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Sample records for current output terminal

  1. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  2. DESIGN NOTE: A very high output resistance current source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatleh, K.; Terzopoulos, N.; Hart, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    The vertical stacking of two identical sub-circuits—improved versions of a bipolar transistor configuration proposed by Baxandall and Swallow—driven by dual output current mirrors, facilitates the design of a current generator producing a direct current of 1 mA with an incremental output resistance exceeding 200 GΩ.

  3. Design of a CMOS temperature sensor with current output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolling, A.; Kölling, Arjan; Bak, Frans; Bergveld, Piet; Seevinck, E.; Seevinck, Evert

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a CMOS temperature-to-current converter is presented of which the output current is the difference between a PTC current and an NTC current. The PTC current is derived from a PTAT cell, while the NTC current is derived from a threshold voltage reference source. It is shown that this

  4. Protozoan grazing reduces the current output of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P; Snoeyenbos-West, Oona L; Woodard, Trevor L; Strickland, Justin N; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-10-01

    Several experiments were conducted to determine whether protozoan grazing can reduce current output from sediment microbial fuel cells. When marine sediments were amended with eukaryotic inhibitors, the power output from the fuel cells increased 2-5-fold. Quantitative PCR showed that Geobacteraceae sequences were 120 times more abundant on anodes from treated fuel cells compared to untreated fuel cells, and that Spirotrichea sequences in untreated fuel cells were 200 times more abundant on anode surfaces than in the surrounding sediments. Defined studies with current-producing biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens and pure cultures of protozoa demonstrated that protozoa that were effective in consuming G. sulfurreducens reduced current production up to 91% when added to G. sulfurreducens fuel cells. These results suggest that anode biofilms are an attractive food source for protozoa and that protozoan grazing can be an important factor limiting the current output of sediment microbial fuel cells.

  5. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  6. On current termination in rotamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, N.; Euripides, P.; Jones, I.R.; Xu, S. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Physical Sciences

    1995-03-01

    A new series of rotamak experiments conducted in a 50 litre spherical pyrex discharge vessel is described. An analysis of the results, together with that of previous results from a smaller, 10 litre vessel, provides an explanation for the current termination phenomenon which is such a noteworthy and characteristic feature of all rotamak discharges studied to date. It is shown that the amplitude of the applied rotating magnetic field, B{sub {omega}}, has to be greater than a certain critical value, B{sub {omega}}{sup crit}, for the rotamak discharge to be maintained. Provided B{sub {omega}} {>=} B{sub {omega}}{sup crit}, the properties of the discharge are then determined by the behaviour of the circuit used to couple the RF generators to the plasma load. The conditions necessary for the production of a compact toroidal magnetic configuration are presented. (author).

  7. High-output tri-magnetic terminal-based non-local spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirotori, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Susumu; Takagishi, Masayuki; Kamiguchi, Yuzo; Iwasaki, Hitoshi

    2015-12-01

    We propose tri-magnetic terminal-based non-local spin valves (TM-NLSVs) for lateral structures. A lateral structure has dual spin injector terminals with an anti-parallel spin configuration. The accumulated spin is detected as the voltage between the free layer and one side of the spin injector. Numerical investigation revealed that the output voltage of the TM-NLSV is 2.4-fold higher than that of the conventional four-terminal structure. A further 3.7-fold increase is expected by increasing the injector area by a factor of 9. These results indicate the possibility of obtaining an output voltage that is almost the same as that of conventional (non-lateral) spin valves.

  8. Quantum Coherent Three-Terminal Thermoelectrics: Maximum Efficiency at Given Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Whitney

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the nonlinear scattering theory for three-terminal thermoelectric devices used for power generation or refrigeration. Such systems are quantum phase-coherent versions of a thermocouple, and the theory applies to systems in which interactions can be treated at a mean-field level. It considers an arbitrary three-terminal system in any external magnetic field, including systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, such as chiral thermoelectrics, as well as systems in which the magnetic field plays no role. It is shown that the upper bound on efficiency at given power output is of quantum origin and is stricter than Carnot’s bound. The bound is exactly the same as previously found for two-terminal devices and can be achieved by three-terminal systems with or without broken time-reversal symmetry, i.e., chiral and non-chiral thermoelectrics.

  9. Characteristics of output voltage and current of integrated nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Rusen

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the anisotropic property and small output signals of the piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) and the influence of the measurement system and environment, identification of the true signal generated by the NG is critical. We have developed three criteria: Schottky behavior test, switching-polarity tests, and linear superposition of current and voltage tests. The 11 tests can effectively rule out the system artifacts, whose sign does not change with the switching measurement polarity, and random signals, which might change signs but cannot consistently add up or cancel out under designed connection configurations. This study establishes the standards for designing and scale up of integrated nanogenerators. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Programmable Input Mode Instrumentation Amplifier Using Multiple Output Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankiewicz Bogdan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a programmable input mode instrumentation amplifier (IA utilising second generation, multiple output current conveyors and transmission gates is presented. Its main advantage is the ability to choose a voltage or current mode of inputs by setting the voltage of two configuration nodes. The presented IA is prepared as an integrated circuit block to be used alone or as a sub-block in a microcontroller or in a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which shall condition analogue signals to be next converted by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. IA is designed in AMS 0.35 µm CMOS technology and the power supply is 3.3 V; the power consumption is approximately 9.1 mW. A linear input range in the voltage mode reaches ± 1.68 V or ± 250 µA in current mode. A passband of the IA is above 11 MHz. The amplifier works in class A, so its current supply is almost constant and does not cause noise disturbing nearby working precision analogue circuits.

  11. Output feedback fractional-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode control of underwater remotely operated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoyao; Chen, Jiawang; Gu, Linyi

    2014-01-01

    For the 4-DOF (degrees of freedom) trajectory tracking control problem of underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances, a novel output feedback fractional-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (FO-NTSMC) technique is introduced in light of the equivalent output injection sliding mode observer (SMO) and TSMC principle and fractional calculus technology. The equivalent output injection SMO is applied to reconstruct the full states in finite time. Meanwhile, the FO-NTSMC algorithm, based on a new proposed fractional-order switching manifold, is designed to stabilize the tracking error to equilibrium points in finite time. The corresponding stability analysis of the closed-loop system is presented using the fractional-order version of the Lyapunov stability theory. Comparative numerical simulation results are presented and analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, it is noteworthy that the proposed output feedback FO-NTSMC technique can be used to control a broad range of nonlinear second-order dynamical systems in finite time.

  12. A New Current Mode SIMO-Type Universal Biquad Employing Multi-Output Current Conveyors (MOCCIIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Du

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new current-mode singleinput and multi-output (SIMO type universal biquad circuit using second generation multi-output current conveyors (MOCCII as the active components. The proposed circuit employs three MOCCIIs, two grounded capacitors and four grounded resistors, therefore offers electroning tuning possibilities. It can simultaneously realize second order low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, notch and all-pass filters. The circuit is cascadable and has low sensitivities. It provides independent control of ω0 (natural angular frequency and Q (quality factor. The influences of MOCCII parasitic elements have been analyzed and simulated using PSPICE. Experimental results including frequency responses of low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters, as well as frequency responses of filters with different ω0 (keeping Q invariable and different Q (keeping ω0 invariable are shown to be in agreement with theory.

  13. Design of a Programmable Gain, Temperature Compensated Current-Input Current-Output CMOS Logarithmic Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Gu; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a programmable gain, temperature compensated, current-mode CMOS logarithmic amplifier that can be used for biomedical signal processing. Unlike conventional logarithmic amplifiers that use a transimpedance technique to generate a voltage signal as a logarithmic function of the input current, the proposed approach directly produces a current output as a logarithmic function of the input current. Also, unlike a conventional transimpedance amplifier the gain of the proposed logarithmic amplifier can be programmed using floating-gate trimming circuits. The synthesis of the proposed circuit is based on the Hart's extended translinear principle which involves embedding a floating-voltage source and a linear resistive element within a translinear loop. Temperature compensation is then achieved using a translinear-based resistive cancelation technique. Measured results from prototypes fabricated in a 0.5 μm CMOS process show that the amplifier has an input dynamic range of 120 dB and a temperature sensitivity of 230 ppm/°C (27 °C- 57°C), while consuming less than 100 nW of power.

  14. A Biogeographic Assessment of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Surface Current Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface and sub-surface current model outputs were obtained from researchers at the University of Massachusetts-Boston to examine spatial and temporal current...

  15. A Biogeographic Assessment of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Subsurface Current Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface and sub-surface current model outputs were obtained from researchers at the University of Massachusetts-Boston to examine spatial and temporal current...

  16. Influence of pulse line switch inductance on output characteristics of high-current nanosecond accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashchenko, A. I.; Vintizenko, I. I.

    2016-06-01

    Various types of high-current nanosecond accelerators are simulated numerically using an equivalent circuit representation. The influence of pulse forming line switch inductance on the amplitude and waveform of output voltage and current pulses is analyzed.

  17. 600 a Current Leads with Dry and Compact Warm Terminals

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, T P; Vullierme, B

    2002-01-01

    For the LHC magnet test benches 26 pairs of conventional helium vapour-cooled 600 A current leads are required. The first pair of 600 A current leads has been designed and built by industry and tested at CERN. The main component of the lead is the heat exchanger, which consists of two concentric copper pipes. Special attention was also given to the design of the warm terminal in order to avoid any condensation and to resist at an electrical test of 2 kV. The paper describes construction details and compares calculated and measured values of the main parameters.

  18. Maximizing the DUNE early physics output with current experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Monojit; Goswami, Srubabati [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); Raut, Sushant K. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology-AlbaNova University Center, Department of Theoretical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    The deep underground neutrino experiment (DUNE) is a proposed next generation superbeam experiment at Fermilab. Its aims include measuring the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters - the neutrino mass hierarchy, the octant of the mixing angle θ{sub 23}, and the CP-violating phase δ{sub CP}. The current and upcoming experiments T2K, NOνA, and ICAL rate at IN will also be collecting data for the same measurements. In this paper, we explore the sensitivity reach of DUNE in combination with these other experiments. We evaluate the least exposure required by DUNE to determine the above three unknown parameters with reasonable confidence.We find that for each case, the inclusion of data from T2K, NOνA, and ICAL rate at IN help to achieve the same sensitivity with a reduced exposure from DUNE thereby helping to economize the configuration. Further, we quantify the effect of the proposed near detector on systematic errors and study the consequent improvement in sensitivity. We also examine the role played by the second oscillation cycle in furthering the physics reach of DUNE. Finally, we present an optimization study of the neutrino-antineutrino running of DUNE. (orig.)

  19. Current Source Based on H-Bridge Inverter with Output LCL Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahnik, Vojtech; Talla, Jakub; Peroutka, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    The paper deals with a control of current source with an LCL output filter. The controlled current source is realized as a single-phase inverter and output LCL filter provides low ripple of output current. However, systems incorporating LCL filters require more complex control strategies and there are several interesting approaches to the control of this type of converter. This paper presents the inverter control algorithm, which combines model based control with a direct current control based on resonant controllers and single-phase vector control. The primary goal is to reduce the current ripple and distortion under required limits and provides fast and precise control of output current. The proposed control technique is verified by measurements on the laboratory model.

  20. High-Order Current-Mode and Transimpedance-Mode Universal Filters with Multiple-Inputs and Two-Outputs Using MOCCIIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Horng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A high-order current-mode and transimpedance-mode universal filter with multiple-inputs and two-outputs based on multiple output second-generation current conveyors (MOCCIIs is introduced. By choosing the input current terminals appropriately, the current-mode and transimpedance-mode lowpass, bandpass, highpass, notch or allpass filters can be obtained without component matching conditions. The proposed nth order universal filter requires (n+1 MOCCIIs, (n+1 resistors and n grounded capacitors. As examples, the first-order, biquadratic and third-order universal filters are given and compared with previous published works.

  1. Cross Voltage Control with Inner Hysteresis Current Control for Multi-output Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    with inner hysteresis current control loop has been proposed to keep the simplicity of the control law for the double-output MOB converter, which can be implemented by a combination of analogue and logical ICs or simple microcontroller to constrain the output voltages of MOB converter at their reference...

  2. Cross Voltage Control with Inner Hysteresis Current Control for Multi-output Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    with inner hysteresis current control loop has been proposed to keep the simplicity of the control law for the double-output MOB converter, which can be implemented by a combination of analogue and logical ICs or simple microcontroller to constrain the output voltages of MOB converter at their reference...

  3. Low Power Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma ADC with Current Output DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker-Villumsen, Niels; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a continuous-time (CT) DeltaSigma (∆Σ) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using a current output digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for the feedback. From circuit analysis it is shown that using a current output DAC makes it possible to relax the noise requirements of the 1st...... integrator of the loopfilter, and thereby reduce the current consumption. Furthermore, the noise of the current output DAC being dependent on the ADC input signal level, enabling a dynamic range that is larger than the peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The current output DAC is used in a 3rd order multibit...... CT ∆Σ ADC for audio applications, designed in a 0.18 µm CMOS process, with active-RC integrators, a 7-level Flash ADC quantizer and current output DAC for the feedback. From simulations the ADC achieves a dynamic range of 95.0 dB in the audio band, with a current consumption of 284 µA for a 1.7 V...

  4. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  5. Modeling and control of the output current of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a dynamic Matlab SIMULINK model of the relationship between the fuel cell current set point of a Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell system and the output current of the system is developed. The model contains an estimated fuel cell model, based on a polarization curve and assumed first order...

  6. Improvement of output characteristics of a wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyoho ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no shutsuryoku tokusei kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    Conformity was studied between the wind turbine and generator's output characteristics to effectively collect the wind energy which fluctuates with time. According to the theoretical analysis, it is necessary for the generator-driving torque to be proportional to the revolving speed (n) squared of wind turbine in order that the wind turbine may generate the highest output always regardless of wind velocity. In the output current control method by current controller, the generator's output current (i[sub a]) is controlled so as to satisfy i[sub a]=cn[sup 2], where c is the output current control coefficient, the optimized value of which is 2[alpha][sup 2]Kw/Kt if the generator loss is nil. Therefore, that value is fixed independently of the wind velocity. [alpha] and Kw are the characteristic constants of wind turbine while Kt is the torque coefficient of generator. In order to confirm the effect of the present control method, the output characteristics were studied through simulation with already known systems. In both cases of constant and variable wind velocity, the change in output is similar against the change in c. Different from the resistance load control method, the present control method improves the output characteristics in a wide range of wind velocity even if the c remains fixed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Determining the Frequency for Load-Independent Output Current in Three-Coil Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhao Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for load-independent output voltage or current in two-coil wireless power transfer (WPT systems have been studied. However, analysis of load-independent output current in three-coil WPT system is still lacking in previous studies. This paper investigates the output current characteristics of a three-coil WPT system against load variations, and determines the operating frequency to achieve a constant output current. First, a three-coil WPT system is modeled by circuit theory, and the analytical expression of the root-mean-square of the output current is derived. By substituting the coupling coefficients, the quality factor, and the resonant frequency of each coil, we propose a method of calculating the frequency for load-independent output current in a three-coil WPT system, which indicates that there are two frequencies that can achieve load-independent output current. Experiments are conducted to validate these analytical results.

  8. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  9. A Self-Oscillating Control Scheme for a Boost Converter Providing a Controlled Output Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard R.; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Most switched mode power supplies provide a regulated voltage at their output. However, there are applications requiring a controlled current. Among others are battery chargers, test equipment for converters driven by solar cells, and LED drivers. This paper describes a dc–dc power converter real...

  10. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  11. Analysis and design of a charge pump circuit for high output current applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenwijk, van Gijs; Hoen, Klaas; Wallinga, Hans

    1993-01-01

    A charge pump circuit has been developed that can deliver high currents even for a system supply voltage of 3 V. The circuit consists of capacitances, connected by MOS switches. The influence of the on-resistance of the switches on the circuit's output resistance has been analysed. The switches are

  12. New SRCO with explicit current-mode output using two CCs and grounded capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar, D. R.; ABDALLA, Kasim K.; Senani, Raj

    2011-01-01

    A new Grounded-Capacitor Single Resistance Controlled Sinusoidal Oscillator (SRCO) with explicit current output using two Current Conveyors (CCs) and five passive elements is presented. The proposed circuit offers (i) independent control of condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation, (ii) low active and passive sensitivities, (iii) use of both the grounded capacitors (suitable for IC implementation) and (iv) reasonably good frequency stability. The workability of the propo...

  13. Research on Digital Output Verification Technology of Electronic DC Current Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanjie; Wang, Bin; Hu, Haoliang; Xiong, Qianzhu; Yang, Chunyan

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the error of calibration system when conducting field calibration by electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system, an electronic DC current transformer’s digital calibration system based on protocol conversion is proposed and researched. Data frames outputted from merging unit are collected and converted by the system, the digital synchronization is realized by using the synchronous clock device to trigger the second pulse, and it is verified by the virtual instrument design software. The field calibration is conducted to some converter station digital dc current transformer under the rated current of 500A by using the calibration system. By calibrating and analyzing errors, the error is less than 0.075% when tested current is more than 40% of the rated current. According the standard in literature[1], performance of the calibration system is perfect, measured results perfectly meet the requirements of design, and the calibration system has great practical application value.

