WorldWideScience

Sample records for current political economic

  1. Oil: Economics and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, A. (Laval Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs.

  2. The Current Attack on Women's Rights: A Political-Economic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, June

    The right-wing attack on women's rights in the United States manifests itself in the regulation of reproductive rights, the family, and the workplace and corresponds to the changing needs of capital in an era of social and economic crises. Against this background, anti-abortion legislation, the Family Protection Act, and discrimination in the…

  3. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Swagel, Phillip; Roubini, Nouriel; Ozler, Sule; Alesina, Alberto

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...

  4. Current Work Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Hvid, Helge

    2003-01-01

    A presentation of the development of the Danish work politics during the last decade, discussed in an international context.......A presentation of the development of the Danish work politics during the last decade, discussed in an international context....

  5. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  6. Political Stability and Economic Growth in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of various factors of political instability on economic growth in selected ten Asian economies during 1990-2005. Our empirical findings show a close relationship between political stability and economic growth. We have analyzed the data by using ordinary least squire econometrics methods, which conclude that 32.35 scores increasing of index of political stability leads to one percent increase in economic growth. From these finding based on Asia experiences, we can conjecture that political stability plays a dominant role in determination of economic growth and sources of capital accumulation. This study uses the average proportion methods and Tinbergen diagrams to show the relative importance of political stability than economic freedom to accumulate capital, measured by four sources of capital accumulation which are proximate causes for economic growth. The results also clearly show that the role of political stability in accelerating economic growth is more vital than economic freedom.

  7. Call for Papers Economic and Political Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>CN:10-1049/C ISSN:2095-4816The Economic and Political Studies(EPS)is a peer-reviewed academic journal.The EPS seeks to promote the studies of economics and politics by addressing issues concerning China and its interaction with the world,encouraging an interdisciplinary approach,while exploring critiques from

  8. Textbook Publishing: The Political and Economic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    This article focuses on the political and economic realities surrounding textbook publishing. A discussion of the publishing industry includes an examination of industry decision makers and the influence of profit. State textbook adoption policies are also explored. (IAH)

  9. From Political to Economic Siege in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Political forces in Brazil have caused significant economic changes, including hyperinflation, and policy that threaten higher education in a variety of ways, including failure to expand during a period of economic strength, severe loss of academic autonomy, lowering of academic and administrative standards, and declines in teacher education and…

  10. Economic Dominance with Political Incompetence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The fraudulent claims by policymakers and pundits that the United States is losing its economic competitiveness due to a failing education system continue unabated. However, the latest data on competitiveness suggest that it is poor economic policy, not education, that is holding back the economy.

  11. Economic Dominance with Political Incompetence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The fraudulent claims by policymakers and pundits that the United States is losing its economic competitiveness due to a failing education system continue unabated. However, the latest data on competitiveness suggest that it is poor economic policy, not education, that is holding back the economy.

  12. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper examines the association between political ideology and the size of government and quality of the legal system and regulations. A cross-country indicator of government and citizen ideology is presented. Empirical results suggest that ideologically leftwing governments increase the size...... of government while the long-term ideological convictions of citizens but not governments affect the quality of the legal system and regulations....

  13. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper examines the association between political ideology and the size of government and quality of the legal system and regulations. A cross-country indicator of government and citizen ideology is presented. Empirical results suggest that ideologically leftwing governments increase the size...... of government while the long-term ideological convictions of citizens but not governments affect the quality of the legal system and regulations....

  14. Coevolving Relationships between Political Science and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Ostrom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 50 years, at least four interdisciplinary developments have occurred at the boundaries of political science and economics that have affected the central questions that both political scientists and economists ask, the empirical evidence amassed as a new foundation for understanding political economies, and new questions for future research. These include: (1 the Public Choice Approach, (2 the Governance of the Commons debate, (3 New Institutional Economics, and (4 Behavioral Approaches to Explaining Human Actions. In this short essay, I briefly review the challenges that these approaches have brought to political science and some of the general findings stimulated by these approaches before identifying some of the major issues on the contemporary agenda.

  15. Essays in Labor Economics and Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case of immigr......This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case...... only in the types of jobs that workers find. In line with this idea, the chapter uses a unique new data set from Denmark to document that workers in larger labor markets find jobs for which they are a better match as measured by both previous industry experience and geographical location. They also...

  16. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn......This paper asks the question whether political ideology affects economic growth. Voters may demand inefficient levels of redistribution and government intervention, and they may care too little for aspects that really matter for the economy. Their norms and perceptions of society might, via...

  17. The Politics of the Static Economic Pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Until America gets a stable source of energy, we will have slow or no economic growth. The public policy of scarcity will differ from the politics of abundance and cause a rethinking of public policy. For example, we cannot have the immigration policies that we had as an empty continent. (SR)

  18. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn...

  19. A demographic-economic explanation of political stability: Mauritius as a microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, D

    1987-06-01

    "This paper examines current models of economic and political development--social modernization theory, political and economic characteristics of stable regimes, and cross country analysis of political stability--and tests them on the Indian Ocean Island of Mauritius. The analysis continues with a causal explanation for political stability in Mauritius' recent history, derived from an examination of economic policies and demographic patterns. Political change in Mauritius over the past sixty years seems to be explained best by a model for political stability which integrates specific economic and demographic factors. The model, applicable to development in other third world nations, revises Malthus' conclusion that population and economic conditions move in an oscillatory relationship and replaces it with a more comprehensive theory, suggesting that political stability is a function of both economic development and a repeating cyclical relationship between economics and population."

  20. Innovation, knowledge transfer and territorial economical development: a pending politics

    OpenAIRE

    Alburquerque Llorens, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The current phase of economic development leans on knowledge, so the introduction of innovation in production is not only a technical and economic fact but also a social, political and cultural process. This process of innovation is not a linear one but a complex phenomenon which needs a territorial interface between knowledge owners and users. The discussion about the construction of territorial systems of innovation is not yet wide spread among us, and even less are the recommendations comi...

  1. United Europe: Economic, educational, and political integrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ribić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Initial political steps towards unification of European nations on level terms, i.e. on non-hegemony terms, were made within the period between the two World Wars. These endeavours culminated with The Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, which was signed on 18 April 1951 in Paris by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxemburg. The Treaty of Rome, establishing the European Economic Community (EEC and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom, signed in Rome on 25 March 1957 broadened the economic integrations, and finally the Maastricht Treaty signed on December 1992 envisaged the establishment of economical and monetary union. Economical unification was followed by integration processes in the field of education that were manifested in joint institutions and projects for improving the expertise and mobility of students, teachers and researchers. As far as the political integration of Europe is concerned, divergent directions occurred after the World War II: the first, streaming towards the establishment of the union of European nations, while the second was reflected in founding of Atlantic, namely Euro-Atlantic organizations. Furthermore, there has been a constant struggle ever since between those advocating a tighter federation and those wishing a looser union of European states. Political integration is followed by attempts to create a fundamentally joint European identity based on mutual cultural heritage. Economic, educational, and political integrations within the framework of European Union are an expression of pan-national aspirations, which could – if successful – result in establishment of a single European nation, founded on the civil-territorial principle.

  2. Current Economic Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Mirascic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current economic situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Beginning in the second half of 2008, macroeconomic conditions in B&H began precipitating a decline in economic activity. While the global financial crisis was among the factors contributing to this decline, it was far from the only factor. Problematic macroeconomic conditions were also a result of B&H’s own structural and political problems, caused largely by the shortcomings of a political entity comprising two autonomous entities. Due to such problems, the governments of B&H turned to the International Monetary Fund for assistance. This article analyzes the effects of the first two “stand by” arrangements made between the IMF and B&H and discusses implications for further, ongoing stand by arrangements made between the IMF and B&H. This paper also examines the lack of unified economic space between The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and The Republic of Srpska, which has resulted not only in ineffective monetary policy but also in different fiscal and taxation systems between the two entities. While various existing analyses claim that B&H has little hope of resolving its economic woes due to its current political and economic structure, this article offers solutions and measures that, if successfully implemented, would lead to more efficient recovery and self-sustainable economic growth.

  3. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  4. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions:

  5. Developnemt of Integration Processes in Africa - from Political to Economic Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the historic development and current trends in integration processes in Africa. Integration is seen as a means for ensuring competitiveness by better opportunities in international trade and as a factor supporting the resolution of the political and economic problems of the continent. Integration processes go through several stages of development, in which the focus gradually shifted from political to economic goals – the establishment of a functioning African Economic Com...

  6. Geographies of Production II: Political Economic Geographies: A pluralist direction?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A

    2016-01-01

    Within economic geography, it has been argued that political economy approaches have diminished in both prevalence and influence to the detriment of both the sub-discipline and to human geography as a whole. This report challenges such a perspective, arguing that political economic geographies remains very much vibrant and engaging in contemporary economic geography and in the way in which economic geographers engages with the nature of the contemporary global economy. It argues that the perc...

  7. The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); D. Cesarini (David); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); C.T. Dawes (Christopher T.); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); D. Conley (Dalton); D. Laibson (David); M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.M. Visscher (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPreferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to

  8. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-04-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  9. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  10. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  11. Economic, Political and Communicative power in the neoliberal societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bergés-Saura, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the relations between the economic, political and communicative powers in the socioeconomic model of neoliberal capitalism. Firstly, it examines the transformations in the economic power, to analyse later the various mechanisms linking this changing economic power to the media performance. Among these mechanisms, the article analyses the control of ownership and other external financial sources; the origin of commercial income; and business management techniques, while simultaneously investigating the relations between these variables and the transformations in the economic sphere. Following the political economy tradition, the article addresses the implications that the concentration of economic, political and communicative power have on democracy and freedom, taking into account the evolution of the socioeconomic and political system in the last decades.

  12. Market and Money: Economic Instruments of Political Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Pînzaru

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By the creation of the unique currency, the European construction advanced, in the late twenty years, more in economic terms than in political ones. Still, at a closer look there can be found interesting arguments to sustain the idea of a political background for this surprising economic acceleration. Creating the common market and a new currency are things which have been possible only because of favourable factors in economy and of strong political will. This paper analyses the market as a frame of a political construction, and euro as a decisive tool for the purpose of the United Europe. For the first time in history, there is a space which approaches beliefs and values with the “help” of a currency, integrated in the political agenda.

  13. ANCHORING IN THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shklyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of marketing, both ineconomy and in politics is to attract themaximum number of customers or voters, maximizing customer satisfaction and ,ideally, improve the quality of life.The author, in various aspects, thetechnology of anchoring used in NLP, to attract customers and voters, both in the economy and in politics.In different examples demonstrate theoverall impact on the psychology of the consumer. Separating policy and the economy, marketers are missing something. The author proposes to look at how psychologicalanchors affect these two, at fi rst glance, different vector.

  14. [Methodological aspects of a political-economic analysis of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisina, N V; Ruzavina, E I

    1988-01-01

    The authors examine the role of political and economic factors in the study of population issues, with a focus on the relationship between demographic factors and the standard of living of a society. Attention is paid to the division of the population into the economically active and the inactive.

  15. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions: 1

  16. Politics, economics and the price of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki Yamani, S.A.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes petroleum price instability in connection with politics intrusion into the oil business. The author shows the dominant position of OPEC on petroleum market during the 70s and the 80s, the influence of Iranian revolution, Iran / Iraq war and Kuwait invasion by Iraq on petroleum price evolution. 5 figs.

  17. The Economics and Politics of Women's Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Tertilt, Michèle; Voena, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Women's rights and economic development are highly correlated. Today, the discrepancy between the legal rights of women and men is much larger in developing compared with developed countries. Historically, even in countries that are now rich, women had few rights before economic development took off. Is development the cause of expanding women's rights, or conversely, do women's rights facilitate development? We argue that there is truth to both hypotheses. The literature on the economic cons...

  18. The political chaff from the economic grain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    , but also a problem faced by social actors as they try to understand the socio-economic order in which they live and act. By arguing for or against the claim that begging is simultaneously an economic action and the exercise of the right to freedom of expression the voices in this debate attempted to affect...

  19. Essays in environmental and political economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution is among the main problems threatening a global sustainable future, and strongly intertwined with the unprecedented rise in economic prosperity since the industrial revolution. The first three chapters deal with two questions: The first question is: Does economic growth,

  20. The political chaff from the economic grain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The idea that economic activities may be described and studied as ‘embedded’ in social relations has been central to much debate in recent economic sociology. The present study analyses legal struggles over the status of begging in Unites States law, and argues that conflicting rhetorical accounts...... of begging illustrate social actors’ efforts articulate the interconnectedness of their social world, including the ways in which economic practices are embedded in their social and institutional contexts. The essay thus suggests that embeddedness is not just something identified by social researchers......, but also a problem faced by social actors as they try to understand the socio-economic order in which they live and act. By arguing for or against the claim that begging is simultaneously an economic action and the exercise of the right to freedom of expression the voices in this debate attempted to affect...

  1. Managing Mexican Oil: Politics or Economics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Puyana Mutis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During decades the policies towards oil and energy implemented in Mexico have resulted in the de pletion of reserves, the explosion of debt of Pemex (90 per cent of its capital, and the dramatic petrolization of the total fiscal revenue. High prices, the war on terror and political instability in oil rich regions have reinforced usA policy of "energy security" and the interest in the creation of the Common Market on Energy, as the way to strengthen the TLCAN. To respond to these two forces Mexico will have to reform its traditional oil policy. All possible options: to reduce the fiscal burden upon Pemex or to open to private investments the exploration of oil have excruciating political costs, which no government has shown the will to confront.

  2. Dadabhai Naoroji – from economic nationalism to political nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Islahi, Abdul Azim

    1995-01-01

    Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917) was among the leading Indian nationalist leaders who aroused the feeling of economic nationalism and propagated for it. The most instrumental in this regard had been his theory of drain. The paper studies this theory and its role in awakening the desire and movement to achieve economic nationalism. It also examines the stages through, which Dadabhai passed from economic nationalism to political nationalism or the self-rule which was his final call. The paper will ...

  3. Politics and Economics in Putins Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    satisfaction that Chinese- Russian trade in machinery products reached an an- nual level of $6.33 Billion. Out of politeness, however, he refrained from... satisfaction from the sense of power and prestige that has been associated with its status as an emerging “energy su- perpower.” But these achievements...rankings, which included the number of specialties, number of students, and number of alumni . Small, specialized, or liberal arts institutions were

  4. Political and Economic Trends in North Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    the base of its political support. Without going into detail, it should quickly be said , however, that the Shah of Iran has enjoyed several...system of education, notably higher education. Despite everything that may be said of the tragic hardships suffered by the majority of the population...retrenchment followed Ben Salah’s departure, particularly after the conservative and cautious Hedi Nouira assumed the Premiership in 1970. With an exceptional

  5. The Economic Component of National Security – Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to underline the main current approaches regarding the economic component of national security, with conclusions focused on the globalization effects on the national economies and the national security of the states. The dynamics of the unfolding political and economic events determines the need for the analysis – further developed in the paper - of the relevant variables and of the way these are involved in the intricate equations describing the current political, economic and social environment. One of the main results of the analysis is that national security represents a goal for any country wishing to provide sustainable welfare for its citizens, and this sustainable welfare cannot be achieved without sustainable economic security and development

  6. Socio-economic institutions in classical political economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Ushchapovskyy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study

  7. Economics, political science, and law. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lasswel (harald); O. Schachter (Oscar); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractLASSWELLT:h e first of our discussants is of the discipline that the rest of the social scientists examine with mixed feelings of respect and envy, namely, economics. Prof. Jan Tinbergen. TINBERGEIN p: ropose not only to give a very brief summary of my paper but to add a few remarks that

  8. DIPLOMACY IN CHINA–NIGERIA POLITICAL-ECONOMIC RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James OKORO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines China–Nigeria political-economic relations since the end of the Cold War using methods and theory of politics and economics. Since Nigeria views its relations with China as the driving force for its economic growth/development, we assess the extent to which Nigeria’s diplomatic effectiveness and understanding of Imperialism translates into economic growth from its relations with China. Our findings include China’s domination of Nigeria’s economy/polity, through superior economic-diplomacy, resulting in differential economic outcomes: for over 27 years while China achieved sustainable economic growth, increased its direct investment in foreign aid (loans, grants, technical assistance to Nigeria, and achieved favorable trade balance with Nigeria; Nigeria’s economy increasingly stagnated/declined, exported less, imported more, lost domestic business opportunities to China. We describe Nigeria’s response to China’s economic offensive. Achievement of trade balance and sustainable economic growth/development by Nigeria requires the use of improved economic-diplomacy, based on sound understanding of globalised neoliberal-capitalism and imperialism

  9. POLITICAL POWER IN THE PRISM OF POLITICAL ANALYSIS (EXPERIENCE REVIEW OF CURRENT RESEARCH DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kuryukin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad theoretical material considered relevant areas of the study of political power. Reveals the patterns of occurrence and development of a strictly scientific views on political power as a phenomenon and a social process. Determined the current trends of development of theoreticalunderstanding of political power in relation to the stages of its evolution. The most urgent technological model of exercising political power.

  10. Politics sans economics: commentary on the political economy of demonetization in India

    OpenAIRE

    Zaad Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Between 8th November and 31st December 2016 the Indian government instituted one of the biggest demonetisation exercises in the world by withdrawing 86 percent of all currency in the form of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes. This paper looks at the debate surrounding the demonetisation exercise and attempts to provide a political economy logic. Interrogating the various arguments around demonetisation, it argues that demonetisation has been reduced to a political posturing as the economic consequence...

  11. Paradoxes of Economic Theories and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Imranovich Khasbulatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the evolution of economic theories, the conditions which led to the formation of their modern schools and focuses on the analysis of arising classic, neoclassic and Keynesian doctrines encouraged by the growth and development of productive forces (factors of production, the formation of big corporations-monopolists and technological progress. The severe global recessions (1929–1933 and other shocks of the capitalist system brought to life the doctrinal theory, which is alternative to the classical one. The doctrinal theory was a theoretic and methodological basis of the System for half a century, then it was replaced by neoliberal and monetarist theories that proved to be inconsistent during the global crisis and depression in 2008–2013. The article also touches upon the necessity to change the economic policy of Russia — an urgent problem resulting from a policy of the Western countries trying to suffocate the country with sanctions

  12. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the turbulent year of 2016, with deep geopolitical changes, the new year of 2017 promises to be full of challenges in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. The key events of the last year (the Brexit, the elections in the USA, the events in Turkey, the force demonstrations of Russia, the situation of the migration wave etc. shall have an impact on the global economic development and on the repositioning of its main actors. This paperwork intends to analyze the main consequences of the recent events on the short term progress in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. We hereby intend to review the facts and the main potential progress on the economic status of this year which was so complicated, both for the European Union and for every member of it.

  13. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...... analysis of how natural resources and aid potentially affect total output in society through rent-seeking activities. We survey the existing evidence on both direct and indirect effects of windfalls and provide some new empirical evidence of the association between aid/natural resources and institutions...

  14. The law, economics and politics of international standardisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    In an era of increased reliance on private regulatory bodies and globalised economic activity, standardisation is the field where politics, technical expertise and strategic behaviour meet and interact. International standard-setting bodies exemplify the rise of transnational governance and the chal

  15. Editorial Statement of the Economic and Political Studies (EPS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulu; Chen

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Economic and Political Studies(EPS)was founded in 2012 by Renmin University of China and is published by the Renmin University of China Press.The very first issue of this journal appears now in January 2013.The EPS focuses on academic research explicitly or implicitly related to China

  16. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology: go...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...

  17. ARTICLE REVIEW :THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Obeng-Odoom, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  18. ARTICLE REVIEW :THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2010-01-01

    The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  19. Marketing Destination Zimbabwe During and Post the 2000-2008 Political and Economic Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zibanai

    2014-01-01

    Consequences of political and economic crises on tourist destinations are profound and inescapable. This paper discusses the 2000-2008 political and economic crisis issue in Zimbabwe in relation to the tourism industry. The 2000-2008 political and economic environment was characterised by political stand- off among the three major political parties, heightened negative publicity, shortages of basic commodities, hyperinflation and isolation of Zimbabwe by the international community. During th...

  20. Globalization: political and economic and sociological analysis of cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Babicheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the presented article the authors examine the political and economic and cultural situation in the world in the context of globalization. Special priority is accorded to the coverage of political and economic situation in the world. Because, the twentieth century has demonstrated the power of supranational military- political blocs, the possibility of coalitions of control groups, continental and regional associations, international organizations. At the end of the twentieth century, the contours of «world government» have outlined (world of the Board: some international organizations started performing important political integration functions. The value of the global division of labor has increased in the economic sphere, the role of transnational corporations has increased, which have become powerful forces in the world economy. Having lost the national roots, such corporations operate globally, using local resources and subsidies. The authors noted that the trend of globalization had its influence on the culture as well .Media unites peoples and continents , informing millions of people about the events in different parts of the world , attracting them to various cultural experiences , traditions and customs of exotic tribes and nationalities .Today, there is no doubt, that the desire to solve global problems that affect interests of the peoples of all continents leads to the formation of the world humanistic consciousness. It is proved that during a long period of time the phenomenon of globalization was considered in socio-political theories mainly from the point of economic centrism. As It is the economic sphere, in which the globalization centrism was mostly discovered. The basic classical concepts developed within the economic centrism: theory of imperialism, dependency theory, world system theory. It was marked that the presented economic-centric pictures of globalization cannot explain the cultural-historical diversity of the

  1. The potentials for Political and Economic Development of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ngadhnjim Brovina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is rather clear that it is mandatory to understand the potentials of growth for any economy to grow. With globalization taking place, countries in general, have intensified their political, economic and social integration. Kosovo, as the youngest state in Europe, is about to transform from a devastated economy into a developing one. It has not yet been able to tap on its natural resources and neither of its potentials for a faster economic growth. Its backbone economic sectors such as agriculture, textile, mining and metal sectors are still on their initial stages of revitalization, while the privatization of the public companies has not met its expectations. Whereas, Kosovo is doing a better job on, as its international presence and subjectivity of its political status (Independence is strengthened. More and more countries are recognizing it as a sovereign country, while the recent initiation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement with the European Union, Kosovo is undergoing through its structural reforms and alliance with the EU standards and regulations. The future of Kosovo, like of any country, will depend on the way that its human, financial and natural resources are utilized. On this regard, this paper is an attempt to explore the potentials of the economic growth on different political contexts that Kosovo has and is expected to undergo.

  2. GLOBALIZATION AS A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores Trujillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is defined as a process that integrates knowledge worldwide, has its historical reference on changes in the ways processes, methods and information are addressed; documented its inception in the late twentieth century, Castells, M. (2001 beyond the discrepancy about whether it is a product of technological development or an inevitable evolution of capitalism, research arises from the formulation of the following questions: How important is the study of globalization ?, What has produced important contributions in the scientific community about globalization? And What are the perspectives or approaches addressed? . This work aims to show how the scientific community has produced knowledge about this phenomenon addressing the political, economic and social approaches: From the economic point of view reconfigures how to address the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in the world, permeating this way all international economic events. From the political point of view, besides the redistribution of emerging geopolitical blocs, it establishes a new category of state, transnational state. From the social point of view, it shows evidence of the negative effects of globalization on resizing the category personal, local or regional or even in global risk-Global group. The research is documentary literature, their contribution to social science evidence to characterize globalization as political, economic and social phenomenon of the century that permeates all areas of study applied.

  3. CONSISTENCY VERSUS INCONSISTENCY IN THE CURRENT ACADEMIC ECONOMIC PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIRON

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current academic economic paradigm is shaped by the actual economic schools of thoughts and the systems of generating economic knowledge – universities, research institutions, academic publishing actors and business elites. The cumulated contributions of these actors have transformed economics into a mature science whose practical and governance implications were tested by the 2008 world financial crisis. The challenges faced in these times by governments, households and businesses have severely questioned both orthodox and non orthodox economic wisdom and the legitimacy of the economist as a professional. Irrespective of their economic orientation, most economists have agreed that the models of socio-economic development should be revisited, with a high need of a focus on the moral and ethical standards of the human, economic and political actions. The purpose of this paper is to analyse some of the major inconsistencies that the current academic economic paradigm is perpetuating through its systems of generating economic knowledge, mainly universities and research institutions. From the methodological point of view this paper uses a qualitative analysis, based on a conceptual and highly explorative approach.

  4. On the measurement of political instability and its impact on economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the relationship between political instability and economic growth. Using an exploratory factor analysis we identify four dimensions of political instability: (1) mass civil protest, (2) politically motivated aggression, (3) instability within the political regime and (4) instability of the political regime. We show that individual political instability indicators are generally poor proxies for the underlying dimensions of political instability. Our panel estimates for a sample of ...

  5. Politics sans economics: commentary on the political economy of demonetization in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaad Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 8th November and 31st December 2016 the Indian government instituted one of the biggest demonetisation exercises in the world by withdrawing 86 percent of all currency in the form of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes. This paper looks at the debate surrounding the demonetisation exercise and attempts to provide a political economy logic. Interrogating the various arguments around demonetisation, it argues that demonetisation has been reduced to a political posturing as the economic consequences remain highly debated.

  6. Analyzing Inflation and Its Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michael K.; Leak, Sarah

    Background information for teachers on inflation and self-contained learning activities to help students view inflation from both economic and political perspectives are provided. The introduction contains economics and political science frameworks for analyzing policy issues. How to integrate economics and political science is also discussed.…

  7. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    strikes. Two striking workers in the banana sector were killed in clashes with police in Bocas del Toro and hundreds were injured. The strike was...White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “Fact Sheets : U.S.- Panama Trade Promotion Agreement,” April 19, 2011, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov...the-press-office/2011/ 04/19/fact- sheets -us-panama-trade-promotion-agreement. Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

  8. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-27

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992.

  9. Resolving the US financial crisis: politics dominates economics in the New Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kregel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most economists expected that the "Great Recession" produced by the financial meltdown of 2008 would usher in a resurgence of traditional Keynesian economics and a decline of what has come to be called "market fundamentalism". By contrast, also due to the inadequate size of the 2009 stimulus package, the resurgence of support for Keynesian expenditure policies has been extremely short lived. However, the negative popular and political reaction should not have come as a surprise, at least for three reasons: the design of the Obama stimulus plan and its difference from the expenditure policies of the Roosevelt Administration; the political environment that has eviscerated fiscal policy and placed monetary policy at the centre of economic policy and produced "debt driven" growth; the difference between policies appropriate to treating an income deflation and a debt deflation.

  10. Terrorist Decision-Making: Insights from Economics and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Shapiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups repeatedly take actions that are ultimately politically counter-productive. Sometimes these are the result of deliberate calculations that happen to be mistaken - Al-Qaeda’s decision to conduct the 9/11 attacks is the most obvious example of an ultimately self-defeating operation. Sometimes they reflect the challenges groups face in controlling their operatives: Al-Qaeda in Iraq’s excessive public violence against other Sunni organisations stand out. At other times they appear to steer difficult political waters quite effectively despite of deep internal divisions—Hamas is the exemplar here. This article reviews recent developments in the literature on terrorist decision-making in economics and political science. Overall, tremendous advances have been made in the last 10 years, but much work remains to be done. In particular, it is  argued that the literature needs to do better at testing its theories in inferentially credible ways and at considering terrorism as one tactical option among many for opposition political groups.

  11. POLITICAL OPTIONS AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sandu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in the security environment of Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus have been reshaping the strategies of the six small countries in the proximity of both the EU and Russia. Their attempts to take upon themselves their Soviet heritage and their sensitive geographical position were reflected by a mix of East-West orientations. Some of them chose to create stronger economic bonds with the EU members while others decided to anticipate Russian discontent in separatist areas they shelter and became members of the EEU. Regardless of their option, the Eastern Partnership members embarked? on a long road of political, social and economic changes, so that their stability and growth would become pillars of a stronger role on the regional and international arena in the future. The EU, in turn, has been supporting its partners to the East according to their level of commitment to reform and approximation, although the economic benefits of this relation are imperceptible.

  12. Economics, producer politics will shape oil markets through 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-25

    Two main forces will shape the oil market during the next 3 years. The pace of worldwide economic growth will determine demand growth. Although energy use efficiency has improved, especially in the industrialized world, demand for energy and oil products remains chiefly a function of economic activity. And producing nation politics will have much to say about supply. A crucial and unpredictable variable is when Iraq, now subject to a United Nations trade embargo, resumes exports at significant rates. Demand growth will exceed production increases outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, which means an ever-increasing role for the exporters' group. The paper discusses the demand outlook, economic projections, energy intensity, regional energy mixes, world energy mix, petroleum demand, petroleum product demand, supply questions, non-OPEC production, reserves and output capacity, production gains, industry operations (drilling, stocks, refining), prices, price forecasts, and the role of taxes.

  13. Corporate boards, ownership structure and firm performance in an environment of severe political and economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between board and ownership structures and firm performance in an environment of severe political and economic crisis. Using panel data from the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE) for the period 2000-2005, we split the period into prepresidential election period (2000-2002) (a relatively stable political and economic period) and post-presidential election period (2003-2005) (a hostile political and economic period) to capture the differences in the political an...

  14. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    responses, albeit in ways that go beyond traditional partisan theory.We show that the partisan conflict and the impact of parties are conditioned by existing welfare state configurations. In less generous welfare states, the party composition of governments plays a decisive role in shaping the direction...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...... of social policy change. By contrast, in more generous welfare states, i.e., those with highly developed automatic stabilisers, the overall direction of policy change is regularly not subject to debate. Political conflict in these welfare states rather concerns the extent to which expansion or retrenchment...

  15. On the measurement of political instability and its impact on economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the relationship between political instability and economic growth. Using an exploratory factor analysis we identify four dimensions of political instability: (1) mass civil protest, (2) politically motivated aggression, (3) instability within the political regime and (4) instability of t

  16. Images of Economic Integration Groups in Russian Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Rudenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other countries, Russian citizens watch all the details of everything that happens outside the country, especially if it concerns economic partnerships and Russia’s participation in different organizations and associations. The official view of Russian cooperation with other countries in various formats is presented in nationwide media, though the public opinion is not usually accepted there. However, with the help of images, that are created in the political discourse, one can understand, what kind of support can the government expect, working in a certain direction, which is important, considering the aspiration to raise awareness and civil activity. 

  17. New technology implementation: Technical, economic and political factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J. W., Jr.; Susman, G. I.; Porter, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the process of implementing advanced manufacturing technology, based on studies of numerous organizations. This process is seen as consisting of a series of decisions with technical, economic, and political objectives. Frequency decisions involve specifications, equipment, resources/organization, and location. Problems in implementation are viewed as resulting from tradeoffs among the objectives, the tendency of decision makers to emphasize some objectives at the expense of others, and the propensity of problems to spread from one area to another. Three sets of recommendations, based on this analysis, are presented.

  18. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...... responses, albeit in ways that go beyond traditional partisan theory.We show that the partisan conflict and the impact of parties are conditioned by existing welfare state configurations. In less generous welfare states, the party composition of governments plays a decisive role in shaping the direction...

  19. Application of classification methods in assessment of NATO member countries' economic, security and political risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odehnal, Jakub

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to attempt possible quantification of determinants of military expenditure and their application to current NATO member countries. To analyse the economic, security and political risks of NATO member countries, author employ multivariate statistical techniques which take into consideration the multivariate properties of the data sets used as input variables. Classification of countries based on cluster analysis has made it possible to identify disparities between NATO member countries, and thus to describe diverse economic or security environment affecting the amount of military expenditure as a percentage of the respective countries' gross domestic product.

  20. Lived experience of economic and political trends related to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Labonte, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method case study examined how the economic and political processes of globalization have influenced the determinants of health among low-income children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This paper presents the results from the qualitative interview component of the case study. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the lived experience of low-income families and their children in Saskatoon with regards to political and economic trends related to globalization, an important addition to the usual globalization and health research that relies primarily on cross-country regressions in which the personal impacts remain hidden. In-depth phenomenological interviews with 26 low-income parents of young children (aged zero to five) who were residents of Saskatoon. A combination of volunteer and criterion sampling was used. Interview questions were open-ended and based upon an analytical framework. Analysis proceeded through immersion in the data, a process of open coding, and finally through a process of selective coding. The larger case study and interviews indicate that globalization has largely not been benefiting low-income parents with young children. Low-income families with young children were struggling to survive, despite the tremendous economic growth occurring in Saskatchewan and Saskatoon at the time of the interviews. This often led to participants expressing a sense of helplessness, despair, isolation, and/or anger. Respondents' experiences suggest that globalization-related changes in social conditions and public policies and programs have great potential to negatively affect family health through either psychosocial effects in individuals and/or decreased levels of social cohesion in the community.

  1. Current research directions definition of economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Falovych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article features the topical issue of the established level of the enterprise's economic security. The objective of this article is to research, to base and to supplement the tendency for generalization of the categorical system in order to clarify the matter meaning of the enterprise's economic security. The systematized analyses of the matter meaning of the enterprise's economic security were done by domestic and foreign scientists-economists. The results of the study were expounded and also some vital approaches to the definition of the enterprise's economic security were presented and proved particularly: strategically, resource-functional, marketable, combined, deductive, systematic and criminal.Based on the analyzed content-conceptual interpretations and detailed characteristics of each approach to the definition of this meaning, there was proposed its own meaning of the interpretation of the enterprise's economic security. A systematic approach was adopted due to the matters concerning enterprise's economic security. As in this approach the vital economic interests of thee enterprise were stipulated, also gained the topicality in the current crisis economic conditions

  2. The (political) economics of antiretroviral treatment in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli J

    2008-12-01

    Despite unprecedented international mobilisation to support universal provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), national governments continue to play the key role in determining access to treatment. Whereas some AIDS-affected countries have performed as well as or better than expected given their level of development, institutional characteristics and demographic challenges (e.g. Thailand and Brazil), others (notably South Africa) have not. This article argues that the 'economics' of antiretroviral drug delivery is at heart a political-economy of access to treatment. It depends on commitment on the part of national governments to negotiate with pharmaceutical companies over patented antiretroviral drug prices, on their policy towards compulsory licensing, and on the approach they adopt to delivering HAART. Civil society has an important role to play in encouraging governments to become, and remain, committed to taking action to ensure sustainable and widespread access to HAART.

  3. Modes of Minorities’ Integration: Explaining Historical, Economic and Political Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada COSTOIU

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a great number of states in which different ethnic minorities coexist, each of them having their own culture, language and history. In some of these states, the ethnic minorities have been subjected to marginalization and acculturation, in other states the minority groups were recognized as being distinct parts of the nation and were granted equal rights of participation in the public arena. This paper attempts to explain why states opt for such different ways of integrating their minorities. It first develops a typology of minorities’ integration and than, by using the example of two nation-states that fit into each type of integration model it discusses the historical, political and economical factors that could explain each pattern of minorities’ integration.

  4. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  5. Thinking Like an Economist: The Neoliberal Politics of the Economics Textbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhof, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    This article surveys 10 introductory economics textbooks to examine whether and how economics contributed to the rise of neoliberalism. It defines neoliberalism as a political rationality characterized by market constructivism. In contrast with conventional liberal approaches that view limited gover

  6. Beyond the current political economy of competence development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    of learning for work. This opens a new arena of political struggle over the direction of learning processes and the participation of workers in work and society. The socio-economic realities and a new understanding of the interrelationship between knowledge, skills, learning and practice central...... to the competence concept, raises a potential issue about the role of work and the living worker in a capitalist economy. This requires a re-development of the notion of economy based in the value and interest of working people, and enabled by the full development of the competences of the workers themselves....... A notion of the “political economy of working people” is proposed as a framework for investigating the potentials of competence development for enhanced democracy....

  7. The Political Response of Spanish Youth to the Socio-Economic Crisis: Some Implications for Citizenship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Jover

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effects of the current socio-economic crisis on Spanish youth and their political response to it. It does so in three consecutive stages. In the first, it analyses the repercussion of the crisis on young people using information from certain social indicators (employment, mobility and education. It then outlines the subjective perception of the crisis, i.e., how they are experiencing it and what their hopes are regarding the economy and politics. The third part focuses on how young citizens have responded to the situation politically. The article finishes by considering what implications may be drawn from that response in terms of citizenship education.

  8. An Agent-Based Dynamic Model of Politics, Fertility and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zining Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the political economy of development, government policy choices at a single point in time can dramatically affect a country's development path by impacting fertility, economic and political decisions across generations. Combining system dynamics and agent-based modeling approaches in a complex adaptive system, a simulation framework of the Politics of Fertility and Economic Development (POFED is formalized to understand the relationship between politics, economic, and demography change at both macro and micro levels. First, a new political capacity measurement is used; and the system dynamics model is validated with the latest data. Second, the endogenous attributes are fused with non-cooperative game theory in an agent-based framework to simulate the interactive political economic dynamics of individual intra-societal transactions. Finally, macro and micro levels are connected with policy levers of political capacity and political instability by merging system dynamics and agent-based components. This paper also explores the agent-based model's behavioral dynamics via simulation methods to identify paths towards economic development and political stability. This model demonstrates micro level human agency can act, react and interact, thus driving macro level dynamics, while macro structures provide political, social and economic environments that constrain or incentivize micro level human behavior.

