knowledge Base (MLKB). The knowledge representation schema is essentially based on Sowa's conceptual graphs, and the MLKB is multilingual from its design phase; it currently incorporates the English and the French languages; it will also continue using German. The goal of this demonstration is to provide evidence of what exists today, what will be soon available, and what is planned for the long term. Complete sentences will be processed in real time, and the browsing capabilities of the MLKB will be exercised. In particular, the following features will be presented: Analysis of complete sentences with verbs and relatives, as extracted from clinical narratives, with special attention to the method of "proximity processing" as developed in our group and the rule based

  19. State Education Spending: Current Pressures and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila E. Murray; Rueben, Kim; Rosenberg, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Education expenditures are one of the largest spending areas for state and local governments, and per–pupil expenditures have been growing over time. We examine trends in state aid for education and overall education spending and decompose the existing drivers behind growing state costs. We then explore how predicted future demographic trends will affect education spending levels, as the percent of the population that is of school age falls. We conclude that there will continue to be a large ...

  20. Population trends in Malaysia: 1970-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Saharani Abdul; Ghani, Puzziawati Ab; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-12-01

    The size of population in Malaysia had reached 28.3 million in 2010 and is expected to increase to 38.6 million in the next 30 years. This demographic milestone that is causing renewed attention to the challenges caused by population growth. This paper looks at the last 40 years of changes in Malaysia population structure due to the changes in demographic phenomenon using data obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. The principal finding of this research indicates that population structure in Malaysia had changed dramatically from the year 1970 to 2010. At the same time, Malaysia has completed its demographic transition in less than four decades. The fall in fertility and mortality rates have led to an improvement in the life expectancy of the population which has resulted an ageing population in Malaysia.

  1. Current Trends, Evaluation, and Management of Pediatric Nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Joel D; Ellison, Jonathan S; Lendvay, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has been steadily increasing for the past several decades, with a concomitant concerning increase in health care costs and burden to children with this disease. Recent population-based studies have also demonstrated a change in the current trends of pediatric nephrolithiasis that is characterized by a significant increase in the number of girls now being affected. While changes in diet and lifestyle, obesity prevalence, and even imaging practices have been proposed to contribute to the recent increase in pediatric nephrolithiasis, a definite underlying cause remains elusive. This situation is complicated by the fact that, unlike in adults, the trends occurring in pediatric nephrolithiasis have not been studied rigorously, which contributes to the paucity of data in children. The level of concern with the increasing incidence is raised by factors unique to pediatric nephrolithiasis that could expose an affected child to more complications. Factors such as variable clinical presentation, high recurrence of kidney stones associated with abnormalities of metabolism and the urinary tract, and the possible presence of rare genetic kidney stone diseases would require physicians to comprehensively evaluate patients presenting with kidney stones. The goal of evaluation is to identify modifiable risk factors and abnormalities for which targeted therapy can be prescribed. The goals of medical and surgical treatments are to eliminate the burden of kidney stones and prevent recurrence while simultaneously minimizing complications from interventions. Patients at high risk may benefit from a specialized kidney stone clinic staffed by a pediatric nephrologist, urologist, dietitian, and clinical nurse. Such a multidisciplinary clinic can help provide the medical and surgical support needed for patients at high risk and offer key opportunities to learn more about pediatric nephrolithiasis, thereby fueling the much-needed research in this

  2. Current Trends in Nursing Informatics: Results of an International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Alhuwail, Dari; Ali, Samira; Badger, Martha K; Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Georgsson, Mattias; Islam, Tasneem; Jeon, Eunjoo; Jung, Hyunggu; Kuo, Chiu-Hsiang; Lewis, Adrienne; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Ronquillo, Charlene; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Sommer, Janine; Tayaben, Jude L; Topaz, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Nursing informatics (NI) can help provide effective and safe healthcare. This study aimed to describe current research trends in NI. In the summer 2015, the IMIA-NI Students Working Group created and distributed an online international survey of the current NI trends. A total of 402 responses were submitted from 44 countries. We identified a top five NI research areas: standardized terminologies, mobile health, clinical decision support, patient safety and big data research. NI research funding was considered to be difficult to acquire by the respondents. Overall, current NI research on education, clinical practice, administration and theory is still scarce, with theory being the least common. Further research is needed to explain the impact of these trends and the needs from clinical practice.

  3. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  4. Hypertension in Latin America: Current perspectives on trends and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruilope, L M; Chagas, A C P; Brandão, A A; Gómez-Berroterán, R; Alcalá, J J A; Paris, J V; Cerda, J J O

    The region of Latin America, which includes Central America, the Caribbean and South America, is one that is rapidly developing. Signified by socio-economic growth, transition and development over the last few decades, living standards in countries like Brazil and Mexico have improved dramatically, including improvements in education and health care. An important marker of socio-economic change has been the epidemiological shift in disease burden. Cardiovascular disease is now the leading cause of death in Latin America, and the drop in prevalence of infectious diseases has been accompanied by a rise in non-communicable diseases. Hypertension is the major risk factor driving the cardiovascular disease continuum. In this article we aim to discuss the epidemiological and management trends and patterns in hypertension that may be specific or more common to Latin-American populations - what we term 'Latin American characteristics' of hypertension - via a review of the recent literature. Recognizing that there may be a specific profile of hypertension for Latin-American patients may help to improve their treatment, with the ultimate goal to reduce their cardiovascular risk. We focus somewhat on the countries of Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela, the experience of which may reflect other Latin American countries that currently have less published data regarding epidemiology and management practices. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai B. Olokoba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO and American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.

  6. Dimensions of global population projections: what do we know about future population trends and structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang; K C, Samir

    2010-09-27

    The total size of the world population is likely to increase from its current 7 billion to 8-10 billion by 2050. This uncertainty is because of unknown future fertility and mortality trends in different parts of the world. But the young age structure of the population and the fact that in much of Africa and Western Asia, fertility is still very high makes an increase by at least one more billion almost certain. Virtually, all the increase will happen in the developing world. For the second half of the century, population stabilization and the onset of a decline are likely. In addition to the future size of the population, its distribution by age, sex, level of educational attainment and place of residence are of specific importance for studying future food security. The paper provides a detailed discussion of different relevant dimensions in population projections and an evaluation of the methods and assumptions used in current global population projections and in particular those produced by the United Nations and by IIASA.

  7. Distance Education Programs in Social Work: Current and Emerging Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Robert; Vakalahi, Halaevalu; Pierce, Dean; Pittman-Munke, Peggy; Adkins, Lynn Frantz

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on current and emerging trends in the use of distance education technologies in social work education. Areas studied include the extent of distance education programs, curricular areas covered, technologies used, pedagogical approaches, intentions for degree-program development, sources of pressure to adopt distance education…

  8. Current Technology Trends for School Library Media Specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Ekhaml; Joan Hubbard

    2003-01-01

    An overview of some of the current technology trends used in classroom instruction and school library media centers in provided in this article such as the use of handheld electronic organizers, CD recorders, digital video cameras, and interactive whiteboards. The article offers some suggestions or ideas on how to acquire new technologies to school library media centers that are low in budgetary funds.

  9. Counseling in Malaysia: History, Current Status, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Ching Mey; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of counseling in Malaysia, provides an update of its current status, and discusses some anticipated future trends for the profession in light of recent developments in the country. Counseling in Malaysia began with school guidance in the 1960s and has now achieved recognition as a profession in…

  10. Five Aspects of Current Trends in German Library Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steierwald, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The specialisation Library Science at the Hochschule Darmstadt/University of Applied Science Darmstadt is the newest academic program in Germany for the higher education of librarians. Five current trends in library science in Germany reflect the new "Darmstadt Model": (1) The delimitation of a specific professional field…

  11. Five Aspects of Current Trends in German Library Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steierwald, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The specialisation Library Science at the Hochschule Darmstadt/University of Applied Science Darmstadt is the newest academic program in Germany for the higher education of librarians. Five current trends in library science in Germany reflect the new "Darmstadt Model": (1) The delimitation of a specific professional field "library" is obsolete, so…

  12. Current Trends in Treatment Outcomes of Orbital Cellulitis in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the outcomes following the management of orbital cellulitis at the. University of Benin ... the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 21 software program (SPSS Inc. .... or periocular surgery, dental infection, otitis media, dacryocystitis, and endophthalmitis.

  13. Lifelong Education in Greece: Recent Developments and Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Thanassis; Vergidis, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This article concerns recent developments and current trends in lifelong education in Greece, specifically those related with funding from European Social Fund (ESF). The analysis undertaken focuses mainly on (a) the expansion of continuing training activities in Greece during the past ten years and the development of new training organizations as…

  14. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  15. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  16. Estimating trends in alligator populations from nightlight survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Cherkiss, Michael; Jeffery, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Nightlight surveys are commonly used to evaluate status and trends of crocodilian populations, but imperfect detection caused by survey- and location-specific factors makes it difficult to draw population inferences accurately from uncorrected data. We used a two-stage hierarchical model comprising population abundance and detection probability to examine recent abundance trends of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in subareas of Everglades wetlands in Florida using nightlight survey data. During 2001–2008, there were declining trends in abundance of small and/or medium sized animals in a majority of subareas, whereas abundance of large sized animals had either demonstrated an increased or unclear trend. For small and large sized class animals, estimated detection probability declined as water depth increased. Detection probability of small animals was much lower than for larger size classes. The declining trend of smaller alligators may reflect a natural population response to the fluctuating environment of Everglades wetlands under modified hydrology. It may have negative implications for the future of alligator populations in this region, particularly if habitat conditions do not favor recruitment of offspring in the near term. Our study provides a foundation to improve inferences made from nightlight surveys of other crocodilian populations.

  17. Hair mercury levels in Amazonian populations: spatial distribution and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri Flavia L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mercury is present in the Amazonian aquatic environments from both natural and anthropogenic sources. As a consequence, many riverside populations are exposed to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury, because of their intense fish consumption. Many studies have analysed this exposure from different approaches since the early nineties. This review aims to systematize the information in spatial distribution, comparing hair mercury levels by studied population and Amazonian river basin, looking for exposure trends. Methods The reviewed papers were selected from scientific databases and online libraries. We included studies with a direct measure of hair mercury concentrations in a sample size larger than 10 people, without considering the objectives, approach of the study or mercury speciation. The results are presented in tables and maps by river basin, displaying hair mercury levels and specifying the studied population and health impact, if any. Results The majority of the studies have been carried out in communities from the central Amazonian regions, particularly on the Tapajós River basin. The results seem quite variable; hair mercury means range from 1.1 to 34.2 μg/g. Most studies did not show any significant difference in hair mercury levels by gender or age. Overall, authors emphasized fish consumption frequency as the main risk factor of exposure. The most studied adverse health effect is by far the neurological performance, especially motricity. However, it is not possible to conclude on the relation between hair mercury levels and health impact in the Amazonian situation because of the relatively small number of studies. Conclusions Hair mercury levels in the Amazonian regions seem to be very heterogenic, depending on several factors. There is no obvious spatial trend and there are many areas that have never been studied. Taking into account the low mercury levels currently handled as acceptable, the

  18. Current Trend in Furnace Technology in the Melting Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Ighodalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to presents some of the current trend in Furnace technology as it pertains to the melting industries. Furnaces are applied in various industries for material processing. Large amounts of energy are usually consumed in the melting industries. The current trend in furnace technology is towards energy conservation, enhanced efficiency and productivity. The reduction of pollutant emissions are also taken into consideration due to their environmental impact. The various materials and processes for furnaces are discussed. The various strategies being employed towards furnace energy conservation, efficiency and productivity, and reduction of pollutant emissions are also discussed. Such strategies include the use of better fuel types such as natural gas; improved insulation and refractory materials; advanced burner designs such as high velocity, regenerative and recuperative burners; new combustion technologies such as air and fuel staging, flue gas recirculation technique. Mathematical modeling is also being employed for analysis and design purpose.

  19. Current trends in health facility planning, design, and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Craig; Kittredge, Frank D

    2014-01-01

    It is critical now more than ever for today's healthcare facilities to serve as more than just a backdrop to the care provided--they can, and should, be an integral part of that care. In addition to promoting efficacy, delighting the senses, and placing patients and families at ease, facilities need to be high-performing, sustainable, and healthy environments. Creating today's healthcare facilities requires breaking through barriers in unexpected ways, and it often requires looking outside the healthcare profession for guidance. In this article, we explore current trends in health facility planning, design, and construction. Our focus is on the buildings that serve as venues for the provision of healthcare services across the full continuum, from prevention to critical care. In particular, we discuss four current broad trends and conclude with thoughts on future developments.

  20. Current and future technological trends in positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J S; Freifelder, R

    1992-04-01

    Current trends in positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation are examined, with an emphasis on providing information suitable to the prospective PET user. Basic principles underlying PET are explained and information on performance measurements, techniques, and quantitation are given in order to allow the user to compare and contrast different types of PET scanners. These scanner designs are described. Specific examples are given and the combination of PET with other modalities is discussed.

  1. Large Antenna Control Methods: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Lin, Y. H.; Milman, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Current methods for control of large antennas, as well as future trends required for improved performance are addressed. Some of the target missions in which these methods would be used are: the Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) for communications; the Satellite Surveillance (SSS) for aircraft traffic control; the orbiting Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI), or QUASAT, for radio astronomy; and the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) for IR and submillimeter astronomy.

  2. Current Technology Trends for School Library Media Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Ekhaml

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of some of the current technology trends used in classroom instruction and school library media centers in provided in this article such as the use of handheld electronic organizers, CD recorders, digital video cameras, and interactive whiteboards. The article offers some suggestions or ideas on how to acquire new technologies to school library media centers that are low in budgetary funds.

  3. Current Trends in Graduate Education in Astronomy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, J. R.; Douglas, K. A.

    2002-12-01

    We begin by describing the infrastructure for graduate education and research in astronomy in Canada. We then describe recent and current trends and issues, including facilities, funding, curriculum, and job prospects. This information has been collected through two channels: through graduate coordinators in astronomy departments and groups in Canadian universities, and through the Graduate Student Committee of the Canadian Astronomical Society (CAS). We emphasize the benefits of having a graduate student chapter in societies such as the CAS and the AAS.

  4. Current Application of Search Engines and Their Developing Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; SHAO Shi-huang; WU Xiao-qiong; ZENG Xian-hui; FAN Xiao-wen

    2002-01-01

    The basic types of current search engines which can help users to perfume laborious information-gathering tasks on Internet is proposed. Basically, the search engines can be classified into index engine, directory engine and agent engine on WWW information service. The key technologies of web mine, automatic classifying of documents and ordering regulation of feedback information are discussed. Finally, the developing trend of search engines is pointed out by analyzing their practical application on World Wide Web.

  5. High-quality lossy compression: current and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with current and future trends in the lossy compression of real sources such as imagery, video, speech and music. We put all lossy compression schemes into common framework where each can be characterized in terms of three well-defined advantages: cell shape, region shape and memory advantages. We concentrate on image compression and discuss how new entropy constrained trellis-based compressors achieve cell- shape, region-shape and memory gain resulting in high fidelity and high compression.

  6. Trends in the exploitation of South Atlantic shark populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo; Ferretti, Francesco; Flemming, Joanna M; Amorim, Alberto; Andrade, Humber; Worm, Boris; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 25% of globally reported shark catches occur in Atlantic pelagic longline fisheries. Strong declines in shark populations have been detected in the North Atlantic, whereas in the South Atlantic the situation is less clear, although fishing effort has been increasing in this region since the late 1970s. We synthesized information on shark catch rates (based on 871,177 sharks caught on 86,492 longline sets) for the major species caught by multiple fleets in the South Atlantic between 1979 and 2011. We complied records from fishing logbooks of fishing companies, fishers, and onboard observers that were supplied to Brazilian institutions. By using exploratory data analysis and literature sources, we identified 3 phases of exploitation in these data (Supporting Information). From 1979 to 1997 (phase A), 5 fleets (40 vessels) fished mainly for tunas. From 1998 to 2008 (phase B), 20 fleets (100 vessels) fished for tunas, swordfishes, and sharks. From 2008 to 2011 (phase C), 3 fleets (30 vessels) fished for multiple species, but restrictive measures were implemented. We used generalized linear models to standardize catch rates and identify trends in each of these phases. Shark catch rates increased from 1979 to 1997, when fishing effort was low, decreased from 1998 to 2008, when fishing effort increased substantially, and remained stable or increased from 2008 to 2011, when fishing effort was again low. Our results indicate that most shark populations affected by longlines in the South Atlantic are currently depleted, but these populations may recover if fishing effort is reduced accordingly. In this context, it is problematic that comprehensive data collection, monitoring, and management of these fisheries ceased after 2012. Concurrently with the fact that Brazil is newly identified by FAO among the largest (and in fastest expansion) shark sub-products consumer market worldwide.

  7. Current trends in molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhas, Raquel; Cordeiro, Milton; Pedrosa, Pedro; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Baptista, Pedro V

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 1.5 million people worldwide suffer from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), characterized by the genetic translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11.2), involving the fusion of the Abelson oncogene (ABL1) with the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene. Early onset diagnosis coupled to current therapeutics allow for a treatment success rate of 90, which has focused research on the development of novel diagnostics approaches. In this review, we present a critical perspective on current strategies for CML diagnostics, comparing to gold standard methodologies and with an eye on the future trends on nanotheranostics.

  8. Trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Logadottir, Ashildur;

    2005-01-01

    A density functional theory database of hydrogen chemisorption energies on close packed surfaces of a number of transition and noble metals is presented. The bond energies are used to understand the trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution. A volcano curve is obtained when measured...... exchange currents are plotted as a function of the calculated hydrogen adsorption energies and a simple kinetic model is developed to understand the origin of the volcano. The volcano curve is also consistent with Pt being the most efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution. (c) 2005...

  9. Biosolids disposal: An international overview of current and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, B

    1993-03-01

    The current trend in wastewater treatment is toward optimization, reuse, and beneficial use of biosolids. Key considerations in the selection of a sludge management process include long-term viability, sludge quality, markets for sludge-derived products, storage requirements, and whether the project will be able to obtain approvals. Beneficial uses of biosolids include agriculture and landscaping, construction materials, and energy; emerging technologies for utilizing sludges include biobrick production, animal feed production, vermiculture, pyrolysis of sludge to produce oil, manufacturing cement using sludge, and sludge liming for use in agriculture. An important use of sludge in Canada will be the use of solids as fertilizer in cleared-out areas of forest. A review is presented of practices in sludge disposal and utilization in Canada, the USA, Europe, and Japan. Some future trends are also noted. 4 tabs.

  10. The epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Shulamith; Alozie, Ogechika K; Henry, W Keith

    2009-10-01

    The epidemic of HIV infection and HIV/AIDS in Minnesota reflects national trends in transmission and progression to disease. Analysis of Minnesota's data also highlights populations that are at much greater risk for HIV infection and progression to AIDS. Although men who have sex with men continue to comprise the majority of people in Minnesota with HIV, other subpopulations--women, people of color, and foreign-born residents--are seeing a rise in their infection rates as well. Members of these groups tend to be diagnosed later and, thus, are at greater risk for their infection to progress to AIDS. This article discusses some of the nuances of the most recent epidemiologic data on HIV/AIDS in Minnesota and makes the case for continued aggressive strategies for outreach, education, and adequate access to health care services among at-risk populations.

  11. The Statistical Modeling of the Trends Concerning the Romanian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects the statistical modeling concerning the resident population in Romania, respectively the total of the romanian population, through by means of the „Least Squares Method”. Any country it develops by increasing of the population, respectively of the workforce, which is a factor of influence for the growth of the Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P.. The „Least Squares Method” represents a statistical technique for to determine the trend line of the best fit concerning a model.

  12. Food and Health Some Current Issues and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with some of the many current issues and future trends in the area of food, diet and health in Europe. A complete coverage would be impossible in a short article in view of the extent and complexity of the food system and its major interaction with health. It is also important to stress at the outset that food/diet is only one component of health and other factors such as environment, overall lifestyle and genetics also play a major role. The genetic dimension is of particula...

  13. Current trends in the development of laser glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunter, S.G.; Mit' kin, V.M.; Tolstoi, M.N.; Fedorov, IU.K.

    1988-02-01

    The principal requirements for glasses suitable for use in solid state lasers are briefly discussed, and some current trends in the development of thermally stable laser-grade phosphate glasses based on I-III elements are reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the optimization of glass composition with respect to structural strength and low brittleness; development of new methods for machining and protecting the side surfaces of active elements; development of new glasses with low concentration quenching, such as a lithium-neodymium-lanthanum-phosphate glass; new neodymium glasses with high chemical stability and low crystallizability; and methods for the dehydration of erbium phosphate glasses. 24 references.

  14. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Current Status and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Guiding readers through the basics of these rapidly emerging networks to more advanced concepts and future expectations, Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Status and Future Trends identifies and examines the most pressing research issues in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Containing the contributions of leading researchers, industry professionals, and academics, this forward-looking reference provides an authoritative perspective of the state of the art in MANETs. The book includes surveys of recent publications that investigate key areas of interest such as limited resources and the mobility o

  15. 我国驯鹿 Rangifer tarandus 的种群分布、数量及致危原因%Current Distribution,Population Trends and Causes of Decline of Reindeer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾治; 孟凡露; 王朋; 孟秀祥

    2016-01-01

    2012年7月至2013年8月间,在大兴安岭对我国驯鹿 Rangi f er tarandus开展了野外调查,以确定其分布及种群数量波动,并分析其致危原因.结果表明:我国驯鹿仅分布于大兴安岭西北麓的内蒙古根河地区(E 121°11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′),其分布区与我国鄂温克族聚居区完全重叠.我国现存驯鹿种群718头,分布于12个彼此隔离的种群,各驯鹿种群数量分布极不均匀,每个种群由9~240头驯鹿组成,大部分种群呈典型小种群状态,其平均种群大小仅为59.83头(±18.42, n=12);驯鹿分布生境的海拔区间为700~926 m ,平均海拔为813.67 m (±21.72 m , n=12);小种群及相关的近交衰退、生境丧失及适宜性下降、管理政策不合理、高强度的生态旅游和盗猎及天敌捕杀是制约我国驯鹿种群发展的主要因素.%The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is an endangered species distributed in the sub‐arctic region in the northeastern part of China .To determine the current status of the population and the distribution pat‐terns of reindeer ,this study was conducted in the Great Xing’Anling of China during July 2012 to August 2013 .The results showed that the reindeer in China only occurs in Genhe area of Inner Mongolia (E 121° 11′-122°25′,N 50°42′-51°50′) ,where has been the dwelling region of Ewenki people .There were 718 reindeer in 12 populations in 2013 with the population range from 9 to 240 and the average population size of 59.83 ( ± 18.42 ,n=12) ,which indicated that the most reindeer populations in China were small popula‐tions .The preferred habitats of reindeer locates from 700 to 926 m with the average of 813.67 m (± 21.72 , n=12) .Small populations and the related inbreeding ,habitat loss and degradation ,management policy ,in‐tensive tourism and poaching and the predation have been the main factors influencing the population increase

  16. Ocean currents help explain population genetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Crow; Selkoe, Kimberly A.; Watson, James; Siegel, David A.; Zacherl, Danielle C.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Management and conservation can be greatly informed by considering explicitly how environmental factors influence population genetic structure. Using simulated larval dispersal estimates based on ocean current observations, we demonstrate how explicit consideration of frequency of exchange of larvae among sites via ocean advection can fundamentally change the interpretation of empirical population genetic structuring as compared with conventional spatial genetic analyses. Both frequency of larval exchange and empirical genetic difference were uncorrelated with Euclidean distance between sites. When transformed into relative oceanographic distances and integrated into a genetic isolation-by-distance framework, however, the frequency of larval exchange explained nearly 50 per cent of the variance in empirical genetic differences among sites over scales of tens of kilometres. Explanatory power was strongest when we considered effects of multiple generations of larval dispersal via intermediary locations on the long-term probability of exchange between sites. Our results uncover meaningful spatial patterning to population genetic structuring that corresponds with ocean circulation. This study advances our ability to interpret population structure from complex genetic data characteristic of high gene flow species, validates recent advances in oceanographic approaches for assessing larval dispersal and represents a novel approach to characterize population connectivity at small spatial scales germane to conservation and fisheries management. PMID:20133354

  17. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  18. POPULATION INCOME AND CONSUMERS EXPENDITURES: LEVEL, TRENDS AND DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor K. Beliaevskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Money incomes of the population, their composition and dynamics determine considerably the standard of living. Nevertheless, human wellbeing also depends on the consumer spendings. The article deals with analysis of forming and using of money incomes for consumption, trends of their development, as well as the social differentiation of consumer spendings. The author uses the data of government statistics in a few years.

  19. Can neonatal TSH screening reflect trends in population iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The distribution of neonatal blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations has been used as an index reflecting population dietary iodine intake, with higher concentrations being indicative of lower iodine intake. We examined this distribution in neonates born in Ireland, where the pregnant population has shown a recent decline in urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Our objectives were to determine if any alteration was observed in the percentage of values > 5.0 mIU\\/L and whether a trend in neonatal blood TSH was apparent.

  20. Current trends in safety testing and toxicological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, G.

    1982-06-01

    The paper reviews current concepts of toxicological evaluation of new drugs and other chemicals. Instead of completing a predetermined check-list toxicologists now consider the potential adverse effects of the substances under actual conditions of use. They then design experimental models which have a high probability to predict the toxic effects. Moreover, the enhanced susceptibilities of special risk populations is more and more taken into consideration.

  1. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  2. Current Trends in Local Policing Provision in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Krulík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the current trends of national police forces as they increasingly often pull back from their positions, and the consequences which many municipal councils in the Czech Republic are now facing. In the last couple of years, some municipalities chose relatively unconventional ways to deal with increased levels of crime and other forms of antisocial behaviour on their territories. This created space – for example – for signing public agreements with other municipalities, hiring private security companies to perform the role of municipal police or various forms of sponsoring the Police of the Czech Republic.

  3. Drug therapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash De Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as a-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future.

  4. Current and future trends in imaging informatics for oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mia A; Rubin, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    Clinical imaging plays an essential role in cancer care and research for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response assessment. Major advances in imaging informatics to support medical imaging have been made during the last several decades. More recent informatics advances focus on the special needs of oncologic imaging, yet gaps still remain. We review the current state, limitations, and future trends in imaging informatics for oncology care including clinical and clinical research systems. We review information systems to support cancer clinical workflows including oncologist ordering of radiology studies, radiologist review and reporting of image findings, and oncologist review and integration of imaging information for clinical decision making. We discuss informatics approaches to oncologic imaging including, but not limited to, controlled terminologies, image annotation, and image-processing algorithms. With the ongoing development of novel imaging modalities and imaging biomarkers, we expect these systems will continue to evolve and mature.

  5. Current trends in separation of plasmid DNA vaccines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Ashraf; Healey, Robert; Adly, Frady G

    2013-01-14

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccines offer more rapid avenues for development and production if compared to those of conventional virus-based vaccines. They do not rely on time- or labour-intensive cell culture processes and allow greater flexibility in shipping and storage. Stimulating antibodies and cell-mediated components of the immune system are considered as some of the major advantages associated with the use of pDNA vaccines. This review summarizes the current trends in the purification of pDNA vaccines for practical and analytical applications. Special attention is paid to chromatographic techniques aimed at reducing the steps of final purification, post primary isolation and intermediate recovery, in order to reduce the number of steps necessary to reach a purified end product from the crude plasmid.

  6. Current Trends in High-Level Synthesis of Asynchronous Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a survey paper presenting what the author sees as two major and promising trends in the current research in CAD-tools and design-methods for asynchronous circuits. One branch of research builds on top of existing asynchronous CAD-tools that perform syntax directed translation, e.......g. the Haste/TiDE tool from Handshake Solutions or the Balsa tool from the University of Manchester. The aims are to add highlevel synthesis capabilities to these tools and to extend the tools such that a wider range of (higher speed) micro-architectures can be generated. Another branch of research takes...... a conventional synchronous circuit as the starting point, and then adds some form of handshake-based flow-control. One approach keeps the global clock and implements discrete-time asynchronous operation. Another approach substitutes the clocked registers by asynchronous handshake-registers, thus creating truly...

  7. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  8. Wind turbines: current status, obstacles, trends and technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, E. I.; Botsaris, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    The last decade the installation of wind farms around the world is spreading rapidly and wind energy has become a significant factor for promoting sustainable development. The scope of the present study is to indicate the present status of global wind power expansion as well as the current state of the art in the field of wind turbine technology. The RAM (reliability/availability/maintenance) section is also examined and the Levelized Cost of Energy for onshore/ offshore electricity production is presented. Negative consequences that go with the rapid expansion of wind power like accidents, environmental effects, etc. are highlighted. Especially visual impact to the landscape and noise pollution are some factors that provoke social reactions. Moreover, the complicated and long permitted process of a wind power plant, the high capital cost of the investment and the grid instability due to the intermittent nature of wind, are also significant obstacles in the development of the wind energy production. The current trends in the field of research and development of onshore and offshore wind power production are analyzed. Finally the present study is trying to achieve an estimation of where the wind industry targets for the years to come.

  9. LIFELONG LEARNING THROUGH SECOND LIFE: CURRENT TRENDS, POTENTIALS AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nil GOKSEL-CANBEK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lifelong Learning (LLL has been a remarkable response to people-centered educational demand of 21st century. In order to provide effective formal, non-formal, and informal learning, immersive educational activities undertaken throughout life should be aimed to create a learning society in which people can experience individual and collective learning with no constrains of time or location. The concept of lifelong learning within the context of distance immersive education encompasses diverse 3D activities. The three dimensional, Web-based structured activities supported by distance learning technologies can be viewed as interactive tools which foster LLL. In this perspective, Second Life (SL can be regarded as one of the learning simulation milieus that allow learners to participate in various educational LLL activities in individual or group forms. The following paper examines how SL, taking advantage of its simulative nature and the possibility for creative interaction among participants, which are also common in games, allows the learners to participate in immersive constructivist learning activities. The article will also touch on the current uses of SL as a tool for LLL, as well as its potentials for further development according to the current trends in adult education. Further, the authors will discuss its limitations and will make suggestions towards a more complete pedagogical use.

  10. Cold and hot extremozymes: industrial relevance and current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eSarmiento

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of enzymes for industrial applications relies heavily on the use of microorganisms. The intrinsic properties of microbial enzymes e.g. consistency, reproducibility and high yields along with many others, has pushed their introduction into a wide range of products and industrial processes. Extremophilic microorganisms represent an underutilized and innovative source of novel enzymes. These microorganisms have developed unique mechanisms and molecular means to cope with extreme temperatures, acidic and basic pH, high salinity, high radiation, low water activity, and high metal concentrations among other environmental conditions.Extremophile derived enzymes, or extremozymes, are able to catalyze chemical reactions under harsh conditions, like those found in industrial processes, which were previously not thought to be conducive for enzymatic activity. Due to their optimal activity and stability under extreme conditions, extremozymes offer new catalytic alternatives for current industrial applications. These extremozymes also represent the cornerstone for the development of environmentally-friendly, efficient and sustainable industrial technologies. Many advances in industrial biocatalysis have been achieved in recent years, however, the potential of biocatalysis through the use of extremozymes is far from being fully realized. In this article, the adaptations and significance of psychrophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes, and their applications in selected industrial markets will be reviewed. Also the current challenges in the development and mass-production of extremozymes as well as future prospects and trends for their biotechnological application will be discussed.

  11. Experimental evaluation of population trend and harvest composition in a Wyoming cougar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.R.; Lindzey, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) management has been hindered by inability to identify population trends. We documented changes in sex and age of harvested cougars during an experimentally induced reduction in population size and subsequent recovery to better understand the relationship between sex-age composition and population trend in exploited populations. The cougar population in the Snowy Range, southeast Wyoming, was reduced by increased harvest (treatment phase) from 58 independent cougars (>1 year old) (90% CI = 36-81) in the autumn of 1998 to 20 by the spring of 2000 (mean exploitation rate = 43%) and then increased to 46 by spring 2003 following 3 years of reduced harvests (mean exploitation rate = 18%). Pretreatment harvest composition was 63% subadults (1.0-2.5 years old), 23% adult males, and 14% adult females (2 seasons; n = 22). A reduction in subadult harvest, an initial increase followed by a reduction in adult male harvest, and a steady increase in adult female harvest characterized harvest composition trends during the treatment phase. Harvest composition was similar at high and low densities when harvest was light, but proportion of harvested subadult males increased at low density as they replaced adult males removed during the treatment period (high harvest). While sex ratio of harvested cougars alone appears of limited value in identifying population change, when combined with age class the 2 appear to provide an index to population change. Composition of the harvest can be applied to adaptively manage cougar populations where adequate sex and age data are collected from harvested animals.

  12. Current trends in colchicine treatment in familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Regina, Micaela; Ben-Chetrit, Eldad; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Livneh, Avi; Ozdogan, Huri; Manna, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of the first reports on the efficiency of colchicine in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), very few randomised studies have investigated issues related to its long-term use. Thus, different approaches taken by physicians involved in FMF care, are exclusively empiric, emulative, and based on case-reports or case-series. Problems such as colchicine intolerance and colchicine resistance have not been solved yet. This paper aims to evaluate trends in colchicine therapy among physicians taking care of FMF patients around the world. We conducted a survey by sending questionnaires to FMF research and treatment centres in Europe and Asia. Many issues (such as dosages, schedules, side effects, interactions, efficacy and toxicity monitoring, definition of colchicine intolerance, colchicine resistance and responsiveness, etc) have been investigated. When more than 70% of physicians responded giving similar answers to an item, the response was considered as a 'trend'. A comparison between answers of physicians from FMF-prevalent and non-prevalent countries was also made. Thirty-five physicians from 11 countries filled the questionnaires, taking care of a total of more than 15000 FMF patients (pts). Different approaches were evident among the various physicians. Statistically significant different approaches between physicians from FMF-prevalent countries with respect to those from non-prevalent countries were found in items like colchicine during pregnancy, severity score and blood tests for disease monitoring. No consensus was found regarding the definition of colchicine resistance. The current study demonstrated significant variations in the strategy of colchicine therapy for FMF around the world and re-emphasised the need for standardised definitions of colchicine resistance and colchicine intolerance.

  13. Current Trends in Adolescent Substance Use in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Atkinson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: National secondary school-based drug surveys facilitate the identification and understanding of patterns of substance use among adolescents, associated risk and protective factors which exist and inform prevention and treatment interventions and policies which are appropriate for resource constrained settings. This paper analyses current trends as well as reviews trends from the last National School Survey conducted by the National Council on Drug Abuse in 2006. Method: The study utilized a survey design that included a representative sample of secondary school students. Data were collected from 3365 students from 38 schools across the island. The study made specific reference to the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco cigarette, marijuana and inhalant use among secondary school students. Results: The most widely used substances among the sample were alcohol, tobacco cigarettes, marijuana and solvents/inhalants. A large number of students (64% reported a lifetime prevalence of alcohol use. Alcohol use was also the highest for one-year (44% and one-month (33.6% use. While lifetime use of tobacco cigarette was higher than marijuana, one-year and one-month use of marijuana was higher than that of tobacco cigarette. There has been a slight increase in the age of initiation for alcohol, tobacco cigarette and marijuana use. There has also been a significant decrease (approximately 50% in lifetime, past year and past month prevalence of inhalant use since the 2006 secondary school survey. Conclusions: Alcohol continues to be the substance most widely used by Jamaican adolescents, followed by tobacco, marijuana and inhalants. Though the average age of first use has slightly increased for all substances, prevalence remains a concern. As such, innovative school-based interventions are required to assist in reducing substance use among Jamaican adolescents.

  14. Population pressure on coral atolls: trends and approaching limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, M

    1990-09-01

    Trends and approaching limits of population pressure on coral atolls is discussed by examining the atoll environment in terms of the physical geography, the production systems, and resource distribution. Atoll populations are grouped as dependent and independent, and demographic trends in population growth, migraiton, urbanization, and political dependency are reviewed. Examination of the carrying capacity includes a dynamic model, the influences of the West, and philopsophical considerations. The carrying capacity is the "maximal population supportable in a given area". Traditional models are criticized because of a lack in accounting for external linkages. The proposed model is dynamic and considers perceived needs and overseas linkages. It also explains regional disparities in population distribution, and provides a continuing model for population movement from outer islands to district centers and mainland areas. Because of increased expectations and perceived needs, there is a lower carrying capacity for outlying areas, and expanded capacity in district centers. This leads to urbanization, emigration, and carrying capacity overshot in regional and mainland areas. Policy intervention is necessary at the regional and island community level. Atolls, which are islands surrounding deep lagoons, exist in archipelagoes across the oceans, and are rich in aquatic life. The balance in this small land area with a vulnerable ecosystem may be easily disturbed by scarce water supplies, barren soils, rising sea levels in the future, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Traditionally, fisheries and horticulture (pit-taro, coconuts, and breadfruit) have sustained populations, but modern influences such as blasting, reef mining, new industrial technologies, population pressure, and urbanization threaten the balance. Population pressure, which has lead to pollution, epidemics, malnutrition, crime, social disintegration, and foreign dependence, is evidenced in the areas of Tuvalu, Kiribati

  15. Time trends in physical activity in leisure time in the Danish population from 1987 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2010-01-01

    To examine time trends in leisure-time physical activity in the Danish population from 1987 to 2005.......To examine time trends in leisure-time physical activity in the Danish population from 1987 to 2005....

  16. How a trend towards a stationary population affects consumer demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenshade, T J

    1978-03-01

    Abstract During the great depression of the 1930seconomists in both the United States and Europe tried to analyse the economic consequences of declining rates of population growth. Not only were birth rates in many industrial countries at the lowest levels ever, but they coincided with high rates of unemployment. Of the many economists who held that demographic trends were partly responsible for the adverse economic conditions, a prominent example was John Maynard Keynes. According to his so-called stagnation thesis, population growth stimulates investment demand in two ways: more people need more goods and services and, hence, more investment in factories and machinery; and with population growing, businessmen are more likely to regard their investment misallocations as less serious than when the growth is slow or nil.(1)A minority of writers were more optimistic about the economic consequences of slower rates of population growth. For example, Thompson argued that with a lower ratio of consumers to producers the population would enjoy a higher standard of living and the education of children should improve.(2).

  17. Current trends in health insurance systems: OECD countries vs. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Izawa, Masahiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients' visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing.

  18. Current Trends in Health Insurance Systems: OECD Countries vs. Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    SASAKI, Toshiyuki; IZAWA, Masahiro; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients’ visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing. PMID:25797778

  19. Current trends in inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Monowar; Jacob, Asha; Yang, Weng-Lang; Matsuda, Akihisa; Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis refers to severe systemic inflammation in response to invading pathogens. An overwhelming immune response, as mediated by the release of various inflammatory mediators, can lead to shock, multiple organ damage, and even death. Cytokines, proteases, lipid mediators, gaseous substances, vasoactive peptides, and cell stress markers play key roles in sepsis pathophysiology. Various adhesion molecules and chemokines sequester and activate neutrophils into the target organs, further augmenting inflammation and tissue damage. Although the anti-inflammatory substances counterbalance proinflammatory mediators, prolonged immune modulation may cause host susceptibility to concurrent infections, thus reflecting enormous challenge toward developing effective clinical therapy against sepsis. To understand the complex interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory phenomenon in sepsis, there is still an unmet need to study newly characterized mediators. In addition, revealing the current trends of novel mediators will upgrade our understanding on their signal transduction, cross-talk, and synergistic and immunomodulating roles during sepsis. This review highlights the latest discoveries of the mediators in sepsis linking to innate and adaptive immune systems, which may lead to resolution of many unexplored queries. PMID:23136259

  20. Current Trends in Internet Usage and Cyber Crimes against Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bansal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a written survey, this paper examines the current trends in internet use and cyber crime against youth for a given set of demographic conditions and presents suggestions for related safety measures and precautions. A written survey of young internet users aged between 10 and 17 years was conducted in the schools of Chandigarh, India. It showed that nearly 84 percent of the youth surveyed have internet connectivity at their homes. Seventy percent of the youth surveyed use the internet for social networking, the majority of whom share photographs, videos and personal information online. Fifteen percent of the youth reported online harassment, and approximately 30 percent reported online interaction with unknown people. According to the youth surveyed, the parents or guardians of more than 90 percent know about their browsing habits. In most cases parents or guardians had talked to their children about internet safety and possible threats. Schools and parents/guardians should ensure that the children are aware of internet dangers, including the dangers of sharing personal information and trusting unknown people online, and regulate their browsing activities.

  1. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jin Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  2. Current and future trends in marine image annotation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Jose Nuno; Auger, Vincent; Beisiegel, Kolja; Benjamin, Robert; Bergmann, Melanie; Bowden, David; Buhl-Mortensen, Pal; De Leo, Fabio C.; Dionísio, Gisela; Durden, Jennifer M.; Edwards, Luke; Friedman, Ariell; Greinert, Jens; Jacobsen-Stout, Nancy; Lerner, Steve; Leslie, Murray; Nattkemper, Tim W.; Sameoto, Jessica A.; Schoening, Timm; Schouten, Ronald; Seager, James; Singh, Hanumant; Soubigou, Olivier; Tojeira, Inês; van den Beld, Inge; Dias, Frederico; Tempera, Fernando; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2016-12-01

    . Integration into available MIAS is currently limited to semi-automated processes of pixel recognition through computer-vision modules that compile expert-based knowledge. Important topics aiding the choice of a specific software are outlined, the ideal software is discussed and future trends are presented.