  14. A discriminator with a current-sum multiplicity output for the PHENIX multiplicity vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.S.; Kennedy, E.J.; Jackson, R.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-01

    A current output multiplicity discriminator for use in the front-end electronics (FEE) of the Multiplicity Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX detector at RHIC has been fabricated in the a 1.2-{micro} CMOS, n-well process. The discriminator is capable of triggering on input signals ranging from 0.25 MIP to 5 MIP. Frequency response of the discriminator is such that the circuit is capable of generating an output for every bunch crossing (105 ns) of the RHIC collider. Channel-to-channel threshold matching was adjustable to {+-} 4 mV. One channel of multiplicity discriminator occupied an area of 85 {micro} x 630 {micro} and consumed 515 {micro}W from a single 5-V supply. Details of the design and results from prototype device testing are presented.

  15. A new low voltage level-shifted FVF current mirror with enhanced bandwidth and output resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bhawna; Gupta, Maneesha; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Sangal, Ankur

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a new high-performance level-shifted flipped voltage follower (LSFVF) based low-voltage current mirror (CM). The proposed CM utilises the low-supply voltage and low-input resistance characteristics of a flipped voltage follower (FVF) CM. In the proposed CM, level-shifting configuration is used to obtain a wide operating current range and resistive compensation technique is employed to increase the operating bandwidth. The peaking in frequency response is reduced by using an additional large MOSFET. Moreover, a very high output resistance (in GΩ range) along with low-current transfer error is achieved through super-cascode configuration for a wide current range (0-440 µA). Small signal analysis is carried out to show the improvements achieved at each step. The proposed CM is simulated by Mentor Graphics Eldospice in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS, BSIM3 and Level 53 technology. In the proposed CM, a bandwidth of 6.1799 GHz, 1% settling time of 0.719 ns, input and output resistances of 21.43 Ω and 1.14 GΩ, respectively, are obtained with a single supply voltage of 1 V. The layout of the proposed CM has been designed and post-layout simulation results have been shown. The post-layout simulation results for Monte Carlo and temperature analysis have also been included to show the reliability of the CM against the variations in process parameters and temperature changes.

  16. In situ measurements of wind and current speed and relationship between output power and turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran Medina, Olmo; Schmitt, François G.; Sentchev, Alexei; Calif, Rudy

    2015-04-01

    In a context of energy transition, wind and tidal energy are sources of clean energy with the potential of partially satisfying the growing demand. The main problem of this type of energy, and other types of renewable energy remains the discontinuity of the electric power produced in different scales, inducing large fluctuations also called intermittency. This intermittency of wind and tidal energy is inherent to the turbulent nature of wind and marine currents. We consider this intermittent power production in strong relation with the turbulent intermittency of the resource. The turbulence theory is multifractal energy cascades models, a classic in physics of turbulence. From earlier studies in atmospheric sciences, we learn that wind speed and the aggregate power output are intermittent and multifractal over a wide range of scales [Calif and Schmitt 2014]. We want to extend this study to a marine current turbine and compare the scaling properties for those renewable energy sources. We consider here coupling between simultaneous velocity time series and output power from a wind turbine and a marine current turbine. Wind turbine data were obtained from Denmark and marine current data from Western Scheldt, Belgium where a prototype of a vertical and horizontal marine current turbines are tested. After an estimation of their Fourier density power spectra, we study their scaling properties in Kolmogorov's theory and the framework of fully developed turbulence. Hence, we employ a Hilbert-based methodology, namely arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis [Calif et al. 2013a, 2013b] to characterize the intermittent property of the wind and marine current velocity in order to characterize the intermittent nature of the fluid. This method is used in order to obtain the spectrum and the corresponding power law for non-linear and non-stationary time series. The goal is to study the non-linear transfer characteristics in a multi-scale and multi-intensity framework.

  17. Maximum Output Power Control Using Short-Circuit Current and Open-Circuit Voltage of a Solar Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takahiro; Miyake, Takuma; Tashima, Daisuke; Sakoda, Tatsuya; Otsubo, Masahisa; Hombu, Mitsuyuki

    2012-10-01

    A control method to optimize the output power of a solar cell is necessary because the output of a solar cell strongly depends on solar radiation. We here proposed two output power control methods using the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of a solar panel. One of them used a current ratio and a voltage ratio (αβ control), and the other used a current ratio and a short-circuit current-electric power characteristic coefficient (αγ control). The usefulness of the αβ and the αγ control methods was evaluated. The results showed that the output power controlled by our proposed methods was close to the maximum output power of a solar panel.

  18. New Current-Mode Bandpass Filters Using Three Single-Output ICCIIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available New current-mode bandpass filters using three single outputs inverting second generation current conveyors (ICCII are introduced. The first circuit uses two ICCII+ and one ICCII−, and realizes an inverting bandpass response. This circuit has one floating resistor and no independent gain control. The second circuit uses three ICCII− and realizes a noninverting bandpass response. The third circuit uses three ICCII+ and realizes also a noninverting bandpass response. The second and third circuits employ four grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors and have independent control on Q and on the center frequency gain by varying a single grounded resistor. Spice simulation results using 0.5 um CMOS transistors are included to support the theoretical analysis.

  19. Multi-Inputs/Multi-Outputs control of plasma current and loop voltage on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouailletas, R., E-mail: remy.nouailletas@cea.fr [CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Barana, O.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Brémond, S.; Moreau, P.; Ekedahl, A.; Artaud, J.-F. [CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    During a tokamak discharge, several control modes may have to be run in sequence in order to perform the control of the different discharge phases. The transitions between these control modes are not always easy to handle because in most cases the coupling between the controlled plasma quantities is not taken into account in each control mode design process. This paper presents a new Multi-Inputs/Multi-Outputs (MIMO) controller applied on Tore Supra to control both plasma current and flux variations through the central solenoid voltage and the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system power. It deals with the transition from a loop voltage floating mode to a loop voltage control mode. The controller, synthesized and tuned using a model-based approach, has been validated in simulation before its successful implementation on Tore Supra experiments.

  20. Single-input Multiple-output Tunable Log-domain Current-mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prommee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a current-mode single-input multiple-output (SIMO universal filter based on the log-domain filtering concept. The circuit is a direct realization of a first-order differential equation for obtaining the lossy integrator circuit. Lossless integrators are realized by log-domain lossy integrators. The proposed filter comprises only two grounded capacitors and twenty-four transistors. This filter suits to operate in very high frequency (VHF applications. The pole-frequency of the proposed filter can be controlled over five decade frequency range through bias currents. The pole-Q can be independently controlled with the pole-frequency. Non-ideal effects on the filter are studied in detail. A validated BJT model is used in the simulations operated by a single power supply, as low as 2.5 V. The simulation results using PSpice are included to confirm the good performances and are in agreement with the theory.

  1. Maximizing output power of wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyo ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no denryoku saidaika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan))

    1994-03-20

    This paper reports a method in a wind power generation system to control output current from a generator so that it fits automatically the wind turbine characteristics where the turbine characteristics are unknown and the generator characteristics are known. The paper details the following methods: a method that rotation speed of a wind turbine is observed to make the output current from the generator proportional to a square of the turbine rotation speed, and optimize the proportion coefficient so that the generator output at an equilibrium operation point of this system (wind turbine generated torque is in equilibrium with the generator driven torque) is maximized; and a method to derive an optimal proportion coefficient in discrete time control using a digital computer. The paper then describes the following matters: a simulation that assumes a pseudo natural wind velocity has verified the effectiveness of this control method; discovering an optimal proportion coefficient has required about ten minutes; and the way this control method handles fluctuation in wind velocity has a room of further improvement. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Pharmacological analysis of the activation and receptor properties of the tonic GABA(CR current in retinal bipolar cell terminals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M Jones

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS can occur via rapid, transient postsynaptic currents and via a tonic increase in membrane conductance, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs respectively. Retinal bipolar cells (BCs exhibit a tonic current mediated by GABA(CRs in their axon terminal, in addition to synaptic GABA(AR and GABA(CR currents, which strongly regulate BC output. The tonic GABA(CR current in BC terminals (BCTs is not dependent on vesicular GABA release, but properties such as the alternative source of GABA and the identity of the GABA(CRs remain unknown. Following a recent report that tonic GABA release from cerebellar glial cells is mediated by Bestrophin 1 anion channels, we have investigated their role in non-vesicular GABA release in the retina. Using patch-clamp recordings from BCTs in goldfish retinal slices, we find that the tonic GABA(CR current is not reduced by the anion channel inhibitors NPPB or flufenamic acid but is reduced by DIDS, which decreases the tonic current without directly affecting GABA(CRs. All three drugs also exhibit non-specific effects including inhibition of GABA transporters. GABA(CR ρ subunits can form homomeric and heteromeric receptors that differ in their properties, but BC GABA(CRs are thought to be ρ1-ρ2 heteromers. To investigate whether GABA(CRs mediating tonic and synaptic currents may differ in their subunit composition, as is the case for GABA(ARs, we have examined the effects of two antagonists that show partial ρ subunit selectivity: picrotoxin and cyclothiazide. Tonic and synaptic GABA(CR currents were differentially affected by both drugs, suggesting that a population of homomeric ρ1 receptors contributes to the tonic current. These results extend our understanding of the multiple forms of GABAergic inhibition that exist in the CNS and contribute to visual signal processing in the retina.

  3. Current steering detection scheme of three terminal antenna-coupled terahertz field effect transistor detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Földesy, Péter

    2013-01-01

    An antenna-coupled field effect transistor (FET) as a plasma wave terahertz detector is used with the current steering to record separately the gate-source and gate-drain photoresponses and their phase sensitive combination. This method is based on the observation that the plasmon-terminal coupling is cut off in saturation, resulting in only one-sided sensitivity. A polarimetric example is presented with intensity and polarization angle reconstruction using a single three-terminal antenna-cou...

  4. Probability Density Function of the Output Current of Cascaded Multiplexer/Demultiplexers in Transparent Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebola, João L.; Cartaxo, Adolfo V. T.

    The influence of the concatenation of arbitrary optical multiplexers/demultiplexers (MUX/DEMUXs) on the probability density function (PDF) of the output current of a transparent optical network is assessed. All PDF results obtained analytically are compared with estimates from Monte Carlo simulation and an excellent agreement is achieved. The non-Gaussian behavior of the PDFs, previously reported by other authors for square-law detectors, is significantly enhanced with the number of nodes increase due to the noise accumulation along the cascade of MUX/DEMUXs. The increase of the MUX/DEMUXs bandwidth and detuning also enhances the PDFs non-Gaussian behavior. The PDF shape variation with the detuning depends strongly on the number of nodes. Explanations for the Gaussian approximation (GA) accuracy on the assessment of the performance of a concatenation of optical MUX/DEMUXs are also provided. For infinite extinction ratio and tuned MUX/DEMUXs, the GA error probabilities are, in general, pessimistic, due to the inaccurate estimation of the error probability for both bits. For low extinction ratio, the GA is very accurate due to a balance between the error probabilities estimated for the bits "1" and "0." With the detuning increase, the GA estimates can become optimistic.

  5. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  6. Persistent spin currents in a triple-terminal quantum ring with three arms*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Jian; Wang Suxin; Pan Jianghong; Duan Xiuzhi

    2011-01-01

    A new model of a triple-terminal quantum ring with three arms is proposed. We develop an equivalent method for reducing the triple-terminal quantum ring to the double-terminal quantum ring and calculate the persistent spin currents in this model. The results indicate that the persistent spin currents show behavior of nonperiodic and unequal amplitude oscillation with increasing semiconductor ring size when the total magnetic flux is zero.However, when the total magnetic flux is non-zero, the persistent spin currents make periodic equal amplitude oscillations with increasing AB magnetic flux intensity. At the same time, the two kinds of spin state persistent spin currents have the same frequency and amplitude but the inverse phase. In addition, the Rashba spin-orbit interaction affects the phase and the phase difference of the persistent spin currents. The average persistent spin currents relate to the arm length and the terminal position as well as the distribution of the magnetic flux in each arm. Furthermore,our results indicate that the AB magnetic flux has different influences on the two kinds of spin state electrons.

  7. Series Production of 13 kA Current Leads with Dry and Compact Warm Terminals

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, T P; Vullierme, B

    2005-01-01

    For the LHC magnet test benches 13 pairs of conventional helium vapour-cooled 13 kA current leads are required. The current leads have been designed and built by industry. Attention was given to economical and reliable design and to a design of the warm terminal in order to avoid any condensation. Three pairs of them were tested at CERN. The dry warm terminal enables voltage test at 4.1 kV at cold condition. The paper describes construction details and compares calculated and measured values of the main parameters.

  8. Effect of Pinellia ternata Lectin on Membrane Currents of Mouse Motor Nerve Terminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施玉樑; 徐幼芬; 张辉

    1994-01-01

    Pinellia ternata lectin (PTL) extracted from the fresh juice of rhizome of pinellia ternata used as a traditional Chinese medicine facilitated the quantal release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the mouse motor nerve terminals and formed cation channels in artificial lipid bilayer. Here we report the action of PTL on presynaptic membrane currents of motor nerve terminals.The experiments were performed on the intercostal nerve triangularis sterni muscle preparations. By means of the perineurial recording, the effects of PTL on the sodium current in the preterminal part , three potassium currents and two calcium currents generated from the nerve terminals were investigated. The results show that PTL increases voltage-dependent fast Ca2+ current (ICa,f), Na+ current (INa) and Ca2+-acti-vated K+ current (IK,Ca) without action on either the voltage-dependent fast K+ current (IK,f) or the slow K+ current (IK,S). These effects are irreversible, but can be reversed by mannan, the specific binding sugar for PTL.The to

  9. Current Source Converter Based Multi-terminal DC Wind Energy Conversion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong FAN; Guangyi LIU; Zhanyong YANG; Weiwei MA; Barry W.WILLIAMS

    2013-01-01

    A current source converter based multi-terminal direct current (DC) wind energy conversion system (WECS) is proposed.The current source DC/DC converter is adopted to connect a wind turbine to an inverter with maximum power point control.Each turbine is associated with a DC source by parallel-connected to a common DC link.After DC power collection,a current source inverter (CSI) using gate turn-off components is used for the grid connection due to its flexible reactive power control and short circuit protection capabilities.For such a parallel connection configuration,the CSI operates in an input voltage control mode,which maintains the DC link voltage constant.The dynamic responses of combined mechanical and electrical systems are investigated with three different operation cases.Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and stability of the current source DC/DC converter based multi-terminal DC WECS.

  10. Fast Reactive Power Sharing, Circulating Current and Resonance Suppression for Parallel Inverters Using Resistive-Capacitive Output Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yandong; Guerrero, Josep M.; Shuai, Zhikang

    2016-01-01

    virtual impedance loop, the inverter provides fast transient response. Based on the RC-type inverter modeling, the comparative frequency-domain analysis of equivalent output impedances are discussed, and the impact of the virtual complex impedance over the circulating currents and high......In this paper, an inverter using resistivecapacitive output impedance (RC-type inverter) is proposed not only to provide fast reactive power sharing to support microgrid voltage, and but also to reduce circulating currents and damp high-frequency resonances among inverters. Introducing the RC...

  11. Generation and manipulation of spin current via a hybrid four-terminal single-molecule junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Rong [College of Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Bai Long, E-mail: bailong2100@163.com [College of Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Duan Chenlong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2012-07-01

    We present a new device which consists of a molecular quantum dot (MQD) attached to a normal-metal, two ferromagnetic (FM), and a superconducting leads. The spin-related Andreev reflection (AR) current and the spin-dependent single-particle tunneling current through the normal-metal terminal are obtained, and it is found that the spin current exhibits the transistor-like behavior. The joint effects of the coherent spin flip and the angle between magnetic moments of the two FM leads on the spin current are also studied, these results provide the possibility to manipulate the spin current with the system parameters.

  12. Enhancement of anodic biofilm formation and current output in microbial fuel cells by composite modification of stainless steel electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuxiang; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na; Guo, Kun; Zhou, Yuyang; Xu, Jing; Chen, Wei; Jia, Yufeng; Huang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we first systematically investigate the current output performance of stainless steel electrodes (SS) modified by carbon coating (CC), polyaniline coating (PANI), neutral red grafting (NR), surface hydrophilization (SDBS), and heat treatment (HEAT). The maximum current density of 13.0 A m-2 is obtained on CC electrode (3.0 A m-2 of the untreated anode). Such high performance should be attributed to its large effective surface area, which is 2.3 times that of the unmodified electrode. Compared with SS electrode, about 3-fold increase in current output is achieved with PANI. Functionalization with hydrophilic group and electron medium result in the current output rising to 1.5-2 fold, through enhancing bioadhesive and electron transport rate, respectively. CC modification is the best choice of single modification for SS electrode in this study. However, this modification is not perfect because of its poor hydrophilicity. So CC electrode is modified by SDBS for further enhancing the current output to 16 A m-2. These results could provide guidance for the choice of suitable single modification on SS electrodes and a new method for the perfection of electrode performance through composite modification.

  13. Study on the output current for electrochemical low-energy neutrino detector with regards to oxygen concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Shoya; Ishibashi, Kenji; Riyana, Eka Sapta [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Aida, Yani Nur [SyarifHidatatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta (Indonesia); Nakamura, Shohei [Infrastructure System Company, Hitachi, Tokyo (Japan); Imahayashi, Yoichi [Mitsubishi Electric, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Experiments with small electrochemical apparatus were previously carried out for detecting low-energy neutrinos under irradiation of reactor neutrinos and under natural neutrino environment. The experimental result indicated that the output current of reactor-neutrino irradiated detector was appreciably larger than that of natural environmental one. Usual interaction cross-sections of neutrinos are quite small, so that they do not explain the experimental result at all. To understand the experimental data, we propose that some biological products may generate AV-type scalar field B0, leading to a large interaction cross-section. The output current generation is ascribed to an electrochemical process that may be assisted by weak interaction phenomena. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the detector solution were measured in this study, for the purpose of understanding the mechanism of the detector output current generation. It was found that the time evolution of experimental output current was mostly reproduced in simulation calculation on the basis of the measured dissolved oxygen concentration. We mostly explained the variation of experimental data by using the electrochemical half-cell analysis model based on the DO concentration that is consistent to the experiment.