  9. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: EVIDENCES OF AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the hypothesis that institutional capabilities have a positive effect on economic development. Methodologically, we used descriptive and multivariate statistics, spatial analysis and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS linear regression to estimate their effect. Spatial correlation was tested between the countries by their respective capabilities indexes. The results show in an aggregated level that institutional capabilities do have a positive effect on economic development. However, when we disaggregated by geographic region, we realized that this relation is significant only in four of them: (1 East Asia and Pacific, (2 Europe and Central Asia, (3 Latin America and Caribbean and (4 Middle East and North Africa. For OECD countries, the institutional capability effect is larger for members than for non-members. Taking political regime in consideration, our index performs better in democracies. In the end, global spatial autocorrelation indicates a weak, positive and statistically significate association comparing with institutional capability. (I = 0,192; p-value<0.05.

  10. Society as a victim of bearers of economic and political power

    OpenAIRE

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    In the transition countries, politics and economics are so connected and interrelated that many individuals who take high governmental positions or who have economic power abuse their status in order to make huge profits and commit criminal acts without impunity. The aim of this paper is to indicate the basic characteristics of this kind of crime and its negative consequences to the society as a whole. The abuse of economic and political power results in increasing economic inequalities...

  11. Organised labour and neo-liberal economic and political reforms in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the impact of current neoliberal political reforms on trade union performance in West and Central Africa. To what extent have trade unions been involved in the political restructuring of the State? Has political liberalization constrained or enhanced their political influence a

  12. Impact of Globalisation On Economic Growth in Romania: An Empirical Analysis of Its Economic, Social and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the link between globalisation and economic growth in Romania for a time span of 24 years. Data from World Bank were used in an econometrical model in order to highlight the impact of globalisation, expressed by the KOF globalisation index and its components (economic, social and political globalisation indices on economic growth rate. A statistical strong and positive link is found between GDP per capita dynamics and overall globalisation index as well as between GDP growth rate and economic and political globalisation, except the social dimension of globalisation which has a negative impact on economic growth in Romania for the time span 1990-2013.

  13. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

    This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

  14. The Political Economy of the European Union: Institutions, Policy and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    This book offers a generic explanation of the political economy of the EU, demonstrating in a clear and comprehensive way how the present institutional set-up makes it vulnerable to lobbyism, corruption and the destruction of social capital. Gert Tinggaard Svendsen contends that this 'EU disease......' may be avoided by strengthening the power of the EU Parliament at the expense of the EU Commission. The book also discusses issues surrounding policy design, international negotiations on climate change and renewable energy sources. Using an interdisciplinary framework, the author examines how...... the current institutional set-up of the EU will determine future economic performance and will adversely affect policy outcomes. He looks at whether fundamental EU policies, such as the CAP, are consistent with economic growth or whether these policies will instead distort markets, leading to economic decline...

  15. The Development of Forms of Corporate Social Responsibility in Russia in the Current Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Arzumanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the characteristic features of modern trends in the formation and implementation of corporate social responsibility in Russia in the current economic conditions, which is based on the fact that reasonable economic interests oriented business not only on maximizing profits, but also to improve their own macro - socio-economic, natural, political, through voluntary investment profits in the respective areas.

  16. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. How do Five American Political Science Textbooks Deal with the Economic Dimension?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2011-01-01

    Politics and economics interact. As a consequence, political science textbooks must often relate to the economic dimension—implicitly or explicitly. But we know very little about how these textbooks relate to economics. Are they merely unreflective customers of neoclassical economics or do...... they strive for a cross-disciplinary approach? An analysis of five American textbooks identifies two very different and concurrent interactions between politics and economics. The first is a theoretically conceived market economy in which market forces independently drive growth and create equilibrium, where...... politics has a rather secluded role. The second is the actually existing mixed economy, characterized by increased inequality, economic concentration, power, and environmental problems, influenced by a state forced to regulate. The problems of operating with such a dichotomy— and possible solutions...

  18. How do Five American Political Science Textbooks Deal with the Economic Dimension?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2011-01-01

    Politics and economics interact. As a consequence, political science textbooks must often relate to the economic dimension—implicitly or explicitly. But we know very little about how these textbooks relate to economics. Are they merely unreflective customers of neoclassical economics or do...... they strive for a cross-disciplinary approach? An analysis of five American textbooks identifies two very different and concurrent interactions between politics and economics. The first is a theoretically conceived market economy in which market forces independently drive growth and create equilibrium, where...... politics has a rather secluded role. The second is the actually existing mixed economy, characterized by increased inequality, economic concentration, power, and environmental problems, influenced by a state forced to regulate. The problems of operating with such a dichotomy— and possible solutions...

  19. Economic Globalism and Political Universalism: Con? icting Issues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the prevailing discourse, market and democracy are credited with such a strong unity it almost appears impossible to separate the two. The market is considered a manifest condition of democracy, the latter inexorably bound up with the former. Neither the concepts—nor the realities—of what is or what could be the market and democracy are questioned in this discourse. In the same manner, globalisation and universalism are conceived in the discourse as being practically synonymous. The “Global Village” constitutes one of the fashionable catch-phrases which, though bereft of meaning, bear witness to this confusion. In this contribution, I will expatiate on the thesis that each of these dichotomies (market/democracy and globalisation/universalism is more contradictory than complementary. The association of these two sets of issues, de?ned by an economic globalisation based on the market and a democratic political universalism, is as a result, utter nonsense which forces us to rethink the market, democracy and universalism within the perspective of a far-from-?nal history.

  20. ECONOMIC-POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF IMPORT TARIFF UNIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Afontsev

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic-political determinants of the Russian import tariff reform in 2000 − 2001 years, leading up to partial unification of the import customs duties, are considered a With this purpose the model of tariff policy definition which considers the aspiration of the government to minimize the losses of tariff incomes caused by incorrect declaring of the goods by importers is constructed in the work. It is revealed, that reception of tariff incomes was the main motive at the development of tariff policy; the following on a degree of importance were the motives connected with increase of citizens well-being and attraction of support from business lobbies. As a whole, the government has established lower rates of the tariff for the goods with higher probability of incorrect declaring, and higher rates - for the goods which otherwise could be used as a "screen" for incorrectly declared goods. At the same time significant opportunities for the further unification of import duties which can serve as perspective strategy of tariff policy during a transition period after Russian connection to WTO are kept.

  1. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  2. Liberalism, Marxism and Democratic Theory Revisited: Proposal of a Joint Index of Political and Economic Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Segrillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberalism and Marxism are two schools of thought which have left deep imprints in sociological, political and economic theory. They are usually perceived as opposite, rival approaches. In the field of democracy there is a seemingly insurmountable rift around the question of political versus economic democracy. Liberals emphasize the former, Marxists the latter. Liberals say that economic democracy is too abstract and fuzzy a concept, therefore one should concentrate on the workings of an objective political democracy. Marxists insist that political democracy without economic democracy is insufficient. The article argues that both propositions are valid and not mutually exclusive. It proposes the creation of an operational, quantifiable index of economic democracy that can be used alongside the already existing indexes of political democracy. By using these two indexes jointly, political and economic democracy can be objectively evaluated. Thus, the requirements of both camps are met and maybe a more dialogical approach to democracy can be reached in the debate between liberals and Marxists. The joint index is used to evaluate the levels of economic and political democracy in the transition countries of Eastern Europe.

  3. Public libraries, public policies, and political processes serving and transforming communities in times of economic and political constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Paul T; Bertot, John Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on two decades of original research conducted by the authors, as well as existing research about the intersection of public policy, political discourse, and public libraries, this book seeks to understand the origins and implications of the current standing of public libraries in public policy and political discourse. It both explains the complex current circumstances and offers strategies for effectively creating a better future for public libraries. The main message is that there is a pressing need for public

  4. “Greedy Buyers, Amoral Speculators and Lacking State Control” - Pupils Conceptions about the Crisis and their Relevance for Political and Economic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article exemplarily illustrates pupils‘ concepts of the Economic and Financial Crisis. It is especially interesting to examine in how far pupils assign relevance to current crisis phenomena for their daily lives and how these are perceived and explained. Diagnosing and analysing the available concepts is a prerequisite for planning Politics lessons. In the politic and economic classroom researching pupils‘ concepts and paying attention to them can help to show student orientated ways of learning.

  5. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  6. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  7. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D

    2017-05-02

    Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.

  8. Evolutionary and Political Economic Influences on Biological Diversity in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fatimah Linda Collier

    1993-01-01

    Examines existing data on biological diversity among Americans of African descent within the contexts of their evolutionary backgrounds and political and economic realities. Explores the origins of the diversity, and provides an evolutionary and political economy synthesis for evaluating the biological distinctions apparent among African…

  9. Economic, Social and Political Aspect of Globalization on Health in Developing Countries (with Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Rafat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, scholars and human rights activists for more national and international responsibilities in a "right to health for everyone" exchange ideas and also propose some strategies. One of the major international problems of health hazards result from globalization. The Relationship between globalization and health aspects of economic, technological, political, social, scientific and cultural should be studied. This study intends to review the aspects of economic, social and political globalization on the health. In this case ,Kof index is which includes all three aspects of economic, social and political globalization agenda. The results show that economic globalization has a negative effect on health in developing countries and globalization, social and political effects are positive and statistically significant. The result is the same for both women and men, and there are only minor differences in the coefficients.

  10. Political and economic transformations in Ukraine: The view from psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskyy, Shelly

    2016-10-01

    This article examines contemporary Ukrainian psychiatry through the voices of patients, practitioners, and advocates, focusing on shifting objects of knowledge, interventions, and institutional transitions. Currently, we are witnessing the reconfiguration of psychiatry on a global scale through neoliberal rhetoric combined with the call for global mental health. The goal of the movement for global mental health is to scale up psychiatric treatments through greater access to psychiatric drugs, justified through the framing of distress as an illness. Neoliberal rhetoric suggests that cutting social service expenditure through the privatization and decentralization of the health care system will stimulate economic growth and, in the long term, combat poverty. This paper traces how these dynamics are playing out in Ukraine, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a psychiatric hospital in south-central Ukraine from 2008-2010, while working with a non-governmental organization.

  11. Politics, Economics, and Parking Spaces: A Teaching Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Explores the failure of market and political solutions to a common civic problem: a shortage of winter parking spaces. Narrow self-interest and a lack of community mindedness are seen as sources of this civic problem. (JDH)

  12. Economia e política na crise global Economics and politics in the global crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Soares Dulci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da presente crise do capitalismo internacional, interessando-se pelo nexo entre seus aspectos propriamente econômicos e as questões políticas e institucionais que ela suscita. São discutidos alguns elementos de caráter cognitivo e metodológico importantes para uma agenda de pesquisa da crise, e em seguida é apresentado um panorama do processo de globalização neoliberal que caracterizou o mundo nas ultimas décadas e que está no centro da crise contemporânea. O artigo conclui com uma breve prospecção das mudanças que poderão advir da crise, sobretudo no que diz respeito à revalorização da política e ao fortalecimento do papel do estado.The article deals with the current crisis of world capitalism, relating its specifically economic aspects to political and institutional questions raised by the financial crash. It discusses some cognitive and methodological issues which are relevant for a research agenda of the process, followed by an overview of the development of neoliberal globalization. This model, which characterized the world during the last few decades, is in the heart of the contemporary economic problems. The article concludes with a brief prospect of the changes that may be stemming from the crisis, especially those related to the strengthening of politics and the state's role.

  13. Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Scientific, Economic and Political Realia of the New Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state and problems of nanotechnology development in the Russian Federation in modern economic, political and scientific conditions are presented. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials have already been used in all developed countries of the world in the most significant areas of human activity industry, defense, information sphere, radio electronics, energy drinks, transport, biotechnology, medicine. The Government of the Russian Federation formulated the main objectives of scientific and economic community for the development of nanotechnologies in the conditions of the demanded import substitution. In the developed countries the comprehension of the key role of nanotechnologies led to the elaboration of large-scale programs for their development on the basis of state support. Similar programs are adopted more than in thirty countries around the world, including the Russian Federation. The author of the present article studies the current state of nanotech industry in Russia and classifies nanotechnologies according to the intrinsic principle. As a result, four main directions in the field of nanotechnologies are allocated: 1 nanomaterials; 2 photonics, spintronics, nanoelectronics (devices based on the nanoprinciples; 3 nanometrology, nanomanipulators and modeling; 4 nanosensors and nanodetectors. Some perspective scientific and technological projects of nanotech industry development in Russia are also considered. The author points to economic, social, ecological, and scientific and technical opportunities of nanotechnologies development in Russia, as well as their threats.

  14. Political and Economic Scope for Permit Markets in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    (organized polluters) due to the possibility of a free, initial distribution (grand-fathering). As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically...... of permit markets in the US. Therefore, the policy recommendation for e.g. CO2 reduction in Europe is to apply taxation in relation to large and non-organized groups only, such as households and the transportation sector. A permit market, on the other hand, is politically more attrac-tive to the industry...

  15. Political and Economic Scope for Permit Markets in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    (organized polluters) due to the possibility of a free, initial distribution (grand-fathering). As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically...... of permit markets in the US. Therefore, the policy recommendation for e.g. CO2 reduction in Europe is to apply taxation in relation to large and non-organized groups only, such as households and the transportation sector. A permit market, on the other hand, is politically more attrac-tive to the industry...

  16. From Whitlam to Economic Rationalism and Beyond: A Conceptual Framework for Political Activism in Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Thirty years after the dismissal of the Whitlam Government, the Australian political, economic and social landscape is dominated by discourses of economic rationalism. The reification of market forces presents challenges for early childhood professionals seeking to establish a viable future trajectory for children's services that includes…

  17. Africa's Elites Ways of Commodifying Politics to Valorise Economic Rent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts with incredulity first. Whilst doing some research for this paper, I came across members of the top political elite from Zaire to Nigeria often taken as 'kleptocrat extraordinaire' to be also in the forefront in denoucing rennt-seeking and corruption with an equal extraordinaire...

  18. USSR Report, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 11, November 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    public opinion. The American political barometer was definitely shifting in favor of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. This was sensed by...resulting tech- nical innovations to the civilian sector of industry. Two types of lasers are to be used as a basis for the second "level"—the

  19. The equilibrium price range of oil: economics, politics and uncertainty in the formation of oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.-N. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the articulation between economic and political factors in the formation of petroleum prices. The essential point is that when factors control significant low cost reserves and will not or cannot adopt behaviour of a `substantial economic rationality` then the economic analysis does not allow a unique dynamic equilibrium price to be determined. However, it does permit definition of an equilibrium price range within which political preferences may be expressed. Finally, the paper draws some conclusions on what could be discussed within the scope of a new oil producer-consumer dialogue. (author)

  20. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity's access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today's restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these

  1. Social, Economic, and Political Issues Affecting End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopcheck, Janet

    2016-02-01

    For many decades, Americans showed a preference for delaying death through a technological imperative that often created challenges for nurses in caring for dying patients and their families. Because of their vast knowledge of health and healing, and their proximity to patients' bedsides, nurses are often well positioned to advocate for healthcare reform and legislation to improve end-of-life care. This article provides an overview of the social, economic, and political factors that are shaping end-of-life care in the United States. First, historical perspectives on end-of-life care are presented to enhance understanding of why some clinicians and patients seem to resist change to current practices. Second, end of care issues related to advanced technology utilization, societal expectations of care, clinical practices, financial incentives, palliative care services, and policy reforms are discussed. Finally, future recommendations are provided to encourage nurses and other healthcare providers to improve care for individuals facing end-of-life care decisions.

  2. Political freedom and the response to economic incentives: labor migration in Africa, 1972-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, A P; Mcmillan, J

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the thesis that political institutions and the freedoms and civil rights generated by these institutions affect migration decisions. The hypothesis is based on one stated by Adam Smith in 1776, that economic conditions that reflect greater political freedoms and civil liberties harbor higher levels of resource mobility in response to economic incentives. Pooled cross-sectional and time-series analysis is based on data from the World Bank for 32 African countries during 1972-87. Findings support the hypothesis that migration rate is more affected by the expected returns ratio to labor in countries where civil liberties are greater than in nations with fewer civil liberties. The implication, from the inclusion of institutional factors in the model, is that civil liberties have an indirect impact on the rate of labor migration out of agriculture in Africa. The impact is a mix of economic incentives and civil liberties. In the political rights model, the most free countries had the largest migration elasticity. The findings on political rights impacts support findings by Friedman and McMillan that civil liberties are a more important determinant of economic growth than political rights. Further testing for measurement error confirmed that the data were flawed, but not so greatly that the basic findings were overturned. The migration out of African agriculture was found to be sensitive to the effect of price signals, which were conditioned by the degree of political rights and civil liberties. Policy makers are urged to consider both changes in pricing and institutions.

  3. Ecology, economics and political will: the vicissitudes of malaria strategies in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson, C; Indaratna, K

    1998-06-01

    The documented history of malaria in parts of Asia goes back more than 2,000 years, during which the disease has been a major player on the socioeconomic stage in many nation states as they waxed and waned in power and prosperity. On a much shorter time scale, the last half century has seen in microcosm a history of large fluctuations in endemicity and impact of malaria across the spectrum of rice fields and rain forests, mountains and plains that reflect the vast ecological diversity inhabited by this majority aggregation of mankind. That period has seen some of the most dramatic changes in social and economic structure, in population size, density and mobility, and in political structure in history: all have played a part in the changing face of malaria in this extensive region of the world. While the majority of global malaria cases currently reside in Africa, greater numbers inhabited Asia earlier this century before malaria programs savored significant success, and now Asia harbors a global threat in the form of the epicenter of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum which is gradually encompassing the tropical world. The latter reflects directly the vicissitudes of economic change over recent decades, particularly the mobility of populations in search of commerce, trade and personal fortunes, or caught in the misfortunes of physical conflicts. The period from the 1950s to the 1990s has witnessed near "eradication" followed by resurgence of malaria in Sri Lanka, control and resurgence in India, the influence of war and postwar instability on drug resistance in Cambodia, increase in severe and cerebral malaria in Myanmar during prolonged political turmoil, the essential disappearance of the disease from all but forested border areas of Thailand where it remains for the moment intractable, the basic elimination of vivax malaria from many provinces of central China. Both positive and negative experiences have lessons to teach in the debate between eradication

  4. Economic and political aspects of food and crop quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresina Mancuso

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be analyzed – at international, european and national level – the framework of a protection system of geographical indication (Denomination of Protected Origin and Protected Geographical Indication as defined in the EU Regulations, “certified production” in the follow, to highlight the potentials and the limits of their expansion on the world markets. The economy of italian certified agro-food productions and their political issues, will be also investigated.

  5. Economic and political aspects of food and crop quality productions

    OpenAIRE

    Teresina Mancuso; Giacomo Büchi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper will be analyzed – at international, european and national level – the framework of a protection system of geographical indication (Denomination of Protected Origin and Protected Geographical Indication as defined in the EU Regulations, “certified production” in the follow), to highlight the potentials and the limits of their expansion on the world markets. The economy of italian certified agro-food productions and their political issues, ...

  6. Zairian Political Conditions and Prospects for Economic Development,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-15

    elsewhere in Africa (Ghana, Liberia) demonstrate at least the possibility that a group of lower-ranking officers and noncommissioned officers cQuld mount a...imagery of father and family may be ascribed, first, to the consciously-adopted policy of the regime; second, the Zaire’s precolonial political...instantly comprehensible. Moreover, in Africa , where family and kinship are more important than in the West, the imagery is even more powerful and

  7. Paraguay: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    civic organizations that protested against then-President Duarte’s failure to combat social exclusion and rising crime, and his efforts to revise the...an offshoot of the traditional Liberal Party), the Country in Solidarity party (Pais Solidario), the Tekojoja Popular Movement ( Movimiento Popular...political successes. His focus on increasing social and health expenditures to reduce inequality have resulted in modest reforms of education and

  8. USA between the Greatest Economic Crisis and Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Liana Camarda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available American business system might be defined trough its decentralized character, a capitalist one, based on private property and free will. Federalauthorities’ intercession to economy exhibits throughout budgetary and monetary policies strategy. Meantime federal budget gets a constituent referring toinvestment in cereals. American economic legislation acknowledges government involvement in business practice control, American Government acting aseconomical increase supervisor.

  9. Historico-Political and Economic Perspectives of Nigeria-Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    discovered that historical, cultural and economic relations between the two ... distribution of occupations, the location of industries and interstate markets. .... at Lagos for the reception of equipment needed for the construction of Cotonou.

  10. Relationships between Institutional Economics of Cooperation and the Political Economy of Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernandéz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust. Transactions costs, principal-agent theory, market power, increasing-returns theory and value creation, strategic management: competitive forces, resource-based theory, organisationtal knowledge and learning, strategic choice theory and collective efficiency theory are reviewed. Lastly, the political economy of trust is sustained.

  11. Public spending efficiency and political and economic factors: Evidence from selected East Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sok-Gee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses public spending efficiency and the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency in East Asian countries for the period 2000-2007. In the first stage, the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach is used to estimate public spending efficiency scores. In the second stage, the Tobit regression model is then used to determine the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency. Results of the study show that China is relatively efficient in public spending on education, health, and maintaining economic performance and stability, Japan on infrastructure, and Singapore on promoting public services. In addition, countries in East Asia are relatively less efficient in public spending for promoting equal income distribution. The results also indicate that political stability and financial freedom have a positive effect on public spending efficiency. However, voice, accountability, and civil liberties have a negative effect on public spending efficiency.

  12. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringos, Dionne S; Boerma, Wienke G W; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-12-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda, economy, prevailing values, and type of healthcare system are all important factors that influence the development of strong PC. Wealthier countries are associated with a weaker PC structure and lower PC accessibility, while Eastern European countries seemed to have used their growth in national income to strengthen the accessibility and continuity of PC. Countries governed by left-wing governments are associated with a stronger PC structure, accessibility and coordination of PC. Countries with a social-security based system are associated with a lower accessibility and continuity of PC; the opposite is true for transitional systems. Cultural values seemed to affect all aspects of PC. It can be concluded that strengthening PC means mobilising multiple leverage points, policy options, and political will in line with prevailing values in a country.

  13. THE DOUBLE SERPENT: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC POWER IN THE FORMATION OF CAPITALISM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cerdas Vega

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the historical links between political and economic power in the formation of capitalism, from the standpoint of long-time periods and the role that power had in shaping the economy and society in Europe since the sixteenth century. The result of this process is an capitalist interstate system whose expansive dynamic reached the entire globe and whose entanglement we need to solve in order to overcome naturalized readings on the formative process of global economic and political order.

  14. The European Currency Unit: An Economical, Financial, and Political Currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strysick, Pam

    Intended to provide a basic understanding of the history and complexity of a relatively new foreign currency measure, this paper briefly describes the history leading to the formation of the European Economic Community (EEC), its objectives, its governance structure, and its development of the European Currency Unit (ECU) as a means of stabilizing…

  15. Political Ideonomy of Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mozafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of success and reasons for failure of development strategies and plans, are among the most important “development studies” issues. This has been explained in different ways: for example, there is a strong relationship between the efficiency of development strategies and plans and development theories. Based on paradigmatic-implicative theory, which explains the relationship between development theories and political thought and considers the development theory as one of the practical implications of political thought, a condition for the success of development strategies and development plans can be found to be rooted in the political thought foundation. Therefore, in the present article we explore the political thought supporting Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth theory, as one of the oldest and most important development theories which in the 1960s resulted in understanding development as “growth”. We use qualitative content analysis method to show that the political foundation of Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth theory is based on the principle of “the most utility for the most people” in accordance with Bentham’s utilitarian political thought.

  16. CURRENT PERFORMANCES IN CONSACRATED POLITICAL AND CIVIC STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania Bejan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts that can be turned operational in a double dilemma - a on one hand we see, during the past months, on the local political scene, protest movements (in a purely legal sense or, rather, an expression of the political will in severe forms, with whom we got accustomed from the Romanian political environment? b on the other hand, they are totally divergent with the political partisanship and with the civic activism or, in precise contexts, we find the intersection area of the two? – this is not totally new for the investigators of the recent public space: protest represents merely only the right (recognized by the Constitution to show your discontent in the public environment(without having the authorities intervene for this manifestation; violence is a characteristics of societies, and its symbolic “face” accompanies us during the entire history of mass-media (political violence presents itself as a species, discredited, now and then, due to the frequency, to the wear and tear of its generating mechanisms, to the repetitiveness of the players and the monotony of the speeches; political partisanship,quasi-tautological phrase, refers directly to the parti-pris, not leaving space for a certain inter-party-minded elegance (exception making the temporary alliances for obtaining power, the transfer of some politicians from a doctrinaire “area” to another, the support contracts made in the Parliament for some mutual beneficial laws, etc.; civic activism, another desideratum in its essence, for the fragile democracies of the post-totalitarian Eastern Europe (hereand there, now and then, voluntary impulses, with modest success and inevitable mistakes, with committed people and opportunists, like in any field of activity...Placed, contextually speaking, in relationships of logical or affective type, these “cardinal points” of the political fight tactics lead to interpretation alternativesthat are fresh, particular, useful for the

  17. Entrepreneurship as a source of economic, political, and social improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rabarijaona, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A three-country case study was used to analyze the economic, political, and social impacts of entrepreneurship, and the development of entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa was studied through the lens of five entrepreneurial factors (freedom, labor, infrastructure, governance, and business environment). An increase of foreign direct investments, growing economic freedom for citizens, and a higher gross domestic product per capita wer...

  18. Does political and economic freedom matter for inbound tourism? A cross-national panel data estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Shrabani; Su, Jen-Je; Campbell, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of political and economic freedom on inbound tourism for over 110 countries during 1995-2012. Panel country fixed-effects techniques are utilized to examine the relationship after controlling for other factors that contribute to inbound tourism. The results show that civil liberties and economic freedom (among several other freedom measures) are positively and significantly associated with inbound tourism. Examination of the moderation effect revea...

  19. Society as a victim of bearers of economic and political power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the transition countries, politics and economics are so connected and interrelated that many individuals who take high governmental positions or who have economic power abuse their status in order to make huge profits and commit criminal acts without impunity. The aim of this paper is to indicate the basic characteristics of this kind of crime and its negative consequences to the society as a whole. The abuse of economic and political power results in increasing economic inequalities, decreasing chances of entering foreign direct investments, and falling economic growth. Besides, this contributes to creating fertile soil for populism and supporting political elites that are not committed to building rule of law, stable democratic society and fair market economy. As a result, citizens’ confidence in the state and its institutions weakens, while the normative system of values in the society is jeopardized. In this way, the society becomes the victim of irresponsible individuals, and of those who abuse their economic and social power.

  20. From Kundun to Mulan: A Political Economic Case Study of Disney and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the Walt Disney Company’s foray in the Chinese market from a political economic perspective. It focuses on two film-related events: 1 the 'Kundun' incident in 1996 that displays the ideological confrontation between Disney and China in the post-Cold War era, and 2 the production of 'Mulan 'in 1998 as both a political compromise and a strategic marketing decision for Disney to regain the Chinese market. The conflicts and negotiations between Disney and China provide a telling example to study the local operation of global capitalism, especially in terms of its interaction with the state. While many believe that the advent of globalization will open more free markets for fair competition, this study reveals how government policy intervenes in the global entertainment industry, and sheds light on the political and economic struggles behind the silver screen.

  1. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  2. Neo-Pluralist Political Science, Economic Sociology and the Conceptual Foundations of the Comparative Capitalisms Literatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Hartmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we critically assess two of the key conceptual foundations for the comparative capitalisms (CC) literatures, neo-pluralist political science and economic sociology, in order to identify more clearly the deep intellectual roots of these literatures. Principally, we focus on how...... the strengths of neo-pluralism and economic sociology – their attention to detail in considering the huge range of ‘types’ of capitalism that exist across the world – come at a high price. Put briefly, the redefinition of ‘capitalism’ as ‘the economy’ concentrates research agendas on the specific political...... and social conditions found across the world, leaving ‘the economy’ relatively untouched. In consequence, ‘capitalist diversity’ is quickly, and often silently, equated to ‘political diversity’ or ‘social diversity’........

  3. Political lnfluence and Economic Power in the Communication Media: Colombian Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alberto Gil Bolívar

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of radio broadcasting in Colombia has put this media at the top of the audience, penetration (99,9%, credibility and influence. Its investments have not been displaced to other media, as television or press.The concentration of broadcasting media by families and political-economic groups reflects the same two-party system of the Colombian society. Thus, while during more than one hundred years the Colombian State has been dominated by the traditional rightist parties -Liberal and Conservative-, the national broadcasting enterprise has belonged to leaders or economic groups deeply relationed with one of these political units. Industry and politics are the two factors that have brought to the broadcasting polarization in two big commercial channels: CARACOL -1inked to the Liberal Party, and RCN, to the Conservatives.

  4. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  5. 当前乌克兰政治基本特征与影响因素%Basic Characteristics and Influencing Factors of the Current Ukraine Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会荣

    2016-01-01

    After the Euromaidan “Revolution Square”, the politics of Ukraine has presented the following basic characteristics: the political system is back to parliament presidential system; the political power rises in the west but falls in the east; political polarization; political oligarch; homogenization of internal affairs, affinity to the west but confrontation with Russia in diplomacy; weakened political independence, and strengthened external dependency. The current stage of political development, political party system, political elite, political culture, economic factors and external power are the important reasons for the current tortuous development of Ukraine.%“广场革命”以后,乌克兰政治呈现出以下基本特征:政治制度回归议会总统制;政治力量西升东落;政治极化;政治寡头化;内政同质化,外交亲西抗俄;政治的独立性减弱,对外依附性增强。政治发展所处阶段、政党制度、政治精英、政治文化、经济因素和外部力量,是乌克兰目前政治曲折发展的重要原因。

  6. Copper, borders and nation-building : the Katangese factor in Zambian political and economic history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guene, E.

    2017-01-01

    This book is based on Enid Guene Master's thesis 'Copper, Borders and Nation-building: The Katangese Factor in Zambian Economic and Political History', runner-up in the African Studies Centre, Leiden's 2014 African Thesis Award. This annual award for Master's students encourages student research and

  7. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  8. The Political Economic Necessity of the Art School 1835-52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the political economic theories that informed the development of the first publicly funded art school in Britain, by the Select Committee on Arts and Manufactures of 1835/6. It begins by assessing these origins in the context of some recent experiments in art school pedagogy. It then responds to the challenge offered by…

  9. How Do Business and Government Interact? Combining Perspectives from Economics, Political Science, Public Administration, and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.; Harsell, Dana Michael

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe the theoretical preparation provided to students in advance of a limited-duration experiential learning experience in Washington DC in a Master's level course for students in Business or Public Administration. The students consider theoretical perspectives from economics, political science, and public administration with…

  10. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  11. Earth stewardship on rangelands: Coping with ecological, economic, and political marginality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands encompass 30-40 percent of Earth's land surface and support 1-2 billion people. Their predominant use is extensive livestock production by pastoralists and ranchers. But rangelands are characterized by ecological, economic, and political marginality, and higher-value, more intensive land ...

  12. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  13. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Postmes, Tom

    2012-04-01

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic livability is a viable rival explanation for the reported effects of parasitic stress on culture.

  14. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Postmes, T.

    2012-01-01

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic livab

  15. The Impact of Education on Rural Women's Participation in Political and Economic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaw, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…

  16. Economic crisis and levels of political participation in Europe (2002-2010): the role of resources and grievances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, A.; Marien, S.; Hooghe, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of the recent economic crisis on political participation levels in Europe. As the civic voluntarism model and grievances theory predict different effects of economic downturn on political participation, the crisis provides a unique context to evaluate the explanatory

  17. Woodland restoration in Scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Richard

    2009-07-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in Scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. These woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. Recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. The proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing pressure from sheep and, particularly, deer. However, this has only been possible as a result of a complex interplay between ecological, political and socio-economic factors. We are currently seeing the decline of land management practices instituted 150-200 years ago, changes in land ownership patterns, cultural revival, and changes in societal perceptions of the Scottish landscape. These all feed into the current move to return large areas of the Scottish Highlands to tree cover. I emphasize the need to consider restoration in a multidisciplinary framework which accounts not just for the ecology involved but also the historical and cultural context.

  18. The Current Global Economic Crisis: Gleaning from History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettah B. Essien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to demonstrate how the knowledge of economic thought could help in explaining and managing the current global economic crisis. The current economic meltdown has affected nations of the world by differing degrees but adversely. Many analysts argue that the adoption of the Washington Consensusfinancial liberalization-gave vent to the crisis. The Washington Consensus discourages government involvement but promotes the operation of the market forces in economic and financial operations. However, the financial and economic devastation caused by the current economic crisis has prompted governments of various nations across the world to intervene through massive stimulus plans in order to rescue their economies from the meltdown situation. This suggests that the role of government in the economy is pertinent, and that the market forces are no substitutes but complement. This, therefore, suggests a fair balance of the government and the market forces in the operations of the economy.

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, there is evidence that suggest that economic globalization has resumed the upward trend that characterized it before the crisis. Despite the fact the global crisis has shaken the process of globalization, we cannot talk of an end of globalization, as some predictions have indicated.

  20. Do Better Political Relations with the USA Improve A Country's Economic Outlook?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Aridi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations of countries with the USA could be considered as helpful in their quest for enhanced economic performance. Does an improvement or deterioration in relations with the USA bring significant economic and financial benefits or costs, in areas such as, trade, capital flows, remittances, aid, military expenditures, and education? The results based on an event study are very preliminary. Nevertheless, this line of research could be fruitful and may enhance our appreciation of international political-economic relations and the ability to build more comprehensive theories of trade, capital flows and the like.

  1. [Political ecology, ecological economics, and public health: interfaces for the sustainability of development and health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Martinez-Alier, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them.

  2. A political crisis in an economic tempest (January 2008 – December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide VITTORI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the European Union in the economic and financial field during the global crisis that stroke Europe, from January 2008 until December 2012. My argument is that the European Union has faced certain political and economical imbalances since its beginnings in 1992 which have worsen the European economic and financial scenario. These imbalances - rooted in the EU architecture – were the result of a primary political choice: building a European market based on neoliberal values and setting aside any political controversy that may have caused a slowdown in the economic and financial integration. Since 1992, the Maastricht Treaty has shown some incongruities which were not resolved in the following two decades. Moreover, the decision-making process became more intricate so that Europe faced the worst post-war financial crisis without the instruments to answer rapidly to the financial speculation. The ECB, following its price stability mandate, was not able to react with counter-cyclical measures, thus exacerbating the financial imbalances between Northern and Southern European States. After an economic “perfect storm”, EU Member States need to have enough farsightedness to implement some fundamental reforms in order to give the necessary means to EU institutions to erect an efficient firewall against financial speculations.

  3. Saudi Arabia (Part 4). Political economics of development and oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    1988-05-01

    Saudi Arabia was seriously exposed to the influence of the oil glut since 1982 as the swing producer in OPEC, which has brought up the rapid reduction in oil income, tightening and deficit in the finance. The construction industry was most severely affected by the tightened finance and economic slowdown in the country. The fourth 3-year plan (1985-89) was approved in March 1985. The plan is directed to the continued industrialization and stable growth by the combination of private investment and labor force with the continued expenditure for the people's living to function as the shock absorber under the condition of continued oil glut. However, it faced a wide reduction in oil production immediately after the initiation of the plan as the country turned to the swing producer. The government took the policy to protect its market share by the net back sales to overcome the difficulty; however, the policy has caused the fall of international oil price, resulted in further reduction of oil income. (1 fig, 9 tabs, 7 refs)

  4. THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND POLICIES ON POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC STABILITY OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merim Kasumovic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of a civil society and social systems for protection of different groups is directly related to well functioning political and economic systems. If the level of economic development or political stability is not continuous the implementation of antidiscrimination laws would most likely be at a very low level. In this case development of social rights along with implementation of antidiscrimination rights may be marginalized due to three factors: lack of cooperation among political and economic spheres, lack of knowledge about antidiscrimination laws and absence of political will for adoption and implementation of antidiscrimination laws. Therefore, we focus on the examination of specific issues concerning the three aforementioned factors primarily focusing on EU and divergence in the level of political and economic development among the member states.We will argue that antidiscrimination laws are not welcome in new member states, especially since they increase political and economic costs for the governments of respective countries. Level of political development has much to do with the acceptance and inclusion of AD laws in the decision making process. Economic development has much to do with social and living standards within a country which is directly related to the general perception of the population on AD laws. Therefore, one could say that implementation of AD laws heavily depends on the preparedness of people, economic and political system and their will to cope with costs and benefits of implementing those laws.

  5. Designer ecosystems, capitalism, and boom-bust economic cycles: linking political economy and hydroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.; Rigby, J.