  3. Precarious Employment in the Vologda Oblast: Current State and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of precarious employment in Russian regions. Today, the socio-economic sciences lack a single concept of precarious employment applicable to Russian conditions. Despite the considerable amount of scientific and practical works of domestic and foreign authors on the issue of precarious employment, the criteria of its statistical evaluation as applied to Russian conditions have not been determined. At the same time, the development of precarious employment threatens the country’s socio-economic welfare, because it creates the risk of unwanted effects such as poor employment, hidden and open unemployment, lower labor productivity, degradation of human capital, etc. The paper provides a brief review of research on the problem stated, and defines precarious employment. The author makes an attempt to determine and substantiate the list of indicators available in official statistics for assessing precarious employment in the region. The study allocates three blocks of indicators: indicators of institutional regulation, conditions of employment and functioning of the labor market. Based on these indicators, the author analyzes the status and trends of precarious work in the Vologda Oblast in the period from 2001 to 2015. In some cases, the author presents a comparative analysis of the data for the Russian Federation and Northwestern Federal District. The analysis has helped identify positive and negative changes in the field of precarious employment in the Vologda Oblast. In particular, the author identifies the following problems: an increase in the share of those employed in the informal sector, a relative increase in the number of the working poor, an almost three-fold growth of overdue debts on wages in comparable prices per worker. On the basis of this analysis, the author identifies the directions of the state policy that can help reduce precarious employment: development of information

  4. Some Current Trends in Applied Linguistics: Towards a Generic View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygate, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that the most significant trend in applied linguistics is the emergence of the field as a generic discipline, involving several subareas, all characterised by the aim of developing theoretical and empirical studies of language as a key element in real world problems. Various subsidiary trends are apparent including numerous…

  5. Sublingual administration of tacrolimus: current trends and available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligalski, Christina Teeter; Liu, Esther C; Sammons, Chelsea M; Silverman, Andrew; Logan, Angela Tong

    2014-11-01

    Widespread anecdotal use of sublingual tacrolimus administration has arisen, although little literature exists to guide practice. Given the paucity of data, we conducted a survey to evaluate the practice of sublingual tacrolimus administration at transplant centers across the United States and evaluated the literature that is currently available. A 10-question online survey assessing the current state of sublingual tacrolimus use was distributed to pharmacists at transplant centers that each performed more than 100 solid organ transplantations in 2013. In addition, a literature review was performed by searching the PubMed database to identify available evidence for the sublingual administration of tacrolimus. The online survey was completed by 59 (65.6%) of the 90 targeted transplant centers, representing 51.3% of all solid organ transplantations performed in 2013. Sublingual administration of tacrolimus was used in all solid organ transplant populations, with ~67% of lung transplant centers using this route for tacrolimus. The most common dose conversion was 2 mg oral to 1 mg sublingual, with 92% of centers opening oral capsules and administering the contents sublingually. Home use of sublingual administration and use in the pediatric population was uncommon. Seven peer-reviewed reports and one abstract were identified in the literature review. Seven of the eight publications reported favorably on sublingual administration, although no consistent dose conversion or method of administration was elucidated. The majority of the transplant centers surveyed found sublingual tacrolimus a viable alternative when oral administration is unavailable. A large robust prospective evaluation of sublingual administration of tacrolimus is imperative to provide the most effective care to solid organ transplant recipients and to ensure optimal safety for both patients and providers who administer the drug.

  6. Effects of lek count protocols on greater sage-grouse population trend estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2016-01-01

    frequency also improved precision. These results suggest that the current distribution of count timings available in lek count databases such as that of Wyoming (conducted up to 90 minutes after sunrise) can be used to estimate sage-grouse population trends without reducing precision or accuracy relative to trends from counts conducted within 30 minutes of sunrise. However, only 10% of all Wyoming counts in our sample (1995−2014) were conducted 61−90 minutes after sunrise, and further increasing this percentage may still bias trend estimates because of declining lek attendance. 

  7. WOVOdat: Data Population and Current Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Baguet, A.; Lyou, C.; Newhall, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    WOVOdat is the World Organization of Volcano Observatories’ (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest. A large and valuable body of data on volcanic seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other precursory parameters is now being assembled into a single database which later will be open to all and accessible through the WOVOdat website. The project is now hosted at Earth Observatory of Singapore (Nanyang Technological University). Historical data of volcanic unrest, whether that unrest leads to an eruption or not, can be a reference in forecasting of future activity. Forecasts are based mainly on interpretation of present unrest, but comparisons to past unrest and outcomes give a useful context for the first. WOVOdat will help researchers and those responding to volcanic crisis to search for all close matches to some features of unrest in question, and to use modern techniques to find patterns. For eruption data, WOVOdat uses the Smithsonian Institution’s database of historical eruptions. In the current stage of WOVOdat (data population), our website is supports interaction between WOVOdat developers, observatories, and other partners in building the database, e.g. accessing design information and documentation, and also data uploading. When the database is sufficiently complete, this website will provide tools for users to access and query data, and visualize it in time-series and spatial distributions and other ways.

  8. Current trends in pharmacy benefit designs: a threat to disease management in chronic complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gary; Emons, Matthew F; Christian-Herman, Jennifer; Lawless, Grant

    2007-04-01

    With a focus on those patients who are candidates for treatment with biologic agents, we review the impact that current pharmacy benefit trends have on patients with chronic complex diseases and how they affect opportunities for disease management in this unique patient population. Dramatic increases in health care costs have led to a variety of strategies to manage cost. Many of these strategies either limit access to care or increase the patient's responsibility for choosing and paying for care, especially for medications. These strategies have a disproportionate impact on patients with chronic complex diseases, particularly those who require the use of biologic medications. A fundamental prerequisite of disease management has been coverage of disease-modifying therapies. If current pharmacy benefit trends continue, unintended consequences will likely occur including lost opportunities for disease management. Current pharmacy benefit trends could adversely impact disease management, particularly for patients requiring the use of biologic agents. Health plans should consider innovative benefit designs that reflect an appropriate level of cost sharing across all key stake-holders, ensuring appropriate access to needed therapies. Additional research is needed to clarify the value of newer approaches to therapies or benefit design changes.

  9. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  10. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  11. Current market trends in hospital/physician integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Randy R

    2009-01-01

    This article explores recent trends that are dramatically changing the landscape of typical hospital/physician integration models and provides the reader with useful insights to better evaluate this dynamically changing marketplace.

  12. Aging in Mexico: Population Trends and Emerging Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Vega, William; López-Ortega, Mariana

    2016-12-07

    Although all nations in the America's face a common demographic reality of longevity, declining fertility rates and changes in family roles a growing body of research points to a dramatic demographic transformation in Mexico. Although Mexico's population is relatively young, with a median age of 27.9 in 2015, it will age rapidly in coming years, increasing to 42 years by 2050. The rapid median age in the nation also reflects the growing proportion of people 65 or older, and is expected to triple to 20.2% by 2050. This article examines how the age and gender structure of Mexico offers important insights about current and future political and social stability, as well as economic development. Mexico is the world's eleventh largest country in terms of population size and the "demographic dividend" of a large youthful population is giving way to a growing older population that will inevitably place demands on health care and social security. The shift in age structure will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working-age population in the next 20 years. Mexico does not provide universal coverage of social security benefits and less than half of the labor force is covered by any pension or retirement plan. As a result, elderly Mexicans often continue working into old age. The high total poverty rate in the country, especially among the older population magnifies the problem of the potential dependency burden. The article ends with a discussion of key public policy issues related to aging in Mexico.

  13. Using citizen science butterfly counts to predict species population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily B; Morgan, Byron J T; Brereton, Tom M; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard

    2017-05-05

    Citizen scientists are increasingly engaged in gathering biodiversity information, but trade-offs are often required between public engagement goals and reliable data collection. We compared population estimates for 18 widespread butterfly species derived from the first 4 years (2011-2014) of a short-duration citizen science project (Big Butterfly Count [BBC]) with those from long-running, standardized monitoring data collected by experienced observers (U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme [UKBMS]). BBC data are gathered during an annual 3-week period, whereas UKBMS sampling takes place over 6 months each year. An initial comparison with UKBMS data restricted to the 3-week BBC period revealed that species population changes were significantly correlated between the 2 sources. The short-duration sampling season rendered BBC counts susceptible to bias caused by interannual phenological variation in the timing of species' flight periods. The BBC counts were positively related to butterfly phenology and sampling effort. Annual estimates of species abundance and population trends predicted from models including BBC data and weather covariates as a proxy for phenology correlated significantly with those derived from UKBMS data. Overall, citizen science data obtained using a simple sampling protocol produced comparable estimates of butterfly species abundance to data collected through standardized monitoring methods. Although caution is urged in extrapolating from this U.K. study of a small number of common, conspicuous insects, we found that mass-participation citizen science can simultaneously contribute to public engagement and biodiversity monitoring. Mass-participation citizen science is not an adequate replacement for standardized biodiversity monitoring but may extend and complement it (e.g., through sampling different land-use types), as well as serving to reconnect an increasingly urban human population with nature. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published

  14. Current Approaches and Future Trends to Promote Tendon Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, D S; Torres, J; Guedes, R M; Lopes, M A

    2015-09-01

    Tendons are composed by extracellular collagen fibres arranged in regular arrays and are responsible to transmit tensile forces from a muscle to a bone. Due to their poor healing ability, in some cases tendons injuries are debilitating impairments that affect life quality among adult population worldwide. In the last years, attending to the social and economic concern associated to the high prevalence of tendons injuries and the limited success of the available current treatments, several scaffolds have been developed. Some of these scaffolds are intended to be used as graft-augmentation devices and others to fully replace a damaged tendon. The synthetic ones present superior mechanical characteristics compared to biological scaffolds. However, attending to the specific tendons physiology, even the synthetic scaffolds still don´t present the ideal mechanical properties to accomplish a complete and long-term functional tissue repair. Therefore, to enhance tendogenesis when using a tendon engineering approach, several methodologies have been developed to associate with scaffolds, including surface modification and cell seeding.

  15. Monolith ERP and current IT-trends : Creating a step by step development model (SSDM) for existing monolith ERP system to adapt to the current IT-trends

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorenmaa, Riku

    2015-01-01

    ERP systems have been around for 25 years and have gone through evolution phases. None of the previous phases have however imposed so big a challenge and opportunities for the ERP producers / vendors as current outsourcing and cloud computing trends. Current traditional on-premises (monolith) ERP systems are put under pressure to cope with the demands imposed by cloud computing and other IT-trends (such as mobility). Traditional ERP systems have to adapt or face a risk of becoming obsolete. ...

  16. Louisiana physician population trends: will increase in supply meet demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Julie A; Sessions, Blane A; Ali, Juzar; Rigby, Perry C

    2012-01-01

    Physician shortages in the United States are now recognized broadly and widespread by specialty and geography. While supply is increasing, demand inexorably rises. This situation will probably be further stressed post implementation of healthcare reform. The variations by region and by state are many and significant; this complexity is not fully understood nor yet characterized. Trends similar to the averages of the US have been identified in Louisiana, including the aging of physicians. Lack of physicians, both specialists and generalists, has been reported to compromise quality and effectiveness of healthcare. Thus, the importance of matching up supply and demand is evident. The supply of physicians is increasing in absolute number and in the physicians-to-population ratio. Variations in population, aging, geography, and specialties indicate, in some areas, that this may not be enough to deal with the increasing demand. This paper aims to assess historically how physician shortages may affect the balance of supply and demand in future healthcare delivery, particularly in Louisiana.

  17. Hispanic Superintendents in Illinois: Current Trends and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The trends and challenges faced by Hispanic superintendents in Illinois are stated and analyzed throughout the study in both literature and practice. The examined items centered on the issues of hiring experiences and other barriers associated with the acquisition and longevity of the superintendency in Illinois. Data for the study were collected…

  18. Teachers' Attitudes Toward Current Trends in Foreign Language Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    1977-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes toward language teaching trends were surveyed. Prospective teachers about to enter the profession believed that language programs should be self-paced and there should be a cooperative learning climate in classrooms. Experienced teachers were more moderate but used techniques for self-pacing and real communication often in…

  19. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  20. Assessment and E-Learning: Current Issues and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Neil; Sakui, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes different ways in which digital technology can be used for language learning. It then identifies some key trends connecting assessment and technology in language learning and higher education: the use of automated systems to enhance traditional assessment practices; the use of Web 2.0 tools to facilitate new assessment…

  1. Materials for hydrogen storage: current research trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Annemieke W C; Areán, Carlos Otero

    2008-02-14

    Storage and transport of hydrogen constitutes a key enabling technology for the advent of a hydrogen-based energy transition. Main research trends on hydrogen storage materials, including metal hydrides, porous adsorbents and hydrogen clathrates, are reviewed with a focus on recent developments and an appraisal of the challenges ahead. .

  2. Institutional Repositories at Small Institutions in America: Some Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykanen, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this article was undertaken to determine the level of implementation of institutional repositories (IRs) at small institutions enrolling fewer than 10,000 students. The study analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from IRs at a number of small institutions with the aim of observing relevant patterns and trends that may…

  3. Ocean currents help explain population genetic structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crow White; Kimberly A. Selkoe; James Watson; David A. Siegel; Danielle C. Zacherl; Robert J. Toonen

    2010-01-01

    .... Using simulated larval dispersal estimates based on ocean current observations, we demonstrate how explicit consideration of frequency of exchange of larvae among sites via ocean advection can...

  4. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  5. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Paprocki

    Full Text Available Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1 and 7.74 km yr(-1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally

  6. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A; Novak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1) and 7.74 km yr(-1) shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  7. Fertility rates and future population trends: will Europe's birth rate recover or continue to decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Wolfgang

    2006-02-01

    Europe has long completed its demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. But the demographic transition paradigm that has been very useful for explaining global demographic trends during the 20th century and that still has strong predictive power when it comes to projecting future trends in countries that still have high fertility, has nothing to say about the future of fertility in Europe. The currently popular notion of a 'second demographic transition' is a useful way to describe a bundle of behavioural and normative changes that recently happened in Europe, but it has no predictive power. The social sciences have not yet come up with a useful theory to predict the future fertility level of post-demographic transition societies. We even do not know whether the trend will be up or down. Given the lack of a predictive theory, this paper will try to do two things: (i) Summarize different substantive arguments that would either suggest the assumption of a recovery of fertility rates in Europe or alternatively, imply further declines. (ii) Convert this discussion of the uncertainty of future fertility trends into probabilistic population projections for Europe, thus highlighting the implications of alternative fertility levels over the coming years. We will also discuss trade-offs between fertility and immigration, and the phenomenon that Europe now has entered a period of negative momentum of population growth.

  8. Current State and Development Trends for Integration Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The integration platform (IP) is an advanced support tool for application softwa re development and integration. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of traditio nal software programming methods, introduces the background and development of i ntegration platforms and presents the basic functions and system architecture of computer integrated manufacture computing environment (CCE) IP as well as the i ntegration framework. Computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS) applicatio n IP is defined i n relation to the IP requirements for CIMS implementation within a company. The CIMS application IP is not only a support tool for application software developm ent, but also a support tool for software integration and system operation. Ther efore, the behavior and functions of a CIMS application IP must also include sof tware integration and system operation. The development trend for CIMS applicati on IPs is discussed in view of software technology development trends.

  9. Current and Future Trends in Game-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vaz de Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The first number of the second volume of the EAI Transactions on Serious Games focuses on the results presented on the European Conference on Game-Based Learning. This event, already on the 8th edition, has set standards in terms of presentation of research and practice and in the pointing out of new and future trends in the development of Game-Based Learning. As such, we are quite thrilled to be able to report them here.

  10. Current and future trends in metagenomics : Development of knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takuji; Kurokawa, Ken

    Microbes are essential for every part of life on Earth. Numerous microbes inhabit the biosphere, many of which are uncharacterized or uncultivable. They form a complex microbial community that deeply affects against surrounding environments. Metagenome analysis provides a radically new way of examining such complex microbial community without isolation or cultivation of individual bacterial community members. In this article, we present a brief discussion about a metagenomics and the development of knowledge bases, and also discuss about the future trends in metagenomics.

  11. Temporal correlations in population trends: Conservation implications from time-series analysis of diverse animal taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Keith; H. Resit Akcakaya; Stuart H.M. Butchart; Ben Collen; Nicholas K. Dulvy; Elizabeth E. Holmes; Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Doug Keinath; Michael K. Schwartz; Andrew O. Shelton; Robin S. Waples

    2015-01-01

    Population trends play a large role in species risk assessments and conservation planning, and species are often considered threatened if their recent rate of decline meets certain thresholds, regardless how large the population is. But how reliable an indicator of extinction risk is a single estimate of population trend? Given the integral role this decline-...

  12. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  13. Current status of major cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese populations and their trends in the past two decades%我国中年人群心血管病主要危险因素流行现状及从80年代初至90年代末的变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国家“九五”科技攻关课题协作组

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate quantitatively the current status of major cardiovascular risk factors in different populations of China and their secular trends in the past 2 decades. Methods In autumn of 1998,with international standardized examination and measurement, cross-sectional sampling surveys were conducted in 15 research populations including southern and northern, urban and rural, residents, manual workers, farmers and fishermen in different parts of China. 15395 participants, aged from 35 to 59 years, about 1000 for each group, were recruited, half of them are males. Prevalences of major CVD risk factors were standardized to the WHO world standard population. Comparison were made for 9 population samples with comparable data in the early of 1980s and 1990s to observe the secular trends in the past 2 decades. Results The current status of major risk factors showed the following characteristics: (1)the prevalence differed greatly between population samples for all risk factors; (2)the prevalence of hypertension was generally higher in the north than in the south, higher in urban than in rural, and higher in male than in female, and was over 40 % for some populations; (3) The difference in prevalence of dislipidemia was dominant between populations in the areas with well developed and relatively undeveloped economy; and for some populations the prevalence was over 30%; (4) prevalence of overweight was significantly higher in the north than in the south, and higher in populations in the area with well developed economy than that in the area with relatively undeveloped economy, and was over 50% for some populations; (5) Smoking and alcohol drinking were still a behavior of male. The comparable data from 9 populations showed that in the past 2 decades there were great changes in all CVD risk factors. Prevalence of overweight and hypercholesterolemia increased steadily and significantly, by 137% and 88% for male and by 95% and 65% for female, respectively

  14. Population vulnerability of marine birds within the California Current System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Six metrics were used to determine Population Vulnerability: global population size, annual occurrence in the California Current System (CCS), percent of the...

  15. Population vulnerability of marine birds within the California Current System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Six metrics were used to determine Population Vulnerability: global population size, annual occurrence in the California Current System (CCS), percent of the...

  16. Current and Future Trends of the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Hermann Schramm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobility, and especially individual physical mobility, is still an essential component of nearly all societies.The combustion engine was for more than a hundred years, and is still today, the backbone of road-based mobility. However, the guarantor for the triumphant advance of the combustion engine was by far not its technical superiority over its electrical rival at the beginning of the automobile era, but the energy density and the easy worldwide availability of fossil fuels as a means of energy storage. So, e.g. to store theenergy equivalent of one kg Gasoline, a lithium ion battery with a mass of about 180 kg would be required (Schramm, 2012, even if the higher efficiency of the electric motor vs. the combustion engine is taken into account. Actually an electric motor is much better suited as a drive source for a motor vehicle as an internal combustion engine. Only the achievable energy density along with the cost of its chemical-process based storage, the battery, still prevent its immediate breakthrough in the automotive drive technology.Nevertheless, the German Government has set the target to bring at least a million electrified motor vehicles on Germany's roads by 2020, which is already impossible to reach from today’s perspective.However, strategies are needed to achieve a sustainable transition to electric mobility. This, in addition to continued research on high-efficiency batteries which also includes the development of vehicles that offer a good compromise between coverage, costs and consumption while satisfying the mobility needs of their users.Another trend that will lead to a paradigm shift in the use of individually-powered vehicles is the automation of the task of driving up to the highly automated or even autonomous vehicle. The technical prerequisites like sensors and actuators for these new systems are already available at least for application on motorways and rural regions, e.g. in Germany. More activities

  17. [Current trends in marriage and divorce rates in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugareva, M

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study of marriage and divorce rates in Europe is presented, with particular reference to Bulgaria. The author notes that the marriage rate is declining in most Western European countries, particularly in Scandinavia, and associates this trend with the growing popularity of consensual unions. Some terminology problems concerning this phenomenon are discussed. No significant decline in the marriage rate in Bulgaria is apparent; divorce rates are on the increase, but are still lower than in most other European countries. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  18. Everyday, everywhere: alcohol marketing and social media--current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, James

    2012-01-01

    To provide a snapshot content analysis of social media marketing among leading alcohol brands in the UK, and to outline the implications for both regulatory policies and further research. Using screengrab technology, the complete Facebook walls and Twitter timelines for 12 leading UK alcohol brands in November 2011 were captured and archived. A total of 701 brand-authored posts were identified and categorized using a thematic coding frame. Key strategic trends were identified and analysed in the light of contextual research into recent developments in marketing practice within the alcohol industry. A number of dominating trends were identified. These included the use of real-world tie-ins, interactive games, competitions and time-specific suggestions to drink. These methods reflect a strategy of branded conversation-stimulus which is favoured by social media marketing agencies. A number of distinct marketing methods are deployed by alcohol brands when using social media. These may undermine policies which seek to change social norms around drinking, especially the normalization of daily consumption. Social media marketing also raises questions regarding the efficacy of reactive regulatory frameworks. Further research into both the nature and impact of alcohol marketing on social media is needed.

  19. CURRENT DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND THEIR GEOPOLITICAL AND STRATEGIC REPERCUSSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel STOICA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Major worldwide demographic trends impact significantly each aspect of people’s lives. The impact will be favorable for some states and completely unfavorable for others since they will depend not only on the magnitude of these tendencies, but also on the aggregated result of the inherent shifts and developments at political, economic, social and military level Global demographic trends will represent a genuine challenge for the powerful states to maintain the existing global political and economic equilibrium and they will also constitute a genuine shocking force for international security and stability. At the same time, they will represent one of the variables underpinning states’ strategies, and domestic and foreign policies and influencing political and military alliances in the future. It is likely that they will lead to the reassessment of the bases of international relations. This paper analyzes the presumed consequences of future demographic shifts on the economic, political, military field and proposes some possible solutions to efficiently manage the issue.

  20. [Population and education: some current challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, F J

    1992-01-01

    In 1900, 78% of Mexican women over age 10 were illiterate, and only 713,000 persons attended school. The population over age 15 averaged less than 1 year of school attendance. The illiteracy rate according to the 1990 census was 11%, and 23.6 million persons over age 5 attended some educational institution. The average school attendance for those over 15 was 6.5 years. Despite the great achievements of the past 9 decades, the 1990 census indicates that serious challenges remain. The proportion of illiterates in the population over age 15 declined from 44.1% in 1950 to 25.8% in 1970 and 12.4% in 1990, but the absolute numbers remained almost constant between 7 and 8 million for many years, and only recently declined to 6.2 million. 37.4% of persons 65 and over but only 3.9% of those 15-19 are illiterate. Of the 6.2 million illiterates, 2.3 million are male and 3.9 million female, for rates of 9.7% and 15% respectively. 21% of illiterates are 15-29 years old, and half reside in just 6 Mexican states. 90.0% of Mexican children 6-11 years old attend school, as do 75% of those 12-14 and nearly half of those 15-19. If school attendance at both primary and secondary levels had been obligatory in 1990, some 2.5 million more children would have been enrolled, the majority in dispersed rural localities and marginal urban zones.

  1. Current trends in the clinical development of peptide therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Pauline M; Zhang, Bodi D; Reichert, Janice M

    2009-12-01

    The development of peptides as drugs is attracting increasing attention from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest is at least partially a consequence of the widespread acceptance of therapeutic proteins by physicians and patients, and because of improvements to problems such as a short half-life and delivery issues. The markets for peptide-based compounds can be substantial, with six peptide drugs attaining global sales of more than US $750 million in 2008. To track trends in the clinical development and marketing approval of peptides, Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development and Ferring Research Institute compiled publically available data for peptides that entered clinical trials sponsored by commercial firms, with a focus on peptide therapeutics, but also including peptide vaccines and diagnostics. The results provide an historical overview of the development of peptide therapeutics, and may inform strategic planning in this area.

  2. Microplastics in the marine environment: Current trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Gimenez, Barbara Carolina Garcia

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade, the presence of microplastics on marine environments has become an important environmental concern and focus of interest of many researches. Thus, to provide a more integrated view of the research trends regarding this topic, we use a scientometric approach to systematically assess and quantify advances in knowledge related to microplastics in the marine environment. The papers that we used for our assessment were obtained from the database Thomson Reuters (ISI Web of Science), between 2004 and 2014. Our results reveal the overall research performance in the study area of microplastics present in the marine environment over the past decade as a newly developed research field. It has been recognized that there are several important issues that should be investigated. Toward that end, based on the suggested directions on all papers reviewed, we point out areas/topics of interest that may guide future work in the coming years.

  3. New Methods, Current Trends and Software Infrastructure for NLP

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, H; Gaizauskas, R J; Cunningham, Hamish; Wilks, Yorick; Gaizauskas, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of `new methods' in NLP, which the NeMLaP conference series exemplifies, occurs in the context of a wider shift in the nature and concerns of the discipline. This paper begins with a short review of this context and significant trends in the field. The review motivates and leads to a set of requirements for support software of general utility for NLP research and development workers. A freely-available system designed to meet these requirements is described (called GATE - a General Architecture for Text Engineering). Information Extraction (IE), in the sense defined by the Message Understanding Conferences (ARPA \\cite{Arp95}), is an NLP application in which many of the new methods have found a home (Hobbs \\cite{Hob93}; Jacobs ed. purposes, and this is described. Lastly we review related work.

  4. Population trends and distribution of Common Murre Uria aalge colonies in Washington, 1996-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Lyons, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Periodic assessments of population trends and changes in spatial distribution are valuable for managing marine birds and their breeding habitats, particularly when evaluating long-term response to threats such as oil spills, predation pressure, and changing ocean conditions. We evaluated recent trends in abundance and distribution of the Common Murre Uria aalge within Copalis, Quillayute Needles, and Flattery Rocks National Wildlife Refuges, which include all murre colonies in Washington except one, off-refuge, on Tatoosh Island. In 1996-2001 and 2010-2015, aerial photographic surveys were conducted during the incubation phase (mid-June through mid-July) each year. Using images from film (1996-2001) and digital (2010-2015) cameras that included all parts of each colony, we manually counted murres. We estimated population trend as annual percent change in whole-colony counts using an overdispersed Poisson regression model. Overall, numbers of murres counted at breeding colonies in Washington increased by 8.8% per year (95% CI 3.0%-14.9%) during 1996–2015. The overall statewide increase was driven by an increase at colonies in northern Washington of approximately 11% per year (95% CI 4.5%-17.8%). Despite an increasing trend, abundance remains lower than levels in the late 1970s, and the spatial distribution has changed. Colonies in southern Washington - where murres were historically the most abundant - are no longer active, or only minimally so, whereas colonies in the north - which were rarely active in the early 1970s - are now the largest. There was high variability in spatial distribution among years, a pattern that indicates a need for coordinated monitoring and movement studies throughout the California Current System to understand dispersal and colonization. Our results indicate that future management of refuge islands could protect both current and historic colony locations, given the patterns of colony dynamics and the uncertainty about long-term effects

  5. Bird population trends are linearly affected by climate change along species thermal ranges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frédéric Jiguet; Vincent Devictor; Richard Ottvall; Chris Van Turnhout; Henk Van der Jeugd; Åke Lindström

    2010-01-01

    Beyond the effects of temperature increase on local population trends and on species distribution shifts, how populations of a given species are affected by climate change along a species range is still unclear...

  6. Trend of cardiovascular risk factors in the older Iranian population: 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ali; Lotfaliany, Mojtaba; Akbarpour, Samaneh; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2017-08-31

    Current study aimed to investigate the sex-stratified secular trend of cardiovascular disease risk factors among an older population in Iran during a median follow-up period of 8.76 years. A total of 1490 participants (733 women) aged ≥60 years were evaluated in four study phases of 2002-2005, 2005-2008, 2008-2011 and 2011-2014. The trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors for each sex were estimated using generalized estimating equations. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, central obesity, and chronic kidney disease at the baseline was 24%, 43%, 55%, and 32% in men and 31%, 57%, 60% and 53% in women, respectively, and had noticeable upward trend during the study period to reach 35%, 56%, 61% and 51% in men, and 42%, 71%, 74% and 67% in women, respectively. However, lipid profile parameters showed favorable trends. Despite the increasing trend in drug consumption, approximately 27% of women with diabetes and 37% of men with diabetes did not use antidiabetic medication, respectively; the results were 23% and 35% for hypertensive women and men, respectively. Among men, there was a decreasing trend towards low physical activity, from 40% at baseline to 26% at the most recent follow up. The prevalence of smoking remained steady throughout follow up. Despite the benefits of lipid lowering, the status of other risk factor profiles are often suboptimal in both sexes. There remains much room for improvement in risk factors management, particularly for hypertension, smoking and adiposity status, and a need for an intervention. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Laser-induced incandescence : recent trends and current questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, C.; Kock, B.F.; Hofmann, M.; Michelsen, H.; Will, S.; Bougie, B.; Suntz, R.; Smallwood, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a workshop focused on fundamental experimental and theoretical aspects of soot measurements by laser-induced incandescence (LII). This workshop was held in Duisburg, Germany in September 2005. The goal of the workshop was to review the current understanding of the

  8. Laser-induced incandescence : recent trends and current questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, C.; Kock, B.F.; Hofmann, M.; Michelsen, H.; Will, S.; Bougie, B.; Suntz, R.; Smallwood, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a workshop focused on fundamental experimental and theoretical aspects of soot measurements by laser-induced incandescence (LII). This workshop was held in Duisburg, Germany in September 2005. The goal of the workshop was to review the current understanding of the

  9. Current trends in endodontic practice: emergency treatments and technological armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Winkler, Johnathon; Hartwell, Gary; Stewart, Jeffrey; Caine, Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.

  10. Current HRD trends in the Netherlands: Conceptualisation and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, C.H.E.; Streumer, Jan; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Wognum, Ida; van Zolingen, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this contribution, we first report on a literature study aimed at describing current HRD developments. The resulting literature report was presented to a group of experts in the field of HRD. The participants were asked to sketch their vision as to the relevance of the HRD developments for their

  11. Current HRD trends in the Netherlands : conceptualizing and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, C.H.E.; Streumer, J.N.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Wognum, A.A.M.; Zolingen, S.J. van

    2002-01-01

    In this contribution, we first report on a literature study aimed at describing current HRD developments. The resulting literature report was presented to a group of experts in the field of HRD. The participants were asked to sketch their vision as to the relevance of the HRD developments for their

  12. Online Current-Events Retrieval Services: Developments and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen C.

    1984-01-01

    Summary of developments that have occurred in the past year in online news-retrieval services highlights the demise of the New York Times Information Service, Information Access Corporation's database additions and enhancements, full-text services, specialized databases with current events content, and microcomputer access to news. Twelve…

  13. The International Curriculum: Current Trends and Emerging Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jesse Jones

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of tertiary level international curricula and provides groundwork for future research aimed at ongoing needs. Recognized is the premise that existing international curricular programs require maintenance. Burn (1995) called for curriculum reform in international departments two decades ago with the rationale…

  14. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng

    2017-02-24

    In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  15. Personal trainer demographics, current practice trends and common trainee injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Waryasz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2% and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%. Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%, rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%, shin splints (8.1%, ankle sprain (7.5%, and cervical muscle strain (7.4%. There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness.

  16. Personal Trainer Demographics, Current Practice Trends and Common Trainee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waryasz, Gregory R.; Daniels, Alan H.; Gil, Joseph A.; Suric, Vladimir; Eberson, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness. PMID:27761219

  17. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG, as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  18. Current challenges and trends in the discovery of agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Clemens; Jeanmart, Stephane; Luksch, Torsten; Plant, Andrew

    2013-08-16

    Crop protection chemistry has come a long way from its "alchemic" beginnings in the late 19th century to a high-tech science that supports the sustainable production of food, feed, and fiber for a rapidly growing population. Cutting-edge developments in the design and synthesis of agrochemicals help to tackle today's challenges of weed and pest resistance, higher regulatory safety margins, and higher cost of goods with the invention of selective, environmentally benign, low use rate, and cost-effective active ingredients.

  19. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-07-27

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Current Trends in Implantable Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Garbade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of appropriate donor organs and the expanding pool of patients waiting for heart transplantation have led to growing interest in alternative strategies, particularly in mechanical circulatory support. Improved results and the increased applicability and durability with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs have enhanced this treatment option available for end-stage heart failure patients. Moreover, outcome with newer pumps have evolved to destination therapy for such patients. Currently, results using nonpulsatile continuous flow pumps document the evolution in outcomes following destination therapy achieved subsequent to the landmark Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance for the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure Trial (REMATCH, as well as the outcome of pulsatile designed second-generation LVADs. This review describes the currently available types of LVADs, their clinical use and outcomes, and focuses on the patient selection process.

  1. Current trends in the management of Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, B.; Glinoer, D.; Lagasse, R.; Wartofsky, L. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Members of the American Thyroid Association were invited to participate in a survey of the management of Graves' disease. One primary case and several variations were provided, which differed in respect to age, sex, goiter size, severity, etc. The questionnaire was based on the format used in a similar survey of members of the European Thyroid Association. The aim of the survey was to determine (1) how expert thyroidologist employ diagnostic procedures for this disorder, and (2) the choice of therapy of the three treatment options and its manner of implementation. Questionnaires were sent only to clinically active members. The overall response rate was 62%. Data analysis was possible on 52% of members surveyed and was performed using SPSS and a specific Fortran program. In the laboratory evaluation of the primary case a radioiodine uptake, scan, serum total T4, and basal TSH were requested by 92%, 47%, 83%, and 66%, respectively, with 84% of respondents using an ultrasensitive TSH assay. For management of the primary case, radioiodine treatment was the first choice of 69% of the respondents. Antithyroid drugs were used briefly (3-7 days) before 131I by 28%, whereas 41% said they would employ thioureas after 131I. Of those using 131I, 66% tailored the dose to achieve euthyroidism as the goal of therapy, while 34% aimed for hypothyroidism requiring T4 replacement. Only 30% of respondents chose thioureas as a first line of treatment (72% propylthiouracil; 28% tapazole). The duration of drug therapy was a predetermined fixed interval for 80% of the respondents, with 90% treating for 1-2 yr. Other specific trends in diagnostic approach and therapeutic preferences were identified for the eight variations on the primary case problem.

  2. Grade 4 renal injury: current trend of management and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yiu Ming

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】The management of blunt renal trauma has been evolving. The past management largely based on American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST grading system, i.e. necessitated a computed tomography (CT scan. Although the CT scan use is increasing and becomes the standardized mode of investigation, AAST grading no longer plays the sole role in the decision of surgical interventions. Two case reports of blunt renal trauma managed successfully by conservative methods are presented. Case one was an 18 year-old boy who had a fall when riding a motorbike at 20 km/h with a helmet and full protective equipments. He was landed by his left flank onto a rock. Contrast abdominal CT revealed a 4 cm, grade III splenic tear and a grade IV left kidney injury with large perirenal haematoma. His international severity score (ISS was 34. He was managed conservatively with bed rest and frequent serum haemoglobin monitoring. Subsequent CT with delayed contrast revealed stable perirenal haematoma with urine extravasation which was consistent with a grade IV renal injury. Case two was a 40 year-old male who had a motor bike accident on a racetrack when he was driving at 80 to 100 km/h, wearing a helmet. He lost control and hit onto the sidewall of the racetrack. Contrast abdominal CT revealed a grade IV left renal injury with a large urine extravasation. His renal injury was managed conservatively with interval delayed phase CT of the abdomen. A repeat CT on abdomen was performed five months after the initial injury which revealed no residual urinoma. In this study, moreover, a review of the literature to the management of blunt renal trauma was conducted to demonstrate the trend of increasing conservative management of such traumas. Extra radiological parameters may guide future decision making. However, the applicability of data may be limited until randomized trials are available. Key words: Renal trauma; International classification of diseases

  3. Primary care in the Netherlands: current situation and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinny H. de Bakker

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Primary care in the Netherlands has a strong international reputation. However, this picture may be qualified in two respects. First of all, the Dutch primary care system is less cohesive than is sometimes suggested. Secondly, there are major challenges in the Dutch system (as is the case with other European health care systems, which have to be resolved in order to maintain and improve primary care. Methods: Description of primary care in the Netherlands based on nationally and internationally published sources. Identification of challenges and trends. Narrative review of the literature.

    Results: GPs have a strong position in the Netherlands. Their numbers are relatively low; they have a gatekeeping position, and there is no cost-sharing for GP care (unlike other forms of care. The primary care system as a whole, however, is characterised by weak coherence. Individual primary care disciplines have their own separate modes of funding. Challenges include a growing and changing demand for primary care services, and changes in manpower and organisation, that affect the balance between demand and supply regarding primary care services.

    Conclusions: Among the threats to strong primary care are the risk of increasing fragmentation of care, negative side effects of a transformation process from cottage industry to service industry, and reluctance to invest in integrated primary care. An opportunity lies in the consensus among stakeholders that integrated primary care has a future. Technological developments support this, especially the development of electronic patient records.

  4. The Future of School Social Work Practice: Current Trends and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the information on school social work practice in the United States and summarizes recent trends and their implications for the future of school social work. The number of school social workers and current infrastructure available for the development of school social work practice is reviewed. Five sociocultural trends are summarized that are affecting public schools as well as important school-based practice trends such as standardized testing, and high stakes accounta...

  5. Maturation trends in red deer females over 39 years in harvested populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysterud, Atle; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Langvatn, Rolf

    2009-05-01

    1. There is increasing awareness that heavy harvesting can lead to rapid evolution towards earlier sexual maturation. With increased harvest pressure, individuals that begin reproduction at light weights have a greater chance of reproducing at least once compared with individuals that begin reproduction at heavier weights and hence later in life. Although well documented in fish, this has not been empirically tested for harvested populations of mammals in terrestrial ecosystems differing in many environmental aspects. 2. Using data from 3856 female red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from three harvested populations, we tested whether red deer maturity changed from 1967 to 2006. In these populations, density has increased markedly over the time period reducing body mass of deer, which has decreased the proportion of females maturing as yearlings. We therefore assessed trends in maturation as yearlings after controlling for body mass. Long-lived iteroparous ungulate females are expected to have a prudent life history not risking their future survival and reproduction under harsh conditions (e.g. at high density). An alternative to the harvest-induced evolution hypothesis is that maturation is driven mainly by phenotypic responses to increased density, and we predicted later maturation even after controlling for the reduction in body mass. 3. There was a marked trend towards later age at maturation in one out of three populations (after controlling for the effect of reduced body mass due to increased density), while there was no marked trend in the two other populations. The harvesting-induced evolution hypothesis was therefore not supported. However, although the decline was predicted from the prudent life-history tactic hypothesis, the estimate for the density effect was positive rather than negative after accounting for the year trend. Although we did not find support for the harvest-induced earlier maturation hypothesis, evidence was not clearly in favour of the

  6. Will current trends close major crop yield gaps by 2025?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Johnston, M.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have projected a need to double global agricultural production by 2050 to meet the demands posed by population growth, increased dairy and meat consumption, and biofuel use. However, recent work shows many regions where there are shortfalls in production compared to the regions with the highest yield. While these "yield gaps" could be closed through more intensive and advanced management, already between 24% and 39% of the global crop growing regions are witnessing yield stagnation. In this presentation we will identify the areas across the globe where yield gaps (as quantified circa the year 2000) are projected to either close or persist given observed rates of yield increases. Major investments in better management are needed in areas where yield gaps are projected to persist.

  7. Current trends in state child labor legislation and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, D

    1993-09-01

    There is much current child labor law activity, none of it reflecting concern with occupational health hazards. The focus of the legislation is on time for and dedication to education as youth's foremost priority. The only areas of state legislative change that could affect children's health and safety in the workplace are a general movement toward monetarily increasing fines and penalties and some minor inclusions of agricultural restrictions on young workers. Enforcement efforts are in all cases a primary indication of state commitment to child labor law protections, and these efforts are decreasing.

  8. Current Trends on Lean Management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabeena Begam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All manufacturing industry has put in continuous efforts for its survival in the current impulsive and competitive economy. In order to handle the critical situation, manufacturers are trying to implement new and innovative techniques in their manufacturing process by making it more effective and efficient. A detailed literature survey has been conducted to identify the lean practices in various manufacturing industry. The results revealed that the status of Lean Manufacturing (LM implementation in still in thriving stage. This paper will further assist the organizations to improve its process, align it to the requirements of its customers and relentless contribution to manufacturing sector to enhance productivity, quality and competitiveness is immense.