  14. Multi-terminal direct-current grids modeling, analysis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Nilanjan; Majumder, Rajat; Yazdani, Amirnaser

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive modeling, analysis, and control design framework for multi-terminal direct current (MTDC) grids is presented together with their interaction with the surrounding AC networks and the impact on overall stability. The first book of its kind on the topic of multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grids  Presents a comprehensive modeling framework for MTDC grids which is compatible with the standard AC system modeling for stability studies Includes modal analysis and study of the interactions between the MTDC grid and the surrounding AC systems Addresses the problems of autonomous power sharing an

  15. The Evaluation of Scholarly Books as Research Output. Current Developments in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giminez-Toledo, Elea; Mañana-Rodriguez, Jorge; Engels, Tim;

    2015-01-01

    The relevance and value of books in scholarly communication from both sides, the scholars who chose this format as a communication channel and the instances assessing the scholarly and scientific output is undisputed. Nevertheless, the absence of worldwide comprehensive databases covering the items...... and information needed for the assessment of this type of publication has urged several European countries to develop custom-built information systems for the registration of books, weighting procedures and funding allocation practices enabling a proper assessment of books and book-type publications....... For the first time, these systems make the assessment of books as a research output feasible. This paper resumes the main features of the assessment systems developed in five European countries / regions (Spain, Denmark, Flanders, Finland and Norway), focusing on the processes involved in the collection...

  16. Dual-channel current valve in a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.

    2017-02-01

    We theoretically propose a dual-channel current valve based on a three terminal zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction driven by three asymmetric time-dependent pumping potentials. By means of the Keldysh Green’s function method, we show that two asymmetric charge currents can be pumped in the different left-right terminals of the device at a zero bias, which mainly stems from the single photon-assisted pumping approximation and the valley valve effect in a ZGNR p-n junction. The ON and OFF states of pumped charge currents are crucially dependent on the even-odd chain widths of the three electrodes, the pumping frequency, the lattice potential and the Fermi level. Two-tunneling spin valves are also considered to spatially separate and detect 100% polarized spin currents owing to the combined spin pump effect and the valley selective transport in a three terminal ZGNR ferromagnetic junction. Our investigations might be helpful to control the spatial and spin degrees of freedom of electrons in graphene pumping devices.

  17. COOH-terminal truncation of flightin decreases myofilament lattice organization, cross-bridge binding, and power output in Drosophila indirect flight muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Bertrand C W; Miller, Mark S; Miller, Becky M; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Irving, Thomas C; Maughan, David W; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2011-08-01

    The indirect flight muscle (IFM) of insects is characterized by a near crystalline myofilament lattice structure that likely evolved to achieve high power output. In Drosophila IFM, the myosin rod binding protein flightin plays a crucial role in thick filament organization and sarcomere integrity. Here we investigate the extent to which the COOH terminus of flightin contributes to IFM structure and mechanical performance using transgenic Drosophila expressing a truncated flightin lacking the 44 COOH-terminal amino acids (fln(ΔC44)). Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements show decreased myofilament lattice order in the fln(ΔC44) line compared with control, a transgenic flightin-null rescued line (fln(+)). fln(ΔC44) fibers produced roughly 1/3 the oscillatory work and power of fln(+), with reduced frequencies of maximum work (123 Hz vs. 154 Hz) and power (139 Hz vs. 187 Hz) output, indicating slower myosin cycling kinetics. These reductions in work and power stem from a slower rate of cross-bridge recruitment and decreased cross-bridge binding in fln(ΔC44) fibers, although the mean duration of cross-bridge attachment was not different between both lines. The decreases in lattice order and myosin kinetics resulted in fln(ΔC44) flies being unable to beat their wings. These results indicate that the COOH terminus of flightin is necessary for normal myofilament lattice organization, thereby facilitating the cross-bridge binding required to achieve high power output for flight.

  18. The Evaluation of Scholarly Books as Research Output. Current Developments in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giminez-Toledo, Elea; Mañana-Rodriguez, Jorge; Engels, Tim

    2015-01-01

    and information needed for the assessment of this type of publication has urged several European countries to develop custom-built information systems for the registration of books, weighting procedures and funding allocation practices enabling a proper assessment of books and book-type publications....... For the first time, these systems make the assessment of books as a research output feasible. This paper resumes the main features of the assessment systems developed in five European countries / regions (Spain, Denmark, Flanders, Finland and Norway), focusing on the processes involved in the collection...

  19. The effect of the random distribution of electronic components in the output characteristics of the Howland current source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Felipe, A.

    2013-04-01

    When a Howland source is designed, the components are chosen so that the designed source has the desired characteristics. However, the operational amplifier limitations and resistor tolerances causes undesired behaviours. This work proposes to take in account the influence of the random distribution of the commercial resistors in the Howland circuit over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 MHz. The probability density function due to small changes over the resistors was calculated by using an analytical model. Results show that both output current and impedance are very sensitive to the resistor tolerances. It is shown that the output impedance is very dependent on the open-loop gain of the Opamp rather than the resistor tolerances, especially at higher frequencies. This might improve the implementations of real current source used in electrical bioimpedance.

  20. Shearing Mechanism of Straight Thin Copper Wires at Connecting Terminal due to Lightning Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-bo; Takahiro OTSUKA; Toru IWAO; Tsuginori INABA1

    2007-01-01

    When a lightning current is impressed through a copper wire,the copper wire would be melted.A straight thin copper wire with a diameter of 0.1 mm,is melted due to the specific melting Joule heating (j2t)m in an adiabatic condition.However,it has been recognized in the at the connecting terminal by a relatively low impulse current.Electro-magnetic mechanical shearing stress,etc.are discussed in addition to the conventional Joule heating. New broken mechanisms were presumed and proved in the additional experiments.

  1. Current steering detection scheme of three terminal antenna-coupled terahertz field effect transistor detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földesy, Péter

    2013-08-01

    An antenna-coupled field effect transistor (FET) as a plasma wave terahertz detector is used with the current steering to record separately the gate-source and gate-drain photoresponses and their phase sensitive combination. This method is based on the observation that the plasmon-terminal coupling is cut off in saturation, resulting in only one-sided sensitivity. A polarimetric example is presented with intensity and polarization angle reconstruction using a single three-terminal antenna-coupled Si-metal-oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET). The technique is applicable to various detection schemes and technologies (high electron mobility transistors and GaAs-, GaN-, and Si-MOSFETs), and other application possibilities are discussed.

  2. Analysis and Minimization of Output Current Ripple for Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation Techniques in Three-Phase Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Grandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the complete analysis of the output current ripple in three-phase voltage source inverters considering the different discontinuous pulse-width modulation (DPWM strategies. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically evaluated over the fundamental period and compared among the most used DPWMs, including positive and negative clamped (DPWM+ and DPWM−, and the four possible combinations between them, usually named as DPWM0, DPWM1, DPWM2, and DPWM3. The maximum and the average values of peak-to-peak current ripple are estimated, and a simple method to correlate the ripple envelope with the ripple rms is proposed and verified. Furthermore, all the results obtained by DPWMs are compared to the centered pulse-width modulation (CPWM, equivalent to the space vector modulation to identify the optimal pulse-width modulation (PWM strategy as a function of the modulation index, taking into account the different average switching frequency. In this way, the PWM technique providing for the minimum output current ripple is identified over the whole modulation range. The analytical developments and the main results are experimentally verified by current ripple measurements with a three-phase PWM inverter prototype supplying an induction motor load.

  3. Four types of potassium currents in motor nerve terminals of snake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施玉樑; 顾琛; 徐幼芬

    1997-01-01

    The experiments were perfomed on transvcrsus abdominis muscle of Elaphe dione by subendothelial recording. The results indicate that in snake motor nerve endings there exist four types of K* channels, i.e. voltage-dependent fast and slow K+ channels, Ca2 +-activated K+ channel and ATP-sensitive K+ channel, (i) The typical wave form of snake terminal current was the double-peaked negativity in standard solution. The first peak was at-tributed to Na influx (INa) in nodes of Ranvier. The second one was blocked by 3, 4-aminopyridine (3, 4-DAP) or te-traethylammonium (TEA), which corresponded to fast K+ outward current (IKF) through the fast K* channels in terminal part, (ii) After IKF as well as the slow K+ current (IKS) were blocked by 3, 4-DAP, the TEA-sensitive Ca2+-dependent K+ current (IK(Ca)) passing through Ca2+-activated K+ channel was revealed, whose amplitude depended on [K+ ]and [Ca2+ ] It was blocked by Ba2+ , Cd2+ or Co2+ . (iii) IK.F and IK(Ca) were blocked by TEA, while IK.S was retained. It

  4. Atlantis model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  5. The Implementation Of Solid State Switches In A Parallel Configuration To Gain Output Current Capacity In A High Current Capacitive Discharge Unit (CDU).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Mario Paul [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    For my project I have selected to research and design a high current pulse system, which will be externally triggered from a 5V pulse. The research will be conducted in the region of paralleling the solid state switches for a higher current output, as well as to see if there will be any other advantages in doing so. The end use of the paralleled solid state switches will be used on a Capacitive Discharge Unit (CDU). For the first part of my project, I have set my focus on the design of the circuit, selection of components, and simulation of the circuit.

  6. Flame oxidation of stainless steel felt enhances anodic biofilm formation and current output in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Donose, Bogdan C; Soeriyadi, Alexander H; Prévoteau, Antonin; Patil, Sunil A; Freguia, Stefano; Gooding, J Justin; Rabaey, Korneel

    2014-06-17

    Stainless steel (SS) can be an attractive material to create large electrodes for microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), due to its low cost and high conductivity. However, poor biocompatibility limits its successful application today. Here we report a simple and effective method to make SS electrodes biocompatible by means of flame oxidation. Physicochemical characterization of electrode surface indicated that iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were generated in situ on an SS felt surface by flame oxidation. IONPs-coating dramatically enhanced the biocompatibility of SS felt and consequently resulted in a robust electroactive biofilm formation at its surface in BESs. The maximum current densities reached at IONPs-coated SS felt electrodes were 16.5 times and 4.8 times higher than the untreated SS felts and carbon felts, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum current density achieved with the IONPs-coated SS felt (1.92 mA/cm(2), 27.42 mA/cm(3)) is one of the highest current densities reported thus far. These results demonstrate for the first time that flame oxidized SS felts could be a good alternative to carbon-based electrodes for achieving high current densities in BESs. Most importantly, high conductivity, excellent mechanical strength, strong chemical stability, large specific surface area, and comparatively low cost of flame oxidized SS felts offer exciting opportunities for scaling-up of the anodes for BESs.

  7. Solar Current Output as a Function of Sun Elevation: Students as Toolmakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, D. P.; Parisi, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Solar current is an increasingly important aspect of modern life and will be even more so crucial in the students' future. Encouraging students to be the "toolmakers" allows students to take ownership of scientific investigations, as well as forcing them to refine their research questions and hypothesis, including the design and…

  8. Model Predictive Current Control for High-Power Grid-Connected Converters with Output LCL Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delpino, Hernan Anres Miranda; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    A model predictive control strategy for a highpower, grid connected 3-level neutral clamped point converter is presented. Power losses constraints set a limit on commutation losses so reduced switching frequency is required, thus producing low frequency current harmonics. To reduce these harmonics...... an LCL filter is used. The proposed control strategy allows control of the active and reactive power fed into the grid, reduce the switching frequency within acceptable operational margins and keep balance of the DC-link capacitor voltages while avoiding excitation of the filter resonance frequencies....

  9. Modulation of the input-output function by GABAA receptor-mediated currents in rat oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Torrelo, Julio; Torres, Blas; Carrascal, Livia

    2014-11-15

    The neuronal input-output function depends on recruitment threshold and gain of the firing frequency-current (f-I) relationship. These two parameters are positively correlated in ocular motoneurons (MNs) recorded in alert preparation and inhibitory inputs could contribute to this correlation. Phasic inhibition mediated by γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) occurs when a high concentration of GABA at the synaptic cleft activates postsynaptic GABAA receptors, allowing neuronal information transfer. In some neuronal populations, low concentrations of GABA activate non-synaptic GABAA receptors and generate a tonic inhibition, which modulates cell excitability. This study determined how ambient GABA concentrations modulate the input-output relationship of rat oculomotor nucleus MNs. Superfusion of brain slices with GABA (100 μm) produced a GABAA receptor-mediated current that reduced the input resistance, increased the recruitment threshold and shifted the f-I relationship rightward without any change in gain. These modifications did not depend on MN size. In absence of exogenous GABA, gabazine (20 μm; antagonist of GABAA receptors) abolished spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents and revealed a tonic current in MNs. Gabazine increased input resistance and decreased recruitment threshold mainly in larger MNs. The f-I relationship shifted to the left, without any change in gain. Gabazine effects were chiefly due to MN tonic inhibition because tonic current amplitude was five-fold greater than phasic. This study demonstrates a tonic inhibition in ocular MNs that modulates cell excitability depending on cell size. We suggest that GABAA tonic inhibition acting concurrently with glutamate receptors activation could reproduce the positive covariation between threshold and gain reported in alert preparation.

  10. Comparison of multi-proxy data with past1000 model output over the Terminal Classic Period (800-1000 A.D.) on the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, S.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Allen, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The decline of the Mayan Civilization is thought to be caused by a series of droughts that affected the Yucatan Peninsula during the Terminal Classic Period (T.C.P.) 800-1000 AD. The goals of this study are two-fold: (a) to compare paleo-model simulations of the past 1000 years with a compilation of multiple proxies of changes in moisture conditions for the Yucatan Peninsula during the T.C.P. and (b) to use this comparison to inform the modeling of groundwater recharge in this region, with a focus on generating the daily climate data series needed as input to a groundwater recharge model. To achieve the first objective, we compiled a dataset of 5 proxies from seven locations across the Yucatan Peninsula, to be compared with temperature and precipitation output from the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4), which is part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) past1000 experiment. The proxy dataset includes oxygen isotopes from speleothems and gastropod/ostrocod shells (11 records); and sediment density, mineralogy, and magnetic susceptibility records from lake sediment cores (3 records). The proxy dataset is supplemented by a compilation of reconstructed temperatures using pollen and tree ring records for North America (archived in the PAGES2k global network data). Our preliminary analysis suggests that many of these datasets show evidence of drier and warmer climate on the Yucatan Peninsula around the T.C.P. when compared to modern conditions, although the amplitude and timing of individual warming and drying events varies between sites. This comparison with modeled output will ultimately be used to inform backward shift factors that will be input to a stochastic weather generator. These shift factors will be based on monthly changes in temperature and precipitation and applied to a modern daily climate time series for the Yucatan Peninsula to produce a daily climate time series for the T.C.P.

  11. Manufacturing design and development of the current feeders and coil terminal boxes for JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Kaname, E-mail: kizu.kaname@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Murakami, Haruyuki; Natsume, Kyohei; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koide, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Obana, Tetsuhiro; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Takahata, Kazuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Key components for current feeding system for JT-60SA were developed and tested. • The joint resistance of feeder joint sample was 1.7 nΩ at 2 T, 20 kA. • Trial manufacturing of crank shaped feeder showed the max. dimensional error of 3 mm. • Feeder insulation samples showed >60 MPa in shear strength at 77 K. - Abstract: Feeders and coil terminal boxes (CTBs) of the superconducting magnets for JT-60SA have been designed. A small tool which can connect soldering joint with vertical direction in the cryostat has been developed. The joint resistance of the sample showed 1.7 nΩ at 2 T, 4.2 K, 20 kA which is within the requirement of <5 nΩ. A prototype feeder in CTB with crank shape was manufactured. The maximum dimensional error was 3 mm being within the requirement of ±10 mm. Feeder insulation samples showed a shear strength >60 MPa which is much higher than the requirement of 10 MPa as derived from analysis. Since all the manufacturing processes concerned have been proof-tested, the production of feeders and CTBs has been released.

  12. Fault Modeling and Testing for Analog Circuits in Complex Space Based on Supply Current and Output Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of fault for analog circuits. A two-dimensional (2D fault model is first proposed based on collaborative analysis of supply current and output voltage. This model is a family of circle loci on the complex plane, and it simplifies greatly the algorithms for test point selection and potential fault simulations, which are primary difficulties in fault diagnosis of analog circuits. Furthermore, in order to reduce the difficulty of fault location, an improved fault model in three-dimensional (3D complex space is proposed, which achieves a far better fault detection ratio (FDR against measurement error and parametric tolerance. To address the problem of fault masking in both 2D and 3D fault models, this paper proposes an effective design for testability (DFT method. By adding redundant bypassing-components in the circuit under test (CUT, this method achieves excellent fault isolation ratio (FIR in ambiguity group isolation. The efficacy of the proposed model and testing method is validated through experimental results provided in this paper.

  13. The effectiveness of a high output/short duration radiofrequency current application technique in segmental pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Brian; Chen, Xu; Pehrson, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: Segmental pulmonary vein (PV) isolation by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation has become a curative therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the long procedure time limits the wide application of this procedure. The aim of the current study was to compare a novel ablation technique...... with a high power output and short application time vs. a conventional technique using a low power output and long application time. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 90 consecutive patients (age 53+/-10 years; 66 men). Segmental PV isolation was performed by irrigated RF catheter ablation in both...... groups. In the conventional group (Group 1, 45 patients), the power output was limited to 30 W with a target temperature of 50 degrees C and an RF preset duration of 120 s. In the novel group (Group 2, 45 patients), the maximum power output was preset to 45 W, with a target temperature of 55 degrees C...