    2011-12-01

    The basic premise of the term "anthropocene" is that human practices are becoming a primary force in shaping ecosystems even at the global scale. Ecohydrologists and hydroecologists often consider human effects to be a collective term that is culturally and politically invariant. "Anthropogenic change" is often cited regardless of whether these changes occur in liberal democracies or totalitarian autocracies. Yet there is potential for socio-politically driven variation in basic human impacts on the environment. Analyzing the anthropocene requires considering the rise in global population convolved with dramatically shifting political and economic conditions. How humans affect the environment, and how environmental change feedbacks operate, are likely highly dependent on cultural and political contexts. We posed the question, "Does capitalism leave a distinct signature on the hydroecological landscape?" We analyzed emerging designer ecosystems markets using Mankiw-Whinston free-entry equilibria model coupled with simple species-area curves and tested it with an extensive database of ecosystem service trades in North Carolina. Free-entry leads to a diffusion of small restored ecosystems whereas restricted entry leads to fewer, large sites; the difference in site locations and sizes in turn impact regional species distribution and water quality. We next analyzed the effect of deregulating electricity markets on river flow regimes in North Carolina; market deregulation increases potential profits derived from rapid power production in response to price changes on the spot market to which hydropower is uniquely able to respond. Results showed the potential for increased flow variability associated with price volatility in purely market-driven cases, but additional constraints required of infrastructure (e.g., flood control) restrict purely market-driven flow regimes. Changes in macro-economic conditions may also leave distinct signatures, often reflecting political

  6. Iceland’s External Affairs from 1550-1815: Danish societal and political cover concurrent with a highly costly economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldur Þórhallsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that there is not necessarily a correlation between political, economic and societal shelter. Iceland received considerable societal and political shelter from Denmark in the period under study, but Denmark failed to provide its remote island with economic cover. Firstly, and most importantly, it provided substantial and highly valuable societal shelter. Copenhagen was the main channel by which new knowledge and technology could enter Iceland. The islanders benefited from educational, health-care and social policies of the crown and it played an invaluable role in preserving Iceland’s cultural heritage. Secondly, Denmark provided partial protection of Icelandic waters and land though Iceland’s peripheral position continued to be its main protection from outside attacks. However, at the end of our period, the Danish kingdom was in decline and unable to provide political cover. Nevertheless, increased centralization, initiated from Denmark, provided internal order and political stability and citizens became more equal before the law. Thirdly, Icelanders paid a heavy price for the Danish trade monopoly though Icelanders continued to receive partial economic and societal shelter from foreign merchants and fishermen. The crown’s policies towards Iceland can largely be explained by current ideological trends at any given time. By being in constant contact with the European continent through Denmark, Icelandic society was part of the societal, political and economic evolution in Europe and managed to avoid isolation despite its geographical remoteness.

  7. Cyclicality of Economic Development of Ukraine in the Context of its Political and Legal Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryzhychenko Kostyantyn A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclicality in the development of the Ukrainian economy during the years of its independence under conditions of its political and legal transformations has been studied. On the basis of the analysis of worldwide research the problem of influence of political transformations on the socio-economic development of the state has been identified. There has been developed a methodological approach to studying the evolutionary development of the Ukrainian economy in the context of its European integration, which comprises three main blocks: Block 1 – studying the development of the legal field of Ukraine; Block 2 – studying the policy of development of Ukraine and orientation of its economic system; Block 3 – analyzing the evolutionary development of the Ukrainian economy and determining its cyclical nature. Within the developed approach there were used wavelet models, spectral analysis – Fourier expansion and Johanson test. The paper puts forward three hypotheses: hypothesis 1 – about the existence of short-term 5-year cycles of evolutionary development of the economy; hypothesis 2 – about the existence of a long-term cycle lasing 25 years and conditioned by political and legal processes in the society; hypothesis 3 – about the existence of cointegration relationships between the evolutionary development of the economy of Ukraine and the EU. On the basis of the modern political transformations the phases of development of the Ukrainian legal environment have been defined and comparison of these phases with the specifics of its economic development has been carried out. The analysis of the economic system of Ukraine and its policy made it possible to determine the vector of development of the Ukrainian economy. The approximating (trend and detailing (cyclic components of the economic development of Ukraine were determined with the help of wavelet expansion. Using Fourier analysis for the detailing components allowed to distinguish 5

  8. Hungary in transition: Environmental, economic, and political realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csanady, A. (ELTE Nature Conservation Club, Budapest (Hungary)); Csutora, M. (Budapest Univ. of Economic Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Feher, S.; Melanson, M. (Global Environment, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Karas, L. (Peace Corps, Budapest (Hungary). Environmental Programs); Radnai, A. (Ministry of Environment and Regional Planning, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-01-01

    In the several years since the withdrawal of the centralized Soviet government, the unfortunate state of the environment in Hungary has become evident. After the withdrawal of the centralized Soviet approach to resource management and the first free democratic elections in Hungary, the state of the environment improved immediately in some areas due to the bankruptcy of heavy industries suddenly bereft of Soviet subsidies. Currently, the government is struggling with the development of NEPA-like legislation (the Environmental Act), which is intended to be modeled after the environmental acts of western countries and in harmony with the European Communities guidelines. The Environmental Act will include a section dealing with requirements for environmental impacts assessment. The most immediate and obvious environmental problems are air pollution and the contamination of potable groundwater and surface water supplies. Nearly 20% of the population now depends on contaminated drinking water sources, and 40% of the population is exposed to significant air pollution. Sources of ground and surface water contamination are the intensive, centralized agricultural practices which were initiated in the early 1960's, and the disposal of hazardous and toxic wastes by both the private sector and by the Soviet military at abandoned installations throughout the country.

  9. Prevalence of malnutrition in various political, economic, and geographic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klek, Stanislaw; Krznaric, Zeljko; Gundogdu, Riza Haldun; Chourdakis, Michael; Kekstas, Gintautas; Jakobson, Triin; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Vranesic Bender, Darija; Uyar, Mehmet; Demirag, Kubilay; Poulia, Kalliopi Anna; Klimasauskas, Andrius; Starkopf, Joel; Galas, Aleksander

    2015-02-01

    Disease-related malnutrition (DRM) represents a critical public health concern. Therefore, Fight Against Malnutrition (FAM) should be a state priority, but the degree to which this is true appears to differ considerably among European countries. The aim of this study was to put the problem into perspective by comparing the prevalence of malnutrition in countries from opposite parts of the continent. Six countries-Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Lithuania, Poland, and Turkey-participated in the study. A short questionnaire was used to assess DRM: its prevalence, the current situation in hospitals, regulations for reimbursement, and general healthcare circumstances. Data from ESPEN's NutritionDay 2006 were used to broaden the perspective. At admission in October 2012, 4068 patients were assessed. The study was performed in 160 hospitals and 225 units with 9143 beds. The highest proportions of patients with 3 or more points on the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 were observed in Estonia (80.4%) and Turkey (39.4%), whereas the lowest were in Lithuania (14.2%). The provision of nutrition support was best in Turkey (39.4% required intervention, 34.4% received intervention) and Poland (21.9% and 27.8%, respectively). Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are active in some countries, whereas in others they virtually do not exist. The prevalence of malnutrition was quite high in some countries, and the nutrition approach differed among them. It could be the result of the lack of reimbursement, inactive or nonexistent NSTs, and low nutrition awareness. Those facts confirmed that the continuation of FAM activities is necessary. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. [Debating disease: the risk factor concept in political economic and scientific consideration, 1968 to 1986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarász, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The risk factor concept was developed in American epidemiological studies ongoing since the 1940s researching the causes of chronic cardiovascular diseases. By looking at the depiction of this model in a variety of media in Germany between 1968 and 1986 we can put its close interaction with contemporary socio-political debates under scrutiny. Thereby, a strong connection between the various agents' political and economic interests on the one hand and the incorporation of the risk factor concept into their specific agendas will become apparent. The risk factor concept was not fundamentally changed in the process but it was adapted to contemporary conditions and political constellations. Thereby, so it will be argued, the medical uses of the model, especially regarding the prevention of chronic cardiovascular disease, were forced into the background of public debates.

  11. China's Political-Economic Approach toward FTAs with East Asian Nations and Its Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-jun Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a political-economic perspective, this article examines on the background and objectives of China's approach toward FTAs with East Asian nations. It appears that China's strategy to regional economic integration recently has transformed from a passive direction to active initiative, pushing forward its winning strategies - economic liberalization and its resolve to become a regional leader - while spearheading projects to create a regional free trade zone. China has a tendency to take a serious view on the significance of non-economic factors or international politics and security in regard to pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries. Behind China's ASEAN+1 plan, the implication of security is deeply rooted; and through its pursuit of economic integration within the region, China seems to be seeking change in the regional security order. China has also been bringing security discussions into the mechanism of regional economic cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. China also appears to have a few types of ideological mentality when pursuing FTAs. It seems that China's "great-power mentality"(daguo xintai is somewhat robust. This mentality is prone to be extended to hegemonic contention within the region. If China combines the "great-power mentality" with nationalism in the process of pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries, then this might entail exclusive regionalism. Both Japan and China are basically in rivalry over regional hegemony, and competing for leadership in intra-regional FTA initiatives. In pursuing FTAs with South Korea, China and Japan seem to have quite a contradictory approach. Japan, which wants to control the rise of China, seems to be ruling out the China-Japan-Korea FTA plan and actively pursuing a Japan-Korea FTA. On the contrary, Beijing is expected to actively propose to pursue China-Korea FTA in order to hold back rapid progress in Japan-Korea FTA negotiations, which have already commenced. On the

  12. The economics and politics of local content in African extractives: Lessons from Tanzania, Uganda and Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendelboe Hansen, Michael; Buur, Lars; Kjær, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    expectations, local content is limited, shallow and inefficient. The paper explores why local content apparently is so difficult to achieve in these African countries. It is argued that conventional economic explanations, focusing on market failures and weak institutions, are partial at best and therefore must...... in which they can promote local content. This paper examines local content policies and practices in three African countries – Tanzania, Uganda and Mozambique – all countries with huge expectations for extractive based economic development. It is found that in spite of high ambitions and strong...... be complemented with political explanations. Hence, it is proposed that local content practices in the three countries can be understood partly as the results of ruling elites’ efforts to build and maintain stable political coalitions....

  13. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  14. Political Culture, Values and Economic Utility: A Different Perspective on Norwegian Party-based Euroscepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Skinner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a content analysis of party manifestos and a survey of Norwegian MPs, this article examines the nuances in, and the causality of, the different Norwegian parties’ Euroscepticism. The study of the comparative party politics of Euroscepticism, which focuses on ideology and strategy, falls short of accounting for the Norwegian case, where, unlike other European countries, the parties’ Euroscepticism is exceptionally stable and appears across the political spectrum. Therefore, the article tests an alternative set of theories, drawn from the literature on opinion formation on European integration, to find a more suitable framework for analysing and explaining the motivation of Norwegian Euroscepticism. The analysis shows that Norwegian party-based Euroscepticism can be divided into three types when it comes to its strength and policy opposition, with the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party on the ‘hardest’ end of the Euroscepticism scale, followed by the Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, and finally, the Labour Party and the Progress Party. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that Norwegian Eurosceptic party stances on Europe are primarily driven by political values and political culture concerns, except for the Progress Party, which base its Eurosceptic motivation on economic utilitarianism and political culture.

  15. Learning to Be Different: Quantitative Research in Economics and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Libman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comment addresses the subtle differences that exist between economics and political science in terms of how the standards for the empirical quantitative research are set. It shows that the common methodology is applied by the disciplines in a different fashion. These differences could become obstacles for communication, but could also provide fruitful background for discussion of disciplines, if one explicitly takes them into account.

  16. Book review: Macedonia: the political, social, economic and cultural foundations of a Balkan state

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Daniel Martyn

    2013-01-01

    Macedonia: The Political, Social, Economic and Cultural Foundations of a Balkan State is a collection of twelve essays taking an in-depth look at the multi-layered relationships between different groups in Macedonia from an anthropological perspective. Daniel M. Knight finds the book to offer revealing insights into the rich tapestry of life in modern-day Macedonia, especially in the areas of religion and ethnicity.

  17. Technological, political and economic changes and their implications for the evolution of broadcasting services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is changes in the market for broadcasting services as a result of technological, political, and economic drivers. Broadcasting services can be categorised as a part of the ICT-based information and knowledge intensive services that have gone through radical changes...... and demand sites, scarcity of transmission resources, and the historical aspects that make the development of the broadcasting service market different from other information and knowledge intensive services....

  18. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    allocation of resources is rooted deeply in regional political economy structures. These results challenge the scholarly debate, but can help to understand why international structural adjustment programs that focused on privatization and trade liberalization only showed limited success in the MENA region....... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  19. A fractionally cointegrated VAR analysis of economic voting and political support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Maggie E. C.; Ørregård Nielsen, Morten; Popiel, Michael Ksawery

    for the model parameters and tests of the hypotheses of interest. In the long-run equilibrium, we find that support for the Progressive Conservative Party was higher during periods of high interest rates and low unemployment, while support for the Liberal Party was higher during periods of low interest rates...... and high unemployment. We also test and reject the notion that party support is driven only by relative (to the United States) economic performance. Indeed, our findings suggest that US macroeconomic variables do not enter the long-run equilibrium of Canadian economic voting (political opinion poll support...

  20. Tales of two cities: political capitals and economic centres in the world city network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Taylor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of major cities in the world city network are capital cities. Between primacy and political specialization there are examples of countries where the capital city and a second city remain as major rival cities in contemporary globalization. In this paper we focus upon situations where the capital city is less important in global economic capacity: Rome and Milan, Berlin and Frankfurt, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, Delhi and Mumbai, Islamabad and Karachi. This is an exercise in double comparisons: between cities in each pairing and between the pairings. Despite the massive differences – economic, cultural and political – amongst our chosen pairs of cities we have found communalities relating to the specific circumstance we are investigating. First, there is some evidence that economic centres are more global and less local than their capital cities. Second, more particularly, we have shown that in terms of global economic connections there is a very consistent pattern: economic centres have a much more coherent and telling integration into the world city network.

  1. [Shifting of emphasis in the world health sector strategy; from political concerns to economic ones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Tateno, Seiki; Wakai, Susumu

    2003-11-01

    Primary Health Care, proclaimed by WHO in 1978, is a health strategy that aims to achieve the ultimate objective "Health For All", with underlying political concerns for ideals such as social justice, equity and human rights. Meanwhile, "globalization", urged by the U.S.A., other developed countries and multinational corporations, has since promoted liberalization of trade, capital and finance, which has in the past few decades been sweeping all over the world. With this "new economic liberalism", values that put much emphasis on economic efficiency are now at the forefront. The World Bank, which supports the tendency along with the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, has become an influential actor in helping developing countries to prosper economically. The World Bank, whose basic idea is that investment in health is basic for economic growth, has in the 1990s also exerted considerable influence on the international health sector with its overwhelming provision of financial assistance. Instead of political concerns like equity and human rights, 'economic concerns' such as fairer budget allocation, cost-effectiveness, cost reduction and efficiency have now become main points for discussion in the international health field. This shift in emphasis poses fundamental questions for the core goal of the World Health Organization; "Health For All".

  2. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J; Passmore, Sam; Richard, Paul M; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  3. Public Investments, Human Capital, and Political Stability: The Triptych of Economic Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kostakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth in a sample of 96 countries from 1990 to 2010. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and Extreme Bound Analysis are mainly estimated in order to investigate whether public investments, human capital, and political stability affect growth controlling for initial output and human capital levels. Furthermore, in this empirical research four subsets of independent variables were used: (a demographic factors, (b political determinants, (c region variables, and (d variables regarding macroeconomic policy. Empirical results suggest that there is an important difference in the impact of public and private sector investments on the growth of per capita income. Moreover, political indicators such as corruption control, rule of law, and government effectiveness have a high impact on economic growth. Demographic factors, including fertility rate and mortality growth, as well as several macroeconomic variables, like inflation rate index and government consumption, were estimated to be statistically significant factors of economic performance. Fiscal volatility may also be a new possible channel of macroeconomic instability that leads to lower growth. Policy implications of the findings are discussed in detail.

  4. The rise and fall of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe: the social, political and economic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Broom, Alex

    2011-09-01

    For more than 10 years Zimbabwe has experienced social, political and economic instability, including the near collapse in 2008 of its health system. Paradoxically, this period has also seen a fall in estimated HIV prevalence, from 25.6% in 1996 to 13.7% in 2009. This article examines this development in a socio-political and historical context. We focus on the complex interplay of migration, mortality, individual behaviour change, and economic patterns in shaping the presumed epidemiological waning of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe and explore the evolution and management of the country's HIV/AIDS response. Our assessment of the role that the Zimbabwean state has played in this development leads to the conclusion that a decline in HIV prevalence has been as much an artefact of dire social, political and economic conditions as the outcome of deliberate interventions. Lastly, we propose the need to contextualise available epidemiological data through qualitative research into the social aspects of HIV and the everyday lives of individuals affected by it.

  5. On the measurement of political instability and its impact on economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-A-Pin, R.

    We examine the multidimensionality of political instability using 25 political instability indicators in an Exploratory Factor Analysis. We find that political instability has four dimensions: politically motivated violence, mass civil protest. instability within the political regime. and

  6. On the measurement of political instability and its impact on economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the multidimensionality of political instability using 25 political instability indicators in an Exploratory Factor Analysis. We find that political instability has four dimensions: politically motivated violence, mass civil protest. instability within the political regime. and instabilit

  7. Use of the discourse analysis method to study current political practice (by the example of representation of the political leader image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities in the application of the discourse analysis method to study a political discourse as a current political practice are shown. The authors, using the Foucault methodology, offer a sociological definition for the political discourse. It is the authors’ opinion that the approach mentioned allows investigating a political discourse as a practice for the formation of a certain reality, specific agents, institutions and organizations. A political discourse is a simulative dynamic model of political area where various subdiscourses interact, thus creating their own ideas of policy, symbols and images. Subdiscourses of political leaders become dominating. Inasmuch as a political discourse in a current political system is carried out with the aid of mass media, it could be considered as a media discourse of policy. The authors consider the representation as a basic mechanism for the formation of a political discourse, by the example of the representation of the image of V.V. Putin, the President of the Russian Federation. The representation of a political leader image in a political discourse has a number of peculiarities. It is carried out on the basis of certain principles with the aid of the system of political codes. Empiric investigations allowed making a conclusion that the main symbolic image for the Russian President is an image of a super-hero. It is the authors’ opinion, the image of V.V. Putin as a leader super-hero is determined by the specificity of the Russian political culture within the limits of which a leader is a center of power establishing an authoritarian style of ruling. The authors show the process of the political legitimacy displacement from the institutional level to the personal one by means of mass media. A political leader gains a status of a subject establishing moral, social and value reference points for the whole of the society.

  8. Integration processes in CIS and international experience in economic and political cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Tsvetkov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the modern tendencies and prospects of development of global integration in the global economic environment. It is shown that post-socialist transformation do not fit the classic model of transformational crossings, as have other stages, different specific hierarchy of procedural and structural factors are mixed, implement simultaneous transformations in various fields, save the importance of powerful items, stimulate the emergence of complex conflicts. Great attention is paid to the peculiarities of integration processes in Europe, in North America, the Asia-Pacific region. On the example of the European Union (EU, the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA, the Asia-Pacific economic cooperation (APEC, which are the centers of global integration, which focused on large-scale economic, financial, scientific-technological and human resources, by their importance comparable to their political, military-strategic values, analyzed the stages of formation and development of the integration of the unions further directions of their strategic development.

  9. Politics and economics of ethanol and biodiesel production and consumption in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giersdorf, Jens

    2013-07-01

    The main assumption for the present study is that the patterns of biofuel production and utilisation in Brazil are a result of a specific institutional framework and the actions of specific groups and that these factors also change over the years To avoid of misleading generalisation, this dissertation intends to describe and analyse the current ethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil; to explain these public policies as a result of the interactions and resources of various actors involved into the formulation and implementation of these policies and to analyse selected economic impacts of these policies. The decision-making process will be analysed with the methodological toolbox of the advocacy coalition approach by Sabatier (1993). This approach is appropriate for analysing the Brazilian biofuel policies since it enables to analyse the structure as well as the actors and the coalitions that dominate in this policy field. It will be presented briefly in chapter 2.1.2. The data on which this analysis will be based comprises primary sources like laws, regulations, official programmes and statements as well as secondary sources like scientific studies about Brazilian decision-making, political system and certain actors. In addition to that, several qualitative (semi-structured) interviews were conducted during field research in Brazil between January and September 2007. The design of the outline for the interviews as well as the realisation and interpretation of the expert interviews followed the methodological recommendations of Bogner, Littig and Menz (2005) and Laudel and Gläser (2004). The methodology will be explained briefly in chapter 2.2. The main policies that shape Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel sector shall be analysed in chapter 3 and the production, distribution and consumption of biofuels in chapter 4. Based on these assessments, the analysis of the advocacy coalitions can be realised in chapter 5.

  10. Politeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Bergson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the

  11. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONTEXT OF TRANSFORMATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Anatolievna Burdelnaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The author provides her own vision of situation which significantly influences the process of transformation of higher education systems. Integration of numerous political factors determines the formation of university models which are the most effective in a certain historical period. The article details political factors determining the process of transformation of higher education systems in the modern world. Globalization, information development, prevalence of innovations in economics with high labour capacity and industry of knowledge determine the necessity to form cognitariat (a broad layer of the employed workers primarily of immaterial labour. The response from national higher education systems to these challenges is a new stage of transformation. The author comes to the conclusion that universities perform functions which prior were not their remit, the objects of management and specifics of teaching change. A university becomes the centre of net connections and relations, competitiveness and transparency of its activity being intensified.

  12. The Case of “EMU-Outsiders”: Economic and Political Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian BELAŞCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper discusses the option of three EU countries – United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark – of not joining the EMU and analyses whether besides their subjective option of staying out of the EMU there is also an economic reason behind this decision, based on existing literature in the field. The three “EMU-outsiders” are different in terms of economic power, financial market attributes, monetary policy rules employed and political decisions. In each case, the choice to remain outside EMU was based on economic reasons, as well as political and sometimes nationalist arguments. Of the three countries under scrutiny, Denmark is by far the one which has the best prospects of joining EMU, given its fixed exchange rate against the Euro, and United Kingdom the worst, particularly given the recent vote for Brexit. At the same time, the sovereign debt crisis that the EU and particularly the EMU had to confront between 2009 and 2011 has seriously threatened the eventual adoption of the common currency by these economies.

  13. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  14. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

  15. Modern standardization case studies at the crossroads of technology, economics, and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderman, R

    2015-01-01

    Modern Standardization -- Case Studies at the Crossroads of Technology, Economics, and Politics covers the development of new technical standards, how these standards are typically triggered, and how they are submitted to standards development organizations (SDOs) for review and evaluation. It fills the gap in the shortage of reference material in the development of real-world standards. The increasing pace of innovation in technology has accelerated the competitive nature of standardization, particularly in emerging markets. Modern Standardization addresses these and other issues through a series of case studies in a format designed for academics and their engineering, business, and law school students.

  16. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  17. The Globalization of Economics and How It's Changing Domestic Politics, International Relations, and Our Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Teaching economics at the preK-12 level has always been one of the most difficult aspects of social studies education notes C. Frederick Risinger, yet, throughout his teaching career economic issues and events were the drivers of most historical, political, and sociological trends and topics and even human slavery was driven and maintained by…

  18. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  19. The Globalization of Economics and How It's Changing Domestic Politics, International Relations, and Our Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Teaching economics at the preK-12 level has always been one of the most difficult aspects of social studies education notes C. Frederick Risinger, yet, throughout his teaching career economic issues and events were the drivers of most historical, political, and sociological trends and topics and even human slavery was driven and maintained by…

  20. AUGUSTINIAN MODEL IN THE BYZANTINE POLITICAL THINKING. CASE STUDY: THE ELEMENTS OF POLITICAL AUGUSTINISM IN THE CURRENT ROMANIAN MENTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI TINU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The byzantine society, de jure and de facto heir of the Greco-Roman world, has it’s own philosophy, it’s own structure model and policy thinking. Without doubt, for the New Rome this model is that sprang from the Christian teachings, and as a philosophy it harmoniously blends the legacy of the Roman world with Blessed Augustine’s thinking about man and city which itself is a symbiosis between the acquired pagan knowledge and Christian experience of the latter. The Byzantine fortress (The Empire-n.n. will use religion as the main instrument for political and social consolidation. Religion (Christianity – n.n. is, for the Byzantine monarchy , the path to divinity, immortality... The Byzantine Christianity is not just a "phrase invented by them" as in the words of Eminescu, but a complex mechanism which represents the totality of good concepts about the world and about life of the constantinopolitan city.In preparing this study we started from the model offered by St. Augustine, "De Civitate Dei", a model which compares the two types of cities - people's city, with all its flaws, and the City of God, personified by the Church to which the Christian Roman Empire provides the Regnum. Our study tries to reflect how the model of the two cities becomes a political ideology of the Byzantine Empire and, arch over time, how it is manifested in the public and political mind of the Romanian society. This research tries to increase the understanding of the mental archetypes amongst those who are active participants in public life in Romania. However, we want our message to be disseminated in a wider public and to provide the possibility of assimilation, as much as it can, of the participatory political culture. Thus, the study becomes an attempt of reporting the Byzantine society, respectively the current Romanian society, to the model of the three types of political culture offered by Almond and Verba - participatory, parochial and dependent.

  1. Political economic origins of Sekondi-Takoradi, West Africa’s new oil city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins, growth and trajectory of Sekondi-Takoradi, West Africa’s newest oil city, are considered by using an “institutional-analytical” method of economic history. Particular attention is given to the role of ports, harbours and railways, and how they evolved and interacted with political economic institutions in the last 100 years. This omnibus historical analysis suggests that West Africa’s newest oil city has come full circle. Its contemporary stature in national and international circles has a historical parallel in the 1920s when, as now, it captured national, regional and international attention. The evidence suggests that contemporary narratives that strike a determinist relationship between resource boom and social doom need to be reconsidered.

  2. The Impact of Economic and Political Factors on the 2010 Turkish Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun YÜKSEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The referendum held on September 12, 2010 included fundamental changes in Turkish constitution related with the social, judicial and economic aspects. We are of the opinion that the referendum offered a general view on the reflections of government policies, since the incumbent party, Justice and Development Party (AKP, officially supported the proposed changes and the main opposition parties, Republican People’s Party (CHP and Nationalist Action Party (MHP, were opposed. We tested the effects of political tendencies on the referendum results using provincial data. The results show that the “yes” votes are higher in the provinces where AKP has a stronger base, and lower in the provinces where the opposition parties, especially CHP, have stronger bases. Moreover, our analyses imply that referendum votes are higher where economic conditions are getting relatively better in the last year. However, we could not find a positive effect of public spending on the patterns of voting.

  3. POLAND IN AND OUTSIDE THE EURO ZONE – RISKS AND BENEFITS IN THE LIGHT OF NEW POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dobrowolski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the benefits and risks of Poland adopting the euro in the light of current political and economic conditions. For this purpose, the following research methods were used: literature research, intuitive method and descriptive statistics. Poland has fulfilled the criteria for nominal convergence for two years, apart from participating in the ERM II mechanism, but the political situation in the country precludes the adoption of measures leading to the euro zone. The future shape of this zone is yet unknown, as its closer integration is planned. Theoretical analysis indicates that the process of globalization makes it difficult for medium-sized, open-economy countries to pursue autonomous monetary and exchange rate policy, so the loss of these instruments after the adoption of the euro should not jeopardize long-term economic growth, even in the case of asymmetric shocks. The market mechanisms of restoring the balance and fiscal policy may then be used. The economy will also benefit from the elimination of transaction costs and exchange rate risks in the euro zone. The analysis shows that it is possible to use the opportunity for faster GDP growth associated with the adoption of the common currency if the right economic policy is pursued. Adopting the euro may also incur costs. For banks it can be the loss of foreign exchange earnings and commissions on FX hedge transactions. For the economy it can be the possibility of speculative bubbles, as a result of excessive consumption growth, caused by possibly too low interest rates. Expected benefits should, however, outweigh any losses.

  4. THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC NEWS ON THE EURO/RON EXCHANGE RATE: A GARCH APPROACH

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    Mihai Niţoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we try to capture the impact of political news and economic news from euro area on the exchange rate between Romanian currency and euro. In order to do this we used a GARCH model. As we observed, both variables influence the exchange rate, this fact implying national currency depreciation and a volatility growth. The political news and the economic news positively affect the euro/ron exchange rate volatility. The two factors conjugation, as it has happened in the recent period is to be avoided because it can have financial and economic consequences with a very high cost for Romania.

  5. THE ENTRANCE OF VENEZUELA IN MERCOSUR: ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Schmuziger Goldzweig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the perception of the political agents of the Congress through the analysis of their votes on the context of the acceptance of Venezuela into MERCOSUR, relating it to the potential gains coming from its admission. The relevance of the topic is justified by the importance that the bloc would acquire accepting a new member, considering the expansion of the internal consumer market and the increase of oil reserves of the bloc. Therefore, the intention is to clarify the political situation favorable to the integration and, taking the Brazilian perception in consideration, establish the relationship between economic gains that would come from the acceptance of Venezuela as a state member and the political discourse regarding this subject in the National Congress. Through the votes of deputies and senators we mapped the variables that act as important factors in the decision-making process of lawmakers. It was found that the party influence, though strong, suffers marginal effects of variables such as the influence of regional and local interests when it comes to voting on foreign policy.

  6. Social mobility in 20 modern societies: The role of economic and political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Meir; Andersen, Robert

    2012-05-01

    It is commonly argued that social mobility rates are influenced by economic and political conditions. Nevertheless, research on this issue has tended to be hindered by two limitations that make it difficult to draw strong conclusions about contextual effects: (1) seldom have country-level and individual-level influences been tested simultaneously, and (2) only rarely have data more recent than the 1970s been employed. We improve on previous research by employing multilevel models fitted to relatively recent survey data collected from 20 modern societies by the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and national-level characteristics derived from various official sources. Our findings demonstrate systematic cross-national variation in the association between the occupational status of respondents and their fathers. Consistent with the industrialization thesis, this variation is positively associated with per-capita GDP, suggesting that more affluent nations are characterized by more open and fluid stratification structures. Our results also suggest the importance of political regimes and migration for social mobility. In contrast, economic inequality appears to explain very little of the cross-national variation in mobility rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions.

  8. CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ARMENIA

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    Arus Tunian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the problem of economic growth in Armenia. It is identified the nature of the balance of payments of the country, indicating a net debtor position, which leads to inherent deterioration of the international investment position. A small open economy of Armenia moves to a new phase of development, in the frame of the integration processes within the Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. One of the main characteristics of the Armenian economy vulnerability remains a negative balance in foreign trade, which continues to grow, despite the export growth. Economic growth is provided, as before, mostly due to the sale of raw materials - non-ferrous metals and metal ores, both in the primary as well as in the previous preprocessing. Estimating the econometric VAR models revealed that the negative current account impacts on GDP growth negatively.

  9. Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation

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    Dykha Mariya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

  10. Political-economic transition in Georgia and its implications for tourism in Svaneti

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    Voll Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Private tourism entrepreneurship relies on special knowledge of the service sector with a strong focus on individual action and a general service mentality. The organization and regulation of tourism in post-socialist European countries experienced a shift from being state-driven to being determined by individual entrepreneurs. Yet in some cases, the adoption of the new entrepreneurial business principles is contested by different cultural understandings of how tourism should be 'produced'. With examples from the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia (Svaneti we will demonstrate that these different understandings can play a major role in creating barriers for developing community-based tourism. Shortly after the transition to the market economy, a number of different small-scale, community-based tourism projects emerged, with individual entrepreneurship contesting the traditional values of hospitality in these regions (predominantly based on religious and 'tribal' values and norms rather than purely on entrepreneurial values. The methods used for this preliminary study of post-socialist tourism development included a short-term, mobile ethnography consisting of semi-structured interviews of tourism producers in the region, participant observation, as well as mapping occupancy of buildings according to unoccupied, agriculture and agritourism and second homes categories based on the condition of the gardens. Further changes in the political-economic framework have now shifted the focus towards larger-scale tourism developments supported by public-private partnerships. This paper analyses the impacts of these political-economic changes on the development of community-based tourism in Svaneti and explores in particular the friction between collective traditions and individual entrepreneurship in the experience economy of transition countries and its relationship with regional economic growth and rural depopulation.

  11. Current thinking in qualitative research: evidence-based practice, moral philosophies, and political struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Christina; Magasi, Susan; Frank, Gelya

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue on current thinking in qualitative research and occupational therapy and science, the authors focus on the importance of rigorous qualitative research to inform occupational therapy practice. The authors chosen for this special issue reflect a "second generation of qualitative researchers" who are critical, theoretically sophisticated, methodologically productive, and politically relevant to show that working with disabled clients is political work. Three themes emerged across the articles included in this special issue: (1) recognizing and addressing social justice issues; (2) learning from clients' experiences; and (3) critically reframing occupational therapy's role. These themes can inform occupational therapy practice, research, and education to reflect a more client-centered and politically engaging approach. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Economics vis-à-vis Politics of Venezuela under the Chavez Regime 1998-2012

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    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world most of the countries are following the market rule to determine their economic determinants with some to follow the mixed role of the government. There are a very few countries or states that are following the socialistic nature of development. One such country is Venezuela which has a long history of socialism and the degree of socialism got magnified under the regime of Hugo Chavez. The last election result in favour of Chavez has put some questions before the economists and politicians regarding its grounds. The present study has been framed in line with examining whether the role of economic factors have done the trick for Chavez to regain the presidential power. The study for the period of 1998-2010 has observed that the country has suffered in major economic factors compared to two Latin heroes Brazil and Argentina, albeit he has won the election. The study further observed that there are certain political grounds that played role for the favourable verdict.

  13. Energy, industry and politics: Energy, vested interests, and long-term economic growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Espen [School of Policy Studies, Kwansei Gakuin University, Kobe-Sanda Campus, Sanda, Hyogo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The article seeks to explicate a link between energy and long-term economic growth and development. While in many ways intuitive, attempts at sketching theoretical frameworks explicating this link have been few and simplistic, typically limited to technology and economics. This article emphasizes the importance of politics as well, fostering a symbiosis between the dominant industries of a historical epoch and the energy system that enabled them to flourish. The framework combines Joseph Schumpeter and Mancur Olson, emphasizing 1) the importance of structural economic change for long-term growth and development and 2) vested interests. The framework yields one theoretical proposition: In order to rise, states must prevent vested interests from blocking structural change. States that are unable to do this will get locked into yesterday's technologies, industries and energy systems, effectively consigning themselves to stagnation and decline. A brief empirical section provides historical data from 6 historical epochs (including present-day renewables) over a period of 250 years to demonstrate the usefulness of the approach. While no exhaustive test, the data suggests that countries that have prevented vested interests from blocking change have been far more successful in fostering a symbiosis between energy and industry than those countries that have not. (author)

  14. The Phenomenon of Financial Economics: Russia and the World Are in Current Global Turbulence

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    Valentine P. Akinina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the current situation on the global financial arena, analyzing the chain of cause and effect of the origins of the economic crisis and providing its possible logical outcomes. We are trying to prove here that the way the world economic situation develops will lead to either further growth or stagnation of national economies and define their position in the global business, financial, and social spheres.

    We provide an analysis of the serious transformations financial economics have been undergoing at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. All these changes, such as the development of international fusions on financial markets, the creation of new financial instruments, products and services, and others, have been caused largely by (and also have led to significant events in the global political arena. However, regardless of the transformations, world leadership remains in the hands of US government and business and that of their closest partners, while those societies that are not willing to support the “Americanized” world order end up on the blacklist of the World Bank, the IMF, and other international financial institutions.

    Finally, the article provides our views of the possible ways of dealing with the global economic stagnation. We highlight the importance of the strong and careful supervision of any global as well as national financial activities, the education of the public on the issues of wise investments, and the dangers of living on credit.

  15. YOUTH PERCEPTIONS ON THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC FUTURE OF ROMANIA IN A GLOBAL WORLD. REASONS FOR MIGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Monica Stoica

    2015-01-01

    This analysis aims at giving a coherent and synthetic view on the perceptions of the Romanian youth about the political participation and the economic future of Romania in the context of globalization and the increased migration. Youth is a socio-demographic category with an essential impact on the future of each country but also in Europe and in the world, who are, as many political, economic and social actors claim, the main beneficiaries. And yet the young Romanian males and females tend t...

  16. A Translocal Perspective: Mustang Images in the Cultural, Economic and Political Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Dalke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Translocal spaces are created out of the process of globalization whereby interventions such as electronic media and migration radically change social relations and breakdown the isomorphism of space, place, and culture [1]. This approach is useful in examining the controversy surrounding the mustang. This paper explores how different social constructions influence the management of mustangs as they move between the local and national level. At each cultural level, political, economic, and environmental issues converge encouraging the emphasis of some cultural constructions over others. These socially constructed images give insight into what the mustang means to a post-industrial culture and it may simultaneously contribute to the animal’s eventual demise.