  9. Computational chemistry reviews of current trends v.4

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This volume presents a balanced blend of methodological and applied contributions. It supplements well the first three volumes of the series, revealing results of current research in computational chemistry. It also reviews the topographical features of several molecular scalar fields. A brief discussion of topographical concepts is followed by examples of their application to several branches of chemistry.The size of a basis set applied in a calculation determines the amount of computer resources necessary for a particular task. The details of a common strategy - the ab initio model potential

  10. Trends in population blood pressure and determinant factors for population blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard

    2017-03-01

    Strategies to reduce the burden of blood pressure attributable diseases require knowledge of secular trend in PBP and its determinants. The issues were investigated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The design of CCHS is a repeated measures study. Such designs are uniquely suited to studying changes of an outcome and what risk factors may be associated with that outcome. Repeated measures studies are very well suited for trend analysis by using mixed effect analyses. SBP decreased about 2 mmHg in 25 years. The risk factors age, gender and BMI were found valid as determinant factors for secular trends in SBP. In addition, the following factors were identified: household income and the interactions ''gender*age'' and ''survey*age''. The interaction ''gender*age'' stated that the difference between SBP in the two genders was great in the young individuals and diminished by age. The interaction ''survey*age'' stated that SBP in the young individuals decreased more with survey than SBP in the older individuals. Thus, the 20 years old subjects in survey 2, 3 and 4 have lower SBP than the 20 years old subjects in preceding surveys. The slopes were less steep in higher ages. In the group of elderly and old subjects the trend is partly explained by treatment bias because more and more subjects leave the untreated group and start treatment. The factor ''household income'' was significant only in the female population and stated that high-income women had lower SBP and a more beneficial secular trend in SBP than low-income women. Marital status, self-reported physical exercise and alcohol intake were not significant factors. A number of factors, that are interesting in relation to SBP, were not included in the CCHS and therefore not investigated. Among them are salt intake, childhood factors, genetic factors and the DASH diet. A survival study was performed to investigate the mortality rate in relation to SBP changes during the observation period. A Cox regression analysis

  11. Capitalism and population in Latin American agriculture: recent trends and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, C A; Rodriguez, D

    1982-04-01

    "On the basis of a body of empirical research, the authors explore the relationship between agrarian structure and population [in Latin America]. After an introduction in which they present their theoretical and methodological orientation, they describe the current changing trends in agrarian structure, among which are the 'intensification' of the process of the penetration of capitalistic forms into agriculture." They then discuss the relationships between agrarian structure and demographic variables, particularly fertility and migration. In the final section, some guidelines for future research are presented. This paper is a revised version of an evaluation study carried out to assess the contributions of 14 research projects financed by the Programme of Social Research on Population in Latin America (PISPAL). excerpt

  12. Current Trends in Malaysian Higher Education and the Effect on Education Policy and Practice: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapragasem, Selvaraj; Krishnan, Anbalagan; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has evolved from a production-based to knowledge-based economy in order to stay relevant and compete in the global marketplace. Thus, the purpose of this article is to discuss current trends in Malaysian higher education and how these affect education policies and practices. Four main trends are discussed in this study: Globalization,…

  13. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  14. CURRENT STATE OF POULTRY BREEDING AND ITS FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in eastern Croatia is developed by individual producers mainly in semi intensive way, and within the organized poultry systems where the process is organized in a modern, intensive way. There is a tradition of breeding hens and geese in this area. Poultry products - meat and eggs are important in supplying the population with animal protein, minerals and vitamins. Modern hybrid hens are used for egg production and for meat production in the intensive production. Today geese breeding in these areas are completely neglected. Croatia as a member of European Union, has possibility of the placement of autochthonous breeds of poultry such as Hrvatica hen, Zagorje turkey and Podravian goose. Financial supports at the national level are allocated for the first two autochthonous breeds of poultry because these breeds can, with good production traits, represent genetic resources and strategic reserves in the future development of domestic poultry genotypes. Poultry production is especial emphasis in accordance with the criteria of welfare and health of poultry. This paper discusses further development of poultry in terms of production of poultry meat and eggs as a functional food. The composition and content of nutricines in meat and eggs can be affected by feed composition. Desired nutricines are installed in muscular tissue of poultry by using feed and adding some components. Consumption of eggs and poultry meat enriched by selenium, lutein and omega-3 fatty acids affects the improvement of the quality of the human diet. The recent researches show that chicken can effectively be enriched in carnosine - ingredients that are now taught as “anti-aging” factor. Enrichment of poultry products with nutricines gives greater importance to these foods in the diet of the population than the former one, mainly based on the nutritional aspect. Greater selection of quality poultry products can be a significant factor in the development of

  15. Preparative Purification of Recombinant Proteins: Current Status and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Saraswat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fermentation technologies have resulted in the production of increased yields of proteins of economic, biopharmaceutical, and medicinal importance. Consequently, there is an absolute requirement for the development of rapid, cost-effective methodologies which facilitate the purification of such products in the absence of contaminants, such as superfluous proteins and endotoxins. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of a selection of key purification methodologies currently being applied in both academic and industrial settings and discuss how innovative and effective protocols such as aqueous two-phase partitioning, membrane chromatography, and high-performance tangential flow filtration may be applied independently of or in conjunction with more traditional protocols for downstream processing applications.

  16. Current trends in medical image registration and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma El-Zahraa Ahmed El-Gamal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, medical image registration and fusion processes are considered as a valuable assistant for the medical experts. The role of these processes arises from their ability to help the experts in the diagnosis, following up the diseases’ evolution, and deciding the necessary therapies regarding the patient’s condition. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus on medical image registration as well as medical image fusion. In addition, the paper presents a description of the common diagnostic images along with the main characteristics of each of them. The paper also illustrates most well-known toolkits that have been developed to help the working with the registration and fusion processes. Finally, the paper presents the current challenges associated with working with medical image registration and fusion through illustrating the recent diseases/disorders that were addressed through such an analyzing process.

  17. Therapies targeting cancer stem cells: Current trends and future challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denisa; L; Dragu; Laura; G; Necula; Coralia; Bleotu; Carmen; C; Diaconu; Mihaela; Chivu-Economescu

    2015-01-01

    Traditional therapies against cancer, chemo- and radiotherapy, have multiple limitations that lead to treatment failure and cancer recurrence. These limitations are related to systemic and local toxicity, while treatment failure and cancer relapse are due to drug resistance and self-renewal, properties of a small population of tumor cells called cancer stem cells(CSCs). These cells are involved in cancer initiation, maintenance, metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, in order to develop efficient treatments that can induce a longlasting clinical response preventing tumor relapse it is important to develop drugs that can specifically target and eliminate CSCs. Recent identification of surface markers and understanding of molecular feature associated with CSC phenotype helped with the design of effective treatments. In this review we discuss targeting surface biomarkers, signaling pathways that regulate CSCs self-renewal and differentiation, drug-efflux pumps involved in apoptosis resistance, microenvironmental signals that sustain CSCs growth, manipulation of mi RNA expression, and induction of CSCs apoptosis and differentiation, with specific aim to hamper CSCs regeneration and cancer relapse. Some of these agents are under evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies, most of them for using in combination with traditional therapies. The combined therapy using conventional anticancer drugs with CSCs-targeting agents, may offer a promising strategy for management and eradication of different types of cancers.

  18. Molecular typing of Sarcocystis neurona: current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2007-10-21

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important protozoal pathogen because it causes the serious neurological disease equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The capacity of this organism to cause a wide spectrum of neurological signs in horses and the broad geographic distribution of observed cases in the Americas drive the need for sensitive, reliable and rapid typing methods to characterize strains. Various molecular methods have been developed and used to diagnose EPM due to S. neurona, to identify S. neurona isolates and to determine the heterogeneity and evolutionary relatedness within this species and related Sarcocystis spp. These methods included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immuno-fluorescent assay (IFA), slide agglutination test (SAT), SnSAG-specific ELISA, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, and sequence analysis of surface protein genes, ribosomal genes, microsatellite alleles and other molecular markers. Here, the utility of these molecular methods is reviewed and evaluated with respect to the need for molecular approaches that utilize well-characterized polymorphic, simple, independent, and stable genetic markers. These tools have the potential to add to knowledge of the genetic population structure of S. neurona and to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of EPM and S. neurona epidemiology. In particular, these methods provide new tools to address the hypothesis that particular genetic variants are associated with adverse clinical outcomes (severe pathotypes). The ultimate goal is to utilize them in future studies to improve treatment and prevention strategies.

  19. Current Trends in Heparin Use During Arterial Vascular Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durran, Alexandra C., E-mail: durranjobs@hotmail.com [Peninsula Radiology Academy, Plymouth International Business Park (United Kingdom); Watts, Christopher, E-mail: Christopher.watts@salisbury.nhs.uk [Salisbury District Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the current use of heparinized saline and bolus doses of heparin in non-neurological interventional radiology and to determine whether consensus could be reached to produce guidance for heparin use during arterial vascular intervention. Methods: An interactive electronic questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Society of Interventional Radiology regarding their current practice in the use, dosage, and timing of heparin boluses and heparinized flushing solutions.ResultsA total of 108 completed questionnaires were received. More than 80% of respondents used heparinized saline with varying concentrations; the most prevalent was 1,000 IU/l (international units of heparin per liter) and 5,000 IU/l. Fifty-one percent of interventionalists use 3,000 IU as their standard bolus dose; however, the respondents were split regarding the timing of bolus dose with {approx}60% administering it after arterial access is obtained and 40% after crossing the lesion. There was no consensus on altering dose according to body weight, and only 4% monitored clotting parameters. Conclusions: There seems to be some coherence among practicing interventionalists regarding heparin administration. We hypothesize that heparinized saline should be used at a recognized standard concentration of 1,000 IU/l as a flushing concentration in all arterial vascular interventions and that 3,000 IU bolus is considered the standard dose for straightforward therapeutic procedures and 5000 IU for complex, crural, and endovascular aneurysm repair work. The bolus should be given after arterial access is obtained to allow time for optimal anticoagulation to be achieved by the time of active intervention and stenting. Further research into clotting abnormalities following such interventional procedures would be an interesting quantifiable follow-up to this initial survey of opinions and practice.

  20. Computing at DESY — current setup, trends and strategic directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michael

    1998-05-01

    Since the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS started data taking in '92, the computing environment at DESY has changed dramatically. Running a mainframe centred computing for more than 20 years, DESY switched to a heterogeneous, fully distributed computing environment within only about two years in almost every corner where computing has its applications. The computing strategy was highly influenced by the needs of the user community. The collaborations are usually limited by current technology and their ever increasing demands is the driving force for central computing to always move close to the technology edge. While DESY's central computing has a multidecade experience in running Central Data Recording/Central Data Processing for HEP experiments, the most challenging task today is to provide for clear and homogeneous concepts in the desktop area. Given that lowest level commodity hardware draws more and more attention, combined with the financial constraints we are facing already today, we quickly need concepts for integrated support of a versatile device which has the potential to move into basically any computing area in HEP. Though commercial solutions, especially addressing the PC management/support issues, are expected to come to market in the next 2-3 years, we need to provide for suitable solutions now. Buying PC's at DESY currently at a rate of about 30/month will otherwise absorb any available manpower in central computing and still will leave hundreds of unhappy people alone. Though certainly not the only region, the desktop issue is one of the most important one where we need HEP-wide collaboration to a large extent, and right now. Taking into account that there is traditionally no room for R&D at DESY, collaboration, meaning sharing experience and development resources within the HEP community, is a predominant factor for us.

  1. Industrial Large Scale Applications of Superconductivity -- Current and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amm, Kathleen

    2011-03-01

    Since the initial development of NbTi and Nb3Sn superconducting wires in the early 1960's, superconductivity has developed a broad range of industrial applications in research, medicine and energy. Superconductivity has been used extensively in NMR low field and high field spectrometers and MRI systems, and has been demonstrated in many power applications, including power cables, transformers, fault current limiters, and motors and generators. To date, the most commercially successful application for superconductivity has been the high field magnets required for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with a global market well in excess of 4 billion excluding the service industry. The unique ability of superconductors to carry large currents with no losses enabled high field MRI and its unique clinical capabilities in imaging soft tissue. The rapid adoption of high field MRI with superconducting magnets was because superconductivity was a key enabler for high field magnets with their high field uniformity and image quality. With over 30 years of developing MRI systems and applications, MRI has become a robust clinical tool that is ever expanding into new and developing markets. Continued innovation in system design is continuing to address these market needs. One of the key questions that innovators in industrial superconducting magnet design must consider today is what application of superconductivity may lead to a market on the scale of MRI? What are the key considerations for where superconductivity can provide a unique solution as it did in the case of MRI? Many companies in the superconducting industry today are investigating possible technologies that may be the next large market like MRI.

  2. Nationwide trends in the current management of desmoid (aggressive) fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastley, N C; Hennig, I M; Esler, C P; Ashford, R U

    2015-06-01

    The optimal management of desmoid fibromatosis remains unclear, leading to significant variability in patient management. To assess this problem, the current approach of clinicians managing this complex condition in the UK was investigated. A hypothetical case of intramuscular limb girdle desmoid fibromatosis in a fit 65-year-old patient was devised. Surgical and non-surgical oncology members of the British Sarcoma Group were questioned on how they would manage this case in three scenarios: primary disease with function-sparing surgery possible, primary disease with neurovascular involvement and disease recurrence after a previous R0 resection. Initial management, management of symptomatic disease progression, follow-up preferences and any differences in respondents' management choices in a younger case were investigated. The responses from 14 sarcoma surgeons and 23 oncologists (14 clinical, nine medical) were analysed. Desmoid fibromatosis management is generally shared by surgeons and oncologists within sarcoma multidisciplinary teams in the UK. Variation exists in the chosen initial management of primary desmoid fibromatosis in the UK, with function-sparing surgery possible (observation 51%, resection 51%), primary desmoid fibromatosis with neurovascular involvement (hormone therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 51%, radiotherapy 27%, observation 22%) and for cases of desmoid fibromatosis recurrence (radiotherapy 41%, hormone therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 27%, observation 24%). There was a clear preference of surgical resection of symptomatic disease progression in cases of primary desmoid fibromatosis without neurovascular involvement (60%). By contrast, radiotherapy was the preferred treatment for progression in cases with neurovascular involvement (47%) or cases of recurrence after a previous R0 resection (34%). Clinical follow-up was selected 3 months after intervention in 68% of scenarios. Follow-up imaging was selected 3

  3. Current Trends and Challenges in Satellite Laser Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Graham M.; Bianco, Giuseppe; Noll, Carey E.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Pearlman, Michael R.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is used to measure accurately the distance from ground stations to retro-reflectors on satellites and on the Moon. SLR is one of the fundamental space-geodetic techniques that define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF), which is the basis upon which many aspects of global change over space, time, and evolving technology are measured; with VLBI the two techniques define the scale of the ITRF; alone the SLR technique defines its origin (geocenter). The importance of the reference frame has recently been recognized at the inter-governmental level through the United Nations, which adopted in February 2015 the Resolution "Global Geodetic Reference Frame for Sustainable Development." Laser Ranging provides precision orbit determination and instrument calibration and validation for satellite-borne altimeters for the better understanding of sea level change, ocean dynamics, ice mass-balance, and terrestrial topography. It is also a tool to study the dynamics of the Moon and fundamental constants and theories. With the exception of the currently in-orbit GPS constellation, all GNSS satellites now carry retro-reflectors for improved orbit determination, harmonization of reference frames, and in-orbit co-location and system performance validation; the next generation of GPS satellites due for launch from 2019 onwards will also carry retro-reflectors. The ILRS delivers weekly realizations that are accumulated sequentially to extend the ITRF and the Earth Orientation Parameter series with a daily resolution. SLR technology continues to evolve towards the next-generation laser ranging systems and it is expected to successfully meet the challenges of the GGOS2020 program for a future Global Space Geodetic Network. Ranging precision is improving as higher repetition rate, narrower pulse lasers, and faster detectors are implemented within the network. Automation and pass interleaving at some stations is expanding temporal coverage and

  4. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position mor

  5. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  6. Current trends in small vocabulary speech recognition for equipment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, Nikolaos; Bardis, Nikolaos G.

    2017-09-01

    Speech recognition systems allow human - machine communication to acquire an intuitive nature that approaches the simplicity of inter - human communication. Small vocabulary speech recognition is a subset of the overall speech recognition problem, where only a small number of words need to be recognized. Speaker independent small vocabulary recognition can find significant applications in field equipment used by military personnel. Such equipment may typically be controlled by a small number of commands that need to be given quickly and accurately, under conditions where delicate manual operations are difficult to achieve. This type of application could hence significantly benefit by the use of robust voice operated control components, as they would facilitate the interaction with their users and render it much more reliable in times of crisis. This paper presents current challenges involved in attaining efficient and robust small vocabulary speech recognition. These challenges concern feature selection, classification techniques, speaker diversity and noise effects. A state machine approach is presented that facilitates the voice guidance of different equipment in a variety of situations.

  7. Vestibular compensation and vestibular rehabilitation. Current concepts and new trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveze, A; Bernard-Demanze, L; Xavier, F; Lavieille, J-P; Elziere, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the vestibular compensation and demonstrating how the vestibular rehabilitation is conducted to help the recovery of balance function. Vestibular rehabilitation is based on improving the natural phenomenon called vestibular compensation that occurs after acute vestibular disturbance or chronic and gradual misbalance. Central compensation implies three main mechanisms namely adaptation, substitution and habituation. The compensation, aided by the rehabilitation aimed to compensate and/or to correct the underused or misused of the visual, proprioceptive and vestibular inputs involved in the postural control. As the strategy of equilibration is not corrected, the patient is incompletely cured and remains with inappropriate balance control with its significance on the risk of fall and impact on quality of life. The vestibular rehabilitation helps to correct inappropriate strategy of equilibrium or to accelerate a good but slow compensation phenomenon. Nowadays, new tools are more and more employed for the diagnosis of vestibular deficit (that may include various sources of impairment), the assessment of postural deficit, the control of the appropriate strategy as well to facilitate the efficiency of the rehabilitation especially in elderly people.

  8. P300 brain computer interface: current challenges and emerging trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza eFazel-Rezai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI enables communication without movement based on brain signals measured with electroencephalography (EEG. BCIs usually rely on one of three types of signals: the P300 and other components of the event-related potential (ERP, steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP, or event related desynchronization (ERD. Although P300 BCIs were introduced over twenty years ago, the past few years have seen a strong increase in P300 BCI research. This closed-loop BCI approach relies on the P300 and other components of the event-related potential (ERP, based on an oddball paradigm presented to the subject. In this paper, we overview the current status of P300 BCI technology, and then discuss new directions: paradigms for eliciting P300s; signal processing methods; applications; and hybrid BCIs. We conclude that P300 BCIs are quite promising, as several emerging directions have not yet been fully explored and could lead to improvements in bit rate, reliability, usability, and flexibility.

  9. Current trends in the diagnosis and treatment of tuboovarian abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, D.V.; Sweet, R.L.

    1985-04-15

    Tuboovarian abscess is a well-recognized complication of acute salpingitis and has been reported in as many as one third of hospital admissions for acute salpingitis. The incidence of tuboovarian abscess is expected to increase as a result of the current epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases and their sequelae. Patients with tuboovarian abscess most commonly present with lower abdominal pain and an adnexal mass(es). Fever and leukocytosis may be absent. Ultrasound, computed tomographic scans, laparoscopy, or laparotomy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Tuboovarian abscess may be unilateral or bilateral regardless of intrauterine contraceptive device usage. Tuboovarian abscess is polymicrobial with a preponderance of anaerobic organisms. An initial conservative antimicrobial approach to the management of the unruptured tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if the antimicrobial agents used can penetrate abscesses, remain active within the abscess environment, and are active against the major pathogens in tuboovarian abscess, including the resistant gram-negative anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides bivius. However, if the patient does not begin to show a response within a reasonable amount of time, about 48 to 72 hours, surgical intervention should be undertaken. Suspicion of rupture should remain an indication for immediate operation. Once operation is undertaken, a conservative approach with unilateral adnexectomy for one-side tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if future fertility or hormone production is desired.

  10. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  11. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Olokoba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  12. Preemptive analgesia II: recent advances and current trends.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: In Part I of this review article, techniques and agents that attenuate or prevent central and peripheral sensitization were reviewed. In Part II, the conditions required for effective preemptive techniques are evaluated. Specifically, preemptive analgesia may be defined as an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered central processing of afferent input from sites of injury. The most important conditions for establishment of effective preemptive analgesia are the establishment of an effective level of antinociception before injury, and the continuation of this effective analgesic level well into the post-injury period to prevent central sensitization during the inflammatory phase. Although single-agent therapy may attenuate the central nociceptive processing, multi-modal therapy is more effective, and may be associated with fewer side effects compared with the high-dose, single-agent therapy. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input require individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear more effective.

  13. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  14. Adjuvants to local anesthetics: Current understanding and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Amlan; Nag, Deb Sanjay; Sahu, Seelora; Samaddar, Devi Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Although beneficial in acute and chronic pain management, the use of local anaesthetics is limited by its duration of action and the dose dependent adverse effects on the cardiac and central nervous system. Adjuvants or additives are often used with local anaesthetics for its synergistic effect by prolonging the duration of sensory-motor block and limiting the cumulative dose requirement of local anaesthetics. The armamentarium of local anesthetic adjuvants have evolved over time from classical opioids to a wide array of drugs spanning several groups and varying mechanisms of action. A large array of opioids ranging from morphine, fentanyl and sufentanyl to hydromorphone, buprenorphine and tramadol has been used with varying success. However, their use has been limited by their adverse effect like respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting and pruritus, especially with its neuraxial use. Epinephrine potentiates the local anesthetics by its antinociceptive properties mediated by alpha-2 adrenoreceptor activation along with its vasoconstrictive properties limiting the systemic absorption of local anesthetics. Alpha 2 adrenoreceptor antagonists like clonidine and dexmedetomidine are one of the most widely used class of local anesthetic adjuvants. Other drugs like steroids (dexamethasone), anti-inflammatory agents (parecoxib and lornoxicam), midazolam, ketamine, magnesium sulfate and neostigmine have also been used with mixed success. The concern regarding the safety profile of these adjuvants is due to its potential neurotoxicity and neurological complications which necessitate further research in this direction. Current research is directed towards a search for agents and techniques which would prolong local anaesthetic action without its deleterious effects. This includes novel approaches like use of charged molecules to produce local anaesthetic action (tonicaine and n butyl tetracaine), new age delivery mechanisms for prolonged bioavailability (liposomal

  15. Current trends of sugar consumption in developing societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A I; Tanzer, J M; Dingle, J L

    1997-12-01

    This paper reviews recent data on sugar consumption in developing countries that may lead to a potential increase in caries prevalence. A search of the business, dental and nutritional literature was conducted through May 1995. There is evidence that sugar (sucrose) use was increasing in China, India, and Southeast Asia. In South and Central America (except Haiti) sugar use was either equivalent to or higher than that in most developed societies. In the Middle East, average sugar use was higher than that of other developing areas. However, it was either lower than or equivalent to the levels reported by other developed countries. Many central African countries consumed less than 15 kg of sugar/ person/year. Of particular concern is a rise in the consumption of sugar-containing carbonated beverages in a number of developing societies: China, India, Vietnam, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries are currently major growth markets for the soft drink industry. Consumption of high-sugar desserts and snacks may also be increasing in urban centers in some developing countries. To counteract the potential increase in the prevalence of dental caries in some developing countries, preventive and oral health promotion programs should be planned and implemented. We contend that taxation of sugar-containing products as well as efforts to reduce the level of sugar consumption to "safe" levels may be impractical, and in most countries, cannot be supported for political, economic, or health reasons. Instead, we recommend that collaboration be established between public health authorities and manufacturers/distributors of soft drinks and sweets in developing countries to establish a dental health fund that could be used to support caries preventive programs. The fund could be supported through donations from manufacturers based on the principle of the "milli-cent" (1 cent for every 1000 cents of sales). This minimal contribution would provide enough financial support for

  16. Global Trends and Current Status of Commercial Urban Rooftop Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Buehler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze current practices in commercial urban rooftop farming (URF. In recent years, URF has been experiencing increasing popularity. It is a practice that is well-suited to enhancing food security in cities and reducing the environmental impact that results from long transportation distances that are common in conventional agriculture. To date, most URF initiatives have been motivated by social and educational factors rather than the aim of creating large sustainable food production systems in cities. The commercial operation of urban rooftop farms, should they become profitable, is likely to attract notable private investment, allowing a significant level of high quality urban food production to be achieved. There is a reasonable amount of literature available on urban farming that deals with its potential, and its limitations. However, it does not focus on commercial operations. In contrast to other surveys and theoretical papers, this study of URF focuses on large and commercial operations. The analysis showed that commercial URFs can be grouped into two main types: Firstly, hydroponic systems in greenhouses where mostly leafy greens, tomatoes, and herbs are grown; secondly, soil-based open-air farms that grow a large variety of vegetables. Hydroponics is frequently seen as the key technology for commercial urban food production. While the technology is not in and of itself sustainable, hydroponic farms often make an effort to implement environmentally friendly technologies and methods. However, there is still untapped potential to systemically integrate farms into buildings. The findings of this study identified where future research is needed in order to make URF a widespread sustainable solution.

  17. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shilpa; Gill, David; Poole, Austin; Agarwal, Neeraj

    2017-01-27

    Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC). Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  18. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC. Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  19. Oxytocin and Socioemotional Aging─Current Knowledge and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ebner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The oxytocin (OT system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and─though evidence is somewhat mixed─intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety─all of which have high relevance in aging─and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan.

  20. Current trends of Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epidemiology in Saudi Arabia and associated demographical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright; Al-Habobe, Farah; Shoukri, Mohammed M; Mulder, Arnout; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-06-01

    Data are scarce on demographical factors related to the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia. A study was conducted on 902 clinical isolates to explore current trends in the phylogeography and associated demographical factors of tuberculosis by using spoligotyping and 24 loci based MIRU-VNTR typing. Young male patients (aged 16-29 and 30-44) were predominant in this cohort. The phylogenetic diversity among M. tuberculosis isolates was found high, as almost all known genetic lineages were identified. Delhi/CAS (26.4%), EAI (13.7%) and Haarlem (11.3%) were the most common lineages observed, particularly among the low age groups (16-29 and 30-44 years), whereas elderly patients (>60 years) showed a predominance in the lineages S, Ghana, TUR and Uganda-I. A statistically significant association was observed between gender of the patients and lineages of EAI (p value 0.026) and LAM (p value 0.005). Overall, molecular strain cluster rate was 34.4% with an elevated rate among patients aged below 15 years (43.1%), while cases among the elderly (>60 years) showed the lowest degree of clustering (12.5%). The largest level of clustering was noticed among cases caused by strains of the lineages Haarlem (59.8%), Beijing (55.8%) and LAM (42.8%). The current population structure of M. tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia is highly diverse with significant associations to demography, transmission dynamics and origin of the patients. The difference in genotype distributions among low and high aged patients reflects the ongoing change in the strain population structure in the country.

  1. Trends in childhood injury mortality in South African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-01-09

    Jan 9, 1990 ... injury mortality rates.1,6, This study examines trends in injury monality rates and the ... Child Safety Centre, Red Cross War Memorial Children's. Hospital and ..... increase in deaths among older coloured children. Wyndham21 .... and head injury admissions to Groote Schuur Hospital. S Afr Med J 1974;.

  2. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  3. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  4. Current research trends in mountain biodiversity in NW Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väisänen, Risto A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on four themes in relation to biodiversity (vegetation science, keystone grazers, long-term studies and protected areas, a synthesis of current research in the mountain areas of Fennoscandia, Iceland and Scotland is presented. Recent relevant advances in vegetation science include classifications of mountain habitats which together with species distribution maps offer new possibilities for analysis. Generalisations emerging from comparisons of the ecology and ecophysiology of plants between different mountain areas are greatly needed. Further studies on the ecological impacts of keystone grazers are urgently required because of the alarming rate of degradation of mountain habitats. The topics highlighted from northern Fennoscandia include (i the effect of overgrazing by reindeer on the cover of foliose lichens and on the regeneration of mountain birch, (ii the ecological interactions between the autumnal moth and mountain birch, and (Hi the effect of rodents on vegetation. Long-term studies of slow processes to capture rare but important events are needed to better understand the functioning of mountain ecosystems. Examples of such studies are presented for (i the moss Racomitrium lanuginosum as an indicator of airborne nitrogen pollution, (ii research based on cyclic oscillations of vole numbers, and (Hi the application of breeding birds in environmental assessment. The conservation of appropriate areas is important for mountain biodiversity. Mountain habitats have been protected extensively in northern Europe. The evaluation of how representative the existing areas are and how to use them for research need international co-ordination.

    [fr] On présente une synthèse de la recherche actuelle dans les régions de montagne de la Scandinavie, l'Islande et l'Ecosse, centrée sur quatre sujets autour de la biodiversité (science de la végétation, herbivores principaux, études à long terme et zones protégées. Les r

  5. Current status and trends in oral health in community dwelling older adults: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossioni, Anastassia E

    2013-01-01

    To record the available current national and regional data on the oral health of community-dwelling (living in their own homes, not institutionalised) older people globally and discuss the future trends considering existing dangers and opportunities. A literature search on tooth loss, dental decay and periodontal disease in the elderly was performed using available databases and electronic sources. The findings revealed that the updated national data are scarce in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa, Asia and South America, and direct comparisons are not always possible due to methodological variations. The available information may indicate that dental disease in older adults worldwide is more prevalent compared to younger age groups, with significant variation between countries and regions. Tooth loss is currently more common in the developed countries, while dental decay and periodontal disease are more widespread globally. There are important threats for further deterioration of the oral status among older adults in many developed and less developed areas due to existing sociodemographic and economic risk factors. National studies should be undertaken to record the specific oral problems of the elderly in each area. It is also necessary to develop gerodontology study programmes globally at the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education levels which will enhance dentists' knowledge, skills and attitudes towards oral care in the older population, and will promote opportunities for further research and development of relevant policies.

  6. Genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäki, K.; Groen, A.F.; Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations. The influence of time-dependent fixed effects in the model when estimating the genetic trends was also studied. Official hip and elbow dysplasia screening

  7. Seasonality of Ankle Swelling: Population Symptom Reporting Using Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangwei; Allan, G Michael; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael; Flook, Nigel; Sternberg, Harvey; Garrison, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In our experience, complaints of ankle swelling are more common in summer, typically from patients with no obvious cardiovascular disease. Surprisingly, this observation has never been reported. To objectively establish this phenomenon, we sought evidence of seasonality in the public's Internet searches for ankle swelling. Our data, obtained from Google Trends, consisted of all related Google searches in the United States from January 4, 2004, to January 26, 2016. Consistent with our expectations and confirmed by similar data for Australia, Internet searches for information on ankle swelling are highly seasonal (highest in midsummer), with seasonality explaining 86% of search volume variability.

  8. [The growth and distribution of the population of Brazil: recent trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martine, G; Camargo, L

    1984-01-01

    Population trends underwent profound changes in Brazil during the last few decades. An important decrease in the rate of population growth was registered in the 1970s. This decrease is attributable to a decline in the level of fertility, which was observed in all regions and in both urban and rural areas. In order to explain this decline, it is necessary to analyze both structural and circumstantial factors related to the political, economic, and social context of the times. Main trends in population redistribution during the 1970s can be regrouped in terms of interregional exchanges and rural-urban migration. A growing convergence between these 2 types of patterns is observed in that population is increasingly being concentrated in densely populated areas of intense economic activities. The implications of these trends for public action are analyzed in the final section.

  9. Proceedings of the 2015 international summit on fibropapillomatosis: Global status, trends, and population impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Stacy A.; Work, Thierry M.; Brunson, Shandell; Foley, Allen M.; Balazs, George H.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 International Summit on Fibropapillomatosis (FP) was convened in Honolulu, Hawaii June 11-14, 2015. Scientists from around the world were invited to present results from sea turtle monitoring and research programs as they relate to the global status, trends, and population impacts of FP on green turtles. The participants engaged in discussions that resulted in the following conclusions: 1.Globally, FP has long been present in wild sea turtle populations the earliest mention was in the late 1800s in the Florida Keys. 2.FP primarily affects medium-sized immature turtles in coastal foraging pastures. 3.Expression of FP differs across ocean basins and to some degree within basins. Turtles in the Southeast US, Caribbean, Brazil, and Australia rarely have oral tumors (inside the mouth cavity), whereas they are common and often severe in Hawaii. Internal tumors (on vital organs) occur in the Atlantic and Hawaii, but only rarely in Australia. Liver tumors are common in Florida but not in Hawaii. 4.Recovery from FP through natural processes, when the affliction is not severe, has been documented in wild populations globally. 5.FP causes reduced survivorship, but documented mortality rates in Australia and Hawaii are low. The mortality impact of FP is not currently exceeding population growth rates in some intensively monitored populations (e.g., Florida, Hawaii) as evidenced by increasing nesting trends despite the incidence of FP in immature foraging populations. 6.Pathogens, hosts, and potential disease and environmental cofactors have the capacity to change; while we are having success now, there needs to be continued monitoring to detect changes in the distribution, occurrence, and severity of the disease. 7.While we do not have clear evidence to provide the direct link, globally, the preponderance of sites with a high frequency of FP tumors are areas with some degree of degradation resulting from altered watersheds. Watershed management and responsible coastal

  10. [Macroeconomic recovery trends. Urban impact on the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Mendoza, J S

    1991-12-01

    Some reflections are presented on the impact of Mexico's macroeconomic policy on population dynamics and urban development in the immediate future as the opening and liberalization of the economic increasingly influence market forces. Although the actions envisaged in the macroeconomic policy are not yet consolidated, it is possible to foresee some of their consequences for the city and for population movement. It can be predicted that the macroeconomic policy will lead to greater economic growth and consolidation of the urban population because of positive expectations for stability and growth, and the resultant environment of confidence in the immediate future. A resurgence of private investment in goods and services directed primarily to private consumption will inevitable create demand for public investment in infrastructure and improved services. Demand for consumer durables in likely to rise, as is demand for housing. New residential zones are likely to appear and grow, changing the territorial configuration of urban areas. The urban administration should make some effort to control the growth.

  11. Population trends for North American winter birds based on hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soykan, Candan U.; Sauer, John; Schuetz, Justin G.; LeBaron, Geoffrey S.; Dale, Kathy; Langham, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Managing widespread and persistent threats to birds requires knowledge of population dynamics at large spatial and temporal scales. For over 100 yrs, the Audubon Christmas Bird Count (CBC) has enlisted volunteers in bird monitoring efforts that span the Americas, especially southern Canada and the United States. We employed a Bayesian hierarchical model to control for variation in survey effort among CBC circles and, using CBC data from 1966 to 2013, generated early-winter population trend estimates for 551 species of birds. Selecting a subset of species that do not frequent bird feeders and have ≥25% range overlap with the distribution of CBC circles (228 species) we further estimated aggregate (i.e., across species) trends for the entire study region and at the level of states/provinces, Bird Conservation Regions, and Landscape Conservation Cooperatives. Moreover, we examined the relationship between ten biological traits—range size, population size, migratory strategy, habitat affiliation, body size, diet, number of eggs per clutch, age at sexual maturity, lifespan, and tolerance of urban/suburban settings—and CBC trend estimates. Our results indicate that 68% of the 551 species had increasing trends within the study area over the interval 1966–2013. When trends were examined across the subset of 228 species, the median population trend for the group was 0.9% per year at the continental level. At the regional level, aggregate trends were positive in all but a few areas. Negative population trends were evident in lower latitudes, whereas the largest increases were at higher latitudes, a pattern consistent with range shifts due to climate change. Nine of 10 biological traits were significantly associated with median population trend; however, none of the traits explained >34% of the deviance in the data, reflecting the indirect relationships between population trend estimates and species traits. Trend estimates based on the CBC are broadly congruent with

  12. Current of population inversion between two coupled lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, S.T.

    1975-01-01

    The idea of appropriate currents between two coupled systems which in the stationary state of broken symmetry have off-diagonal long-range order is presented and applied to lasers. A model representing two p-n junction lasers which are allowed to exchange their electron-hole pairs across a potential barrier is discussed. The current of population inversion between two lasers and the difference of the intensities of radiation emitted by them in a stationary state is calculated.

  13. The Future of School Social Work Practice: Current Trends and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Franklin

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the information on school social work practice in the United States and summarizes recent trends and their implications for the future of school social work. The number of school social workers and current infrastructure available for the development of school social work practice is reviewed. Five sociocultural trends are summarized that are affecting public schools as well as important school-based practice trends such as standardized testing, and high stakes accountability measures. The emerging practice trend of evidence-based practices is discussed in light of its standards and implications for school-based practice. Finally, essential knowledge for strengthening practice competencies to meet the future challenges of school-based practice is highlight.

  14. Population Change: Know the Trends in Your Community. Coping with Change. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Annabel Kirschner

    Community leaders and government agency representatives need to understand local population trends, particularly in situations of rapid change. This publication outlines a simple framework for analysis of population changes, along with useful methods and criteria that can be applied when considering management and policy alternatives. Two…

  15. Red-cockaded woodpecker population trends and management on Texas national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1994-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population trends and concurrent management on four national forests in eastern Texas were evaluated from 1983 through 1993. Following years of decline, populations stabilized and began to increase after intensive management efforts were initiated. Management activities included control of hardwood midstory and understory,...

  16. Accounting for imperfect detection is critical for inferring marine turtle nesting population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B Pfaller

    Full Text Available Assessments of population trends based on time-series counts of individuals are complicated by imperfect detection, which can lead to serious misinterpretations of data. Population trends of threatened marine turtles worldwide are usually based on counts of nests or nesting females. We analyze 39 years of nest-count, female-count, and capture-mark-recapture (CMR data for nesting loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. Annual counts of nests and females, not corrected for imperfect detection, yield significant, positive trends in abundance. However, multistate open robust design modeling of CMR data that accounts for changes in imperfect detection reveals that the annual abundance of nesting females has remained essentially constant over the 39-year period. The dichotomy could result from improvements in surveys or increased within-season nest-site fidelity in females, either of which would increase detection probability. For the first time in a marine turtle population, we compare results of population trend analyses that do and do not account for imperfect detection and demonstrate the potential for erroneous conclusions. Past assessments of marine turtle population trends based exclusively on count data should be interpreted with caution and re-evaluated when possible. These concerns apply equally to population assessments of all species with imperfect detection.

  17. Cartography and Population Geography as Current Events: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    The Sanders housing lawsuit in Pennsylvania provides a case study of how to incorporate current events into the teaching of cartography or population geography at the high school or college level. Settlement of the Sanders case resulted in the release of information about the segregation of public housing by race in the Pittsburgh area. The issues…

  18. Trends in fertility and intermarriage among immigrant populations in Western Europe as measures of integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A

    1994-01-01

    Demographic data on fertility and intermarriage are useful measures of integration and assimilation. This paper reviews trends in total fertility and intermarriage of foreign populations in Europe and compares them with the trends in fertility of the host population and the sending country. In almost all cases fertility has declined. The fertility of most European immigrant populations and of some West Indian and non-Muslim Asian populations has declined to a period level at or below that of the host society. Muslim populations from Turkey, North Africa and South Asia have shown the least decline. Intermarriage is proceeding faster than might be expected in immigrant populations which seemed in economic terms to be imperfectly integrated. Up to 40% of West Indians born in the UK, for example, appear to have white partners as do high proportions of young Maghrebians in France.

  19. TRENDS AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES ON THE GAS MARKET UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei E. Shmagin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of natural gas as an energy source increasingly grows. The rate of demand growth and the gas market development depend on a variety of key conditions discussed in the paper. The current market situation and trends are analyzed in the context of the global balance of energy.

  20. TRENDS AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES ON THE GAS MARKET UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei E. Shmagin

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of natural gas as an energy source increasingly grows. The rate of demand growth and the gas market development depend on a variety of key conditions discussed in the paper. The current market situation and trends are analyzed in the context of the global balance of energy.

  1. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  2. Current Trends in English Language Testing. Conference Proceedings for CTELT 1997 and 1998, Vol. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine A., Ed.

    Papers from the 1997 and 1998 Current Trends in English Language Testing (CTELT) conferences include: "Computer-Based Language Testing: The Call of the Internet" (G. Fulcher); "Uses of the PET (Preliminary English Test) at Sultan Qaboos University" (R. Taylor); "Issues in Foreign and Second Language Academic Listening…

  3. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  4. The current waste generation and management trends in South Africa: A Review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, a continuation and expansion of the work of Muzenda et al, 2012 [1] looks at the current waste generation and management trends in South Africa. The waste tyre problem in South Africa is also briefly discussed. Solid waste management...

  5. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vasconcellos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005. Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005.

  6. Epidemiology and trend of pediatric adenoidectomy: a population-based study in Taiwan from 1997 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Hsuan; Hsu, Wei-Chung; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Yeh, Te-Huei; Chang, Wei-Hsiu; Kang, Kun-Tai

    2017-07-27

    To assess population-level data for pediatric adenoidectomy. Using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the 1997-2012 period, all inpatients trend trend trend trend of pediatric inpatient adenoidectomy incidence rates during 1997-2012 in Taiwan. Moreover, surgical indications have shifted from infections to SDB.

  7. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, northwestern Washington, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Baccus, William T.

    2016-11-30

    Executive SummaryWe estimated abundance and trends of non-native mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington, based on aerial surveys conducted during July 13–24, 2016. The surveys produced the seventh population estimate since the first formal aerial surveys were conducted in 1983. This was the second population estimate since we adjusted survey area boundaries and adopted new estimation procedures in 2011. Before 2011, surveys encompassed all areas free of glacial ice at elevations above 1,520 meters (m), but in 2011 we expanded survey unit boundaries to include suitable mountain goat habitats at elevations between 1,425 and 1,520 m. In 2011, we also began applying a sightability correction model allowing us to estimate undercounting bias associated with aerial surveys and to adjust survey results accordingly. The 2016 surveys were carried out by National Park Service (NPS) personnel in Olympic National Park and by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in Olympic National Forest and in the southeastern part of Olympic National Park. We surveyed a total of 59 survey units, comprising 55 percent of the 60,218-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 623 ±43 (standard error, SE). Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 561 to 741 mountain goats at the time of the survey.We examined the rate of increase of the mountain goat population by comparing the current population estimate to previous estimates from 2004 and 2011. Because aerial survey boundaries changed between 2004 and 2016, we recomputed population estimates for 2011 and 2016 surveys based on the revised survey boundaries as well as the previously defined boundaries so that estimates were directly comparable across years. Additionally, because the Mount Washington survey unit was not surveyed in 2011, we used results from an independent survey of the Mount

  8. Current trends in the global tourism industry: evidence from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejdet Delener

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the largest U.S. industries, serving millions of international and domestic tourists yearly. Tourists visit the U.S. to see natural wonders, cities, historic landmarks, and entertainment venues. Americans seek similar attractions as well as recreation and vacation areas. Tourism competes in the global market, so it is important to understand current trends in the U.S. travel industry. Therefore, this article offers insight into important trends and suggests strategies for policy makers involved in the travel and tourism industry.

  9. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations.

  10. New Member States of the European Union and the Current Trends in the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Bolotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the specifics of the current development of the world economy and discusses implications for new member states of the European Union, the EU NMS, with a small case study on the Czech Republic. The paper is divided into four parts: the trends, the EU NMS and the effects of the trends in the EU NMS and in the Czech Republic. The paper is based on a general economic analysis of data provided by the World Bank (WB, the International Monetary Fund (IMF, Eurostat, the European Central Bank (ECB and by the Czech Statistical Office (CZSO. Being familiar with recent macroeconomic trends is nowadays important for Central and Eastern European managers in order to efficiently adapt their strategies to the constantly changing business environment.

  11. Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shanghai Mode Lingerie continually strives to underline its status as a veritable reference on the fashion scene: an opportunity to explore trends, interpret key directions and gain an in-depth overview of lines to follow.