  14. A Current-Mode Buck DC-DC Converter with Frequency Characteristics Independent of Input and Output Voltages Using a Quadratic Compensation Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Toru; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro

    By using a quadratic compensation slope, a CMOS current-mode buck DC-DC converter with constant frequency characteristics over wide input and output voltage ranges has been developed. The use of a quadratic slope instead of a conventional linear slope makes both the damping factor in the transfer function and the frequency bandwidth of the current feedback loop independent of the converter's output voltage settings. When the coefficient of the quadratic slope is chosen to be dependent on the input voltage settings, the damping factor in the transfer function and the frequency bandwidth of the current feedback loop both become independent of the input voltage settings. Thus, both the input and output voltage dependences in the current feedback loop are eliminated, the frequency characteristics become constant, and the frequency bandwidth is maximized. To verify the effectiveness of a quadratic compensation slope with a coefficient that is dependent on the input voltage in a buck DC-DC converter, we fabricated a test chip using a 0.18µm high-voltage CMOS process. The evaluation results show that the frequency characteristics of both the total feedback loop and the current feedback loop are constant even when the input and output voltages are changed from 2.5V to 7V and from 0.5V to 5.6V, respectively, using a 3MHz clock.

  15. Role of Interventional Radiology in the Management of Chylothorax: A Review of the Current Management of High Output Chylothorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Stuart, E-mail: lyonsey@optusnet.com.au; Mott, Nigel, E-mail: nigelmott76@hotmail.com; Koukounaras, Jim; Shoobridge, Jen [Alfred Hospital, Department of Radiology (Australia); Hudson, Patricio Vargas [Clinica Alemana, Department of Radiology (Chile)

    2013-06-15

    Chylothorax is an uncommon type of pleural effusion whose etiology may be classified as traumatic or nontraumatic. Low-output chylothoraces usually respond well to conservative management, whereas high-output chylothoraces are more likely to require surgical or interventional treatment. Conservative management focuses on alleviation of symptoms, replacement of fluid and nutrient losses, and reduction of chyle output to facilitate spontaneous healing. Surgical management can be technically difficult due to the high incidence of variant anatomy and the high-risk patient population. Percutaneous treatments have rapidly developed and evolved during the past 14 years to represent a minimally invasive treatment compared with the more invasive nature of surgery. Percutaneous therapies provide a range of treatment options despite difficult or variant anatomy, with a reported high success rate coupled with low morbidity and mortality. This article is a review of etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chylothorax, with a focus on interventional management techniques.

  16. Adaptive controller design based on input-output signal selection for voltage source converter high voltage direct current systems to improve power system stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdolkhalegh Hamidi; Jamal Beiza; Ebrahim Babaei; Sohrab Khanmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    An input-output signal selection based on Phillips-Heffron model of a parallel high voltage alternative current/high voltage direct current (HVAC/HVDC) power system is presented to study power system stability. It is well known that appropriate coupling of inputs-outputs signals in the multivariable HVDC-HVAC system can improve the performance of designed supplemetary controller. In this work, different analysis techniques are used to measure controllability and observability of electromechanical oscillation mode. Also inputs–outputs interactions are considered and suggestions are drawn to select the best signal pair through the system inputs-outputs. In addition, a supplementary online adaptive controller for nonlinear HVDC to damp low frequency oscillations in a weakly connected system is proposed. The results obtained using MATLAB software show that the best output-input for damping controller design is rotor speed deviation as out put and phase angle of rectifier as in put. Also response of system equipped with adaptive damping controller based on HVDC system has appropriate performance when it is faced with faults and disturbance.

  17. 1 kW, 9 kV dc-dc converter module with time-sharing control of output voltage and input current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgatti, R.; Stefani, R.; Bressan, O.; Bicciato, F. [F.I.A.R. Electronic Systems Group, Milan (Italy). Avionics Div.; Tenti, P.; Rossetto, L. [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1993-10-01

    The paper describes a dc-dc power module based on a single-stage current-fed converter structure. Control is made according to a time-sharing strategy allowing simultaneous regulation of output voltage and input current. This solution is suitable for high-performance space and avionic applications, giving high efficiency, compactness, and accuracy, speed and robustness of control. Theoretical analysis, design criteria, and experimental results are reported. Application to radar supplies is discussed.

  18. Effects of magnetic field orientation and injected current density on the output of nano-structured Co/Cu/Fe junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Co/Cu/Fe nano-sized sandwich thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation. 5 μm×5 μm Co/Cu/Fe sandwich heterojunction was made using photolithography and lift-off process. The bipolar output signal of Co/Cu/Fe junctions has been measured and analyzed. The effects of applied magnetic field angle (referring to the normal of the junction plane) and injecting spin-polarized current on the output signals have been studied, and the measured results were discussed.

  19. Current dependence of heat leak on the terminals in the superconducting DC transmission and distribution system of CASER-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Emoto, Masahiko; Hamabe, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Sataro; Hikichi, Yasuo; Minowa, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Superconductivity can solve the energy problems in the world as energy saving technologies. In particular, superconducting direct current (DC) transmission and distribution (T&D) systems is promising, as it can be easily extended to large scale energy transmission systems for energy sharing. We are developing criogenic systems for effective cooling of superconducting T&D systems. In the cooling experiments with the 200 m-class superconducting DC T&D system at Chubu University (CASER-2), we have estimated the performance of the system. For example, our superconducting cable is connected to the outside at the terminals using Peltier current leads (PCLs). The PCL is composed of a thermoelectric material and a copper lead. Small thermal conductivity and large thermopower of the thermoelectric modules can effectively insulate the heat leak to the low temperature end. We measured the temperature along the current leads and the heat leak at the terminals. As current leads have an optimal shape factor, the optimum operation current exists. The current dependence of the system performance is discussed.

  20. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  1. Hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in vestibular calyx terminals: characterization and role in shaping postsynaptic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Frances L; Benke, Tim A; Rennie, Katherine J

    2012-12-01

    Calyx afferent terminals engulf the basolateral region of type I vestibular hair cells, and synaptic transmission across the vestibular type I hair cell/calyx is not well understood. Calyces express several ionic conductances, which may shape postsynaptic potentials. These include previously described tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward Na(+) currents, voltage-dependent outward K(+) currents and a K(Ca) current. Here, we characterize an inwardly rectifying conductance in gerbil semicircular canal calyx terminals (postnatal days 3-45), sensitive to voltage and to cyclic nucleotides. Using whole-cell patch clamp, we recorded from isolated calyx terminals still attached to their type I hair cells. A slowly activating, noninactivating current (I(h)) was seen with hyperpolarizing voltage steps negative to the resting potential. External Cs(+) (1-5 mM) and ZD7288 (100 μM) blocked the inward current by 97 and 83 %, respectively, confirming that I(h) was carried by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated channels. Mean half-activation voltage of I(h) was -123 mV, which shifted to -114 mV in the presence of cAMP. Activation of I(h) was well described with a third order exponential fit to the current (mean time constant of activation, τ, was 190 ms at -139 mV). Activation speeded up significantly (τ=136 and 127 ms, respectively) when intracellular cAMP and cGMP were present, suggesting that in vivo I(h) could be subject to efferent modulation via cyclic nucleotide-dependent mechanisms. In current clamp, hyperpolarizing current steps produced a time-dependent depolarizing sag followed by either a rebound afterdepolarization or an action potential. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) became larger and wider when I(h) was blocked with ZD7288. In a three-dimensional mathematical model of the calyx terminal based on Hodgkin-Huxley type ionic conductances, removal of I(h) similarly increased the EPSP, whereas cAMP slightly decreased simulated EPSP size

  2. Design of Nonlinear Robust Rotor Current Controller for DFIG Based on Terminal Sliding Mode Control and Extended State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As to strong nonlinearity of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG and uncertainty of its model, a novel rotor current controller with nonlinearity and robustness is proposed to enhance fault ride-though (FRT capacities of grid-connected DFIG. Firstly, the model error, external disturbances, and the uncertain factors were estimated by constructing extended state observer (ESO so as to achieve linearization model, which is compensated dynamically from nonlinear model. And then rotor current controller of DFIG is designed by using terminal sliding mode variable structure control theory (TSMC. The controller has superior dynamic performance and strong robustness. The simulation results show that the proposed control approach is effective.

  3. The direct relationship between output power and current carrying capability of rotor bars in HTS induction/synchronous motor with the use of DI-BSCCO tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T; Nagao, K; Nishimura, T; Ogama, Y; Kawamoto, M [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, 1 Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-Ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Okazaki, T; Ayai, N; Oyama, H [Electric Power and Energy Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd, 1-1-3, Shimaya, Konohaya-Ku, Osaka 554-0024 (Japan)], E-mail: tk_naka@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-08-15

    We report on the direct relationship between output power and the current carrying capability of a squirrel-cage HTS induction/synchronous motor based on experiment. The secondary windings are fabricated by use of so-called DI-BSCCO tapes, and the conventional (normal conducting) stator, three-phase and four-pole, is utilized. The tests are carried out in liquid nitrogen for two kinds of HTS windings, in which the number of HTS rotor bars is varied. It is directly shown that the output power is proportional to the rotor bars' critical current at 77 K. In other words, the torque can be enlarged by increasing the critical current of the HTS rotor bars.

  4. AC Voltage Control of DC/DC Converters Based on Modular Multilevel Converters in Multi-Terminal High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The AC voltage control of a DC/DC converter based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC is considered under normal operation and during a local DC fault. By actively setting the AC voltage according to the two DC voltages of the DC/DC converter, the modulation index can be near unity, and the DC voltage is effectively utilized to output higher AC voltage. This significantly decreases submodule (SM capacitance and conduction losses of the DC/DC converter, yielding reduced capital cost, volume, and higher efficiency. Additionally, the AC voltage is limited in the controllable range of both the MMCs in the DC/DC converter; thus, over-modulation and uncontrolled currents are actively avoided. The AC voltage control of the DC/DC converter during local DC faults, i.e., standby operation, is also proposed, where only the MMC connected on the faulty cable is blocked, while the other MMC remains operational with zero AC voltage output. Thus, the capacitor voltages can be regulated at the rated value and the decrease of the SM capacitor voltages after the blocking of the DC/DC converter is avoided. Moreover, the fault can still be isolated as quickly as the conventional approach, where both MMCs are blocked and the DC/DC converter is not exposed to the risk of overcurrent. The proposed AC voltage control strategy is assessed in a three-terminal high-voltage direct current (HVDC system incorporating a DC/DC converter, and the simulation results confirm its feasibility.

  5. Differential Amplifier with Current-Mirror Load: Influence of Current Gain, Early Voltage, and Supply Voltage on the DC Output Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, G. F.; Mayer, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    A differential amplifier composed of an emitter-coupled pair is useful as an example in lecture presentations and laboratory experiments in electronic circuit analysis courses. However, in an active circuit with zero input load V[subscript id], both laboratory measurements and PSPICE and LTspice simulation results for the output voltage…

  6. Design of a pulse-triggered four-channel functional electrical stimulator using complementary current source and time division multiplexing output method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Zong-Hao; Zhou, Yu-Xuan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a four-channel pulse-triggered functional electrical stimulator using complementary current source and time division output method is proposed for the research and application of functional electrical stimulation (FES). The high-voltage compliance and output impedance is increased by adopting the complementary current source, which can also realize the linear voltage-to-current conversion and high channel isolation. A high-voltage analog switch chip MAX14803, combined with a FIFO queue algorithm in the microprocessor, is used to setup the H-bridge and multiplexers for the four-channel time division multiplexing output. With this method, the size and cost of the key components are reduced greatly. The stimulating core circuit area is 30 × 50 mm(2). According to the experiments, the stimulator can achieve the four-channel charge-balanced biphasic stimulation with a current range between 0 and 60 mA and a single-phase pulse amplitude up to 60 V.

  7. An N-terminal deletion variant of HCN1 in the epileptic WAG/Rij strain modulates HCN current densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemhöner, Konstantin; Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Silbernagel, Nicole; Fernandez-Orth, Juncal; Bittner, Stefan; Kiper, Aytug K; Rinné, Susanne; Netter, Michael F; Meuth, Sven G; Budde, Thomas; Decher, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Rats of the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) strain show symptoms resembling human absence epilepsy. Thalamocortical neurons of WAG/Rij rats are characterized by an increased HCN1 expression, a negative shift in I h activation curve, and an altered responsiveness of I h to cAMP. We cloned HCN1 channels from rat thalamic cDNA libraries of the WAG/Rij strain and found an N-terminal deletion of 37 amino acids. In addition, WAG-HCN1 has a stretch of six amino acids, directly following the deletion, where the wild-type sequence (GNSVCF) is changed to a polyserine motif. These alterations were found solely in thalamus mRNA but not in genomic DNA. The truncated WAG-HCN1 was detected late postnatal in WAG/Rij rats and was not passed on to rats obtained from pairing WAG/Rij and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish rats. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed 2.2-fold increased current amplitude of WAG-HCN1 compared to rat HCN1. While WAG-HCN1 channels did not have altered current kinetics or changed regulation by protein kinases, fluorescence imaging revealed a faster and more pronounced surface expression of WAG-HCN1. Using co-expression experiments, we found that WAG-HCN1 channels suppress heteromeric HCN2 and HCN4 currents. Moreover, heteromeric channels of WAG-HCN1 with HCN2 have a reduced cAMP sensitivity. Functional studies revealed that the gain-of-function of WAG-HCN1 is not caused by the N-terminal deletion alone, thus requiring a change of the N-terminal GNSVCF motif. Our findings may help to explain previous observations in neurons of the WAG/Rij strain and indicate that WAG-HCN1 may contribute to the genesis of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.

  8. An N-terminal deletion variant of HCN1 in the epileptic WAG/Rij strain modulates HCN current densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin eWemhöner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rats of the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij strain show symptoms resembling human absence epilepsy. Thalamocortical neurons of WAG/Rij rats are characterized by an increased HCN1 expression, a negative shift in Ih activation curve, and an altered responsiveness of Ih to cAMP. We cloned HCN1 channels from rat thalamic cDNA libraries of the WAG/Rij strain and found an N-terminal deletion of 37 amino acids. In addition, WAG-HCN1 has a stretch of six amino acids, directly following the deletion, where the wild-type sequence (GNSVCF is changed to a polyserine motif. These alterations were found solely in thalamus mRNA but not in genomic DNA. The truncated WAG-HCN1 was detected late postnatal in WAG/Rij rats and was not passed on to rats obtained from pairing WAG/Rij and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish (ACI rats. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed 2.2-fold increased current amplitude of WAG-HCN1 compared to rat HCN1. While WAG-HCN1 channels did not have altered current kinetics or changed regulation by protein kinases, fluorescence imaging revealed a faster and more pronounced surface expression of WAG-HCN1. Using co-expression experiments, we found that WAG-HCN1 channels suppress heteromeric HCN2 and HCN4 currents. Moreover, heteromeric channels of WAG HCN1 with HCN2 have a reduced cAMP sensitivity. Functional studies revealed that the gain-of-function of WAG-HCN1 is not caused by the N-terminal deletion alone, thus requiring a change of the N-terminal GNSVCF motif. Our findings may help to explain previous observations in neurons of the WAG/Rij strain and indicate that WAG HCN1 may contribute to the genesis of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.

  9. Input-Parallel Output-Parallel (IPOP) Three-Level (TL) DC/DC Converters with Interleaving Control Strategy for Minimizing and Balancing Capacitor Ripple Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Gong, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the input-parallel output-parallel (IPOP) three-level (TL) DC/DC converters associated with the interleaving control strategy are proposed for minimizing and balancing the capacitor ripple currents. The proposed converters consist of two four-switch half-bridge three-level (HBTL) DC....../DC converters featuring with simple and compact circuit structures, which can reduce the current stresses of the components and increase the power rating of the converter. The combination of the proposed IPOP TL circuit structure and the interleaving control strategy can greatly reduce the ripple currents...... on the two input capacitor not only by doubling the frequencies of these ripple currents as the universal benefit of utilizing the interleaving control strategy but also by counteracting part of these ripple currents due to the operation principle of the proposed IPOP TL circuit structure. More importantly...

  10. Differential-output B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA, 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Wagoner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator’s 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator’s 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs, and 2 current monitors on the accelerator’s inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator’s power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-Ω balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-Ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample, numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  11. 3-Terminal pMTJ reduces critical current and switching time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lanting [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Khizroev, Sakhrat [Department of Electrical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Liang, Ping [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    To realize the potential of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for high-density non-volatile memory and non-volatile logic, the critical current to switch the magnetization must be lowered. This paper presents a simulation study of a new structure of perpendicular MTJs (pMTJs) which divides the fixed layer into two coupling parts. We investigate the TMR and the critical current density of this new pMTJ by micromagnetic simulation using OOMMF for various cases. The simulation results show that this new structure pMTJ has lower critical current and shorter switching time compared to the conventional three-layer MTJs. - Highlights: • We investigate the factors which may affect the critical current density. • A new structure of 3-ternimal perpendicular MTJ is proposed which can switch between two states without changing the direction of the induced current. • Energy consumed will be lowered since a relatively low induced current density is needed. • The switching time between different states is shorter than conventional perpendicular MTJs.