  17. Social development in Costa Rica. The social gap; a matter of economic, political and social definition

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    Fernando Montero Cordero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To simultaneously achieve development and equity results from human beings’ generation of capabilities on equal terms; you cannot speak of social development when few receive the utility of the joint effort of many. In Costa Rica the social protection systems are being threatened by the sustainability of public funds, due to low tax burdens, impoverished collections, tax evasion and structurally fixed costs, condemning our economy to social instability and thus the widening the income gap, education, health, ethnicity, services and other elements of development. The errors of inclusion and exclusion are much of the corruption and cronyism that have historically been taking over our democratic systems, issue that confronts us with an inescapable and urgent necessity; improving the skills and abilities of public employees in assertive selection of public policies to mitigate the effects of a globalized and polarized world in the social, political and economic areas.

  18. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE STRATEGIES IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXT

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    Iuliana, TALMACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the main strategies for implementing organizational changes in the current social and economic context, characterized by an unprecedented dynamism. As a result, the paper presents the results of the research that have led to the identification of the factors determining the application of a particular strategy or even the usage of their mix. To achieve the established objectives set we have used as a research method the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' work.

  19. Crises to die for: a quantitative study of financial crises, political instability, and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kjær, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This thesis emphasizes the multidimensionality of political instability when examining whether financial crises may trigger political instability, and how financial crises and instability affect the growth rate of the economy. A total of 20 political instability indicators are used to make four indices of instability by means of Principal Component Analysis. These indices are thought to reflect different dimensions of political instability: political violence, civil protest, regime change and...

  20. New approaches to business cycle theory in current economic science

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    Monica DOBRESCU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.

  1. Change or continuity: an interpretation of the economic politics of Lula’s government

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    André MOREIRA CUNHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first year of government, the administration of Lula implanted a macroeconomic politics characterized by a strong fiscal and monetary restriction and for structural reformations (tributary and of the Social Security before criticized by the Party of the Workers and for its bases of social support in the last two decades. Keeping in mind these facts and the international expectation generated by the election of a government of left in Brazil in front of the crisis of the neoliberal pattern in Latin America, this article has for objective to analyses: (i the economic circumstances of the government’s principle Lula that conditioned the adoption of a transition strategy; (ii the results of this strategy; and (iii the aspects of continuity and change in the new government. Empiric evidences that sustain that the margin of manoeuvre of the new administration was sensibly narrow as to promote deep changes in the economic politics’s conduction, are presented. However, to part of those restrictions, inherited of the deregulated adjustment of the nineties, the government of Lula opted for the adoption of a group of politicians that will be able to generate a new trap of low growth with macroeconomic uncertainty, in the terms of that experienced in last decade.

  2. NEW POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES IN A COMPLICATED INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT

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    Liviu RADU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is intended as a natural continuation to the study “Public policies and electoral cycles” – a paper presented at Challenges of the Knowledge Society – CKS – 2015. The evolution and reform of public policies meet new challenges under the social-economic and political conditions of the 2016 electoral year. The year 2016 is electoral in Romania, Austria, the Czech Republic, Ireland, the People’s Republic of China, the Russian Federation as well as in the United States of America – presidential elections. We propose to analyze this year’s probable evolution of public policies. Aside from elections, the governments of several states, as well as the European Union’s structures of leadership, are called to offer viable solutions with which the international arena is confronting: the migrations wave from the Middle East and the refugees’ seemingly impossible integration, the probable economic crisis in China, urgent reforms which must be adopted for an European cohesion.

  3. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  4. Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors Influencing Access and Success of Women in Political Leadership in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluyu, Veronicah

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, women and leadership have been a global topical issue, especially with countries trying to interpret and implement the millennium development goals, and with increased awareness of human rights. In Africa, political leadership among women has had its own challenges that range from social, cultural and even economic factors. In…

  5. Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

    These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

  6. Performance Funding in California: Performance on Demand--Payment Unavailable. Law, Politics and Economics of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Janet

    No one could have anticipated the devastating results of the political, legal, and economic events occurring in California after the year 2000 and producing stiff competition for education dollars. Community colleges were among the hardest hit by state budget deficits, with over $100 million cut from an already conservative budget. Since…

  7. Economic crisis, institutional confidence and political leadership in Spain / Crisis económica, confianza institucional y liderazgos políticos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Jiménez Díaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of the economic crisis in main political Spanish leaders in an exploratory way. For understanding the politics of the recent years is necessary to know the consequences of this crisis on leaders and political institutions that they manage. In representative democracies, political leaders have to maintain confidence with their followers to justify the political actions of the formers. Therefore, and according to theoretical interpretations and data presented in this paper, institutional confidence becomes a key factor to understand the effects of the economic crisis on the political leadership. Thus, the decline of institutional confidence is related with the increasing delegitimization of main political leaders and with the profound crisis of political legitimacy.

  8. Economic evaluations of personalized medicine: existing challenges and current developments

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    Shabaruddin FH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatiha H Shabaruddin,1 Nigel D Fleeman,2 Katherine Payne3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 3Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Personalized medicine, with the aim of safely, effectively, and cost-effectively targeting treatment to a prespecified patient population, has always been a long-time goal within health care. It is often argued that personalizing treatment will inevitably improve clinical outcomes for patients and help achieve more effective use of health care resources. Demand is increasing for demonstrable evidence of clinical and cost-effectiveness to support the use of personalized medicine in health care. This paper begins with an overview of the existing challenges in conducting economic evaluations of genetics- and genomics-targeted technologies, as an example of personalized medicine. Our paper illustrates the complexity of the challenges faced by these technologies by highlighting the variations in the issues faced by diagnostic tests for somatic variations, generally referring to genetic variation in a tumor, and germline variations, generally referring to inherited genetic variation in enzymes involved in drug metabolic pathways. These tests are typically aimed at stratifying patient populations into subgroups on the basis of clinical effectiveness (response or safety (avoidance of adverse events. The paper summarizes the data requirements for economic evaluations of genetics and genomics-based technologies while outlining that the main challenges relating to data requirements revolve around the availability and quality of existing data. We conclude by discussing current developments aimed to address the challenges of assessing the cost-effectiveness of genetics and genomics-based technologies, which revolve around two central issues that are

  9. The political-economic transition and the building of the welfare state in Spain (1975-1986

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    Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo Llorente

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic policy in Spain during the govern- ments of the Spanish political transition from 1975 to 1986. It considers the different areas of economic policy with special emphasis on the development of welfare state issues in this period. Taking into account the difficult economic and political situation in 1975, there were some important advances in social policy and progressive taxation during the period. The transition to democracy in Spain changed the role and size of the public sector above all from 1975 to 1986. The social demands over the political system were possible improvements in the progressive and redistributive policies in education, health, and social programs. Spain’s transition to democracy and the first period of welfare state show a mutually reinforcing and its consequences were the modernization of the Spanish economy. However, from 1986 the economic develop- ment and the progress of welfare state have had a different growth.Key words: Welfare state, Economic transition, Spain.

  10. Entrepreneurship as a Source of Economic, Political, and Social Improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Polity IV democracy scores in SSA. .................39 Figure 5. Prices of copper/tobacco per metric ton and diamonds per carat...in a number called the human development index (HDI).69 Michael Porter described the three stages of economic development: factor-driven, efficiency...Development, 40–41. 70 Michael E. Porter , “Enhancing the Microeconomic Foundations of Prosperity: The Current Competitiveness Index,” edited by Klaus

  11. 'The city of our dreams'? The political and economic realities of rebuilding Britain's blitzed cities, 1945-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the political and economic factors affecting the rebuilding of Britain's provincial blitzed cities following the Second World War. Historians of planning have been prolific in their research on this period, but only from the perspective of planning visions and their reality, not the detailed steps that had to be followed towards implementation. This essay argues that, beyond the exigencies of an austere economic situation, both the Investment Programmes Committee--a Cabinet-level committee--and the planning legislation in the 1940s deeply affected the progress of rebuilding. Cities had to deal with constraints both obvious and hidden. After the Second World War, Britons lived in a world built not only by the visions of architects and planners, but also by developers, builders, and the desires of local authorities all working within a national political and economic framework.

  12. BREXIT: THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IMPACT OF A POSSIBLE WITHDRAWAL OF GREAT BRITAIN’S FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MOAGĂR - POLADIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union would not only change the internal political climate, but it could have important political repercussions within the EU and also on its relations with other European Community’s countries. Also, it could stimulate the other EU Member States to re-evaluate the terms and conditions of their membership. The same applies if Great Britain fails to renegotiate these terms and conditions while keeping the status of EU member. A priority for the UK is to maintain close trade relations with the EU, even if politically it would opt for withdrawal. In the event of possible withdrawal from the EU, Great Britain could conclude an agreement with the EU following the example of a customs union (after Turkey’s model. In this case, it would not be obliged to contribute to the EU budget or accept immigration from the EU member states. Last but not least, from a geopolitical point of view, Great Britain's exit from the EU could be seen externally as a sign of decline, EU losing its financial, economic, political and military powerhouse. From this point of view, the European Union itself have a significant political and economic interest to conclude a mutually beneficial agreement with Great Britain considering that it could terminate its EU membership.

  13. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Environmental economists have in general paid little or no attention to the political context within which green taxation would be introduced. In order to understand the real-life politics of green taxation, it is necessary to establish which political constraints determine the actual design of g...

  14. The Current Economic Crisis: Effects, Consequences, Measures and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana-Antonela BONTA (cas. MITEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research project is the current economiccrisis, its effects, consequences but especially the measures and the solutions that we can find to resolve this situation. A key problem preoccupying developing countries today is the global economic crisis and how they can address it. The epicenter of the crisis is in the developed countries, especially the USA. But the developing countries that have no role in causing the crisis have suffered the most severe “collateral damage”. I will try to present the similarities with other periods of recession that we have crossed-over time. I will propose a few measures to remedy this situation, both long-term and short-term, referring of course to Romania and EU as well.

  15. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  16. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W; Krzywicka, Adrianna E; Cohen, Dora B; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L; Stevenson, Natalie A; Matthews, Jeffrey W

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  17. Political, Social, Economic and Educational Forces Influencing Economics Education in the United States (1885-2007): A Case Study in Liberal Arts Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    This historical research will provide school leaders with a broad conception of the conditions, forces and processes behind the development of Economics Education. It serves as a case study of past and current practices and approaches to advocacy in economics education. Since it began in 1885, economics education has experienced many obstacles and…

  18. The Power of Economic Ideas: A Constructivist Political Economy of EU Trade Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Siles-Brügge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU’s 2006 Global Europe communication established an offensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA agenda premised on serving the interests of the EU’s upmarket exporters at the expense of the EU’s remaining “pockets of protection”. This has remained in place with the advent of the 2010 Trade, Growth and World Affairs strategy. Such a development defies both rationalist International Political Economy (IPE explanations – which emphasise the protectionist bias of societal mobilisation – and accounts stressing the institutional insulation of policy-makers from societal pressures because the recent economic crisis and the increased politicisation of EU trade policy by the European Parliament have coexisted without leading to greater protectionism. Adopting a constructivist approach, we show that this turn of events can be explained by the neoliberal ideas internalised by policy-makers in the European Commission’s Directorate-General (DG for Trade. We then deploy a novel heuristic to illustrate how DG Trade acted upon these ideas to strategically construct a powerful discursive imperative for liberalisation.

  19. Technological, economic, and political feasibility in OSHA's Air Contaminants Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.C.; Paxman, D.G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    In 1989, after almost two decades of substance-by-substance standard setting, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated its Air Contaminants Standard, imposing new exposure limits for 376 toxic substances encountered in U.S. industry. In marked contrast to earlier regulations, the Air Contaminants Standard has generated relatively little industry opposition. This paper analyzes the standard in the context of the twenty-year debate over the appropriate role for technological feasibility and economic compliance costs in occupational health policy. The political feasibility of the new standard is traced to OSHA's abandonment of technology forcing in favor of reliance on off-the-shelf technologies already in use in major firms. While important as an embodiment of OSHA's new generic approach to regulation, the Air Contaminants Standard cannot serve as a model for future occupational health policy, due to its reliance on informal, closed-door mechanisms for establishing regulatory priorities and permissible exposure limits. 20 refs.

  20. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María, E-mail: amplata@ugr.es; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis, E-mail: jlzafra@ugr.es; Pérez-López, Gemma, E-mail: gemmapl@ugr.es; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel, E-mail: alopezh@ugr.es

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services.

  1. Seismic microzonation in Latin America and the Caribbean: social, cultural, economic and political aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    The lack of success, not to say failure, of seismic microzonation projects in the Latin America and Caribbean nations-and for that matter elsewhere in the world-should not be attributed to the lack of technical and scientific expertise of our engineers and scientists as there exists in our continent sufficient knowledge and information about the techniques and procedures that have been successfully used elsewhere in the world in the implementation of seismic microzonation projects. The main constrains to the implementation of seismic microzonation projects in Latin America and the Caribbean are of an economic, social, political, and cultural aspects rather than the purely scientific and engineering aspects. Another very important factor contributing to this lack of success has been the apparent failure of the scientific and technical community to convince decision makers (both official and private) that the sound implementation of seismic microzonation projects are a valid instrument to mitigate the negative effects that earthquakes have on the population, on the physical infrastructure and on the environment. An attempt will be made in this paper to analyze these "non technical" aspects and try to arrive at some conclusions as well as to some possible lines of action for the successful implementation of seismic microzonation projects in the seismic risk prone Latin American and Caribbean nations.

  2. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…

  3. Homoeconomico-politicus, Scientific Consciousness, and the Defense of Fundamental Values in the Context of the Climate Change Crisis: The Challenge of Scientific Responsibility for the Future of Economic and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P Nagan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The general framework of this paper is to focus on the evolution of scientific consciousness and the dramatic technological developments it has generated, which have vital and highly consequential consequences for social organization on a global basis. The central fact about the current technological revolution is the enormous challenges it provides for political and economic decision-making. The political and economic choices are often merged in a symbiotic wave of challenges. In politics, we have understood the background and challenges that confront homopoliticus. These challenges are even more pronounced as challenges for homoeconomicus. In short, homoeconomico-politicus is both an observer and a participator in the challenges of dramatic technological change. What ties these two concepts together is that they are fed by a form of scientific consciousness. Dramatic forces of change, now unleashed, literally require new paradigms of political and economic thinking to inform wise policy makers about sensible political and economic choices. Both economics and politics are dramatically interrelated and shaped by the philosophy of science known as Logical Positivism. The problem with this approach is that it demands a form of scientific objectivity that rigorously excludes the study of values in the science of politics and economics. But the broader level of scientific consciousness would virtually require that these disciplines adequately account for the value implications of their work. These generalized comments may be an appropriate introduction to a deeper understanding of the impact of technological changes on the organization of political economy at all levels of social organization from the local to the global. One of the issues that we seek to underscore in this paper is a better understanding of the idea of economic consciousness. It would seem to be obvious that economic consciousness influences economic theory and practice. In this

  4. Terrorism Financing. The Socio-Economic and Political Implications of Boko Haram Insurgency in Lake Chad Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akepe Linus Enobi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various Scholars account for the actual date of the evolution of Boko Haram terrorist group. However, the sect came to prominence in 2009 following the death of its leader, Mohammed Yusuf in police custody. Aside from the police act and Mohammed Yusuf’s death, poverty, unemployment, lack of development, high level of illiterates, unkept electoral promises are identified as other reasons for the rise of Boko Haram insurgency. This study involves determination of socio-political and economic impact of Boko Haram insurgency on Lake Chad basin. To achieve this, mixed research method was employed in the study because both primary and secondary data are used. Many factors can be adduced as driving force that motivates Boko Haram activities in the region such as poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, under-development/education defiance region and neglects by government. Finding in the study shows that lack of government support for armed forces and low moral; lack of government political will to fight the insurgency; political interest all contribute in recent time to the rise of terrorist activities in Lake Chad.Finding revealed that the increase in Boko Haram activities in recent time in the region have negatively impact on the socio political/economic activities and these is due partly to increase in terrorist financing. The study suggests therefore that government ability in Lake Chad basin to cut the sources of terrorist finance will significantly affect Boko Haram activities and attacks.

  5. The political economics of the permanent war and the political economics of the nuclear war. Strategic approaches for Latin America; La economia politica de la guerra permanente y la economia politica de la guerra nuclear. Aproximaciones estrategicas para America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez L, I.I

    2005-07-01

    This work treats on the hypothesis that the American imperialism uses its nuclear arsenal for reforming geographical spaces that allow him to impel its economic development in the context of the progressive exhaustion of the natural resources of the planet and of the ferocious dispute for market niches and investment destinations, and like the political and military decisions crawl to the different scenarios of economic competition. In the chapter 1 it is insinuated like has been reproduced the Warlike-industrial Complex (CBI) American from the second world postwar period until the present time in the idea of explaining like it is that it is valorized to the capital in scale enlarged starting from the denominated sector producing of destruction means and understanding that the system specifically capitalist is a system where continually the is destroyed previously taken place to manufacture a new merchandise in a luck of creative destruction. In the chapter 2, the topic of the specific contradictions of the CBI is approached that disable him to be the tip of lance of the world imperialism. The chapter 3 try on the productive linkages in the production of nuclear bombs, as well as in the production of the vectors of nuclear transportation and on the implications derived for the world security of the different industries associated to the nuclear energy (as the petroleum, the electricity, the natural gas) and to the transportation vectors of these locating which you/they are the different States where the world supremacy is disputed and that they have like one of its so many negotiation-confrontation letters its nuclear strategic arsenals. What is looked for in a thermonuclear war is the enemy's total elimination, from their offensive capacity, their defensive capacity, until their supplies, their reservations, etc., with the result that the chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis are presented to offer a better understanding that they mean the nuclear arsenals in the

  6. Economic and Political Factors that Lead to the Budget Deficit in Hong Kong from 1998 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Chun Wai

    2006-01-01

    Despite the adverse impact of the budget deficit in Hong Kong has been alleviated since the economic recovery from 2003,the fiscal deficit may return when there is another downturn in the economy if the problem is not handled fundamentally. Based on the economic and political situation from 1998 to 2003, the factors that lead to the budget deficit in Hong Kong are analyzed in four perspectives, including (a) increase in public expenditure; (b) decrease in public revenues; (c) poor management of public money and (d) weak administration. With a better understanding on these factors,possible solutions to the fiscal problem faced by the government may be developed.

  7. Rising India: The Political and Economic Effects on the Future of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Democratic System ............................................................................. 68...which ended the thirty years of autocratic political system, and introduced the multiparty democratic system in Nepal. During this time, the king had...diplomatic influence will shape the democratic system of the Himalayan Republic. New Delhi’s involvement in the political system of its tiny

  8. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-01-01

    Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The ...

  9. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    of green taxes. Daugbjerg and Svendsen identify rent-seeking, party politics, and policy networks as the three main constraints in environmental regulation. This analysis forms the basis of policy recommendations on the future design of green taxation and international permit trading. Even though...... implemented. In other words, it is necessary to open the 'black box' of political decision-making and examine how real-life green tax policy making works.......Environmental economists have in general paid little or no attention to the political context within which green taxation would be introduced. In order to understand the real-life politics of green taxation, it is necessary to establish which political constraints determine the actual design...

  10. UNEMPLOYMENT – AN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CURRENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA CORINA SLUSARIUC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis had recoiled on enterprises, families and citizens in all over the European Union. In Europe there are over 20 million unemployed people, and the situation has no perspective to improve. European cohesion policy helps European national and regional authorities fight together against unemployment. Accordingly, the Strategy Europe 2020 proposes a vision for the social market economy of Europe in the next decade and it’s based on three priority domains, which intersect and mutually stimulate: intelligent economic growth, development of an economy based on knowledge and innovation, durable economic growth, promotion of a competitive economy, with low carbon emissions and an efficient use of resources, also inclusive economic growth, promotion of an economy with a high level of labour force absorption which will generate social and territorial cohesion.

  11. Basics of Swiss water levy politics - Economic considerations; Grundlagen Wasserzinspolitik. Oekonomische Ueberlegungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Staub, C. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Leimbacher, J. [Joerg Leimbacher, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic considerations involved in defining the basics for the handling of levies on water commodities. This levy is raised in Switzerland on the use of water and represents the payment made to a commune for the use of its water resources. The report first takes a look at the current situation, the reasons behind the Swiss water levy concept and the reasons why they have to be newly regulated. Changes in market factors are discussed, e.g. the liberalisation of the power market and past and future price developments. Also, the situation on the spot and futures markets for electricity is discussed. The actual production costs for hydropower are discussed and compared with other means of electricity generation. Proposals for readjusting the regulations concerning water levies are discussed.

  12. Many paths to walk. The political and economic integration of nomadic communities in Roman North Africa (I-III cent. A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanacker, Wouter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonial image of endemic political and economic antagonism between nomadic and sedentary groups in the context of Roman North Africa should be discarded. Likewise, the rigid adherence to symbiosis and cooperation in more recent studies is based on a rather one-sided reading of anthropological literature. For the analysis of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources, supported by insights derived from anthropology, shows that political and economic integration trajectories of nomads were much more complex, diverse, and dynamic.

  13. IMPACT OF CIVILIZATIONAL SPECIFICS OF THE BIGGEST COUNTRIES ON THEIR SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Lunev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to civilizational factors of the largest Asian states, which attract much academic attention around the world, India and China, and the infl uence of these factors and their peculiarities on social, political and economic development. The article is prepared as a discussion of two books prepared by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences: “Indian Civilization in the Globalizing World” and “Chinese Civilization in the Globalizing World”. The authors rely on comparative method to analyze civilizational codes of India and China, to define key peculiarities of cultural and political development of the both states, to speculate on their historical paths, political systems, religious and ideological factors in the context of civilizational codes. Moreover, the article discusses international environment and the level and trends of economic development. The authors draw a number of conclusion about similarities and differences in two ancient civilizations, as well as their modernization patterns.

  14. ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GENDER EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Term “gender” means socially constructed roles of man and woman, which are ascribed to them according to gender marker. Thus, gender roles depend on concrete socio-economic, political and culturological context and experience influence of various factors according to race, ethnic origin, class, sexual orientation and age. Gender roles widely differ within each culture and cultures. Unlike the individual’s biological gender, the gender role can be changed. This concept implies the views, conditioned by culture, about the intellectual potentials of man and woman, their personal features and behavior. Gender, as a construct, is formed by the society, as a social model of man and woman, which determines their role and position in all the spheres of the public life. To measure gender, like other hard-to-measure events, is of importance, in order to compare the countries, to identify the problems and to try their correction. It may be said that it enables us to disclose focus of the problems and in case of existence of proper will to positively act on it. Gender is multi-component and hard to measure. Research of the gender equality problems is important for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to men and women. It should be mentioned that the problems of women’s rights along with other barriers impeding achievement of the gender equality, have long been significant for the leading countries of Europe and America. However, one problem still remains – barriers of the so-called “Glass Ceiling”, which impede carrier advance of the female representatives. At the same time, in the countries, being on the lower level, a woman is still considered to be a being of secondary importance, which has no right to work and, compared with a man, no equal conditions to be educated. To this are added the religious laws of Islamic countries, which

  15. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The author suggests that practitioners should seek election to political office, to better influence government policy.

  16. Dezvoltare economică, dezvoltare social-politică sau dezvoltare umană? O retrospectivă asupra gândirii consacrate despre dezvoltare (Development Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia TODEREAN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last half a century, development was one of the keywords of the international economic and political discourse. The variety of contexts in which one can find the idea of development can pinpoint in fact to a lack of a unique definition and, therefore, a lack of a common understanding of the term. This is why the present article attempts to build a very broad overview of the development thinking, as it has emerged as a special field of huge (international interest, beginning with post-war keyneasian thinking about development, that could only be economic development, picking up on the theory of modernization, then on dependency school, in order to evaluate the discourse of the Washington consensus and its heritage on current development communities and visions. The usefulness of the inquiry is better understood in the Romanian context, where I believe there is no genuine public debate (nor is there any academic one about what development could mean for Romania, what it brings to the society and what the society could bring to the practice and research of this process. This article is a first theoretical step into understading how development thinking has evolved in time, under the influence of academic, political and eocnomic environments and what it means nowadaya, when Romanian society is yet again in its history attempting to follow a path towards development and modernity.

  17. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  18. Renovating Charity Hospital or building a new hospital in post-Katrina New Orleans: economic rationale versus political will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, Hervé; Moises, James; Valdmanis, Vivian Grace

    2013-02-01

    Since September 2005, Charity Hospital of New Orleans has been closed due to Hurricane Katrina. A debate following the closing arose about whether this public hospital should be renovated or a new medical center affiliated with the Louisiana State University should be built. Using academic literature, government statistics, and popular press reports, we describe the economic implications that support the view that Charity Hospital should have been renovated. We also address why this policy was not pursued by demonstrating the influence politics and individual stakeholders (specifically, Louisiana State University) had on the eventual policy pursued. In this commentary we also note the political identity movement away from public-sector provision of services to private-sector interests.

  19. Examining the "liberal media" claim: journalists' views on politics, economic and social policy (including health care), and media coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, D

    1999-01-01

    The conservative critique of the news media rests on two general propositions: journalists hold views that are to the left of the public, and journalists frame news content in a way that accentuates these left perspectives. Previous research has revealed persuasive evidence against the latter claim, but the validity of the former claim has often been taken for granted. This research project examined the supposed left orientation of media personnel by surveying Washington-based journalists who cover national politics and/or economic policy at U.S. outlets. The findings include: (1) On select issues from corporate power and trade to Social Security and Medicare to health care and taxes, journalists are actually more conservative than the general public. (2) Journalists are mostly centrist in their political orientation. (3) The minority of journalists who do not identify with the "center" are more likely to identify with the "right" when it comes to economic issues and to identify with the "left" when it comes to social issues. (4) Journalists report that "business-oriented news outlets" and "major daily newspapers" provide the highest quality coverage of economic policy issues, while "broadcast network TV news" and "cable news services" provide the worst.

  20. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  1. Book review of sports political economics%《体育政治经济学》评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璐

    2011-01-01

    体育政治经济学致力于全球体育实践的多维考察和解释分析,研究对象是日益泛化深化的全球体育实践活动,以及植根全球化进程中的区域体育实践活动,发展动力来自全球体育实践复杂性的解释和综合多维考察的迫切需要。由John Nauright和Kimberly S.Schimmel组织编撰的《体育政治经济学》是体育政治经济学专题研究和案例分析的典范,进一步梳理该书的内容框架和理论价值,选择体育文化政治经济学研究分支,评述该书具有代表性的理论分析片段,期待更多学友研究跟进。%The sports political economics investigates and analyses the sports events in the world and its research objects are the sports activities in the world and the regional sports activities in the globalization.Its development drive is the explanation of world sports practice load and urgent need for the comprehensive investigation.The Sports Political Economics compiled by John Nauright and Kimberil S.Sehimmel is a typical book studying the cases of sports political economics.The paper discusses the frame and the theoretical value of the book and comments on the typical theoretical analysis part.

  2. Ezra Pound’s Economics and Politics-from the Perspective of Confucian Si Duan四端

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Xiaocui

    2014-01-01

    Ezra Pound has a life-long involvement with Confucianism. He strongly believes that human nature is inherently good, namely, Confucian doctrine si duan四端-ren yi li zhi仁義禮智. The paper aims at interpreting and analyzing Pound’s views on economics and politics from the perspective of si duan四端and it is expected to draw a conclusion that a state prospers when its wang王with posses ion of ren仁is able to deal with義and li利properly.

  3. The Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act--1983: Its Impact on the Economic/Political Stabilities within the Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-25

    otherwise had been opposed by President Reagan. The final public law 98-67 is titled: "INTEREST AND DIVIDEND TAX COMPLIANCE ACT OF 1983-CARIBBEAN BASIN...ECONOMIC RECOVERY ACT". Title I Is the "INTEREST AND DIVIDEND TAX COMPLIANCE ", and Title II contains the "CARIBBEAN BASIN INITIATIVE". Title II contains

  4. Taking stock of current societal, political and academic stakeholders in the Canadian healthcare knowledge translation agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott-Findlay Shannon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past 15 years, knowledge translation in healthcare has emerged as a multifaceted and complex agenda. Theoretical and polemical discussions, the development of a science to study and measure the effects of translating research evidence into healthcare, and the role of key stakeholders including academe, healthcare decision-makers, the public, and government funding bodies have brought scholarly, organizational, social, and political dimensions to the agenda. Objective This paper discusses the current knowledge translation agenda in Canadian healthcare and how elements in this agenda shape the discovery and translation of health knowledge. Discussion The current knowledge translation agenda in Canadian healthcare involves the influence of values, priorities, and people; stakes which greatly shape the discovery of research knowledge and how it is or is not instituted in healthcare delivery. As this agenda continues to take shape and direction, ensuring that it is accountable for its influences is essential and should be at the forefront of concern to the Canadian public and healthcare community. This transparency will allow for scrutiny, debate, and improvements in health knowledge discovery and health services delivery.

  5. A study of some political problems considering current geographical analytical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Adolfo Dupuy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.

  6. Ukrainization: between big time politics and current objectives of soviet construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Yu. Vasilev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to Soviet politics of Ukrainization, analyses theoretical aspects and practice of its implementation in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and Ukraine.

  7. Making (more) sense of political-economic geographies of continuity and change: Dialoguing across ontological divides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varró, K.

    2015-01-01

    In view of persisting and multiple ‘crises’, coming to grips with sociospatial change is one of the key tasks in geographical political economy today. However, to date, philosophical misunderstandings and the related lack of productive scholarly exchange has prevented this task from being

  8. Making (more) sense of political-economic geographies of continuity and change: Dialoguing across ontological divides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varró, K.

    2015-01-01

    In view of persisting and multiple ‘crises’, coming to grips with sociospatial change is one of the key tasks in geographical political economy today. However, to date, philosophical misunderstandings and the related lack of productive scholarly exchange has prevented this task from being satisfying

  9. Bolivia: Political and Economic Developments and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-22

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL32580 Bolivia: Political... Servicio Internactional, May 20, 2004; “Peru/Chile: Energy Exacerbates Strained Relations,” Oxford Analytica, August 24, 2004; “Bolivia Signs Agreement to

  10. To Green or Not to Green: A Political, Economic and Social Analysis for the Past Failure of Green Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Klumpp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of green logistics has thus far failed. For example, the share of greenhouse gas emissions by the transportation and logistics sector in Europe rose from 16.6% in 1990 to 24.3% in 2012. This article analyzes the reasons behind this failure by drawing on political, economic and business as well as social motivations and examples. At the core of this analysis are the established theorems of the Jevons paradox and the median voter (Black, Downs in combination with time-distorted preferences of voters and consumers. Adding to the hurdles of green logistics are the problems of short-term political programs and decisions versus long-term business investments in transportation and logistics. Two cases from Germany are outlined regarding this political “meddling through” with a recent 2015 truck toll decision and the support for electric trucks and vehicles. Finally, the article proposes two ways forward: public control and restriction of carbon raw materials (coal, oil, as well as public investment in low-emission transport infrastructure or biofuels as the more feasible and likely alternative.

  11. Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared

  12. Philippine Technocracy and the Politics of Economic Decision Making During the Martial Law Period (1972-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa E. Encarnacion Tadem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to elucidate the Philippine technocracy’s rise into the power elite as well as its fall from position during the martial law period (1972- 1986. It aims to bring in the insights of the technocrats concerning their role in President Ferdinand E. Marcos’s authoritarian regime and their views of the nature of the politics, which facilitated as well as impeded the economic decision-making process. It will validate this with what has already been written. The paper argues that the technocracy’s technical expertise and shared development vision with the leadership and the country’s major donors, the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the World Bank, provided their power base.This was, however, continually challenged by the other economic power blocs which consisted mainly of factions within the technocracy, the Marcos cronies, and that of the First Lady Mrs. Imelda Marcos. For as long as the technocracy could access the needed IMF/World Bank loans for the country, the leadership gave it substantive bargaining leverage. This, however, would deteriorate with the country’s economic and political instability as brought about by failed technocratic policies and worldwide economic recession in 1981 and the burgeoning antidictatorship movement spawned further by the 1983 assassination of ex-Senator Benigno Aquino Jr. The technocracy’s loss of power was further aggravated by Marcos’s failing health giving more clout to Mrs. Marcos’s power bloc. What contributed to the technocracy’s ultimate demise was their alienation from the general public as brought about by their vast differing perceptions of the causes of corruption, underdevelopment, and human rights abuses of the regime.

  13. PERSPECTIVES OF INFLATION TARGETING, IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COROIU SORINA IOANA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic crisis, monetary policy makers are facing a number of challenges, including the selection and implementation of the best monetary policy. In this paper, we want to see if inflation targeting is or is not a solution to exit the economic crisis. If the answer is positive, then what would be the optimal level of inflation? Many central banks target an inflation rate of 2%. In this paper we intend to show that, in certain circumstances, a very low level of inflation can significantly reduce the stabilizing effects of monetary policy. A slightly higher value of inflation targeting would reduce the constraints on monetary policy, caused by the appearance of liquidity trap. The risk for the interest rates of monetary policy to achieve zero level is related to the central banks’ choise of the appropriate inflation target. We believe that an increase in the inflation target of 2% to 4% would ease monetary policy constraints arising from the liquidity trap problem. If inflation targeting is not a solution to exit the crisis, then are there other strategies that would be a better alternative? Following this analysis, no obvious alternatives were identified, so far, there is no clear reason for that to abandon inflation targeting.

  14. Economic evaluation guidelines in Latin America: a current snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustovski, Federico; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Caporale, Joaquín E

    2010-10-01

    Economic evaluation guidelines are widespread in developed countries with fourth hurdle systems but as of yet not in Latin America. In the present article, a systematic search was conducted in order to retrieve regional guidelines in PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and the gray literature. Four national guidelines were found: Brazil, Colombia, Cuba and Mexico. We report a thorough review of these documents, as well as a comparison among them. We conclude that, despite some differences found, they are broadly similar, and are broadly in accordance with international documents. The existence of these documents, together with other experiences in the region that explicitly use economic evaluation information for health decision making clearly shows that this global tendency is gaining momentum in Latin America, although there is still a long way to go. In the near future we will be able to see if these documents were successfully used and applied for transparent and evidence-based decision making.

  15. The Measels-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination from a health political and economical point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habl, Claudia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measels, Mumps and Rubella (MMR are highly contagious infectious diseases which may lead to severe complications. These diseases are vaccine-preventable. The present Health Technology Assessment report (report on technological consequences, HTA report was commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI and addresses various aspects of the MMR vaccination, the key question being how the MMR immunisation coverage rate can be increased in Germany. Objectives: The objectives of this report were to describe the benefits of the MMR vaccination for Germany and to analyse how the desired MMR immunisation coverage of >95% can be achieved. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 29 literature data bases. Particularly for epidemiological data and information on vaccination programs, this systematic search was supplemented by an extensive hand search, written and oral enquiries, as well as interviews with experts. A total of 200 texts were used to prepare this report. Results: At 92.5% (as of 2004 based on the whole of Germany, the current immunisation coverage for measles in children is above the weighted EC-15-average of 90.67%. Statements can only be made regarding the probability of illness for measles, as no data is available for mumps and rubella. With 2.8 infections (per 100,000 residents in 2006, Germany has not achieved the WHO target. Of cases submitted to the laboratory, only 32% were validated by diagnostic laboratory findings and 45% confirmed clinical-epidemiologically. There are only few economic analyses of vaccination programs in Germany. In international publications, mainly measels are validated economically. An analysis of the cost of measles for Germany shows potential cost savings. Unfortunately, no complete economic evaluation (cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, or cost-utility analyses for MMR vaccination has been performed for Germany. Analyses conducted in the US

  16. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  17. A Study of the Differences in Economic Factors, Political Competition and Foreign Intervention in the 1997 and 2009 Presidential Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samiee Esfahani

    2014-11-01

    The research method is a causal - comparative survey in which two presidential elections in 1997 and 2009 are compared. Research population includes Shiraz administrative elites who have been employed for a period of at least 20 years and have experienced at least one period of managerial position at various levels of the organization in which they have been working. Because of the lack of formal data on the population, using exploratory study, the population was estimated to be around 250 individuals, of whom 149 cases were selected to enter our sample size, using Krejcie and Morgan’s sampling table and random multi-stage sampling method. The measurement tool is a researcher-made questionnaire using 5-point likert scale, including 30 items in the frame of three dimensions including economic (10 items, political completion (10 items and foreign intervention (10 items. Validity of the scale was measured using content validity and the reliability was measured using Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Discussion of Results and Conclusions In total, 482 respondents including 128 (85.3% males and 21 (14% females answered our questionnaire. In this study, the age of respondents was between 40 to 60 years old and their average was 45.5 years. Educational level of the respondents was as follows: 17 (11.3% diploma, 24 (16% above diploma, 80 (53.3% bachelor, and 25 (16.7% master degree and 3 (2% PhD. Based on descriptive results of the study, the mean score for the importance of economic factors is 30.5 for 1997 election and 39.6 for 2009 election. The mean score for the importance of political competition is 32.4 for 1997 election and 36.5 for 2009 election. And finally the mean score for foreign intervention is 28.9 for 1997 election, and 37.8 for 2009 election. For investigation of the mean difference between two elections, independent samples t test was used: the mean of importance of economic factors in 2009 election is more than 1997 election and this difference is

  18. “What is convenient” or art between economics and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Canetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Art, as a set of signs and techniques, has always been one of the most important modes of transfiguration in the world. It therefore has a political function: it is not a reproduction, but a questioning of reality. The new rhetorics of heritage and events, subject to speculative interests, risk minimizing, if not compromising the essential critical status of art and of scientific and humanistic research. The old conception of beauty as an ethical and political duty aimed at promoting the decus and ornamentum of the city, offers a third way to avoid the risks as much of the aesthetic sublimation of cultural heritage as of its commercial debasement.