  12. A statistical assessment of population trends for data deficient Mexican amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Quintero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mexico has the world’s fifth largest population of amphibians and the second country with the highest quantity of threatened amphibian species. About 10% of Mexican amphibians lack enough data to be assigned to a risk category by the IUCN, so in this paper we want to test a statistical tool that, in the absence of specific demographic data, can assess a species’ risk of extinction, population trend, and to better understand which variables increase their vulnerability. Recent studies have demonstrated that the risk of species decline depends on extrinsic and intrinsic traits, thus including both of them for assessing extinction might render more accurate assessment of threats. Methods. We harvested data from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL and the published literature for Mexican amphibians, and used these data to assess the population trend of some of the Mexican species that have been assigned to the Data Deficient category of the IUCN using Random Forests, a Machine Learning method that gives a prediction of complex processes and identifies the most important variables that account for the predictions. Results. Our results show that most of the data deficient Mexican amphibians that we used have decreasing population trends. We found that Random Forests is a solid way to identify species with decreasing population trends when no demographic data is available. Moreover, we point to the most important variables that make species more vulnerable for extinction. This exercise is a very valuable first step in assigning conservation priorities for poorly known species.

  13. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  14. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Rock partridge (Alectoris graeca graeca population density and trends in central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bontzorlos, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rock partridge is an emblematic species of the Greek avifauna and one of the most important game species in the country. The present study, which combined long term in–situ counts with distance sampling methodology in central Greece, indicated that the species’ population in Greece is the highest within its European distribution, in contrast to all prior considerations. Inter–annual trends suggested a stable rock partridge population both within hunting areas and wildlife refuges, whereas during summer, the species presented significantly higher densities in altitudes of more than 1,000 m, most probably due to the effect of predation at lower zones. The similarity of population structure between wildlife refuges and hunting zones along with the stable population trends demonstrate that rock partridge harvest in the country is sustainable.

  16. Population ageing trends in Serbia from the beginning of the 21st century and prospects until 2061: Regional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the 2011 Census confirm that Serbia is still among countries with the oldest population in Europe. Persons aged 65+ out­numbered those under the age of 15 by 20% (17.4% versus 14.4%, and the median age was 42.7 years. Population ageing has continued, but it was slower in the intercensal period of 2002-2011 than during the 1980s and 1990s. Population ageing in Serbia has not only continued but is also widespread at all territorial levels. According to the 2011 Census, in all four statistical regions (NUTS 2, people aged 65 or older outnumbered those under the age of 15 and, in comparison to 2002, regional differences in the key indicators of population ageing increased. Heterogeneity is more present at lower territorial levels (cities/municipalities with the least favourable age structure which will be pointed out. This paper also explores trends of components of population dynamics in the intercensal period 2002-2011, as well as causal relationship with the change of the age structure. Current demographic trends (low fertility, negative natural increase, net emigration and very old age structure severely limit the spectrum of future demographic changes both in the medium and especially in the short term. The situation is particularly influenced by the entrance of the large baby boom generation in the elderly ages. Explorations of future population trends are conducted based on the author’s own demographic projections for Serbia until 2061 (revision 2014. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47006: Investigation of demographic phenomena in the function of public policies in Serbia

  17. Tendencias y debates actuales en el periodismo digital/Current trends and debates in digital journalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mario Morales

    2005-01-01

    ... clave: Periodismo digital, prácticas periodísticas, rutinas periodísticas. Recepción: 19 de septiembre de 2005 Aceptación: 10 de noviembre de 2005 Current trends and debates in digital journalism The Internet has come to change everything. Journalism has not been the same since the network boom. This article looks at the appreciable changes tha...

  18. Photonics industry in China: from current status and trends to the importance of innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chongcheng

    2011-12-01

    Current status and trends in various sectors of photonics industry in Mainland China are reviewed, which includes optical fiber communication, optical preform, fiber and cable, photonic devices and chips, LED illumination and display, and photovoltaics. Then, from the challenges and risks they are facing, critical importance of innovation is discussed. In the evolving Innovation Economy, the core competence of a company, an industry or a country is its innovation power and the capability to grab (and manage) talented people.

  19. Gender difference and economic gradients in the secular trend of population systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla; Jensen, Gorm B

    2013-01-01

    To a large extent population blood pressure (PBP) affects morbidity and mortality in the society. Reports indicated that PBP decreased in many western countries. The associations between the main cardiovascular risk factors and the changing PBP have been described. The aim of this study....... In addition, there was a trend towards a lowering of risk-factor adjusted SBP in the high income women with time. The mechanism that lies behind the associations between trend in SBP and income is not known but data suggest that poor lifestyle may explain some of the differences. The treated hypertensives...... was to investigate association between income factors and trends in population BP and hypertension. Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective longitudinal epidemiological study on almost 20000 individuals through four surveys from 1976 to 2003. The BP measurement was fully standardised. Questionnaires...

  20. Trends of incidence and mortality rates of stroke from 1983 to 2000 in Hanzhong rural population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙泳; 高保林; 张景霞; 杨军; 黄久仪; 胡继新; 徐德忠; 卢娟

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the trends of incidence and mortality rates of stroke in Hanzhong rural population. Methods: Acting as the WHO MONICA project. Results: The incidence rate of stroke was 152.9/100 000. There was decline trend in male(P<0.05). The mortality rate of stroke was 115.9/100 000. There was no significant decline trend during 18-year period (P<0.05). The incidence and mortality rates of stroke of male were higher than those of female(P<0.05).The incidence and mortality rates were all increased with age(P<0.01). Conclusion: It must stick to the long- term prevention measures to decrease incidence rate, and improve the condition of medical treatment to reduce the mortality rate in rural population.

  1. Abundance, distribution and population trends of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Gandiwa, E.; Jakarasi, J.; Westhuizen, van der H.; Muvengwi, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using

  2. Climatic modulation of recent trends in ocean acidification in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.; Münnich, M.

    2016-01-01

    We reconstruct the evolution of ocean acidification in the California Current System (CalCS) from 1979 through 2012 using hindcast simulations with an eddy-resolving ocean biogeochemical model forced with observation-based variations of wind and fluxes of heat and freshwater. We find that domain-wide pH and {{{Ω }}}{arag} in the top 60 m of the water column decreased significantly over these three decades by about -0.02 decade-1 and -0.12 decade-1, respectively. In the nearshore areas of northern California and Oregon, ocean acidification is reconstructed to have progressed much more rapidly, with rates up to 30% higher than the domain-wide trends. Furthermore, ocean acidification penetrated substantially into the thermocline, causing a significant domain-wide shoaling of the aragonite saturation depth of on average -33 m decade-1 and up to -50 m decade-1 in the nearshore area of northern California. This resulted in a coast-wide increase in nearly undersaturated waters and the appearance of waters with {{{Ω }}}{arag}\\lt 1, leading to a substantial reduction of habitat suitability. Averaged over the whole domain, the main driver of these trends is the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. However, recent changes in the climatic forcing have substantially modulated these trends regionally. This is particularly evident in the nearshore regions, where the total trends in pH are up to 50% larger and trends in {{{Ω }}}{arag} and in the aragonite saturation depth are even twice to three times larger than the purely atmospheric CO2-driven trends. This modulation in the nearshore regions is a result of the recent marked increase in alongshore wind stress, which brought elevated levels of dissolved inorganic carbon to the surface via upwelling. Our results demonstrate that changes in the climatic forcing need to be taken into consideration in future projections of the progression of ocean acidification in coastal upwelling regions.

  3. Trends of forest area and population and the impact of population on forest area per hectare in Serbia without APS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic changes throughout history have shaped the attitude towards the forest and most significant ones are changes in terms of population. Over the centuries population and population density have had a significant impact on deforestation and the reduction of forest areas. Therefore, it is important to check what kind of trends are concerned and how population growth affects forest areas, forest cover and forest area per capita. These elements are important for assessing the direction, intensity of activity and the degree of success in the implementation of all forest policy measures in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat, br. 43007/16-III: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  4. The current state and trends of the development of universities in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Morhulets

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is the basis of social, political, economic, spiritual, and cultural development. Therefore, the study of the current state and trends of the development of Ukrainian universities is a significant factor of social and economic progress of the country.The paper reflects the general state of universities in Ukraine, in particular, the trends in dynamics: the number of students in terms of entry/graduation, sources of financing, education fields; the number of universities in the context of accreditation, types and forms of ownership; the number of outbound Ukrainian and inbound foreign students; quantitative and qualitative characteristics of teaching staff; spending on higher education and the cost of funding per student compared with other countries. The purpose of the study is the assessment of economic activity of higher educational establishments in Ukraine, the identification of problems and tendencies of their development in the context of national transformational processes in education and formation of the society of knowledge. The methodical base used in the study is analysis and synthesis, methods of comparison and generalization, extrapolation, index and graphical methods. The practical value of the study is based on the results of a thorough analysis of university activities. Such results reveal the current state and trends of the development of universities under conditions of higher education transformation in Ukraine and its integration into the European educational area. The results of research improve understanding of the state and problems of the universities and provide the foundations for further research in the field of the national education system development and for improving of the quality of young professionals’ training. The trends of the university development indicate that the reorganization of higher education which is being currently taken place, already results in the emergence of new competencies of

  5. Wood duck population trends from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.; Burger, George V.; Havera, Stephen P.; Graber, David A.; Kirby, Ronald E.; Taylor, T. Scott

    1990-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has been conducted yearly since 1966, and can be used to describe relative population density and trends of birds in North America north of Mexico. Wood ducks (Air sponsa) are difficult to survey using conventional waterfowl monitoring techniques, but a large portion of their range is surveyed by the BBS. Wood ducks are detected at low densities on many BBS routes, and population trends can be estimated for most regions. Populations have been increasing throughout North America since 1966, but statistically significant increases generally occurred only in the early (1966-78) part of the period. Roadside survey methodology used in the BBS has limitations that make it inefficient as a survey technique for wood ducks, and we recommend using modified methodologies that specifically survey wood duck habitat.

  6. CURRENT TRENDS FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Doraliyski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key components of the management system is the organizational structure of management. This report presents the current trends of development and improvement of organizational structures of management. The semantics of the term "organizational structure" used in the report is clarified. Key aspects of structural policy of organizations are discussed, as well as the introduction of flexible organizational forms. The main directions for analysis of organizational policy of organizations are also mentioned. It is stressed that the analysis of current trends for the future development of organizational structures of management should be an integral component of the management policy of every organization. The trends are flexibility and adaptability of the organizational structure, rational proportion between centralization and decentralization, an appropriate balance between the rights, duties and responsibilities, reducing regulations, rules and other normative documents. A recommendetaion is made that organizational governance structures must be adapted constantly in accordance with changes in the overall management system, as they are one of its main components.

  7. Southern James Bay Population : Canada Geese : Population Trend Information 1973-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the concern about the status of the Southern James Bay Population of Canada Geese at Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Since both Tennessee and...

  8. Genetic and phenotypic trends of fertility traits for Holstein dairy population in warm and temperate climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Rahbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate genetic and phenotypic trends for fertility traits in Holstein dairy population under warm and temperate climate. Fertility traits were: success in first service, gestation length, number of inseminations, insemination outcome, calving interval, calving birth weight and days open. The edited data set included up to 23,402 records from 9,486 cows. The mean and standard deviation for fertility traits were 0.32 ± 0.003, 278.2 ± 5.58, 2.73 ± 1.94,0.31 ± 0.001, 415.99 ± 79.62, 40.4 ± 6.08 and 140.36 ± 76.16 for success in first service, gestation length, number of inseminations, insemination outcome, calving interval, calving birth weight and days open, respectively. In general, there were decreasing genetic trends for all traits over the years. On the other hand, there were decreasing phenotypic trend for days open, calving interval, gestation length, number of inseminations and calving birth weight, but estimates of phenotypic trends were positive for success in first service and insemination outcome over the years. It was concluded decreased trend for days open, calving interval, gestation length, number of inseminations and calving birth weight and increased trend for success in first service and insemination outcome traits over time indicated that Holstein dairy producers in warm and temperate climate were successful in managing and improving in nutrition during 1999 to 2013.

  9. Mercury concentration trend as a possible result of changes in cod population demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Hjermann, Dag Ø; Beylich, Bjørnar; Schøyen, Merete; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Green, Norman W

    2017-07-20

    Mercury (Hg) in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is one of many parameters that are monitored through OSPAR's Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme. Time series for cod in the Inner Oslofjord (Norway) go back to 1984. Until 2014, annual median Hg-concentrations in cod from the Inner Oslofjord showed both significant upward long-term (whole time series) and short-term (recent 10 years) trends (when 2015 was included, the short-term trend was not significant). However, the median length of the cod sampled also showed upward trends. This may have been caused by low cod recruitment in the area since the start of the 2000s, as indicated by beach seine surveys. To investigate how length would impact the trend analysis, the Hg-concentrations in the cod were normalised to 50 cm. No significant short-term trend in Hg-concentrations could be detected for length-normalised concentrations. The results indicated that most of the upward trend in Hg-concentrations could be attributed to the sampling of larger fish. The reasons for the apparent change in the cod population demography are not conclusive, however, sampling bias must also be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  11. Technical specifications for monitoring Community trends in zoonotic agents in foodstuffs and animal populations on request from EFSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Chriél, Mariann; Korsgaard, Helle

    Technical specifications are proposed for the monitoring of temporal trends in zoonotic agents in animal and food populations at Community or Member State group level in the framework of Directive 2003/99/EC. Two types of trend monitoring are identified: trend watching, which covers general obser...

  12. Current trends in medical English education and the Japan College of Rheumatology International School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jego, Eric Hajime; Amengual, Olga

    2017-04-11

    In light of the present revolution happening in medical education in Japan as medical schools implement new curricula to conform to global standards, there is a growing demand for more internationalization and higher quality practical medical English education. In response, many institutions including governmental organizations, universities and academic associations are moving ahead with new initiatives to adapt to these changing demands. This paper reviews the current trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan. This paper also describes one initiative by the Japan College of Rheumatology (JCR) known as the JCR International School held yearly in Karuizawa. By examining recent trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan, the most relevant and applicable can be elucidated to illuminate a path forward for improved medical English education within the JCR.

  13. Current tobacco use trends among Mississippi public high school students: 1993-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Bo; Hirsch, Erica E; May, Warren; Hart, Roy; Bishop, Melanie; Vargas, Rodolfo L

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates trends in tobacco use based on gender, race, and grade level among Mississippi public high school students during 1993-2009. Data were obtained by combining eight weighted Mississippi Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS). Current tobacco use (cigarette, smokeless, and cigar) was selected for investigation. During 1993-2009, the prevalence of current cigarette and cigar use among Mississippi public high school students showed a significant linear decrease (p tobacco use. Male students were more likely to be current tobacco users. White students were more likely to use cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Programs that target male and white students on certain products such as smokeless tobacco are needed to further decrease overall tobacco use in the state.

  14. Epidemiological and mortality trends in infective endocarditis, a 17-year population-based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarelli, Mario; Scalese, Marco; Nencioni, Cesira; Valentini, Silvia; Guerrini, Francesco; D’Aiello, Incoronata; Picchi, Andrea; De Sensi, Francesco; Habib, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Background The population at risk, the clinical and microbiological features of infective endocarditis (IE) have changed. Aim of our study was to evaluate the contemporary epidemiological trends, over a 17-year period in a definite region of Tuscany, Italy, to analyze the clinical outcomes and associated prognostic factors. Methods From 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2014, all patients with a definite diagnosis of IE were prospectively entered in a data-base. The Health-Care system data-base was interrogated to capture patients who could have been missed. The final dataset derived by the merging of the two data-bases. Results Incidence rate of IE was 4.6/100,000/y with a significant linear incidence increase. In hospitalized patients the incidence was 1.27/1,000 admissions. Over age 65 incidence rate was 11.7/100,000/y. Male/female ratio was 1.54:1. A temporal trend towards an increase in the mean population age was found (P=0.033). There was an increase in the incidence of Health-care associated IE, P=0.016. The most common microorganisms were staphylococcus aureus (25%) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (22%). In-hospital mortality was 24%. A trend towards an increase in mortality rate was found (P=0.055). Independent predictors of mortality were older age, S. aureus infection, heart failure, septic shock and persistent bacteremia. Conclusions Our study confirms an increasing mortality trend in IE, although with a borderline significance. Elderly forms are associated with poor prognosis and higher than 1-year mortality rate even in the multivariate analysis. Ageing population, increase in healthcare-associated and staphylococcal infections, may explain the rise of IE incidence and of the mortality trend. PMID:28164010

  15. Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of −0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: −4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,250–35,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,760–32,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we

  16. Research on the Current Telecommuting Trends in United States and European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Georgiana PICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and due to the accelerated progress made in information and communication technology, more and more companies offer their employees the option of telecommuting. For the past twenty years, telecommuting has been on an asceding trend, an incresing number of people embracing the ability to work from home, using a computer and internet connection to communicate for their jobs. The goal of the paper is to explain the overall notion of telecommuting and to analyze the current trends in the United States and European Union markets. Another objective is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting and the important role played by this concept within the striving purpose of corporations to achieve their strategic targets. The study is based upon specialized literature reviews regarding the emergence of telecommuting and the role it plays in organizations. A comparative analysis was conducted by the authors on two regional markets, United States and the European Union, in order to assess the trend in telecommuting and the factors that influence it. The outcome of the research shows that although the benefits of telecommuting are numerous, it does not come without challenges, both being applicable for both the employer, as well as for the employee. The research results of this study can be used by organizations when considering to offer their employees flexible work opportunities which can positively influence the long term business performance.

  17. Cancer registration in Germany: current status, perspectives and trends in cancer incidence 1973-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, J; Schön, D; Batzler, W; Baumgardt-Elms, C; Eisinger, B; Lehnert, M; Stegmaier, C

    2000-01-01

    A federal law effective in 1995 makes it mandatory for all German States to build up population-based cancer registries. Although the law provides a model of cancer registration, each State may modify this by State-specific regulations, as long as they ensure data exchange between the registries and between registries and scientific institutions. The 'Network of German Population-Based Cancer Registries' constitutes the basis for cooperation among the German cancer registries. In order to improve the cooperation between physicians and epidemiologists, and to demonstrate the benefits of cancer registration, the network published a booklet containing facts on time-trends in cancer incidence during the last two decades. Information on cancer incidence and mortality was derived from the population-based cancer registries of Saarland, the former German Democratic Republic (until 1989), the City of Hamburg and the region of Münster. Altogether these registries cover a population of about 23 million. Sixteen types of cancer were selected for the analyses. Major increases in cancer incidence were observed for female lung cancer, testicular cancer, cancer of the oral cavity, malignant melanoma of the skin and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Incidence rates also increased for cancer of the female breast, prostate cancer and colorectal cancer. A decrease was observed for stomach and cervical cancer. In 1998, only a small fraction of all German adults were monitored by a population-based cancer registry, making it impossible to work out accurate incidence rates for the whole of Germany. Several new cancer registries have been built up recently. Data summaries of existing German population-based cancer registries assist in enhancing the completeness of new cancer registries.

  18. Facet injection trends in the Medicare population and the impact of bundling codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckworth, William Jeremy; Jiang, Miao; Hemingway, Jennifer; Hughes, Danny; Staggs, Donald

    2016-09-01

    Interventional spine procedures have seen a steady increase in utilization over the last 10 to 20 years. In 2010, the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for facet injections were bundled with image guidance (fluoroscopic or computed tomography) and limited billing to a maximum of three levels. This was done in part because of increased utilization and to ensure that procedures were done appropriately with image guidance. The study aimed to evaluate if the CPT code changes correlated with a decreased utilization of facet injections. This is a retrospective time series study. The sample was composed of 100% Medicare Part B claims submitted for facet joint injections from 2000 to 2012, as documented in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician Supplier Procedure Summary (PSPS) master files. Procedure numbers and trends were the outcome measures. The trends of facet injections were analyzed from 2000 to 2012 using the CMS PSPS master files. The total number of lumbosacral and cervical-thoracic facet injections was noted. Changes over those years were calculated with specific attention to 2010, when CPT were bundled with image guidance and injections were limited to no more than three levels. Also, to account for the growth in the Medicare population, a calculation was done of injections per 100,000 Medicare enrollees. No funding was used for this study. Facet injection utilization increased from 2000 to 2012, with an average growth rate of 11% per year for lumbosacral facet injections and 15% for cervical-thoracic facet injections (per 100,000 Medicare enrollees). The largest growth occurred from 2000 to 2006 (25% growth per year for lumbosacral and 32% for cervical-thoracic injections per 100,000 Medicare enrollees) and this leveled off from 2007 to 2012 (-3% growth per year for lumbosacral and -2% for cervical-thoracic injections per 100,000 Medicare enrollees). The biggest drop in these procedures was in 2010, when there was a drop of 14

  19. A reversal of decreasing trends in population cholesterol levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Norberg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:High cholesterol is identified as a major risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Monitoring trends of cholesterol levels and comparing trends across population groups are important to assess population distribution and risks related to cholesterol change over time. Cholesterol surveillance data are lacking, even in high-income countries.Objectives:To describe the trends in cholesterol and triglyceride levels in different population groups and to estimate the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Västerbotten County, Sweden during 1990–2010.Designs and Methods:Since 1990, 133,082 individuals living in Västerbotten County, Northern Sweden, invited on their 30th, 40th, 50th and 60th birthdays, participated in the Västerbotten Intervention Program. Ten years after baseline data collection, 34,868 individuals were surveyed for a second time. In addition to a self-administered health questionnaire (that included information on socioeconomic status, demographics, self-reported health and lifestyle behaviours, blood cholesterol and triglyceride were examined.Results:The level and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly from 1990 to 2007, but the trends began to increase during 2008–2010 in men, women, and in all educational groups. Men had significantly higher serum triglyceride levels than women and their cholesterol levels were similar to those of the women. This study shows that those with basic education and who live in rural inlands had consistently higher triglyceride level than those who live in the city and have higher educational attainments. People with basic education are also at higher risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia at 10-year follow-up; the risk is much higher among the older cohorts, particularly women. During 1990–2010, the proportion of participants who reported

  20. A reversal of decreasing trends in population cholesterol levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nawi; Johnson, Owe; Lindahl, Bernt; Norberg, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Background High cholesterol is identified as a major risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Monitoring trends of cholesterol levels and comparing trends across population groups are important to assess population distribution and risks related to cholesterol change over time. Cholesterol surveillance data are lacking, even in high-income countries. Objectives To describe the trends in cholesterol and triglyceride levels in different population groups and to estimate the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Västerbotten County, Sweden during 1990–2010. Designs and Methods Since 1990, 133,082 individuals living in Västerbotten County, Northern Sweden, invited on their 30th, 40th, 50th and 60th birthdays, participated in the Västerbotten Intervention Program. Ten years after baseline data collection, 34,868 individuals were surveyed for a second time. In addition to a self-administered health questionnaire (that included information on socioeconomic status, demographics, self-reported health and lifestyle behaviours), blood cholesterol and triglyceride were examined. Results The level and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly from 1990 to 2007, but the trends began to increase during 2008–2010 in men, women, and in all educational groups. Men had significantly higher serum triglyceride levels than women and their cholesterol levels were similar to those of the women. This study shows that those with basic education and who live in rural inlands had consistently higher triglyceride level than those who live in the city and have higher educational attainments. People with basic education are also at higher risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia at 10-year follow-up; the risk is much higher among the older cohorts, particularly women. During 1990–2010, the proportion of participants who reported treatment with lipid

  1. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR - CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE BULGARIAN TOURIST BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Valkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thе analysis presented in current article deepens and summarizes the results of an economic study focused on the management of human resources in the sector "Tourism". The expected changes in organizational and technological terms are taken into account. The law on tourism in the Republic of Bulgaria and the types of taxes that directly and indirectly affect those employed in tourism are considered. Leading accents are the current trends and issues that arise from the lack of skilled workers in this sector and their deficit caused by the seasonal nature of employment. Growing gray economy is concerned as a major obstacle to development of the tourism industry and its future.

  2. Pricing Data: A Look at Past Proposals, Current Plans, and Future Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Soumya; Ha, Sangtae; Chiang, Mung

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, network operators have only used simple flat-rate unlimited data plans to vie for customers. But today, with the popularity of mobile devices and exponential growth of apps, videos, and clouds, service providers are gradually moving towards more sophisticated pricing schemes, including dynamic pricing. This decade will therefore likely witness a major shift in network pricing schemes. However, there are several unique challenges with the dynamic pricing of mobile data, including new system requirements and social adoption. This paper reviews some of the well known past pricing proposals (both static and dynamic), their current realization in various data plans, and new research directions. Unlike a traditional survey, this work is an attempt to explore benefits and challenges of pricing plans that are currently being used by ISPs in different parts of the world so as to facilitate the networking community's efforts in recognizing trends and shaping an appropriate research agenda.

  3. Current Trends in Cloud Computing A Survey of Cloud Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjit Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing that has become an increasingly important trend, is a virtualization technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to offer the sharing of resources that include infrastructures, software, applications and business processes to the market environment to fulfill the elastic demand. In today’s competitive environment, the service vitality, elasticity, choices and flexibility offered by this scalable technology are too attractive that makes the cloud computing to increasingly becoming an integral part of the enterprise computing environment. This paper presents a survey of the current state of Cloud Computing. It includes a discussion of the evolution process of cloud computing, characteristics of Cloud, current technologies adopted in cloud computing, This paper also presents a comparative study of cloud computing platforms (Amazon, Google and Microsoft, and its challenges.

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma: current trends in worldwide epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Alpna Limaye, Roniel CabreraDivision of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common malignancy in developing countries and its incidence is on the rise in the developing world. The epidemiology of this cancer is unique since its risk factors, including hepatitis C and B, have been clearly established. The current trends in the shifting incidence of HCC in different regions of the world can be explained partly by the changing prevalence of hepatitis. Early detection offers the only hope for curative treatment for patients with HCC, hence effective screening strategies for high-risk patients is of utmost importance. Liver transplantation and surgical resection remains the cornerstone of curative treatment. But major advances in locoregional therapies and molecular-targeted therapies for the treatment of advanced HCC have occurred recently. In this review, current trends in the worldwide epidemiology, surveillance, diagnosis, standard treatments, and the emerging therapies for HCC are discussed.Keywords: liver cancer, sorafenib, hepatitis C, TACE

  5. Current trends, innovations and issues in nursing education to cater for the bottom billion nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek-Hong Lim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nurse education is undergoing a processof transition. Nurses worldwide are working towardsachievement of higher levels of education and trainingthrough an improved education system. Current trendsand innovations in nursing education are emerging toprepare more nurses and to deliver education to studentsacross geographical boundaries while taking intoconsideration their work and family responsibilities. Thecurrent trends and innovations in nursing educationrange from full time face-to-face interactions to distanceeducation programmes. Teaching approaches such asblended learning, online or e-Learning have providednurses with an avenue for continuing education fordevelopment and progression in their career pathways.Every nurse aspires to reach her highest potential. Whilethe current trends and innovations in nursing educationprovides the flexibility for nurses to continue learningand upgrade their professional qualifications, there areissues to be considered in catering to the needs of thebottom billion nurses. An exploration of related issueswill include views from different perspectives, such asthat of the institution/provider, instructor/facilitatorand student/learner involved in the development andimplementation of the related education programmes.

  6. Grizzly bear population vital rates and trend in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, R.D.; Carney, D.W.; Chilton-Radandt, T.; Courville, S.A.; Haroldson, M.A.; Harris, R.B.; Jonkel, J.; McLellan, B.; Madel, M.; Manley, T.L.; Schwartz, C.C.; Servheen, C.; Stenhouse, G.; Waller, J.S.; Wenum, E.

    2012-01-01

    We estimated grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population vital rates and trend for the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE), Montana, between 2004 and 2009 by following radio-collared females and observing their fate and reproductive performance. Our estimates of dependent cub and yearling survival were 0.612 (95% CI = 0.300–0.818) and 0.682 (95% CI = 0.258–0.898). Our estimates of subadult and adult female survival were 0.852 (95% CI = 0.628–0.951) and 0.952 (95% CI = 0.892–0.980). From visual observations, we estimated a mean litter size of 2.00 cubs/litter. Accounting for cub mortality prior to the first observations of litters in spring, our adjusted mean litter size was 2.27 cubs/litter. We estimated the probabilities of females transitioning from one reproductive state to another between years. Using the stable state probability of 0.322 (95% CI = 0.262–0.382) for females with cub litters, our adjusted fecundity estimate (mx) was 0.367 (95% CI = 0.273–0.461). Using our derived rates, we estimated that the population grew at a mean annual rate of approximately 3% (λ = 1.0306, 95% CI = 0.928–1.102), and 71.5% of 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations produced estimates of λ > 1.0. Our results indicate an increasing population trend of grizzly bears in the NCDE. Coupled with concurrent studies of population size, we estimate that over 1,000 grizzly bears reside in and adjacent to this recovery area. We suggest that monitoring of population trend and other vital rates using radioed females be continued.

  7. A Conceptual Analysis of Current Trends in the Evolution of Risk Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wieczorek-Kosmala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The traditional idea of risk management is continually evolving as it enjoys growing popularity in corporations. The paper reviews the risk management procedure within the traditional concept and then identifies and discusses the main trends currently observed within the organisation and implementation of this procedure. Scientific aim: The paper aims at identyfing and describing the currently observed trends in the evolution of risk management process. To achieve this, it aims at comparative analysis of solutions within traditional risk management concept and the ideas underpinning the current process of risk management standardisation. It also aims at reviewing the validity of clasiffication of risk treatment techniques. Methodology/methods: The paper represents a conceptual analysis of the current state of affairs and uses the method of comparative analysis and deduction based on the literature review and the lecture of standardisation documents. As a viewpoint paper, it represents au-thor’s own ideas and findings. Findings: The two main trends of risk management evolution should be idetified. The first one is related with strategic dimension of risk management as this procedure is often promoted as an integrated concept. It springs from the regulations of standardisation procedures which aim at unifying the terminology and set of activities from practitioners’ perspective. The second direction of risk management concept evolution is observed within the development of risk financing techniques due to the innovations observed within traditional risk retention and trasfer solutions, as a result of continuous convergence of insurance and capital markets. Conclusions: (limits, implications etc The risk management process is constantly evolving toward the strategic dimension as the risk perception changes, concerning both the downside and upside of risk. However, the standards follow similar sequence of

  8. State-space modeling of population sizes and trends in Nihoa Finch and Millerbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Brinck, Kevin W.; Camp, Richard J.; Farmer, Chris; Plentovich, Sheldon M.; Banko, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Both of the 2 passerines endemic to Nihoa Island, Hawai‘i, USA—the Nihoa Millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi) and Nihoa Finch (Telespiza ultima)—are listed as endangered by federal and state agencies. Their abundances have been estimated by irregularly implemented fixed-width strip-transect sampling from 1967 to 2012, from which area-based extrapolation of the raw counts produced highly variable abundance estimates for both species. To evaluate an alternative survey method and improve abundance estimates, we conducted variable-distance point-transect sampling between 2010 and 2014. We compared our results to those obtained from strip-transect samples. In addition, we applied state-space models to derive improved estimates of population size and trends from the legacy time series of strip-transect counts. Both species were fairly evenly distributed across Nihoa and occurred in all or nearly all available habitat. Population trends for Nihoa Millerbird were inconclusive because of high within-year variance. Trends for Nihoa Finch were positive, particularly since the early 1990s. Distance-based analysis of point-transect counts produced mean estimates of abundance similar to those from strip-transects but was generally more precise. However, both survey methods produced biologically unrealistic variability between years. State-space modeling of the long-term time series of abundances obtained from strip-transect counts effectively reduced uncertainty in both within- and between-year estimates of population size, and allowed short-term changes in abundance trajectories to be smoothed into a long-term trend.

  9. Trends in the growth of population and labour force in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, S S

    1990-01-01

    Trends in the growth of the population and labor force in Pakistan are examined and future prospects for growth of population and labor, particularly agriculture, are estimated. The definition of labor force as employed or seeking work after a short period of employment has led to a great disparity in results for women in the labor force. Past trends in population growth reflected a growth rate of 1.6% for the 1950's, and 2.4% in 1960. The population rose to 84.3 million in 1981 from 42.6 million in 1961, which intercensally was an increase of 3.6% per annum for 1961-72 and 3.1% per annum for 1972-81. The estimated rate for 1981-86 was 2.9%/year. The rural population doubled and the urban tripled. There was a net migration of 2.123 million to urban areas reported in the 1981 census. There is also evidence of a high sex ratio. Balochistan (7.1%) and Sindh (3.6%) provinces have the highest growth rates. Although the largest population is in the Punjab, the growth is the lowest at 2.7%. The population is primarily young -- 44.5% 15 years in 1981, which is the highest in the world. Under high, medium, and low levels of fertility, prospective trends are estimated for 2006 and 2031, and by sex every 5 years from 1981. Population under high fertility is expected to reach 270 million by 2031, which is 3.39 persons/hectare. The population/hectare of land under cultivation was 4.25 in 1981 and is expected to rise to 13.49 persons/hectare in 2031. 11 million acres could be brought under cultivation to reduce the ratio. However, there are ecological considerations as well as an employment problem. The dependency ratio under the high variant will decline from 76.8 persons 0-14 and 65 years/100 persons 15-64 years in 1986 to 70.3 in 2006 which is still considerably higher than other developing countries. It is suggested that replacement level fertility be attained as soon as possible. Under low fertility, replacement level can be reached by 2011 with strong political commitment

  10. Population Trend and Elasticities of Vital Rates for Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Eastern Gulf of Alaska: A New Life-History Table Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Adkison, Milo D; Parker, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers are beginning to recover across most of the western distinct population segment following catastrophic declines that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. This study makes use of contemporary vital rate estimates from a trend-site rookery in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (a sub-region of the western population) in a matrix population model to estimate the trend and strength of the recovery across this region between 2003 and 2013. The modeled population trend was projected into the future based on observed variation in vital rates and a prospective elasticity analysis was conducted to determine future trends and which vital rates pose the greatest threats to recovery. The modeled population grew at a mean rate of 3.5% per yr between 2003 and 2013 and was correlated with census count data from the local rookery and throughout the eastern Gulf of Alaska. If recent vital rate estimates continue with little change, the eastern Gulf of Alaska population could be fully recovered to pre-decline levels within 23 years. With density dependent growth, the population would need another 45 years to fully recover. Elasticity analysis showed that, as expected, population growth rate (λ) was most sensitive to changes in adult survival, less sensitive to changes in juvenile survival, and least sensitive to changes in fecundity. A population decline could be expected with only a 6% decrease in adult survival, whereas a 32% decrease in fecundity would be necessary to bring about a population decline. These results have important implications for population management and suggest current research priorities should be shifted to a greater emphasis on survival rates and causes of mortality.

  11. Population Trend and Elasticities of Vital Rates for Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus in the Eastern Gulf of Alaska: A New Life-History Table Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Maniscalco

    Full Text Available Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus numbers are beginning to recover across most of the western distinct population segment following catastrophic declines that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. This study makes use of contemporary vital rate estimates from a trend-site rookery in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (a sub-region of the western population in a matrix population model to estimate the trend and strength of the recovery across this region between 2003 and 2013. The modeled population trend was projected into the future based on observed variation in vital rates and a prospective elasticity analysis was conducted to determine future trends and which vital rates pose the greatest threats to recovery. The modeled population grew at a mean rate of 3.5% per yr between 2003 and 2013 and was correlated with census count data from the local rookery and throughout the eastern Gulf of Alaska. If recent vital rate estimates continue with little change, the eastern Gulf of Alaska population could be fully recovered to pre-decline levels within 23 years. With density dependent growth, the population would need another 45 years to fully recover. Elasticity analysis showed that, as expected, population growth rate (λ was most sensitive to changes in adult survival, less sensitive to changes in juvenile survival, and least sensitive to changes in fecundity. A population decline could be expected with only a 6% decrease in adult survival, whereas a 32% decrease in fecundity would be necessary to bring about a population decline. These results have important implications for population management and suggest current research priorities should be shifted to a greater emphasis on survival rates and causes of mortality.

  12. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: current national trends in patient management and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Rohit; Patel, Jaymin; Sweeney, J M; Carpenter, Anne Marie; Downes, Katheryne; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2013-03-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms constitute a medical disease process with many unique features that present unique challenges in orchestrating their treatment. Conflicts exist in pediatric aneurysm literature as to whether endovascular therapy is equivalent to surgical therapy in assuring durable aneurysm obliteration in this population. The national Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kid's Inpatient Dataset was queried using the HCUPnet system. Overall trends in length of stay (LOS), associated charges, and in-hospital deaths were analyzed for both subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and nonruptured aneurysms from 2000 to 2009. Trends in the type of procedure, associated LOS, and charges were analyzed for SAH from 2003 to 2009. A p value aneurysms. Costs of surgery showed a slight increase, while endovascular procedures also rose 50 % from 2006 to 2009. Interestingly, mean length of stay increased for endovascular procedures from 16.5 to 17.2 days and decreased for surgical procedures from 20.4 to 14.7 days (p pediatric subarachnoid hemorrhage have not significantly declined since 1997. Second, in-hospital charges for the management of both ruptured and nonruptured aneurysms rose by over 200 % from 2000 to 2009. Surgical procedures saw a 6 % increase in price, while endovascular procedures sharply rose in costs by 50 %. Finally, endovascular therapy has increased in utilization, while the frequency of surgical therapy has not changed significantly since 2003.

  13. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  14. Determining population trends and conservation status of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigcerver, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the conservation status and population trends of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix from 1900 to the present. Data are sometimes contradictory with regard to the status of this species as it has some features that make it difficult to produce reliable population estimates. Recent data clearly suggest, either at a local scale or at a trans–national scale, that the Atlantic common quail populations have remained stable in the last two decades, and that restocking practices with farm–reared quails (hybrids with the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica do not affect our estimates. The complex movement patterns showed by this species require special attention. Analysis of ring recoveries can give important information, especially about the nomadic movement of quails in search of suitable habitats after the destruction of winter cereal crops due to harvesting. Thus, when developing a breeding distribution model for this species, continuously updated information on seasonal habitat and weather must be included for optimal prediction. Including fortnightly data of vegetation indices in distribution models, for example, has shown good results. Obtaining reliable predictions about changes in species distribution and movements during the breeding period could provide useful knowledge about the conservation status and population trends and would help in the design of future management measures.

  15. Declining trend in the incidence of biopsy-verified coeliac disease in the adult population of Finland, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, L J; Saarinen, M M; Kolho, K-L

    2017-09-21

    The frequency of coeliac disease (CD) has been on the rise over the past decades, especially in Western Europe, but current trends are unclear. To research the recent temporal changes in the incidence of adult, biopsy-verified coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) in Finland, a country with a high frequency of coeliac disease. All coeliac disease and DH cases diagnosed at age 20-79 years during 2005-2014 were retrieved from a nationwide database documenting all applicants for monthly compensation to cover the extra cost of maintaining a gluten-free diet. This benefit is granted on the basis of histology, not socioeconomic status. Temporal trends in the annual incidences were estimated using Poisson regression analyses. The total incidence of coeliac disease decreased from 33/100 000 during the years 2005-2006 to 29/100 000 during 2013-2014. The mean annual incidence of coeliac disease was nearly twice as high among women as among men, 42 vs 22 per 100 000, respectively. For middle- and old-aged women, the average rate of decrease in incidence was 4.8% (95% CI 3.9-5.7) per year and for men 3.0% (1.8-4.1) (P for linear trend coeliac disease has increased during the past decades, the incidence of biopsy-verified diagnoses is not increasing, which suggests that exposure to yet unidentified triggering factors for coeliac disease has plateaued among the Finnish adult population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Modeling Growth Trend and Forecasting Techniques for Vehicular Population in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartikeya Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting and estimation of growth in vehicular population is a sine qua non of any major transportation engineering development, requires capturing the past trend and using it to predict the future trend based on qualified assumptions, simulations and models created using explanatory variables. This work attempts to review the in vogue approaches and investigate a more contemporary approach, the Time Series (TS Analysis. Three fundamentally different methods were explored and results from each of these analyses were collated to check for respective levels of accuracy in predicting vehicular population for the same target year. Within the scope of this study and estimation, results obtained from TS Analysis were found to be considerably more accurate than those from Trend Line Analysis and observably better than those from Econometric Analysis. To reinforce these observations and inferences drawn, a second set of analysis was done on more recent input by using AADT data from PeMS, California. Inter alia this was carried out to contrast any statistical improvement observed when doing TS analysis with rich and accurate data. With all the data sets used and locations analyzed for forecasting, the Time Series analysis technique was invariably found to be a potent tool for forecasting.

  17. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  18. Heritabilities and genetic trends for reproductive traits in a population of Romosinuano cattle in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Vergara G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic trends for reproductive traits in a beef cattle population Romosinuano. Material and methods. Age at first calving (AFC, first calving interval (FCI, and second calving interval (SCI were evaluated from a database generated from 1951 to 2011 by Research Center Turipana. Unicaracter animal model was used, which included fixed of contemporary group (year-season, random direct genetic additives effects and residual. Estimates of variance components and genetic parameters were obtained through Restricted Maximum Likelihood procedure, using AIREMLF90 program. Genetic trends were calculated as a linear regression of weighted averages of breeding values over the years, using the REG procedure of Statistical Analysis System. Results. The indices of heritability for additive genetic effects were 0.04 ± 0.05 for AFC, 0.06 ± 0.06 for FCI, and 0.09 ± 0.06 for SCI. Conclusions. Low heritabilities indicating that should improve nutritional and management conditions in the herd, so that they can better express the traits evaluated. The estimated genetic trends were near zero, which shows that the objective of the CI Turipaná regarding this population has complied fully preserving the genetic variability of the breed Romosinuano.

  19. Site-occupancy distribution modeling to correct population-trend estimates derived from opportunistic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, Hans; Schaub, M.; Volet, B.; Hafliger, G.; Zbinden, N.

    2010-01-01

    Species' assessments must frequently be derived from opportunistic observations made by volunteers (i.e., citizen scientists). Interpretation of the resulting data to estimate population trends is plagued with problems, including teasing apart genuine population trends from variations in observation effort. We devised a way to correct for annual variation in effort when estimating trends in occupancy (species distribution) from faunal or floral databases of opportunistic observations. First, for all surveyed sites, detection histories (i.e., strings of detection-nondetection records) are generated. Within-season replicate surveys provide information on the detectability of an occupied site. Detectability directly represents observation effort; hence, estimating detectablity means correcting for observation effort. Second, site-occupancy models are applied directly to the detection-history data set (i.e., without aggregation by site and year) to estimate detectability and species distribution (occupancy, i.e., the true proportion of sites where a species occurs). Site-occupancy models also provide unbiased estimators of components of distributional change (i.e., colonization and extinction rates). We illustrate our method with data from a large citizen-science project in Switzerland in which field ornithologists record opportunistic observations. We analyzed data collected on four species: the widespread Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis. ) and Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus. ) and the scarce Rock Thrush (Monticola saxatilis. ) and Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria. ). Our method requires that all observed species are recorded. Detectability was biodiversity monitoring and modeling of species distributions. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species–energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients.