  12. Observing Magnetic and Current Profiles of the Night side and Terminator of Mars through the Mars Global Surveyor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, N.; Fillingim, M. O.; Fogle, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mars has no global magnetic field. Changes in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can impact the upper atmosphere and induce currents in the ionosphere of Mars. During aerobraking maneuvers, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made over 1000 passes through Mars's ionosphere. During these passes, MGS measured the local magnetic field. From these measurements, we can determine the ionospheric currents. We restrict our analysis to passes where the radial component of the magnetic field is nearly zero. This restriction, along with some assumptions about the gradients in the magnetic field, allows us to estimate the horizontal ionospheric currents. Additionally, we focus on the magnetic field data acquired over regions above negligible crustal magnetic fields in order to simplify the analysis. At a maximum altitude of 250 km, the Mars map was segmented to 30 by 30 degrees east longitude and latitude for analysis. We find that on the night side, where the solar zenith angle (SZA) lies between 130 to 180 degrees, only 4% of the data (out of a total of 52 profiles) is usable for computing currents, that is the radial component of the magnetic field is nearly zero. We also find that near the terminator, where the SZA lies between 50 to 130 degrees, an average of 2% of the magnetic field profiles (out of 1905) are usable to compute currents. This implies that currents are rarely horizontal (as required by our assumptions) in these regions. The currents computed from these profiles can give us insights into how the changing solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can affect the upper atmosphere of Mars. For example, induced currents can lead to Joule heating of the atmosphere potentially modifying the neutral dynamics.

  13. Influence of the branches width on the nonlinear output characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs-based three-terminal junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.; González, T.; Pardo, D.; Gardès, C.; Roelens, Y.; Bollaert, S.; Mateos, J.

    2009-05-01

    In this work, the influence of the geometry of the different branches on the output characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs three-branch junctions is analyzed. At room temperature experimental measurements show that when increasing the width of the horizontal branches, the nonlinear behavior persists, even if less pronounced. This implies a reduction in the (typically high) impedance of these nanodevices, which is quite interesting in order to minimize the influence of parasitic capacitances on their cutoff frequency and to decrease the reflected power due to the mismatch with the 50 Ω standard equipment. The width of the vertical branch is also a relevant parameter, nonlinear effects being more important for narrow branches. In both cases surface charges at the etched boundaries of the branches play a key role. Monte Carlo simulations (performed with a self-consistent surface charge model recently proposed by the authors) are used to explain the physical origin of the observed behavior and to improve the device performance. We focus on the enhancement of their efficiency as a way to develop their promising functionalities in various analog and digital circuits.

  14. The effect of 3,3-di-pyridyl-methyl-1-phenyl-2-indolinone on the nerve terminal currents of mouse skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M C; Su, J L; Chen, M L; Fan, S Z; Cheng, C Y

    1992-09-01

    The effects of 3,3-dipyridyl-methyl-1-phenyl-2-indolinone (DPMPI), a new cognition enhancer, on perineural waveforms were assessed on triangularis sterni nerve-muscle preparations in the mouse. The perineural waveforms were recorded with extracellular electrodes placed in the perineural sheaths of motor nerves. At 64.5 microM, DPMPI decreased the fast potassium current of the nerve terminal. The sodium current, calcium currents and calcium-dependent potassium current of the nerve terminal were not affected. At a greater concentration (215 microM), DPMPI decreased all of the components of the waveforms associated with sodium, potassium and calcium currents. It is concluded that DPMPI affects potassium, as well as sodium currents in the nerve terminal. The effect may contribute to its pharmacological actions on synaptic transmission.

  15. 数字式LLC宽电压输出LED恒流驱动设计%Digital LLC wide voltage output LED constant current driver design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍军

    2015-01-01

    The LLC is a kind of high power converter topology, especially, with the growing trend of the LED module be in high voltage & low current. LLC has become a very appropriate choice of LED driver. The challenge exist in LLC design of wide voltage output constant current source , it is difficult to give attention to both high efficiency and low EMI and wide range of output voltage. Digital power supply with distinct advantage regarding as the overall cost, functionality, scalability, reliability, dimmer, the communication etc.This paper aims to put forward the new design concept of problem solving. A 200w prototype digital constant current source approached with digital processing, and 94% up system efficiency reached within twice as output of the voltage, as well as a good EMI performance fulfilled.%LLC是一种优良的电源转换拓扑,特别在LED模组在向高电压低电流方向发展时,LLC成为了LED驱动非常合适的选择。LLC在宽范围输出电压恒流源设计中存在着挑战,很难兼顾高效率、低的EMI和宽的输出电压范围。数字电源在整体成本、功能可扩展性、可靠性、调光、通信等方面具有明显的优势。本文针对问题提出了新的设计思路,并用数字式的方法去实现了一台200W数字式恒流源样机,在两倍的输出电压范围内实现系统效率94%以上,同时具有良好的EMI性能。

  16. Comparison of Output Current Ripple in Single and Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Loncarski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard solution for the traction system in battery powered electric vehicles (EVs is a two-level (2L inverter feeding a three-phase motor. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding connection of standard three-phase ac motors. The 3L inverter solution can be usefully adopted in EVs since it combines several benefits such as current ripple reduction, increment of phase motor voltage with limited voltage ratings of the two battery banks, improvement in system reliability, etc. The reduction in current ripple amplitude is particularly relevant since it is a source of electromagnetic interference and audio noise from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single-2L inverter, considering the same voltage and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole modulation range of the inverter, and the theoretical results are verified with experimental tests carried out by an inverter-motor drive prototype.

  17. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Yiqiang, Zhao; Shilin, Zhang; Hongliang, Zhao

    2011-04-01

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 × 183 μm2. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz.

  18. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan; Zhao Yiqiang; Zhang Shilin [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao Hongliang, E-mail: zhaoyq@tju.edu.cn [School of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 x 183 {mu}m{sup 2}. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 {mu}W with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Inter-machine comparison of the termination phase and energy conversion in tokamak disruptions with runaway current plateau formation and implications for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Hollmann, E. M.; Esposito, B.; Riccardo, V.; FTU; DIII-D Teams; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-08-01

    The termination of the current and the loss of runaway electrons following runaway current plateau formation during disruptions have been investigated in the JET, DIII-D and FTU tokamaks. Substantial conversion of magnetic energy into runaway kinetic energy, up to ˜10 times the initial plateau runaway kinetic energy, has been inferred for the slowest current terminations. Both modelling and experiment suggest that, in present devices, the efficiency of conversion into runaway kinetic energy is determined to a great extent by the characteristic runaway loss time, τdiff, and the resistive time of the residual ohmic plasma after the disruption, τres, increasing with the ratio τdiff/τres. It is predicted that, in large future devices such as ITER, the generation of runaways by the avalanche mechanism will play an important role, particularly for slow runaway discharge terminations, increasing substantially the amount of energy deposited by the runaways onto the plasma-facing components by the conversion of magnetic energy of the runaway plasma into runaway kinetic energy. Estimates of the power fluxes on the beryllium plasma-facing components during runaway termination in ITER indicate that for runaway currents of up to 2 MA no melting of the components is expected. For larger runaway currents, minimization of the effects of runaway impact on the first wall requires a reduction in the kinetic energy of the runaway beam before termination and, in addition, high plasma density ne and low ohmic plasma resistance (long τres) to prevent large conversion of magnetic into runaway kinetic energy during slow current terminations.

  20. NMDA currents modulate the synaptic input-output functions of neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, Christian P; Meyer, Elisabeth M M; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2011-03-23

    Neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the superior olivary complex (SOC) and convey GABAergic inhibition to the contralateral DNLL and the inferior colliculi. Unlike the fast glycinergic inhibition in the SOC, this GABAergic inhibition outlasts auditory stimulation by tens of milliseconds. Two mechanisms have been postulated to explain this persistent inhibition. One, an "integration-based" mechanism, suggests that postsynaptic excitatory integration in DNLL neurons generates prolonged activity, and the other favors the synaptic time course of the DNLL output itself. The feasibility of the integration-based mechanism was tested in vitro in DNLL neurons of Mongolian gerbils by quantifying the cellular excitability and synaptic input-output functions (IO-Fs). All neurons were sustained firing and generated a near monotonic IO-F on current injections. From synaptic stimulations, we estimate that activation of approximately five fibers, each on average liberating ∼18 vesicles, is sufficient to trigger a single postsynaptic action potential. A strong single pulse of afferent fiber stimulation triggered multiple postsynaptic action potentials. The steepness of the synaptic IO-F was dependent on the synaptic NMDA component. The synaptic NMDA receptor current defines the slope of the synaptic IO-F by enhancing the temporal and spatial EPSP summation. Blocking this NMDA-dependent amplification during postsynaptic integration of train stimulations resulted into a ∼20% reduction of the decay time course of the GABAergic inhibition. Thus, our data show that the NMDA-dependent amplification of the postsynaptic activity contributes to the GABAergic persistent inhibition generated by DNLL neurons.

  1. Variational analysis of drifter positions and model outputs for the reconstruction of surface currents in the central Adriatic during fall 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillandier, V.; Griffa, A.; Poulain, P.-M.; Signell, R.; Chiggiato, J.; Carniel, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of a variational method for the reconstruction of the velocity field in a coastal flow in the central Adriatic Sea, using in situ data from surface drifters and outputs from the ROMS circulation model. The variational approach, previously developed and tested for mesoscale open ocean flows, has been improved and adapted to account for inhomogeneities on boundary current dynamics over complex bathymetry and coastline and for weak Lagrangian persistence in coastal flows. The velocity reconstruction is performed using nine drifter trajectories over 45 d, and a hierarchy of indirect tests is introduced to evaluate the results as the real ocean state is not known. For internal consistency and impact of the analysis, three diagnostics characterizing the particle prediction and transport, in terms of residence times in various zones and export rates from the boundary current toward the interior, show that the reconstruction is quite effective. A qualitative comparison with sea color data from the MODIS satellite images shows that the reconstruction significantly improves the description of the boundary current with respect to the ROMS model first guess, capturing its main features and its exchanges with the interior when sampled by the drifters. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Tonic 5nM DA stabilizes neuronal output by enabling bidirectional activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current via PKA and calcineurin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf-Dieter C Krenz

    Full Text Available Volume transmission results in phasic and tonic modulatory signals. The actions of tonic dopamine (DA at type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs are largely undefined. Here we show that tonic 5nM DA acts at D1Rs to stabilize neuronal output over minutes by enabling activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current (I h. In the presence but not absence of 5nM DA, I h maximal conductance (G max was adjusted according to changes in slow wave activity in order to maintain spike timing. Our study on the lateral pyloric neuron (LP, which undergoes rhythmic oscillations in membrane potential with depolarized plateaus, demonstrated that incremental, bi-directional changes in plateau duration produced corresponding alterations in LP I hG max when preparations were superfused with saline containing 5nM DA. However, when preparations were superfused with saline alone there was no linear correlation between LP I hGmax and duty cycle. Thus, tonic nM DA modulated the capacity for activity to modulate LP I h G max; this exemplifies metamodulation (modulation of modulation. Pretreatment with the Ca2+-chelator, BAPTA, or the specific PKA inhibitor, PKI, prevented all changes in LP I h in 5nM DA. Calcineurin inhibitors blocked activity-dependent changes enabled by DA and revealed a PKA-mediated, activity-independent enhancement of LP I hG max. These data suggested that tonic 5nM DA produced two simultaneous, PKA-dependent effects: a direct increase in LP I h G max and a priming event that permitted calcineurin regulation of LP I h. The latter produced graded reductions in LP I hG max with increasing duty cycles. We also demonstrated that this metamodulation preserved the timing of LP's first spike when network output was perturbed with bath-applied 4AP. In sum, 5nM DA permits slow wave activity to provide feedback that maintains spike timing, suggesting that one function of low-level, tonic modulation is to stabilize specific features of a dynamic output.

  3. Tonic 5nM DA stabilizes neuronal output by enabling bidirectional activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current via PKA and calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Wulf-Dieter C; Rodgers, Edmund W; Baro, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Volume transmission results in phasic and tonic modulatory signals. The actions of tonic dopamine (DA) at type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs) are largely undefined. Here we show that tonic 5nM DA acts at D1Rs to stabilize neuronal output over minutes by enabling activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current (I h). In the presence but not absence of 5nM DA, I h maximal conductance (G max) was adjusted according to changes in slow wave activity in order to maintain spike timing. Our study on the lateral pyloric neuron (LP), which undergoes rhythmic oscillations in membrane potential with depolarized plateaus, demonstrated that incremental, bi-directional changes in plateau duration produced corresponding alterations in LP I hG max when preparations were superfused with saline containing 5nM DA. However, when preparations were superfused with saline alone there was no linear correlation between LP I hGmax and duty cycle. Thus, tonic nM DA modulated the capacity for activity to modulate LP I h G max; this exemplifies metamodulation (modulation of modulation). Pretreatment with the Ca2+-chelator, BAPTA, or the specific PKA inhibitor, PKI, prevented all changes in LP I h in 5nM DA. Calcineurin inhibitors blocked activity-dependent changes enabled by DA and revealed a PKA-mediated, activity-independent enhancement of LP I hG max. These data suggested that tonic 5nM DA produced two simultaneous, PKA-dependent effects: a direct increase in LP I h G max and a priming event that permitted calcineurin regulation of LP I h. The latter produced graded reductions in LP I hG max with increasing duty cycles. We also demonstrated that this metamodulation preserved the timing of LP's first spike when network output was perturbed with bath-applied 4AP. In sum, 5nM DA permits slow wave activity to provide feedback that maintains spike timing, suggesting that one function of low-level, tonic modulation is to stabilize specific features of a dynamic output.

  4. 光伏并网系统的输出电流控制方案%Control program of output current based on photovoltaic grid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付铭骥; 李奎霖; 王梓全

    2012-01-01

    The output current of photovoltaic has two important indicators.In order to reduce the harmonic pollution of power system,THD needs to be reduced; also,power factor needs to be increased to reduce the reactive loss of power system.In this paper,analog and digital controllers were separately used to adapt the inverter to grid power system.After testing the simulation by using simulink with the same parameter and different controllers,the discrepancy of control effect between two types of controller was compared.The results show that THD of analog system is 1.5%,and the one of digital system is 5%.A feasible program for the analog control was proposed.%光伏并网输出电流有两个重要指标,为了减少电网受到的谐波污染,需减小谐波电流失真(THD);为了减少电网无功损耗,需提高功率因数.设计模拟和数宇式两种控制方法实现并网,在相同的控制参数下进行SIMULINK仿真,并对比控制效果.结果证明,模拟式控制的THD为1.5%,数字式控制的THD为5%,并为模拟控制提出了可行方案.

  5. Graphene/Fe3 O4 Nanocomposites as Efficient Anodes to Boost the Lifetime and Current Output of Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rong-Bin; Zhao, Cui-E; Gai, Pan-Pan; Guo, Dan; Jiang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Qichun; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2017-02-01

    The enhancement of microbial activity and electrocatalysis through the design of new anode materials is essential to develop microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with longer lifetimes and higher output. In this research, a novel anode material, graphene/Fe3 O4 (G/Fe3 O4 ) composite, has been designed for Shewanella-inoculated MFCs. Because the Shewanella species could bind to Fe3 O4 with high affinity and their growth could be supported by Fe3 O4 , the bacterial cells attached quickly onto the anode surface and their long-term activity improved. As a result, MFCs with reduced startup time and improved stability were obtained. Additionally, the introduction of graphene not only provided a large surface area for bacterial attachment, but also offered high electrical conductivity to facilitate extracellular electron transfer (EET). The results showed that the current and power densities of a G/Fe3 O4 anode were much higher than those of each individual component as an anode.

  6. High or low-side solid state relay with current limiting and operational testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, C. R.

    1984-07-01

    The switch comprises a circuit from a first output terminal via parallel MOS devices in series with current-sensing resistance to a second output terminal, with alternative high-side and low-side configurations having a load between the second terminal and ground, or the first terminal and the DC supply voltage. An input terminal for a digital control signal is coupled via an input diode and two Schmitt Trigger CMOS inverters to a control lead for the gates of the switch. A current overload or short circuit protection circuit coupled between the current-sensor and the input diode comprises two transistors coupled by a diode. A built-in test circuit for indicating the switch condition (on, off, shorted or open) comprises MOS transistors having their gates connected to voltage dividers at the two output terminals, and their drains connected to discrete indication terminals.

  7. Inverter communications using output signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  8. Integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Saliji, Albulena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work that I have been doing during these past eight weeks as a Summer Student at CERN. The task which was assigned to me had to do with the integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks. In order to integrate the TMVA Output into the Jupyter notebook, first, improvement of the TMVA Output in the terminal was required. Once the output was improved, it needed to be transformed into HTML output and at the end it would be possible to integrate that output into the Jupyter notebook.

  9. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and currents speed from 2011-04-01 to 2013-07-30 from model output (NCEI Accession 0131071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains output of a regional implementation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a 1-km spatial resolution...

  10. Limiting Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To protect the environment and its domestic industries from excess production,China must guide the non-ferrous metal industry In an effort to save energy and curb carbon emissions, in addition to reorganizing a currently disorderly industry, China will continue to control the

  11. Marine organism concentrations, carbonate chemistry variables, and nutrient concentrations from Atlantis ecosystem model simulation output in the California Current from 2013-01-01 to 2053-12-31 to understand vulnerability of California current food webs and economics to ocean acidification (NCEI Accession 0131198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the model output of a study to evaluate likely economic and ecological outcomes of ocean acidification in the California Current....

  12. Electronically Tunable Current-Mode Quadrature Oscillator Using Single MCDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified current differencing transconductance amlpifier (MCDTA and the MCDTA based quadrature oscillator. The oscillator is current-mode and provides current output from high output impedance terminals. The circuit uses only one MCDTA and two grounded capacitors, and is easy to be integrated. Its oscillation frequency can be tuned electronically by tuning bias currents of MCDTA. Finally, frequency error is analyzed. The results of circuit simulations are in agreement with theory.