  19. THE CAPITAL MARKET IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN RADU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For nearly a century now, economists have studied the advantages and disadvantages of financial systems based on either banks or financial markets in their attempt to forward economic growth and a better capital resources allocation. Nevertheless, the effects of the financial crisis that began in 2007 over the capital market are not only numerous, but also affect financial institutions, the stock exchange volume and list, the behaviour of market investors and not least such generate the need for capital market regulations to be amended. Even so, due to measures that have been taken, in Romania the stock exchange works on profit, while the effects of the financial crisis over such still fail to occur.

  20. Case-srufy: East Asia in World Political and Economic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniia Aleksandrovna Efremova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the section is to analyze the latest developments in the military and political sphere in East Asia, taking into account a wide range of challenges. The authors also analyze the role of regional organizations, processes of regionalization and regionalism in East Asia, as well as the development of interregional relations of various association and key countries of the region.

  1. Is There Hope for the Horn of Africa? Reflections on the Political and Economic Impasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    III. PROGRESS-AND TENSIONS-IN THE 1960s In Ethiopia, Haile Selassie , then in his prime, displayed considerable ingenuity in completing his evolution...additional impetus, and young technocrats were brought into the expanding civil administration in large numbers. On the political plane, Haile Selassie ...Ethiopia had ancient military traditions based on regional leaders. Following the 1941 liberation, Haile Selassie had moved rapidly to centralize control

  2. PAC Congressional Election Campaign Contributions and Other Political or Economic Influences on the Voter Participation Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the potential impact of political action committee (PAC) election campaign contributions and other factors on the aggregate voter participation rate in the United States. For the study period 1960-1998, the aggregate voter participation rate appears to have been positively and significantly affected by the opportunity to vote in presidential elections and by the Vietnam War, as well as by "excessive" inflation and slow real GDP growth . The latter two findi...

  3. Regimes of Dispossession: Special Economic Zones and the Political Economy of Land in India

    OpenAIRE

    Levien, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to advance a theoretical framework for the comparative study of dispossession by explaining how the political economy of land dispossession has transformed from state-led developmentalism to neoliberalism in India. The dissertation compares the archetypical forms of dispossession in each period and argues that they constitute different regimes of dispossession. A regime of dispossession is an institutionalized way of expropriating landed assets from their curren...

  4. Towards Organizational Democracy? Convergence and Divergence in Models of Economic and Political Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Avril, Emmanuelle; Zumello, Christine

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This study on organizational change begins with the idea that globalization and the development of the new information and communication technologies (ICTs) have favoured the structural convergence of organizations, resulting in the hegemonic dominance of business values and practices in virtually all types of organizations, notably political parties and public or semi-public organizations. So far, very few scholars have tried to make this convergence between business ...

  5. A European Navy: Can it Complete European Political and Economic Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Security Nexus : More Coherence Under Lisbon, in Occasional Paper no. 89 (European Union Institute for Security Studies [ISS], 2011). 18 Wallace Thies...Switzerland: Geneva Centre for Security Policy, 2005), 17. 45 Frederic Fransen. The Supranational Politics of Jean Monnet: Ideas and Origins of the European...Studies. May 19, 2012. http://www.ceps.eu/book/eu-defence-policy-after-chicago-going-smart (accessed June 4, 2012). 54 Fransen, Frederic . The

  6. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  7. The Political Economy of India’s Economic Reforms: Three Periods from 1947-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    1992–2015 The 1991 liberal economic reforms enacted by then Prime Minister Narasimha Rao and his finance minister , Manmohan Singh, produced very quick...Foreign Direct Investment GDP Gross Domestic Product IFI International Financial Institutions IMF International Monetary Fund INC Indian National...economic policy was largely influenced by its first Prime Minister , Jawaharlal Nehru.26 Having been witness to British colonial exploitation, Nehru

  8. An Examination of the Historical, Social, Economic, and Political Factors of the Marxist Insurgency in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-16

    8217p NTIS CRA&I £’ TIC TAB U. : 0. cci L by James Davie BjostadBy............... Di-t ib tic ~ Dist Aa! o Thesis submitted to the faculty of the Defense...along with two other right wing death squad organizations, NOA (Nueva Organizacion Anticomunista - New Anti-Communist Organization), and CADEG (Consejo...than an aid. 7 Shortly thereafter Arana Osorio broke from the MLN and formed his own political party, the CAO (Centro Aranista 8 Organizacion - Central

  9. The political and economic impacts of writing across the curriculum in chemistry at the University of Missouri-St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William Dixon

    Writing Across the Curriculum at most institutions is a web of local knowledges and techniques "situated" within the historical and immediate contexts of academic departments, disciplines, and disciplinary cultures. Because of political and economic tensions existing within colleges and universities, and within academic disciplines themselves, WAC can become a "contact zone," where individuals and institutional structures struggle for power, influence, and in some cases, survival. This dissertation uses the work of Anthony Giddens and Pierre Bourdieu to examine such a struggle as it occurred at the University of Missouri-St. Louis in the early 1980s. A WAC program was initiated there, but eventually failed as a result of political and economic influences. In the time since that failure, a growing emphasis on teaching and learning has helped create new potential for WAC at UMSL. Yet, to make it viable, WAC proponents there must recognize existing realities, attitudes, and conventions within each discipline or department, and develop new methods and approaches to writing and teaching that are relevant to that discipline or department. This examination then focuses on writing in chemistry to discover the realities, attitudes, and conventions used in teaching and learning writing at the undergraduate level. Standards for content acquisition are gathered from ACS accreditation requirements, and from a study of educators and practitioners from a variety of professions. A study of Chemistry students in an NSF-funded educational program suggests that science students may learn as much or more about disciplinary discourse from sources other than the traditional writing course. Interaction with the literature and with graduate students, professors, and professionals may teach students more about disciplinary discourse conventions than a composition-trained specialist might accomplish in a writing course. Still, the writing course can be useful. These findings suggest that

  10. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive.

  11. IS Audit Considerations in Respect of Current Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Svata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accountancy organizations, regulatory bodies, standard setters, and other international organizations have developed guidance, articles, frameworks and resources on issues related to the global financial crisis. Now there is a clear and widely accepted need for more rigorous governance over companies´ systems of internal control. Historically there exist many different activities aiming to support effective enterprise governance (legislative acts, best practices, standards, frameworks. But all these activities may have reinforced the already-existing focus on enterprise governance, but they did not necessarily bring clarity to the topic. Therefore we can currently notice some changes aiming to improve the adoption and adaptation of best practices and standards within the area of enterprise governance. The paper discusses the changes in the Enterprise Governance of IT/IS, audit/assurance evolution, and intended Cobit improvements.

  12. Unity Between Economic Globalization and Economic Localization:An Interpretation of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone from the Perspective of International Political Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Shilong

    2016-01-01

    The external background of the establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone is economic globalization and global trade competition. The internal background focuses on the following:the demand for further opening-up and economic development;RMB in-ternationalization;the conditions such as concepts,policies,institutions and materials are pos-sessed. It enhances China’ s power in world economics:the massive concentration of enterpri-ses and investment in Shanghai show their confidence and identity to Chinese government and market;the institutional innovation of finance and other fields reflects China’ s determination and self-confidence of developing economy and participating in the process of globalization;economic growth increases China ’ s structure power and global interdependence enhances China’ s relation power.

  13. Enhanced Economic Governance in the EU: Alternative to a Political Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawecka-Wyrzykowska Elżbieta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In reaction to the sharp deterioration of fiscal positions and a sovereign debt crisis in the majority of EU member states, EU leaders have been strengthening the EU economic governance framework, in particular for the eurozone member states. This has been reflected mainly through a reinforcement of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP within the so-called six-pack and through the recent adoption of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union (TSCG.

  14. Renewing the Dutch economics syllabus for higher secondary education: educational reforms from past to current databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rol, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Dutch secondary school economics education was never at rest. It currently finds itself once more in an interesting phase of transition. New developments of behavioural economics have been incorpo-rated into the exam subject matter while the deletion of Keynesian model making from the corpus

  15. DSM shareholder incentives: Current designs and economic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility`s {open_quotes}hidden costs,{close_quotes} which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate).

  16. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  17. The impact of economic, political and social globalization on overweight and obesity in the 56 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Lobstein, Tim; James, W Philip T; Suhrcke, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Anecdotal and descriptive evidence has led to the claim that globalization plays a major role in inducing overweight and obesity in developing countries, but robust quantitative evidence is scarce. We undertook extensive econometric analyses of several datasets, using a series of new proxies for different dimensions of globalization potentially affecting overweight in up to 887,000 women aged 15-49 living in 56 countries between 1991 and 2009. After controlling for relevant individual and country level factors, globalization as a whole is substantially and significantly associated with an increase in the individual propensity to be overweight among women. Surprisingly, political and social globalization dominate the influence of the economic dimension. Hence, more consideration needs to be given to the forms of governance required to shape a more health-oriented globalization process.

  18. West German Etzel cavern project: international crude oil markets especially influence political economics of Federal strategic reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, G.

    1982-06-01

    Eleven years ago final decision was reached to install a stateowned stockpile for crude oil in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the meantime the reserve for the petroleum industry - ordered by law - has been collected by the 'Public Corporation' named the Petroleum Stockpiling Association (Erdoelbevorratungsverband) in Hamburg. After the decision to establish a national stockpile several initiatives of other governments - for example the USA - followed. Due to the development of prices for crude and products from 1970 with an average price of 61.75 DM/t to an average price of 610 DM/t in 1981 stockpiling became an important factor in economic policy. Apart from world wide political, energy and financial factors crude oil cavity storage in Etzel not only lead to new experiences in solving thermodynamical and rock mechanical behaviours as well as storage operations but it became part of international safety-strategy in energy.

  19. Political-economic and professionalistic barriers to community control of mental health services: a commentary on Nassi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P

    1978-10-01

    Nassi (1978) described the limits of community control in community mental health centers. This problem can be further understood by exploring the growth of professional dominance and psychiatric expansionism in the 1960s. One consequence was a 'social movement' ideology which psychologized political and economic phenomena, while actually opposing any effective mobilization for community control. Professionals have largely remained unaware and/or unresponsive to these tendencies. Likewise, they have failed to grasp the system of chaos which characterizes mental health policy in the U. S. Mental health care is increasingly falling under professional medical control, State-sponsored rationalization and efficiency planning, and private-profit concerns such as insurance companies and nursing homes. In this way, professionalism and capitalism coincide in their efforts to further their own efforts, while stemming community control in favor of social control.

  20. The politics and policies of welfare chauvinism under the economic crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Suvi; Norocel, Ov Cristian; Bak Jørgensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing economic crisis that emerged in the wake of the global recession in 2008, and was followed by the more recent crisis of the Eurozone, has introduced new themes and remoulded old ways of approaching the welfare state, immigration, national belonging and racism in Northern Europe. This ...... of a broader neoliberal restructuring of the welfare state and of welfare retrenchment....

  1. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  2. Social, economic and political factors associated with earth resources observation and information analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of some of the interest conflicts between ecology and economics that arise, particularly in riparian environments, when a population-increase entailed growth in public service requirements is met by indiscriminate technology applications. Reviewed instances of such conflicts include the aborted cross-Florida barge canal project and the Florida Power and Light Company facility at Turkey point.

  3. Immigration to the Great Plains, 1865-1914: War, Politics, Technology, and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The advent and vast extent of immigration to the Great Plains states during the years 1865 to 1914 is perhaps best understood in light of the new international context that emerged during the 1860s in the aftermath of six large wars whose consequences included the enlargement of civil liberties, an acceleration of economic growth and technological…

  4. Immigration to the Great Plains, 1865-1914: War, Politics, Technology, and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The advent and vast extent of immigration to the Great Plains states during the years 1865 to 1914 is perhaps best understood in light of the new international context that emerged during the 1860s in the aftermath of six large wars whose consequences included the enlargement of civil liberties, an acceleration of economic growth and technological…

  5. The Chinese Are Coming: The Political Implications of the Growing Sino-Israel Economic Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MERON; MEDZINI

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the State of Israel and the People’s Republic of China offers a fascinating case in modern international relations.Ostensibly there is not much that unites the two countries so different in size and population,in regimes and politics,yet,over the past two decades,these relations have acquired a great deal of importance and significance for both.While it is easy to understand the attraction to China of Israel’s experience,innovation and its exemplary human capital,it is less evident what China is seeking to achieve in deepening its ties with Israel.This paper attempts to assess the state of Sino-Israel bilateral relations and their impact on the future of the two nations.

  6. The Political Economy of the European Union: Institutions, Policy and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    This book offers a generic explanation of the political economy of the EU, demonstrating in a clear and comprehensive way how the present institutional set-up makes it vulnerable to lobbyism, corruption and the destruction of social capital. Gert Tinggaard Svendsen contends that this 'EU disease......' may be avoided by strengthening the power of the EU Parliament at the expense of the EU Commission. The book also discusses issues surrounding policy design, international negotiations on climate change and renewable energy sources. Using an interdisciplinary framework, the author examines how....... Focusing in detail on international climate negotiations and wind energy, the author explores the way in which the design of a policy proposal can be affected by the interactions between interest groups and the institutions and bureaucrats of the EU. The case of greenhouse gas emissions trading is a unique...

  7. Dinámicas estructuralesversus agentes renuentes: El Oriente Medio en el cambio de la economía política mundial Structural Dynamics versus Reluctant Agents: The Middle East in a Changing Global Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SadÜk Ünay

    2011-06-01

    volume of acute military, political and religious conflicts raging within its borders. Meanwhile, writings on international/ comparative political economy and development generally tended to focus on alternate regions such as East Asia that were characterized by strong economic growth potential and internal coherence dynamics. This study aims to make a contribution to the comparative/international political economy literature by conducting a theoretically informed political economy analysis on the differential impact of economic-political globalization on the leading countries of the MENA region since the 1980s, while highlighting the historical backdrop between colonialism and the era of global integration. Meanwhile, the following issues will be evaluated to acquire a sound understanding of current regional dynamics: the political, economic and social legacy of colonialism on the region, the role of oil as a strategic resource, structural changes in the global economy since the 1970s, pressures for politico-economic reform in the MENA, and divergent paths of reform adopted by political elites in the wake of intensifying global economic integration.

  8. Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the Fiscal Variables in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel BRAŞOVEANU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to capture the effects of the current economic and financial crisis on fiscal variables, the 27 EU Member States, based on macroeconomic developments until 2010 and projected for 2011. Starting from the economic recession, from the increase of unemployment and the relative stability of prices in the EU overall (macroeconomic developments that characterize the current crisis, we analyze the effects of those developments on the public revenues and expenditures, on the conventional deficit and public debt, which are macroeconomic variables that comprise the pentagon of economic macro stabilization.

  9. Piketty, economics and sociology: The analytical and political agenda on inequality

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the work of Thomas Piketty on inequality, with special emphasis on the reception of his ideas in the social sciences. First, a quantitative analysis of the works that cite Piketty’s most important publications examines the reception of Piketty in academic debates. Next, the critiques of Piketty from economics and sociology, two often opposed disciplines that have devoted the most attention to discussing Piketty, are considered. This article supplements existing critique...

  10. Ghana's Politics of International Economic Relations under the PNDC, 1982-1992

    OpenAIRE

    Boafo-ARTHUR, Kwame

    1999-01-01

    Ghanaian governments since independence have had to align either with the East or the West depending on the government's ideological orientation. For Ghana, national development has been the main propelling factor to enter into the international system. The Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC), a military regime, succeeded in balancing external relations between the East and the West before the collapse of communism. The outcomes of external economic relations were mixed. Whereas relat...

  11. Monitoring of current assets of enterprises in increasing level of economic security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Ruzhytskyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is reasonably argued that complex of theoretical and methodological principles for approaches to management of current assets with regard to their influence on the current and future state of the economic security of enterprises and monitoring scheme is proposed as a way of organizing management activities. As part of this goal, solved the following research objectives: monitoring scheme is proposed as a way of organizing management activities; methodical approaches to formation control system of current assets with regard to its effect on the current and future state of economic security; have been proposed a scientific approach to select management alternatives that can simultaneously takes account the status of current assets and changing economic security for different time horizons. Have been generalized a role in enterprise management of current assets the economic security mechanism. Have been proposed a matrix of management alternatives depending on the matrix and current assets use of forms and types of calculations depending on the type of policy, management of current assets. The result of the comprehensive study have been proposed a matrix of management alternatives depending on the status of current assets and the use of matrix forms and types of calculations depending on the type of policy management of current assets.

  12. APPROACHES TO EUROPEAN UNION MILITARY COLLABORATION IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AUSTERITY ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CONSTANTINESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the economic crisis on European countries has led to serious cuts of the defense budgets and a perceived reduction in the EU’s ability to provide capabilities required by other allies, especially the US. Cooperation, in the form of pooling and sharing may not be an easy and “ready to use” solution to Europe’s defense issues generated by the budget austerity and economic downturn, but it may provide ways to lessen the defense cuts impact on the military capabilities. Nonetheless, the success of the initiative is strongly related to the degree of political and military commitment of the EU countries to put into practice the concept.

  13. Changing politics, economics and relations on the small remote island of Fair Isle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W. Butler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper interprets changes which have taken place on Fair Isle, a small remote Scottish island, over the last half century, with a focus on how the interplay of external forces and local adjustments have produced a positive working relationship between local residents, visitors and those in authority over the island. The paper discusses the changes in the island’s governance and economy that the island residents have experienced and how life on the island has adjusted to major change over a fifty year period. The information and responses from resident surveys discussed were collected using identical household surveys conducted fifty years apart to provide a unique comparison on a longitudinal basis of changes in the economy and way of life on the island, including the emergence of tourism as the major driver of the economy This has taken place without the common antagonism or problems between residents and visitors in tourist destinations, reflecting the appropriate handling of mutual interests and concerns through political arrangements which have been supportive and sympathetic to residents and visitors.

  14. Water Governance in Mexico: Political and Economic Aperatures and a Shifting State-Citizen Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Wilder

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the adoption of dramatic national water policy reforms in 1992, Mexico's water governance paradigm has had time to mature. This article analyzes Mexico's experience with water policy transition, based on research in irrigation districts and river basin councils in the northwestern state of Sonora. I examine the trajectory of the water policy transition using the policy sciences framework set forth in the introductory article. The article argues that the transition to a "new culture of water" focused on the three principles of efficiency, decentralization, and sustainability has only minimally fulfilled its goal of establishing a new state-citizen relationship around water policy. Multiple and conflicting agendas are represented in the water policy, and a coherent governance strategy that is sustained over time and place has not been achieved. In particular, legal modifications to the national water law that emphasize integrated watershed planning and local participation were approved in 2004 but have never been formally implemented. Political fragmentation and changing of parties in power has contributed to the challenge of working towards a more democratic, participatory water policy over the last two decades. The article concludes with a critique of the policy sciences approach in the context of the Mexican case and that of other "developing" countries.

  15. The Role of Economic and Political Measures on the Palliation of Poverty in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Bejaković

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers measures for palliating poverty in Croatia. After an introductory account, poverty is defined, and a very brief description of the situation in Croatia is given. In the sequel, attention is devoted to the encouragement of economic growth, the creation of greater opportunities for employment, the enhancement of human capital, an effective welfare system and well-oriented targeting of benefits to groups that need assistance, decentralization, the restraining of corruption and the development of institutions. The paper concludes with some final considerations and proposals.

  16. Challenges in global biodiversity conservation and solutions that cross sociology, politics, economics and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Sean; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2012-12-23

    The study and practice of conservation biology is inherently interdisciplinary, addresses short and long time-scales and occurs within complex human-natural interfaces. Zoos and aquaria, in partnership with researchers, other non-government organizations, government, industry and educators, are combining knowledge of species and ecosystems with economics, psychology and law to create solutions for conserving biodiversity. From 22 to 25 May, the Conservation Forum of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria was a venue for discussing conservation research, education and interventions, from the scale of villages to global policy.

  17. Piketty, economics and sociology: The analytical and political agenda on inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Grdešić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the work of Thomas Piketty on inequality, with special emphasis on the reception of his ideas in the social sciences. First, a quantitative analysis of the works that cite Piketty’s most important publications examines the reception of Piketty in academic debates. Next, the critiques of Piketty from economics and sociology, two often opposed disciplines that have devoted the most attention to discussing Piketty, are considered. This article supplements existing critiques with additional suggestions that are relevant to both the scientific analysis of inequality and the process of imaging various reforms that could cope with the problem of inequality.

  18. China Relations with the Southeast Asian Nations: Economic and Political Factors (on the Inauguration of the PRC-ASEAN Free Trade Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Yangel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the relations between the People's Republic of China and the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the impact of political and economic factors on them during various historic periods, offers a periodization of the development of relations between China and the Southeast Asian countries and analyzes the state and the prospects of those relations.

  19. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Kößler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  20. Social, Political, and Economic Variables Associated with Successful and Unsuccessful Educational Change Efforts: Kenya, Japan, Malaysia, the Soviet Union and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, David; And Others

    This paper, using five examples (Kenya, Japan, Malaysia, the Soviet Union, and the United States), explores some patterns of interactions among social, political, and economic activity (SPEA) and seven influences affecting the character of national systems of education. The educational change and improvement efforts in the five countries are…

  1. Middle-Class School Choice in Urban Spaces: The Economics of Public Schooling and Globalized Education Reform. Routledge Research in Education Policy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2016-01-01

    "Middle-class School Choice in Urban Spaces" examines government funded public schools from a range of perspectives and scholarship in order to examine the historical, political and economic conditions of public schooling within a globalized, post-welfare context. In this book, Rowe argues that post-welfare policy conditions are…

  2. Socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour of the social and cultural specialists and the technocrats : Social class or education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güveli, Ayse; Need, Ariana; Graaf, Nan Dirk de

    2007-01-01

    Do the social and cultural specialists differ from the technocrats and other social classes with respect to their socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour? If they do, is this attributable to their level and field of education? The social and cultural specialists are assumed

  3. Socio-economic, socio-political and socio-emotional variables explaining school bullying: a country-wide multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Molano, Andrés; Podlesky, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Why do some countries, regions and schools have more bullying than others? What socio-economic, socio-political and other larger contextual factors predict school bullying? These open questions inspired this study with 53.316 5th- and 9th-grade students (5% of the national student population in these grades), from 1,000 schools in Colombia. Students completed a national test of citizenship competencies, which included questions about bullying and about families, neighborhoods and their own socio-emotional competencies. We combined these data with community violence and socio-economic conditions of all Colombian municipalities, which allowed us to conduct multilevel analyses to identify municipality- and school-level variables predicting school bullying. Most variance was found at the school level. Higher levels of school bullying were related to more males in the schools, lower levels of empathy, more authoritarian and violent families, higher levels of community violence, better socio-economic conditions, hostile attributional biases and more beliefs supporting aggression. These results might reflect student, classroom and school contributions because student-level variables were aggregated at the school level. Although in small portions, violence from the decades-old-armed conflict among guerrillas, paramilitaries and governmental forces predicted school bullying at the municipal level for 5th graders. For 9th graders, inequality in land ownership predicted school bullying. Neither poverty, nor population density or homicide rates contributed to explaining bullying. These results may help us advance toward understanding how the larger context relates to school bullying, and what socio-emotional competencies may help us prevent the negative effects of a violent and unequal environment.

  4. Sleeping with the enemy? On Hayek, constructivist thought, and the current economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Oliver

    The current economic crisis challenges the constitutive rules of global finance. Despite its various roots, dynamics, and consequences, the current reform debate is surprisingly limited in scope: it focuses on possible changes of Basle II and thus banking regulation only. This article suggests that

  5. A Possible Jeopardy of Water Resources in Terms of Turkey's Economic and Political Context: Water Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Levent YILMAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is a resource that is a prominent requirement for human life, however, especially in recent years, availability decreases to dangerous levels due to the climate change. Certainly another factor that makes water vital is that water became an economical input for both industry and energy generation. While the World's rising population, increasing production potential and other factors raise the need for water constantly, climate change, global warming and other kinds of pollution reduce the level of availability of freshwater which makes water more important than ever. In our study, some information about the importance of water are given and then the possible risks for Turkey in Middle East are examined.

  6. THE OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN GAS PIPELINES IN THE BLACK SEA REGION: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GRIBINCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is very dynamic in terms of economic development, security problems and interstate relations. All of the countries in this region are heterogeneous but energy issue plays a pivotal role in their foreign policy priorities. It is the only one common denominator that can both foster cooperation and catalyze conflict in the Black Sea basin. The problem of transporting energy has an impact not only on the Black Sea countries, but also on the Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caspian Sea, Middle East, and ultimately the European consuming markets. Thus, the issue of energy transition needs the experts’ and scientists’ attention fixed on the Black Sea region in order to come together facing the latter-day challenges. The energy challenge has a multi-dimensional nature. Aim. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the energy transaction issues focusing on the economic effects of the most important gas pipelines within the Black Sea region. Particular attention is going to be paid to the problem of the energy routes’ diversification and pipelines which connect the carbon-rich countries of the Middle East and Caspian region and Europe. Also, it is aimed to give a comprehensive analysis of the energy challenge within the Black sea region, focusing on energy efficiency of the gas pipelines which go through this extremely important energy hub. Methods - scientific methods of data analysis, historical and statistical overview, predictive analysis qualitative indicators, comparative method, method of description, case study. Results. The creation of a stable markets, interconnected and transparent natural gas supply would largely counteract the risks. The flexibility transport infrastructure, numerous and capable pipelines, underground storage capacities and their management may play an important role in the sector’s ability to manage supply shocks.

  7. Analysis of the PPBE Process in the Current Dynamic Political Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Complicated/ expensive systems - Business practices Legal - USA Patriot Act - Military prison scandals - CIA leak probe (Plume Affair) - Enron , Tyco...54 such as Enron , Tyco and WorldCom were prosecuted and received prison sentences for the roles they played in these scandals .114 These...of the author aided in shaping the environment. DoD Political -Vietnam War -Kennedy Assassination -Great Society Initiatives -Watergate Scandal

  8. The current state of play of research on the social, political and legal dimensions of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vera; Ferguson, Laura; Aggleton, Peter; Mane, Purnima; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Giang, Le Minh; Barbosa, Regina M.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Parker, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as “key populations”; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be tailored locally and contextually; third, the need for an urgent response to a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV among young people; and fourth, the negative effects of the growing criminalization of minority sexualities and people living with HIV. Lack of stress on human rights and community participation is resulting in poorer policy globally. A new research agenda is needed to respond to these challenges. PMID:25859715

  9. Problem-Based Teaching in International Management: A Political/Economic Risk Assessment Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Paula S.; White, Marion M.; Zisk, Daniel S.; Cavazos, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This article draws from the current literature to examine problem-based learning (PBL) as a management education tool, and provides an example of how to incorporate PBL into an undergraduate international management course. Also included are an explanation of, and specific guidelines for, a PBL exercise focused on the analysis of "country risk"…

  10. Who ‘marries' whom? The influence of societal connectedness, economic and political homogeneity, and population size on jurisdictional consolidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2011-01-01

    For decades, political scientists have been asking how political jurisdictions are formed and reshaped. Nevertheless, studies of local government jurisdictional formation are few and often plagued with endogeneity since the formation of jurisdictions cannot be separated from sorting effects...

  11. The World - Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, James I

    2013-01-01

    The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print "fiat" (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of everything

  12. The World – Socio-economically and politically: What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, James I.

    2013-01-01

    The gravest challenge facing the USA and the nations of the world is the coming economic crisis of the world economies, if present policies are pursued. Few are aware or believe that this event could happen. The spread of centralized government control of the economies, the growth of the welfare state worldwide, the expenditures on entitlements beyond what any nation or even most states can afford, the cost of wars, the rapidly climbing debt of the USA and other countries and their inability to pay for these excessive expenses, the actions of many countries to print “fiat” (false) money to pay for their debts, the raising of taxes to pay for these debts, the rise in immigration to developed countries from the undeveloped world, the associated costs to their societies of this immigration, the promises made by politicians to get elected that cannot be fulfilled, and the desire of the public to have what they want, now, paid for by credit cards (debt), are all contributing to the coming economic crisis. The unfunded promised benefits to the citizens of the USA in Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, and pensions plus the USA debt amount to about $140 trillion. The total value of all the assets of all the people in the USA is $99 trillion dollars. So, one can see that the people of the USA do not have the resources to pay their expenses. Besides, these entitlements, the rest of the expenses are paid for with borrowed or printed (fiat) money that has little chance of being repaid unless perhaps by subsequent generations or by increases in taxes. Efforts to correct this coming economic crisis by austerity and sacrifice have been rejected by the public and the politicians worldwide. The Governments and the Press have participated in deception of the public about these issues in order to maintain their positions of power, for the truth would destroy them. No solution is in sight except more spending and valueless money printing. This unchecked desire for more of

  13. Development of geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast: socio-economic, demographic, and political considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Williamson, J.K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The institutional aspect of the study attempts to identify possible effects of geothermal research, development, and utilization on the area and its inhabitants in three chapters. Chapters I and II address key socio-economic and demographic variables. The initial chapter provides an overview of the area where the resource is located. Major data are presented that can be used to establish a baseline description of the region for comparison over time and to delineate crucial area for future study with regard to geothermal development. The chapter highlights some of the variables that reflect the cultural nature of the Gulf Coast, its social characteristics, labor force, and service in an attempt to delineate possible problems with and barriers to the development of geothermal energy in the region. The following chapter focuses on the local impacts of geothermal wells and power-generating facilities using data on such variables as size and nature of construction and operating crews. Data are summarized for the areas studied. A flow chart is utilized to describe research that is needed in order to exploit the resource as quickly and effectively as possible. Areas of interface among various parts of the research that will include exchange of data between the social-cultural group and the institutional, legal, environmental, and resource utilization groups are identified. (MCW)

  14. Development of Ecological Footprint to an Essential Economic and Political Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans P. Aubauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how the concept of the Ecological Footprint can be developed by incorporating the six procedures listed below, to create a single indicator of just distribution of the limited natural resources, between and within generations, and become a benchmark for decision-making between alternatives of consumption, life-styles and economic policies. Using this new tool, it should be possible to label every commodity, service and natural resource with the share it claims of the Earth’s surface. This, in turn, can enable the integration of natural limits into the economy through the complete internalization of costs within market prices, while also reducing resource throughput fairly and quickly without an undue loss in GNP. The six procedures are as follows: First, operating within the boundaries of the sustainable local yields of the biologically productive soil and water areas, without any input of non-renewable resources, particularly fossil fuels; Second, taking spatial variations of this yield into account; Third, considering only sustainable CO2-sinks; Fourth, including every exploitation of nature, for instance all material flows; Fifth, taking care of intertemporal effects and depletion; and sixth, preserving the natural habitats necessary for the survival of biodiversity, bearing the species/area relationship in mind.

  15. Italy and Albania: The political and economic alliance and the Italian invasion of 1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tase

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts and disputes among people are an integral part of everyday life, of our private and professional life. They can be of any kind, from social, commercial, family related disputes up to those between the states themselves. Just as the types and natures of disputes increase with the economic and cultural development of any society, the mechanisms of dealing with them take a special importance as well. Besides dispute resolution by state bodies that are established by law, alternative ways for resolving disputes are developing increasingly and are receiving a special importance as well. The alternative solution of a dispute is nothing more than an alternative for resolving the dispute outside the judicial system, where the main ways are mediation and arbitration. Alternative solutions to disputes are widespread in countries of common law systems, considering that most disputes are solved in this way. In this article we will examine mediation and its development especially in Albania. Mediation is a way to resolve disputes between two or more parties, where a third person, the mediator, negotiates with the parties so that they arrive at a solution acceptable to all.

  16. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-05

    not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 05 MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4...Criminal code reform was completed in 2001. Trial by jury was planned to expand to cover most cases, but instead has been restricted following instances...2013 in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. The so-called Steadfast Jazz 2013 exercise—intended to certify command and control elements of the NATO

  17. The Rise and Fall of Virata’s Network: Technocracy and the Politics of Economic Decision Making in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a technocratic network in the Philippines that was formed around Cesar E. A. Virata, prime minister under Ferdinand Marcos, rose during the martial law period (1972–86, when technocracy was pushed to the forefront of economic policy making. Applying concepts of networks, this essay traces the rise and eventual collapse of Virata’s network to a three-dimensional interplay of relationships—between Virata and Marcos, Virata and the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, and Marcos and the United States. Virata’s close links to social, academic, US, and business community networks initially thrust him into government, where he shared Marcos’s goal of attracting foreign investments to build an export-oriented economy. Charged with obtaining IMF and World Bank loans, Virata’s network was closely joined to Marcos as the principal political hub. Virata, however, had to contend with the networks of Marcos’s wife, Imelda, and the president’s "chief cronies." While IMF and World Bank support offered Virata some leverage, his network could not control Imelda Marcos’s profligacy or the cronies’ sugar and coconut monopolies. In Virata’s own assessment, his network was weakened when Marcos’s health failed during an economic crisis in 1981 and after Benigno Aquino’s assassination in 1983. In those crises, Imelda Marcos’s network and Armed Forces Chief of Staff General Fabian Ver’s faction of the military network took power amidst the rise of an anti-dictatorship movement. The United States’ switch of support from Marcos to Corazon Aquino sealed the demise of Virata’s network.

  18. CURRENT ECONOMIC AND MEDICAL REFORMS IN THE ROMANIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Mihaela Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of health has always been, both in social reality and in academia and research, a sensitive topic considering the relationship each individual has with his own health and the health care system as a public policy. At public opinion levels and not only, health care is the most important sector demanding the outmost attention, considering that individual health is the fundamental prerequisite for well-being, happiness and a satisfying life. The ever present research and practical question is on the optimal financing of the health care system. Any answer to this question is also a political decision, reflecting the social-economic value of health for a particular country. The size of the resource pool and the criteria and methods for resource allocation are the central economic problems for any health system. This paper takes into consideration the limited resources of the national health care system (the rationalization of health services, the common methods of health financing, the specificity of health services market (the health market being highly asymmetric, with health professionals knowing most if not all of the relevant information, such as diagnosis, treatment options and costs and consumers fully dependent on the information provided in each case and the performance of all hospitals in Romania, in order to assess the latest strategic decisions (introduction of co-payment and merging and reconversion of hospitals taken within the Romanian health care system and their social and economic implications. The main finding show that, even though the intention of reforming and transforming the Romanian health care system into a more efficient one is obvious, the lack of economic and demographic analysis may results into greater discrepancies nationwide. This paper is aimed to renew the necessity of joint collaboration between the economic and medical field, since the relationship between health and economic development runs both ways

  19. Political and Economic Geomorphology: The Effect of Market Forces on Stream Restoration Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Doyle, M. W.; Lave, R.; Robertson, M.

    2013-12-01

    disproportionately located in very small catchments, and designs seemed to be only marginally related to the location of the stream. Provisional findings also indicate that the differences between mitigation and non-mitigation designs were less than expected. Interview data support this observation; design engineers and entrepreneurial credit providers (i.e., mitigation bankers) apparently viewed the design process as a somewhat standard, non-malleable practice. Sustaining long-term relationships with regulators, who must approve the sale of restored stream credits, was seen as critically important rather than the marginal gains to be made by manipulating particular stream designs to glean more credits. Overall, preliminary results demonstrate that regulatory frameworks, economic incentives and social relationships played a key role in driving stream restoration design in North Carolina, often homogenizing design practices and limiting ';credit chasing.'

  20. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  1. The sexual and economic politics of (re)integration: HIV / AIDS and the question of stability in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D

    1997-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the reintegration process being implemented presents a host of opportunities to establish political and economic stability. Particularly, a macro perspective is made possible, with the focus on the new Southern African Development Community. However, the HIV/AIDS pandemic represents one of the principal threats to the realization of such stability. This is because the reintegration process have provided ideal conditions for the spread of HIV, namely: chronic widespread of poverty, a high prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases, poorly developed health systems, high levels of circulatory migration, rapid urbanization creating gender biases, and chronic levels of violence. In addition, it is emphasized that the impact of AIDS in the region will create negative forces that will counteract the process of regionalization. Existing stresses, being addressed at a regional level, are likely to be exacerbated to unmanageable levels by the cumulative impact of AIDS-related mortality. To this effect, recommendations for policymakers, planners, company managers and program implementors as part of the overall movement towards AIDS impact mitigation are cited.