  1. Future trends in soil cadmium concentration under current cadmium fluxes to European agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L; Smolders, E

    2014-07-01

    The gradual increase of soil cadmium concentrations in European soils during the 20th century has prompted environmental legislation to limit soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation. Mass balances (input-output) reflecting the period 1980-1995 predicted larger Cd inputs via phosphate (P) fertilizers and atmospheric deposition than outputs via crop uptake and leaching. This study updates the Cd mass balance for the agricultural top soils of EU-27+Norway (EU-27+1). Over the past 15 years, the use of P fertilizers in the EU-27+1 has decreased by 40%. The current mean atmospheric deposition of Cd in EU is 0.35 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1), this is strikingly smaller than values used in the previous EU mass balances (~3 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1)). Leaching of Cd was estimated with most recent data of soil solution Cd concentrations in 151 soils, which cover the range of European soil properties. No significant time trends were found in the data of net applications of Cd via manure, compost, sludge and lime, all being small sources of Cd at a large scale. Modelling of the future long-term changes in soil Cd concentrations in agricultural top soils under cereal or potato culture predicts soil Cd concentrations to decrease by 15% over the next 100 years in an average scenario, with decreasing trends in some scenarios being more prevalent than increasing trends in other scenarios. These Cd balances have reverted from the general positive balances estimated 10 or more years ago. Uncertainty analysis suggests that leaching is the most uncertain relative to other fluxes.

  2. Climate change and plankton phenology in freshwater: current trends and future commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Vadadi-Fülöp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid body of empirical, experimental and theoretical evidence accumulated over recent years indicated that freshwater plankton experienced advance in phenology in response to climate change. Despite rapidly growing evidence for phenological changes, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how climate change alters plankton phenology in freshwater. To overcome current limitations, we need to shed some light on trends and constraints in current research. The goal of this study is to identify current trends and gaps based on analysis of selected papers, by the help of which we can facilitate further advance in the field. We searched the literature for plankton phenology and confined our search to studies where climate change has been proposed to alter plankton phenology and rates of changes were quantified. We did not restrict our search for empirical contributions; experimental and theoretical studies were considered as well. In the following we discuss the spatio-temporal setting of selected studies, contributions of different taxonomic groups, emerging methodological constraints, measures of phenological trends; and finally give a list of recommendations on how to improve our understanding in the field. The majority of studies were confined to deep lakes with a skewed geographical distribution toward Central Europe, where scientists have long been engaged in limnology. Despite these findings, recent studies suggest that plankton in running waters may experience change in phenology with similar magnitude. Average rate of advancement in phenology of freshwater plankton exceeded those of the marine plankton and the global average. Increasing study duration was not coupled either with increasing contribution of discontinuous data or with increasing rates of phenological changes. Future studies may benefit from i delivering longterm data across scientific and political boundaries; ii extending study sites to broader geographical areas with

  3. Trends in the population prevalence of people who inject drugs in US metropolitan areas 1992-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tempalski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID have increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We update and present estimates and trends of the prevalence of current PWID and PWID subpopulations in 96 US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs for 1992-2007. Current estimates of PWID and PWID subpopulations will help target services and help to understand long-term health trends among PWID populations. METHODOLOGY: We calculated the number of PWID in the US annually from 1992-2007 and apportioned estimates to MSAs using multiplier methods. We used four types of data indicating drug injection to allocate national annual totals to MSAs, creating four distinct series of component estimates of PWID in each MSA and year. The four component estimates are averaged to create the best estimate of PWID for each MSA and year. We estimated PWID prevalence rates for three subpopulations defined by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. We evaluated trends using multi-level polynomial models. RESULTS: PWID per 10,000 persons aged 15-64 years varied across MSAs from 31 to 345 in 1992 (median 104.4 to 34 to 324 in 2007 (median 91.5. Trend analysis indicates that this rate declined during the early period and then was relatively stable in 2002-2007. Overall prevalence rates for non-Hispanic black PWID increased in 2005 as compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Hispanic prevalence, in contrast, declined across time. Importantly, results show a worrisome trend in young PWID prevalence since HAART was initiated--the mean prevalence was 90 to 100 per 10,000 youth in 1992-1996, but increased to >120 PWID per 10,000 youth in 2006-2007. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, PWID rates remained constant since 2002, but increased for two subpopulations: non-Hispanic black PWID and young PWID. Estimates of PWID are important for planning and evaluating public health programs to reduce harm among PWID and for understanding related trends in social and health outcomes.

  4. Current trends in treatment of obesity in Karachi and possibilities of cost minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mirza Izhar; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum

    2015-03-01

    Our study finds out drug usage trends in over weight and obese patients without any compelling indications in Karachi, looks for deviations of current practices from evidence based antihypertensive therapeutic guidelines and identifies not only cost minimization opportunities but also communication strategies to improve patients' awareness and compliance to achieve therapeutic goal. In present study two sets were used. Randomized stratified independent surveys were conducted in hospital doctors and family physicians (general practitioners), using pretested questionnaires. Sample size was 100. Statistical analysis was conducted on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Opportunities of cost minimization were also analyzed. One the basis of doctors' feedback, preference is given to non-pharmacologic management of obesity. Mass media campaign and media usage were recommended to increase patients awareness and patients' education along with strengthening family support systems was recommended for better compliance of the patients to doctor's advice. Local therapeutic guidelines for weight reduction were not found. Feedbacks showed that global therapeutic guidelines were followed by the doctors practicing in the community and hospitals in Karachi. However, high price branded drugs were used instead of low priced generic therapeutic equivalents. Patient's education is required for better awareness and improving patients' compliance. The doctors found preferring brand leaders instead of low cost options. This trend increases cost of therapy by 0.59 to 4.17 times. Therefore, there are great opportunities for cost minimization by using evidence-based clinically effective and safe medicines.

  5. Current trend in drug delivery considerations for subcutaneous insulin depots to treat diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P V, Jayakrishnapillai; Nair, Shantikumar V; Kamalasanan, Kaladhar

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder due to irregularities in glucose metabolism, as a result of insulin disregulation. Chronic DM (Type 1) is treated by daily insulin injections by subcutaneous route. Daily injections cause serious patient non-compliance and medication non-adherence. Insulin Depots (ID) are parenteral formulations designed to release the insulin over a specified period of time, to control the plasma blood glucose level for intended duration. Physiologically, pancreas produces and secretes insulin in basal and pulsatile mode into the blood. Delivery systems mimicking basal release profiles are known as open-loop systems and current marketed products are open-loop systems. Future trend in open-loop systems is to reduce the number of injections per week by enhancing duration of action, by modifying the depot properties. The next generation technologies are closed-loop systems that mimic the pulsatile mode of delivery by pancreas. In closed-loop systems insulin will be released in response to plasma glucose. This review focuses on future trend in open-loop systems; by understanding (a) the secretion of insulin from pancreas, (b) the insulin regulation normal and in DM, (c) insulin depots and (d) the recent progress in open-loop depot technology particularly with respect to nanosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR DATA REPORTING SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION TO TREND ANALYSIS OF BEAM CURRENT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M.J.; Blokland, W.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed ongoing information about the ion beam quality is crucial to the successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In order to provide the highest possible neutron production time, ion beam quality is monitored to isolate possible problems or performance-related issues throughout the accelerator and accumulator ring. For example, beam current monitor (BCM) data is used to determine the quality of the beam transport through the accelerator. In this study, a reporting system infrastructure was implemented and used to generate a trend analysis report of the BCM data. The BCM data was analyzed to facilitate the identifi cation of monitor calibration issues, beam trends, beam abnormalities, beam deviations and overall beam quality. A comparison between transformed BCM report data and accelerator log entries shows promising results which represent correlations between the data and changes made within the accelerator. The BCM analysis report is one of many reports within a system that assist in providing overall beam quality information to facilitate successful beam operation. In future reports, additional data manipulation functions and analysis can be implemented and applied. Built-in and user-defi ned analytic functions are available throughout the reporting system and can be reused with new data.

  7. Population trends and migration strategy of the Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola at Ottenby, SE Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola; Stervander, Martin; Helseth, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Long-term ringing data are useful for understanding population trends and migration strategies adopted by migratory bird species during migration. To investigate the patterns in demography, phenology of migration and stopover behaviour in Wood Sandpipers Tringa glareola trapped on autumn migration...... at Ottenby, southeast Sweden, in 1947-2011, we analysed 65 years of autumn ringing data to describe age-specific trends in annual trappings, morphometrics and phenology, as well as fuel deposition rates and stopover duration from recapture data. We also analysed the migratory direction of the species from...... deposition rates of 2.5 and 0.7 g day-1 respectively. Juvenile birds probably vary their strategy according to time of season and prevailing conditions. Both adults and juveniles followed the Mediterranean Flyway, but juveniles displayed significantly more southerly and significantly more scattered migratory...

  8. Population distribution and redistribution of the baby-boom cohort in the United States: recent trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Peter A; Kim, Daejong

    2005-10-25

    Over 70 million people were born into the baby-boom cohort between 1946 and 1964. Over 65 million of these individuals are presently alive, and thus the cohort continues to exert a powerful influence on regional population change in the United States. In this article, we examine the recent and current geographic distribution of the baby-boom cohort. In 1990, the members of the cohort comprised a particularly high proportion of the population in a small number of dynamic metropolitan areas. We also highlight the recent migration trends exhibited by this cohort; these trends are potentially important early indicators of the retirement-related migration patterns that the cohort might follow. The spatial redistribution of the cohort has many implications, including potentially significant consequences for intergenerational relationships and caregiving. Also highlighted in the article are the temporal and geographical implications for intergenerational caregiving. There has been much attention given to the "sandwich" generation, with its members having dual caregiving responsibilities to both parents and children. A more appropriate designation may be the "stretched" generation, because caregiving seems to extend over a long period. In particular, many members of the baby-boom cohort are beginning to care for their aging parents just as they finish child rearing.

  9. Comprehensive management of pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury: Current concepts and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Erwin A.; Pires, Marilyn; Ngann, Yvette; Sterling, Michelle; Rubayi, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury represent a challenging problem for patients, their caregivers, and their physicians. They often lead to recurrent hospitalizations, multiple surgeries, and potentially devastating complications. They present a significant cost to the healthcare system, they require a multidisciplinary team approach to manage well, and outcomes directly depend on patients' education, prevention, and compliance with conservative and surgical protocols. With so many factors involved in the successful treatment of pressure ulcers, an update on their comprehensive management in spinal cord injury is warranted. Current concepts of local wound care, surgical options, as well as future trends from the latest wound healing research are reviewed to aid medical professionals in treating patients with this difficult problem. PMID:24090179

  10. End-of-Life Care and Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita K Deodhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although 80% of the deaths worldwide occur in middle- and low-income countries such as India, there is less awareness of end-of-life care (EOLC for people with chronic, serious, progressive, or advanced life-limiting illnesses, including dementia. EOLC involves good communication, clinical decision-making, liaison with medical teams and families, comprehensive assessment of and specialized interventions for physical, psychological, spiritual, and social needs of patients and their caregivers. The psychiatrist can play a significant role in each of the above domains in EOLC. The current trends in India are examined, including ambiguities between EOLC and euthanasia. Future directions include formulating a national EOLC policy, providing appropriate services and training. The psychiatrist should get involved in this process, with major responsibilities in providing good quality EOLC for patients with both life-limiting physical illnesses and severe mental disorders, supporting their caregivers, and ensuring dignity in death.

  11. End-of-Life Care and Psychiatry: Current Trends and Future Directions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, Jayita K

    2016-01-01

    Although 80% of the deaths worldwide occur in middle- and low-income countries such as India, there is less awareness of end-of-life care (EOLC) for people with chronic, serious, progressive, or advanced life-limiting illnesses, including dementia. EOLC involves good communication, clinical decision-making, liaison with medical teams and families, comprehensive assessment of and specialized interventions for physical, psychological, spiritual, and social needs of patients and their caregivers. The psychiatrist can play a significant role in each of the above domains in EOLC. The current trends in India are examined, including ambiguities between EOLC and euthanasia. Future directions include formulating a national EOLC policy, providing appropriate services and training. The psychiatrist should get involved in this process, with major responsibilities in providing good quality EOLC for patients with both life-limiting physical illnesses and severe mental disorders, supporting their caregivers, and ensuring dignity in death.

  12. Metacognition fundaments, applications, and trends a profile of the current state-of-the-art

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the Metacognition arena. It highlights works that show relevant analysis, reviews, theoretical, and methodological proposals, as well as studies, approaches, applications, and tools that shape current state, define trends and inspire future research. As a result of the revision process fourteen manuscripts were accepted and organized into five parts as follows: ·     Conceptual: contains conceptual works oriented to: (1) review models of strategy instruction and tailor a hybrid strategy; (2) unveil second-order judgments and define a method to assess metacognitive judgments; (3) introduces a conceptual model to describe the metacognitive activity as an autopoietic system. ·     Framework: offers three works concerned with: (4) stimulate metacognitive skills and self-regulatory functions; (5) evaluate metacognitive skills and self-regulated learning at problem solving; (6) deal with executive management metacognition and strategic knowledge metacognition. ·     Studies: r...

  13. A survey of current trends in diffusion MRI for structural brain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aurobrata; Deriche, Rachid

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we review the state of the art in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and we present current trends in modelling the brain's tissue microstructure and the human connectome. dMRI is today the only tool that can probe the brain's axonal architecture in vivo and non-invasively, and has grown in leaps and bounds in the last two decades since its conception. A plethora of models with increasing complexity and better accuracy have been proposed to characterise the integrity of the cerebral tissue, to understand its microstructure and to infer its connectivity. Here, we discuss a wide range of the most popular, important and well-established local microstructure models and biomarkers that have been proposed from these models. Finally, we briefly present the state of the art in tractography techniques that allow us to understand the architecture of the brain's connectivity.

  14. Space Robotics: Current Status, Long-term Objectives, and Development Trends. Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Belonozhko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for space robotics concern both the development of used prototypes to extend the capabilities and the creation of new classes of systems, the operating analogues of which are, currently, unavailable. Thus, a uniqueness of the objects of space robotics, extreme operating conditions, difficulty in full-scale ground work and tests define a variety of design solutions and a wide scope of issues for further theoretical and experimental studies. The paper highlights the tasks successfully solved up to date, involving the space robotics equipment that was used in orbital environment, those of currently solved, involving the robotics equipment that is in use, and the long-term objectives, following from the logic of the space technology development to define the ways of its further development and require a development and creation of new equipment of space robotics. Thus, the development trends of space robotics are largely defined by its history of development, on the one hand, and by a growing demand for the robotic service as applied to the promising objects of space technology, on the other one. The paper considers the trends of space robotics development, which are a consequence of the natural logic of its development and are determined by a demand for advanced objects of space technology in robotic servicing. Highlights the most important elements of a design concept and the creating and operating features of the multipurpose extendable space systems, including those, which have no analogues and prototypes, are rolled into one demand for automation, and associated with their creation, operation, and problems of utilization. The concept of assembly and service autonomous robotic space modules has been under consideration. Within the orbital assembly procedure, the typical dynamic modes, relevant in terms of practical implementation of controlled movement are highlighted.

  15. Review: Current trends in coral transplantation – an approach to preserve biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELNABY ORABI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ammar MSA,El-Gammal F, Nassar M, Belal A, Farag W, El-Mesiry G, El-Haddad K, Orabi A, Abdelreheem A, Shaaban A. 2013. Review: Current trends in coral transplantation – an approach to preserve biodiversity. Biodiversitas 14: 43-53. The increasing rates of coral mortality associated with the rise in stress factors and the lack of adequate recovery worldwide have urged recent calls for actions by the scientific, conservation, and reef management communities. This work reviews the current trends in coral transplantation. Transplantation of coral colonies or fragments, whether from aqua-, mariculture or harvesting from a healthy colony, has been the most frequently recommended action for increasing coral abundance on damaged or degraded reefs and for conserving listed or “at-risk” species. Phytoplanktons are important for providing transplanted corals with complex organic compounds through photosynthesis. Artificial surfaces like concrete blocks, wrecks or other purpose-designed structures can be introduced for larval settlement. New surfaces can also be created through electrolysis. Molecular biological tools can be used to select sites for rehabilitation by asexual recruits. Surface chemistry and possible inputs of toxic leachate from artificial substrates are considered as important factors affecting natural recruitment. Transplants should be carefully maintained , revisited and reattached at least weekly in the first month and at least fortnightly in the next three months. Studies on survivorship and the reproductive ability of transplanted coral fragments are important for coral reef restoration. A coral nursery may be considered as a pool for local species that supplies reef-managers with unlimited coral colonies for sustainable management. Transplanting corals for making artificial reefs can be useful for increasing biodiversity, providing tourist diving, fishing and surfing; creating new artisanal and commercial fishing opportunities

  16. Trends in cancer in the elderly population in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare; Engholm, Gerda

    2016-01-01

    Background Age is the strongest risk factor for developing cancer. The aim of the present analysis is to give an overview of the trends in cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence, and relative survival in Denmark from 1980 to 2012 focusing on age, comparing persons aged 70 years or more with thos...... among those aged 90 years or more. Conclusion An increase in elderly cancer patients is expected over the coming 20 years due to an increasing elderly population. Healthcare providers need to focus on developing specific strategies for treatment of elderly cancer patients in the future....

  17. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Brian K.; Irons, David B.; Kendall, Steven J. [US Fish and Wildlife Service, Migratory Bird Management, Anchorage, AK (United States); McDonald, Lyman L. [West Inc., Cheyenne, WY (United States)

    2001-04-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilise shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  18. Census techniques and methods for monitoring population trends and reproductive success of marine birds: A preliminary annotated bibliography draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This draft biography draws together 79 published and unpublished sources which are helpful in designing and conducting monitoring population trends and reproductive...

  19. Current Trends in the Management of Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesoye, Taiwo; Neuman, Heather B; Wilke, Lee G; Schumacher, Jessica R; Steiman, Jennifer; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend wide excision without axillary staging to treat phyllodes tumors of the breast. Without prospective trials to guide management, NCCN also recommends consideration of radiation therapy (XRT). We describe current patterns of care for the multidisciplinary management of phyllodes tumors. Methods Using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data, we identified women diagnosed with phyllodes tumors between 2000 and 2012 who underwent surgical therapy. Trends in breast conserving surgery (BCS), nodal sampling and XRT were assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with treatment. Results Of 1,238 patients, 56.9% underwent BCS and 23.6% underwent nodal sampling (10.5% after BCS vs 40.9% after mastectomy). After surgery, 15.4% received adjuvant XRT (BCS, 12.9% and mastectomy, 18.8%). XRT utilization increased significantly over the study period (BCS, p=tumors. Nodal sampling was also associated with older age, larger tumor size and receipt of mastectomy. Receipt of XRT was associated with later year of diagnosis, larger tumors and nodal assessment. Conclusion Over time, an increasing number of women received XRT after surgical management of phyllodes tumor, and one in four women underwent nodal sampling. While some of this practice can be attributed to concern about more advanced disease in the absence of strong data, there may be an educational gap regarding current guidelines and appropriate management. PMID:27334214

  20. The distribution of pharmaceuticals in Europe--current and future trends in wholesaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, F

    1994-03-01

    As of January 1, 1993 a huge market, encompassing more than 325 million people, has been established with the unification of the 12 member states in the European Community. During the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical wholesaling sector has therefore been involved in an intense restructuring process. But, there is a considerable scientific gap in the knowledge of pharmaceutical wholesaling. In view of the uncertain situation and the scarcity of structured information, the purpose of this article is to examine current and future trends in the European pharmaceutical wholesaling sector. We reviewed the literature and identified three major areas of interest; general threats to traditional full-line wholesaling, wholesalers' response to these threats, and the new Glaxo distribution scheme. The current and expected importance of these areas were assessed with the help of a survey, encompassing 20 experts in this field. Based on the review and the survey, we conclude that there are many serious threats to traditional wholesaling, the major ones being governmental pressures to lower the already relatively low gross margins, manufacturers contemplating taking over the drug distribution process themselves and increasing international competition. The major responses to these threats are to become a truly international player (via mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures), or being able to provide the customers with detailed management information through computerised networks. In order to survive the next 5-10 years, companies have to be very alert to the changing competitive situation.

  1. Current trends in endotoxin detection and analysis of endotoxin-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullah, Elvina Clarie; Ongkudon, Clarence M

    2017-03-01

    Endotoxin is a type of pyrogen that can be found in Gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin can form a stable interaction with other biomolecules thus making its removal difficult especially during the production of biopharmaceutical drugs. The prevention of endotoxins from contaminating biopharmaceutical products is paramount as endotoxin contamination, even in small quantities, can result in fever, inflammation, sepsis, tissue damage and even lead to death. Highly sensitive and accurate detection of endotoxins are keys in the development of biopharmaceutical products derived from Gram-negative bacteria. It will facilitate the study of the intermolecular interaction of an endotoxin with other biomolecules, hence the selection of appropriate endotoxin removal strategies. Currently, most researchers rely on the conventional LAL-based endotoxin detection method. However, new methods have been and are being developed to overcome the problems associated with the LAL-based method. This review paper highlights the current research trends in endotoxin detection from conventional methods to newly developed biosensors. Additionally, it also provides an overview of the use of electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and docking programs in the endotoxin-protein analysis.

  2. Radiology Research in Quality and Safety: Current Trends and Future Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmont, Matthew E; Itri, Jason N; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Mankowski Gettle, Lori; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Scali, Elena P; Winokur, Ronald S; Probyn, Linda; Kung, Justin W; Bakow, Eric; Kadom, Nadja

    2017-03-01

    Promoting quality and safety research is now essential for radiology as reimbursement is increasingly tied to measures of quality, patient safety, efficiency, and appropriateness of imaging. This article provides an overview of key features necessary to promote successful quality improvement efforts in radiology. Emphasis is given to current trends and future opportunities for directing research. Establishing and maintaining a culture of safety is paramount to organizations wishing to improve patient care. The correct culture must be in place to support quality initiatives and create accountability for patient care. Focused educational curricula are necessary to teach quality and safety-related skills and behaviors to trainees, staff members, and physicians. The increasingly complex healthcare landscape requires that organizations build effective data infrastructures to support quality and safety research. Incident reporting systems designed specifically for medical imaging will benefit quality improvement initiatives by identifying and learning from system errors, enhancing knowledge about safety, and creating safer systems through the implementation of standardized practices and standards. Finally, validated performance measures must be developed to accurately reflect the value of the care we provide for our patients and referring providers. Common metrics used in radiology are reviewed with focus on current and future opportunities for investigation. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainya C. Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade the United States has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade.Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history.Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors.Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors

  4. Future Performance Trend Indicators: A Current Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report V: The Value Attribution Process. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Jean B.; And Others

    The development of future performance trend indicators is based on the current value approach to human resource accounting. The value attribution portion of the current value approach is used to estimate the dollar value of observed changes in the state of the human organization. The procedure for value attribution includes: prediction of changes…

  5. Regeneration of tissues of the oral complex: current clinical trends and research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thomas T; Mui, Brennan; Mehrabzadeh, Mahsa; Chea, Yannie; Chaudhry, Zoya; Chaudhry, Kamran; Tran, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative therapy in oral health care is limited by both the body's natural capacity for regeneration and the materials and methods currently available. Research on various aspects of regenerative therapy, such as tissue engineering and stem cell and gene therapy, has produced promising results. Compelling advances, ranging from the discovery and characterization of stem cell populations in oral tissue to the engineering and transplantation of whole tooth structures, could result in exciting new treatment methods for clinicians in the near future. In this review, we discuss the limitations of natural healing and regeneration of various tissues of the oral complex, including teeth, periodontium and salivary glands, and summarize current treatment methods for tissue damage as well as research advances in oral tissue regeneration.

  6. Effect of Energy Under-Reporting on Secular Trends of Dietary Patterns in a Mediterranean Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funtikova, Anna N.; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra A.; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background Diet is an important factor in the prevention of chronic diseases. Analysis of secular trends of dietary patterns can be biased by energy under-reporting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of energy under-reporting on dietary patterns and secular trends in dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis. Design and methods Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in Spain, in 2000 and 2005, with 3058 and 6352 participants, respectively, aged 25 to 74 years. Validated questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Cluster analysis was run separately for all participants, plausible energy reporters (PER), and energy under-reporters (EUR) to define dietary patterns. Results Three clusters, “healthy”, “mixed” and “western”, were identified for both surveys. The “mixed” cluster was the predominant cluster in both surveys. Excluding EUR reduced the proportion of the “mixed” cluster up to 6.40% in the 2000 survey; this caused secular trend increase in the prevalence of the “mixed” pattern. Cross-classification analysis of all participants and PER’ data showed substantial agreement in cluster assignments: 68.7% in 2000 and 84.4% in 2005. Excluding EUR did not cause meaningful (≥15%) changes in the “healthy” pattern. It provoked changes in consumption of some food groups in the “mixed” and “western” patterns: mainly decreases of unhealthy foods within the 2000 and increases of unhealthy foods within the 2005 surveys. Secular trend effects of EUR were similar to those within the 2005 survey. Excluding EUR reversed the direction of secular trends in consumption of several food groups in PER in the “mixed” and “western” patterns. Conclusions EUR affected distribution of participants between dietary patterns within and between surveys, secular trends in food group consumption and amount of food consumed in all, but not in the “healthy” pattern. Our findings

  7. Breeding Status and Population Trends of Golden Eagles in Northeastern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A. Tremblay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, it is hypothesized that the Golden Eagle's (Aquila chrysaetos eastern population declined during the period 1946-1973 because of organochlorine pesticides and other anthropogenic causes of mortality. Since 1970, upward trends for the species have been observed at most eastern hawkwatches. To determine whether such positive trends can be observed on breeding grounds, Golden Eagle counts were performed to monitor nesting territory occupancy between 1994 and 2007 in the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite River valleys, northeastern Québec. Aerial surveys were conducted during seven of the 14 years. During this period, the number of known nesting territories in the study area increased from 10 to 20, while the number of pairs rose from six to 14. The increase is attributed mostly to investigators' improved experience in finding nests and to their greater familiarity with the study area, and possibly to the growth of the regional population. Occupancy of nesting territories by pairs was very stable over the years. Annual mean % of laying pairs (or laying rate was 48.0 (SD = 19.9, and productivity (mean number of fledglings per pair was 0.49 (SD = 0.35.

  8. The farming population in Ireland: mortality trends during the 'Celtic Tiger' years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Breda

    2012-03-21

    Background Although the Irish farming population is a significant occupational group, analysis of their mortality patterns is limited. This study compared mortality trends with other occupational groups and assessed the impact of socio-economic factors. Methods Population and mortality data (2000-06) were obtained to calculate standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) by cause of death and matched with socio-economic data. The extent to which variation in mortality was explained by variations in the socio-economic data was determined using multiple regression. Results Farmers and agricultural workers experienced the highest levels of mortality for all causes of death (2000-06). Farmers are 5.14 times more likely and agricultural workers are 7.35 times more likely to die from any cause of death than the lowest risk group. Circulatory disease is a significant cause of mortality among farmers [SMR = 215.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 201.83-229.98]. Other significant causes include cancers (SMR = 156.60, CI = 146.73-166.48) and injuries and poisonings (SMR = 149.69, CI = 135.44-163.93). Agricultural workers have similar mortality trends: circulatory disease (SMR = 226.27; CI = 192.45-260.08), cancers (SMR = 221.44; CI = 193.88-249.00), and injuries and poisonings (SMR = 353.90; CI = 302.48-405.32). From 2000 to 2006, SMRs increased incrementally. Multiple regression identified farm size and income poverty risk as predictors of mortality. Conclusion Irish farmers and agricultural workers have experienced a reversal of mortality trends compared to the 1980s and 1990s. Policies should target them as a high-risk group.

  9. Trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China: implications for surveillance and population health policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse trends in notifiable infectious diseases in China, in their historical context. Both English and Chinese literature was searched and diseases were categorised according to the type of disease or transmission route. Temporal trends of morbidity and mortality rates were calculated for eight major infectious diseases types. Strong government commitment to public health responses and improvements in quality of life has led to the eradication or containment of a wide range of infectious diseases in China. The overall infectious diseases burden experienced a dramatic drop during 1975-1995, but since then, it reverted and maintained a gradual upward trend to date. Most notifiable diseases are contained at a low endemic level; however, local small-scale outbreaks remain common. Tuberculosis, as a bacterial infection, has re-emerged since the 1990s and has become prevalent in the country. Sexually transmitted infections are in a rapid, exponential growth phase, spreading from core groups to the general population. Together human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, they account for 39% of all death cases due to infectious diseases in China in 2008. Zoonotic infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, rabies and influenza, pose constant threats to Chinese residents and remain the most deadly disease type among the infected individuals. Therefore, second-generation surveillance of behavioural risks or vectors associated with pathogen transmission should be scaled up. It is necessary to implement public health interventions that target HIV and relevant coinfections, address transmission associated with highly mobile populations, and reduce the risk of cross-species transmission of zoonotic pathogens.

  10. Reference population for international comparisons and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery proportions in three countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skjærven Rolv

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International comparison and time trend surveillance of preterm delivery rates is complex. New techniques that could facilitate interpretation of such rates are needed. Methods We studied all live births and stillbirths (≥ 28 weeks gestation registered in the medical birth registers in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from 1995 through 2004. Gestational age was determined by best estimate. A reference population of pregnant women was designed using the following criteria: 1 maternal age 20–35, 2 primiparity, 3 spontaneously conceived pregnancy, 4 singleton pregnancy and 5 mother born in the respective country. National preterm delivery rate, preterm delivery rate in the reference population and rate of spontaneous preterm delivery in the reference population were calculated for each country. Results The total national preterm delivery rate ( Conclusion Reference populations can facilitate overview and thereby explanations for changing preterm delivery rates. The model also permits comparisons over time. This model may in its simplicity prove to be a valuable supplement to assessments of national preterm delivery rates for public health surveillance.

  11. The 6dF Galaxy Survey: Stellar Population Trends Across and Through the Fundamental Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Springob, Christopher M; Proctor, Rob; Colless, Matthew; Jones, D Heath; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Campbell, Lachlan; Lucey, John; Mould, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of stellar population parameters for 7132 galaxies in the 6dFGS Fundamental Plane (FP) sample. We bin the galaxies along the axes, $v_1$, $v_2$, and $v_3$, of the tri-variate Gaussian to which we have fit the galaxy distribution in effective radius, surface brightness, and central velocity dispersion (FP space), and compute median values of stellar age, [Fe/H], [Z/H], and [$\\alpha$/Fe]. We determine the directions of the vectors in FP space along which each of the binned stellar population parameters vary most strongly. In contrast to previous work, we find stellar population trends not just with velocity dispersion and FP residual, but with radius and surface brightness as well. The most remarkable finding is that the stellar population parameters vary through the plane ($v_1$ direction) and across the plane ($v_3$ direction), but show no variation at all along the plane ($v_2$ direction). The $v_2$ direction in FP space roughly corresponds to `luminosity density'. We inte...

  12. Trends in suicidal behaviour and use of mental health services in Canadian military and civilian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O.; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Erickson, Julie; Stein, Murray B.; Fikretoglu, Deniz; Zamorski, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the context of the Canadian mission in Afghanistan, substantial media attention has been placed on mental health and lack of access to treatment among Canadian Forces personnel. We compared trends in the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and the use of mental health services between Canadian military personnel and the general population from 2002 to 2012/13. Methods: We obtained data for respondents aged 18–60 years who participated in 4 nationally representative surveys by Statistics Canada designed to permit comparisons between populations and trends over time. Surveys of the general population were conducted in 2002 (n = 25 643) and 2012 (n = 15 981); those of military personnel were conducted in 2002 (n = 5153) and 2013 (n = 6700). We assessed the lifetime and past-year prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, as well as use of mental health services. Results: In 2012/13, but not in 2002, military personnel had significantly higher odds of both lifetime and past-year suicidal ideation than the civilian population (lifetime: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–1.50; past year: adjusted OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09–1.66). The same was true for suicidal plans (lifetime: adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.35–1.99; past year: adjusted OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.18–2.33). Among respondents who reported past-year suicidal ideation, those in the military had a significantly higher past-year utilization rate of mental health services than those in the civilian population in both 2002 (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.31–3.13) and 2012/13 (adjusted OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.86–5.28). Interpretation: Canadian Forces personnel had a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans in 2012/13 and a higher use of mental health services in 2002 and 2012/13 than the civilian population. PMID:27221270

  13. Long Term Population, City Size and Climate Trends in the Fertile Crescent: A First Approximation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lawrence

    Full Text Available Over the last 8000 years the Fertile Crescent of the Near East has seen the emergence of urban agglomerations, small scale polities and large territorial empires, all of which had profound effects on settlement patterns. Computational approaches, including the use of remote sensing data, allow us to analyse these changes at unprecedented geographical and temporal scales. Here we employ these techniques to examine and compare long term trends in urbanisation, population and climate records. Maximum city size is used as a proxy for the intensity of urbanisation, whilst population trends are modelled from settlement densities in nine archaeological surveys conducted over the last 30 years across the region. These two measures are then compared with atmospheric moisture levels derived from multiple proxy analyses from two locations close to the study area, Soreq Cave in Israel and Lake Van in south-eastern Turkey, as well as wider literature. The earliest urban sites emerged during a period of relatively high atmospheric moisture levels and conform to a series of size thresholds. However, after the Early Bronze Age maximum urban size and population levels increase rapidly whilst atmospheric moisture declines. We argue that although the initial phase of urbanization may have been linked to climate conditions, we can see a definitive decoupling of climate and settlement patterns after 2000 BC. We relate this phenomenon to changes in socio-economic organisation and integration in large territorial empires. The complex relationships sustaining urban growth during this later period resulted in an increase in system fragility and ultimately impacted on the sustainability of cities in the long term.

  14. Therapeutic antibodies: current state and future trends--is a paradigm change coming soon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Marks, James D

    2009-01-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics currently enjoy unprecedented success, growth in research and revenues, and recognition of their potential. It appears that the promise of the "magic bullet" has largely been realized. There are currently 22 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use and hundreds are in clinical trials for treatment of various diseases including cancers, immune disorders, and infections. The revenues from the top five therapeutic antibodies (Rituxan, Remicade, Herceptin, Humira, and Avastin) nearly doubled from $6.4 billion in 2004 to $11.7 billion in 2006. During the last several years major pharmaceutical companies raced to acquire antibody companies, with a recent example of MedImmune being purchased for $15.6 billion by AstraZeneca. These therapeutic and business successes reflect the major advances in antibody engineering which have resulted in the generation of safe, specific, high-affinity, and non-immunogenic antibodies during the last three decades. Currently, second and third generations of antibodies are under development, mostly to improve already existing antibody specificities. However, although the refinement of already known methodologies is certainly of great importance for potential clinical use, there are no conceptually new developments in the last decade comparable, for example, to the development of antibody libraries, phage display, domain antibodies (dAbs), and antibody humanization to name a few. A fundamental question is then whether there will be another change in the paradigm of research as happened 1-2 decades ago or the current trend of gradual improvement of already developed methodologies and therapeutic antibodies will continue. Although any prediction could prove incorrect, it appears that conceptually new methodologies are needed to overcome the fundamental problems of drug (antibody) resistance due to genetic or/and epigenetic alterations in cancer and

  15. Current trends in management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in the biologic therapy era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudio M Mastroianni; Miriam Lichtner; Rita Citton; Cosmo Del Borgo; Angela Rago; Helene Martini; Giuseppe Cimino; Vincenzo Vullo

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation represents an emerging cause of liver disease in patients undergoing treatment with biologic agents. In particular, the risk of HBV reactivation is heightened by the use monoclonal antibodies, such as rituximab (anti-CD20) and alemtuzumab (anti-CD52) that cause profound and long-lasting immunosuppression. Emerging data indicate that HBV reactivation could also develop following the use of other biologic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. When HBV reactivation is diagnosed, it is mandatory to suspend biologic treatment and start antiviral agents immediately. However, pre-emptive antiviral therapy prior to monoclonal antibody administration is crucial in preventing HBV reactivation and its clinical consequences. Several lines of evidence have shown that risk of HBV reactivation is greatly reduced by the identification of high-risk patients and the use of prophylactic antiviral therapy. In this article, we discuss current trends in the management of HBV reactivation in immunosuppressed patients receiving biologic therapy, such as rituximab, alemtuzumab and TNF-α antagonists.

  16. Constructed wetlands, 1991-2011: a review of research development, current trends, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wei; Ji, Guodong

    2012-12-15

    This study explores a bibliometric approach to quantitatively evaluate global scientific constructed wetlands research, and statistically assess current trends, and future directions using the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) database from 1991 to 2011. Articles referencing constructed wetlands were analyzed by accessing the following: publication language, output characteristics, publication performance by country and institution, author keywords, title words, and KeyWords Plus. Synthetically analyzing three keyword types, we concluded that the dominant constructed wetlands research hotspots from 1991 to 2011 included water, nutrients, plants, and flow. These four hotspots remained the most dominant research areas throughout our study period, and are predicted to remain the top research emphases in the near future. "Soil" also exhibited a notable increase since 2005, and is likely to become another notable area of research interest in the future. "Phytoremediation" and "horizontal" were not identified in 1991-1995, but exhibited marked increases from 136th (0.5%) and 169th (0.7%) in 1996-2000, to 9th (3.8%) and 11th (4.3%) in 2006-2011, respectively. Therefore, given the heightened attention during the last 15 years, these topics are likely to become a primary research focus in upcoming years.

  17. ANALYSIS OF CURRENT STATE AND FUTURE TRENDS OF AUTO PARTS MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA MIHAI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the economy of any country, the auto parts manufacturing sector holds an important percentage in the national automotive industry. The dynamics of sales within it can vary significantly on short term, depending on the automotive market trend. This is also the case of the current situation in Romania, where the effect of the regressive automotive sales evolution will propagate, most probably, with a significant delay for the companies involved in production and trade of auto parts (for both first-assembly manufacture and car maintenance and repair. The statistical data indicate that even though the total volume of vehicles delivered decreased with 7.4% in 2011 as compared to 2010, the total turnover of the companies in the automotive industry increased with 7.8%. The apparent paradox is explained in the present article through the particularities of the demand for spare parts intended for the rolling stock in operation and through the effective organization of the distribution system.

  18. Lifelong education for older adults in Malta: Current trends and future visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, Marvin

    2012-04-01

    With European demographic developments causing a decline of the available workforce in the foreseeable future and the unsustainability of dominant pay-as-you-go pension systems (where contributions from the current workforce sustain pensioners), governments need to come up with strategies to deal with this upcoming challenge and to adjust their policies. Based on a study carried out between September 2009 and May 2010, this article evaluates the policies guiding late-life education in Malta, as well as the local plethora of learning opportunities for older adult education, and participation rates. The Maltese government is committed to supporting the inclusion of older persons (aged 60+) in lifelong education policies and programmes, to the extent that local studies have uncovered a recent rise in the overall participation of older adults in formal, non-formal and informal areas of learning. While the present and future prospects for late-life education in Malta seem promising, a critical scrutiny of present ideologies and trends finds the field to be no more than seductive rhetoric. Though the coordination of late-life education in Malta does result in various social benefits to older learners and Maltese society in general, it also occurs within five intersecting lines of inequality - namely an economic rationale, elitism, gender bias, the urban-rural divide and third ageism. This article ends by proposing policy recommendations for the future of late-life education.

  19. Current and future trends in educational computing: Implications for training language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Botha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper an overview is given of the current state of educational technology as well as some future trends in this rapidly developing field. The focus is on developments with regard to hardware and software. It is pointed out that a clear distinction between hardware and software is not always possible. Specific reference is made to a Hypertext programme and the promises it holds for the future. In the second part of the paper specific guidelines for training teachers in computerassisted language instruction (CALl are given. This is done against the background given in the first part of the paper. Guidelines are proposed for the training of language teachers. In die eerste gedeelte van hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig gegee van die huidige stand van opvoedkundige tegnologie en ook sommige toekomsneigings op hierdie snelontwikkelende gebied. Die fokus vat op ontwikkelings ten opsigte van apparatuur en pro grammatuur. Daar word aangedui dat 'n duidelike onderskeid tussen apparatuur en programmatuur nie altyd moontlik is nie. Daar word spesifiek verwys na 'n hiperteksprogram en die moontlikhede wat dit vir die toekoms inhou. In die tweede gedeelte van die artikel word spesifieke riglyne vir die opleiding van rekenaargesteunde taalonderrigonderwysers (RGTO gegee. Dit word gedoen teen die agtergrond wat in die eerste gedeelte van die artikel gegee is. Riglyne vir die opleiding van taalonderwysers word voorgestel.

  20. Water quality, agriculture and food safety in China:Current situation, trends, interdependencies, and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-nan; GUO Qiu-ping; SHEN Xiao-xue; YU Sheng-wen; QIU Guo-yu

    2015-01-01

    Water quality in China is becoming a severe chalenge for agriculture and food safety, and it might also impact health of populationvia agriculture and food. Thus, it is causing widespread concern. Based on extensive literatures review and data mining, current situation of water polution in China and its effects on food safety were analyzed.The 2nd National Water Resource Survey in China show that the surface water al over the country was under slight polution and about 60% of groundwater is poluted. Drinking water quality is basicaly guaranteed in urban area but it is worrisome in rural areas. In addition, China is the largest consumer of fertilizer and pesticide in the world and the amounts of application stil show increasing trends. Fertilizers and pesticides are the most important sources of polution, which affect human health as persistent organic polutants and environmental endocrine disruptors. Eutrophication of surface water and nitrate polution of groundwater are serious threats to drinking water safety. Sewage irrigation is becoming a polution source to China’s water and land because of lacking of effective regulations. Although, with the advance in technology and management level, control of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions and reducing water polution is stil a major chalenge for China.