  13. Analysis of the Current Situation and Countermeasures Power User Terminals%浅析电力用户终端的管理现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周世海

    2014-01-01

    At present, the power user terminal management issues that arise more and more power have affected the harmonious development of enterprises and society. How to solve these problems and to establish an effective mechanism for the power terminal management is the most important issue currently facing the electric power business.%当前,电力用户终端管理中出现的问题越来越多,已经影响到供电企业的发展和社会的和谐。如何解决这些问题并建立有效的电力终端管理机制,是目前电力企业面临的首要问题。

  14. Striatal cholinergic interneurons Drive GABA release from dopamine terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alexandra B; Hammack, Nora; Yang, Cindy F; Shah, Nirao M; Seal, Rebecca P; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2014-04-01

    Striatal cholinergic interneurons are implicated in motor control, associative plasticity, and reward-dependent learning. Synchronous activation of cholinergic interneurons triggers large inhibitory synaptic currents in dorsal striatal projection neurons, providing one potential substrate for control of striatal output, but the mechanism for these GABAergic currents is not fully understood. Using optogenetics and whole-cell recordings in brain slices, we find that a large component of these inhibitory responses derive from action-potential-independent disynaptic neurotransmission mediated by nicotinic receptors. Cholinergically driven IPSCs were not affected by ablation of striatal fast-spiking interneurons but were greatly reduced after acute treatment with vesicular monoamine transport inhibitors or selective destruction of dopamine terminals with 6-hydroxydopamine, indicating that GABA release originated from dopamine terminals. These results delineate a mechanism in which striatal cholinergic interneurons can co-opt dopamine terminals to drive GABA release and rapidly inhibit striatal output neurons.

  15. Analyzing Magnetic Field and Electrical Current Profiles of the Day Side and Terminator of Mars Using Data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, A. L.; Ponce, N.; Fillingim, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    Mars does not have a global magnetic field, so the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can impact the upper atmosphere and induce currents in the Martian ionosphere. During aerobraking maneuvers, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made over 1000 passes through the Martian ionosphere. During the aerobraking phase, MGS measured the local magnetic field in the ionosphere. From measuring changes in the magnetic field, we can calculate the ionospheric currents. By only using measurements where the radial component of the magnetic field is zero and making some assumptions about the gradients in the magnetic field, we are allowed to classify data that meets those conditions as "good" data and calculate horizontal currents in the ionosphere. We focus on data taken over regions of Mars that had negligible crustal magnetic fields to simplify our analysis. The data being analyzed is observed at a maximum altitude of 250 kilometers with a solar zenith angle (SZA) range of 0 degrees to 50 degrees for the day side and 50 to 130 degrees for the terminator. For the day side of Mars, it was found that 24.06% of the data observed was usable data under the initial parameters that were set for "good" data. For the terminator, it was found that 32.08% of the data was usable. The currents that are computed using these "good" magnetic field profiles can give us insights into how the changing solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can effect the upper atmosphere of mars. For example, induced currents can lead to Joule heating of the atmosphere potentially modifying the neutral dynamics.

  16. High swing CMOS realization for third generation current conveyor (CCIII)

    OpenAIRE

    Minaei, Shahram; Yıldız, Merih; Türköz, Sait; Kuntman, Hakan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a new CMOS realization for third generation current conveyor (CCIII) is proposed. The proposed circuit provides high swing range at terminals X and Y. The circuit has low input impedances at terminals X and Y and high output impedance at terminals Z+ and Z-. The circuit has 180MHz -3dB cutoff frequency in voltage follower mode. SPICE simulation results using MIETEC 1.2 CMOS process model are given.

  17. Niflumic acid-induced increase in potassium currents in frog motor nerve terminals: effects on transmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, F; Marsal, J; Peres, J; Solsona, C

    1996-04-01

    The actions of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug niflumic acid were studied on frog neuromuscular preparations by conventional electrophysiological techniques. Niflumic acid reduced the amplitude and increased the latency of endplate potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. Neuromuscular junctions pretreated with niflumic acid (0.05-0.5 mM) showed much less depression than control when they were stimulated with trains of impulses. Inhibition of acetylcholine release was reverted by raising the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration but not by simply washing out the preparations with niflumic acid-free solutions. Pretreatment with indomethacin (0.1 mM), another nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, did not affect the niflumic acid-induced inhibition of evoked responses. Niflumic acid (0.1 mM) did not change the amplitude of miniature endplate potentials and had a dual action on the frequency of miniatures: it decreased their frequency at 0.1 mM whereas it produced an enormous increase in the rate of spontaneous discharge at 0.5 mM. Niflumic acid (0.1 - 1 mM) reversibly increased the amplitude and affected the kinetics of presynaptic voltage-activated K+ current and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in a concentration-dependent manner. Niflumic acid (0.1 - 1 mM) irreversibly decreased the amplitude and reversibly affected the kinetics of the nodal Na(+) current. Indomethacin (0.1 mM) had no effect on presynaptic currents. In conclusion, niflumic acid reduces acetylcholine release by increasing presynaptic K+ currents. This may shorten the depolarizing phase of the presynaptic action potential and may reduce the entry of Ca(2+) with each impulse.

  18. Temperature-controllable spin-polarized current and spin polarization in a Rashba three-terminal double-quantum-dot device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xue-Kun; Yang Xi-Feng; Feng Jin-Fu; Liu Yu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    We propose a Rashba three-terminal double-quantum-dot device to generate a spin-polarized current and manipulate the electron spin in each quantum dot by utilizing the temperature gradient instead of the electric bias voltage.This device possesses a nonresonant tunneling channel and two resonant tunneling channels.The Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function techniques are employed to determinate the spin-polarized current flowing from the electrodes and the spin accumulation in each quantum dot.We find that their signs and magnitudes are well controllable by the gate voltage or the temperature gradient.This result is attributed to the change in the slope of the transmission probability at the Fermi levels in the low-temperature region.Importantly,an obviously pure spin current can be injected into or extracted from one of the three electrodes by properly choosing the temperature gradient and the gate voltages.Therefore,the device can be used as an ideal thermal generator to produce a pure spin current and manipulate the electron spin in the quantum dot.

  19. Effect of the rate of rise in discharge current on the output of a 46.9-nm soft X-ray laser based on capillary discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, S.; Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Prasad, Y. B. S. R.; Naik, P. A.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D.

    2016-06-01

    The rate of rise in discharge current (d I/d t) is an important parameter in an X-ray laser pumped by fast capillary discharge. The effect of this parameter on the energy of an argon plasma-based 46.9-nm soft X-ray laser pulse has been experimentally studied. It was found that an X-ray laser pulse with ~2 μJ energy, which can be obtained at a discharge current of ~40 kA with d I/d t value of ~7.1 × 1011 A/s, can also be obtained at a much lower peak current of ~26 kA if the quarter period ( T/4) of the discharge current is made shorter to achieve a comparable d I/d t value. For a fixed T/4, the laser energy could be enhanced from 2 to 4 μJ for an increase in the d I/d t value from 7.1 × 1011 to 1.3 × 1012 A/s by increasing the peak current from 26 to 44 kA. It was also observed that for a fixed d I/d t, mere increase in the discharge current does not increase the laser energy.

  20. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Leg Motor Cortex Enhances Coordinated Motor Output During Walking With a Large Inter-Individual Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van E.H.F.; Boonstra, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can augment force generation and control in single leg joints in healthy subjects and stroke survivors. However, it is unknown whether these effects also result in improved force production and coordination during walking and whether electrod

  1. The Thermal Output Analysis of Dynamic Stress Experiment on Subway Current Acceptor%某次地铁受流臂动应力测试中的热输出分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宵; 李强; 王斌杰

    2012-01-01

    应变计是用应变电阻效应测量应变的.在测量过程中,环境温度可以从多个方面影响应变计的输出.探讨了在某次地铁受流臂动应力实验中,由于温度变化,测量应变计和补偿应变计贴在不同材料上所引起的测量误差,得出了此次实验中热输出的表达式.并可以作为类似动应力实验中热输出分析的参考.分析结果表明,此次实验中应变计的热输出与变温、被测试样线膨胀系数、补偿块线膨胀系数、应变计灵敏系数有关.%The strain can be measured by strain gauge with strain-resistance effect. During the measurement, temperature affects the strain gauge output in many aspects. After the dynamic stress experiment on subway current acceptor, the measurement error is discussed, which is caused by the difference of material that measurement strain gauge and compensated strain gauge attached to, and derives the expression of thermal output that can be used as reference for thermal output analysis in similar experiments. The results show that the thermal output changes with the temperature, the coefficients of specimen and compensation block, gauge factor of the strain gauge.

  2. Final report on RMO comparison SIM.EM-S10: High value resistance comparison with two-terminal cryogenic current comparators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierzychudek, Marcos E.; Elmquist, Randolph; Hernández, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a supplementary comparison of high value resistance standards performed during 2012 and January 2013, following the guidelines presented in a document about measurement comparisons in the CIPM MRA. The purpose of this task was to compare the high resistance cryogenic current comparator scaling of the participating institutes: National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST), Centro Nacional de Metrología, Mexico (CENAM) and Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial, Argentina (INTI), all of which are members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM) Regional Metrology Organization. All the measurements of this comparison were performed with two-terminal cryogenic current comparators (CCC). Degrees of equivalence of the participating institutes relative to the comparison reference values are given in the report for the measured resistance values. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  4. Enhancing the output current of a CdTe solar cell via a CN-free hydrocarbon luminescent down-shifting fluorophore with intramolecular energy transfer and restricted internal rotation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yilin; Olsen, Joseph; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2015-04-01

    A CN-free hydrocarbon fluorophore (Perylene-TPE) was synthesized as a new luminescent down-shifting (LDS) material. Its photophysical properties in both the solution state and the solid state were studied. The unity fluorescence quantum yield of Perylene-TPE observed in its solid state is considered to be from the characteristics of intramolecular energy transfer (IET) and restricted internal rotation (RIR). This is supported by the results from theoretical calculations and spectroscopic measurements. For the photovoltaic application of Perylene-TPE, a theoretical modeling study suggests that using the LDS film of Perylene-TPE may increase the output short circuit current density (Jsc) of a CdTe solar cell by 2.95%, enhance the spectral response of a CdTe solar cell at 400 nm by 41%, and shift the incident solar photon distribution from short-wavelength (500 nm). Experimentally, placing a LDS film of Perylene-TPE on a CdTe solar cell can enhance its output Jsc by as high as 3.30 ± 0.31%, which is comparable to the current commercially available LDS material – Y083 (3.28% ± 0.37%).

  5. Fault Current Limitation and Analysis of Current Limiting Characteristic for Multi-terminal VSC-HVDC DC Lines%多端VSC-HVDC直流线路故障限流及限流特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑; 邰能灵; 范春菊; 郑晓冬; 唐跃中

    2016-01-01

    基于电压源型换流器(voltage source converters,VSC)的多端柔性直流系统中直流线路的故障电流上升速度快、电流峰值大。然而具有大容量、快切断能力的高压直流断路器正在研制中。结合目前直流断路器开断容量水平,该文提出通过在直流线路两端串入限流电路的方法来限制故障电流的峰值和电流的上升速度率,并给出相关参数的理论计算方法。对该电路的限流特性进行分析与对比,结果表明,该限流电路能有效抑制故障电流,降低了对直流断路器开断容量和开断速度的要求。在该限流电路的基础上,提出一种多端VSC-HVDC 直流线路故障处理方案。仿真分析表明,该故障处理方案能够有效抑制直流线路故障电流以及 IGBT 并联二极管电流,故障切除后非故障系统能保持正常运行,可以有效地增强多端VSC-HVDC系统对直流线路故障的处理能力。%The fault current of DC line in multi-terminal HVDC system based on voltage source converters (VSC) increases quickly with large peak, while the DC circuit breaker with large capacity and fast breaking speed is still under development. Combined with the capacity level of DC circuit breaker breaking, a current limiting circuit was proposed to limit the peak and rising rate of fault current by connecting it to DC line ends. Theoretical calculation method for the circuit parameters was also given. The analysis results about the circuit and the comparison with other methods show that the proposed circuit is able to limit the fault current effectively and reduce the requirement for DC breaker capacity and speed. Based on the circuit, a fault-handling scheme for DC lines in multi-terminal VSC-HVDC was proposed. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme is capable of limiting fault current of DC lines and parallel diodes effectively, and non-fault system can maintain normal operation after fault

  6. Single Inductor Multiple Output BUCK Converter Design within Current Domain and MATLAB Model Building%单电感多路输出BUCK电源转换器MATLAB建模及电流域设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建明

    2013-01-01

    为分析单电感多路输出BUCK电源转换器(SIMO)的可行性,首先建立MATLAB模型,从算法角度验证SIMO可行性.同时为解决SIMO存在的电路复杂、面积大、及静态电流大的问题,首次提出使用电流信号设计SIMO控制器.结果表明,算法可行,电路设计方法简洁,0.13 μm CMOS工艺下三通道SIMO面积0.76 mm2,静态电流110 μA,驱动能力200 mA.%The feasibility of single inductor multiple output BUCK converter (SIMO) was verified by MATLAB model. At the same time,the method of design SIMO DCDC converter with current signals was presented initially to simplify SIMO controller design and reduce the area and quiescent current of SIMO controller. Results showed that the mathematical model was robust and the circuit realizing method was simple. The area of the triple channel SIMO is only 0. 76 mm2,quiescent current 110 μA,and drive strength 200 mA.

  7. Electronically Tunable Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Equal Output Amplitudes during Frequency Tuning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Den Satipar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new configuration of voltage-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator is proposed. The proposed oscillator employs two voltage differencing current conveyors (VDCCs, two resistors, and two grounded capacitors. In this design, the use of multiple/dual output terminal active building block is not required. The tuning of frequency of oscillation (FO can be done electronically by adjusting the bias current of active device without affecting condition of oscillation (CO. The electronic tuning can be done by controlling the bias current using a digital circuit. The amplitude of two sinusoidal outputs is equal when the frequency of oscillation is tuned. This makes the sinusoidal output voltages meet good total harmonic distortions (THD. Moreover, the proposed circuit can provide the sinusoidal output current with high impedance which is connected to external load or to another circuit without the use of buffer device. To confirm that the oscillator can generate the quadrature sinusoidal output signal, the experimental results using VDCC constructed from commercially available ICs are also included. The experimental results agree well with theoretical anticipation.

  8. Magnetic forces and stationary electron flow in a three-terminal semiconductor quantum ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poniedziałek, M R; Szafran, B

    2010-06-01

    We study stationary electron flow through a three-terminal quantum ring and describe effects due to deflection of electron trajectories by classical magnetic forces. We demonstrate that generally at high magnetic field (B) the current is guided by magnetic forces to follow a classical path, which for B > 0 leads via the left arm of the ring to the left output terminal. The transport to the left output terminal is blocked for narrow windows of magnetic field for which the interference within the ring leads to formation of wavefunctions that are only weakly coupled to the output channel wavefunctions. These interference conditions are accompanied by injection of the current to the right arm of the ring and by appearance of sharp peaks of the transfer probability to the right output terminal. We find that these peaks at high magnetic field are attenuated by thermal widening of the transport window. We also demonstrate that the interference conditions that lead to their appearance vanish when elastic scattering within the ring is present. The clear effect of magnetic forces on the transfer probabilities disappears along with Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a chaotic transport regime that is found for rings whose width is larger than the width of the channels.

  9. High-Efficiency Harmonically Terminated Diode and Transistor Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberg, M; Reveyrand, T; Ramos, I; Falkenstein, EA; Popovic, Z

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of harmonically terminated high-efficiency power rectifiers and experimental validation on a class-C single Schottky-diode rectifier and a class-F-1 GaN transistor rectifier. The theory is based on a Fourier analysis of current and voltage waveforms, which arise across the rectifying element when different harmonic terminations are presented at its terminals. An analogy to harmonically terminated power amplifier (PA) theory is discussed. From the analysis, one can obtain an optimal value for the dc load given the RF circuit design. An upper limit on rectifier efficiency is derived for each case as a function of the device on-resistance. Measured results from fundamental frequency source-pull measurement of a Schottky diode rectifier with short-circuit terminations at the second and third harmonics are presented. A maximal device rectification efficiency of 72.8% at 2.45 GHz matches the theoretical prediction. A 2.14-GHz GaN HEMT rectifier is designed based on a class-F-1 PA. The gate of the transistor is terminated in an optimal impedance for self-synchronous rectification. Measurements of conversion efficiency and output dc voltage for varying gate RF impedance, dc load, and gate bias are shown with varying input RF power at the drain. The rectifier demonstrates an efficiency of 85% for a 10-W input RF power at the transistor drain with a dc voltage of 30 V across a 98-Omega resistor.

  10. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  11. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  12. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  13. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  14. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  15. Determination of over current protection thresholds for class D audio amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Risbo, L; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Monolithic class-D audio amplifiers typically feature built-in over current protection circuitry that shuts down the amplifier in case of a short circuit on the output speaker terminals. To minimize cost, the threshold at which the device shuts down must be set just above the maximum current...

  16. Electronic transmission of three-terminal pyrene molecular bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Li-Guang; Zhang Xiu-Mei; Terence Kin Shun Wong; Katsunori Tagami; Masaru Tsukada

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates theoretically the electronic transmission spectra of the three terminal pyrene molecular bridge and the quantum current distribution on each bond by the tight-binding model based on nonequilibrium Green's function and the quantum current density approach, in which one π molecular orbital is taken into account per carbon atom when the energy levels and HOMO-LUMO gap are obtained. The transmission spectra show that the electronic transmission of the three terminal pyrene molecular bridge depends obviously on the incident electronic energy and the pyrene eigenencrgy. The symmetrical and oscillation properties of the transmission spectra are illustrated. A novel plus-minus energy switching function is found. The quantum current distribution shows that the loop currents inside the pyrene are induced, and some bond currents are much larger than the input and the output currents. The reasons why the loop currents and the larger bond currents are induced are the phase difference of the atomic orbits and the degeneracy of the molecular orbits. The calculations illustrate that the quantum current distributions are in good agreement with Kirchhoff quantum current conservation law.

  17. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  18. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank; Allais, Arnaud; Mirebeau, Pierre; Ganhungu, Francois; Lallouet, Nicolas

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  19. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  20. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  1. Energy efficient and fast reversal of a fixed skyrmion two-terminal memory with spin current assisted by voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Mamun Al-Rashid, Md; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-10-01

    Recent work (P-H Jang et al 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 107 202401, J. Sampaio et al 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 108 112403) suggests that ferromagnetic reversal with spin transfer torque (STT) requires more current in a system in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) than switching a typical ferromagnet of the same dimensions and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). However, DMI promotes the stabilization of skyrmions and we report that when perpendicular anisotropy is modulated (reduced) for both the skyrmion and ferromagnet, it takes a much smaller current to reverse the fixed skyrmion than to reverse the ferromagnet in the same amount of time, or the skyrmion reverses much faster than the ferromagnet at similar levels of current. We show with rigorous micromagnetic simulations that skyrmion switching proceeds along a different path at very low PMA, which results in a significant reduction in the spin current or time required for reversal. This can offer potential for memory applications where a relatively simple modification of the standard STT-RAM (to include a heavy metal adjacent to the soft magnetic layer and with appropriate design of the tunnel barrier) can lead to an energy efficient and fast magnetic memory device based on the reversal of fixed skyrmions.

  2. A study of potential output and output gap in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Adamec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of economic cycle is of enormous importance for monitoring economic output and explaining price and wage inflation. It provides essential information for shaping economic and monetary policy of central authorities. Several methods are currently available to estimate potential output and output gap. In the current study, methods of Hodrick-Prescott filter and Cobb-Douglas production function were implemented to estimate potential output, which cannot be empirically observed. For the purpose of comparing the above methods, quarterly and annual time series of real GDP, labour and gross fixed capital starting in 1996 were used for estimation of the output gap. Relative contributions of labour, fixed capital formation and technology improvement factor towards growth of potential output were quantified for the studied series. The Cobb-Douglas production function appears to be superior to Hodrick-Prescott filter in providing quality estimates of potential output. Hodrick-Prescott filter allows estimation of potential output; nevertheless, it fails to identify components of cyclic behaviour of economic activity. Cobb-Douglas production function describes level of potential product assuming average utilization of production factors. A detailed analysis of components of economic growth in the observed period is provided.

  3. Design and implementation of a 3-A source and sink linear regulator for bus terminators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanming; Mao Xiangyu; Wen Changbao; Wen Limin

    2012-01-01

    According to the requirements of the bus terminal regulator,a 1inear regulator with 3-A source-sink current ability is presented.The use of the NMOS pass transistor and load current feedback technique enhances the system current ability and response speed.The method of adaptive zero compensation realizes loop stability over the whole load range for either source or sink loop.Furthermore,the transconductance matching technique reduces the shoot-through current through the output stage to less than 3 μA.The regulator has been fabricated with a 0.6-μm 30 V BCD process successfully,and the area size is about 1 mm2.With a 20 μF output capacitor,the maximum transient output-voltage variation is within 3.5% of the output voltage with load step changes of ±2 A/1 μs.At the load range of ±3 A,the variation of output voltage is less than ±15 mV.

  4. Site compare scripts and output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly site compare scripts and output used to generate the model/ob plots and statistics in the manuscript. The AQS hourly site compare output files are not...

  5. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  6. A new nonlinear output tracking controller via output-feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun ZHANG; Yungang LIU; Yuqin DING

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the output tracking control is investigated for a class of nonlinear systems when only output is available for feedback. Based on the multivariable analog of circle criterion, an observer is first introduced. Then, the observer-based output tracking controller is constructively designed by using the integral backstepping approach together with completing square. It is shown that, under relatively mild conditions, all the closed-loop signals are uniformly bounded.Meanwhile the system output asymptotically tracks the desired output. A simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  7. Single-photon quantum router with multiple output ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Bin; Fan, Heng

    2014-04-28

    The routing capability is a requisite in quantum network. Although the quantum routing of signals has been investigated in various systems both in theory and experiment, the general form of quantum routing with many output terminals still needs to be explored. Here we propose a scheme to achieve the multi-channel quantum routing of the single photons in a waveguide-emitter system. The channels are composed by the waveguides and are connected by intermediate two-level emitters. By adjusting the intermediate emitters, the output channels of the input single photons can be controlled. This is demonstrated in the cases of one output channel, two output channels and the generic N output channels. The results show that the multi-channel quantum routing of single photons can be well achieved in the proposed system. This offers a scheme for the experimental realization of general quantum routing of single photons.

  8. Research of output characteristic fitting of eddy-current sensor based on radial-basis function neural network%基于径向基神经网络的电涡流传感器输出特性拟合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤文坚; 梁兵; 李荫军

    2013-01-01

    In view of problem that eddy-current sensor cannot reflect measured physical quantity accurately caused by higher nonlinear of output characteristic parameter, the paper proposed a scheme of using RBF neural network to fit output characteristic parameter of eddy-current sensor. The scheme uses newrb function to create RBF neural network, and takes measured physical quantity as input matrix and output of eddy-current sensor as output matrix to train the RBF neural network, so as to obtain low root-mean-square error and smooth output characteristic fitting curve of eddy-current sensor. The simulation result showed that RBF neural network can effectively realize fitting of output characteristic of eddy-current sensor by selecting proper creating function and expanding coefficient.%针对电涡流传感器的输出特性参数非线性较大,不能精确地反映被测物理量的问题,提出了一种采用径向基神经网络对电涡流传感器的输出特性参数进行拟合的方案.该方案采用newrb函数创建一个径向基神经网络,以被测物理量作为输入矩阵、电涡流传感器输出电压作为输出矩阵,对该径向基神经网络进行训练,从而可得到均方根误差小且光滑的电涡流传感器输出特性拟合曲线.实验结果表明,只要选择合适的创建函数和扩展系数,径向基神经网络能有效地实现电涡流传感器输出特性的拟合.

  9. Fast Output-sensitive Matrix Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  10. Fast output-sensitive matrix multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  11. VDCC Based Dual-Mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Outputs at Appropriate Impedance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new dual-mode (i.e. both current-mode and voltage-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator using two Voltage Differencing Current Conveyors (VDCCs, two resistors and two capacitors. The proposed configuration use only grounded passive elements and enjoys independent resistor/electronic tuning of both Condition of Oscillation (CO as well as Frequency of Oscillation (FO. The quadrature current and voltage mode outputs of this circuit are available at appropriate impedance terminals. The behavior of presented oscillator is also examined under non ideal/parasitic conditions. The validity of the proposed configuration has been confirmed by SPICE simulations with TSMC 0.18μm process parameters.

  12. 多端纵联电流差动保护在攀钢线路改造中的应用%The Application of Multi-terminal Longitudinal Current Differential Protection in Power Line Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽

    2015-01-01

    介绍了多端纵联电流差动保护装置的特点,配置该装置可满足攀钢新增一条110 kV线路改造的需求.分析了项目实施过程中的难点和重点,找出了解决这些问题的合理方案.%The characteristics of multi-terminal longitudinal current differential protection device are introduced, which meet the needs of power line transformation. The difficulties and key points in actual implementation process of the transformation project are correspondingly analyzed in order to find a reasonable program to solve these problems.

  13. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  14. Aging, Terminal Decline, and Terminal Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Erdman; Cleveland, William

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of persons over 60 were analyzed by step-wise multiple regression to test for declines in function with age, for terminal decline (linear relationship to time before death), and for terminal drop (curvilinear relationship to time before death). There were no substantial terminal drop effects. (Author)

  15. Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn

    2007-01-01

    -phase applications the occurrence of common-mode (CM) voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses [1]. Consequently, several secondary effects arise at the inverter's output: high-frequency conducted and radiated emissions, leakage current, motor insulation stress due to wave reflection [2], bearing stress......The standard industrial solution for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is the use of induction motors (IM) fed by voltage-source inverters (VSI). The inverter generates a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage, with dv/dt values of about 6 kV/¿s or even more. In three-leg inverters for three...

  16. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  17. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  18. Output Model of Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-qiang; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Jin; XU An-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the requirement of compactivity, continuity, and high efficiency, and taking full advantage of cushion capability of flexible parts such as external refining in new generation steel plant, an output model of steel plant was established in terms of matching between BOF and caster. Using this model, the BOF nominal capacity is selected, the caster output and equipment amount are computed, and then the steel plant output is computed.

  19. Nonlinear input-output systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. R.; Luksic, Mladen; Su, Renjeng

    1987-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions that the nonlinear system dot-x = f(x) + ug(x) and y = h(x) be locally feedback equivalent to the controllable linear system dot-xi = A xi + bv and y = C xi having linear output are found. Only the single input and single output case is considered, however, the results generalize to multi-input and multi-output systems.

  20. Characterization of the Cellular Output of a Point-of-Care Device and the Implications for Addressing Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell-May, Jennifer E; Tan, Matthew L; King, William J; Swift, Matthew J; Welch, Zachary R; Murphy, Michael P; McKale, James M

    2015-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a terminal disease with high morbidity and healthcare costs due to limb loss. There are no effective medical therapies for patients with CLI to prevent amputation. Cell-based therapies are currently being investigated to address this unmet clinical need and have shown promising preliminary results. The purpose of this study was to characterize the output of a point-of-care cell separator (MarrowStim P.A.D. Kit), currently under investigation for the treatment of CLI, and compare its output with Ficoll-based separation. The outputs of the MarrowStim P.A.D. Kit and Ficoll separation were characterized using an automated hematology analyzer, colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, and tubulogenesis assays. Hematology analysis indicated that the MarrowStim P.A.D. Kit concentrated the total nucleated cells, mononuclear cells, and granulocytes compared with baseline bone marrow aspirate. Cells collected were positive for VEGFR-2, CD3, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD56, CD105, CD117, CD133, and Stro-1 antigen. CFU assays demonstrated that the MarrowStim P.A.D. Kit output a significantly greater number of mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells compared with cells output by Ficoll separation. There was no significant difference in the number of endothelial progenitor cells output by the two separation techniques. Isolated cells from both techniques formed interconnected nodes and microtubules in a three-dimensional cell culture assay. This information, along with data currently being collected in large-scale clinical trials, will help instruct how different cellular fractions may affect the outcomes for CLI patients.

  1. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  2. Collector-Output Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glandorf, D. R.; Phillips, Robert F., II

    1986-01-01

    Collector-Output Analysis Program (COAP) programmer's aid for analyzing output produced by UNIVAC collector (MAP processor). COAP developed to aid in design of segmentation structures for programs with large memory requirements and numerous elements but of value in understanding relationships among components of any program. Crossreference indexes and supplemental information produced. COAP written in FORTRAN 77.

  3. Multi-output differential technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidare, Srinivas R.

    1997-01-01

    A differential is a very old and proven mechanical device that allows a single input to be split into two outputs having equal torque irrespective of the output speeds. A standard differential is capable of providing only two outputs from a single input. A recently patented multi-output differential technology known as `Plural-Output Differential' allows a single input to be split into many outputs. This new technology is the outcome of a systematic study of complex gear trains (Bidare 1992). The unique feature of a differential (equal torque at different speeds) can be applied to simplify the construction and operation of many complex mechanical devices that require equal torque's or forces at multiple outputs. It is now possible to design a mechanical hand with three or more fingers with equal torque. Since these finger are powered via a differential they are `mechanically intelligent'. A prototype device is operational and has been used to demonstrate the utility and flexibility of the design. In this paper we shall review two devices that utilize the new technology resulting in increased performance, robustness with reduced complexity and cost.

  4. Model output: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  5. A kind of output voltage compensation design of low-voltage and high-current dc power supply%一种低压大电流直流电源的输出电压补偿设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢记华; 张锦鹏; 王金芳

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a kind of low-voltage&high-current power supply designed by VICOR DC-DC converter, Through sampling the loading point voltage and applying feedback circuit to adjust the voltage of converter to compensate the drop of the load in high current transmission, so as to achieve the stability of loading point voltage. This paper analyses the basic principle of compensation circuit in detail, introduces the component selection method and proves the feasibility of the circuit by designing and testing voltage compensation circuit.%文中基于一种采用VICOR DC-DC转换器设计的低压大电流直流电源,通过采样负载点电压,外加反馈电路来调节转换器输出电压,以补偿在大电流传输时负载线上的电压降,从而达到稳定负载点电压的目的。本文详细分析了电压补偿电路的原理,介绍了元器件选择方法,并通过电压补偿电路的设计和测试验证了该电路的可行性。

  6. Multifunction Current Differencing Cascaded Transconductance Amplifier (MCDCTA) and Its Application to Current-Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Lin, Hairong

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new versatile active element, namely multifunction current differencing cascaded transconductance amplifier (MCDCTA), is proposed. This device which adopts a simple configuration enjoys the performances of low-voltage, low-input and high-output impedance, wide bandwidth etc. It simplifies the design of the current-mode analog signal processing circuit greatly, especially the design of high-order filter and oscillator circuits. Moreover, an example as a new current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO) using MCDCTA is described in this paper. The proposed oscillator, which employs only one MCDCTA and minimum grounded passive elements, is easy to be realized. It can provide random n (n being odd or even) output current signals and these output currents are equally spaced in phase all at high output impedance terminals. Its oscillation condition and the oscillation frequency can be adjusted independently, linearly and electronically by controlling the bias currents of MCDCTA. The operation of the proposed oscillator has been testified through PSPICE simulation and experimental results.

  7. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  8. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  9. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  10. kwmc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kont Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kcrg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. krdu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kiwd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. krbl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kssf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. ksaw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kmot Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kiso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kgck Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kcvg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. pafa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kcrq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. ksun Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kpia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. krow Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kbtv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kbke Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kbpt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kact Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kavl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kbur Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. krsw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. klnd Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kpuw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kbis Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kcmx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kipt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kteb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kely Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kfat Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. phny Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kdsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kbos Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kpdx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. tjsj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kpae Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kpbi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kalb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. paga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kjax Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kdnl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kfwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. khts Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. kpsc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  1. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data is good as of...

  2. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This Excel 2010 file includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data...

  3. kpkb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  17. ksfo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kjhw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kdab Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kecp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kmls Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kroc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kfod Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. pabe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. ktop Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. ktrk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. krvs Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kgld Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kama Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kmgm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. Finite-time control of DC-DC buck converters via integral terminal sliding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chian-Song; Shen, Chih-Teng

    2012-05-01

    This article presents novel terminal sliding modes for finite-time output tracking control of DC-DC buck converters. Instead of using traditional singular terminal sliding mode, two integral terminal sliding modes are introduced for robust output voltage tracking of uncertain buck converters. Different from traditional sliding mode control (SMC), the proposed controller assures finite convergence time for the tracking error and integral tracking error. Furthermore, the singular problem in traditional terminal SMC is removed from this article. When considering worse modelling, adaptive integral terminal SMC is derived to guarantee finite-time convergence under more relaxed stability conditions. In addition, several experiments show better start-up performance and robustness.

  13. Power Flow Algorithm of Multi-Terminal VSC-HVDC System Based on Nodal Current Relation%基于节点电流关系的多端柔性直流输电系统潮流计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱甜甜; 苗世洪

    2016-01-01

    多端柔性直流输电系统是近年来的研究热点,而关于其潮流计算的研究是系统稳定控制和故障分析的基础,迄今为止,已有很多文献对此做了研究,但从其使用的求解潮流的数学模型方面看,都是基于节点功率关系的。提出了一种基于节点电流关系的多端柔性直流网络潮流算法,且考虑了下垂控制方式,以6节点直流网络和11节点交直流混联网络为例,在 Matlab 中编制了相应的程序,并与现有文献中的基于节点功率关系的潮流算法做了对比。对比结果显示,在不同的网络运行方式下达到相同的预定计算精度时,均比基于节点功率关系的潮流算法迭代次数少,所用时间短且当节点电压初值发生一系列变化时,所提算法依然可以快速求解出收敛解,而基于节点功率关系的算法,对于电压初值变化很敏感,迭代次数随初值的变化而变化。算例结果表明,所提算法对含有多端柔性直流系统的网络潮流计算具有较好的快速性和计算精度。%Multi-terminal VSC-HVDC (voltage source converter-high voltage direct current) system is research hotspot in recent years. Its power flow calculation is basis of system stability control and fault analysis. Many references have performed researches on this topic. In term of mathematical model of power flow calculation, most references are based on nodal power relations. Power flow calculation model based on nodal current relation is proposed in this paper and voltage droop control is considered. A 6-node DC network and an 11-node AC-DC hybrid network are taken as examples and power flow calculation codes are compiled in MATLAB. Compared with power flow calculation results based on nodal power relation, the proposed method is easier to realize and needs less iterations in various operation modes with higher accuracy. When initial node voltage value changes, the proposed algorithm is

  14. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  15. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    configurations such as half bridge buck, full bridge buck, half bridge boost, or full bridge boost. A current driven conversion is advantageous for high efficient energy conversion from current sources such as solar cells or where a voltage source is connected through long cables, e.g. powerline cables for long......Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... the output from the switch arrangement and designed such that a high impedance at a frequency range below the switching frequency is obtained, seen from the output terminals. Switches implemented by normally-on-devices are preferred, e.g. in the form of a JFET. The converter circuit may be in different...

  16. Multiemployer Pension Plan Terminations, Mergers, and Insolvencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — A listing of multiemployer pension plan terminations, mergers, and insolvencies reported to the PBGC for the current fiscal year. This data set will be updated...

  17. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...... termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...

  18. Research management and research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bosch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A study was conducted at two merged South African higher education institutions to determine which management factors, as identified in a literature study as well as through a factor analysis of survey data, were predictive of the dependent variable 'research output'. Problem investigated: Research output contributes to creating sustainability of knowledge of management sciences and therefore the active management of research is in the interest of progressive universities. Research management related activities are usually associated with measurable targets, detailed plans, rigorous evaluation and decisive action - all of which are observable (perhaps programmable behaviour also referred to as tangible factors. Authors argue that the tangible factors of any successful institution can be copied, technology can be bought, and in theory you should have an instantly thriving research institution. It is, however, clear that although many institutions have exactly the same technology and structure as their successful competitors, they still fail to succeed in increasing research output. Design and Research methodology or approach: A survey was distributed to n=411 and yielded a 49.6% response rate. A confirmatory reliability analysis as well as a factor analysis was conducted. Findings/implications: The empirical model that was derived through a factor analysis strengthens the argument that both tangible and intangible factors exist in a research environment. Tangible and intangible factors play a different role in predicting research output. The tangible factors are predictors of research output for non-research-active academics. The theoretical research output prediction model highlights predictors such as 'professional activities' and 'individual skills and competence' for specific groupings. The theoretical model indicates that the factors that predict research output are largely intrinsic to a researcher but could also be supported by

  19. Structured output tracking guided by keypoint matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Current keypoint-based trackers are widely used in object tracking system because of their robust capability against scale, rotation and so on. However, when these methods are applied in tracking 3D target in a forward-looking image sequences, the tracked point usually shifts away from the correct position as time increases. In this paper, to overcome the tracked point drifting, structured output tracking is used to track the target point with its surrounding information based on Haar-like features. First, around the tracked point in the last frame, a local patch is cropped to extract Haar-like features. Second, using a structured output SVM framework, a prediction function is learned in a larger radius to directly estimate the patch transformation between frames. Finally, during tracking the prediction function is applied to search the best location in a new frame. In order to achieve the robust tracking in real time, keypoint matching is adopted to coarsely locate the searched field in the whole image before using the structured output tracking. Experimentally, we show that our algorithm is able to outperform state-of-the-art keypoint-based trackers.

  20. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  1. World Input-Output Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  2. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  3. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  4. Input/output interface module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyazici, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    Module detects level changes in any of its 16 inputs, transfers changes to its outputs, and generates interrupts when changes are detected. Up to four changes-in-state per line are stored for later retrieval by controlling computer. Using standard TTL logic, module fits 19-inch rack-mounted console.

  5. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    ) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  6. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  7. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  8. Self-deception in terminal patients: belief system at stake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Echarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes –deep seated beliefs– intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  9. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  10. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  11. Implementation strategy for soft switching PFC with low output voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel implementation strategy for soft switching PFC whose circuit is simple and can achieve low voltage output directly. The main circuit adopts current mode full-bridge converter and all the power switches can realize ZCS or ZVS in the way of phase-shifted control, using the leakage inductance of the transformer, the junction capacitor of the switches and the stored energy of the output capacitor. The problems such as the function of phase-shifted link in control circuit, the implementation conditions of soft switching and bias restrained are analyzed. The adoption of constant frequency PWM control makes the design of the input and output filter link and the high frequency transformer simple. The transformation ratio regulation so as to achieve low voltage output and electrical insulation can be realized by using high frequency transformer.

  12. Comparison of the Thermal Performance of Radiative and Convective Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    of interest to compare the energy efficiency of the two types of terminals for heating and cooling buildings. Convective terminals (i.e. air conditioning systems) have been widely used in buildings, but the level of comfort is not always acceptable due to high air velocity. On the other hand radiant terminals...... can provide a better indoor climate, and be more energy efficient because they can make use of low-grade sources. The output of this conceptual approach is a better understanding of the advantages and drawbacks of the two technologies under different conditions. The analysis has been performed...

  13. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    Body diode of SiC MOSFETs has a relatively high forward voltage drop and still experiences reverse recovery phenomenon. Half bridge with split output aims to decouple both the body diode and junction capacitance of SiC MOSFETs, therefore achieving a reduced switching loss in a bridge configuration....... This paper makes the current commutation mechanism and efficiency analysis of half bridge with split output based on SiC MOSFETs. Current commutation process analysis is illustrated together with LTspice simulation and afterwards, verified by the experimental results of a double pulse test circuit with split...

  14. A Novel Output Filter Topology to Reduce Motor Overvoltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanigovszki, Norbert; Poulsen, Joern; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    are used and retrofit installations, the overvoltage could stress motors with poor insulation. This paper presents a novel inverter output filter topology consisting of an filter which has the star point of the common-mode capacitors clamped to the + and ? dc-link rails by the means of two diodes....... The proposed filter drastically reduces the voltage overshoot at the motor terminals, thus reducing motor insulation stress. This is a cheap alternative to more known industrial solutions. LC......When an induction machine is supplied with a voltage-source pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) inverter, a ringing voltage overshoot appears at motor terminals due to steep PWM voltage pulse propagation along the motor cable. It has been reported that in particular situations, when very long motor cables...

  15. Random output and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2003-11-01

    Many countries are under pressure to reform health care financing and delivery. Hospital care is one part of the health system that is under scrutiny. Private management initiatives are a possible way to increase efficiency in health care delivery. This motivates the interest in developing methodologies to assess hospital performance, recognizing hospitals as a different sort of firm. We present a simple way to describe hospital production: hospital output as a change in the distribution of survival probabilities. This output definition allows us to separate hospital production from patients' characteristics. The notion of "better performance" has a precise meaning: (first-order) stochastic dominance of a distribution of survival probabilities over another distribution. As an illustration, we compare, for an important DRG, private and public management and find that private management performs better, mainly in the range of high-survival probabilities. The measured performance difference cannot be attributed to input prices or to economies of scale and/or scope. It reflects pure technological and organisational differences.

  16. A New Secret key Agreement Scheme in a Four-Terminal Network

    CERN Document Server

    Babaheidarian, Parisa; Aref, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    A new scenario for generating a secret key and two private keys among three Terminals in the presence of an external eavesdropper is considered. Terminals 1, 2 and 3 intend to share a common secret key concealed from the external eavesdropper (Terminal 4) and simultaneously, each of Terminals 1 and 2 intends to share a private key with Terminal 3 while keeping it concealed from each other and from Terminal 4. All four Terminals observe i.i.d. outputs of correlated sources and there is a public channel from Terminal 3 to Terminals 1 and 2. An inner bound of the "secret key-private keys capacity region" is derived and the single letter capacity regions are obtained for some special cases.

  17. A Current-mode Electronically Controllable Multifunction Biquadratic Filter Using CCCIIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONTREE SIRIPRUCHYANUN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a current-mode multifunction biquadratic filter performing completely standard functions low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject and all-pass functions. The circuit principle is based on second-generation current-controlled current conveyor (CCCII with three input terminals and one output terminal. The features of the circuit are that, the pole frequency can be electronically tuned via the input bias currents. The circuit topology is very simple, consisting of merely 2 CCCIIs and 2 grounded capacitors. Without any external resistor and using only grounded elements, the proposed circuit is very comfortable to further develop into an integrated circuit architecture. The PSpice simulation results are shown. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The total power consumption is approximately 1.87mW at ±1.5V power supply voltages.

  18. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  19. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  20. A fully on-chip three-terminal switched-capacitor DC-DC converter for low-voltage CMOS LSIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yuta; Hirose, Tetsuya; Tsubaki, Keishi; Ozaki, Toshihiro; Asano, Hiroki; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a fully on-chip switched-capacitor DC-DC converter for low-voltage CMOS LSIs. The converter has three terminals of input, ground, and output, by developing control circuits with fully on-chip configuration. We employ an ultra low-power nanoampere bias current and voltage reference circuit to achieve ultra low-power dissipation of control circuits. It enables us to realize a highly efficient power conversion circuit at light-load-current applications. The converter achieves highly efficient and robust voltage conversion using a pulse frequency modulation control circuit and a start-up/fail-safe circuit. Measurement results demonstrated that the converter can convert a 3.0 V input into 1.2 V output successfully. The start-up and fail-safe operations were confirmed through the measurement. The efficiency was more than 50% in the range of 2-6 µA load current.

  1. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  2. Output regulation problem for discrete-time linear time-delay systems by output feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamin YAN; Jie HUANG

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the output regulation problem of discrete linear time-delay systems by output feedback control. We have established some results parallel to those for the output regulation problem of continuous linear time-delay systems.

  3. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    The ability of courts to generate political change has long been debated in national, comparative, and international politics. In the examination of the interaction between judicial and legislative politics, scholars have disagreed on the degree of judicial power and the ability of politics...... to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  4. Documents from malicious terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Istvan Z.; Vajda, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The user wishes to communicate with a remote partner over an insecure network. Since the user is a human being, a terminal is needed for communication. Cryptographic algorithms running on the terminal may provide authenticity for the user's messages. In this paper the problem of sending authentic messages from insecure or untrusted terminals is analyzed. In this case attackers are able to gain total control over the terminal, so the user must consider the terminal a potential attacker. Smart cards are often considered the ultimate tool for secure messaging from untrusted terminals. However, their lack of user interface enables man-in-the middle attack from the terminal. The authors assume, that user is a human being with limited memory and computational power, and also makes mistakes in his calculations. They demnostrate, that only exceptional useres are able to authenticate messages without a trusted device. Several biometric media encapsulate the content of the message and the identity of the sender, such as speech, video and handwriting. The authors suggest, that such media is far more difficult to counterfeit than plaintext. Thus, the user must rely on his other resources, like biometric ones. In the protocol proposed by the authors, the user sends messages in a biometric format, strengthened by simple algorithmic authenticators. The smart card functions as a secure time gate ensuring, that the attacker has extremely little time to counterfeit both the biometric and the algorithmic protection on the message. The authors claim, that with the proper calibration of the biometric method and the time gate of the smart card, their protocol is strong enough for practical use.

  5. Local Termination: theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Endrullis, Joerg; Waldmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The characterisation of termination using well-founded monotone algebras has been a milestone on the way to automated termination techniques, of which we have seen an extensive development over the past years. Both the semantic characterisation and most known termination methods are concerned with global termination, uniformly of all the terms of a term rewriting system (TRS). In this paper we consider local termination, of specific sets of terms within a given TRS. The principal goal of this paper is generalising the semantic characterisation of global termination to local termination. This is made possible by admitting the well-founded monotone algebras to be partial. We also extend our approach to local relative termination. The interest in local termination naturally arises in program verification, where one is probably interested only in sensible inputs, or just wants to characterise the set of inputs for which a program terminates. Local termination will be also be of interest when dealing with a specif...

  6. Pulse contour-derived cardiac output in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Joakim; Ladefoged, Soeren D

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods for cardiac output determination are essential for studying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension. Use of the current gold standard, the Transonic monitor, requires an arteriovenous fistula. We wished to verify the accuracy of a method based on finger pulse contour...

  7. PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.3PbTiO3(0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%. Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1−xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young’s modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young’s modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm2. The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications.

  8. PMN-PT/PVDF Nanocomposite for High Output Nanogenerator Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Luo, Wenbo; Liu, Xingzhao; Xu, Dong; He, Kai

    2016-04-11

    The 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-0.3PbTiO₃(0.7PMN-0.3PT) nanorods were obtained via hydrothermal method with high yield (over 78%). Then, new piezoelectric nanocomposites based on (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O₃-xPbTiO₃ (PMN-PT) nanorods were fabricated by dispersing the 0.7PMN-0.3PT nanorods into piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer. The mechanical behaviors of the nanocomposites were investigated. The voltage and current generation of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites were also measured. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and Young's modulus of nanocomposites were enhanced as compared to that of the pure PVDF. The largest Young's modulus of 1.71 GPa was found in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content. The maximum output voltage of 10.3 V and output current of 46 nA were obtained in the samples with 20 wt % nanorod content, which was able to provide a 13-fold larger output voltage and a 4.5-fold larger output current than that of pure PVDF piezoelectric polymer. The current density of PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites is 20 nA/cm². The PMN-PT/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited great potential for flexible self-powered sensing applications.

  9. Electronically tunable voltage-mode universal filter with single-input five-output using simple OTAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumngern, Montree; Suwanjan, Peerawut; Dejhan, Kobchai

    2013-08-01

    This article presents a new electronically tunable voltage-mode universal biquadratic filter with single-input five-output using simple operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) and grounded capacitors. The proposed configuration provides low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-stop and all-pass voltage responses at a high-impedance input terminal that enables easy cascading in voltage-mode. The natural frequency and the quality factor can be set orthogonally by adjusting the circuit components. The natural frequency can also be controlled electronically by adjusting the bias currents of the OTAs. For realising all the five standard filtering functions, no critical-matching conditions are imposed and all the incremental parameter sensitivities are low. Experimental and simulation results that confirm the theoretical predictions are given.

  10. Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.

  11. Modified Current Differencing Unit and its Application for Electronically Reconfigurable Simple First-order Transfer Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTNER, R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified current differencing unit (MCDU and its simple filtering application are introduced in this paper. Modification of the well-known current differencing unit consists in weighted difference of both input currents controlled by adjustable current gain, controllable intrinsic resistance of both current input terminals, and availability of additional voltage terminal(s. Definition of MCDU therefore requires four adjustable parameters (B1, B2, Rp, Rn. A presented active element offers and combines benefits of electronically controllable current conveyor of second generation and current differencing unit and allows synthesis of interesting adjustable applications, which are not available by classical approaches based on simple elements. MCDU brings variability of the transfer function into the structure. It provides several transfer types without necessity of input or output node change by simple electronic tuning. A presented structure represents so-called reconnection-less reconfigurable current-mode filter for realization of all-pass, inverting high-pass, low-pass and direct transfer response. Behavioral model of the MCDU was prepared and carefully tested in filtering application. Spice simulations and measurements confirmed theoretical assumptions.

  12. Replacing a battery by a nanogenerator with 20 V output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Youfan; Lin, Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-01-03

    Replacing batteries by nanogenerators (NGs) in small consumer electronics is one of the goals in the emerging field of self-powered nanotechnology. We show that the maximum measured output voltage of an NG optimized with pretreatments on the as-grown ZnO nanowire films reaches 20 V and the output current exceeds 6 {mu}A, which corresponds to a power density of 0.2 W cm{sup -3}. The NG is also demonstrated to replace a battery for driving a electronic watch. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Pulse contour-derived cardiac output in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Joakim; Ladefoged, Soeren D

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods for cardiac output determination are essential for studying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension. Use of the current gold standard, the Transonic monitor, requires an arteriovenous fistula. We wished to verify the accuracy of a method based on finger pulse contour...... analysis, namely the Finometer monitor (FNM) for further use on patients dialyzing on a central vascular catheter. Fifty simultaneous cardiac output measurements were obtained during hemodialysis sessions in 25 patients. The internal variability of the FNM measurements was assessed by comparing 24 pairs...

  14. Relationship between Multi-Output Partially Bent Functions and Multi-Output Bent Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yaqun; JU Guizhi; WANG Jue

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the definition of multi-output partially Bent functions is presented and some properties are discussed. Then the relationship between multi-output partially Bent functions and multi-output Bent functions is given in Theorem 4, which includes Walsh spectrum expression and function expression. This shows that multi-output partially Bent functions and multi-output Bent functions can define each other in principle. So we obtain the general method to construct multi-output partially Bent functions from multi-output Bent functions.

  15. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  16. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The exponential growth of user demands and the limitations of 3G systems have brought researchers and industry to propose solutions for the next generation. Among the requirements are higher bit rates and cheaper deployment. In this paper we focus on a terminal complexity problem related to chann...

  17. 7 CFR 922.64 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination. 922.64 Section 922.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... 31 of the then current fiscal period. (d) The provisions of this part shall, in any event,...

  18. 7 CFR 925.63 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... majority of the growers: Provided, That such majority has during the current marketing season produced more... announcement thereof by the Secretary. (c) The provisions of this part shall, in any event, terminate...

  19. Palliativ behandling af patienter med terminal kronisk obstruktiv lungesygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, Christian; Nielsen, Thyge L; Steffensen, Ida E;

    2011-01-01

    Terminal chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and advanced cancer have similar prognosis and symptom burden. However, palliative care of patients with terminal COPD has been neglected in Denmark. We describe the symptoms of terminal COPD and suggest criteria for defining the palliative...... phase of the disease. Furthermore we discuss the prognostic and ethical challenges for patients, their families and their caregivers. Finally, we summarize the current evidence for palliative treatment of dyspnoea and ways to evaluate response to treatment....

  20. Arc termination cracks in Inconel 718 and Incoloy 903

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E.; Mccaig, J.; Poorman, R.

    1978-01-01

    The welding of the nickel base, heat resistant alloys that are used extensively for welded Shuttle engine components revealed solidification cracking characteristics at weld termination points. If not detected and removed, these crater cracks may cause costly component failure. To better understand this characteristic, welding termination techniques were studied and methods developed to eliminate crater cracks. It was determined that weld termination solidification cracking can be eliminated by controlled decrease of welding current, welding voltage, wire feed, and travel speed.