  2. Political anticipation: observing and understanding global socio-economic trends with a view to guide the decision-making processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillol, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Political anticipation (PA), as practiced by Laboratoire Européen d'Anticipation Politique, is a method for improving the capacity to understand trends and forecast events with the aim of influencing events on a large or small scale. Our operational definition of anticipation is 'To foresee in order to act.' Intended to be efficient and of immediate use, PA is conceived as a decision-making tool for all types of decision-makers: politicians, economists, administrators, business leaders, private investors, educators, as well as heads of households. Everyone, in a professional or private role, makes important decisions (for employees, for business operations and commerce, for family, for investments, for jurisdictions, and for the country and economic zone, among other areas in which the polis is involved). Given the dynamics of reality in our times, every decision appears as a wager on the future. It is also related to the wish or desire to obtain the best outcome for risk assumed (which a wager entails) and the effort expended.

  3. The feminization of HPV: How science, politics, economics and gender norms shaped U.S. HPV vaccine implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Ellen M; Vamos, Cheryl A; Thompson, Erika L; Zimet, Gregory D; Rosberger, Zeev; Merrell, Laura; Kline, Nolan S

    2017-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause a number of anogenital cancers (i.e., cervical, penile, anal, vaginal, vulvar) and genital warts. A decade ago, the HPV vaccine was approved, and has been shown to be a public health achievement that can reduce the morbidity and mortality for HPV-associated diseases. Yet, the mistaken over-identification of HPV as a female-specific disease has resulted in the feminization of HPV and HPV vaccines. In this critical review, we trace the evolution of the intersection of science, politics, economics and gender norms during the original HPV vaccine approval, marketing era, and implementation. Given the focus on cervical cancer screening, women were identified as bearing the burden of HPV infection and its related illnesses, and the group responsible for prevention. We also describe the consequences of the feminization of HPV, which has resulted primarily in reduced protection from HPV-related illnesses for males. We propose a multilevel approach to normalizing HPV vaccines as an important aspect of overall health for both genders. This process must engage multiple stakeholders, including providers, parents, patients, professional organizations, public health agencies, policymakers, researchers, and community-based organizations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of economic and political integration on power plants’ carbon emissions in the post-soviet transition nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don; Sie, Amanda; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2017-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels for electricity generation, which accounts for a significant share of the world’s CO2 emissions, varies by macro-regional context. Here we use multilevel regression modeling techniques to analyze CO2 emissions levels in the year 2009 for 1360 fossil-fuel power plants in the 25 post-Soviet transition nations in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia. We find that various facility-level factors are positively associated with plant-level emissions, including plant size, age, heat rate, capacity utilization rate, and coal as the primary fuel source. Results further indicate that plant-level emissions are lower, on average, in the transition nations that joined the European Union (EU), whose market reforms and environmental directives are relevant for emissions reductions. These negative associations between plant-level emissions and EU accession are larger for the nations that joined the EU in 2004 relative to those that joined in 2007. The findings also suggest that export-oriented development is positively associated with plant-level CO2 emissions in the transition nations. Our results highlight the importance in macro-regional assessments of the conjoint effects of political and economic integration for facility-level emissions.

  5. A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kolios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the last few years. Findings of the analysis identify the risks and multiple stakeholders involved at all stages of the tidal energy projects development from the conceptualization of the design, right through to decommissioning. Many of the stakeholders present benefits to the tidal developers through funding, incentives and knowledge sharing, but at the same time they also present potential risks to the future of projects. This is mostly down to different approaches of the most important aspect of tidal energy that needs to be considered, making it hard for technologists and developers to equally address all requirements. From this research it can be concluded that several of these risks can be mitigated early on providing that particular stakeholders are involved at the correct stage of a project.

  6. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS - SOLUTION OR VICTIM OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CRISIS?

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    MINA Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It is already a well known fact that public-private partnerships (PPPs are considered to be a solution for world wide governments facing insufficient public budgets. In the context of the current economic crisis, many voices promote public-private part

  7. Current economic downturn and supply chain : The significance of demand and inventory smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannella, S.; Ashayeri, J.; Miranda, P.A.; Bruccoleri, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and quantify the effects of demand and inventory smoothing into supply-chain performance, facing the extreme volatility and impetuous alteration of the market produced by the current economic recession. To do so, we model a traditional serial three-stage supply

  8. The Role of Education in Economic Growth: Theory, History and Current Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper was prepared to address the issue of whether current levels of public expenditures on education are cost-effective in countries with widely differing average levels of education. Purpose: The paper examines the role of education in economic growth from a theoretical and historic perspective, addresses why education has been…

  9. Current economic downturn and supply chain : The significance of demand and inventory smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannella, S.; Ashayeri, J.; Miranda, P.A.; Bruccoleri, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and quantify the effects of demand and inventory smoothing into supply-chain performance, facing the extreme volatility and impetuous alteration of the market produced by the current economic recession. To do so, we model a traditional serial three-stage supply

  10. Bulgarian wedding music between folk and chalg: Politics, markets and current directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Kerol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the performative relationship among folklore, the market, and the state through an analysis of the politics of Bulgarian wedding music. In the socialist period wedding music was condemned by the state and excluded from the category folk but was adored by thousands of fans as a counter-cultural manifestation. In the post-socialist period wedding music achieved recognition in the West but declined in popularity in Bulgarian as fusion music's, such as chalga (folk/pop, arose and as musicians faced challenges vis-à-vis capitalism. As the state withdrew and became weaker private companies with profit-making agendas arose. Although it inspired chalga, wedding music began to be seen in contrast to it, as folk music. Recently, fatigue with chalga and nationalistic ideologies are revitalizing wedding music.

  11. Current political commitments’ challenges for ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture

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    Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview regarding capacity building needs for supporting political commitments’ implementation and furthermore, the development of new political, technical and scientific measures for ensuring the proper conservation of biodiversity and considering in a cost-effective way ex situ conservation tools and methods. Domesticated and wild species, threatened and not threatened native species belonging to the natural capital, due to anthropic pressure and climate change may be drastically affected for their status of conservation in their ecosystems of origin. Thus, ex situ conservation is important to be taken into consideration for ensuring the proper conservation of native species. Still, ex situ conservation is a tool which is in use for many activities for many years such as: research, trade, industry, medicine, pharmaceuticals and agriculture. Romania needs to further develop its specific legislation framework in specific domains such as trade of exotic and native threatened species as well as for other domains such as zoos and aquaria, seeds exchange between botanical gardens, bioprospecting, wild threatened species rescue, capture and reintroduction, collection, access for benefit sharing. Also for agriculture should be developed ex situ conservationmeasures closely connected with breeding programmes dedicated to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (i.e. gene banks conservation, breeding programmes, on farm conservation. Only by harmonizing at the legal level, based on science, all these specific domains, extremely sensitive, dealing with ex situ conservation it will be possible in the future to secure food and ecosanogenesis ensuring the appropriate status of in situ conservation of biodiversity as a whole. As it is not possible to apply conservation measures, either in situ either ex situ either both, to all species it is appropriate to further develop strategic tools for prioritizing our efforts in a cost

  12. Political and socio-economic instability: does it have a role in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Ramaswamy; Tebandeke, Achilles

    2011-01-01

    Many sub-Saharan African countries are confronted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article reviews academic literature in the social sciences and health to discover why HIV/AIDS has become an epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and not in other parts of the world. This was studied by examining the social determinants of diminishment of tradition and social cohesion in terms of political, social and economic problems. Four countries in this region were selected for this case study, namely South Africa, Botswana, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The findings showed that instability in socio-economic and political aspects in these nations was responsible for creating a suitable environment for the spread of HIV/AIDS infection. This paper concludes by using the theories of collective action/responsibility and social cohesion to hypothesise that the breakdown of social ties due to various kinds of conflicts and unrest is one of the main contributors to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  13. Economic Prosperity as “Narcissistic Filling”: A Missing Link Between Political Attitudes and Right-wing Authoritarianism

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    Johannes Kiess

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An expanded analysis of the origin of the correlation with economic deprivation found in the authors’ representative surveys of right-wing extremist attitudes (such as racism, anti-Semitism, and chauvinism, focusing on the underlying dynamics in Germany and the historical aspect of National Socialism. The growing prosperity of the West German “economic miracle” of the 1950s served a psychosocial “filling function” to block the narcissistic damage caused by confrontation with past crimes and the sense of the nation’s loss of greatness. As this prosperity vanishes for many people during the current economic crisis, the filling comes out and the narcissistic wound opens up. What emerges is both what lies underneath and what has been serving as a defense against it, which involve authoritarian dynamics. Initially, the metaphor of “narcissistic filling” will be developed through our analysis of group discussions conducted as part of our qualitative study (of 2008. The developed hypotheses will thereafter be introduced to our following representative survey (of 2010 and confirmed by means of quantitative methods.

  14. Theory of endogenous growth: political economy and mathematical economy Teoría del crecimiento endógeno. Economía política y economía matemática

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    Benavides G. Oscar A.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Two essential features allow us to understand recent developments in growth theory: a new conceptualization to explain its nature, that is, the return to classical political economy and the introduction of the theory of public goods, and some mathematics that allow the formalization of this new conceptualization. With the development of bothn elements, the article presents the "new" theoretical framework, the formal conditions and the mathematical techniques needed to
    understand current growth theory. This review of these new developments can serve as a point of reference to broeciet, or to question the formulations of endogenous growth theories.Dos aspectos esenciales que permiten entender los desarrollos recientes en la teoría del creciemiento: una nueva conceptualización para explicar sus naturaleza, es decir, el retorno a la economía política clásica y la introducción de una teoría de bienes públicos, y unas matemáticas que permiten formalizar esta nueva conceptualización. Con el desarrollo de ambos elementos, el artículo presenta el "nuevo" marco teórico, las condiciones formalesy las técnicas matemáticas necesarias para entender la actual teoría del creciento. Esta revisión de los nuevos desarrollos puede servir de punto de referencia para ampliar o cuestionar los planteamientos de las teorías de crecimiento endógeno.

  15. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  16. Use Of Renewable Energy In The Electric Power Generation Sector In Mexico: Political, Regulatory, Economic And Technical Issues From 1965 To 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde-Baltierra, Alberto; Sasse, Diana; Zeferino-Abundis, Yolanda; Quiroz-Juarez, Carolina; Lopez-Satow, Edgar; Beltran-Mora, Hector; Crisostomo-Ramirez, David

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the political, regulatory, economic and technical issues that have determined the use of primary energies for power generation in Mexico from 1965 to 2008, and its perspectives for the next 10 years, in particular the prospects of using renewable energies. In the 60's, hydro was the preferred source of energy to produce electricity for economical and technical reasons. Under the 'oil boom' in the 70s, transition to hydrocarbons resources (fuel oil) was progressive. As a result of implementing environmental policies, electricity has mainly been generated with natural gas since the early 2000.

  17. Philippine Technocracy and the Politics of Economic Decision-Making: A Comparison of the Martial Law and Post-Martial Law Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article looks into the factors which have strengthened as well as weakened Philippine technocracy during the martial law (1972–86 and post-martial law periods. During the former, technocracy drew its strength from the support it received from President Ferdinand E. Marcos and the country’s major international lending creditors, i.e., the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the World Bank. Both Marcos and the IMF/World Bank shared the technocrats’ economic vision of liberalization and export-oriented industrialization. Among the factors which hindered the technocracy’s bargaining leverage on the other hand were the inability of the leadership to address the economic crisis as brought about by the oil price hike in the early 1980s and the political crisis which was given impetus with the assassination of ex-Senator Benigno Aquino. As for the post-martial law period, the technocracy basically pursued the same economic policy liberalization as during the martial law period with an emphasis on privatization and deregulation. Technocratic policy-making was further facilitated in a period of globalization where the transnational character of economic policy-making further protected the technocracy from public criticism. Its economic policy-making, however, confronted stiff challenges from civil society as well as patronage politics.

  18. Changing attitudes in tourism - a possible way to win the battle with the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albu, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis should be viewed as an opportunity to make the changes needed for improving the tourism industry. These changes are necessary for the tourism industry and must be undertaken considering the necessity of transforming the economy into a Green Economy based on the sustainable development principles. This approach will ensure the sustainable development for the Tourism Industry. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance and the necessity of change in tourism, especially in the present context of economic and financial crisis.

  19. Democracy and politics of difference: Through the prism of current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkovska Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of difference and identity are articulated in the form of a dispute starting with the establishment of liberal democracies and becoming more and more intense: a dispute about the way the political community is established and defended in connection to the issue of relation between the individual being and the collective. The paper analyzes the latest reflections of European policy to the problem of differences and the likelihood of thesis about the end of multiculturalism heard after the security conference in Munich to be relevant, by the explanation of the genesis of the problem and a review of offered solutions. Additionally, paper explains the notion of modern state by the principles of citizenship and nation in relation to the questions of identity and difference, with special accent on concepts of neutrality and tolerance as a key spots is this debate. In conclusion, paper sums up the reasons why the gap problem can not easily be overcome and how discursive democracy can potentially be a different future focus of the dispute.

  20. The Market without the State? The 'Economic Constitution' of the European Community and the Rebirth of Regulatory Politics

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    Christian Joerges

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reacts to a widespread perception of the development of the European Community after the adoption and implementation of the internal market programme. These perceptions are characterised as endorsing the emergence of a "market without the state". This vision, the paper argues, is neither normatively sound nor empirically correct. The normative doubts are elaborated with the help of a comparative discussion of three competing approaches to the understanding of European Integration (German "Ordnungspolitik", Ipsens Neo-Functionalism, Joseph Weilers Dual Supranationalism. The empirical part of the argument is elaborated with the help of of a comparison of the internal market programme and its actual implementation. This implementation can be characterised as a rebirth of regulatory politics. After a discussion of current approaches or suggestions such as regulatory competition, neo-corporatism and the building up of non-majoritarian institutions of governments, the paper asserts, that the Community will have to embark upon the task of meditating between mainly functional needs of market integration and broader regualtory concerns of the European Polity. Both the analysis of legal perception of the European integration process and the normative suggestions are further taken up in a related paper: Joerges, State without a Market? Comments on the German Constitutional Courts Maastricht-judgement and a Plea for Interdisciplinary Discourses , European Integration online Papers Vol. 1, No. 20 ( http:\\eiop.or.ateiopexte1997-020a.htm .

  1. The current economic situation in China and its impact on the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Stverkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many companies try to enter to the international sector and to extend here their activity. Their international cooperation is an integral part of the action; it is necessary to know the cultural differences. Therefore it is important to understand the social development including the Social Progress Index and the secondary analysis of an economic situation in China; and its subsequent impact on the economy not only in the Czech Republic based on evaluation of Czech-Chinese business relations. China was in the last five years the male rotor of the world economic growth and became a significant importer of commodities. Last year, the Chinese economic growth rate slowed down, which could have negative consequences on other economies. This is also the possible reason for some Czech companies leaving the Chinese market; they transfer their production parts back to Europe or India. A presumption of high living standard, which all countries of the world and their inhabitants want to achieve, is according to the current paradigm of economic science the economic growth. The economy does not take pace in a vertical line, but at the horizontal level as the meaning of sharing in the net among the individuals. And the cooperation does not take place in the horizontal line but in the vertical line, which essentially changes the way of people's working.

  2. PARAGUAY: CRECIMIENTO ECONÓMICO, CONFLICTO SOCIAL E INCERTIDUMBRE POLÍTICA Paraguay: Economic growth, social conflict and political uncertainty

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    DIEGO ABENTE-BRUN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la coyuntura paraguaya centrándose en tres dimensiones principales. La primera es la económica. Se resalta la altísima tasa de crecimiento alcanzada después de la crisis de 2008, la estabilidad de precios, el buen manejo fiscal, el alto nivel de reservas, el bajo grado de endeudamiento y, en general, las buenas perspectivas económicas. La segunda dimensión es la social. En este plano se examinan tres conjuntos de problemas. En primer lugar se enfatiza la escasa capacidad de generación de empleos de una economía excesivamente dependiente de los agronegocios, especialmente la soja y la carne. En segundo lugar se constata que a pesar de haberse realizado ingentes inversiones en programas sociales los niveles de pobreza no han disminuido y la distribución de los ingresos ha empeorado. Finalmente, se discute la problemática del acceso a la tierra y se concluye que, lamentablemente, a pesar de haber sido esta la bandera insignia de la campaña de Lugo, casi cuatro años después de su asunción hay muy poco en su haber. La tercera dimensión, la política, analiza la lógica del gobierno y la oposición a medida que ambas se preparan para la contienda presidencial del 21 de abril de 2013. Se observa que el proceso que comenzó en el gobierno con inmensas dificultades y graves errores, se encuentra sin embargo encaminándose mejor. En contraste, el panorama en el Partido Colorado, que parecía claro un año atrás, se ve cada vez más incierto.This article analyzes the Paraguayan situationfocusing on three key dimensions. Thefirst is the economic one. The article underlines the very high rates ofgrowth achieved after the 2008 crisis, the low level of inflation, the solid management of thefiscal variables, the high level of reserves, the low debt ratio, and, in general, the very good economic prospects. The second dimension is the social one. Three sets of problems are examined. First, the article notes the very

  3. Theoretical Grounds of Economic Assessment of the Current Level of Innovation Receptivity of Engineering Enterprises

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    Yemelianov Oleksandr Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies and generalises existing approaches to identification of criteria of assessment of innovation receptivity of subjects of economic activity and also marks out main groups of methods of this assessment. It provides a chain of competences of an enterprise in the sphere of management of its innovation activity, which meets its passive and active innovation receptivity, which lies in the foundation of formation of the multiplicative approach to assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of an enterprise. The article offers complex qualitative and quantitative indicators of active and also passive innovation receptivity of an enterprise. Further studies of the issue of assessment of the current level of innovation receptivity of economic subjects require clarification of capabilities of a more complete consideration of influence of the obtained financial results from the enterprise innovation activity upon this level.

  4. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-01-01

    The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers). Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper a...

  5. Challenges for the Romanian Public Pensions System in the Current Economic and Financial Crisis

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    Anca Sava

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the challenges for the Romanian public pensions system in the current economic and financial crisis. Firstly, are presented the defining indicators of the Romanian public pension system, such as number of pensioners, the number of taxpayers, the dependency ratio pensioners/contributors, public pension expenditure as a percentage of GDP, etc. The article illustrates the challenges regarding the sustainability of the pension system to the aging population and the main predictions of specialized financial institutions on public pension expenditure for the next period. It also presents the current abuses of public pension system and the measures taken by the Romanianauthorities to reform it.

  6. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers. Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper aims to briefly outline the trends on the Romanian residential market in the aftermath of the current crisis.

  7. Regional economic impacts of current and proposed management alternatives for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Ishizaki, Asuka; Ritten, John

    2013-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP). The CCP must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. Charles M. Russell (CMR) National Wildlife Refuge, located in north-central Montana, is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the CCP. The CCP for the Refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge-management strategies. For refuge CCP planning, an economic analysis provides a means of estimating how current management (No Action Alternative) and proposed management activities (Alternatives) affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of information: (1) it illustrates a refuge’s contribution to the local community; and (2) it can help in determining whether economic effects are or are not a real concern in choosing among management alternatives. It is important to note that the economic value of a refuge encompasses more than just the impacts on the regional economy. Refuges also provide substantial nonmarket values (values for items not exchanged in established markets) such as maintaining endangered species, preserving wetlands, educating future generations, and adding stability to the ecosystem (Carver and Caudill, 2007). However, quantifying these types of nonmarket values is beyond the scope of this study. This report first presents a description of the local community and economy near the Refuge. Next, the methods used to conduct a regional economic impact analysis are described. An analysis of the final CCP management strategies that could affect stakeholders and residents and the local economy is then presented. The refuge management activities of economic concern in this analysis are:

  8. Socio-Economic, Political and Theological Deprivations' Role in the Radicalization of the British Muslim Youth: The Case of Hizb ut-Tahrir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the Muslim youth experience in Britain vis-a-vis vulnerability to extremist ideologies with a specific focus on the Hizb ut-Tahrir. In Britain, there is the increasingly significant phenomenon of the indigenous-born, native-language-speaking Muslim youth politicized by a radicalized Islam. In the British case, socio-economic and political deprivation as far as Muslims are concerned is an everyday reality. But several other minorities suffer also from these deprivations. This paper argues that in addition to social, economic and political deprivations, Muslims in Britain have to also face multiple discriminations especially in a post-9/11 and 7/7 climate and theological deprivation. Last but not the least international incidents negatively affecting Muslims all over the world, perceived government bias against Muslims, at home and abroad, linked to Palestinian question and Rushdie incident of 1989 make young British Muslims more inclined to radicalism. In this context, HT's discourse becomes attractive to the young Muslims who suffer from identity issues, exclusion, racism and discrimination. HT's easily accessible literature provides an alternative source of political and historical information and theological interpretation.

  9. GRAPEVINE VIRUS DISEASES:ECONOMIC IMPACT AND CURRENT ADVANCES IN VIRAL PROSPECTION AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS FERNANDO BASSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grapevine (Vitis spp. is a major vegetative propagated fruit crop with high socioeconomic importance worldwide. It is susceptible to several graft-transmitted agents that cause several diseases and substantial crop losses, reducing fruit quality and plant vigor, and shorten the longevity of vines. The vegetative propagation and frequent exchanges of propagative material among countries contribute to spread these pathogens, favoring the emergence of complex diseases. Its perennial life cycle further accelerates the mixing and introduction of several viral agents into a single plant. Currently, approximately 65 viruses belonging to different families have been reported infecting grapevines, but not all cause economically relevant diseases. The grapevine leafroll, rugose wood complex, leaf degeneration and fleck diseases are the four main disorders having worldwide economic importance. In addition, new viral species and strains have been identified and associated with economically important constraints to grape production. In Brazilian vineyards, eighteen viruses, three viroids and two virus-like diseases had already their occurrence reported and were molecularly characterized. Here, we review the current knowledge of these viruses, report advances in their diagnosis and prospection of new species, and give indications about the management of the associated grapevine diseases.

  10. Copper hydrometallurgy-current status,preliminary economics,future direction and positioning versus smelting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Peacey; GUO Xian-jian; E.Robles

    2004-01-01

    The heap leaching of oxide copper ores with copper cathode recovery by solvent extraction and electrowinning is now well established as a low-cost method of copper recovery. This technology has recently been applied successfully to mixed oxide and chalcocite ores, notably in Chile at Cerro Colorado, Quebrada Blanca and Zaldivar.Currently, there are significant development efforts underway to try to extend heap leaching to chalcopyrite ores.The success of heap leaching/SX/EW has also led to a revival in the development of hydrometallurgical processes to recover copper from chalcopyrite and other copper concentrates. The current status of copper hydrometallurgy is reviewed and the most commercially attractive potential applications are explored. The advantages and disadvantages of the hydrometallurgical treatment of chalcopyrite concentrates and its preliminary economics are compared with those for the current best practices in copper smelting and refining.

  11. The Economic Discourse of the Current Reform Aimed at Business Optimization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdenko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the strengths and weaknesses of the current reforms and provide appropriate recommendations and proposals to improve the regulatory and economic business environment. The article analyzes the introduced reforms in the aspect of the regulatory field and the active current system of taxation with the detailing of the type and content of the basic implemented measures. There have been justified the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced system of taxation with respect to the main budget forming taxes, such as the enterprise income taxes, value added tax, individual income tax considering changes in the administering of unified social tax (UST and war tax, excise duty. On the basis of the results of the study it has been found that the introduced reforms only partially improved the tax administration system and in no way reduced the announced tax burden, the time spending of business for preparing the current report was not significantly reduced.

  12. PAZ, PRI, AND PROGRESS: OCTAVIO PAZ’S POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND LITERARY STRUGGLE TO INSPIRE REFORM IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gene Pace

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout most of the twentieth century; Mexico’s political and economic policies were heavily influenced by the Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI. The landmark 1998 victory by Vicente Fox, the first presidential candidate in seven decades to win without the official sanction of the PRI,marked an important milestone in Mexican history; Octavio Paz, an eloquent proponent of political, economic, and social reform, sought for decades to inspire change. This paper seeks to illuminate Paz’s economic philosophy, and to demonstrate how the acclaimed writer, through courageous symbolic action coupled with an inimitable and potent pen, challenged the PRI’s hegemony in Mexico and contributed to the historic election he almost lived to celebrate (an elderly Paz died shortly before the historic 1998 election.“The Aztec ritual of 2 October [1968] in the Plaza de Tlatelolco. . . convinced me to abandon the Mexican Foreign Service.”“October 2, 1968 ended the student movement. It also ended an era in thehistory of Mexico.”

  13. Political And Economic Approach Of Women Working In Executive Levels In The Service Sector: Ankara State Opera And Ballet (Asob Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkben Akansel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Political economy is related to how capitalist system works by means of distribution of economical and cultural sources which has also a connection between the circumstances of women’s working life. Because hegemony, which is reflected to hegemony’s ideology, constitutes its force by the mediation of the concepts: ‘discrimination’ and ‘segregation’. This force sometimes can effect women as both earning much less in some labor-force market, facing to harassment etc. and being obstructed to get top-level managerial positions in which institutes their work by means of political economy point of view.In this study, we will examine the art sector which is one of the sub-branches of service sector in the labor-force market. Our case is Ankara State Opera and Ballet (ASOB. In this case, we aim to display how the institution is founded, and accepted as a part of modernization with the beginning of Republic of Turkey and changed especially by means of political approaches in the last years.While doing this, we will elaborate the concepts of ‘discrimination’ and ‘segregation’ which issues women face in the labor-force market. Then, we will relate these three concepts with Antonio Gramsci’s ‘hegemony’ and Louis Althusser’s ‘ideology’, Michel Foucault’s ‘power’  and we will examine how women are assigned to the executive positions in the case of institution which we have chosen.We will study the circumstances which may be narrowed as; whether women are permitted to work in the top-level management or not, how many women have been worked in the top-level management in the history of the institution, if quantity has a meaning or not etc., by means of political economy.By the mediation of aforementioned subjects, we will analyse the reasons of women being prevented to work in the top-level management in the working life by economical, political and social aspects. Consequently, we will elaborate how political economy, in

  14. A dimensão econômica da teoria política aristotélica Economical dimension of aristotle's political theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Rossi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é enfatizar o lugar que ocupa a economia na cosmovisão política de Aristóteles, assumindo o pressuposto segundo o qual o filósofo considera a economia como uma dimensão central da mesma forma que uma condição de possibilidade para pensar a comunidade política. Nesse sentido, percorre-se três aspectos de tal problemática. O primeiro aspecto, o mais visível, cujo descobrimento é mérito da hermenêutica arendtiana, é aquele que diz respeito especificamente ao problema da crematística como desconstrução do objeto da política, considerada como vida comunitária ligada ao bom viver. O segundo aspecto é o que conduz o filósofo a vincular, pela primeira vez na história do Ocidente, os regimes políticos à estrutura social da polis. O terceiro aspecto consiste em realizar uma leitura dos regimes políticos na chave econômica, aspecto central das profundas críticas de Aristóteles à oligarquia. Desse modo, deixa-se explícita outra das hipóteses que se sustenta no texto: a de que as reflexões de Aristóteles se concentram na noção de esfera pública e, por isso, privilegiam teoricamente a aristocracia, a politeia e, inclusive, a democracia.The objetive of the article is to emphasize the place of economics in the political cosmovision of Aristotle under the assumption of economics as a central dimension and a prerequisite of the philosopher's thinking about political community. In that sense, it covers three aspects of that problematic. The firs aspect, the most visible one, which discovery is merit of Arendtian hermeneutics, attends specifically to the problem of bad chrematistic as a deconstruction of the politics's object, in so far as communitarian life is related to the good life. The second aspect allows the philosopher to relate, for the first time in Western history, the political regimes to the social structure of the polis. The third aspect implies a vision of political regimes in economic terms

  15. A New Study on the Economic Value of Ideological and Political Education%思想政治教育经济价值新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毕晟

    2012-01-01

    The economic value of ideological and political education refers to the effect created by the education in promoting the society and economic growth as well as the satisfaction of people's material and spiritual needs. The ideolog- ical and political education not only has the properties and characteristics generally shared by other things, but bears its u- nique attributes and performances. The four basic traits of its economic value are: dependency, indirectness, variety and two - sidedness,which help update the conception of economic development promptly, choose the standard for appraisal of eco- nomic activities scienti~cally and optimize economic structure.%思想政治教育经济价值,是指思想政治教育劳动所创造的能促进社会经济增长和发展,满足人们物质和精神需要的效应。思想政治教育在具有一般事物所拥有的性质和特点的同时,还具有其自身特有的属性及表现形态。思想政治教育经济价值具有依存性、间接性、多端性和两面性的基本特点。思想政治教育有助于及时更新经济发展理念,科学选择评价经济活动的标准,优化经济活动结构。

  16. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF COSTS - THE MAIN TOOL OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA MICULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Both global and national hipercompetiţia and globalization are two phenomena that generate complexity and instability in the business. Therefore, the economic context in which organizations operate has changed a lot, the current environment characterized by globalization, increased competition, rapidly changing, market segmentation, changes in technology, demand volatility, the importance of information. These phenomena not only create a state of turmoil and turbulence in the competitive environment and generate changes in market conditions, but require changes and development in organizations. In these circumstances organizations worldwide are forced to adapt constantly, products and services to market needs to turn its attention to customer satisfaction, they need sophisticated production processes, internal processes flexible to respond quickly to changes environment.Therefore to achieve any competitive advantage, organizations must take the current economic environment strategies that integrate environmental opportunities, market and technology advantages in the most efficient way. In this context the question of modernization, the transformation cost information system, an adaptation to the realities and requirements of this, to change tools, processes and methods to meet current scientific and technical progress.

  17. Health Economics Studies Information Exchange; Reports of Current Research in Health Economics, and Medical Care Administration. Publication No. 1719.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA. Home Economics Branch.

    The first volume of a continuing series reporting research in progress in health economics and medical care organization and administration was compiled by contacting (1) graduate schools offering degrees in the health professions, sociology, economics, public administration, and public health, (2) charitable foundations indicating an interest in…

  18. ECOLOGY-ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF NEW RECLAMATION METHOD FOR CURRENTLY WORKING TECHNOGENIC MASSIFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Strizhenok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant problems of the mining industry is the need to reduce the negative impact of technogenic massifs formed by wastes of extraction and processing of mineral raw materials. This problem has a significant meaning for currently used massifs, because traditional ways of reclamation are not suitable for them. The article describes the results of a scientific study on the development of the most efficient reclamation method for currently used technogenic massifs. Described in detail the main results of the field observations, methods and equipment of laboratory experiments conducted to determine agro-chemical properties of the soil and optimal composition of binder agent. The article also provides ecological and economic assessment of the proposed method of reclamation. The study was conducted on the example of the real technogenic massif, formed by wastes of phosphorus ore processing.

  19. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  20. Exploration on Teaching Reform of Political Economics%政治经济学教学过程改革的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴健华

    2012-01-01

    At present,political economics in China Colleges and universities teaching has encountered great difficulties, students do not feel useful, not interest in it, the teaching effect isn't ideal. The article explores the course's teaching reform from the teacher's basic attitude and specific teaching methods in order to improve the teaching quality and effect of Political Economics.%一段时间以来,政治经济学课程在我国高校的教学中遇到了很大困难,学生觉得不实用,兴趣不高,教学效果不理想。针对这种现象文章主要从教师的基本态度和具体教学方法方面探索了这门课的教学改革,认为教师应以开放的胸怀对待这门课,以多样手段的适当使用来提高的教学质量和效果。

  1. Culture, economics, politics and knowledge as meaning-spaces in Social Occupational Therapy: reflections on the experience of “Ponto de Encontro e Cultura”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dias Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes the “Ponto de Encontro e Cultura - PEC”, an experience developed by METUIA - University of São Paulo (USP-SP in São Paulo from 2007 to 2011 which linked occupational therapy to areas of cultural production. It was attended by the homeless, occupational therapists and students of occupational therapy. To perform the analysis of the different dimensions of the experience we were guided by the meaning-space notion. We took the space as an organizer to understand a reality in which relationships and actions are being empowered in four different spheres: culture, economics, politics and knowledge. We noted that this practice showed that there was an ongoing collective effort to build what may be called piece. This characterizes a process where the space is a common reference point which brings into play different modes of sociability that are created by the management of common symbols and codes. It was important to recognize and appreciate the plurality of modes of knowledge. Thus, we observed that, from the cultural sphere, it is possible to articulate economics, health, social assistance, politics, and knowledge production.

  2. A longitudinal ecological study of the influences of political, economic, and health services characteristics on under-five mortality in less-developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ying-Chih; Sung, Pei-Wei; Chao, Hsing Jasmine; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chang, Chia-Jung

    2013-09-01

    This study used a longitudinal dataset and lagged dependent-variable panel regression models to examine whether political and economic characteristics directly predict under-5-year mortality rates (U5MR), and moderate the effects of health services and environment on U5MR. We used a sample of 46 less-developed countries from 1980 to 2009. Our results showed that the effects of political and economic characteristics on U5MR varied by non-sub-Saharan and sub-Saharan countries. After controlling for baseline U5MR and other socioeconomic variables, while foreign investment and health services were negatively associated U5MR, democracy was positively associated with U5MR in nonsub-Saharan countries. In contrast, debt was positively associated with and democracy and foreign investment were negatively associated with U5MR in sub-Saharan countries. The interaction analyses indicated that for sub-Saharan countries, the effects of health services on U5MR only existed for countries with low foreign investment.

  3. Gender Bias in the Current Economic Recovery? Declining Employment Rates for Women in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Boushey; Dean Baker; David Rosnick

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the current economic recovery - post-2001 recession up to mid-2005 - with its performance in the prior four economic recoveries. It examines how weak job growth has affected older versus younger workers, and how the impact has differed between men and women.

  4. Brasil en el 2007: el desencuentro entre la economía y la política Brazil in 2007: The Mismatch between the Economy and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIO AMORIM NETO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El año 2007 estuvo marcado por un gran desencuentro. Por un lado, Lula permaneció con una alta popularidad y la economía marchó bien, por el otro, el Presidente pasó crecientes dificultades políticas con los partidos y el Congreso. Desde el punto de vista económico, la coyuntura mundial favorable trajo beneficios al país, el que presentó mejoras en diversos índices. Políticamente, una serie de problemas del Poder Legislativo, la mayoría asociada a escándalos de corrupción, propició un mayor activismo judicial. También el gobierno federal reveló serias debilidades en la gestión política, demostrándose con el rechazo de la prorrogación del impuesto sobre transacciones financieras por parte del Senado Federal, cámara legislativa en que se concentró la oposición a Lula.2007 was marked by a mismatch. On the one hand, Lula remained high approval ratings and the economy went well. On the other, however, the president faced growing political difficulties with the parties and Congress. From an economic standpoint, good winds from the global market brought many benefits to the country, which witnessed improvements in several indicators. Politically, a series of problems haunted the Legislative Branch, most of them associated with corruption scandals, paving the way to greater judicial activism. The national government proved to be ineffective in terms of political management, which was evidenced by the rejection of the renewal of a tax on financial transactions by the Senate.

  5. Evidenced Formal Coverage Index and universal healthcare enactment: A prospective longitudinal study of economic, social, and political predictors of 194 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Andrea B; Ding, Eric L

    2013-11-01

    Determinants of universal healthcare (UHC) are poorly empirically understood. We undertook a comprehensive study of UHC development using a novel Evidenced Formal Coverage (EFC) index that combines three key UHC elements: legal framework, population coverage, and accessibility. Applying the EFC index measures (legislation, ≥90% skilled birth attendance, ≥85% formal coverage) to 194 countries, aggregating time-varying data from 1880-2008, this study investigates which macro-economic, political, and social indicators are major longitudinal predictors of developing EFC globally, and in middle-income countries. Overall, 75 of 194 countries implemented legal-text UHC legislation, of which 51 achieved EFC. In a country-year prospective longitudinal analysis of EFC prediction, higher GDP-per-capita (per GDP-per-capita doubling, relative risk [RR]=1.77, 95% CI: 1.49-2.10), higher primary school completion (per +20% completion, RR=2.30, 1.65-3.21), and higher adult literacy were significantly associated with achieving EFC. Results also identify a GDP-per-capita of I$5000 as a minimum level for development of EFC. GDP-per-capita and education were each robust predictors in middle-income countries, and education remained significant even controlling for time-varying GDP growth. For income-inequality, the GINI coefficient was suggestive in its role in predicting EFC (p=0.024). For social and political indicators, a greater degree of ethnic fractionalization (per +25%, RR=0.51, 0.38-0.70), proportional electoral system (RR=2.80, 1.22-6.40), and dictatorships (RR=0.10, 0.05-0.27) were further associated with EFC. The novel EFC index and this longitudinal prospective study together indicate that investment in both economic growth and education should be seen of equal importance for development of UHC. Our findings help in understanding the social and political drivers of universal healthcare, especially for transitioning countries.