  1. Current trends in treatment outcomes of orbital cellulitis in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odarosa M Uhumwangho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orbital cellulitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the soft tissues of the orbit located behind the orbital septum. Aim: To determine the current trends in the outcomes following the management of orbital cellulitis in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of patients with orbital cellulitis from January 2008 to December 2014 was conducted. The age, sex, duration of symptoms, predisposing factors, clinical findings, laboratory/radiological investigations, treatment provided, complications, and follow-up were recorded. Results were analyzed with SPSS Version 21 program. Results: Forty-two patients were seen made of 17 (40.5% males and 25 (59.5% females with a mean age of 18.2 ± 18.7 years of which children 6/18 at presentation, 38 (82.6% and at discharge, 39 (84.8%. The mean duration of presenting complaints was 15.5 ± 31.6 days. Patients who presented early were less likely to develop complications, P = 0.003. The most common complication was exposure keratopathy in 8 (44.4% eyes. The only surgical intervention performed was incision and drainage of abscess in 3 (7.1% eyes. No patient came for follow-up. Conclusion: Prompt institution of effective antibiotics and management of complications that may arise improves prognosis of orbital cellulitis.

  2. Evaluation of current trends and recent development in insulin therapy for management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad Sarfraz; Shah, Kifayat Ullah; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Rehman, Asim Ur; Rashid, Haroon Ur; Mahmood, Sajid; Khan, Shahzeb; Farrukh, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-07-08

    Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem in developing countries. There are various insulin therapies to manage diabetes mellitus. This systematic review evaluates various insulin therapies for management of diabetes mellitus worldwide. This review also focuses on recent developments being explored for better management of diabetes mellitus. We reviewed a number of published articles from 2002 to 2016 to find out the appropriate management of diabetes mellitus. The paramount parameters of the selected studies include the insulin type & its dose, type of diabetes, duration and comparison of different insulin protocols. In addition, various newly developed approaches for insulin delivery with potential output have also been evaluated. A great variability was observed in managing diabetes mellitus through insulin therapy and the important controlling factors found for this therapy include; dose titration, duration of insulin use, type of insulin used and combination therapy of different insulin. A range of research articles on current trends and recent advances in insulin has been summarized, which led us to the conclusion that multiple daily insulin injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump) is the best method to manage diabetes mellitus. In future perspectives, development of the oral and inhalant insulin would be a tremendous breakthrough in Insulin therapy. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MO-A-BRD-00: Current Trends in Y90-Microsphere Therapy: Delivery and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Yttrium-90 (Y90) microsphere therapy, a form of radiation therapy, is an increasingly popular option for care of patients with liver metastases or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. The therapy directly delivers Y90 microspheres via the hepatic artery to disease sites. Following delivery, a vast majority of microspheres preferentially lodge in the capillary vessels due to their embolic size and targeted trans-arterial delivery – depositing up to 90% of its energy in the first 5 mm of tissue. There have been a number of advances in tomographic imaging within both interventional radiology and nuclear medicine that has advanced therapy planning techniques. Quantitative imaging of Y90 microsphere distribution post-therapy has also seen innovations that have led to improvements in tumor dosimetry and characterization of tumor response. A review of current trends and recent innovation in Y90 microsphere therapies will be presented. Learning Objectives: To present the imaging requirements for Y90 microsphere therapy planning To explain the standard dosimetry models used in Y90 microsphere therapy planning To report on advances in imaging for therapy planning and posttherapy assessment of tumor dosimetry and response.

  4. Current Trends and Research Challenges in Spectrum-Sensing for Cognitive Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopali Garg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing demand of wireless communication systems has led to search of suitable spectrum bands for transmission of data. The research in the past has revealed that radio spectrum is under-utilized in most of the scenarios. This prompted the scientist to seek a solution to utilize the spectrum efficiently. Cognitive Radios provided an answer to the problem by sensing the idle (licensed bands and allowing (secondary users to transmit in these idle spaces. Spectrum sensing forms the main block of cognition cycle. This paper reviews the current trends in research in the domain of spectrum sensing. The author describes the type of channel being modelled, diversity combining schemes used, optimal algorithms applied at fusion centre, spectrum sensing techniques employed. Further, the research challenges are discussed. It is presented that various attributes like sensing time, throughput, rate reliability, optimum cooperative users, sensing frequency etc. needs to be addressed. A trade-off needs to be established to optimize two opposing parameters like sensing and throughput.

  5. Current Trends of High capacity Optical Interconnection Data Link in High Performance Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical technologies are ubiquitous in telecommunications networks and systems, providing multiple wavelength channels of transport at 2.5 Gbit/sec to 40 Gbit/sec data rates over single fiber optic cables. Market pressures continue to drive the number of wavelength channels per fiber and the data rate per channel. This trend will continue for many years to come as electronic commerce grows and enterprises demand higher and reliable bandwidth over long distances. Electronic commerce, in turn, is driving the growth curves for single processor and multiprocessor performance in data base transaction and Web based servers. Ironically, the insatiable taste for enterprise network bandwidth, which has driven up the volume and pushed down the price of optical components for telecommunications, is simultaneously stressing computer system bandwidth increasing the need for new interconnection schemes and providing for the first time commercial opportunities for optical components in computer systems. The evolution of integrated circuit technology is causing system designs to move towards communication based architectures. We have presented the current tends of high performance system capacity of optical interconnection data transmission link in high performance optical communication and computing systems over wide range of the affecting parameters.

  6. The current status and trend of clinical pharmacology in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Several international forums for promoting clinical pharmacology in developing countries have been held since 1980, and several clinical pharmacology programmes targeting developing countries were instituted such that the status of clinical pharmacology in developing countries is not where it was 50 years ago. Therefore, a survey and an appraisal of the literature on the current status of clinical pharmacology in developing countries were undertaken with a hope that it would enable development of appropriate strategies for further promotion of clinical pharmacology in these countries. Methods First, nine determinants (or enabling factors) for running a successful clinical pharmacology programme were identified, i.e., disease burden, drug situation, economic growth, clinical pharmacology activities, recognition, human capital, government support, international collaboration, and support for traditional/alternative medicines. These factors were then evaluated with regard to their current status in the developing countries that responded to an electronic questionnaire, and their historical perspective, using the literature appraisal. From these, a projected trend was constructed with recommendations on the way forward. Results Clinical pharmacology services, research and teaching in developing countries have improved over the past 50 years with over 90% of countries having the appropriate policies for regulation and rational use of medicines in place. Unfortunately, policy implementation remains a challenge, owing to a worsening disease burden and drug situation, versus fewer clinical pharmacologists and other competing priorities for the national budgets. This has led to a preference for training ‘a physician clinical pharmacologist’ in programmes emphasizing local relevancy and for a shorter time, and the training of other professionals in therapeutics for endemic diseases (task shifting), as the most promising strategies of ensuring rational use of

  7. Trends and current status of general thoracic surgery in Japan revealed by review of nationwide databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Meinoshin

    2016-08-01

    Nationwide databases of cases treated for thoracic disease have been established by several academic associations in Japan, which contain information showing trends and current status in regard to surgical treatment. The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS), Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS), Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy (JSRE) have maintained databases of lung cancer cases treated in Japan. In 1986, the number of general thoracic surgery cases was 15,544, which increased to 75,306 in 2013. Furthermore, the number of lung cancer operations performed in 2013 was 37,008, occupying 49.1% of all general thoracic operations. Also, the proportions of adenocarcinoma, female patients, aged patients, stage I disease, and limited resection procedures are increasing in lung cancer surgery cases. While the 5-year overall post-operative survival rate of lung cancer patients was 47.8% in those undergoing surgery in 1989, it was 69.6% in those of 2004, which means 22% increase during 15 years. JATS, JACS, and the Japanese Association for Research of the Thymus (JART) have maintained retrospective databases of thymic epithelial tumor cases. The number of mediastinal tumors surgically treated is also increasing and was 4,780 in 2013, among which thymoma was the most prevalent. The Japanese Association for Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation has developed a prospective nationwide database of lung transplantation cases in Japan, which contains clinical data for 466 patients who received lung transplantation or heart-lung transplantation from 1998 to 2015. Nationwide databases are currently being utilized for clinical studies and will also contribute to international projects related to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification system.

  8. Current Status and Trend of Internet and E-Commerce Market in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Hongjoo; KIM Jongwoo; PARK Sungjoo

    2004-01-01

    After the remarkable increase of Internet users and broadband Internet subscribers at the end of the 20th century, the size of Korean Internet and e-commerce market steadily increased but the growth rate has been either stagnant or decreased. Trends of Korean Internet and e-commerce market are summarized in this paper the trends on Internet usage are introduced. Trends of online games, blogs and wireless Internet are introduced. The trends of Korean Internet market may have implications for China and Japan.

  9. Who is using snus? - Time trends, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of snus users in the ageing Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Margareta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of smoking in Sweden has decreased in recent decades, and is now among the lowest in the world. During the same period, the use of Swedish moist oral snuff, a smokeless tobacco called snus, has increased. Few studies have evaluated time trends of the socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of snus users in Sweden. This paper contributes to filling that gap. Methods This study utilized the Linnaeus Database, which links national registers with comprehensive individual data on socioeconomic status (SES to health data from a large ongoing health survey, the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP. The VIP targets the entire middle-aged population of Västerbotten county at ages 40, 50 and 60 years with yearly cross-sectional surveys including self-reported data on tobacco habits. Time trends of snus use among 92,563 VIP-participants across different areas of residence and smoking groups were investigated graphically. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the associations between SES and geographical variables and current use versus non-use of snus. Results Overall, in parallel to decreasing smoking, the increasing trend of snus use in this middle-aged population continues, particularly in 40-year-olds. In both genders, the highest prevalence of snus use was observed among previous smokers. The prevalence of snus use also increased over time among smokers, and was consistently higher compared to those who had never smoked. Among males - both those who had never smoked and previous smokers - low education (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.06-1.40 and OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.14-1.43, living alone (OR 1.16, 95%CI 1.07-1.27 and OR 1.13, 95%ci 1.04-1.23, low income and living in rural areas was associated with using snus, while this was not seen among male current smokers. Among women, living alone was associated with using snus irrespective of smoking habits. Among female smokers, the OR for snus use increased with higher

  10. Population income and longitudinal trends in living kidney donation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jagbir; Dong, Jianghu; Gill, John

    2015-01-01

    Living kidney donation is declining in the United States. We examined longitudinal trends in living donation as a function of median household income and donor relation to assess the effect of financial barriers on donation in a changing economic environment. The zip code-level median household income of all 71,882 living donors was determined by linkage to the 2000 US Census. Longitudinal changes in the rate of donation were determined in income quintiles between 1999 and 2004, when donations were increasing, and between 2005 and 2010, when donations were declining. Rates were adjusted for population differences in age, sex, race, and ESRD rate using multilevel linear regression models. Between 1999 and 2004, the rate of growth in living donation per million population was directly related to income, increasing progressively from the lowest to highest income quintile, with annualized changes of 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.14 to 1.05) for Q1 and 1.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 2.77) for Q5 (Pincome with longitudinal changes also varied by donor relationship. In conclusion, changes in living donation in the past decade varied by median household income, resulting in increased disparities in donation between low- and high-income populations. These findings may inform public policies to support living donation during periods of economic volatility.

  11. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  12. Trends and Characteristics of Hospitalization for Heart Failure in a Population Setting From 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gassó, María Lucía; Hernando-Arizaleta, Lauro; Palomar-Rodríguez, Joaquín A; Soria-Arcos, Federico; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A

    2017-09-01

    Population-based studies in other countries have reported a reduction of standardized rates of hospitalization for heart failure (HF) but data from a well-defined population are lacking in Spain. All hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of HF between 2003 and 2013 were obtained from the Minimum Basic Data Set, which includes all hospitals in the Region of Murcia. Health care episodes were identified by the individual health card (27 158 episodes). For each year, we studied the following parameters: crude, age-standardized and sex-standardized hospitalization rates for HF, length of stay, mortality, clinical variables, and the Elixhauser index. Time trends were analyzed using joinpoint regression. Hospitalization rates increased by 76.7%, from 1.28‰ to 2.26‰ (crude) and 1.06‰ to 1.77‰ (standardized); the mean annual percentage of change (APC) was 8.2% until 2007 and was subsequently 1.9% (P 6 points increased by 2-fold. Length of stay and mortality were unchanged during the study period. Between 2003 and 2013, there was a sustained increase in standardized rates of hospitalization for HF, which affected persons ≥ 75 years and was associated with a rise in comorbidity. There is a need for strategies focused on this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imamovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around −0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around −0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  14. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamovic, Adel; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  15. Time trends in social differences in nutrition habits of a Lithuanian population: 1994-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriaucioniene Vilma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the post-communist transition period, political, economic, and social changes affected the lifestyles of the Lithuanian population, including their nutritional habits. However, people of lower socio-economic position were more vulnerable to these changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the trends in selected food habits of the Lithuanian adult population by their level of education and place of residence from 1994 to 2010. Methods The data were obtained from nine biannual cross-sectional postal surveys of Lithuanian health behaviours, beginning in 1994. Each survey used a randomly selected nationally representative sample of 3000 inhabitants aged 20-64 drawn from the population register. In total, 7358 men and 9796 women participated in these surveys. Questions about food consumption were included within all health behaviour questionnaires. Results During the transition period, use of vegetable oil in cooking and the frequency of consumption of fresh vegetables increased, use of butter on bread decreased, and the proportion of women drinking high-fat milk declined. Lithuanians with higher education reported more frequent use of vegetable oil in cooking as well as daily consumption of fresh vegetables than those with a lower level of education. Consumption of high-fat milk was inversely associated with educational background. In addition, the proportion of persons spreading butter on bread increased with higher education level. The greatest urban-rural difference was observed in high-fat milk consumption. The increase in the use of vegetable oil in cooking, and the reduction of spreading butter on bread was more evident among less educated and rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, a greater proportion of the rural population, compared to urban, reduced their use of butter on bread. Daily consumption of fresh vegetables increased most among highly educated Lithuanians. Conclusions The data from our study indicate

  16. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design…

  17. Current Trends in the Detection of Sociocultural Signatures: Data-Driven Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2014-09-15

    available that are shaping social computing as a strongly data-driven experimental discipline with an increasingly stronger impact on the decision-making process of groups and individuals alike. In this chapter, we review current advances and trends in the detection of sociocultural signatures. Specific embodiments of the issues discussed are provided with respect to the assessment of violent intent and sociopolitical contention. We begin by reviewing current approaches to the detection of sociocultural signatures in these domains. Next, we turn to the review of novel data harvesting methods for social media content. Finally, we discuss the application of sociocultural models to social media content, and conclude by commenting on current challenges and future developments.

  18. Time trends in fish populations in metropolitan France: insights from national monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, N; Beaulaton, L; Dembski, S

    2011-12-01

    Using the electrofishing database of the French National Agency for Water and Aquatic Environment (Onema), the time trends of 48 freshwater fish taxa at 590 sites monitored for at least 8 years from 1990 to 2009 were investigated. The results demonstrated that species richness increased steadily from the beginning of the monitoring period. This is congruent with the finding that the number of species displaying a significant increase in spatial distribution or abundance was greater than those showing a significant decrease. Some species, however, had declined both in occurrence and abundance, e.g. tench Tinca tinca, common bream Abramis brama, brown trout Salmo trutta and European eel Anguilla anguilla. The species showing the most spectacular colonization were non-native, e.g. topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva, wels catfish Silurus glanis and asp Aspius aspius. The time trends in population density were related to the maximal body size, habitat requirement, occurrence and abundance and the status (i.e. native or exotic) but not to the spawning temperature.

  19. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Jørgensen, N;

    2007-01-01

    in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health......Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic....../disorders of sex differentiation and male fertility problems may be symptoms with varying penetration. In spite of their fetal origin, most of the TDS symptoms, including TGCC and poor semen quality, can only be diagnosed in adulthood. Data from a Danish-Finnish research collaboration strongly suggest that trends...

  20. Central dark matter trends in early-type galaxies from strong lensing, dynamics and stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Romanowsky, A J; Jetzer, Ph

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the correlations between central dark matter (DM) content of early-type galaxies and their sizes and ages, using a sample of intermediate-redshift (z ~ 0.2) gravitational lenses from the SLACS survey, and by comparing them to a larger sample of z ~ 0 galaxies. We decompose the deprojected galaxy masses into DM and stellar components using combinations of strong lensing, stellar dynamics, and stellar populations modeling. For a given stellar mass, we find that for galaxies with larger sizes, the DM fraction increases and the mean DM density decreases, consistently with the cuspy halos expected in cosmological formation scenarios. The DM fraction also decreases with stellar age, which can be partially explained by the inverse correlation between size and age. The residual trend may point to systematic dependencies on formation epoch of halo contraction or stellar initial mass functions. These results are in agreement with recent findings based on local galaxies by Napolitano, Romanowsky & Tortora...

  1. Recent population size, trends, and limiting factors for the double-crested Cormorant in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica Y.; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Courtot, Karen N.; Collis, Ken; Carter, Harry R.; Shuford, W. David; Capitolo, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    The status of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America was last evaluated during 1987–2003. In the interim, concern has grown over the potential impact of predation by double-crested cormorants on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchusspp.), particularly in the Columbia Basin and along the Pacific coast where some salmonids are listed for protection under the United States Endangered Species Act. Recent re-evaluations of double-crested cormorant management at the local, flyway, and federal level warrant further examination of the current population size and trends in western North America. We collected colony size data for the western population (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and the portions of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico west of the Continental Divide) by conducting aircraft-, boat-, or ground-based surveys and by cooperating with government agencies, universities, and non-profit organizations. In 2009, we estimated approximately 31,200 breeding pairs in the western population. We estimated that cormorant numbers in the Pacific Region (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California) increased 72% from 1987–1992 to circa 2009. Based on the best available data for this period, the average annual growth rate (λ) of the number of breeding birds in the Pacific Region was 1.03, versus 1.07 for the population east of the Continental Divide during recent decades. Most of the increase in the Pacific Region can be attributed to an increase in the size of the nesting colony on East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary, which accounts for about 39% of all breeding pairs in the western population and is the largest known breeding colony for the species (12,087 breeding pairs estimated in 2009). In contrast, numbers of breeding pairs estimated in coastal British Columbia and Washington have declined by approximately 66% during this same period. Disturbance at breeding

  2. Diverging trends in recent population-based survival rates in oesophageal and gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Lagergren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survival trends in oesophageal and gastric cancer need to be updated. A nationwide Swedish population-based study in 1961-2009 was based on registry data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative survival rate, i.e. the ratio of the observed to the expected survival, adjusted for age, sex, and calendar period, and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI, was the main outcome measure. The expected survival was calculated using the corresponding Swedish general population with no exclusions. The relative survival rates in oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma have improved since the 1990s (p for trend <0.001, but not in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma or gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. The relative 5-year survival rates during the two recent periods 1990-1999 and 2000-2008 were 12.5% (95%CI 10.1%-14.9% and 10.3% (95%CI 8.5-12.0% for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 12.5% (95%CI 10.1%-14.9% and 14.6% (95%CI 12.6-16.6% for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, 11.1% (95%CI 9.6%-12.6% and 14.3% (95%CI 12.3-16.3% for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 20.2% (95%CI 19.2%-21.1% and 19.0% (95%CI 17.7-20.2% for gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. The 3-year survival in tumour stage III in 2004-2008 was about 25% for all four tumour types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The survival in oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma is increasing, but the lack of such increase in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma is a concern.

  3. The Future of e-Learning in Medical Education: Current Trend and Future Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of e-learning modalities are widely integrated in medical education. However, some of the key questions related to the role of e-learning remain unanswered, such as (1 what is an effective approach to integrating technology into pre-clinical vs. clinical training?; (2 what evidence exists regarding the type and format of e-learning technology suitable for medical specialties and clinical settings?; (3 which design features are known to be effective in designing on-line patient simulation cases, tutorials, or clinical exams?; and (4 what guidelines exist for determining an appropriate blend of instructional strategies, including online learning, face-to-face instruction, and performance-based skill practices? Based on the existing literature and a variety of e-learning examples of synchronous learning tools and simulation technology, this paper addresses the following three questions: (1 what is the current trend of e-learning in medical education?; (2 what do we know about the effective use of e-learning?; and (3 what is the role of e-learning in facilitating newly emerging competency-based training? As e-learning continues to be widely integrated in training future physicians, it is critical that our efforts in conducting evaluative studies should target specific e-learning features that can best mediate intended learning goals and objectives. Without an evolving knowledge base on how best to design e-learning applications, the gap between what we know about technology use and how we deploy e-learning in training settings will continue to widen.

  4. ENDF/B-VII.1 library - current and future trends in reaction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Michal

    2011-10-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.0 library, made available in December 2006, has been the first major release of the US nuclear reaction data library in 16 years. Intensive validation proved generally good performance of the library but a number of deficiencies were discerned. In 2008 CSEWG decided to undertake multi-laboratory effort leading to VII.1 version, which is scheduled for release in December 2011. Highlights of the new library include (i) a consistent set of covariance data, for over 180 materials, targeting explicit needs of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, (ii) new R-matrix based evaluations for several light nuclei, (iii) evaluations for reactions on structural materials in both the fast neutron region and the resonance region, (iv) improvements of resonances regions and thermal cross sections for certain fission products and neutron absorber materials (Cd, Gd), (v) improvements in minor actinide evaluations for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, and Am, (vi) adoption of JENDL4.0 evaluations for the Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, and some other minor actinides, (vii) fission product yield advances for fission-spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons incident on 239Pu, and (viii) a new Decay Data sub-library. No significant changes are expected for the major actinides 235,8U and 239Pu, except reverting delayed neutron data to ENDF/B-VI.8 and adding covariances. Current update concerns only the most important neutron, fission yields, and decay data sub-libraries leaving the remaining 11 sub-libraries unchanged. Open issues and trends for the future releases of the ENDF/B will be discussed.

  5. The Development of Perioperative Practices for Liver Transplantation: Advances and Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merceds Susan Mandell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation is a young medical specialty that has grown rapidly over the past 50 years. Anesthesiologists, surgeons and hepatologists are all essential partners in the process of determining patient outcome. Each specialty has made landmark improvements in patient outcome. However, there is still variability in practice patterns in each of the 3 major specialties. This review will use a historic perspective to explore the unique forces that shaped specific transplant practices and those that gave rise to differences in perioperative practices. Anesthesiologists and surgeons have made significant improvements in the management of blood loss, and coagulation monitoring and intervention. This has improved operative survival and early patient outcome. Perioperative survival has improved despite a worldwide shortage of donor organs and a trend to transplant sicker patients. A smaller pool of donor organs is required to meet the needs of an expanding waiting list. The innovations to reduce deaths on the transplant wait list are reviewed along with their impact on overall patient outcome. The evolving organ shortage is the pinnacle point in shaping future transplant practices. Currently, institutional-specific practices may be reinforced by the informal “tutorship” that is used to train physicians and by the resources available at each site of practice. However, there is evidence that specific intraoperative practices such as the use of a low central venous pressure, selection of vasopressors and certain surgical techniques can modify patient outcome. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the good or the bad associated with each practice prevails and in what unique circumstance.

  6. Current trends in management of men with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1998-04-01

    Management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been central to urology for decades. The urologic community has increasingly come to realize that many men with LUTS do not have prostate enlargement and do not need their prostates debulked surgically. Of all the factors that have emerged to alter the trends associated with management of LUTS and BPH, none has had more impact than the advent of medical therapy. The selective, long-acting, alpha1-blocking agents terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin have become most popular because of their specificity in the urinary tract, reduced side effects, and simplicity of dosage. In addition, finasteride, a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, was found to be effective in men with prostates of > or = 40 g. Furthermore, the larger the prostate at baseline, the greater the efficacy of finasteride on symptom relief and flow rate improvement. In addition to medical therapy, an array of device therapies has emerged in the management of LUTS and BPH. Laser prostatectomy is the oldest of the device therapies and includes transurethral vaporization of the prostate (VLAP), transurethral evaporation of the prostate (TUEP), and transurethral interstitial laser prostatectomy (TILP). Studies report beneficial outcomes approaching those achieved with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with less morbidity and a shorter hospital stay. Common diseases contribute the most to national healthcare expenditures. The management of LUTS and BPH are such disorders and result in the expenditure of vast healthcare resources worldwide. The surgical strategies have an established record of outcomes documenting their potential for symptom relief and the avoidance of future complications. Medical and device therapies, although currently promising and attractive, therefore must prove comparable durability.

  7. Current trends of carcinoma tongue at a Medical College in Central India: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Oral cancer is the most common cancer in India and tongue is one of the most commonly affected site. Aims and Objectives : The current study assesses the clinico-epidemiological trends of carcinoma tongue, its survival rates in different stages and relationship between different variables in central India. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study of 121 carcinoma tongue patients admitted between the period of 2½ years in a hospital of central India. The data collected were age and sex distribution, location and site of the tumor, tumor stage, histopathological type and grade, nodal status, modality of treatment, recurrences and survival. The disease free survival (DFS was analyzed against stage, nodal status and recurrences using log rank test. Results : In this study, the incidence of cancer was more in males (male: female = 6.1:1 particularly in their fifth decade (mean 52.7 years and the most common location was anterior 2/3 rd of the tongue mainly on right lateral side. Most of the patients presenting to out-patient department were having neck nodes positive status. The clinical stage at presentation was mainly advanced stages with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The most common treatment offered was surgery with radiotherapy (RT, followed by chemotherapy plus RT. The mean DFS time was of 27.8 ± 1.68 months, and it was directly related to tumor stage (P < 0.0001 in comparison to nodes positivity and recurrences. Conclusion : The study signifies better prognosis of carcinoma tongue in early stages and warrants more awareness campaigns and health education in the health facilities as well as in community for early diagnosis of the disease with proper staging and subsequently multimodal treatment for increasing survival rates.

  8. Trends in suicide in a Lithuanian urban population over the period 1984–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virviciute Dalia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the last decade of the twentieth century, Lithuania had the highest suicide rates in Europe among both men and women aged 25–64 years. The rates increased from 1986 until 1995, but later there was a slight decrease. This paper describes the trends in suicide deaths in urban population in Lithuania by gender, dates and suicide method over the period 1984–2003. Methods Data from the regional mortality register were used to analyze suicide deaths among all men and women aged 25–64 years in Kaunas city, Lithuania over the period 1984–2003. Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 persons (using European standard population were calculated by gender, suicide method and dates. A joinpoint regression method was used to estimate annual percentage changes (EPACs and to detect points where the trends changed significantly. Results The frequency of death by suicide among males was 48% higher in 1994–2003 than in 1984–1993. The corresponding increase among females was 28%. The most common methods of suicide among men were hanging, strangulation and suffocation (87.4% among all suicide deaths. The proportions of hanging, strangulation and suffocation in males increased by 6.9% – from 83.9% to 89.7% – compared to a 24.2% increase in deaths from handgun, rifle and shotgun firearm discharges and a 216.7% increase in deaths from poisoning with solvents, gases, pesticides and vapors. Among females, the most common methods of suicide were hanging, strangulation and suffocation (68.3% of all suicide deaths. The proportion of hanging deaths among females increased during the time period examined, whereas the proportion of poisonings with solid or liquid substances decreased. Conclusion Suicide rates increased significantly among urban men aged 25–64 years in Lithuania throughout the period 1984–2003, whereas among women an increasing but statistically insignificant trend was observed. There were changes in the

  9. Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J.A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W.J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J.L.; Bracey, W.

    2005-01-01

    Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

  10. Dynamic population trends observed in the deep-living Pacific flatnose, Antimora microlepis, on the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Peter H.; Keller, Aimee A.; Simon, Victor

    2017-04-01

    As fisheries managers attempt to incorporate ecosystem-based considerations into decision making, it is important to understand the role that non-target species play in the ecosystems that support commercial fisheries. For some deep-water groundfishes, basic information on biology and population dynamics is extremely limited. This study presents findings on the spatial distribution, growth trends, and relative abundance of the Pacific flatnose, Antimora microlepis, using data collected from 2003 to 2015 by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey (WCGBTS). We observed a 67% increase in mean fork-length over the study period reflecting the advancement of strong year-classes from the early 2000s that currently dominate the population as a whole. Catch-weighted depth increased significantly as these cohorts migrated to deeper waters of the continental slope. Although catch per unit effort remained relatively constant, this demographic shift suggests that episodic recruitment may affect the resilience of this stock to fishing mortality over time. A notable decrease in the percentage of females observed after 2012 seemed to indicate the movement of large, older females to depths beyond the 1280 m limit of the survey. Otolith weight provided a useful proxy for age in growth models for this species.

  11. A Study of Current Trends and Issues for Graphics Education: Results from a Five-Year Follow-Up Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales, Alice Y.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1998-1999 academic year, a survey was conducted to look at current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education (Clark & Scales, 1999). The survey solicited information from the membership of the Engineering Design Graphics Division of the American Society for Engineering Education related to their view of future areas of…

  12. Trends in dietary patterns of Latin American populations Tendencias en el consumo de alimentos en poblaciones latinoamericanas

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, Odilia I.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2003-01-01

    It is important to characterize the level and magnitude of changes in food consumption patterns in Latin American populations as they undergo demographic and developmental transitions because of the effects of such changes on the development and progression of chronic diseases. This paper examines trends in food intake across regions in Latin America. Although trends in apparent food consumption differ in magnitude and timing, the overall patterns of change are remarkably consistent. Intakes ...

  13. Trends in Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Older Adult Population of Spain (2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Gutiérrez-Fisac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work examines the trend in obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish population aged 60 years and over during the first decade of the 21st century. Methods: We analyze data from a representative study of the Spanish population aged 60 years and older conducted in 2000-2001 and from the Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA conducted in 2008-2010. Results: In men, the distribution of BMI did not vary in the period 2000-2010. In contrast, in women there was a reduction in both mean BMI - from 29.3 to 28.8 kg/m2 - and the prevalence of obesity - from 40.8 to 36.3%. This decline was greatest in women aged 60-69 years. In men, no significant changes were observed in mean waist circumference (WC or in the prevalence of abdominal obesity. In contrast, WC decreased by 3.6 cm and abdominal obesity prevalence by 12.7% in women. The decline was greatest in women aged 60-69 years, in whom mean WC decreased by 5.1 cm and abdominal obesity prevalence by 18.6%. Conclusion: These findings show that the frequency of obesity has begun to decline in Spanish women aged 60 and over. The causes of this decline are unclear.

  14. Incidence and time trends of Herpes zoster in rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veetil, Bharath Manu Akkara; Myasoedova, Elena; Matteson, Eric L.; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Green, Abigail B.; Crowson, Cynthia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, time trends, risk factors and severity of herpes zoster (HZ) in a population-based incidence cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to a group of individuals without RA from the same population. Methods All residents of Olmsted County, MN who first fulfilled 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA between 1/1/1980 and 12/31/2007 and a cohort of similar residents without RA were assembled and followed by retrospective chart review until death, migration, or 12/31/2008. Results There was no difference in the presence of HZ prior to RA incidence/index date between the cohorts (p=0.85). During follow-up 84 patients with RA (rate: 12.1 per 1000 person-years) and 44 subjects without RA (rate: 5.4 per 1000 person-years) developed HZ. Patients with RA were more likely to develop HZ than those without RA (hazard ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.5). Patients diagnosed with RA in 1995–2007 had a higher likelihood of developing HZ than those diagnosed in 1980–1994. Erosive disease, previous joint surgery, use of hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids were significantly associated with the development of HZ in RA, while the use of methotrexate or biologic agents was not. Complications of HZ occurred at a similar rate in both cohorts. Conclusion The incidence of HZ is increased in RA and has risen in recent years. The increasing incidence of HZ in more recent years is also noted in the general population. RA disease severity is associated with development of HZ. PMID:23281295

  15. Trends and correlates in meat consumption patterns in the US adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Beydoun, May A; Caballero, Benjamin; Gary, Tiffany L; Lawrence, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have examined recent shifts in meat consumption (MC), differences among US population groups, and the influence of psychosocial-behavioural factors. Nationally representative data collected for US adults aged >or=18 years in the 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) were used. We found a U-shaped trend in MC, a decrease between 1988-1994 and 1994-1996, and an increase from 1994-1996 to 1999-2004. NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 indicate that MC did not change significantly, particularly for all meat, red meat, poultry and seafood. Between 1994-1996 and 1999-2004, average MC, including red meat, poultry, seafood and other meat products, increased in men. Women's total MC decreased, mainly due to decreased red meat and other meat products, except for increased seafood. Noticeable differences existed in the changes across population groups. Black men had the largest increase in consumption of total meat, poultry and seafood; Mexican American men had the smallest increase in poultry, seafood and other meat products. In 1999-2004, ethnic differences in MC became greater in women than among women in 1994-1996. Associations between MC and energy intake changed over time. Perceived benefit of dietary quality and food label use were associated with reduced red MC. Noticeable differences exist in the shifts in MC across population groups and surveys. MC increased in men but decreased in women in recent years.

  16. Global population trends and human use patterns of Manta and Mobula rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A; Davis, Brendal; Worm, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Despite being the world's largest rays and providing significant revenue through dive tourism, little is known about the population status, exploitation and trade volume of the Mobulidae (mobulids; Manta and Mobula spp.). There is anecdotal evidence, however, that mobulid populations are declining, largely due to the recent emergence of a widespread trade for their gill rakers, which is reflected in increasing Food and Agriculture Organization landings trends. Here, we present results from two dedicated diver surveys, one from the eManta project, which includes summary observations from ninety 10°x10° regions with ∼200-62,000 dives per region, and the other from the Reef Environmental Education Foundation, which includes spatially more detailed observations from 3 regions with ∼4,000-118,000 dives per region. We show that mobulids as a group, which includes eleven species, have globally and regionally restricted distributions, typically have low sighting frequency (ecotourism occurs in many regions (45% of those reported, n = 41) they are considered protected in only 32% of the regions. Mobulids being fished or sold in local markets were reported from 16% and 12% of regions, respectively, with most being adjacent to mobulid abundance hotspot and ecotourism regions (e.g. Sri Lanka, Indonesia, east Africa). Identification of regions where ecotourism and exploitation are at odds could help prioritize conservation efforts. Vulnerability analysis, using life history characteristics, indicates that Manta spp. are vulnerable to exploitation, tolerating only low fishing mortality rates; data limitations prohibited such analysis for Mobula spp. Our analyses support previous studies in showing the need for improved conservation and monitoring efforts, and suggest that international and enforceable management policies are required to prevent further population decline.

  17. Trends in selected biological risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, L U; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Madsen, Mette;

    2000-01-01

    Data from 6695 men and women of ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, examined in the Danish WHO MONICA surveys in 1982-84, in 1986-87, and in 1991-92, were analyzed to estimate secular trends in body height and weight, blood pressure, and serum total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride. Body......, systolic blood pressures, total- and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride did not change. The levels of biological risk factors in the Danish WHO MONICA study population did not show trends during the 1980s that help explain the declining incidence of myocardial infarction in the population....

  18. Climate Change Vulnerability and Resilience: Current Status and Trends for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarraran , Maria E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-12-30

    Climate change alters different localities on the planet in different ways. The impact on each region depends mainly on the degree of vulnerability that natural ecosystems and human-made infrastructure have to changes in climate and extreme meteorological events, as well as on the coping and adaptation capacity towards new environmental conditions. This study assesses the current resilience of Mexico and Mexican states to such changes, as well as how this resilience will look in the future. In recent studies (Moss et al. 2000, Brenkert and Malone 2005, Malone and Brenket 2008, Ibarrarán et al. 2007), the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicators Model (VRIM) is used to integrate a set of proxy variables that determine the resilience of a region to climate change. Resilience, or the ability of a region to respond to climate variations and natural events that result from climate change, is given by its adaptation and coping capacity and its sensitivity. On the one hand, the sensitivity of a region to climate change is assessed, emphasizing its infrastructure, food security, water resources, and the health of the population and regional ecosystems. On the other hand, coping and adaptation capacity is based on the availability of human resources, economic capacity and environmental capacity.

  19. Genetic linkage mapping in fungi: current state, applications, and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie

    2012-08-01

    Genetic mapping is a basic tool for eukaryotic genomic research. Linkage maps provide insights into genome organization and can be used for genetic studies of traits of interest. A genetic linkage map is a suitable support for the anchoring of whole genome sequences. It allows the localization of genes of interest or quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map-based cloning. While genetic mapping has been extensively used in plant or animal models, this discipline is more recent in fungi. The present article reviews the current status of genetic linkage map research in fungal species. The process of linkage mapping is detailed, from the development of mapping populations to the construction of the final linkage map, and illustrated based on practical examples. The range of specific applications in fungi is browsed, such as the mapping of virulence genes in pathogenic species or the mapping of agronomically relevant QTL in cultivated edible mushrooms. Future prospects are finally discussed in the context of the most recent advances in molecular techniques and the release of numerous fungal genome sequences.

  20. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m{sup 3} of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m{sup 3} of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both

  1. [Current trends of breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer patients in China: a survey report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Jiajian; Chen, Jiaying; Yang, Benlong; Li, Lin; Huang, Xiaoyan; Shao, Zhimin; Shen, Zhenzhou; Yu, Peirong; Wu, Jiong

    2014-11-01

    To explore the current trends of breast reconstruction (BR) for breast cancer patients in China. A questionnaire was designed for this study, and it included questions on surgeon demographics, number of mastectomy and BR, type and timing of BR, reconstructive choices in the setting of preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy, etc. All data were collected until December 2012. Questionnaires were sent to 52 members of the Committee of Breast Cancer Society by e-mail or mail. By July 2013, 41 questionnaires had been returned. Among all, 5 were excluded for not performing BR. These 36 hospitals covered 22 provinces and municipalities in China. A total of 538 surgeons working in the general surgery or oncological surgery department, but only 123 (22.9%) were qualified to perform BR. In 2012, except for 4 missing data, 24, 763 mastectomies were performed in 32 hospitals; among them, 1120 (4.5%) received BR. According to these 36 respondents, 32 (88.9%) performed prosthetic (1, 843 cases in all) while 4 (11.1%) performed prosthetic BR with acellular dermal matrix (17 cases in all) from the time of their first BR operation to the end of 2012. During the same period, 965 latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps with implant were performed in 23 (63.9%) hospitals while 738 latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps without implant were performed in 32 (88.9%) hospitals. At the same time, 366 pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap BRs were performed in 28 (77.8%) hospitals, while 155 abdominal free flap BRs were carried out in 9 (25.0%) hospitals. The overall complication rate was 18.2%. Postoperative radiotherapy had some effect on influencing the esthetic outcomes of BR, so the autologous BR was recommended, but the timing remained controversial. Regarding chemotherapy, most respondents concluded that it had no effect or only a mild effect. The overall cosmetic outcomes of the reconstructed breasts satisfied the majority of physicians and patients

  2. Current Trends and Problems of Development of the Arctic Marine Freight Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Selin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the trends and evaluates the prospects of functioning of the Northern Sea Route. It shows that after the change of its management model its freight traffic has dropped 4-fold, and in the Eastern sector (outside the Vilkitsky Strait – 40-fold. In the recent years there has been a certain revival of transportation, including transit, which reached its maximum of 1.27 million tons in 2012. However, over the next two years they declined again; the drop was particularly significant in 2014 and amounted to a total of 240 thousand tons. The main problem is that this rather complex system is influenced by many factors, often contradictory and poorly predictable. Thus, the growing need for energy resources determines the overall need for developing the Arctic shelf. However, the possibility of climate cooling and the deterioration of ice situation can influence the possibility of transporting these resources. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis followed by the “war of sanctions” will cause a significant decline, especially in the medium term, the attractiveness of the European oil and gas market, which will cause the shift of strategic interests of Russian companies to the Asia-Pacific region. This necessitates the modernization of the Arctic transport and logistics system and introduction of new technical solutions. For instance, even nuclearpowered icebreakers series LA-60Ya that are currently under construction will not be able to escort linear tankers and gas carriers with a deadweight of more than 100 thousand tons along the eastern sector of the Northern Sea Route. It is necessary to create more powerful vessels of the classical type or to design new models. All these driving forces and constraints are not always predictable within the framework of standard economic and statistical approaches. In this regard, the study reflected in the article used expert approaches along with the methods of factor and economic analysis. The

  3. Improving outcomes after laparoscopic appendectomy: a population-based, 12-year trend analysis of 7446 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Lukas; Rosella, Laura; Candinas, Daniel; Güller, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis has become increasingly used over the past decade. The objective of this trend analysis is to assess whether clinical outcomes after laparoscopic appendectomy have improved over the past 12 years. This analysis is based on the prospective database of the Swiss Association of Laparoscopic and Thoracoscopic Surgery. All patients undergoing emergency laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis from 1995 to 2006 were included. The following outcomes were assessed for each of the 12 years: conversion rates, intraoperative complications, surgical postoperative complications, general postoperative complications, rate of reoperations, and length of hospital stay. Unadjusted and risk-adjusted multivariable analyses were performed. Statistical significance was set at a level of P trend)trend)trend)trend)trend)trend)trend analysis is the first one in the literature encompassing more than a decade and reporting clinical outcomes after laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis, which represents an important quality control.

  4. Psychostimulant prescribing trends in a paediatric population in Ireland: a national cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boland, Fiona; Galvin, Rose; Reulbach, Udo; Motterlini, Nicola; Kelly, Dervla; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Psychotropic paediatric prescribing trends are increasing internationally. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and secular trends in psychotropic prescribing in Irish children and adolescents between 2002 and 2011...

  5. Projecting range-wide sun bear population trends using tree cover and camera-trap bycatch data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotson, Lorraine; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Ngoprasert, Dusit; Wong, Wai-Ming; Fieberg, John

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring population trends of threatened species requires standardized techniques that can be applied over broad areas and repeated through time. Sun bears Helarctos malayanus are a forest dependent tropical bear found throughout most of Southeast Asia. Previous estimates of global population trends have relied on expert opinion and cannot be systematically replicated. We combined data from 1,463 camera traps within 31 field sites across sun bear range to model the relationship between photo catch rates of sun bears and tree cover. Sun bears were detected in all levels of tree cover above 20%, and the probability of presence was positively associated with the amount of tree cover within a 6-km2 buffer of the camera traps. We used the relationship between catch rates and tree cover across space to infer temporal trends in sun bear abundance in response to tree cover loss at country and global-scales. Our model-based projections based on this "space for time" substitution suggested that sun bear population declines associated with tree cover loss between 2000-2014 in mainland southeast Asia were ~9%, with declines highest in Cambodia and lowest in Myanmar. During the same period, sun bear populations in insular southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei) were projected to have declined at a much higher rate (22%). Cast forward over 30-years, from the year 2000, by assuming a constant rate of change in tree cover, we projected population declines in the insular region that surpassed 50%, meeting the IUCN criteria for endangered if sun bears were listed on the population level. Although this approach requires several assumptions, most notably that trends in abundance across space can be used to infer temporal trends, population projections using remotely sensed tree cover data may serve as a useful alternative (or supplement) to expert opinion. The advantages of this approach is that it is objective, data-driven, repeatable, and it requires that all assumptions

  6. Population trends and developments in Kermanshah during 1966-2011, and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Safari Ali Akbari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cities and urbanization in the last decades, it has undergone enormous changes, so that in recent decades, the number of urban and spatial development, the scale is unprecedented. City of Kermanshah, in center of Kermanshah Province, not far from these developments, and according to geographical location (the center of the West Country, and its relationship to the West direction - south, in recent decades, population increases have been high.  This paper aims to examine population changes Kermanshah, ( during the years 1966 to, 2011 was performed in addition to analyzing the process of transformation, and to recognize the causes and contributing factors in the current situation, a better understanding can be reached, as appropriate, plan for the future, be provided.

  7. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

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    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  8. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  9. Long-term occupancy trends in a data-poor dugong population in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrika D'Souza

    Full Text Available Prioritizing efforts for conserving rare and threatened species with limited past data and lacking population estimates is predicated on robust assessments of their occupancy rates. This is particularly challenging for elusive, long-lived and wide-ranging marine mammals. In this paper we estimate trends in long-term (over 50 years occupancy, persistence and extinction of a vulnerable and data-poor dugong (Dugong dugon population across multiple seagrass meadows in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago (India. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian dynamic occupancy models accounting for false negatives (detection probability<1, persistence and extinction, to two datasets: a fragmentary long-term occurrence records from multiple sources (1959-2004, n = 40 locations, and b systematic detection/non-detection data from current surveys (2010-2012, n = 57. Dugong occupancy across the archipelago declined by 60% (from 0.45 to 0.18 over the last 20 years and present distribution was largely restricted to sheltered bays and channels with seagrass meadows dominated by Halophila and Halodule sp. Dugongs were not found in patchy meadows with low seagrass cover. In general, seagrass habitat availability was not limiting for dugong occupancy, suggesting that anthropogenic factors such as entanglement in gillnets and direct hunting may have led to local extinction of dugongs from locations where extensive seagrass meadows still thrive. Effective management of these remnant dugong populations will require a multi-pronged approach, involving 1 protection of areas where dugongs still persist, 2 monitoring of seagrass habitats that dugongs could recolonize, 3 reducing gillnet use in areas used by dugongs, and 4 engaging with indigenous/settler communities to reduce impacts of hunting.

  10. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V Altukhov

    Full Text Available After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery, Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries. Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island or not recovering (Kozlov Cape than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  11. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altukhov, Alexey V; Andrews, Russel D; Calkins, Donald G; Gelatt, Thomas S; Gurarie, Eliezer D; Loughlin, Thomas R; Mamaev, Evgeny G; Nikulin, Victor S; Permyakov, Peter A; Ryazanov, Sergey D; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Burkanov, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  12. Long terms trends of multimorbidity and association with physical activity in older English population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; O'Donovan, Gary; Zaccardi, Francesco; Hamer, Mark; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2016-01-19

    Multimorbidity has become one of the main challenges in the recent years for patients, health care providers and the health care systems globally. However, literature describing the burden of multimorbidity in the elderly population, especially longitudinal trends is very limited. Physical activity is recommended as one of the main lifestyle changes in the prevention and management of multiple chronic diseases worldwide; however, the evidence on its association with multimorbidity remains inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to assess the longitudinal trends of multimorbidity and the association between multimorbidity and physical activity in a nationally representative cohort of the English population aged ≥50 years between 2002 and 2013. We used data on 15,688 core participants from six waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, with complete information on physical activity. Self-reported physical activity was categorised as inactive, mild, moderate and vigorous levels of physical activity. We calculated the number of morbidities and the prevalence of multimorbidity (more than 2 chronic conditions) between 2002 and 2013 overall and by levels of self-reported physical activity. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for multimorbidity by each category of physical activity, adjusting for potential confounders. There was a progressive decrease over time in the proportion of participants without any chronic conditions (33.9% in 2002/2003 vs. 26.8% in 2012/2013). In contrast, the prevalence of multimorbidity steadily increased over time (31.7% in 2002/2003 vs. 43.1% in 2012/2013). Compared to the physically inactive group, the OR for multimorbidity was 0.84 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.91) in mild, 0.61 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) in moderate and 0.45 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.49) in the vigorous physical activity group. This study demonstrated an inverse dose-response association between levels of physical activity and multimorbidity, however, given the

  13. PREFACE: National Seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, R.; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2013-05-01

    India is going through an era of many changes in its higher education system. Emphasis is being given to research and development initiatives at Universities and colleges. The teaching community is faced with the challenge of coping with both regular academic activities and research initiatives. The teaching faculties need to keep in step with the momentous research output being generated globally. To mold young talent that will be sought after, teachers need to undertake challenging initiatives. Research in emerging areas like nanotechnology, meta materials, functional materials and structures is being pursued vigorously in Universities and colleges in the state of Kerala. Awareness of the impact of integrating teaching and research in basic science has inspired the teaching faculty. The number of seminars and conferences is not commensurate with the amount of research being conducted in this state. The state lags behind in the number of institutes with state of the art facilities and human resource with cutting edge knowledge. The national seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011) is organized by the Department of Physics, Christian College, Chengannur. It is a continuation of the initiatives of the Department to bridge the haitus between teaching and research. Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2007) was successfully conducted with over 80 research paper presentations and participation of delegates from the states of Karnataka, Andhrapradesh, Tamilnadu and Kerala. CTMS-2011 is a sequel envisaged to serve as an effective platform for teachers to interact with eminent scientists and share their knowledge and experience. Papers were invited from the subject area comprising glasses and ceramics, crystal growth, nanotechnology, semiconductors thin films and polymers. We are delighted that after a peer review process of the papers we have selected ten of the best papers presented at the seminar for publication in IOP Conference Series

  14. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  15. 78 FR 54622 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey, Annual Social and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey, Annual Social... concerning the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to be conducted in conjunction with the February, March, and April Current Population Survey (CPS). The Census Bureau has conducted this...

  16. Trends in HIV-1 prevalence and risk behaviours over 15 years in a rural population in Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm-Hansen Carol

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring dynamics in HIV-1 infection and risk behaviours is important in evaluating, adjusting and scaling up prevention programmes. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in the prevalence of HIV-1 infection and risk behaviours over 15 years in a rural village population in Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania using repeated population-based cross-sectional surveys. Methods Four rounds of HIV-1 sero-epidemiological and behavioural surveys were completed during 1991 to 2005 in the study village. House-to-house registrations of people aged 15–44 years with an address in the village were conducted before each survey. All consenting individuals were then interviewed for pertinent risk behaviours and tested for HIV-1 seropositivity. Results Participation proportions ranged from 73.0% to 79.1%. Overall, age and sex-adjusted HIV-1 prevalence increased from 3.2% in 1991 to 5.6 % in 2005 (relative increase 75.0%; ptrend trends trend trends trend Conclusion The HIV-1 prevalence seems to have increased among older participants but remained stable among younger participants. Encouraging trends toward safer sex practices were observed among young participants, while only modest behavioural changes were seen among the older participants. Prevention efforts in rural areas need to be intensified and to address people of all ages.

  17. Contrasting population trends of piscivorous seabirds in the Pribilof Islands: A 30-year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, G. Vernon; Schmutz, Joel A.; Renner, Heather M.

    2008-08-01

    The Pribilof Islands provide nesting habitat for one of the largest concentrations of piscivorous seabirds in the North Pacific region. Pribilof breeding populations of black-legged and red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla and Rissa brevirostris), and common and thick-billed murres ( Uria aalge and Uria lomvia) are supported by a highly productive marine food web. Productivity and temperature in this area are influenced by winter sea ice that frequently reaches its maximum extent near the Pribilofs. Although St. George and St. Paul islands, the two largest of the Pribilof group, are situated only 60 km apart, St. George is within 25 km of the shelf break, but St. Paul is approximately 90 km away. In contrast, the local contribution of sea ice-edge productivity in the spring is frequently closer to St. Paul than to St. George. Central place foraging piscivorous seabirds nesting at St. Paul and St. George are likely differentially affected by the relative contributions of the shelf break and ice-edge environments based on juxtaposition. Within the past decade or so, sea ice in the Bering Sea has failed to reach the vicinity of the Pribilofs in some years, and predictions of warming in the future suggest the possibility that direct effects of the ice on the immediate Pribilof environment will be reduced. To evaluate the response of kittiwakes and murres on the two islands to conditions in their foraging environments, we examined population trends over the past 30 years based on data from the seabird monitoring program conducted by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and others. Spatial differences in trends have been more consistent than differences among species, with populations at St. Paul having more enduring declines than those at St. George. At St. George, black-legged kittiwakes and common murres have remained stable. Red-legged kittiwakes and thick-billed murres both declined, but began to rebound in the late 1980s, such that in 2005 population

  18. Contrasting population trends of piscivorous seabirds in the Pribilof Islands: A 30-year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, G.V.; Schmutz, J.A.; Renner, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands provide nesting habitat for one of the largest concentrations of piscivorous seabirds in the North Pacific region. Pribilof breeding populations of black-legged and red-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla and Rissa brevirostris), and common and thick-billed murres (Uria aalge and Uria lomvia) are supported by a highly productive marine food web. Productivity and temperature in this area are influenced by winter sea ice that frequently reaches its maximum extent near the Pribilofs. Although St. George and St. Paul islands, the two largest of the Pribilof group, are situated only 60 km apart, St. George is within 25 km of the shelf break, but St. Paul is approximately 90 km away. In contrast, the local contribution of sea ice-edge productivity in the spring is frequently closer to St. Paul than to St. George. Central place foraging piscivorous seabirds nesting at St. Paul and St. George are likely differentially affected by the relative contributions of the shelf break and ice-edge environments based on juxtaposition. Within the past decade or so, sea ice in the Bering Sea has failed to reach the vicinity of the Pribilofs in some years, and predictions of warming in the future suggest the possibility that direct effects of the ice on the immediate Pribilof environment will be reduced. To evaluate the response of kittiwakes and murres on the two islands to conditions in their foraging environments, we examined population trends over the past 30 years based on data from the seabird monitoring program conducted by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and others. Spatial differences in trends have been more consistent than differences among species, with populations at St. Paul having more enduring declines than those at St. George. At St. George, black-legged kittiwakes and common murres have remained stable. Red-legged kittiwakes and thick-billed murres both declined, but began to rebound in the late 1980s, such that in 2005 population

  19. Study on the trend and disease burden of injury deaths in Chinese population, 2004-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Injuries are a growing public health concern in China, accounting for more than 30% of all Person Years of Life Lost (PYLL due to premature mortality. This study analyzes the trend and disease burden of injury deaths in Chinese population from 2004 to 2010, using data from the National Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs system, as injury deaths are classified based on the International Classification of Disease-10(th Revision (ICD-10. We observed that injury death accounted for nearly 10% of all deaths in China throughout the period 2004-2010, and the injury mortality rates were higher in males than those in females, and higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Traffic crashes (33.79-38.47% of all injury deaths and suicides (16.20-22.01% were the two leading causes of injury deaths. Alarmingly, suicide surpassed traffic crashes as the leading cause of injury mortality in rural females, yet adults aged 65 and older suffered the greatest number of fatal falls (20,701 deaths, 2004-2010. The burden of injury among men (72.11% was about three times more than that of women's (28.89%. This study provides indispensible evidence that China Authority needs to improve the surveillance and deterrence of three major types of injuries: Traffic-related injury deaths should be targeted for injury prevention activities in all population, people aged 65+ should be encouraged to take individual fall precautions, and prevention of suicidal behavior in rural females should be another key priority for the government of China.

  20. [Trends in the consumption of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs in a Colombian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique; Alzate-Carvajal, Verónica; Jimenez-Canizales, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In Latin America, psychotropic medications are the third most marketed drug group, especially antidepressants (35%) and anxiolytics (5%). The objective of this study was to determine the trends in the consumption and the costs of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs in a population of patients enrolled in the Health System of Colombia. A descriptive, observational study was performed using the data recorded inprescriptions for any anxiolytic or hypnotic drug prescribed to outpatients in the period between January 2008 and December 2013 in a population of 3.5 million people. Sociodemographic, pharmacological variables, overall costs, and cost per thousand inhabitants per day (CHD), were also recorded. The number of patients who received the drugs studied varied from 11,097 to 19,231 between 2008 and 2013. The most used drugs were clonazepam (44.1% of formulations), alprazolam (31.2%), and lorazepam (13.2%). The invoiced value of anxiolytics increased from US$ 207,673.63 in 2008 to US$ 488,977 in 2013, an increase of 135.4%. The CHD was US$ 0.31 for benzodiazepines, and US$ 0.02 for zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone (Z drugs) for 2008, and US$ 0.36 and US$ 0.02 in 2013 respectively. The CHD declined after 2010 following the introduction of generic drugs. Patients receiving benzodiazepines in Colombia are mostly women, average age 55 years, with very low frequency in defined daily doses per thousand inhabitants when compared with other countries. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Abundance Trends and Status of the Little Colorado River Population of Humpback Chub: An Update Considering 1989-2006 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins,, Lewis G.

    2008-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 1967, the humpback chub (Gila cypha) (HBC) was added to the federal list of endangered species and is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Arizona, and one in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The majority of Grand Canyon humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River (LCR)-the largest tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon-and the Colorado River near its confluence with the Little Colorado River. Monitoring and research of the Grand Canyon humpback chub population is overseen by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a Federal initiative to protect and improve resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam. This report provides updated information on the status and trends of the LCR population in light of new information and refined assessment methodology. An earlier assessment of the LCR population (Coggins and others, 2006a) used data collected during 1989?2002; the assessment provided here includes that data and additional data collected through 2006. Catch-rate indices, closed population mark-recapture model abundance estimates, results from the original age-structured mark recapture (ASMR) model (Coggins and others, 2006b), and a newly refined ASMR model are presented. This report also seeks to (1) formally evaluate alternative stock assessment models using Pearson residual analyses and information theoretic procedures, (2) use mark-recapture data to estimate the relationship between HBC age and length, (3) translate uncertainty in the assignment of individual fish age to resulting estimates of recruitment and abundance from the ASMR model, and (4) evaluate past and present stock assessments considering the available data sources and analyses, recognizing the limitations

  2. Assessment of Cognitive Skills in the USSR: Historical Trends and Current Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowinsky, Ivan Z.

    1985-01-01

    Assessment practices in the Soviet Union reveal three trends. The so-called pedology movement was replaced in the 1930s by an anti-testing policy, followed more recently by a reassessment of psychodiagnostic practices. Late 1970s and the beginning of 1980s reveal strong interests in psychodiagnosis. (Author/CL)

  3. Faculty Development for Advancing Community Engagement in Higher Education: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Marshall; Plaxton-Moore, Star

    2017-01-01

    This research involved the conduct of a conceptual review of 28 refereed journal articles and a survey of campus centers for community engagement staff to identify salient features and trends of existing faculty development programming designed to advance service-learning and community engagement in higher education. Results of this investigation…

  4. Teaching Creativity: Current Findings, Trends, and Controversies in the Psychology of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, the psychological study of creativity has accelerated greatly. To facilitate the teaching of creativity, I provide an overview of the recent literature. The overview begins by discussing recent empirical results and research trends. This discussion specifically treats creativity's cognitive, differential, developmental, and…

  5. Current Developments in Education in Mexico and Trends for the 1980s: A Modified Delphi Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stanley G.

    Twenty-nine professional educators at the Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara and post-graduate students of educational administration participated in a study to identify trends in education based on change in the society and the environment. Researchers used a modification of Delphi Technique, an intuitive method for organizing and sharing the…

  6. Teaching the Evolution of the Mind: Current Findings, Trends, and Controversies in Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, James R.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2011-01-01

    As the burgeoning field of evolutionary psychology continues to gain exposure and acceptance throughout the psychological community, it is important to explain this field clearly and accurately to students. This article discusses some recent findings and trends in evolutionary psychological research to aid instructors in their efforts to provide…

  7. Teaching the Evolution of the Mind: Current Findings, Trends, and Controversies in Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, James R.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2011-01-01

    As the burgeoning field of evolutionary psychology continues to gain exposure and acceptance throughout the psychological community, it is important to explain this field clearly and accurately to students. This article discusses some recent findings and trends in evolutionary psychological research to aid instructors in their efforts to provide…

  8. Changes in size and trends of North American sea duck populations associated with North Pacific oceanic regime shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Broad-scale multi-species declines in populations of North American sea ducks for unknown reasons is cause for management concern. Oceanic regime shifts have been associated with rapid changes in ecosystem structure of the North Pacific and Bering Sea. However, relatively little is known about potential effects of these changes in oceanic conditions on marine bird populations at broad scales. I examined changes in North American breeding populations of sea ducks from 1957 to 2011 in relation to potential oceanic regime shifts in the North Pacific in 1977, 1989, and 1998. There was strong support for population-level effects of regime shifts in 1977 and 1989, but little support for an effect of the 1998 shift. The continental-level effects of these regime shifts differed across species groups and time. Based on patterns of sea duck population dynamics associated with regime shifts, it is unclear if the mechanism of change relates to survival or reproduction. Results of this analysis support the hypothesis that population size and trends of North American sea ducks are strongly influenced by oceanic conditions. The perceived population declines appear to have halted >20 years ago, and populations have been relatively stable or increasing since that time. Given these results, we should reasonably expect dramatic changes in sea duck population status and trends with future oceanic regime shifts.

  9. [Secular trends in blood lipid disorders among adolescents: population study in Novosibirsk (1989-2003)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, D V; Nikitin, Iu P; Zav'ialova, L G; Burakova, S V; Ivanova, M V

    2007-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a known risk factor of coronary artery disease. The reduction of elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in childhood may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Aim of the study was to assess prevalence and trends in lipid profile and lipid disorders in adolescent population in Novosibirsk (1989-2003). Four cross-sectional surveys of school children aged 14-17 years in 1989 (n=656), in 1994 (n=620), in 1999 (n=626) and in 2003 (n=667) were carried out. Total sample was 2569 (1214 males and 1355 females). Blood total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) were measured by enzymatic methods. LDL-C was calculated with Friedwald's formula. Associations of blood lipids with age, sex, year of study, body mass index (kg/m2), blood pressure and main nutrients of diet were measured by GLM method. Prevalence of dyslipidemia was evaluated with NCEP-peds criteria. Diet was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall. During the 15-year period (1989-2003) mean serum TC decreased from 175 to 162 mg/dl in males and from 191 to 175 mg/dl in females (p dislipidemias in adolescents of Novosibirsk significantly changed following the changes of body mass index and diet.

  10. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Main, K M; Leffers, H; Andersson, A-M; Juul, A; Jensen, T K; Toppari, J

    2007-08-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias/disorders of sex differentiation and male fertility problems may be symptoms with varying penetration. In spite of their fetal origin, most of the TDS symptoms, including TGCC and poor semen quality, can only be diagnosed in adulthood. Data from a Danish-Finnish research collaboration strongly suggest that trends in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health problems may also be rising.

  11. Rapid assessment of populations trends of invasive species: Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA, ED

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA is a powerful analytical approach for biodi-versity management. Its main advan-tages are due to its intuitive processing and visualization, since mathematical workflow is conceptually similar to the widely accepted Principal Components Analysis. Detailed analyses of popula-tion trends with mathematical tools are often difficult to achieve for managers by a number of reasons (large numbers or areas monitored, large number of species, insufficient statistics skills, strong knowledge level in demographic analyses, etc.. SSA has been used since the 1970’s in signal processing to clarify signal vs. noisy information, but it has also been used in climate change analy-sis and other developmental areas. Be-sides, SSA is a rapid-learning method for technicians and managers with medium level of mathematical knowledge. Free software in Unix environment is avail-able. Unfortunately, no free and friendly software is available for Win-dows SO. Although R package may offer solutions for really advanced users, it does not fit real work situations for managers of biological invasions. Cater-pillar (Gistat Group, Ltd is by now, the best option found by the author in terms of price, facility for results inter-pretation and time consumed in learn-ing. The main disadvantage is the poor content of tutorial files

  12. Institutional point-of-care glucometer identifies population trends in blood glucose associated with war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Matas, Zipora; Chaimy, Tova; Landau, Zohar; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Berlovitz, Yitzhak; Wainstein, Julio

    2013-11-01

    Acute physiological stress has been shown to impair glucose homeostasis. War is a period of acute psychological stress, and its effect on glucose control is unknown. In this study random point-of-care (POC) glucose levels were measured using an automated, institutional glucometer in hospitalized adult patients prior to versus during the Israeli Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012). Random POC glucose values measured with the institutional blood glucose monitoring system were obtained 1 week prior to the Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012) and compared with values to those obtained during the first 4 days of the war (November 14-17, 2012). In total, 3,573 POC glucose measures were included: 1,865 during the pre-war period and 1,708 during the campaign. POC glucose measures were significantly higher during the war compared with the week preceding the war: 9.7±4.7 versus 9.3±4.2 mmol/L (P=0.02). In a general linear model, period (pre-war vs. during war) persisted as a significant predictor of POC glucose even after controlling for age, sex, and department type (internal medicine vs. surgical). Acute stress, such as a wartime situation, is associated with a significant increase in random blood glucose values in a population of hospitalized adults. Long-term follow-up of the individuals hospitalized during these two periods can reveal differences in morbidity and mortality trends.

  13. Abundance, distribution and trend of the lesser spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina breeding population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dravecký Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Odhad pocetnosti hniezdnej populácie orla kriklavého na Slovensku bol publikovaný v rokoch 1955-2002. V tejto štúdii odhadujeme pocetnost hniezdnej populácie orla kriklavého k rokom 1997 a 2014. K roku 1997 bol odhadnutý celkový pocet 762 párov. V roku 2002 bol publikovaný odhad pocetnosti k roku 2000 vo výške 800-900 párov. K roku 2014 odhadujeme pocetnost hniezdnej populácie orla kriklavého na Slovensku na 600-800 párov a klesajúci trend vývoja populácie v rokoch 2000-2013 priemerne -23%. Náš odhad je podložený výsledkami extrapolácie údajov, získaných v rokoch 2011-2013 z ôsmich vybraných chránených vtácích území v rámci riešenia projektu LIFE09 NAT/SK/000396 „Ochrana orla kriklavého na Slovensku“. Pri štatistickej analýze pocetnosti, hustôt a trendov pre celý areál hniezdneho rozšírenia druhu na Slovensku sme vychádzali zo sumarizovaných poctov hniezdnych párov, ich hustôt a trendov vo vybraných územiach a z ich stratifikácie podla výsledkov ANOVA a zhlukovej analýzy. Pre 8 chránených vtácích území vcelku (n = 8 i v clenení podla kvadrátov Databanky Fauny Slovenska (n = 119 sme vypocítali intervalové odhady stredných hodnôt poctu párov (prosté i vážené aritmetické priemery a mediány. Ich sumarizáciou pri postupnom zväcšovaní vzorky (n = 8, 9, 11a 12 a extrapoláciou na celý areál hniezdneho rozšírenia druhu na Slovensku (ca 28 935 km2 sa výsledné odhady stredných hodnôt stabilizovali na úrovni 670 (aritmetický priemer s 95%LCL = 507 a 95%UCL = 834 resp. 765 (medián s 95%LCL = 393 a 95%UCL = 841 hniezdnych párov. Ako najspolahlivejší odhad pocetnosti hniezdnej populácie orla kriklavého na Slovensku k roku 2014 vychádza medián 765 párov v 95 %-nom intervale spolahlivosti od 393 do 841 párov a s medzikvartilovým rozpätím od 418 do 835 párov. Odhadujeme 23 %-ný pokles celoslovenskej populácie v rokoch 2000-2013, co predstavuje mierny

  14. Time Trends in the Incidence and Treatment of Extra-Abdominal and Abdominal Aggressive Fibromatosis: A Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L.M. van Broekhoven (Danique); D.J. Grunhagen (Dirk Jan); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); T. van Dalen (Thijs); C. Verhoef (Kees)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a locally infiltrating soft-tissue tumor. In a population-based study in the Netherlands, we evaluated time trends for the incidence and treatment of AF. Methods: In PALGA: Dutch Pathology Registry, all patients diagnosed between 1993 and 2013

  15. Northern region landbird monitoring program: a program designed to monitor more than long-term population trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Hutto

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Region Landbird Monitoring Program (NRLMP) has been in place for nearly a decade and is designed to allow us to track population trends of numerous landbird species, while at the same time allowing us to investigate the effects of various kinds of land use activity on the occurrence, abundance, or demographics of numerous landbird species. We conduct...

  16. Rate and time trend of perinatal, infant, maternal mortality, natality and natural population growth in kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    THE AIM OF WORK HAS BEEN THE PRESENTATION OF THE RATE AND TIME TRENDS OF SOME INDICATORS OF THE HEATH CONDITION OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN KOSOVO: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. THE DATA WERE TAKEN FROM: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a continuous decrease. Infant mortality

  17. Population trends of Mariana Crow Corvus kubaryi on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plentovich, S.; Morton, J.M.; Bart, J.; Camp, R.J.; Lusk, M.; Johnson, N.; VanderWerf, E.

    2005-01-01

    Endemic to the islands of Guam and Rota in the Mariana Islands, Mariana Crow Corvus kubaryi is the only corvid in Micronesia. Currently, it survives on Guam only because of translocation of individuals from Rota (1999-2003). Island-wide surveys in 1982 and 1995 on Rota yielded population estimates of 1,348 and 592 respectively, indicating a 56% decrease in only 13 years. A sharp decline in the only viable Mariana Crow population has serious implications for conservation efforts on Rota and for efforts to re-establish the Guam population. However, the validity of the apparent decline has been debated among scientists and government management agencies. We augmented the 1982 and 1995 island-wide VCP surveys with (1) an additional island-wide survey conducted in 1998, and (2) roadside surveys conducted during 1991-1993 and again during 1999-2002. We also outline historical changes in Rota's limestone forest based on aerial photographs and historical information. Data from all surveys indicate a significant decline in the Mariana Crow population. Declines occurred especially along the north-central coast and in the area east of the airport known as As Dudo in the 1990s, but the data indicate an island-wide decline over the entire span of the surveys. introduced predators, human persecution, and habitat loss and degradation by anthropogenic and natural causes have all contributed to the decline. Long-term preservation of this species will require effective brown treesnake Boiga irregularis control, habitat protection, continued monitoring and research, and increased public education and awareness of Rota's rare and endangered species. ?? BirdLife International 2005.

  18. Preventing preterm births: trends and potential reductions with current interventionsin 39 very high human development index countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hannah H.; Larson, Jim; Blencowe, Hannah; Spong, Catherine Y.; Howson, Christopher P.; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Lackritz, Eve M.; Lee, Shoo K.; Mason, Elizabeth; Serazin, Andrew C.; Walani, Salimah; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Each year,1.1 million babies die from prematurity, andmany survivors are disabled. Worldwide, 15 million babies are preterm(human development index (VHHDI) countries if current evidence-based interventions were widely implemented. This analysis is to inform a “Born Too Soon” rate reduction target. Methods Countries were assessed for inclusion based on availability and quality ofpreterm prevalence data (2000-2010), and trend analyses with projections undertaken. We analysed drivers of rate increases in the USA, 1998-2004. For 39 VHHDI countrieswith >10,000 births, country-by-country analyses were performed based on target population, incremental coverage increase,and intervention efficacy. Cost savings were estimated based on reported costs for preterm care in the USAadjusted usingWorld Bank purchasing power parity. Findings From 2010, even if all VHHDI countries achieved annual preterm birth rate reductions of the best performers, (Sweden and Netherlands), 2000-2010 or 2005-2010(Lithuania, Estonia)), rates would experience a relative reduction of<5% by 2015 on average across the 39 countries.Our analysis of preterm birth rise 1998-2004 in USA suggests half the change is unexplained, but important drivers includeinductions/cesareandelivery and ART.For all 39 VHHDI countries, five interventionsmodeling at high coveragepredicted 5%preterm birth rate relative reduction from 9.59 to 9.07% of live births:smoking cessation (0.01 rate reduction), decreasing multiple embryo transfers during assisted reproductive technologies (0.06), cervical cerclage (0.15), progesterone supplementation (0.01), and reduction of non-medically indicated labour induction or caesarean delivery (0.29).These translate to 58,000 preterm births averted and total annual economic cost savings of ~US$ 3 billion. Interpretation Even with optimal coverage of current interventions, many being complex to implement, the estimated potential reduction in preterm birth is tiny. Hence we

  19. Overlooked and Understudied? A Survey of Current Trends in Research on Adult English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews-Aydinli, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis and review of 41 recent research studies focusing on the population of adult English language learners (ELLs) studying in nonacademic contexts. It notes the unique qualities and importance of understanding the English-language needs of this population, provides a critical overview of the existing literature, and…

  20. Trends in Health Information Technology Safety: From Technology-Induced Errors to Current Approaches for Ensuring Technology Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Borycki,Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Health information technology (HIT) research findings suggested that new healthcare technologies could reduce some types of medical errors while at the same time introducing classes of medical errors (i.e., technology-induced errors). Technology-induced errors have their origins in HIT, and/or HIT contribute to their occurrence. The objective of this paper is to review current trends in the published literature on HIT safety. Methods A review and synthesis of the medical and life s...

  1. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  2. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013, Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  3. Book Review: Siroj Sorajjakool: Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government

    OpenAIRE

    Manassinee Moottatarn

    2014-01-01

    Book Review of the Monograph: Siroj Sorajjakool (2013), Human Trafficking in Thailand: Current Issues, Trends and the Role of the Thai Government. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, ISBN: 978-616-215-060-9, 235 pages. Human trafficking is not widely reported in local Thai news, and news of it is often only picked up by international correspondents. The extent of this problem has only started to reveal itself as a widespread problem in the kingdom.

  4. Developing accurate survey methods for estimating population sizes and trends of the critically endangered Nihoa Millerbird and Nihoa Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Farmer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results of a comparative study of bird survey methods undertaken for the purpose of improving assessments of the conservation status for the two endemic passerines on the Island of Nihoa—Nihoa Millerbird (Sylviidae: Acrocephalus familiaris kingi) and Nihoa Finch (Fringilidae: Telespiza ultima; also referred herein as millerbird and finch)—both listed as endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Hawai`i Revised Statutes 195D. The current survey protocol, implemented since 1967, has produced a highly variable range of counts for both the millerbird and finch, making difficult assessments of population size and trend. This report details the analyses of bird survey data collected in 2010 and 2011 in which three survey methods were compared―strip-transect, line-transect, and point-transect sampling―and provides recommendations for improved survey methods and protocols. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  5. State standards for domestic violence perpetrator treatment: current status, trends, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuro, Roland D; Eberle, Jane A

    2008-01-01

    We empirically surveyed and analyzed existing standards for the treatment of perpetrators of domestic violence across the United States. Specific areas examined included: presence and scope; administrative entity for certifying; screening and risk assessment protocols; minimum length of treatment; theoretical or conceptual orientation; treatment content; preferred or allowable modalities of treatment; whether research findings are mentioned; methods for revising standards; and minimum education and training required for providers. We examined trends using several methods including comparisons between present and previous survey data (Maiuro et al., 2001). Positive trends were evident including increased use of multivariate models of treatment content, use of an intake assessment prior to treatment, use of a danger/lethality assessment to manage risk, recognition of the need for program evaluation and supportive research, and the requirement of a minimum level of formal education as a prerequisite for providers. We identify specific areas for further research and development and make recommendations for improving existing practice and standards of care.

  6. Classification of future 5 MW turbines by extrapolation of current trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakoer, R.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.; Van Leeuwen, H.L.

    1999-09-01

    This report is part of the STABTOOL project. The goals of the STABTOOL project can be summarised as follows: (1) first establish the elastic configuration of the present megawatt scaled wind turbines, and making an inventory of the present design trends and trends for future wind turbine developments w.r.t changes in the elastic configuration; (2) to make an inventory of the different types of instabilities which can occur for the present and next generation wind turbines for both onshore and offshore applications; (3) to make an inventory of analysis and design methods and development or adjustment of calculation methods. The final objective of the STABTOOL project is to create STABility TOOLs: a simple set of calculation models and methods for specific forms of aeroelastic instabilities and vibration problems which are applicable for both present and future large wind turbines. This report concerns the up scaling of the selected elastic configurations described in ST-NW-1-004: 2-blade, (active)pitch controlled, fixed speed (Kvaerner WTS 80M); 3-blade, (active)stall controlled, fixed speed (Nedwind 62 ); 3-blade, pitch controlled variable speed (Lagerwey 50/1000). Based on scaling rules and extrapolation of trend figures, the characteristics of the future 5MW class of wind turbines is estimated. The Nedwind based extrapolation is considered to be an onshore turbine, whereas the others are offshore. 5 refs.

  7. Food Insecurity among American Indians and Alaska Natives: A National Profile using the Current Population Survey-Food Security Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Huyser, Kimberly R; Valdes, Jimmy; Simonds, Vanessa Watts

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity increases the risk for obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer-conditions highly prevalent among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Using the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement, we analyzed the food insecurity trends of AI/ANs compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States from 2000 to 2010. From 2000 to 2010, 25% of AI/ANs remained consistently food insecure and AI/ANs were twice as likely to be food insecure compared to whites. Urban AI/ANs were more likely to experience food insecurity than rural AI/ANs. Our findings highlight the need for national and tribal policies that expand food assistance programs; promote and support increased access to healthy foods and community food security, in both rural and urban areas; and reduce the burden of diet-related disparities on low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations.

  8. Estimating temporal trend in the presence of spatial complexity: A Bayesian hierarchical model for a wetland plant population undergoing restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, T.J.; Irvine, K.M.; Vierling, K.T.; Vierling, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring programs that evaluate restoration and inform adaptive management are important for addressing environmental degradation. These efforts may be well served by spatially explicit hierarchical approaches to modeling because of unavoidable spatial structure inherited from past land use patterns and other factors. We developed Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate trends from annual density counts observed in a spatially structured wetland forb (Camassia quamash [camas]) population following the cessation of grazing and mowing on the study area, and in a separate reference population of camas. The restoration site was bisected by roads and drainage ditches, resulting in distinct subpopulations ("zones") with different land use histories. We modeled this spatial structure by fitting zone-specific intercepts and slopes. We allowed spatial covariance parameters in the model to vary by zone, as in stratified kriging, accommodating anisotropy and improving computation and biological interpretation. Trend estimates provided evidence of a positive effect of passive restoration, and the strength of evidence was influenced by the amount of spatial structure in the model. Allowing trends to vary among zones and accounting for topographic heterogeneity increased precision of trend estimates. Accounting for spatial autocorrelation shifted parameter coefficients in ways that varied among zones depending on strength of statistical shrinkage, autocorrelation and topographic heterogeneity-a phenomenon not widely described. Spatially explicit estimates of trend from hierarchical models will generally be more useful to land managers than pooled regional estimates and provide more realistic assessments of uncertainty. The ability to grapple with historical contingency is an appealing benefit of this approach.

  9. Trends and population dynamics of a Velvet Scoter (Melanitta fusca) population: influence of density dependence and winter climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, G.; Kölzsch, A.; Larsson, K.; Nordberg, M.; Höglund, J.

    2013-01-01

    As many seaduck populations around the world have been reported to be in decline, there is an increasing demand for knowledge about intrinsic and extrinsic factors determining population dynamics of these species. In this study, we analyzed long-term dynamics of the summer population of Velvet Scote

  10. BRFSS Prevalence And Trends Data: Tobacco Use - Adults Who Are Current Smokers for 1995-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Percentages are weighted to population characteristics. Data are not available if it did not meet BRFSS stability requirements. For more information on these...

  11. Secular trends in cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides and prevalence of dyslipidemias in an urban Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Guptha, Soneil; Agrawal, Aachu; Kaul, Vijay; Gaur, Kiran; Gupta, Vijay P

    2008-10-24

    Coronary heart disease is increasing in urban Indian subjects and lipid abnormalities are important risk factors. To determine secular trends in prevalence of various lipid abnormalities we performed studies in an urban Indian population. Successive epidemiological Jaipur Heart Watch (JHW) studies were performed in Western India in urban locations. The studies evaluated adults > or = 20 years for multiple coronary risk factors using standardized methodology (JHW-1, 1993-94, n = 2212; JHW-2, 1999-2001, n = 1123; JHW-3, 2002-03, n = 458, and JHW-4 2004-2005, n = 1127). For the present analyses data of subjects 20-59 years (n = 4136, men 2341, women 1795) have been included. In successive studies, fasting measurements for cholesterol lipoproteins (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol) and triglycerides were performed in 193, 454, 179 and 252 men (n = 1078) and 83, 472, 195, 248 women (n = 998) respectively (total 2076). Age-group specific levels of various cholesterol lipoproteins, triglycerides and their ratios were determined. Prevalence of various dyslipidemias (total cholesterol > or = 200 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol > or = 130 mg/dl, non-HDL cholesterol > or = 160 mg/dl, triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl, low HDL cholesterol cholesterol remnants > or = 25 mg/dl, and high total:HDL cholesterol ratio > or = 5.0, and > or = 4.0 were also determined. Significance of secular trends in prevalence of dyslipidemias was determined using linear-curve estimation regression. Association of changing trends in prevalence of dyslipidemias with trends in educational status, obesity and truncal obesity (high waist:hip ratio) were determined using two-line regression analysis. Mean levels of various lipoproteins increased sharply from JHW-1 to JHW-2 and then gradually in JHW-3 and JHW-4. Age-adjusted mean values (mg/dl) in JHW-1, JHW-2, JHW-3 and JHW-4 studies respectively showed a significant increase in total cholesterol (174.9 +/- 45, 196.0 +/- 42, 187.5 +/- 38, 193

  12. Nucleotide composition bias and codon usage trends of gene populations in Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. agalactiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Xia Ma; Yu-Ping Feng; Jia-Ling Bai; De-Rong Zhang; Xin-Shi Lin; Zhong-Ren Ma

    2015-06-01

    Because of the low GC content of the gene population, amino acids of the two mycoplasmas tend to be encoded by synonymous codons with an A or T end. Compared with the codon usage of ovine, Mycoplasma capricolum and M. agalactiae tend to select optimal codons, which are rare codons in ovine. Due to codon usage pattern caused by genes with key biological functions, the overall codon usage trends represent a certain evolutionary direction in the life cycle of the two mycoplasmas. The overall codon usage trends of a gene population of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum can be obviously separated from other mycoplasmas, and the overall codon usage trends of M. agalactiae are highly similar to those of M. bovis. These results partly indicate the independent evolution of the two mycoplasmas without the limits of the host cell’s environment. The GC and AT skews estimate nucleotide composition bias at different positions of nucleotide triplets and the protein consideration caused by the nucleotide composition bias at codon positions 1 and 2 largely take part in synonymous codon usage patterns of the two mycoplasmas. The correlation between the codon adaptation index and codon usage variation indicates that the effect of codon usage on gene expression in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum is opposite to that of M. agalactiae, further suggesting independence of the evolutionary process influencing the overall codon usage trends of gene populations of mycoplasmas.

  13. Trends in vegetation degradation in relation to land tenure, rainfall, and population changes in Peddie district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, V

    2001-07-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in vegetation are examined in relation to land tenure, population increase, and rainfall variation in a part of Peddie district, Eastern Cape. Sequential aerial photographs between 1938 and 1988 are analyzed to determine trends in vegetation and population change in three different land-tenure units. The areal extent at each date of four distinct vegetation categories is determined using PC ARC/INFO GIS. Long-term annual rainfall trends for the area are analyzed and juxtaposed with vegetation changes. Extensive ground-truthing exercises are carried out to verify the present condition of vegetation condition in terms of cover and species composition. Differences in land-tenure systems are discerned as the dominant factor controlling variations in vegetation degradation. The study also reveals that neither population changes nor rainfall variations can explain the observed trends in vegetation degradation. Earlier injudicious land-use practices, sustained since the turn of the last century, may provide plausible explanations for the trends and present status of vegetation degradation in the area.

  14. Time trends in population prevalence of eating disorder behaviors and their relationship to quality of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mitchison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in the burden of eating disorder (ED features, as estimated by the composite of their prevalence and impact upon quality of life (QoL over a period of 10 years. METHODOLOGY: Representative samples of 3010 participants in 1998 and 3034 participants in 2008 from the South Australian adult population were assessed for endorsement of ED features (objective binge eating, extreme dieting, and purging were assessed in both years; subjective binge eating and extreme weight/shape concerns were also assessed in 2008 and QoL using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 1998 to 2008 significant increases in the prevalence of objective binge eating (2.7% to 4.9%, p0.05. Multiple linear regressions found that in 1998 only objective binge eating significantly predicted scores on the mental health summary scale of the SF-36; however, in 2008 extreme weight/shape concerns, extreme dieting, and subjective binge eating were also significant predictors. Objective binge eating and extreme dieting were significant predictors of scores on the physical health summary scale of the SF-36 in both 1998 and 2008. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of ED behaviors increased between 1998 and 2008, while their impact on QoL remained stable. This suggests an overall increase in the burden of disordered eating from 1998 to 2008. Given that binge eating and extreme dieting predict impairment in QoL, the necessity of interventions to prevent both under- and over-eating is reinforced.