  6. The Role of Political and Economic Factors in Thailand’s Last Two Coups D’ Etat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    friend, Judy Wise for the hours of proof reading they graciously donated to me. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION The...1988), 5. 2 Gregor Ferguson, COUP D’ETAT: A Practical Manual (Poole, Dorset: Arms and Armour Press; New York, NY: Distributed in the USA by...Chatichai assumed office. The economy flourished under the presumption that Thailand was politically stable. Also noteworthy, gross national savings and

  7. Further Evidence on the Link between Pre-Colonial Political Centralization and Comparative Economic Development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We examine the link between pre-colonial statehood and contemporary regional African development, as reflected in satellite images on light density at night. We employ a variety of historical maps to capture the former. Our within-country analysis reveals a strong positive correlation between pre-colonial political centralization and contemporary development (and urbanization). If anything, the association strengthens when we account for measurement error on the historical maps of pre-colonia...

  8. Impact of Military Coups d’etat on West Africa’s Socio-Economic and Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    of power.9 Post-Colonialism: Post-colonialism is an intellectual direction (sometimes also called an “era” or the “post-colonial theory ”) that...West African states were independent in theory , but they suffered from the influence of neo-colonialism in many forms. Neo-Colonialism is the worst...occurred in Togo, a former French colony, in 1963.30 Over the years, political scientists and environmentalists have attempted to explain why military

  9. Integration Processes in the Global Economy: Current State and Prospects. The Cases of the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska Janina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the current state of the integration processes in the global economy and prognosticate on the foreseeable changes in this phenomenon in the upcoming. Will they be divergence from or continuity with the past trends in the global economy in this field? The article examines three regional integration groupings, i.e. the European Union, ASEAN Economic Community, and NAFTA. The analysis makes it possible to conclude that all of these groupings/organizations are encountering some problems. In the case of the EU, these are mainly: the two – speed integration process as far as a monetary union is concerned; serious negative consequences of the global financial crisis for the socio-economic cohesion of the EU-28; as well as a worsening position in the world trade in goods and services and in the total global gross capital inflows. The problems of the ASEAN Economic Community seem to be connected with some discrepancies between the political will in favour of deepening integration among member states and the real economic difficulties involved in attaining higher stages of integration among a group of countries extremely differentiated in their economic development. NAFTA’s problems also lie in the asymmetrical development between member states, as well as in the lessening importance of the integration within the organization for the member states, which results from the putting into effect numerous other FTAs. The growing openness of all the analyzed integration groupings, being in line with the globalization process, seems to be a future characteristic of integration processes in the global economy.

  10. MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION WITHIN PRE-UNIVERSITARY EDUCATION- MAIN COMPONENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL POLITICS - A CASE STUDY ON "MARIA TEIULEANU" ECONOMIC COLLEGE IN PITESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia, MIELCESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is structured in three parts. "Managerial communication and its strategies at organisational level" makes reference to Managerial Communication as a subject. The communication strategies at the organisational level are determined and some of them are also defined: control strategy, dynamic strategy, acceptance strategy, egalitarian strategy, structural strategy or avoidance strategy. The paper continues with "Communication within schools", on the example of "Maria Teiuleanu" Economic College in Pitesti, tackling the idea: "Valuable education- education for values". There follows the SWOT analysis of the activity within this institution. The managerial vision, the mission and the values promoted within the school are highlighted as well as some of the strategic priorities which will guide the whole activity, the didactic and educational activity for the current school year. The next perspectives which open in what regards the training of teachers within the field of education are tackled: 1. The development of some real collaboration relations between the experts who teach didactics and psycho pedagogy. 2. The training of some teachers who should be able to use the textbook in an optimum way under the conditions of the modern curriculum. 3. The reform of the promoting system on the grounds of the revision of the didactic personnel status and of the official introduction of some standards of didactic profession. The paper ends with some "Perspectives" which can improve communication within the school in the present situation and also within the existent institutions in what regards: A. Communication in the relations between school/teachers and students. B. Communication between the teachers, respectively teachers and the school managers. C. Communication between school and community (parents including. All things considered, it can be said that, according to the new requirements of the educational politics, the capable managers

  11. A behavioral approach to the political and economic inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations

    OpenAIRE

    Boettke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Deirdre McCloskey’s Bourgeois Dignity (2010) represents another breakthrough work in her career, and the second volume in a multi-volume work on the economic and intellectual history of western civilization. In a sense, the subtitle of the book explains well what this volume is all about--why economics can’t explain the modern world. An important modifier would be – modern economics can’t explain the modern world – because much of what McCloskey argues is the resurrection of an older argume...

  12. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  13. Why Should We Have Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velthuis, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    Political education prepares citizens for political, social, economic, and cultural participation. Democratic citizenship is learned formally, nonformally, and informally. A thematic and problem-oriented approach to political education should highlight the various roles of citizens. (SK)

  14. Economic Growth:Data and the Analysis of Political Economy%经济增长:数据及政治经济学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊明

    2015-01-01

    中国经济进入新常态后,未来增长的前景如何普遍受到关注。有一个流行的观点:一个经济国家经济基数或规模大了,经济增长率就必然会下降。为此通过采用178个经济体数据对此进行了检验,发现GDP和增长率的相关度很低,因此这一看似合理的观点并经不起数据的检验,并妨害对经济增长率下降做正确的分析和判断。对中国经济增长潜力的市场分析发现,依当下中国和发达国家人均收入的巨大差距,还存在巨大经济增长潜力,在近期房地产是重要的经济增长点。经济增长及增长潜力的政治经济学分析强调,基于一个经济社会的政治结构,阶级、利益集团的力量对比及相互作用,对收入及由收入决定的消费进行分析和评价,由此分析和解释一个经济社会经济增长及增长潜力,并提出改革社会制度的方向。%Since Chinese economy entered the stage of the new normal, the future growth prospect has attracted a lot of attention. There is the popular viewpoint that the economic cardinal number or scale becoming bigger, the economic growth rate will inevitably decrease. The paper uses the date of 178 economies regarding the relevancy between GDP and growth rate is very low, suggesting that this popular viewpoint can't stand for the test, and will hinder right analysis and judgment regarding the future economic growth. The analysis on the potential of Chinese economic growth based on the market suggests that there is large potential of economic growth based on the big market of China, given the huge per capita income gap between China and the developed countries. The real estate could be a hot point of economic growth in the near future. The analysis of political economy on economic growth and the growth potential emphasizes the analysis and evaluation on income and consumption determined by the income, based on the political structure, the balance

  15. Employment and employment conditions in the current economic crisis in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukšić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to analyze developments in employment and employment characteristics during the current crisis in Croatia. The main findings can be summarized as follows: (1 The primary (aggregate mode of adjustment to the crisis was a decline in employment. There are, however, considerable differences in adjustment patterns across economic activities. (2 During the crisis, jobs were lost in the, more dynamic, private sector, while the number of jobs in the public sector (entities in state ownership slightly increased. (3 Economic activities with comparatively larger shares of women in employment have experienced fewer employment cuts and the aggregate employment share of women rose during the crisis, especially in activities with a larger share of public sector workers.(4 There has been a declining share of younger workers during the crisis, justifying policy actions to facilitate their employment. (5 Employees with comparatively lower educational attainment face severe challenges in the labor market, which is a longer term trend, not specific to the crisis period. There are indications that this group of employees enjoys a higher level of protection in the public sector. (6 Analysis also shows a rising significance of more flexible forms of employment: increasing shares of fixed term employees (during the last two observed years, and of part time workers. (7 Working hours do not exhibit any strong trends specific to the crisis, except for the diminishing number of overtime hours per worker.

  16. Macro-economic assessment of flood risk in Italy under current and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Lorenzo; Koks, Elco; Mysiak, Jaroslav; Aerts, Jeroen; Standardi, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    This paper explores an integrated methodology for assessing direct and indirect costs of fluvial flooding to estimate current and future fluvial flood risk in Italy. Our methodology combines a Geographic Information System spatial approach, with a general economic equilibrium approach using a downscaled modified version of a Computable General Equilibrium model at NUTS2 scale. Given the level of uncertainty in the behavior of disaster-affected economies, the simulation considers a wide range of business recovery periods. We calculate expected annual losses for each NUTS2 region, and exceedence probability curves to determine probable maximum losses. Given a certain acceptable level of risk, we describe the conditions of flood protection and business recovery periods under which losses are contained within this limit. Because of the difference between direct costs, which are an overestimation of stock losses, and indirect costs, which represent the macro-economic effects, our results have different policy meanings. While the former is relevant for post-disaster recovery, the latter is more relevant for public policy issues, particularly for cost-benefit analysis and resilience assessment.

  17. The impact of regional economic reliance on the tobacco industry on current smoking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Barnett, Ross; Rockett, Ian R H; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Weijun; Li, Lu

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of province of residence and other contextual factors on the likelihood of being a current smoker in China. A cross-sectional, multistage sampling process was used to recruit participants, and their smoking status and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained through face-to-face interviews. The contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of provincial economic reliance on the tobacco industry, as well as individual-level characteristics, on the likelihood of being a current smoker. Participants totaled 20,601 from 27 cities located in 26 of the 31 municipalities/provinces in China. Overall smoking prevalence was 31.3% (95% CI: 19.3-33.2%), with rates being highest in Yinchuan City in Ningxia Province (49.8%) and lowest in Shanghai (21.6%). The multilevel analysis showed an excess likelihood of being a current smoker for individuals living in provinces with the highest rate of cigarette production relative to those with the smallest (pmarketing of tobacco products in China. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Japan’s Development Ambitions for Myanmar: The Problem of “Economics before Politics”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Seekins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar and Japan have had an important shared history since the Pacific War, when Japan occupied the British colony of Burma and established the country’s first postcolonial state and army. The period from 1941 to 1945 also witnessed the “militarization” of Myanmar as the country was turned into a battlefield by the Japanese, the Allies and indigenous insurgents. After independence from Britain in 1948, the Union of Burma continued to suffer insurgency and became a deeply conflicted society, especially under the isolationist socialist regime of General Ne Win (1962–1988. However, Japan played a major role in Myanmar’s economic development through its allocation of war reparations and official development assistance (ODA, especially yen loans. During the period of martial law from 1988 to 2011, Tokyo exercised some self-restraint in giving aid due to pressure from its major ally, the United States, with its human rights agenda. However, with the transition from junta rule to constitutional government in 2011 came a dramatic increase in Japanese ODA, as Tokyo forgave large amounts of debt and invested in ambitious new special economic zones (SEZ. Japan will no doubt benefit from Myanmar as close ties are expanded: Not only will Japanese companies profit, but Japan will have access to Myanmar’s raw materials and gain ability to compete more effectively with an economically expansive China. On Myanmar’s side, though, it is unlikely that anyone other than the military and crony capitalist elites will benefit from the flood of new yen loans and infrastructure projects. This paper argues that without a political resolution of Myanmar’s many conflicts, including the establishment of genuinely open political institutions, the aid of Japan (and other countries is likely to make these deep-rooted social and ethnic conflicts even worse.

  19. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the range of labour markets across the region and assesses the ongoing relevance of the development model that is posited on low labour cost manufacturing aimed at assisting export industries. Impacts considered include migration flows of labour, the possibility of augmenting added value to existing production and the need to upgrade skills and competencies.

  20. The Politics of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses the condit......Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses...

  1. Economia e política na reforma do Estado Economics and politics of the state reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lattman-Weltman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Defende-se um tratamento propriamente político dos problemas de implementação da reforma do Estado, contra posições "tecnocráticas". Enfatiza-se a dimensão da informação e analisa-se o papel estratégico dos meios de comunicação no processo.The political dimension of the state reform process is vindicated against "technocratic" views. Special attention is given to the information process and the estrategic role of the communication midia is emphasized.

  2. Schumpeter's picture of economic and political institutions in the light of a cognitive approach to human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Schumpeter's theory of democracy can be read through the lens of the cognitive approach to rationality. Schumpeter himself constructed his theory on the basis of his (neglected) conception of conscious rationality, which considers the process of thinking as composed of conscious/deliberate and unconscious/automatic components. The prevalence of the deliberate over the automatic component can occur in different degrees; as a consequence, individuals exhibit different levels of conscious rationality. Schumpeter makes clear that an essential attribute of democracy is its being a system of government capable of working notwithstanding a low degree of conscious rationality among its citizens. Given this condition, the process of political communication and persuasion can lead to two very different outcomes: a fair social construction of the democratic institutions, in which the struggle for the vote is achieved through a critical debate among leaders and citizens; and an unfair construction, based on the prevalence of emotive forces of persuasion over rationality and on cheating of the leaders at the expense of their citizens. Schumpeter suggests that the main element that fosters a fair construction is the effectiveness of competition, which can advance the rational elements in the political debate and the self-determination of the citizens' will: a slow process that - he warns - may be effective only in the long run, and does not preserve democracy from the risk of decline.

  3. The current state of accounting and analytical system of economic management in emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gritsishen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewed the current state of organizational and methodological regulations from the perspective of regulation and specific to domestic enterprises. It was established that the accounting system is governed by a set of regulations at different levels and different areas of law. In connection with what was presented to an approach that involves systematizing legal regulation in terms of impact on the object, the subject and the elements method of accounting. It studied the system of analytical indicators calculated on the investigated companies. The research was conducted by examining the analytical reports analysts, internal auditors and the audit report in partial use of analytical procedures. The study was conducted in the following areas: evaluation of the effectiveness of fixed assets, estimation of efficiency of current assets, assessment of the efficiency of the production process, factor analysis and consideration of the effects of emergencies, methods of economic analysis of consequences of emergency measures and the effectiveness of their prevention and elimination.

  4. The economic burden of systemic lupus erythematosus in Asia: the current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, A

    2010-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder which imposes considerable negative impact on patients' function and quality of life, and it appears to entail substantial loss of work productivity and healthcare cost. Although much has been studied regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, disease activity, disease damage and pharmacological treatment of SLE, publications on the economic burden of lupus are scarce. As the majority of lupus patients are residing in the Asia Pacific region where many are financially and socially deprived, and, from what we know from the current literature, work disability of lupus patients in Asia is substantial, cost-of-illness studies on SLE are thus particularly relevant in countries around the region. Reliable data from properly conducted prospective SLE cost studies are imperative for policymakers to efficiently distribute healthcare resources, especially in Asia where limited resources are unable to cope with the huge population. In this paper, we review the current state of cost-of-illness research on lupus in Asia and analyze the reasons why such studies are urgently required in the Asia Pacific region.

  5. Regional economic effects of current and proposed management alternatives for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to provide the economic analysis needed for the Arrowwood NWR CCP by evaluating the regional economic impacts associated with the...

  6. Incorporation of future costs in health economic analysis publications: current situation and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Blanca; Soto Álvarez, Javier; Ángel Casado, Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Future costs are not usually included in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of published economic analyses that incorporate future costs. A systematic review was conducted of economic analyses published from 2008 to 2013 in three general health economics journals: PharmacoEconomics, Value in Health and the European Journal of Health Economics. A total of 192 articles met the inclusion criteria, 94 of them (49.0%) incorporated future related medical costs, 9 (4.2%) also included future unrelated medical costs and none of them included future nonmedical costs. The percentage of articles including future costs increased from 2008 (30.8%) to 2013 (70.8%), and no differences were detected between the three journals. All relevant costs for the perspective considered should be included in economic evaluations, including related or unrelated, direct or indirect future costs. It is also advisable that pharmacoEconomic guidelines are adapted in this sense.

  7. Union for International Cancer Control International Session: healthcare economics: the significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases political declaration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Norie; Masui, Tohru; Takeyama, Kunihiko; Nogimori, Masafumi; Roh, Jae Kyung

    2013-06-01

    The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized an international session as part of the official program of the 71st Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cancer Association to discuss the topic "Healthcare Economics: The Significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Political Declaration in Asia." The presenters and participants discussed the growing cost of cancer in the Asian region and the challenges that are faced by the countries of Asia, all of which face budgetary and other systemic constraints in tackling and controlling cancer in the region. The session benefited from the participation of various stakeholders, including cancer researchers and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. They discussed the significance of the UN Political Declaration on the prevention and control of NCDs (2011) as a means of boosting awareness of cancer in the Asian region and also addressed the ways in which stakeholders can cooperate to improve cancer control and treatment. Other issues that were covered included challenges relating to pharmaceutical trials in Asia and how to link knowledge and research outcomes. The session concluded with the recognition that with the onset of a super-aged society in most countries in Asia and an increasing focus on quality of life rather than quantity of life, it is more important than ever for all stakeholders to continue to share information and promote policy dialogue on cancer control and treatment.

  8. Ethical, Political and Societal Implications of the Open Access Journal Movement in the Era of Economic Crisis, with Emphasis on Public Health Pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

    2013-12-01

    Publication of the research outputs is a vital step of the research processes and a gateway between the laboratory and the global society. Open Access is revolutionizing the dissemination of scientific ideas, particularly in the field of public health pharmacogenomics that examines the ways in which pharmacogenomics impacts health systems and services at a societal level, rather than a narrow bench to bedside model of translation science. This manuscript argues that despite some limitations and drawbacks, open access has profound ethical, political and societal implications especially on underdeveloped and developing countries, and that it provides opportunities for science to grow in these resource-limited countries, particularly in the era of a severe economic and financial crisis that is imposing cuts and restrictions to research.

  9. Media-politics interaction in times of economic crisis: a comparative study of Spain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Mena, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the multi-directional causal relationships between stock market ratings, negative economic coverage in two national newspapers and parliamentary questions addressing negative aspects of the economy in Spain and the Netherlands. Weekly-level Vector Autoregression (VAR) analyse

  10. Academic Entrepreneurship in France: The Promotion of Economic Returns of Public Research and Its Political and Scientific Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manifet, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    Emphasising the level of the observation of university configurations and the example of academic entrepreneurship, the author analyses the drivers of economic returns of public research in France. Based on the study of national public policy in this field since 1999 and a general survey of the paths of researchers-entrepreneurs, the article…

  11. The Political, Socio-Economic and Sociocultural Impacts of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) on Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Kholoud T.; Scott, Safiyyah; Maadad, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, Saudi Arabian politicians, economists and sociologists have had to consider the implications of their country's King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP). Because Saudi Arabia has certain religious traditions and economic practices that are sensitive, international scholars are examining from different perspectives the outcomes and…

  12. The Law of Entropy – the Most Economical of All Natural Laws. Current Manifestations of World Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niţă DOBROTĂ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The last three centuries have witnessed a specific social evolution, one much more dynamical than those of the previous era. The general vector of this dynamics is represented by the progress in technology and science that had taken place in all arrays of social action, a phenomenon largely manifested throughout Western European countries and North America. It is against this general setup that the world saw the formation and development of both European national communities and of the capitalist market economies, two of the historical causes that lead to the fall of the feudal social and economical system.

  13. Political and Economical Interpretation of Chinese Dream and the Path of its Integration into Education%中国梦的政治经济学解读及融入教学的路径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家凯

    2014-01-01

    University political economics as an important course of implementing our country's educational ideas should become a key frontline of propagating and discussing Chinese dream. However,in recent years,political economics has been marginalized com-pared with western economics and applied economics. At present,education departments and scholars have come up with the basic ide-as of reforming political economics teaching. We should take advantage of the popularization of Chinese dream,interpret Chinese dream from the perspective of political economics,and explore the basic path of integrating it into political economics teaching,including en-riching the teaching content,innovating teaching mode and diversifying teaching methods.%高校政治经济学作为贯彻国家教育思想的重要课程,理应成为宣传和探讨中国梦的重要阵地。但近年来,政治经济学与西方经济学、应用经济学相比出现了被边缘化的趋势。目前,教育部门、学者纷纷提出了改革政治经济学教学的基本思路。当前,应借助中国梦的宣传,从政治经济学的视角解读中国梦,并探讨将其融入政治经济学教学的基本路径,包括充实教学内容、创新教学模式、丰富教学手段等。

  14. What Makes Green Cities Unique? Examining the Economic and Political Characteristics of the Grey-to-Green Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Miller Runfola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, urbanization processes have resulted in a large variety—or “continuum”—of urban landscapes. One entry point for understanding the variety of landscape characteristics associated with different forms of urbanization is through a characterization of vegetative (green land covers. Green land covers—i.e., lawns, parks, forests—have been shown to have a variety of both positive and negative impacts on human and environmental outcomes—ranging from increasing property values, to mitigating urban heat islands, to increasing water use for outdoor watering purposes. While considerable research has examined the variation of vegetation distribution within cities and related social and economic drivers, we know very little about whether or how the economic characteristics and policy priorities of green cities differ from those of “grey” cities—those with little green land cover. To address this gap, this paper seeks to answer the question how do the economic characteristics and policy priorities of green and grey cities differ in the United States? To answer this question, MODIS data from 2001 to 2006 are used to characterize 373 US cities in terms of their vegetative greenness. Information from the International City/County Management Association’s (ICMA 2010 Local Government Sustainability Survey and 2009 Economic Development Survey are used to identify key governance strategies and policies that may differentiate green from grey cities. Two approaches for data analysis—ANOVA and decision tree analysis—are used to identify the most important characteristics for separating each category of city. The results indicate that grey cities tend to place a high priority on economic initiatives, while green cities place an emphasis on social justice, land conservation, and quality of life initiatives.

  15. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment......The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...

  16. 政治经济学教学效果不佳的原因与对策分析%The reasons and countermeasures of unsatisfactory political economics teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方楚文; 陈根

    2012-01-01

    Political economics curriculum is both Marxist theory course and the foremost course in economic field,occupying a very important position in China Higher Education system.However,in recent years the unsatisfactory Political economics teaching effect is becoming prominent.This paper argues that outdated content is the main reason for the poor effect of political economics teaching,teaching material reform is the fundamental measure to improve the course's teaching effect and innovation of teaching methods is the key to consolidating political economics teaching effect.%政治经济学课程在我国高等教育体系中占有十分重要的地位。近年来,这门课程教学效果不佳的问题日益突出。内容陈旧是造成政治经济学教学效果不佳的主要原因;教材改革是提高政治经济学教学效果的根本举措;教学方法创新是巩固政治经济学教学效果的关键。

  17. The Politics of Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence is an ines...

  18. Happiness and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....

  19. Protest Demonstrations, Political Partici

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... increasing spate of terrorism and violence across the globe, .... political regime, and low level of economic development which often lead to relative deprivation, especially amongst the urban middle class and youth, who, ...

  20. Political Participation of Non-Citzens in Germany and Western Europe. (Beitrage aus dem Fachbereich Padagogik).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Lutz R.

    This paper compares the present social, economic, and political rights labor immigrants enjoy within the European Community (EC). Its focus is the current debate about the municipal suffrage of permanent residents. The dual relevance of the topic is obvious. EC bodies like the Commission, Council of Ministers, Political Council, and European…

  1. POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL MUTATIONS. POLITICAL REALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of contemporary international relations cannot be understood without their doctrinaire analysis, outlined around three main approaches: realist, liberal and structuralist. Even if the object of the study is the same, they provide extremely different responses to questions such as: What relations are established between states? Who are the leading players on the international scene? What is the priority in approaching the international relations of a state? How are the relations between states characterized and determined? This study aims at highlighting the manners in which multilateral approaches are the way to manage global business, either through flexible, open, variable forms, or through reviving the tradition of international institutions.

  2. Economic Thresholds in Soybean-Integrated Pest Management: Old Concepts, Current Adoption, and Adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, A F; Paula-Moraes, S V; Gazzoni, D L; Pomari, A F

    2013-10-01

    Increasing global demands for food underline the need for higher crop yields. The relatively low costs of the most commonly used insecticides in combination with increasing soybean market prices led growers and technical advisors to debate the adequacy of recommended economic thresholds (ETs). The adoption of ETs and pest sampling has diminished in Brazil, leading to excessive pesticide use on soybean. The reduced efficacy of natural biological control, faster pest resurgence, and environment contamination are among the side-effects of pesticide abuse. To address these problems and maximize agricultural production, pest control programs must be guided by a proper integrated pest management (IPM) approach, including the ET concept. Therefore, the most appropriate time to initiate insecticide spraying in soybean is indicated by the available ETs which are supported by experiments over the last 40 years in different edapho-climatic conditions and regions with distinct soybean cultivars. Published scientific data indicate that preventive insecticide use is an expensive and harmful use of chemicals that increases the negative impact of pesticides in agroecosystems. However, the established ETs are for a limited number of species (key pests), and they only address the use of chemicals. There is a lack of information regarding secondary pests and other control strategies in addition to insecticides. It is clear then that much progress is still needed to improve ETs for pest management decisions. Nevertheless, using the current ETs provides a basis for reducing the use of chemicals in agriculture without reducing yields and overall production, thereby improving sustainability.

  3. The Effects of the Current Global Economic and Financial Crisis on the EU Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina DORNEAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the main effects of the current global financial and economic crisis on the European Union budget and the measures that were taken in order to support the EU member states with the purpose of limiting and counteracting its effects. The focus will be on the budgetary expenditure and on the new Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance. For this purpose, we developed a regression model using the Least Square method with three significant variables: a dependent variable – EU budgetary expenditure and two independent variables – budgetary deficit and unemployment rate of member states. According to our analysis, the crisis determined the increase of the EU budgetary expenditure, which was due especially to the increase of the budgetary deficit and rising unemployment in the EU member states. Our findings suggested that the budgetary deficit and the unemployment rate had a highly significant influence on community expenditure growth during the crisis, while the GDP growth and the public debt did not have any significance for the community expenditure growth.

  4. Current process and future path for health economic assessment of pharmaceuticals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Mondher; Rémuzat, Cécile; El Hammi, Emna; Millier, Aurélie; Aballéa, Samuel; Chouaid, Christos; Falissard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The Social Security Funding Law for 2012 introduced the Economic and Public Health Assessment Committee (Commission Evaluation Economique et de Santé Publique, or CEESP) in the Social Security Code as a specialised committee affiliated with the Haute Autorité de Santé in charge of providing recommendations and health economic opinions. This article provides an in-depth description of the CEESP's structure and working methods, and analyses the impact of health economic assessment on market access of drugs in France. It also points out the areas of uncertainty and the conflicting rules following the introduction of the health economic assessment in France. The authors also provide their personal opinion on the likely future of health economic assessment of drugs in France, including the possible merge of the CEESP and the Transparency Committee, the implementation of a French threshold, and the extension of health economic assessment to a larger number of products.

  5. 经济全球化时代“世界政治经济化”简析%Analysis on the World Politics Influenced by Economy in the Era of Economic Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荷荷

    2012-01-01

    经济全球化对世界经济、世界政治及二者的关系都具有重要的影响,世界政治经济化和世界经济政治化是经济全球化时代突出的现象。世界经济对世界政治的主要影响有:经济实力是国家综合国力最核心的内容,影响国家在国际政治中的地位;经济多中心推动着政治多极化不断发展;经济利益的差异和矛盾是国家间对抗和冲突的根源;经济手段越来越成为解决国际政治问题的重要手段;经济安全构成国际社会安全的重要内容。%Economic globalization has great influence on world economy and politics as well as the relationship between the two items.It has been an obvious phenomenon in the era of economic globalization that the two items are influenced by each other.World economy has influences on world politics in many asfects.Economic force is the core of a country's comprehensive force,and is influencing the country's position in international political affairs.The multiple economic centers are promoting political multiplication.The differences and contradictions in economic interest have caused antagonism and conflicts between countries.Economic approaches have become the more and more important approach to solve international political problems.Economy security has become an important content for international social security.

  6. Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different. The touchstone for achieving common goals was the idea of constructing a new NPP at the site of the closed Ignalina NPP. The author concludes that the joint construction of a new NPP is quite questionable. When it comes to politics, each of the three Baltic States is ready to build its own NPP. Thus, the development of nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region requires joint coordinated actions independent of any bloc-inspired interests of the states involved. Moreover, this success may prove sustainable if the actions are based on innovative decisions and modern technologies.

  7. TERRITORY ECONOMICAL POLITIC AND STRATEGIES OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTION – THE GEOGRAFY OF INDUSTRIAL INCENTIVES IN THE CEARÁ AS EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Alves Pereira Júnior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The attempt of assuring a modernization project guided by the purposes of unrestricted market integration and the globalization dynamics was one of the most relevant facts that hit Ceará in the last decades. The central component that must be singularized while analyzing the facts is the crucial role that public power played in consolidating the process. The participation of the state governments was not only necessary but also determined the paths of change, especially by providing technical density to the territory and encouraging capital mobility through laws and political programs. This paper seeks to present some reflections about this subject, following the paths of spatial restructuration as an instrument of capital accumulation by the industry. The articulated assemblage of actions and objects formed the structural synthesis of a type of industrialization that achieved success fundamentally by combining particular and universal manifestations unified in a concrete plan, the territory itself, that from then on cannot be understood without the multidimensional and multifunctional synergy that it characterizes.

  8. Politics without Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dean (Jodi)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculte

  9. Relevans og intention. To analyser af en massemedietekst om okonomisk politik. ROLIG-papir 33 (Relevance and Intention. Two Analyses of a Mass Media Text on Economic Politics. ROLIG-paper 33).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltoft, Lars; Geist, Uwe

    The three papers in this publication analyze a newspaper article on "economic politics," or more specifically, the devaluing of the Danish kroner. The papers all examine some linguistic or structural feature of the language used in writing the article. Specific focus is on relevance theory and relevance in the article, the use of text analysis in…

  10. and political discourses in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the social, political and economic climate worsened in Zimbabwe, reli- gious and ... economic refugees within the Southern African region or further afield. Under ... Morgan Tsvangirai of the Movement for Democratic Change, one would.

  11. Threats to the National Economic Security of Ukraine at the Current Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuharskaya Natalia A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is substantiated that the most important factor of the national economic security of the country is to match both the economic and the industrial relations systems to the economic development of the country. The article provides detailed consideration of the particularities of occurrence of threats to the national economic security of Ukraine by allocating seven major structural blocks, in which threats were not overcome during the years of independence, and some of them even became intensified: 1 institutional sphere; 2 social sphere; 3 financial sphere; 4 shadowing and corruptness of economy; 5 a high level of physical wear and tear of fixed assets and of the production infrastructure; 6 de-industrialization of economy; 7 innovative development. The main components of the national economic security, which would assist in overcoming these threats, have been developed.

  12. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...... research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....

  13. Negotiating Culture, Economics and Community Politics: The Practice of Lei Yue Mun Tourism in Postcolonial Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Hing Chan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on an on-going research project that examines how tourism is constructed in Hong Kong by using the specific tourist spot, Lei Yue Mun, as a case study. The article’s aim is to demonstrate how the local agents of a small, squatter-based community with a distinctive history and cultural traditions may, without making any claim to indigenousness or aboriginality, manage a local economy and engage in cultural negotiation at the metropolitan, national and global levels. Their economic practices lead the authors to enquire whether preservationism or invoking historical traditions from the margins is the most significant form or strategy of cultural tourism.

  14. Current Global Pricing For Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings The Greatest Economic Benefits To Rich Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Niamh; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Vaccinating females against human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to the debut of sexual activity is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, yet vaccine uptake in low- and middle-income countries has been hindered by high vaccine prices. We created an economic model to estimate the distribution of the economic surplus-the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and distribution-among different country income groups and manufacturers for a cohort of twelve-year-old females in 2012. We found that manufacturers may have received economic returns worth five times their original investment in HPV vaccine development. High-income countries gained the greatest economic surplus of any income category, realizing over five times more economic value per vaccinated female than low-income countries did. Subsidizing vaccine prices in low- and middle-income countries could both reduce financial barriers to vaccine adoption and still allow high-income countries to retain their economic surpluses and manufacturers to retain their profits.

  15. On Handling the Teaching Contents of Political Economics and Western Economics%论政治经济学与西方经济学教学内容的妥善处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国华

    2012-01-01

    政治经济学教学地位和教学效果的下降,部分原因是与西方经济学教学内容的冲突。两种不同的哲学历史观是两门课程教学内容冲突的深层次根源。教师要引导学生正确认识冲突的原因,帮助他们理顺两门课程的内在联系,此外,还应通过比较教学法来取得让两门课程相得益彰的教学效果。%The decline of the status and effects of Political Economics is partly due to the contradiction in teaching contents with Western Economics.The deep root of the conflicting contents of the two causes is the different view of history.Guiding students to know the root cause of the conflicts,sorting out internal relations,and introducing the comparative teaching method can help improve teaching effects.

  16. Economic theories of dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.

  17. General concepts and tools of political marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Teletov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is consideration of political systems using marketing concept, which has recently received significant development in society live. The general laws of economic and social systems development are confirmed.The results of the analysis. It is known that systemic approaches to the solution of certain scientific problems make it possible to transfer properties of studied patterns on other systems. In the beginning of twenty-first century economy and politics intertwin with each other. So it is naturally to consider political events of recent years using marketing methodology, principles of market segmentation, research methods, properties of certain elements of the marketing mix: product life cycle graph, financial policy, instruments of marketing communications and more. Nowadays marketing approach moves from the market of goods and services to nonprofit sector. It happens because a lot of processes in this sphere are based on the use of market approaches and mechanisms. President, parliamentary and local government elections are the most felicitous objects to verify the effectiveness of marketing concept inpolitics.Political marketing is defined as a system of means and measures to create an image of party or its leaders. This image has to meet the expectations of their potential electorate and stress the differences between our party and competitors. The purpose of political marketing is to coordinate steps and program of the party or its leader with electoral expectations, to attract voter and to form assessment criterions. Such criterions can be: win or significant percentage of election results, the current rating of the party and so on.The subject of research in political marketing is election campaigns, mass political and educational events, propaganda work, lobbying process, preparation and implementation of various projects, work with political parties and public organizations. An applied

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON POLITICAL PARTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard NICULESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Political parties are the engine of social life, without which citizens would not be able to express political will. According to the law of political parties, they fulfill a public mission guaranteed by the Constitution. That is why, considering the subject very current, we considered it important to analyze in this study, in the notion of political pluralism: the concept of political party but also its constitutional dimension. To this end, the study shows the view of the doctrine combined with the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court.

  19. A política internacional, a conjuntura econômica e a Argentina de Néstor Kirchner International politics, the economic conjuncture and Néstor Kirchner's Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alberto Vadell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho pretende-se avaliar o período do governo Néstor Kirchner na Argentina à luz da conjuntura política e econômica internacional. Nesse sentido, pretende-se discutir se a Argentina - e os países da América Latina - tem alguma margem de manobra para a implementação de políticas alternativas ao modelo neoliberal econômico, numa conjuntura econômica favorável.This article intends to evaluate Néstor Kirchner government period in Argentina through the economical and political international conjuncture. In this direction, it is intended to argue whatever Argentina - and the Latin America countries - has some edge of maneuver for the implementation of alternative politics regarding the neo liberal economic model, in a favorable economic conjuncture.

  20. Paradigm change in automotive powertrain engineering. A techno-economic analysis taking into account environment-political instruments; Paradigmawandel automobiler Antriebstechnologien. Eine techno-oekonomische Analyse unter Beruecksichtigung umweltpolitischer Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangner, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The automobile industry is faced with the challenge to introduce concepts for sustainable mobility in terms of low pollutant and CO2 emissions. The author discusses the preconditions and procedures of technological change in the powertrain markets. The effects of techno-economic trends and environment-political instruments are discussed in an international context and illustrated by the example of the market success of diesel engines in Europe. Using innovation-economic theories, he draws conclusions as to the future electrification of powertrains resp. the introduction of electromobility. Not least because of its highly topical content with regard to economic and environmental policy, this publication has high relevance for decision makers in science, industry and politics. By outlining options and chances of future developments, it will help to reduce present concerns about the future. (orig.)

  1. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft CCP management strategies for Rappahannock River Valley NWR. This...

  2. Ecological economics of soil erosion: a review of the current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhim; Nadella, Karthik

    2011-02-01

    The economics of land degradation has received relatively little attention until recent years. Although a number of studies have undertaken valuation of ecosystem services ranging from the global to the micro level, and quite a few studies have attempted to quantify the costs of soil erosion, studies that address the full costs of land degradation are still scarce. In this review, we attempt to analyze different land resource modeling and valuation techniques applied in earlier research and the type of data used in these analyses, and to assess their utility for different forms of land resource and management appraisal. We also report on the strengths and weaknesses of different valuation techniques used in studies on the economics of soil erosion, and the relevance of these valuation techniques. We make a case for the need for more appropriate models that can make the analysis more robust in estimating the economic costs of land degradation while recognizing the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and economic conditions.

  3. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian labour markets are characterized by the diversity of the countries of which they are part and by the historical antecedents of colonialism that have largely given them their nature. Most have adopted a form of the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour cost manufacturing paradigm of economic development known as the East Asian Economic Model (EAEM). Having already passed through the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and its disruptive effects, workers in the region are f...

  4. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  5. The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin Gennady

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human resources, the Soviet leadership managed not only to reform and develop a socialistic economy in Lithuania but also to turn it into an industrial republic with developed agriculture and modern manufacturing facilities, whose major industries manufactured products used in nuclear and space technologies, aviation and navigation. The research shows that the post-Soviet period led to a dramatic change in Russian-Lithuanian economic relations; however, these relations retained potential for future development.

  6. Economic costs of achieving current conservation goals in the future as climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M Rebecca; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Cameron, D Richard; Mackenzie, Jason; Roehrdanz, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Conservation of biologically diverse regions has thus far been accomplished largely through the establishment and maintenance of protected areas. Climate change is expected to shift climate space of many species outside existing reserve boundaries. We used climate-envelope models to examine shifts in climate space of 11 species that are representative of the Mount Hamilton Project area (MHPA) (California, U.S.A.), which includes areas within Alameda, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, and San Benito counties and is in the state's Central Coast ecoregion. We used Marxan site-selection software to determine the minimum area required as climate changes to achieve a baseline conservation goal equal to 80% of existing climate space for all species in the MHPA through 2050 and 2100. Additionally, we assessed the costs associated with use of existing conservation strategies (land acquisition and management actions such as species translocation, monitoring, and captive breeding) necessary to meet current species-conservation goals as climate changes. Meeting conservation goals as climate changes through 2050 required an additional 256,000 ha (332%) of protected area, primarily to the south and west of the MHPA. Through 2050 the total cost of land acquisition and management was estimated at US$1.67-1.79 billion, or 139-149% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. To maintain 80% of climate space through 2100 required nearly 380,000 additional hectares that would cost $2.46-2.62 billion, or 209-219% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. Furthermore, maintaining 80% of existing climate space within California for 27% of the focal species was not possible by 2100 because climate space for these species did not exist in the state. The high costs of conserving species as the climate changes-that we found in an assessment of one conservation project-highlights the need for tools that will aid

  7. ROMANIAN MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS CLIENTS’ CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR WITHIN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghisan Georgeta-Madalina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper will analyze the consumption behaviour of the Orange mobile telephony company’s clients towards its services’ characteristics within the current economic financial crisis, taking into consideration the following elements: the low tariffs (for calls/ subscriptions/ other services, the quality of calls/ of sound, the network coverage within the territory, the company’s reputation, the negotiated offer, the quality and availability of the customer care service, the diversity of the auxiliary services, the range and prices of the mobile telephones, the costs that pay those who make calls towards this network, the loyalty programs, the usage of a last generation technology, the friends have subscriptions in the same network and the promotional offers. For a thorough research we will divide the operator’s clients into natural persons clients and legal persons clients, each group having its specificities. The data gathering method was the questionnaire sent by post office to all the Orange Romania branches (a total of 225 branches. We received a number of 64 responses, what means a responses rate of 28.4%, which were analyzed using the SPSS informatics program focusing on the correlation analysis and factor analysis. The main results emphasize the fact that the fight to attract clients becomes more and more powerful. The very competitive market leads to the growth of the importance of the price in choosing a provider. The operators’ short term gains from the clients that prefer low prices represent a long term risk of image. Choosing some services packages is sometimes very difficult due to the complexity of the offer. The clients expect the service to work, be simple and easy to use. They want to benefit from rapid and efficient assistance if errors occur and the operator respects the clauses of the contract. The results obtained through this study, allowed us to make an opinion on the perspective that the

  8. What's Wrong with Plastic Trees?: Rationales for preserving rare natural environments involve economic, societal, and political factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, M H

    1973-02-02

    With some ingenuity, a transformation of our attitudes toward preservation of the environment will take place fairly soon. We will recognize the symbolic and social meanings of environments, not just their economic utility; we will emphasize their historical significance as well as the future generations that will use them. At the same time, we must realize that there are things we may not want to trade at all, except in the sense of letting someone else have his share of the environment also. As environments become more differentiated, smaller areas will probably be given greater significance, and it may be possible for more groups to have a share. It is likely that we shall want to apply our technology to the creation of artificial environments. It may be possible to create environments that are evocative of other environments in other times and places. It is possible that, by manipulating memory through the rewriting of history, environments will come to have new meaning. Finally, we may want to create proxy environments by means of substitution and simulation. In order to create substitutes, we must endow new objects with significance by means of advertising and by social practice. Sophistication about differentiation will become very important for appreciating the substitute environments. We may simulate the environment by means of photographs, recordings, models, and perhaps even manipulations in the brain (48). What we experience in natural environments may actually be more controllable than we imagine (49). Artificial prairies and wildernesses have been created, and there is no reason to believe that these artificial environments need be unsatisfactory for those who experience them. Rare environments are relative, can be created, are dependent on our knowledge, and are a function of policy, not only tradition. It seems likely that economic arguments will not be sufficient to preserve environments or to suggest how we can create new ones. Rather, conscious

  9. Inequality and Political Clientelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    Political parties can be vehicles for economic and social development in poor  countries. They can also serve as rent seeking instruments. Uncovering how parties function is therefore key to establishing the preconditions for good governance. The paper discusses when and why clientelism on the ba...... affected by economic inequality....

  10. Low Savings Rates in the Economic Community of West African States (Ecowas: The Role of the Political Instability-Income Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Nurudeen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs PCSE, OLS and TSLS with random effects to investigate the impact of the political instabilityincome interaction on savings in ECOWAS countries during the period 1996-2012. The empirical evidence illustrates that higher political stability is associated with higher savings and income levels moderate the adverse effect of political instability on savings, indicating that the impact of political instability on savings is higher in low income ECOWAS countries, but lesser at higher levels of income. The paper recommends the promotion of political stability via increases in incomes to raise savings in the ECOWAS region.

  11. Economía, política y salud pública en el México porfiriano (1876-1910 Economics, politics, and public health in Porfirian Mexico (1876-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Carrillo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el nacimiento de la salud pública moderna en México durante el gobierno de Porfirio Díaz (1876-1910 y examina los elementos científicos, políticos y económicos que lo hicieron posible: en primer término, la recepción por parte de los médicos mexicanos de los descubrimientos de la microbiología, la inmunología y la epidemiología; en segundo lugar, la concentración creciente del poder del Estado en asuntos sanitarios que fue paralela a su concentración de poder político disciplinador y permitió poner los nuevos conocimientos al servicio de la prevención de los problemas colectivos de salud; finalmente, la necesidad del imperialismo y la elite porfiriana de proteger sus intereses comerciales. El artículo hace un balance de los alcances y limitaciones de la salud pública del porfiriato, la cual se vio interrumpida de manera abrupta por la revolución iniciada en 1910.The article examines the scientific, political, and economic elements that permitted the birth of modern public health in Mexico under the Porfirio Díaz administration (1876-1910. Firstly, a portion of Mexican physicians were open to the discoveries of microbiology, immunology, and epidemiology. Secondly, the State's growing concentration of power in public health matters ran parallel to its concentration of disciplinary political power and enabled this new knowledge to be placed at the service of collective health problem prevention. Lastly, both imperialism and the Porfirian elite needed to protect their business interests. The article evaluates public health achievements and limitations during the Porfirian period, abruptly interrupted by the revolution begun in 1910.

  12. An Introduction to the Special Issue. Politics of Precarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Carl-Ulrik; Bak Jørgensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    of the world, on different scales and in different socio-economic contexts, and yet they share certain characteristics in terms of conditions and capacity for agency. Contributions to this volume testify that precarity may be a political proposition as much as a sociological category that offers an analytical...... description of current transformations. The selection of articles has the ‘politics of precarity’ as a frame of reference. It describes the political economy of neoliberal globalization producing institutionally embedded precarization of labour, livelihoods and citizenship, but also resistance against...

  13. Economic, Political and Symbolic Management of “Traditional Knowledge”: The Construction of a Self-Identity in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lenaerts

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the introduction to the dossier with three articles resulting from the Symposium “Economic, Political and Symbolic Management of ‘Traditional Knowledge’: Indigenous Criteria and External Redefinitions” of the 53rd International Congress of Americanists (Mexico, 2009. We have modified the subtitle of the Symposium, adopting in exchange for this dossier the subtitle of the Congress’ motto: “The Construction of a Self-Identity in a Globalized World”. The first part of the text remembers Ana María Spadafora, co-organizer of the Symposium and editor of the dossier, who passed away in 2010. The second part presents the aim of the Symposium and the contribution of the three articles in the dossier, plus Ana María Spadafora’s article, which was published earlier in this journal. Even though they touch on quite different research fields—bio-trade in Mexico and Peru, commercialization of handicrafts in French Guiana, modifications of traditional knowledge among the Ashéninka of Peru, and dreams of Pilagá women of the Chaco as practical action—all four papers show that the emphasis on relational aspects, the polyvalence of thoughts and practices or the imbrication of speaking, thinking and doing are stronger constants than the persistence of this or that emblematic element of “ethnic tradition.”

  14. Tiebout Model:Economical Meaning and Political Extension%蒂伯特模型:经济内涵与政治外延

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕洪良

    2013-01-01

    Tiebout model show how the free migration results in competition among jurisdictions and then achieves an equilibrium and efficiency in provision of local public goods. The mechanism of voting with one’s feet or exit plays a very important role in it. On the basis of the analysis of economical meaning of Tiebout model, this thesis proposes a non-market mechanism,voice for the political extension of Tiebout model.%  蒂伯特模型揭示了居民的自由迁移如何引起辖区竞争,进而使地方公共物品供给实现均衡与效率。用脚投票或退出机制发挥着主要作用。在分析蒂伯特模型经济内涵的基础上,提出另一种非市场机制——呼吁,以此作为蒂伯特模型的政治外延。

  15. [People with a background in economic, political science and law have taken over in the Danish health care sector--or have they?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Mickael; Arendt, Jacob N; Kronborg, Christian; Lauridsen, Jørgen T

    2010-12-13

    The distribution of power in the Danish health care sector is debated. It is often claimed that persons with a social science background have taken over the most powerful positions. The aim of this study was to test whether doctors have lost their power to people with a background in economic, political science and law. Data of the 100 most powerful people in the health care sector published yearly by the newspaper "Dagens Medicin" from the period 2000-2010 was analysed using multiple regression. The primary independent variable was whether the person was a doctor or had a background in social science. Among the top 10 and the top 30 persons with a background in social science dominated over doctors. In the full top 100 list there was an equal number of doctors and social science educated. There was a tendency in the period that the number of social science educated increased whereas the number of doctors decreased. The multiple regressions showed that there was no difference in the two groups' relative power. Also, it was shown that the two groups' relative power varied in the period but showed the same pattern of variation. Persons with a background in social science seem not to have taken over power from doctors in the health care sector. Both groups have lost power in the period - but to whom is still an unanswered question.

  16. THE CURRENT FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS AS A NEW STAGE OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that modern economic science failed to foresee the financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009. However it is appear that there is still a lack of understanding fundamental causes of this crush and its aftermath. The available standard forecasting models and theories for the growth of the global economy are barely able to make correct forecasts in a crisis period and treat this crisis as a cyclical one. Moreover the nature of this crisis and its long-run effect on the...

  17. 从东南亚金融危机看美日与东南亚的政治经济关系%The Political and Economic Relationships of the United States and Japan with Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学信

    2001-01-01

    Southeast Asia, as the political and economic cross-point of the United States and Japan in the Far East, experienced from economic wonders to financial crisis, which was closely related to the political and economic strategies of the great powers such as the United States and Japan in the Far East. Japan had its vested interest in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, it had unshirked responsibility for the outbreak of the crisis. The irresponsible attitudes of Japan in the crisis made the Southeast Asian countries even more distrustful of Japan. The happening of the crisis provided opportunity for the United States to exert greater political and economic influence on this area. Therefore, the political and economic relationships of the United States and Japan with the Southeast Asian countries need to be readjusted.%作为美日在远东地区政治经济交汇点的东南亚地区,从“经济奇迹”到“金融危机”,与美日等大国在远东地区的政治经济战略不无关系。日本在东南亚地区有其既得利益,同时也对危机的爆发负有不可推卸的责任。日本在东南亚危机中不负责任的态度,加强了东南亚国家对其已有的不信任感。危机的发生为美国在该地区施加更大的政治经济影响提供了条件。因此,美日与东南亚国家的政治经济关系需要重新整合。

  18. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  19. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  20. Student Loan Debt and Economic Outcomes. Current Policy Perspective No. 14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…

  1. THE CURRENT FINANCIAL – ECONOMIC CRISIS – DEEP BREAK THAT CHALLENGES AND IMPOSES A NEW PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negucioiu Aurel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The most important sign of the times we are living is certainly the global economic crisis. Far from being an illusion, even though we cannot deny the true that she generates not a few illusions; it is a reality that cannot be denied. It – the crisis – ex

  2. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COORDINATES OF DEVELOPING A SPORT ENTREPRENEURSHIP INDEX – CURRENT CHALLENGES AND PREREQUISITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU SEBASTIAN MADALIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on the consideration of the multivariate relationship between sport and economics, the present study is based on the sport potential of supporting economic growth through the enhancement of the relatively new domain of “sport entrepreneurship”. The brief revision of the specialized literature regarding the development of sport entrepreneurship in general terms is followed by a series of fundamental factors for the innovative proposal of a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in the European Union member countries. The methodological issues concerning the structure of the index represent the main novelty aspect of this research, which aims to be a prerequisite of a future thorough analysis regarding the micro- and macro-economic implications of developing a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in EU countries. The main identified challenge is a scientific one and it resides in the summative assessment of the elements representing entrepreneurship, sport and culture in the SEI, whereas the necessity of determining such an index appears because of economic and social reasons.

  3. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  4. Powerlessness of older people in Hong Kong: a political economy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Ping-kwong

    2003-01-01

    Gerontologists agree that old age can be associated with an increase in powerlessness both in the personal domain and in the social and political fields. This paper is an attempt to understand the concept of powerlessness in old age within a political economy theoretical framework. The paper argues that the powerlessness of older people is not biologically determined. Rather, it is socially constructed. It has its roots in the social, economic, and political structure of society. For this reason, the paper argues that (a) the capitalist economic system discriminates against and marginalizes older people in the labor market. The current unfavorable economic climate will make the economic situation of older people worse. (b) The residual welfare system does not counteract the unfavorable impact of the economic system. Rather, it deprives older people of the necessary financial resources and social service supports that would enable them to lead independent and dignified lives. (c) The authoritarian political system creates adverse conditions that make it very difficult for older people to participate in the decision-making process on issues that affect their lives, as well as on broader political issues that affect the whole of society. It is the interplay among these economic, social, and political forces in Hong Kong that creates the political economy of powerlessness in old age and prevents older people from using their powers to master and control their lives.

  5. Material and Cultural Restriction of Political Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国祥

    2015-01-01

    Material and culture have a certain influence on the political life. In general, the higher level of economic development of the country, people's political life is more democratic. Culture has some negative effect on the political life. China's traditional cul-ture has restricted the people's political life in some ways.

  6. Marxist Political Economics Methodology and its Practice and Development in China%马克思主义政治经济学方法论及其在中国的实践与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董瑞华

    2016-01-01

    经济学方法论是关于方法的理论,是开启经济学大门的钥匙。马克思主义政治经济学十分重视理论体系的方法论。唯物辩证法是马克思主义的基本方法。在全人类和无产阶级的解放运动的实践和发展进程中,马克思主义政治经济学方法论得到了实践和发展,也促进了理论的与时俱进。以习近平为总书记的党中央在领导中国特色社会主义经济建设,全面实现小康社会的进程中,十分重视马克思主义政治经济学理论的学习和理论建设。习近平坚持和继承,并且通过不断的实践发展了马克思主义政治经济学方法论,初步建立马克思主义政治经济学方法论的基本体系。%Economic methodology is the theory about method,which is also a key to economics. While materialist dialectics is the basic method of Marxism,the Marxist political economics attaches great importance to the methodology of theoretical system.And in the process of the proletarian revolution, Marxist political economics methodology has further developed itself.The CPC central committee with Xi as the general secretary attaches great importance to the study of the Marxist political economics in the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics and a well-off society in an all-round way.By persisting in,inheriting,and developing the Marxist political economics methodology,Xi Jinping has preliminarily established the basic system of the Marxist political economics methodology.

  7. Leadership and the Mandate of Heaven: Political Risk in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles RARICK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. China has experienced very impressive economic growth over the past three decades and has raised millions of people out of poverty in a short period of time. This economic miracle has brought prosperity to millions and extreme wealth to some. China now faces slower growth and a number of other obstacles which may undermine its stability. This paper explores the problems facing modern China by looking back at history and using current social science research as a predictor of potential unrest and political instability.Keywords. China, Political risk, Globalization, Geopolitics.JEL. J11, F51, O53.

  8. The Politics of Dissent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak Jørgensen, Martin; Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    In Politics of Dissent the framework for analysing politics of dissent is outlined. The outlined framework problematizes the conventional understandings of dissent as something characterising individual historical figures. The chapter provides both a theoretical underpinning of dissent as well...... as an approach to investigate the current contestations taking place on a global level. Politics of dissent entails the questioning of consensus. It conceptualises dissent as a collective process taking place on everyday level. It conceptualises moments of dissent. Finally it investigates the emergent...

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF THE REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristea Anca Maria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Real estate investments are one of the most attractive business opportunities in the context of the contemporary economy, generally marked by economic recession and especially by monetary and financial instability. Last years international reporting concluded that deepening the global economic crisis determined an increase of the real estate request, while despite all expectations one did not assist a crash of the prices. Economic reality showed that real estate assets value (buildings, land kept proportions with economic reality over time. A comparison between stock exchange market and the real estate market shows that while an movables investor (investments in stocks, bonds or life insurance might lose completely his initial investment, the investments in real estate assets, such as buildings, would keep their quality as goods and would also keep a value to better resist shocks and thus allowing an increase of the capital. When appreciating the value of an investment the first things to analyze are the return, liquidity and risk criteria, which are essential in real estate investments too. Stimulating real estate market must be not only a wish but also a reality of global economy, since it can correct many of the aggregated indicators of a country. Containing scientifically detached from economic practice, this article is addressed to readers with interests in real estate investment. The language is usually referred particularly to the qualitative side of the real estate market approach. The feasibility of the real estate investments is being conditioned by their capacity to generate important profits, on the background of the reduction of the duration of recovery of their value. The economic instability from the last couple of years has generated fears and failures but, paraphrasing Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, courage is a mixture of genius, magic and power that helps us succeed in everything we set our mind to. The investments on the real

  10. BRICS and OMC: Conflicts of interest and political factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Felix Nascimento

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The roles of the BRICS in the current international system extend the influence of this group of countries in the representations in the news disputes and guidelines in the World Trade Organization - WTO. The analysis aims to verify the political and economic consequences of the BRICS in the dispute with the developed countries surrounding the WTO negotiations.

  11. Policy, economic, and industry repercussions of current e-business diffusion rate In European food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Ilias

    2005-01-01

    European policy is focussed on promoting the business techniques and new ways of working which will provide the economic and social foundation of the information society in Europe. To help policy makers define their programmes, and to monitor the effectiveness of these policies, it is essential to examine progress as well as identify areas requiring active support. This study examined the repercussions of e-business progress in the food sector based on the findings of a large quantitative sur...

  12. Ethnicity in a Mythical Racial Democracy’s Metropolis: Ethnic Identity and Politics in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation examines why different immigrant groups, particularly those that do not currently face much economic discrimination, on average, choose different strategies of political assimilation by the third generation. The answers to this question are important to understanding the political integration of immigrant groups of all income levels. The primary argument I make is that racial or ethnic identifications that result from experiencing discrimination often explain political behav...

  13. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed.

  14. Political Economics Analysis of Economic Financialization Behavior:An Analytical Framework of Evolutionary Game Theory%经济金融化行为的政治经济学分析--一个演化博弈框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春义; 丁晓钦

    2016-01-01

    自2008年美国金融危机发生以来,经济金融化成为国内外学界关注的焦点。文章从政治经济学的角度指出了金融化的本质在于资本积累演变为资本脱离剩余价值的生产与交换而通过金融系统实现增殖的过程,进而通过构建一个包含异质性主体的非对称演化博弈模型,揭示了非金融主体与金融主体之间从普通经济关系到金融关系的动态演变过程及其作用机制。研究表明:(1)经济主体之间的动态关系演变表现为非金融企业主要通过金融活动获取利润,金融企业则关注中间业务和表外业务并将普通家庭纳入其体系使之成为新的利润源泉,而普通家庭则被迫接受强势经济主体的二次分利,这些关系的变化将导致一国经济的金融化乃至金融危机。(2)经济发展状态取决于金融主体与非金融主体之间的相互关系,其中,非金融主体行为起主导性作用。在既定假设下,当非金融主体仅通过其资源保护行为影响金融主体的分利技术时,既可以促使一国经济走向新的稳定状态也可促使其走向崩溃;当非金融主体通过其资源保护行为和分利技术影响金融主体的分利技术时,经济可以实现演化稳定状态。(3)经济主体的金融化行为有三个层面的影响:一是经济主体的金融化行为促进经济主体自身在短期内实现高额资本积累;二是金融主体的分利行为与非金融主体的生产行为经常呈现对立的经济关系并容易被激化;三是没有政府介入的自由市场必然导致矛盾激化而陷入危机。因此,深入理解经济金融化问题的本质及其对经济的影响机制,对当前中国的经济转型和金融改革都具有重要意义。%Economic financialization has been the focus issue both at home and abroad since the 2008 subprime crisis.From a perspective of political economics,this paper points out the

  15. The burden of migraine in the United States: current and emerging perspectives on disease management and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Elisabeth; Munakata, Julie; Bigal, Marcelo E; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Lipton, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    Migraine is often perceived as a low-impact condition that imposes a limited burden to society and the health-care system. This study reviews the current understanding of the burden of migraine in the U.S., the history of economic understanding of migraine treatment and identifies emergent trends for future studies evaluating clinical and economic outcomes of migraine treatment. This study traced the history of economic articles published on migraine by performing a literature search using PubMed MEDLINE database and ancestral searches of relevant articles. The intention was not to provide an exhaustive review of every article or adjudicate between studies with different findings. Migraine affects millions of individuals worldwide, generally during the most productive years of a person's life. Studies show that migraineurs are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and experience substantial decreases in functioning and productivity, which in turn translates into diminished quality of life for individuals, and financial burdens to both health-care systems and employers. Economic evaluations of migraine therapies have evolved with new clinical developments beginning with cognitive-behavioral therapy, introduction of triptans, concern over medication overuse, and emergence of migraine prophylaxis. Now recent clinical studies suggest that migraine may be a progressive disease with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and long-term neurologic effects. Migraine imposes a substantial burden on patients, families, employers and societies. The economic standards by which migraine and treatment are evaluated have evolved in response to clinical developments. Emerging evidence suggests that migraine is a chronic and progressive disease. If confirmed, approaches to acute and prophylactic treatments and economic evaluations of migraine treatment may require major reconsideration.

  16. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  17. Relations of production and capital-labor conflict in the political economy / Relaciones de producción y conflicto capital-trabajo en la economía política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Boundi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the interpretation made by different schools of economics about the relations of production and the capital-labor conflict, in order to connect with the social and political study of economic reality. For this, we will perform a comparative literature, beginning with Marx’s contributions about class relations, law of value, price formation and profit, and its connection with Ricardo’s theory. So, we will examine the influence exercised by the Marxian theory in neoclassical approach, Schumpeter thought and Kalecki analysis.

  18. Essays in political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Skali, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  19. Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosov Yuri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it has an important environmental aspect. Experts claim that the new area of global energy should be less costly than the traditional ones.

  20. On the Effective Integration of Current Affairs and Poli-tics Teaching%时政热点与政治教学的有效融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴生

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous deepening of the education re-form, to introduce current affairs into senior high school politics classroom teaching is the requirement of the new curriculum concept, as well as a common way adopted by many politics teachers to stimulate students' interest and improve classroom teaching effect, but in practical classroom teaching, current affairs have become a mere formality, and they are out of line with text-books, leading to a poor effect. Combined with the writer's many years' teaching practice and research, this paper elaborates some experience and measures of effectively integrating current affairs and classroom teaching from new lesson introduction, situation creation, activity forms and matters needing attention.%随着教育改革的不断深入,将时政热点引入高中政治课堂,是新课程理念的要求,也是很多政治教师激发学生兴趣和提高课堂教学效果通常采用的一种途径,但在实际教学过程中,发现相当部分老师在时政热点融入课堂中普遍存在着流于形式、时政与教材相脱节等弊端,很难达到预期的效果。为此本文结合笔者多年的教学实践和研究,分别从导入新课、创设情境、活动形式和注意事项等方面阐述了把时政热点与课堂教学有效融合的一些心得与做法。

  1. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover: current production methods, economic viability and commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Nawa R; Slutzky, Lauren; Shah, Ajay; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Cornish, Katrina; Christy, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol is a next-generation liquid biofuel with properties akin to those of gasoline. There is a widespread effort to commercialize biobutanol production from agricultural residues, such as corn stover, which do not compete with human and animal foods. This pursuit is backed by extensive government mandates to expand alternative energy sources. This review provides an overview of research on biobutanol production using corn stover feedstock. Structural composition, pretreatment, sugar yield (following pretreatment and hydrolysis) and generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) from corn stover are discussed. The review also discusses different Clostridium species and strains employed for biobutanol production from corn stover-derived sugars with respect to solvent yields, tolerance to LDMICs and in situ solvent recovery (integrated fermentation). Further, the economics of cellulosic biobutanol production are highlighted and compared to corn starch-derived ethanol and gasoline. As discussed herein, the economic competitiveness of biobutanol production from corn stover largely depends on feedstock processing and fermentation process design.

  2. Analysis of China's Renewable Energy Development under the Current Economic and Technical Circumstances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Shi

    2009-01-01

    At present, the development of renewable energy relies mainly on government support. The government invests in a considerable number of projects to improve public welfare and to assist in poverty relief. If China is to replace fossil fuels on a large scale with renewable energy sources, the production costs und prices of renewable energy must he brought down. All countries are facing the challenge of moving to a more secure and low-carbon energy system without weakening economic and social development. In this regard, China is facing an even greater challenge in terms of economic cost, as cheap coal remains the main energy form. Technical innovation and industrialization in the area of renewable energy is an important means of lowering cost. China is in for a period of high-speed development of its economy and the rising demand for energy is irreversible. If the technical progress and development speed of renewable energy lags behind the growth in demand, it will be difficult to realize the improvement of its energy structure.

  3. Regional economic effects of current and proposed management alternatives for Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report first provides a description of the local community and economy near Sand Lake NWR. An analysis of current and proposed management strategies that could...

  4. Analytical political economy: a geographical introduction

    OpenAIRE

    T J Barnes

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the special issue on 'space and analytical political economy'. First, the term analytical political economy is defined by an examination of the historical rise of the political economy perspective within economics. Second, three leading variants within the analytical political economic tradition are distinguished and described— neo-Ricardianism, fundamental Marxism, and rational choice Marxism. Last, the consequences of inserting geography into the aspatial th...

  5. Risk Factors of Young Graduates in the Competitive E.U. Labour Market at the End of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacerova Eliska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern development trends in the labour market have been an increasingly important political and economic issue not only domestically but also on the European level. It proves the fact that in The Europe 2020 strategy, one of the main five points is the aim to increase the employment rate of the population (age: 20–64 from the current 69% to at least 75%. Various risk groups of job candidates emerge among the unemployed. The economic crisis in 2007 made the situation in the labour markets worse. The demand for labour decreased while the number of candidates increased. In recent years, fresh graduates under the age of 25 have been regarded as a high risk group sometimes nicknamed “the lost generation” or Generation Y. This generation is well accustomed to modern technologies which they use for their own benefit and they are willing and able to work from anywhere. On the contrary, those over the age of 35, who are sometimes referred to as Generation X, have different attitudes and requirements for the labour market. Despite the increasing level of education among young people, their unemployment has been worsening since the economic crisis began. The aim of this article was to ascertain how future university graduates (491 final-year students from 5 faculties at Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Czech Republic perceive individual risk factors influencing the success of today’s graduate of Generation Y in the competitive labour market. The target group, future university graduates, evaluated 13 risk areas on a five-point scale. These 13 risk areas were identified based on primary research among 1.059 employers in the Czech Republic, which is a part of a complete two-year research project IGA/FaME/2013/030. This article focuses on only two areas which closely analysed the perception of graduates as drifters, and their demands for high starting salaries. These two risk areas were mentioned by employers as the areas with the highest risk and

  6. 大学生政治社会化的现状、影响因素及优化对策%Current Situation, Factors and Optimization Countermeasures of College Students' Political Socialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏欢; 孙耀胜

    2015-01-01

    大学生政治社会化不仅影响到大学生本身的政治素养,也影响到我国社会政治的稳定,大学生是社会主义建设者和接班人,直接推动着我国社会主义政治制度的发展。目前,“95后”大学生政治社会化过程中存在政治认知迷茫、政治感情冷漠、政治参与功利等问题,因此,高校应该通过改进思想政治理论教育教学、引导党团组织活动、加强网络监管、深入开展社会实践活动,从而推动大学生政治社会化的圆满完成。%College students' political socialization not only affects college students' own political literacy, but also affect the stability of our social and political, college students are socialist builders and successors, directly promoting the advancement and development of the socialist political system. Currently, the"95s"college students' political socialization process of poli-tical cognitive confusion, feelings of political apathy, political participation and other issues utilitarian, therefore, should be adopted to improve college teaching political theory to guide the party organizations, and strengthen network monitoring, in-depth social practice, so as to promote college students' political socialization successfully completed.

  7. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment.

  8. Recombinant plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins: current technical and economic bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabalza, Maite; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Molecular pharming is a cost-effective platform for the production of recombinant proteins in plants. Although the biopharmaceutical industry still relies on a small number of standardized fermentation-based technologies for the production of recombinant proteins there is now a greater awareness of the advantages of molecular pharming particularly in niche markets. Here we discuss some of the technical, economic and regulatory barriers that constrain the clinical development and commercialization of plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins. We also discuss strategies to increase productivity and product quality/homogeneity. The advantages of whole plants should be welcomed by the industry because this will help to reduce the cost of goods and therefore expand the biopharmaceutical market into untapped sectors.

  9. GENDER DISPARITIES REGARDING WAGE AS A MOTIVATIONAL TOOL IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMYEN SUZANA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The deepening process of globalization, negative trends regarding demographic evolution both nationally and internationally, also the emigration phenomenon and the long-term effects of the economic crisis, are the main challenges in terms of creating a general support and to encourage a fair and effective management of human resources, regardless of the industry they are developing their activity. Motivation consists in a series of problems that need to be solved in order to generate both individual and team performance, and wage is seen as one of the most important motivational tools. Though we have witnessed a less serious gap between wages according to the gender criterion, still there can be identified certain issues that need to be solved regardless the most recent trends in management

  10. [Economic profitability: current aspects of X-ray contrast diagnosis in urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukolov, V A; Perepanova, T S; Grigor'ev, A A

    2005-01-01

    A diversity of X-ray contrast diagnostic techniques used in urology provides a way of using different groups of X-ray contrast materials (XCMs) in accordance of the set tasks. Many years' experience in handling water-soluble triiodinated XCMs while examining the kidneys and urinary tract provides evidence for their diagnostic effectiveness and safety. The new Triombrast (OAO "Farmac", Kiev) synthesized on the basis of the Spanish substance (Justesa Imagen SA) has successfully undergone clinical trials and meets the high requirements made by the specialized urological facilities is economically profitable. The paper has been prepared, by using the reports on the results of preclinical studies of the agent and the experience of its use in the clinic of the Research Institute of Urology and City Clinical Hospital No. 47, Moscow.

  11. Constructing the Socialist Political Economics with Chinese Characteristics Regarding Income Distribution as the Research Core---Based on the Reflection of Political Economics Research for the Recent 30 Years%以收入分配为研究核心构建中国特色社会主义政治经济学--基于近30年中国政治经济学研究的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康静萍

    2016-01-01

    收入分配问题应该是马克思主义政治经济学研究的核心问题。但是,在中国近30年来的政治经济学研究中,并没有很好地把收入分配问题作为核心,主要表现在以下方面:经济增长问题逐渐成为政治经济学研究的中心;中国政治经济学界对社会主义收入分配理论深入研究的几次回避。由于理论上的偏差导致实践中收入分配问题令人堪忧:贫富差距不断扩大“;拼爹”现象愈演愈烈。因此,重塑中国政治经济学的研究中心就显得特别迫切。今后,政治经济学要重点研究以下问题:财富分配的平等程度对中国特色社会主义发展的影响;财富分配的平等程度对经济增长的正面、负面影响;财富分配的平等程度对劳动者就业或创业的影响;财富分配的平等程度对政治、社会稳定的影响。%Income distribution problem should be the core issue of Marxist political economics research. However,actually the political economics research for the recent 30 years in China has not regarding it as the core and mainly displays in the following aspects: economic growth has gradually become the center of political economics research;the in-depth research on socialist income distribution carried out by China's political and economic circles has been avoided for several times. And the deviation in theory also leads to the income distribution in practice is worrying: the gap between the rich and the poor continues to expand;the phenomenon of "competition of father" becomes more and more serious. Therefore, reshaping the research center of China's political economics is especially urgent,and in the future,political economics should focus on the following problems: the effect of the degree of the fair wealth distribution on the development of socialist development with Chinese characteristics;the positive and negative effect on the economic grow; the effect on the employment and

  12. FY 1997 report on the survey of potential impacts of enlarging ASEAN on political and economic systems in South East Asia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (ASEAN kakudai no Higashi Asia no seiji keizai chitsujo eno eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report surveys potential impacts of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) on inter-ASEAN affairs and its external relations when ASEAN will enlarge its members to include all nations in South East Asia, and thus fully represent the region. For this purpose, the survey was conducted on Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, which joined in 1995, from the viewpoint of their economic and political system, and their relations with other member countries. The nature of ASEAN has gradually transformed, in which all the countries in the region have increased and internal economic issues have been tackled. It has an aim to stimulate inter-ASEAN trade and induce foreign direct investment into ASEAN as a whole by reducing import duties on intra-ASEAN trade. Underlying in these, new development is a concern about growing economic and military power of China. ASEAN solidarity will work an leverage against China should change toward worse, and ASEAN will function as a regional stabilization factor. ASEAN is needed for the stability of both in economic and political order in East Asia. Japan has to further promote its cooperation with ASEAN to help its solidarity as an association. 24 refs., 21 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Leadership towards a just economic society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Lombard

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This actuality article on leadership argues for the need to move towards a just economic society. The implications of different terms are considered within a conceptual framework. This framework is essential for a better understanding of economic justice in an institutional environment, where economic relationships and economic justice has come to dominate public debate. The relations between public opinion and material wealth are analysed before justice in a mixed economy receives attention. Related conditions are discussed in succession, firstly, individual freedom and the Rule of Law, and secondly, distributive justice. The article then proceeds to discuss challenges for economic leadership in South Africa, indicating trends present in both the theoretical and political leadership current in the rest of the world. Perspective is thereby given on the situation in South African democracy, where the political focus has moved from the issue of justice as freedom, to justice in the distribution of wealth and income.

  14. Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some

  15. Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Qianqian

    2017-01-01

    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some pol

  16. Pentru revizuirea Constituţiei economice (For Revision of Economic Constitution)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian-Ion POPA

    2015-01-01

    The current Presidential Administration proposes the revision of existing Constitution, even the „economic constitution”, as argued some influential academic circles, especially juridical, around the President. This article attempts to contribute, however modestly, to this great debate from another perspective, that of „constitutional political economy”, a school of thought that has developed in recent decades in western political theory.

  17. Realism in normative political theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, E.; Sleat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a critical overview of the realist current in contemporary political philosophy. We define political realism on the basis of its attempt to give varying degrees of autonomy to politics as a sphere of human activity, in large part through its exploration of the sources of

  18. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  19. Emerging phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina: biology, economic importance and current diagnostic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Vallad, Gary Edward; Chand, Ramesh; Chauhan, Vijay Bahadur

    2012-05-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is an important phytopathogenic fungus, infecting a large number of plant species and surviving for up to 15 years in the soil as a saprophyte. Although considerable research related to the biology and ecology of Macrophomina has been conducted, it continues to cause huge economic losses in many crops. Research is needed to improve the identification and characterization of genetic variability within their epidemiological and pathological niches. Better understanding of the variability within the pathogen population for traits that influence fitness and soil survival will certainly lead to improved management strategies for Macrophomina. In this context, the present review discusses various biological aspects and distribution of M. phaseolina throughout the world and their importance to different plant species. Accurate identification of the fungus has been aided with the use of nucleic acid-based molecular techniques. The development of PCR-based methods for identification and detection of M. phaseolina are highly sensitive and specific. Early diagnosis and accurate detection of pathogens is an essential step in plant disease management as well as quarantine. The progress in the development of various molecular tools used for the detection, identification and characterization of Macrophomina isolates were also discussed.

  20. EU budget reform in the context of the current economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela POPA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union regarded as an economic reenhancement force in Europe and in the world must fund the needs of 500 million citizens. To do that, it should possess an innovative budget adjusted to the new facts of globalization meant to meet present challenges and create various opportunities for the future.In order to improve budgetary procedures, the need to reform the community bugdet has emerged, namely to change the way it is designed and spent. The manner of setting and distributing the community budget has been changed several times whenever the context in member states has demanded. Thus, European institutions concluded in 1988 interinstitutional agreements which have been covering budgetary process and budget allocation ever since. Agreements are concluded for several years and bear the name of “financial prospects”. Other two agreements have been made (during 2007-2013 and, respectively, 2014- 2020 in compliance with Delors I and Delors II Packages.The present paper focuses on approaching the progress of budgetary indicators in the context of the multiannual financial framework where the European Union budget is set.