  15. [Trend of lipid profile in general population from Caceres Health Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Gómez, P J; González Sanchidrián, S; Fuentes Rodríguez, J M; Gómez-Martino Arroyo, J R

    Dyslipidaemias are a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of our study was to analyse lipid profile in general population, prevalence, and trend in five years. From January 2010 to December 2014, all biochemical controls from Primary Care in 18 years-old adults were analysed. We used as reference for lipid levels those stablished for the European Society Cardiology and Hypertension. When several controls from same patient were found, the best and worst levels were used for prevalence. 304.523 controls were included from 97.470 patients (mean age 53.4±19.4 years, 57.2% were women). Mean levels of total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c and triglycerides were 193.2±38.7mg/dL, 114.9±33.6mg/dL, 56.9±15.4mg/dL and 113.2±78.1mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-c, low HDL-c and hypertriglyceridemia, in the best and worst levels, were 33.9% vs. 63.4%, 31.7% vs. 59.1%, 11.2% vs 23.9% and 9.9% vs. 27.5%. Between 2010 and 2014, mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-c decreased in 12.2% and 14%. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia is high, although a decreased in mean levels of total cholesterol and LDL-c has been achieved. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Population trends in Pacific Oceanic sharks and the utility of regulations on shark finning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Shelley C; Harley, Shelton J; Hoyle, Simon D; Rice, Joel S

    2013-02-01

    Accurate assessment of shark population status is essential for conservation but is often constrained by limited and unreliable data. To provide a basis for improved management of shark resources, we analyzed a long-term record of species-specific catches, sizes, and sexes of sharks collected by onboard observers in the western and central Pacific Ocean from 1995 to 2010. Using generalized linear models, we estimated population-status indicators on the basis of catch rate and biological indicators of fishing pressure on the basis of median size to identify trends for blue (Prionace glauca), mako (Isurus spp.), oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus), and silky (Carcharhinus falciformis) sharks. Standardized catch rates of longline fleets declined significantly for blue sharks in the North Pacific (by 5% per year [CI 2% to 8%]), for mako sharks in the North Pacific (by 7% per year [CI 3% to 11%]), and for oceanic whitetip sharks in tropical waters (by 17% per year [CI 14% to 20%]). Median lengths of silky and oceanic whitetip sharks decreased significantly in their core habitat, and almost all sampled silky sharks were immature. Our results are consistent with results of analyses of similar data sets. Combined, these results and evidence of targeted fishing for sharks in some regional fisheries heighten concerns for sustainable utilization, particularly for oceanic whitetip and North Pacific blue sharks. Regional regulations that prohibit shark finning (removal of fins and discarding of the carcass) were enacted in 2007 and are in many cases the only form of control on shark catches. However, there is little evidence of a reduction of finning in longline fisheries. In addition, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks are more frequently retained than finned, which suggests that even full implementation of and adherence to a finning prohibition may not substantially reduce mortality rates for these species. We argue that finning prohibitions divert attention from

  17. Population trends in Vojvodina during the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic development belongs to the group of the primary social and developmental issues, and the demographic processes and tendencies in the population trends are included in the basic social processes which are expressed by the demographic (that is, synthetic social indicators. The process of the depopulation of Vojvodina is a result of the several-decades long decrease in birthrate, ageing of the population and mortality rate which is related to a series of historical, socioeconomic, cultural educational, specifically local, family, as well as psychological factors. Unfavourable demographic circumstances in Vojvodina started already in the 1920s, and became more pronounced after World War II, in 1989 resulting in the negative natural increase (-1%o, in the process of a more intensive decrease in the population which today, in the 21st century, acquires greater dimensions (-4,7%o in 2002, creating not only disturbances in the demographic, but also in the economic-social structures. Taking into account the far-developed process of demographic ageing of the population of Vojvodina and the accepted reproductive norms implying a low fertility (giving birth to a smaller number of children or only one child which does not ensure even the simple reproduction of the population, one cannot expect - in spite of the present immigrational processes (the inflow of refugees and the absolute increase in the population (between the previous two censuses - significantly more favourable population trends and a better prospective demographic picture of Vojvodina.

  18. Visualization of e-Health Research Topics and Current Trends Using Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; Jeong, Senator; Kang, Byeong-Gwon; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Lee, Soo-Kyoung

    2015-05-01

    E-health has been grown rapidly with significant impact on quality and safety of healthcare. However, there is a large gap between the postulated and empirically demonstrated benefits of e-health technologies and a need for a clearer mapping of its conceptual domains. Therefore, this study aimed to critically review the main research topics and trends of international e-health through social network analysis. Medical subject heading terms were used to retrieve 3,023 research articles published from 1979 through 2014 in the PubMed database. We extracted n-grams from the corpus using a text analysis program, generated co-occurrence networks, and then analyzed and visualized the networks using Pajek software. The hub and authority measures identified the most important research topics in e-health. Newly emerging topics by 4-year period units were identified as research trends. The most important research topics in e-health are personal health records (PHR), health information technology, primary care, mobile health, clinical decision support systems (CDSS), and so on. The eight groups obtained through ego network analysis can be divided into four semantically different areas, as follows: information technology, infrastructure, services, and subjects. Also, four historical trends in e-health research are identified: the first focusing on e-health and telemedicine; the second, PHR and monitoring; the third, CDSS and alert; and the fourth, mobile health and health literacy. This study promotes a systematic understanding of e-health by identifying topic networks, thereby contributing to the future direction of e-health research and education.

  19. Current trends in the health of children and young people in learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garkusha S.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Determined by the dynamics in the health of students and medical teams consisting of physical training in secondary schools. Analyzed the records in-depth inspection of magazines and leaflets health of 32484 schoolchildren of Chernigov for the period 2008-2012. Established a steady trend to a significant deterioration in the health of schoolchildren. A decline in the number of healthy children with the increase in the period of study from 1 to 11. Revealed negative trend decline in the health of children in the main medical group. Shows a tendency to increase the number of children belonging to the preparatory and special medical groups. It is recommended to use a recreational form of physical education and health educational use of technology. It is recommended to include in the training sessions: gymnastics, gymnastic minutes during lessons, exercise, and outdoor games on the elongated recess and daily physical education classes in the extended day, independent study after school, sports and mass work in the community.

  20. Public Debts Trends in the Current Economic Context, from Both National and International Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Dascalu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available . The article presents an analysis of the way public debt operates in Romania, in the context of states economies trends, of complex and topical financial environments. In the context of a functional market economy, the issues faced by certain states involving high public debt levels or potential budgetary pressure risks converge towards the idea that public finances sustainability needs to be a major challenge at the level of public policies. Considering this situation, the adequate policies to tackle public finances sustainability need to have, as a launching base, the overall strategy of the European Union, focused on the three component parts, namely abatement of public debt, increasing productivity and employment and last but not least, reforming the pension and healthcare systems. To ensure reasonably sustainable public debt levels, EU member states need to attain medium term strategic budgetary objectives, that would ensure a downward trend of public debt, a condition which can be fulfilled by compliance with budget policies rules, which ground development in the macroeconomic framework.

  1. Current trends in diagnostic and therapeutic principles for prostate cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okihara, Koji; Shiraishi, Takumi; Ukimura, Osamu; Mizutani, Yoichi; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify characteristics of the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in Japan. In September 2005, questionnaire surveys were mailed to Japanese urologists (response rate, 43%; 474/1090) who were listed as voting members (VMs) of the Japanese Urological Association (JUA); the questionnaire surveys were also mailed to professors and chairmen (PCs) of urology departments at Japanese national, public, and private universities who were also VMs of the JUA (response rate, 76%; 68/90). The questionnaires asked about beliefs and practices regarding prostate cancer management. The answers of the VMs and PCs to the questionnaire were very similar. About 60% of these urologists answered that they did not set an age limit for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, and about 40% answered that they did not set an age limit for prostate needle biopsy in individuals with an intermediately elevated PSA level. The age limit for radical prostatectomy (RP) was set at 75 years by 69% (322/470) of the VMs and 66% (45/68) of the PCs. The order of priority of factors considered for the selection of RP for early prostate cancer was radicality, including tumor grade (mean, 1.97); patient's wish for radical surgery (mean, 2.47); comorbidity (mean, 2.72); and age (mean, 2.81). There are trends in diagnostic and therapeutic principles for prostate cancer which are characteristic of Japan, and these trends are associated with the recent rapid extension of life expectancy in that country.

  2. Language Play and Linguistic Hybridity as Current Trends in Hungarian Word-Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka Benczes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarian literature on word-formation typically focuses on rule-governed descriptions of regular and typologically relevant patterns. However, there are plenty of other word-formation trends that usually go unnoticed in mainstream morphological research. The present paper will focus on two such trends: 1 rhyming and alliterating compounds such as pannon puma ‘Pannonian puma’ (a euphemism for Hungary’s economic performance, on the analogy of Asian tiger; and 2 creative prefixations such as meggugliz (‘to google’ and felhájpol (‘to hype’. Although these are seemingly two quite different patterns, in fact they share two significant traits. On the one hand, they are demonstrations of the fact that language users make full use of the creative possibilities in language and routinely play with sounds and meanings. On the other hand, they are also indications of the influential role of English in present-day Hungarian word-formation. It seems that language users are not only aware of the possibilities that this interference can result in but are also able to exploit these consciously. This crossing of language boundaries is becoming increasingly inevitable with the global spread of English.

  3. Estimating Size and Trend of the North Interlake Woodland Caribou Population Using Fecal-DNA and Capture-Recapture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Peter N; Arnason, Arni Neil; Manseau, Micheline; Cross, Dale; Whaley, Kent; Wilson, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    A critical step in recovery efforts for endangered and threatened species is the monitoring of population demographic parameters. As part of these efforts, we evaluated the use of fecal-DNA based capture-recapture methods to estimate population sizes and population rate of change for the North Interlake woodland caribou herd (Rangifer tarandus caribou), Manitoba, Canada. This herd is part of the boreal population of woodland caribou, listed as threatened under the federal Species at Risk Act (2003) and the provincial Manitoba Endangered Species Act (2006). Between 2004 and 2009 (9 surveys), we collected 1,080 fecal samples and identified 180 unique genotypes (102 females and 78 males). We used a robust design survey plan with 2 surveys in most years and analysed the data with Program MARK to estimate encounter rates (p), apparent survival rates (ϕ), rates of population change (λ), and population sizes (N). We estimated these demographic parameters for males and females and for 2 genetic clusters within the North Interlake. The population size estimates were larger for the Lower than the Upper North Interlake area and the proportion of males was lower in the Lower (33%) than the Upper North Interlake (49%). Population rate of change for the entire North Interlake area (2005-2009) using the robust design Pradel model was significantly trends, which correspond to trends observed in other fragmented populations of woodland caribou along the southern part of their range. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the applicability and success of non-invasive genetic sampling in monitoring populations of woodland caribou. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Voting and Registration in the Election of November 1988. Current Population Reports: Population Characteristics, Series P-20, No. 440.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current Population Reports, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The findings presented in this report are based on the results of the November 1988 supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Some of the highlights of the report follow. (1) Overall voter turnout dropped to 57 percent in 1988, the first decline reported in CPS in a presidential election since 1972.…

  5. An overview of RDF processing systems: Current status, design features, and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlsson, O.O. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Walter, D.K. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Waste Material Management Div.); Goodman, B.J. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent history of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing facilities in the United States. The current status of these facilities, including environmental, institutional, and economic considerations is discussed. The unit operations used to produce a desired RDF product are described, and the future potential of RDF processing systems is evaluated. Current research sponsored by the US Department of Energy is also presented. 6 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. The Diagnosis and Hemodynamic Monitoring of Circulatory Shock: Current and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Adham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory shock is a complex clinical syndrome encompassing a group of conditions that can arise from different etiologies and presented by several different hemodynamic patterns. If not corrected, cell dysfunction, irreversible multiple organ insufficiency, and death may occur. The four basic types of shock, hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and distributive, have features similar to that of hemodynamic shock. It is therefore essential, when monitoring hemodynamic shock, to making accurate clinical assessments which will guide and dictate appropriate management therapy. The European Society of Intensive Care has recently made recommendations for monitoring hemodynamic shock. The present paper discusses the issues raised in the new statements, including individualization of blood pressure targets, prediction of fluid responsiveness, and the use of echocardiography as the first means during the initial evaluation of circulatory shock. Also, the place of more invasive hemodynamic monitoring techniques and future trends in hemodynamic and metabolic monitoring in circulatory shock, will be debated.

  7. Current status and trends of wheat genetic transformation studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yi; WANG Qiong; ZENG Jian; SUN Tao; YANG Guang-xiao; HE Guang-yuan

    2015-01-01

    More than 20 years have passed since the ifrst report on successful genetic transformation of wheat. With the establishment and improvement of transformation platform, great progresses have been made on wheat genetic transformation both on its fundamental and applied studies in China, especial y driven by the National Major Project for Transgenic Organism Breed-ing, China, initiated in 2008. In this review, wheat genetic transformation platform improvement and transgenic research progresses including new techniques applied and functional studies of wheat quality, yield and stress tolerant related genes and biosafety assessment are summarized. The existing problems and the trends in wheat transformation with traditional methods combined with genomic studies and genome editing technology are also discussed.

  8. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  9. Infective endocarditis prophylaxis: current practice trend among paediatric cardiologists: are we following the 2007 guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ronak J; Patel, Neil R; Wang, Ming; Shah, Nishant C

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the American Heart Association modified the infective endocarditis prophylaxis guidelines by limiting the use of antibiotics in patients with cardiac conditions associated with the highest risk of adverse outcomes after infective endocarditis. Our objective was to evaluate current practice for infective endocarditis prophylaxis among paediatric cardiologists. A web-based survey focussing on current practice, describing the use of antibiotics for infective endocarditis prophylaxis in various congenital and acquired heart diseases, was distributed via e-mail to paediatric cardiologists. The survey was kept anonymous and was distributed twice. Data from 253 participants were analysed. Most paediatric cardiologists discontinued infective endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with simple lesions such as small ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and bicuspid aortic valve without stenosis or regurgitation; however, significant disagreement persists in prescribing infective endocarditis prophylaxis in certain conditions such as rheumatic heart disease, Fontan palliation without fenestration, and the Ross procedure. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis in certain selected conditions for which infective endocarditis prophylaxis has been indicated as per the current guidelines varies from 44 to 83%. Only 44% follow the current guidelines exclusively, and 34% regularly discuss the importance of oral hygiene with their patients at risk for infective endocarditis. Significant heterogeneity still persists in recommending infective endocarditis prophylaxis for several cardiac lesions among paediatric cardiologists. More than half of the participants (56%) do not follow the current guidelines exclusively in their practice. Counselling for optimal oral health in patients at risk for infective endocarditis needs to be optimised in the current practice.

  10. Model-Based Predictions of the Effects of Harvest Mortality on Population Size and Trend of Yellow-Billed Loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) breed in low densities in northern tundra habitats in Alaska, Canada, and Russia. They migrate to coastal marine habitats at mid to high latitudes where they spend their winters. Harvest may occur throughout the annual cycle, but of particular concern are recent reports of harvest from the Bering Strait region, which lies between Alaska and Russia and is an area used by yellow-billed loons during migration. Annual harvest for this region was reported to be 317, 45, and 1,077 during 2004, 2005, and 2007, respectively. I developed a population model to assess the effect of this reported harvest on population size and trend of yellow-billed loons. Because of the uncertainty regarding actual harvest and definition of the breeding population(s) affected by this harvest, I considered 25 different scenarios. Predicted trends across these 25 scenarios ranged from stability to rapid decline (24 percent per year) with halving of the population in 3 years. Through an assessment of literature and unpublished satellite tracking data, I suggest that the most likely of these 25 scenarios is one where the migrant population subjected to harvest in the Bering Strait includes individuals from breeding populations in Alaska (Arctic coastal plain and the Kotzebue region) and eastern Russia, and for which the magnitude of harvest varies among years and emulates the annual variation of reported harvest during 2004-07 (317, 45, and 1,077 yellow-billed loons). This scenario, which assumes no movement of Canadian breeders through the Bering Strait, predicts a 4.6 percent rate of annual population decline, which would halve the populations in 15 years. Although these model outputs reflect the best available information, confidence in these predictions and applicable scenarios would be greatly enhanced by more information on harvest, rates of survival and reproduction, and migratory pathways.

  11. Seasonal trends of whitefly populations in a Mediterranean tomato growing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Murgia, G; Pisci, R; Sanna, F; Testa, M

    2009-01-01

    The whiteflies Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum and their associated viruses constitute a major threat to tomato crops in the Mediterranean region. Continuous host availability and mild climate are thought to be among the factors contributing to the outbreaks of whitefly-related problems in this area. We carried out a year-long survey to investigate the relative contribution of different plants, agricultural and not, and indoor/outdoor crops as hosts of the two whiteflies and the tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) in a multi-crop system typical of tomato growing areas in southern Sardinia (S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy). For this purpose, during 2005 we monitored whitefly population trends in different plots of a horticulture farm, evaluated seasonal changes in the infestation density of the two pests on the most represented host species and assessed the incidence of TYLCD on tomato crops and susceptible weeds. Whitefly catches on yellow sticky traps were found to be higher inside et along the external perimeter of greenhouses compared to open field crops or uncultivated areas, thus suggesting significant adult movement between indoor and outdoor patches. In most plots flight activity increased between late spring and late summer, peaking in July. The number of immatures of the two whitefly species showed similar dynamics, but while T. vaporariorum reached the highest densities in greenhouse tomato crops in June, peak levels of 8. tabaci were recorded between July and August in outdoor horticultural crops and weeds. The occurrence of TYLCD was detected all year round on weed hosts, but the highest number of infected plants was observed in June on long cycle tomato crops. The present survey has demonstrated the contribution of non-agricultural plants the maintenance of tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the study site. However, tomato crops established in summer as major reservoirs of TYLCD-associated viruses and presumably played a key

  12. Trends in selected biological risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Madsen, Mette;

    2000-01-01

    Data from 6695 men and women of ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, examined in the Danish WHO MONICA surveys in 1982-84, in 1986-87, and in 1991-92, were analyzed to estimate secular trends in body height and weight, blood pressure, and serum total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride. Body...... height increased 0.1% per year, and body mass index increased 0.4% per year in women. Diastolic blood pressure increased 0.4% per year in women and 0.6% per year in 60-year-old men. HDL cholesterol declined 0.4% per year. Body mass indices in men, diastolic blood pressures in men ..., systolic blood pressures, total- and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride did not change. The levels of biological risk factors in the Danish WHO MONICA study population did not show trends during the 1980s that help explain the declining incidence of myocardial infarction in the population....

  13. Trends in Breast Reconstruction by Ethnicity: An Institutional Review Centered on the Treatment of an Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodby, Katherine A; Danielson, Kirstie K; Shay, Elizabeth; Robinson, Emilie; Benjamin, Martin; Antony, Anuja K

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have investigated reconstructive decisions after mastectomy and such studies document a preference among African American women for autologous tissue-based procedures and among Latin American women for implant-based reconstructions, however, there is a paucity of studies evaluating the current relationship between ethnicity and reconstructive preferences. This institutional review provides a unique, up-to-date evaluation of an understudied urban population composed of majority ethnic minority patients and explores reconstructive trends. Consecutive breast reconstruction patients were entered into a prospectively maintained database at the University of Illinois at Chicago and affiliate hospitals between July 2010 and October 2013. Demographics and oncologic characteristics including tumor stage, pathology, BRCA status, and adjuvant treatment were reviewed, and reconstructive trends were assessed by racial group with a focus on reconstructive procedure, mastectomy volume, and implant characteristics. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS (version 9.2). One-hundred and sixty breast reconstructions were performed in 105 women; of which 50 per cent were African American, 26 per cent Hispanic, 22 per cent Caucasian, and 2 per cent Asian. Age, tumor stage, prevalence of triple negative disease, chemotherapy, and radiation treatment was comparable between groups. Rates of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were slightly higher in African American and Hispanic cohorts, with more African American patients having one or more of these comorbidities as compared with the Caucasian and Hispanic cohorts (P = 0.047). Despite comparable positive BRCA testing rates, significant differences were seen in the percentage of bilateral mastectomy; 68 per cent African American, 48 per cent Caucasian, and 30 per cent Hispanic (P = 0.004). Hispanics predominantly underwent flap-based reconstruction (56%), while African American (74%) and Caucasian (60

  14. Current Concepts and New Trends in the Treatment of Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedek Theodora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiogenic shock (CS is a critical condition which often complicates the evolution of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. At the same time, co-existence of chronic multi-vessel disease can lead to the development of cardiogenic shock in cases with pronounced haemodynamic instability. Different clinical studies have tried to identify the most appropriate treatment for critical cases of CS complicating AMI. This review aims to present the current status of recommended therapeutic strategies for severe cases of CS presenting as a complication of AMI, and try to shed light on the most appropriate therapeutic strategy as outlined in the current literature. The paper will discuss the different current strategies available for use in the treatment of this condition, includig interventional revascularisation, (complete or culprit, the role of new devices for providing mechanical circulatory support, and the potential role of new drug therapies and of hypothermia.

  15. [Lead exposure in the ceramic tile industry: time trends and current exposure levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, S; Ferri, F; Olmi, M

    1998-01-01

    There is a high density of industries for the production of ceramic tiles in the District of Scandiano (province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna region). In this area, since the beginning of 1970s, the time trend of Pb exposure in ceramic tile plants has been evaluated by means of biological monitoring (BM) data collected at the Service of Prevention and Safety in the Work Environment and its associated Toxicology Laboratory. From these data, a clear decreasing time trend of exposure levels is documented, the reduction being more evident during the seventies and in 1985-88. During the seventies BM was introduced systematically in all ceramic tile plants with the determination of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA-U). As a consequence of the BM programme, hygienic measures for the abatement of pollution inside the plants were implemented, and a reduction, from 20.6% to 2%, of ALA-U values exceeding 10 mg/l, was observed. In 1985, the determination of lead in blood (PbB) replaced that of ALA-U in the BM programmes and highlighted the persistence of high level of exposure to Pb, which could not be outlined by means of ALA-U because of its lower sensitivity. PbB levels were 36.1 micrograms/100 ml and 25.7 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. These results required the implementation, within the plants, of additional hygienic measures and a significant reduction of PbB was obtained in the following three years. In 1988 PbB levels were 26.0 +/- 10.7 and 21.6 +/- 10.3 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. In 1993-95 Pb levels were obtained from 1328 male and 771 female workers of 56 plants, accounting for about 40% of the total number of workers in the ceramic industry, in the zones of Sassuolo and Scandiano. Exposure levels are not different from those observed in the preceding years, with PbB levels of 25.3 +/- 11.1 and 19.1 +/- 9.2 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively.

  16. Linking climate trends to population dynamics in the Baltic ringed seal: impacts of historical and future winter temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Lisa; Harkonen, Tero; Svensson, Carl Johan; Harding, Karin C

    2012-12-01

    A global trend of a warming climate may seriously affect species dependent on sea ice. We investigated the impact of climate on the Baltic ringed seals (Phoca hispida botnica), using historical and future climatological time series. Availability of suitable breeding ice is known to affect pup survival. We used detailed information on how winter temperatures affect the extent of breeding ice and a climatological model (RCA3) to project the expected effects on the Baltic ringed seal population. The population comprises of three sub-populations, and our simulations suggest that all of them will experience severely hampered growth rates during the coming 90 years. The projected 30, 730 seals at the end of the twenty-first century constitutes only 16 % of the historical population size, and thus reduced ice cover alone will severely limit their growth rate. This adds burden to a species already haunted by other anthropogenic impacts.

  17. Compression or expansion of morbidity? Trends in healthy-life expectancy in the elderly Austrian population between 1978 and 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblhammer, G; Kytir, J

    2001-02-01

    The aim of our study is to test the theories of compression or expansion of morbidity on the basis of data on the elderly population of Austria. Our data come from four microcensus surveys for the years 1978, 1983, 1991, and 1998. We use self-perceived health ratings to calculate healthy-life expectancy for the elderly population aged 60-89. Because our data are based on four cross-sectional surveys, we devote the first part of the paper to the consequences of possible sampling and non-sampling errors in our analysis of time trends. We come to the conclusion that, although the absolute number of years lived in good health may be overestimated, the time trend in healthy-life expectancy over the 20 years most probably is unbiased. The second part of the paper describes trends in healthy-life expectancy for the Austrian population. Our results suggest that both healthy-life expectancy and the ratio of healthy years to life expectancy increased between 1978 and 1998. Thus, in Austria ill health seems to be more and more compressed into the later years of life. Contrary to Fries's hypothesis, however, life expectancy does not seem to be approaching a maximum average life span in Austria, as mortality rates at older ages have been continuously decreasing over the last 20 years.

  18. Lifelong Education for Older Adults in Malta: Current Trends and Future Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    With European demographic developments causing a decline of the available workforce in the foreseeable future and the unsustainability of dominant pay-as-you-go pension systems (where contributions from the current workforce sustain pensioners), governments need to come up with strategies to deal with this upcoming challenge and to adjust their…

  19. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  20. ORGAN-SPARING SURGERY FOR RECTAL CANCER: EVOLUTION, CURRENT TRENDS, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tamrazov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main stages of the development of sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. An historical look at this issue from the standpoint of research of past years in our country and abroad, as well as analysis of current sphincter-preserving surgery and future directions in this area.

  1. Biobased adhesives, gums, emulsions and binders: current trends and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopolymers derived from renewable resources are an emerging class of advanced materials that offer many useful properties for a wide range of food and non-food applications. Current state of the art in research and development of renewable polymers as adhesives, gums, binders and emulsions will be ...

  2. Current Technology Trends and Issues among Health and Physical Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jennifer M.; Franks, Hillary; Lynch, Brandy

    2017-01-01

    Health and physical education professionals who implement technology appropriately can contribute to helping students become physically educated individuals (NASPE, 2009). It is imperative that professionals be knowledgeable and resourceful in how to integrate technology effectively, but it is unclear what current challenges professionals face in…

  3. Current Trends in Environmental Education in the French-Speaking Areas of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Louis

    1991-01-01

    The current status of environmental education in French-speaking Belgium is described, with attention given to the development of environmental interest and awareness, the evolution of an environmental education information dissemination network, other governmental and nongovernmental groups involved, school syllabuses, teacher training…

  4. Current research trends and perspectives on materials-based hydrogen storage solutions: A critical review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective hydrogen storage solutions have been pursued for decades, and materials-based hydrogen storage is a research frontier of much current interest. Yet, no researched materials to date have come close to the DOE 2020 targets for hydrogen...

  5. Prevention of voice prosthesis biofilms: current scenario and future trends in prolonging prosthesis lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Sushail I; Datta, Sourav; Deore, Nitin; Kazi, Rehan A; Jagade, Mohan V

    2012-03-01

    Voice rehabilitation after a total laryngectomy is an important requisite for patients' rehabilitation. Oesophageal speech using tracheo-oesophageal-valved prostheses is now considered the state-of-art in postlaryngectomy voice rehabilitation. One of the major drawbacks of voice prostheses is their limited device lifetime. This is due to the deterioration of the silicone rubber material by different bacterial and yeast species, which are organised in the form of a biofilm resulting in internal leakage, increased airflow resistance, impeding speech, respiration and swallowing. The use of antimicrobials though easily applicable is associated with development of resistance if used on long-term basis. Other techniques in the form of modification of physicochemical properties of the silicon surface or covalent binding of antimicrobial agents to the silicon surface have been employed. This article reviews the different strategies investigated until now and the future trends in preventing biofilm formation for prolonging the lifetime of the silicon voice prostheses. Data was collected by conducting a computer aided search of the MED-LINE and PUBMED databases, supplemented by hand searches of key journals. Over 35 articles in the last two decades on the topic have been reviewed out of which 27 were found to be of relevant value for this article.

  6. Environmental radioactivity measurements and applications - Difficulties, current status and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, Marios J.

    2015-11-01

    For several decades natural and artificial radioactivity in the environment have been extensively studied all around the world. Nuclear accidents - mainly that of Chernobyl - have led to the development of the field of radioecology, while detector systems and techniques - with predominant that of γ-spectrometry - have been continuously developed through the years to meet researchers' needs. The study of natural radionuclides that was originally limited to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was then extended to include radionuclides such as 234Th, 210Pb, 235U and 7Be, which allowed the study of radioactive equilibrium. Besides their importance from the radiation protection point of view, many radionuclides are also used as tracers of environmental processes, such as aerosol and transportation of air masses studies (7Be, 10Be, 22Na), soil erosion, sedimentation and geochronology (210Pb, 137Cs), marine ecosystems studies and studies related to climate change. All these studies require specialized samplings strategies and sampling preparation techniques as well as high quality measurements, while the improvement of detection limits is often of vital importance. This work is a review of environmental radioactivity measurements and applications, mainly focused in the field of γ-spectrometry, for which difficulties and limitations will be presented, together with future trends, new challenges and applications.

  7. High Override Rate for Opioid Drug-allergy Interaction Alerts: Current Trends and Recommendations for Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Lai, Kenneth; Wickner, Paige G; Goss, Foster; Dhopeshwarkar, Neil; Chang, Frank; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alert overrides for opioid medications - the most commonly triggered alerts in the computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We conducted an observational analysis of the DAI opioid alerts triggered over the last decade (2004-2013, n=342,338) in two large academic hospitals in Boston (United States). We found an increasing rate of DAI alert overrides culminating in 89.7% in 2013. Allergic reactions included a high proportion (38.2%) of non-immune mediated opioid reactions (e.g. gastrointestinal upset). The DAI alert override rate was high for immune mediated (88.6%) and life threatening reactions (87.8%). Exact allergy-medication matches were overridden less frequently (about 70%) compared to non-exact matches within allergy groups (over 90%). About one-third of the alert override reasons pointed to irrelevant alerts (i.e."Patient has tolerated the medication before") and 44.9% were unknown. Those findings warrant further investigation into providers' reasons for high override rate. User interfaces should evolve to enable less interruptive and more accurate alerts to decrease alert fatigue.

  8. Ten years after "Worrying trends in econophysics": developments and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Econophysics has made a number of important additions to scientific knowledge. Yet it continues to lack influence with both economists and policy makers. Ten years ago, I and three other economists sympathetic to econophysics wrote a paper on worrying trends within the discipline. For example, its lack of awareness of the economics literature, and shortfalls in the use of statistical analysis. These continue to be obstacles to wider acceptance by economists. Like all agents, policy makers respond to incentives, and economists understand this very well. Much of the econophysics community appears to think that simply doing good science is sufficient to have the work recognised, rather than relating to the motivations and incentives of policy makers. Nevertheless, econophysics now has three major opportunities to advance knowledge in areas where policy makers perceive weaknesses in what they are presented with by economists. All can benefit from the analysis of Big Data. The first is a core model of agent behaviour which is more relevant to cyber society than the rational agent model of economics. Second, extending our understanding of the business cycle, primarily by incorporating the importance of networks into models. Third, devising proper measures of output in cyber society.

  9. Otolaryngology in the medical school curriculum: Current trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscoe, Elizabeth F; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    To identify trends in medical school otolaryngology curriculum requirements. Survey of United States allopathic medical schools. A survey was sent to deans of curriculum at allopathic medical schools. We identified opportunities for medical students to learn basic concepts in otolaryngology during their undergraduate medical training. The opportunities were classified into preclinical and clinical as well as elective and mandatory rotations. Of the schools surveyed, 60% responded. Mean class size was 149 students. Sixty-eight percent of surveyed schools noted that 75% to 100% of their students participated in preclinical otolaryngology experiences, with 59% reporting a mandatory preclinical otolaryngology module for all students. Eighty-nine percent of schools offered otolaryngology as a clinical elective rotation, with a mean of 12 students participating yearly. Only 7% of schools required a mandatory otolaryngology clinical rotation. Our data suggest that medical students do not receive sufficient exposure to otolaryngology during medical school. Increased requirements for otolaryngology curriculum may be beneficial to all medical students, regardless of their specialty choice. NA. Laryngoscope, 00:000-000, 2016 127:346-348, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. The incidence of induced abortion in the Philippines: current level and recent trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Fatima; Cabigon, Josefina; Singh, Susheela; Hussain, Rubina

    2005-09-01

    In the Philippines, abortion is legally restricted. Nevertheless, many women obtain abortions--often in unsafe conditions--to avoid unplanned births. In 1994, the estimated abortion rate was 25 per 1,000 women per year; no further research on abortion incidence has been conducted in the Philippines. Data from 1,658 hospitals were used to estimate abortion incidence in 2000 and to assess trends between 1994 and 2000, nationally and by region. An indirect estimation methodology was used to calculate the total number of women hospitalized for complications of induced abortion in 2000 (averaged data for 1999-2001), the total number of women having abortions and the rate of induced abortion. In 2000, an estimated 78,900 women were hospitalized for postabortion care, 473,400 women had abortions and the abortion rate was 27 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 per year. The national abortion rate changed little between 1994 and 2000; however, large increases occurred in metropolitan Manila (from 41 to 52) and Visayas (from 11 to 17). The proportions of unplanned births and unintended pregnancies increased substantially in Manila, and the use of traditional contraceptive methods increased in Manila and Visayas. The increase in the level of induced abortion seen in some areas may reflect the difficulties women experience in obtaining modern contraceptives as a result of social and political constraints that affect health care provision. Policies and programs regarding both postabortion care and contraceptive services need improvement.

  11. Acromioclavicular dislocation: treatment and rehabilitation. Current perspectives and trends among Brazilian orthopedists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Utino, Artur Yudi; Nishimura, Eduardo Misao; Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Astur, Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by Brazilian orthopedic surgeons in treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation of the shoulder. A questionnaire comprising eight closed questions that addressed topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation was applied to Brazilian orthopedic surgeons over the three days of the 45th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2013. A total of 122 surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them came from the southeastern region of the country. In this sample, 67% of the participants would choose surgical treatment for patients with grade 3 acromioclavicular dislocation. Regarding the preferred technique for surgical treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, a majority of the surgeons used subcoracoid ligature with acromioclavicular fixation and transfer of the coracoacromial ligament (25.4%). Regarding complications found after surgery had been performed, 43.4% and 32.8% of the participants, respectively, stated that residual deformity of the operated joint and pain were the complications most seen during the postoperative period. Although there was no consensus regarding the treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation, evolution had occurred in some of the topics analyzed in this questionnaire applied to Brazilian orthopedists. However, further controlled prospective studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends.

  12. Acromioclavicular dislocation: treatment and rehabilitation. Current perspectives and trends among Brazilian orthopedists☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Utino, Artur Yudi; Nishimura, Eduardo Misao; Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Astur, Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by Brazilian orthopedic surgeons in treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation of the shoulder. Methods A questionnaire comprising eight closed questions that addressed topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation was applied to Brazilian orthopedic surgeons over the three days of the 45th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2013. Results A total of 122 surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them came from the southeastern region of the country. In this sample, 67% of the participants would choose surgical treatment for patients with grade 3 acromioclavicular dislocation. Regarding the preferred technique for surgical treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, a majority of the surgeons used subcoracoid ligature with acromioclavicular fixation and transfer of the coracoacromial ligament (25.4%). Regarding complications found after surgery had been performed, 43.4% and 32.8% of the participants, respectively, stated that residual deformity of the operated joint and pain were the complications most seen during the postoperative period. Conclusions Although there was no consensus regarding the treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation, evolution had occurred in some of the topics analyzed in this questionnaire applied to Brazilian orthopedists. However, further controlled prospective studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends. PMID:26535196

  13. Current trends in the empirical study of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Alice M; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive remediation (CR) for schizophrenia is a learning-based behavioural skills training intervention designed to enhance neuro and (or) social cognitive skills, with the ultimate goal of generalization to improve psychosocial outcomes. This review summarizes conceptual approaches to CR for schizophrenia and the evidence for efficacy in clinical research settings. Four issues are at the forefront of ongoing research: the identification of techniques that produce the largest cognitive change, delineation of techniques that enhance transfer of cognitive skills to functional skills, the identification of CR methods that can be personalized to meet the specific cognitive and functional needs of each individual, and, all the while, ensuring that when CR methods are developed in a research setting, they remain scalable for delivery in the larger clinical community. In response to these issues, 3 prominent research trends have emerged: the rise of a new generation of computerized restorative cognitive training, the integration of CR with skills training to promote generalization, and the application of techniques to enhance motivation and learning during CR. As data on the neural basis of learning in people with schizophrenia become available, new technologies that harness the ability of the brain to make sustainable, functional changes may be integrated within a therapeutic context that promotes a personalized approach to learning. The development of transportable and scalable methods of CR that maximize the ability of people with schizophrenia to improve cognition will help them achieve personal goals for recovery.

  14. He said, she said: The gender wage gap according to self and proxy reports in the Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Wenger, Jeffrey B

    2012-03-01

    Roughly half the labor force data in the Current Population Survey (CPS) are provided by proxy respondents, and since 1979, men's reliance on proxies has dropped dramatically while women's reliance on proxies has increased. Few authors, however, have examined how combining these first-hand and second-hand reports may influence our understanding of long-term economic trends. We exploit the outgoing rotation group structure of the CPS by matching individual records one year apart, and we find that self-reported wages are higher than proxy-reported wages even after controlling for all time invariant characteristics. Furthermore, we find that changes in the use of proxy respondents by men and women since 1979 have made current estimates of the gender wage gap larger than they would have been without changes in reporting status. This suggests that the gender wage gap has closed more than previously estimated. We recommend that researchers combine self and proxy responses with great care, especially when analyzing time trends or making gender comparisons.

  15. Abundance Trends and Status of the Little Colorado River Population of Humpback Chub: An Update Considering Data From 1989-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Walters, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    Mark-recapture methods have been used for the past two decades to assess trends in adult abundance and recruitment of the Little Colorado River (LCR) population of humpback chub. These methods indicate that the adult population declined through the 1980s and early 1990s but has been increasing for the past decade. Recruitment appears also to have increased, particularly in the 2003-4 period. Considering a range of assumed natural mortality-rates and magnitude of ageing error, it is unlikely that there are currently less than 6,000 adults or more than 10,000 adults. Our best estimate of the current adult (age 4 years or more) population is approximately 7,650 fish. Recent humpback chub assessments using the Age-Structured Mark-Recapture model (ASMR) and reported in 2006 (Melis and others, 2006) and 2008 (Coggins, 2008a,b) have provided abundance and recruitment trend estimates that have changed progressively over time as more data are considered by the model. The general pattern of change implies a less severe decline in adult abundance during the late 1980s through early 1990s, with attendant changes in recruitment supporting this demographic pattern. We have been concerned that these changes are not indicative of the true population and may be associated with a 'retrospective' bias as additional data are included in the ASMR model. To investigate this possibility, we developed a realistic individual-based simulation model (IBM) to generate replicate artificial data sets with similar characteristics to the true humpback chub data. The artificial data have known abundance trends and we analyzed these data with ASMR. On the basis of these simulations, we believe that errors in assigning age (and therefore brood-year) to fish based on their length are likely to have caused the retrospective bias pattern seen in the assessments and to have caused both less severe trends in the adult abundance estimates and progressively more severe downward bias in estimates of adult

  16. Analyses and thought on countermeasures for the family formation trend among floating population in Wuhan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Sun, L

    1997-01-01

    The familized floating population in China consists of families formed from blood kinship networks of floating population. This study examines the size of the familized floating population in Wuhan City in 1995 and the negative impacts for urban management, supplies, family planning, education, and employment. Floating population families are formed due to the presence of rural and urban differences, the desire for income, and a goal of permanent urban residence with family stability and steady economic gains. Data were obtained from a 1% sample survey among the floating population who lived in rented, borrowed, or self-built houses or apartments for over 6 months. 69.2% of the floating population, or 335,000 people, were familized floating population. 55.01% of the familized floating population were women, and 60.41% of the laborers were women. 33.50% of the women who "should" be employed were not. 50% of the women in some districts were unemployed. 30.61% were children under 14 years of age. The dependency burden for the employed floating population was greater than for the urban employed population. The birth rate among the familized floating population was 44.60%. 89.59% of women aged older than 15 years in the familized floating population were of childbearing age. Most had a low level of education. The floating population creates the need for educating 15,000 new students every year; this requires construction of 10 new schools every year. The floating population increases the need to produce more electricity, clothing, food, houses, and other services or facilities. The floating population brings norms about a higher family size, which challenges urban residents' beliefs and impedes smooth implementation of the family planning policy. Management needs to regulate population flow, reduce consumption, and control family formation and childbearing. Management needs to increase mobility costs.

  17. Recent trends for practical rehabilitation robotics, current challenges and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakub, Fitri; Md Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran; Mori, Yasuchika

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents and studies various selected literature primarily from conference proceedings, journals and clinical tests of the robotic, mechatronics, neurology and biomedical engineering of rehabilitation robotic systems. The present paper focuses of three main categories: types of rehabilitation robots, key technologies with current issues and future challenges. Literature on fundamental research with some examples from commercialized robots and new robot development projects related to rehabilitation are introduced. Most of the commercialized robots presented in this paper are well known especially to robotics engineers and scholars in the robotic field, but are less known to humanities scholars. The field of rehabilitation robot research is expanding; in light of this, some of the current issues and future challenges in rehabilitation robot engineering are recalled, examined and clarified with future directions. This paper is concluded with some recommendations with respect to rehabilitation robots.

  18. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  19. Variability and trends of ocean acidification in the Southern California Current System: A time series from Santa Monica Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, A.; Gruber, N.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the temporal variability and trends of pH and of the aragonite saturation state, Ωarag, in the southern California Current System on the basis of a 6 year time series from Santa Monica Bay, using biweekly observations of dissolved inorganic carbon and combined calculated and measured alkalinity. Median values of pH and Ωarag in the upper 20 m are comparable to observations from the subtropical gyres, but the temporal variability is at least a factor of 5 larger, primarily driven by short-term upwelling events and mesoscale processes. Ωarag and pH decrease rapidly with depth, such that the saturation horizon is reached already at 130 m, on average, but it occasionally shoals to as low as 30 m. No statistically significant linear trends emerge in the upper 100 m, but Ωarag and pH decrease, on average, at rates of -0.009±0.006 yr-1 and -0.004±0.003 yr-1 in the 100-250 m depth range. These are somewhat larger, but not statistically different from the expected trends based on the recent increase in atmospheric CO2. About half of the variability in the deseasonalized data can be explained by the El Niño Southern Oscillation, with warm phases (El Niño) being associated with above normal pH and Ωarag. The observed variability and trend in Ωarag and pH is well captured by a multiple linear regression model on the basis of a small number of readily observable independent variables. This permits the estimation of these variables for related sites in the region.

  20. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided.