WorldWideScience

Sample records for current nuclear arsenals

  1. Recent and prospective developments in nuclear arsenals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.

    1993-01-01

    Arms controllers have long complained that the only weapons states give up in arms control negotiations are strategically insignificant weapons. This is why the United States and Soviet Union shied away from giving up much in SALT I and SALT II: each side felt that it could not significantly reduce its nuclear forces, or take any step that might give the other side an advantage. Do not be fooled: policy makers in Washington and Moscow still believe that it is important to hang on to strategically significant weapons. But, because the world has changed in fundamental ways, fewer weapons are strategically significant today. Now that extended deterrence requirements have virtually disappeared, the main reason for having nuclear weapons is to deter other nuclear powers from attacking with their nuclear weapons. There is, therefore, no compelling reason for having large nuclear forces. Given concerns about unauthorized attacks, accidental launches, and high levels of defense spending, there are good reasons for deploying smaller forces. This is why Washington and Moscow have been cutting their nuclear arsenals to levels that were unimaginable even in 1990. How far this process will go is impossible to say at this juncture. What is clear is that Washington and Moscow can - and should - make even deeper cuts in their nuclear forces. If the United States and Russia retain arsenals with thousands of nuclear weapons, Britain, France, and China - whose arsenals contain hundreds of nuclear weapons - will not join the arms reduction process. Countries that have promised to give up the nuclear weapons currently stationed on their territory - Kazakhstan, the Ukraine, and Belorussia - will be more inclined to retain them, on the grounds that nuclear weapons are seen to have strategic and political value. For the same reasons, countries on the nuclear threshold, such as India, will be more inclined to acquire nuclear weapons. If the United States and Russia retain massive nuclear

  2. France's Nuclear Arsenal: What Sort of Renewal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustlein, Corentin

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of the next few years, France will have to renew its nuclear arsenal to ensure that it remains a credible deterrent in the eyes of its potential enemies. This update must occur within an unfavourable context: the strategic environment, marked by the multiplication of Jihadi fronts, has deteriorated, and budgetary discipline is the order of the day. Sacrificing nuclear deterrence at the altar of the fight against terrorism would, however, be a fatal error

  3. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.

  4. China's nuclear arsenal and missile defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappai, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the last few years, major focus of the nuclear debate has been turned towards the United States' proposal to erect a National Missile Defence (NMD) shield for itself. Of the existing nuclear weapon powers, China has been the most vociferous critic of this proposal. As and when this shield does become a reality, China will be the first to lose credibility as a deterrent against USA's existing nuclear arsenal. Therefore taking countermeasures against such a proposal is quite natural. China's approach towards non-proliferation mechanisms is steeped in realpolitik and its ability to manoeuvre them in its favour as a P5 and N5 power. Further, the Chinese leadership have been clear about the capabilities and limitations of nuclear weapons and treated them as diplomatic and political tools. The underlying aim is to preserve China's status as a dominant player in the international system while checkmating other possible challengers. Such a pragmatic approach is of far-reaching significance to all nations, especially those that possess nuclear weapons themselves. It will also be in India's long-term strategic interest to assess and take necessary corrective measures in its national security strategy, and make the composition of Indian nuclear strategy meet the desired goal. (author)

  5. Nuclear Arsenals at Low Numbers: When Less Is Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustus, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    President Obama's 2009 speech in Prague is remembered as a call for the eventual elimination of nuclear weapons. It reinvigorated a long-overdue policy debate in the United States and Europe. Unfortunately, that debate is characterized by a focus on arsenal size that borders on numerology, a lack of imagination consistent with presentism, and…

  6. The Chinese nuclear arsenal and its second-strike capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabestan, Jean-Pierre

    2013-03-01

    It is well known that China possesses a second- strike capability, but a great deal of uncertainty persists on the subject. Over the last few years, without officially adjusting its doctrine, China has nonetheless defined its objectives. In April 2010, the People's Liberation Army Daily indicated that China needed such a capability and contended that ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) would constitute the safest means of delivery. In the same year, the IISS estimated that the People's Liberation Army was in possession of 90 ICBMs (66 ground-based missiles and 24 SLBMs) and 400 IRBM mainly aimed at Taiwan and Japan. The Pentagon's 2012 report proposed 50-75 ICBMs and 80 -120 IRBM and MRBM. While it is established that the People's Liberation Army is developing Jin class submarines (type-094, of which there are currently two in service, which will soon rise to five) and is developing solid-propellant missiles, which could be activated more quickly, not a great deal is known about the progress of these two projects. The JL-2 (7400 km), which is mounted on SSBNs, is still being tested. In parallel, the traditional principle to which China adheres - no first use of nuclear weapons - seems to have been slightly dented. Thus, in January 2011, the Japanese press agency Kyodo (relayed by Stratfor) reported that the People's Liberation Army had lowered the threshold for use of its strategic weapons: it could henceforth envisage a preventive nuclear strike against a nuclear power that had by conventional means destroyed key strategic targets on its territory, such as a nuclear power station, a dam, or a large city, having provided prior warning to the aggressor. But what most worries the U.S. and its Asian allies, particularly the Japanese, is the quasi-total opacity of the Chinese military nuclear programme. While in April 2010, the United States and Russia signed a treaty limiting their number of strategic weapons to 1550 by 2018, China considers that its programme cannot

  7. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal

  8. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: Production reactor technology, management, and policy, 1942--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This book focuses on the lineage of America`s production reactors, those three at Hanford and their descendants, the reactors behind America`s nuclear weapons. The work will take only occasional sideways glances at the collateral lines of descent, the reactor cousins designed for experimental purposes, ship propulsion, and electric power generation. Over the decades from 1942 through 1992, fourteen American production reactors made enough plutonium to fuel a formidable arsenal of more than twenty thousand weapons. In the last years of that period, planners, nuclear engineers, and managers struggled over designs for the next generation of production reactors. The story of fourteen individual machines and of the planning effort to replace them might appear relatively narrow. Yet these machines lay at the heart of the nation`s nuclear weapons complex. The story of these machines is the story of arming the winning weapon, supplying the nuclear arms race. This book is intended to capture the history of the first fourteen production reactors, and associated design work, in the face of the end of the Cold War.

  9. Exchange currents in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truglik, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Adler's low-energy theorem for the soft pion production amplitudes the predictions of the meson exchange currents theory for the nuclear physics are discussed. The results are reformulated in terms of phenomenological lagrangians. This method allows one to pass naturally to the more realistic case of hard mesons. The predictions are critically compared with the existing experimental data. The main processes in which vector isovector exchange currents, vector isoscalar exchange currents and axial exchange currents take place are pointed out

  10. O ARSENAL DO ALFEITE

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, José

    2007-01-01

    O Arsenal do Alfeite, estabelecimento fabril da Marinha, constitui o principal órgão de suporte, no âmbito da logística do material naval, que nos últimos setenta anos tem vindo a assegurar a execução da manutenção da Esquadra, bem como a construção e a modernização de várias unidades navais. As preocupações relativamente à eficiência com que utiliza os recursos que lhe são postos ao dispor pela Marinha, e a eficácia que decorre da utilização desses mesmos recursos, em prol da disponibilid...

  11. Current status of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The decision to devote the 1984 conference to nuclear power is timely and appropriate. Illinois has a long, and distinguished history in the development of civilian nuclear power. The concept was born at the University of Chicago, developed at Argonne National Laboratory and demonstrated on the Commonwealth Edison system at our pioneer Dresden Nuclear Station. Today, Illinois ranks number one in the nation in nuclear generation. With over a quarter century of commercial operating experience, nuclear power has proven its worth and become a significant and growing component of electric power supply domestically and throughout the world. Despite its initial acceptance, however, the nuclear power industry in the U.S. is now in the midst of a difficult period of readjustment stemming largely from the economic and regulatory problems of the past decade. As a result, the costs of plants under construction have increased dramatically, causing serious financial difficulties for several projects and their owners. At the same time, the U.S. is facing hard choices concerning its future energy supplies. Conferences such as this have an important role in clarifying the issues and helping to find solutions to today's pressing energy problems. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power both here and abroad, discussing the implications of current events in the context of national energy policy and economic development here in Illinois

  12. Current puzzles in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A meeting on ''Current puzzles in nuclear physics'' was held at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, on June 27 - 28, 1984. The meeting put emphasis on several puzzles which have not been solved for a long time in nuclear physics, and also on the puzzles. This collective report is composed of following eleven papers presented at the meeting. Almost all the papers are witten in English : (1) M1, GT excitations and configuration mixing (in Japanese). (2) Hadronic excitation of pionic states. (3) Microscopic analyses of 28 Si(α,α') 28 Si scattering and single particle strength in A = 29 nuclei. (4) Few-body physics and its incentives to nuclear physics. (5) Is it necessary to introduce three body interactions ? (in Japanese). (6) Puzzles in the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering. (7) Puzzles in NN, NΔ, πN and Nanti N interactions. (8) Problems in Hadron-Nucleus interaction. (9) Unified approach to the meson- and quark- theory of nuclear forces and currents. (10) Pion photoproduction in two Chiral bag models. (11) The dynamic bag model : The electromagnetic properties of nucleon. (Aoki, K.)

  13. Nuclear cardiology - its current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has been an exciting new field of nuclear medicine. Few examples of the dynamism and excitement of nuclear medicine demonstrate this field's vitality in the way that nuclear cardiology does. Recent new developments in radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation have established this field as an extremely useful clinical tool and provide a new dimension to the evaluation of a cardiac patient, more so being nonivasive in nature. An attempt has been made to focus the attention on some of the recent advances in nuclear cardiology with a special reference to its clinical application in the field of cardiology. Nuclear cardiology is the most important field of nuclear medicine which has shown most promising results and has opened a new horizon in the field of diagnostic noninvasive cardiac technique. Now it has come of age in concept, instrument development and clinical application. It is very rapidly growing into a subspeciality. (author)

  14. Current US nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act Adopted by US Congress in 1957 as the world's first national nuclear liability regime. It is a comprehensive, complicated and unique system and stems from special features of US legal regime and federal system of government. It differs from other systems by providing for 'economic', not legal; channeling of liability to facility operator and not recommended as model for other states, but most features adopted by other states and international conventions

  15. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  16. Nuclear friction calculated from nucleon currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Vinas, X.; Barranco, M.; La Rana, G.; Leray, S.; Lucas, R.; Ngo, C.; Tomasi, E.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear friction can be connected to the number of nucleons exchanged between two interacting nuclei. The proximity scaling allows to reduce this problem to a calculation of the nucleon current between two semi infinite slabs of nuclear matter facing each other. In this paper we review the approximations and the results concerning this problem with a special emphasis on the physical ideas. Applications of nucleons currents to Fermi jets and to the calculation of a part of the imaginary potential are also discussed

  17. Current status of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 65 colleges and universities offering undergraduate degrees in nuclear engineering and the 15 schools offering strong nuclear engineering options are, in general, doing a good job to meet the current spectrum of job opportunities. But, nuclear engineering programs are not producing enough graduates to meet growing demands. They currently receive little aid and support from their customers --industry and government--in the form of scholarships, grants, faculty research support, student thesis and project support, or student summer jobs. There is not enough interaction between industry and universities. Most nuclear engineering programs are geared too closely to the technology of the present family of reactors and too little to the future breeder reactors and controlled thermonuclear reactors. In addition, nuclear engineering programs attract too few women and members of minority ethnic groups. Further study of the reasons for this fact is needed so that effective corrective action can be taken. Faculty in nuclear engineering programs should assume greater initiative to provide attractive and objective nuclear energy electives for technical and nontechnical students in other disciplines to improve their technical understanding of the safety and environmental issues involved. More aggressive and persistent efforts must be made by nuclear engineering schools to obtain industry support and involvement in their programs

  18. Introducing nuclear power into currently non-nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gert, Claassen

    2007-01-01

    As the nuclear renaissance gains momentum, many countries that currently have no nuclear power plants will begin to consider introducing them. It is anticipated that smaller reactors such as the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) will not only be sold to current nuclear states to also to states where there is currently no nuclear experience. A range of issues would have to be considered for nuclear plants to be sold to non-nuclear states, such as the appropriate regulatory environment, standardization and codes, non-proliferation, security of supply, obtaining experienced merchant operators, appropriate financial structures and education and training. The paper considers nine major issues that need to be addressed by governments and vendors alike: 1) political enabling framework, 2) regulatory framework, 3) responsible owner, 4) responsible operator, 5) finance, 6) contact management, 7) fuel supply and waste management framework, 8) training and education, and 9) industrial infrastructure. International cooperation by organisations such as the IAEA, financial institutions and international suppliers will be required to ensure that developing countries as well as developed ones share the benefits of the nuclear renaissance. The opportunities that the nuclear industry affords to develop local skills, create job opportunities and to develop local manufacturing industries are among the important reasons that the South African Government has decided to support and fund the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor project. (author)

  19. Introducing nuclear power into currently non-nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, Gert

    2007-01-01

    As the nuclear renaissance gains momentum, many countries that currently have no nuclear power plants will begin to consider introducing them. It is anticipated that smaller reactors such as the Pebble Bed Modulator Reactor (PBMR) will not only be sold to current nuclear states to also to states where there is currently no nuclear experience. A range of issues would have to be considered for nuclear plants to be solid to non-nuclear states, such as the appropriate regulatory environment, standardization and codes, non-proliferation, security of supply, obtaining experienced merchant operators, appropriate financial structures and education and training. The paper considers nine major issues that need to be addressed by governments and vendors alike. International cooperation by organisations such as the IAEA, financial institutions and international suppliers will be required to ensure that developing countries as well as developed ones share the benefits of the nuclear renaissance. The opportunities that the nuclear industry affords to develop local skills, create job opportunities and to develop local manufacturing industries are among the important reasons that the South African Government has decided to support and fund the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor project. These considerations are included in the paper. (author)

  20. Current challenges for education of nuclear engineers. Beyond nuclear basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In past decades, curricula for the education of nuclear engineers (either as a major or minor subject) have been well established all over the world. However, from the point of view of a nuclear supplier, recent experiences in large and complex new build as well as modernization projects have shown that important competences required in these projects were not addressed during the education of young graduates. Consequently, in the past nuclear industry has been obliged to either accept long periods for job familiarization, or to develop and implement various dedicated internal training measures. Although the topics normally addressed in nuclear engineering education (like neutron and reactor physics, nuclear materials or thermohydraulics and the associated calculation methods) build up important competences, this paper shows that the current status of nuclear applications requires adaptations of educational curricula. As a conclusion, when academic nuclear engineering curricula start taking into account current competence needs in nuclear industry, it will be for the benefit of the current and future generation of nuclear engineers. They will be better prepared for their future job positions and career perspectives, especially on an international level. The recommendations presented should not only be of importance for the nuclear fission field, but also for the fusion community. Here, the Horizon 2020 Roadmap to Fusion as published in 2012 now is focusing on ITER and on a longer-term development of fusion technology for a future demonstration reactor DEMO. The very challenging work program is leading to a strong need for exactly those skills that are described in this article.

  1. Current challenges for education of nuclear engineers. Beyond nuclear basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, Christian [AREVA GmbH, Offenbach (Germany). Training Center

    2014-07-15

    In past decades, curricula for the education of nuclear engineers (either as a major or minor subject) have been well established all over the world. However, from the point of view of a nuclear supplier, recent experiences in large and complex new build as well as modernization projects have shown that important competences required in these projects were not addressed during the education of young graduates. Consequently, in the past nuclear industry has been obliged to either accept long periods for job familiarization, or to develop and implement various dedicated internal training measures. Although the topics normally addressed in nuclear engineering education (like neutron and reactor physics, nuclear materials or thermohydraulics and the associated calculation methods) build up important competences, this paper shows that the current status of nuclear applications requires adaptations of educational curricula. As a conclusion, when academic nuclear engineering curricula start taking into account current competence needs in nuclear industry, it will be for the benefit of the current and future generation of nuclear engineers. They will be better prepared for their future job positions and career perspectives, especially on an international level. The recommendations presented should not only be of importance for the nuclear fission field, but also for the fusion community. Here, the Horizon 2020 Roadmap to Fusion as published in 2012 now is focusing on ITER and on a longer-term development of fusion technology for a future demonstration reactor DEMO. The very challenging work program is leading to a strong need for exactly those skills that are described in this article.

  2. Current Status of Yongbyon Nuclear Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The DPRK has developed Yongbyon Nuclear Complex in Figure 1 since 1960's. Currently it is composed of the reactor facility, fuel fabrication facility including the enrichment center, and the radiochemistry center. Even though many facilities are not modern and economic in the western standards, Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is fully equipped with the entire life cycle of the nuclear installation. The key facilities have been added step by step. For example, the DPRK's nuclear reactor fleet started with the 2 MW IRT-2000 reactor in the middle of 80's. It started with a small scale radioactive isotope separation center nearby. But nowadays the DPRK is constructing a much more larger isotope separation center in the vicinity of its enrichment center along with a potential new UF6 conversion center. The general description over Yongbyon Nuclear Complex is given in this paper. More detailed context of the current status of the center will be discussed in the main symposium purely based on the open source information study.

  3. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  4. Current nuclear threats and possible responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Frederick K.

    2005-04-01

    Over the last 50 years, the United States has spent more than 100 billion developing and building a variety of systems intended to defend its territory against intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. Most of these systems never became operational and ultimately all were judged ineffective. The United States is currently spending about 10 billion per year developing technologies and systems intended to defend against missiles that might be acquired in the future by North Korea or Iran. This presentation will discuss these efforts ad whether they are likely to be more effective than those of the past. It will also discuss the proper role of anti-ballistic programs at a time when the threat of a nuclear attack on the U.S. by terrorists armed with nuclear weapons is thought to be much higher than the threat of an attack by nuclear-armed ballistic missles.

  5. Review of Current Nuclear Vacuum System Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.; McCracken, J.; Shope, T.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all industrial operations generate unwanted dust, particulate matter, and/or liquid wastes. Waste dust and particulates can be readily tracked to other work locations, and airborne particulates can be spread through ventilation systems to all locations within a building, and even vented outside the building - a serious concern for processes involving hazardous, radioactive, or nuclear materials. Several varieties of vacuum systems have been proposed and/or are commercially available for clean up of both solid and liquid hazardous and nuclear materials. A review of current technologies highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems, and demonstrates the need for a system designed to address issues specific to hazardous and nuclear material cleanup. A review of previous and current hazardous/nuclear material cleanup technologies is presented. From simple conventional vacuums modified for use in industrial operations, to systems specifically engineered for such purposes, the advantages and disadvantages are examined in light of the following criteria: minimal worker exposure; minimal secondary waste generation;reduced equipment maintenance and consumable parts; simplicity of design, yet fully compatible with all waste types; and ease of use. The work effort reviews past, existing and proposed technologies in light of such considerations. Accomplishments of selected systems are presented, including identified areas where technological improvements could be suggested

  6. Current status of nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Efforts at nuclear safety research have expanded year by year in Japan, in term of money and technical achievement. The Atomic Energy Commission set last year the five year nuclear safety research program, a guideline by which various research institutes will be able to develop their own efforts in a concerted manner. From the results of the nuclear safety research which cover very wide areas ranging from reactor engineering safety, safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, prevention of radiation hazards to the adequate treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, AIJ hereafter focuses of LWR engineering safety and prevents two articles, one introducing the current results of the NSSR program developed by JAERI and the other reporting the LWR reliability demonstration testing projects being promoted by MITI. The outline of these demonstration tests was reported in this report. The tests consist of earthquake resistance reliability test of nuclear power plants, steam generator reliability tests, valve integrity tests, fuel assembly reliability tests, reliability tests of heat affected zones and reliability tests of pumps. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. Current training initiatives at Nuclear Electric plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Electric, one of the three generating companies to emerge from the demise of the U.K.'s Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB), owns and operates the commercial nuclear power stations in England and Wales. The U.K. government proscribed further construction beyond Sizewell B, the United Kingdom's first pressurized water reactor (PWR) station, pending the outcome of a review of the future of nuclear power to be held in 1994. The major challenges facing Nuclear Electric at its formation in 1990 were therefore to demonstrate that nuclear power is safe, economical, and environmentally acceptable and to complete the PWR station under construction on time and within budget. A significant number of activities were started that were designed to increase output, reduce costs, and ensure that the previous excellent safety standards were maintained. A major activity was to reduce the numbers of staff employed, with a recognition from the outset that this reduction could only be achieved with a significant human resource development program. Future company staff would have to be competent in more areas and more productive. This paper summarizes some of the initiatives currently being pursued throughout the company and the progress toward ensuring that staff with the required competences are available to commission and operate the Sizewell B program in 1994

  8. Axial currents and nuclear spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Matsuta, K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the symmetries in the phenomena in which weak interaction is involved are largely violated, and it is still the up-to-date fore-front to study the structure of the nuclear weak currents and to learn the limitations on the applicabilities of the various relevant conservation laws as well as the nuclear structures studied by the β-decay. In this meeting, research works on the β-decay processes for the past 10 years have focused on the recoil order experiments designed to determine the limits of validity of the conserved vector current (CVC) theory and to test the G parity conservation i.e. the search for the second class currents (SCC), as well as to study the structure of the axial currents. Concerning the SCC, after intensive studies, but with not conclusive results, on the ft values of mirror β-decays in the early seventies, the correlation-type measurements on mass A=8, 12, 19 and 20 systems have been also carried out in various laboratories from 1975. Among those, concerns have been with the mass A=12 nuclear triad, /sup 12/B-/sup 12/C-/sup 12/N, the energy diagram of which is well known. The choice of this triad is because of the test done for the strong CVC predictions using the spectrum shapes of β-rays combined with the experimental analogue γ-width in /sup 12/C as well as those relevant nuclear structures. Thus, this A=12 system provides the best testing ground for the research described above

  9. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities using current criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, E.Y.; Swift, J.J.; Malaro, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    When a licensed nuclear facility ceases operation, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for ensuring that the facility and its site are decontaminated to an acceptable level so that it is safe to release that facility and site for unrestricted public use. Currently, the NRC is developing decommissioning criteria based on reducing public doses from residual contamination in soils and structures at sites released for unrestricted use to as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). Plans are to quantify ALARA in terms of an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an average member of the most highly exposed population group. The NRC is working on a regulatory guidance document to provide a technical basis for translating residual contamination levels to annual dose levels. Another regulatory guide is being developed to provide guidance to the licensee on how to conduct radiological surveys to demonstration compliance with the NRC decommissioning criteria. The methods and approaches used in these regulatory guides on the decommissioning of a nuclear facility are discussed in the paper

  10. Current status of nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4 He, 7 Li, 9 Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested

  11. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  12. Current trends in nuclear material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenscroft, Norman; Oshinowo, Franchone

    1997-01-01

    The business of radioactive material transportation has evolved considerably in the past 40 years. Current practices reflect extensive international experience in handling radioactive cargo within a mature and tested regulatory framework. Nevertheless, new developments continue to have an impact on how shipments of nuclear material are planned and carried out. Entities involved in the transport of radioactive materials must keep abreast of these developments and work together to find innovative solutions to ensure that safe, smooth transport activities may continue. Several recent trends in the regulatory environment and political atmosphere require attention. There are four key trends that we'll be examining today: 1) the reduction in the pool of available commercial carriers; 2) routing restrictions; 3) package validation issues; and 4) increasing political sensitivities. Careful planning and cooperative measures are necessary to alleviate problems in each of these areas. (author)

  13. Current status and improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Guopu; Guo Lanying

    1999-01-01

    The author reviews the current status of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology in higher education and expresses author's views on the future improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course

  14. Current status of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is not a viable energy source for Sri Lanka at present because of a number of reasons, the main reason being the non-availability of small and economically viable nuclear power plants. However several suppliers of nuclear power plants are in the process of developing small and medium power plants (SMPRs) which could be economically competitive with coal. The paper deals with past and future trends of nuclear power plants, their economics and safety. It also deals with environmental effects and public acceptance of nuclear power plants

  15. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  16. Current nuclear programmes in third world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Anna.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1964, when China became the fifth declared nuclear weapons state NWS (joining the US, Soviet Union, Britain and France), no other state has openly declared a nuclear capacity. But four states - Israel, South Africa, India and Pakistan - are now believed to have such a capacity. This chapter will briefly document the nuclear weapons programmes of these four 'threshold' countries which possess the industrial infrastructure to enable them to produce nuclear weapons' but assiduously refrain from publicly expressing any interest in acquiring such weapons. The chapter will go on to discuss those states which are not on the threshold but which are attempting to become nuclear-capable through building the necessary technology or acquiring it on the international market. The political motivation for these countries to 'go nuclear', and the assistance they have received in this endeavour from the NWSs themselves, will also be discussed. (author)

  17. Current assessment and future potential of the international nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This is a study of the current and future situation of the international nuclear market. This paper highlights the projections as seen not only by Bechtel Power Corporation, but also by the international nuclear community. It covers in particular the electric power growth projection; the percentage of probable nuclear power generation; operating services for existing nuclear power plants; and the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  18. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies--once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors achieves several recycling objectives; fast nuclear reactors achieve all of them

  19. Current operating practices of nuclear insurance pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear pooling system and co-operation between the pools, present practice and capacity, with a breakdown of the limits for third party liability and material damage. The author also describes the relationship between the pools and the nuclear operators (the policyholders), and concludes that the nuclear pools have been successful in serving the interests of their member companies, their policyholders and the governments as they have provided a stable insurance market by making available capacity in amounts that had never before been assembled and placed at risk in a single location. 2 tabs

  20. Current trends in nuclear medicine in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, S.; Ahmed, S.

    1990-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of dissertations on research projects submitted by the fellows of M. Sc. (Nuclear Medicine) who undertook a two-year intensive course initiated in 1989 by the Centre for Nuclear Studies, PINSTECH, Islamabad. The project covered major aspects of nuclear medicine including the cardiovascular, endocrine, haematopoietic, hepatobiliary, immune and skeletal systems. The results obtained proved interesting and of significant clinical relevance. Majority of essays addressed some new aspects of the problems and the resultants information should prove interesting for both local and foreign enthusiasts. This book proves a reflection of the high quality of work done by the faculty and the fellows. (orig./A.B.)

  1. Research in nuclear chemistry: current status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in nuclear chemistry has seen a huge growth over the last few decades. The large umbrella of nuclear chemistry includes several research areas such as nuclear fission, reactions, spectroscopy, nuclear probes and nuclear analytical techniques. Currently, nuclear chemistry research has extended its horizon into various applications like nuclear medicine, isotopes for understanding physico chemical processes, and addressing environmental and biomedical problems. Tremendous efforts are going on for synthesizing new elements (isotopes), isolating physically or chemically wherever possible and investigating their properties. Theses studies are useful to understand nuclear and chemical properties at extreme ends of instability. In addition, nuclear chemists are making substantial contribution to astrophysics and other related areas. During this talk, a few of the contributions made by nuclear chemistry group of BARC will be discussed and possible future areas of research will be enumerated. (author)

  2. Automatic Requirements Specification Extraction from Natural Language (ARSENAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    studies: the Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTEthernet) communication platform used in space, and FAA-Isolette infant incubators used in NICU . We...in space, and FAA-Isolette infant incubators used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units ( NICUs ). We systematically evalu- ated various aspects of ARSENAL...effect, we present the ARSENAL methodology. ARSENAL uses state-of-the-art advances in natural language processing (NLP) and formal methods (FM) to

  3. Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. Y.; Min, M. J.; Noh, B. C.

    2010-04-01

    All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected

  4. Nuclear medicine in South Africa : current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangu, M.D.T.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine in South Africa has been a full specialty on its own since 1987. It is practiced in almost all teaching hospitals and within the private sector in larger cities. Most of the routine radiopharmaceuticals are domestically manufactured and the main isotope can be obtained from locally produced technetium generators. All the radionuclide imaging devices used in the country are imported. The main vendors are GE, Siemens and Phillips. The majority of radionuclide imaging comprises work from nuclear cardiology and nuclear oncology. Almost all the routine clinical nuclear medicine procedures are performed and some in vitro work is also done, however. Principal therapeutic agents used in the country include radioactive iodine, radioactive iodine MIBG and yttrium. The country still lacks experience in receptors imaging and radioimmunology work and no PET scanner has been purchased yet. The academic institutions are active with participation in national and international congresses and also with publications. Although much remains to be done, the future of nuclear medicine in South Africa does not appear gloomy. (author)

  5. Current concepts in nuclear pore electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, José Omar

    2006-01-01

    Over 4 decades ago, microelectrode studies of in situ nuclei showed that, under certain conditions, the nuclear envelope (NE) behaves as a barrier opposing the nucleocytoplasmic flow of physiological ions. As the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of the NE are the only pathways for direct nucleocytoplasmic flow, those experiments implied that the NPCs are capable of restricting ion flow. These early studies validated electrophysiology as a useful approach to quantify some of the mechanisms by which NPCs mediate gene activity and expression. Since electron microscopy (EM) and other non-electrophysiological investigations, showed that the NPC lumen is a nanochannel, the opinion prevailed that the NPC could not oppose the flow of ions and, therefore, that electrophysiological observations resulted from technical artifacts. Consequently, the initial enthusiasm with nuclear electrophysiology faded out in less than a decade. In 1990, nuclear electrophysiology was revisited with patch-clamp, the most powerful electrophysiological technique to date. Patch-clamp has consistently demonstrated that the NE has intrinsic ion channel activity. Direct demonstrations of the NPC on-off ion channel gating behavior were published for artificial conditions in 1995 and for intact living nuclei in 2002. This on-off switching/gating behavior can be interpreted in terms of a metastable energy barrier. In the hope of advancing nuclear electrophysiology, and to complement the other papers contained in this special issue of the journal, here I review some of the main technical, experimental, and theoretical issues of the field, with special focus on NPCs.

  6. Current situation of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queral, C.; Minguez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The last few years have seen a growing concern with the decreasing number of suitably qualified engineers and university graduates in the field of Nuclear Technology. The gap between supply and demand is now a fact in several countries, and for the reason the international community has prepared several reports on the issue that are summarized here. (Author) 4 refs

  7. Current state of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past quarter century, plasma physics and nuclear fusion research have gone through impressive development. Tokamak, is realized to be the number one candidate for nuclear fusion reactor. Two large experiments, one called Joint European Torus (JET) at Culham, England, and the other JT-60 project in Japan have been completed and have reported preliminary results. In JET an average electron density of 4x10 13 pcls/ cm 3 , ion temperatures of 3Kev and energy confinement of 0.8 sec have been achieved. However, the Zeff has been even equal to 10 which unfortunately is a source of plasma energy loss. JT-60 has not offered any appreciable results yet, however, the objectives and initial tests promise long pulse duration, with very high ion and plasma densities. Both experiments have promised to achieve conditions approaching those needed in a fusion reactor. Other important experiments will be discussed and the role of third world countries will be emphasized. (Author)

  8. Current problems of Bulgarian nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, A.A.; Vapirev, E.I.

    1996-01-01

    The main unsolved problems of Bulgarian nuclear power industry now are: a serious trouble that the WWER-440 units will have to be phased out before the end of their projected life since they do not meet contemporary safety requirements; heavy economic difficulties with the construction of the new NPP 'Belene'; accumulation of a considerable amount of spent fuel because of its interrupted export to Russia

  9. Current trends in Nuclear Cardiology. Cuban scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peix González, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    The study concludes with the following recommendations. Nuclear Cardiology extend to the entire country. Conduct cost-effectiveness studies comparing different imaging techniques in cardiology. Develop metabolic studies and coronary flow by PET. Introducing the study of adrenergic innervation. Develop hybrid imaging in cardiology. Establish committees of experts to analyze the value of different imaging techniques in Cardiology According to our possibilities and resources, toward implementation of a medicine individualized for our patients

  10. Current problems of nuclear arms: some options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, I.F.

    1992-01-01

    Possible solutions of certain problems of the soviet nuclear weapons resulting from spontaneously changing military-political situation and social-economical living conditions on geostrategical space of the former USSR are discussed. Reliable stabilization of military-political situation on the former USSR territory is required for solving the above problems, which in its turn will possibly require active efforts of the international community. The idea on creation the Committee on non-prolifiration by the UN Security Council is proposed

  11. Reflections on current nuclear safety problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1981-01-01

    After operations totalling more than 2000 reactor-years, the safety balance is undeniably positive: no nuclear power plant in the world has so far caused significant damage to populations or to the environment. The paper reviews the darker and brighter aspects of recent analyses, in particular since the Harrisburg accident, and suggests three general lines of action: maintenance of a high level of technical competence in safety, systematic analysis of operational incidents and, finally, increased attention to the ''human factor'' as regards both the man/machine relationship and the training of personnel. With regard to the last-mentioned point, it is suggested that the greatest possible profit should be drawn from the tests carried out at the time of plant commissioning. International collaboration is particularly necessary both to ensure progress in the technical aspects of safety and to place the credibility of specialists on a firmer foundation. Finally, it is essential to assist countries which are embarking on nuclear power programmes. Nuclear safety is not always correctly perceived by public opinion, which will not definitively accept this new source of energy without having complete confidence in those who are promoting it. A clear and firm position on the part of those in positions of political responsibility is an important element in gaining public confidence. (author)

  12. Un proyecto de arsenal para la Barceloneta (1743 / An Arsenal Project in La Barceloneta (1743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de la Fuente de Pablo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1743 el ingeniero militar Miguel Marín diseñó un arsenal naval en Barcelona. En este artículo se estudia el contexto inmediato de este proyecto. Primeramente, la voluntad de trasladar la principal base naval mediterránea de Cartagena a la capital catalana. En segundo lugar, la relación centro-periferia y el papel del lobby catalán dentro del proceso.In 1743 Miguel Marín, a military engineer, designed the marine arsenal in Barcelona. In this paper, we study the background of this project. Firstly, the willingness to move the Mediterranean base of the Spanish Navy from Cartagena to the capital of Catalonia. Secondly, the centre-periphery relationship and the role of Catalan lobby in this process.

  13. Environmental consequences of nuclear war (SCOPE 28), Vol. 1: Physical and atmospheric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittock, A.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Crutzen, P.J.; MacCracken, M.C.; Shapiro, C.S.; Turco, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an interdisciplinary look at current scientific knowledge of the possible environmental consequences of a nuclear war. The authors assess the likely magnitude of changes in sunlight, temperature, precipitation, atmospheric chemistry, and more. Volume One reviews existing nuclear arsenals, war scenarios, immediate and subsequent effects

  14. Neutrino neutral current interactions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Wehrberger, K.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of neutrino transport properties in matter is crucial for an understanding of the evolution of supernovae and of neutron star cooling. We investigate screening of neutrino scattering from a dense degenerate gas of electrons, protons and neutrons. We take into account correlations induced by the Coulomb interactions of the electrons and protons, and the strong interactions of the protons and neutrons. Nuclear matter is described by the σω model of quantum hadrodynamics. Results are presented for typical astrophysical scenarios. The differential cross section is strongly reduced at large energy transfer, where electrons dominate, and slightly reduced for small energy transfer, where nucleons dominate. At large densities, the nucleon effective mass is considerably lower than the free mass, and the region dominated by nucleons extends to larger energy transfer than for free nucleons. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear regulations: current status and proposed initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domondon, D.B.; Valdezco, E.M.; Mateo, A.J.; Parami, V.K.

    1996-01-01

    The science Act of 1958 created the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, presently known as the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The PNRI is tasked with the dual role of promotion and control of the peaceful applications of atomic energy. To carry its mandate of regulation and control on the use of raioisotopes in various fields, the PNRI had promulgated and issued specific regulations known as the Code of PNRI regulations. This paper summarizes the activities undertaken by PNRI in the continuing process of review and subsequent revisions of the Code of PNRI regulations and related guidance documents. It highlights proposed modifications in the present regulations in an attempt to adopt the new international basic safety standards, the practical problems and related issues attendant to the implementation of these new standards, among others. In line with the overall objective of PNRI to ensure the safe application of nuclear energy and radiation technology in various fields, the institute conducted a series of regulatory information conferences to provide an opportunity for members of the regulatory staff of the PNRI and licenses to discuss safety initiatives and regulatory issues. This paper will also provide an in-depth assessment of the lessons learned from these conferences which were conducted by sector or by specific applications for a more focused approach, e.g. radiopharmaceuticals, industrial radiography, research, among others. Licensees' feedback on the PNRI regulatory process are presented as part of the overall objective of enhancing the operational experiences of the licensing, review and evaluation group as well as that of inspection, enforcement and compliance. Several proposed initiatives for consideration of the PNRI to further strengthen its regulatory functions are also briefly outlined. (author)

  16. Nuclear power for sustainable development. Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamantiades, A.; Kessides, I.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in nuclear power has been revived as a result of volatile fossil fuel prices, concerns about the security of energy supplies, and global climate change. This paper describes the current status and future plans for expansion of nuclear power, the advances in nuclear reactor technology, and their impacts on the associated risks and performance of nuclear power. Advanced nuclear reactors have been designed to be simpler and safer, and to have lower costs than currently operating reactors. By addressing many of the public health and safety risks that plagued the industry since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, these reactors may help break the current deadlock over nuclear power. In that case, nuclear power could make a significant contribution towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, significant issues persist, fueling reservations among the public and many decision makers. Nuclear safety, disposal of radioactive wastes, and proliferation of nuclear explosives need to be addressed in an effective and credible way if the necessary public support is to be obtained. (author)

  17. Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    2001-01-01

    A current bibliography based on INIS Atomindex with 78 references on Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations has been prepared for year 1998. References are arranged by first authors' name. (N.T.)

  18. Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul; Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear arsenal consists of approximately 60 nuclear warheads. Pakistan continues fissile material production for weapons, and is adding to its weapons production facilities and delivery vehicles...

  19. Current problems of the nuclear power - society relationship in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin

    2004-01-01

    The present work tries to make an analysis of the current aspects of the interaction between the nuclear field, environment and society. One starts from the general conception of sustainable development. The analysis focusses mainly the social side of the sustainable development and the environmental protection issues. As prominent appears the sensitive problem of radioactive waste management. The papers analyses the current public perception, the mutations expected in the public opinion as well as the problems which the nuclear industry and decision makers confront to harmonize the requirements in the nuclear power sector and those imposed by society. Particularly focused is the situation in Romania

  20. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (II): Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il

    2007-06-01

    Japan needs to import around 80% of its energy requirements. In 1966, the first nuclear power plant began operation, nuclear energy has been a national strategic priority since 1973. Currently, 55 reactors provide around 30% of the country's electricity. Japanese energy policy has been conducted by the energy security and minimization of dependence of energy imports. The main factors regarding nuclear power are: - Continue to have nuclear power as a main factor of electricity production. - Recycle uranium and plutonium, and start domestic reprocessing from 2005. - Continue to develop fast breeder reactors to increase uranium utilization. - Promote the nuclear transparency to the public, emphasizing safety and non-proliferation. Also, the prospects of Asia's nuclear energy growth has been reviewed

  1. Electronic constant current and current pulse signal generator for nuclear instrumentation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Circuitry is described for testing the ability of an intermediate range nuclear instrument to detect and measure a constant current and a periodic current pulse. The invention simulates the resistance and capacitance of the signal connection of a nuclear instrument ion chamber detector and interconnecting cable. An LED flasher/oscillator illuminates an LED at a periodic rate established by a timing capacitor and circuitry internal to the flasher/oscillator. When the LED is on, a periodic current pulse is applied to the instrument. When the LED is off, a constant current is applied. An inductor opposes battery current flow when the LED is on. 1 figures

  2. Nuclear energy over the last 20 years and current developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The round-table debate was chaired by Jose Maria Fernandez-Rua, who began with a presentation of the current situation in the nuclear sector, namely the permanent shutdown of Lemoniz, Valdecaballeros and Trillo nuclear power plants, and continued with the introduction of the participants: Javier de Pinedo, Director of Generation for Iberdrola; Alberto Lopez, General Manager of Enresa; Guillermo Velarde, Director of the Institute of Nuclear Fusion of the ETSIIM; Adolfo Garcia Rodriguez, General Manager of Empresarios Agrupados; Enrique Garcia Alvarez, technical Director of the Endesa Group; Rafael Caro, Member of the Nuclear Safety Council; Juan Velarde Fuentes; Professor of Economics at the Universidad Complutense in Madrid, and Agustin Alonso, Professor of Nuclear Technology at ETSIIM (Author)

  3. Computers in nuclear medicine - current trends and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Previously, a decision to purchase computing equipment for nuclear medicine usually required evaluation of the 'local' needs. With the advent of Pacs and state of the art computer techniques for image acquisition and manipulation, purchase and subsequent application is to become much more complex. Some of the current trends and future possibilities which may influence the choice and operation of computers within and outside the nuclear medicine environment is discussed. (author)

  4. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of seismic research being conducted in Japan and describes USNRC efforts to understand Japanese seismic practice. Current earthquake engineering practice for Japanese nuclear power plants is descried in JEAG 4601-1987, ''Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The USNRC has sponsored BNL to translate this document into English. Efforts are underway to study and understand JEAG 4601-1987 and make the translation more readily available in the United States

  5. Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, A. E.; Borisov, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

  6. Nuclear energy: current situation and prospects to 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2007-04-15

    For close to half a century nuclear fission has been providing reliable supplies of electricity to the UK, with virtually no emissions of carbon dioxide. Over that period, the UK nuclear industry has avoided the emission of over one and a half billion tonnes of CO2. Yet no nuclear plant has been built in the UK for over two decades even though many of the stations in our current fleet are now within a decade or so of the end of their lifetime. Without new plants being ordered soon, the UK's nuclear capacity will decline dramatically, from 23% today to 3% post-2020--just as considerations of supply security and climate change are becoming increasingly important. Elsewhere in the world, many countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea, Finland and France are building new stations. Other countries such as the USA, South Africa, and some nations that currently do not have nuclear stations (such as Indonesia and Poland) are making preparations for future nuclear stations. Globally capacity factors for nuclear plants are higher than they have ever been, averaging around 85% and with the best stations achieving well over 90%. Lifetime can be 60 years. That the economics of such stations compete well with other technologies is well founded and easily verifiable--especially in the face of rising fossil fuel prices and the pricing in of costs for CO2 emissions--both of which stand to improve the economics of nuclear energy still further. Waste volumes arising from modern plants are just a fraction of those of some earlier stations, and the technologies are in place to deal with them safely and effectively. Following recent reviews and international developments, there is growing confidence that internationally available competitive designs of nuclear plant will provide part of the solution to the UK's long-term energy needs.

  7. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is important to provide the user with an evaluated nuclear database of the highest quality, dependability, and currency. It is also important that the evaluated nuclear data are easily accessible to the user. In the past the panel concentrated its concern on the cycle time for the publication of A-chain evaluations. However, the panel now recognizes that publication cycle time is no longer the appropriate goal. Sometime in the future, publication of the evaluated A-chains will evolve from the present hard-copy Nuclear Data Sheets on library shelves to purely electronic publication, with the advent of universal access to terminals and the nuclear databases. Therefore, the literature cut-off date in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is rapidly becoming the only important measure of the currency of an evaluated A-chain. Also, it has become exceedingly important to ensure that access to the databases is as user-friendly as possible and to enable electronic publication of the evaluated data files. Considerable progress has been made in these areas: use of the on-line systems has almost doubled in the past year, and there has been initial development of tools for electronic evaluation, publication, and dissemination. Currently, the nuclear data effort is in transition between the traditional and future methods of dissemination of the evaluated data. Also, many of the factors that adversely affect the publication cycle time simultaneously affect the currency of the evaluated nuclear database. Therefore, the panel continues to examine factors that can influence cycle time: the number of evaluators, the frequency with which an evaluation can be updated, the review of the evaluation, and the production of the evaluation, which currently exists as a hard-copy issue of Nuclear Data Sheets

  8. Current status and future prospects on nuclear industry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joongjae

    2006-01-01

    It is ny great pleasure to have this chance of speaking at twenty-first KAIF/KNS Annual Conference, with the subject of the current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Korea. As you all know, since the start of operation in Obninsk, the former Soviet Union, on June 26th, 1954, nuclear generation in the world has expanded continuously for the past 50 years. In 1973, when the first oil crisis hit the world, there were 147 nuclear power plants in operation, supplying only 0.8% of the world energy demand. About 30 years later, by the end of last year, 443 plants were in operation in 32 countries, supplying about 16% of the world power demand. Nuclear power generation is greatly contributing to the energy security of many countries and preservation of global environments. Recently, countries all over the world are becoming aware of the values and importance of nuclear energy which can help respond to energy crises caused by a sharp rise in oil prices and protect the earth from global warming. Due to its high energy density and ability to secure fuel supply at a lower cost, in addition to its cleanliness resulting from almost no emission of greenhouse gases, nuclear power generation is the practical alternative for energy security and the prevention of global warming. However, in the rapidly changing 21st century, the nuclear industries of the world, as well as Korea, are facing more challenges than ever before. The political and social disputes on nuclear generation are continuing while we all are facing urgent challenges, including the concerns about the safety of nuclear generation, procuring site to build nuclear power plants, and the improvement of competitiveness. Please allow me to remind you that it is very important for the world's nuclear societies to cooperate together in order to overcome diverse difficulties along our path and to contribute to the development of mankind and preservation of natural environments with nuclear power as a

  9. Current Trends in the Nuclear Power Global Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Mikhailovna Osetskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The review of the nuclear energy technologies market, namely the main processes of the initial and final stages of the nuclear fuel cycle (NTC was shown. The authors reveal key players in the markets of natural uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, direct disposal, and reprocessing as well as determine their market shares. The article shows the fundamental factors influencing the development trends of the global nuclear power market such as: units’ commissioning in China, India, the Republic of Korea and other countries, the restart of the Japanese nuclear power plants, growth of uranium supplies long-term contracting planned for the period up to 2025, volatility of world prices of the NFC initial and final stages, political, economic and environmental reasons for the nuclear power generation choice. The article presents the results of analyses of Russian and world prices on the NFC initial and final stages main processes’ allowing to draw a conclusion about the current competitiveness of Russian nuclear energy technologies

  10. Current Status of QA For Nuclear Power Plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Hitohiko

    1986-01-01

    It is the current status of QA and our QA experiences with nuclear power plants against the background of the Japanese social and business environment. Accordingly, in 1972, 'The Guidance for Quality Assurance in Construction of Nuclear Power Plants' based on U. S. 10CEF50 Appendix B, was published by the Japan Electric Association. 'Jug-4101 The Guide for Quality Assurance of Nuclear Power Plants' has been prepared by referring to the IAEA QA code. The Guide has been accepted by the Japanese nuclear industry and applied to the QA programs of every organization concerned therewith. The Japanese approach to higher quality will naturally be different from that of other countries because of Japan's cultural, social, and economic conditions. Even higher quality is being aimed at through the LWR Improvement and Standardization Program and coordinated quality assurance efforts

  11. Nuclear power in the OECD countries results and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    The first use of nuclear power for the generation of electricity on a commercial scale occurred in the United Kingdom in 1956. Today, 13 OECD countries have 318 nuclear units in operation and 66 more in construction or on order. This outstanding achievement is the result of the successful organization, start up, and operation of an industry to design, build, equip, fuel, and maintain these facilites. Nuclear power, however, is currently troubled by a number of issues that may impair its ability to reach its full potential. The industry has acknowledged problems that can be and are being managed. But the industry also has a number of political difficulties that could be beyond its ability to resolve with its own resources. These are issues common to the introduction of new technologies into a complex world. Nevertheless, nuclear power continues to be the means by which we can provide the electric power needed to raise the living standard of everyone on the globe

  12. 'What's happening at the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA): current priorities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of current CNA programs, particularly focused on communications and advertising, regulatory affairs, climate change, and government relations. The presentation will address the principal messages that Canada's nuclear technology sector is endeavouring to get across to the public and to government policy makers. (author)

  13. Current experience with nuclear power plant simulators and analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, A.

    1998-01-01

    Topics of a Specialist Meeting are presented on Simulators and Plant Analyzers: Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation (Espoo, Finland). They dealt with the need for maintaining expertise, training and education, control rooms and operator support tools, simulators as tools for plant safety analysis. The major conclusions of the payers and the meeting are discussed. (R.P.)

  14. History and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funasaka, Hideyuki; Nagai, Toshihisa; Washiya, Tadahiro

    2008-01-01

    History and present state of fast breeder reactor was reviewed in series. As a history and current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technology, this ninth lecture presented the progress of the FBR fuel reprocessing technology and advanced reprocessing processes. FBR fuel reprocessing technology had been developed to construct the reprocessing equipment test facilities (RETF) based on PUREX process technologies. With economics, reduction of environmental burdens and proliferation resistance taken into consideration, advanced aqueous method for nuclear fuel cycle activities has been promoted as the government's basic policy. Innovative technologies on mechanical disassembly, continuous rotary dissolver, crystallizer, solvent extraction and actinides recovery have been mainly studied. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Current status of the nuclear medicine in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, K.

    1974-01-01

    A brief survey of the current status of Japan nuclear medicine is given. The following data are described (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference of Radioisotopes): 1. the increase of the number of nuclear instruments between 1971 and 1973; 2. the total amount of the cobalt radiation apparatur (inclusive of the cesium apparatus) in the hospitals in 1971- and 1972; 3. the radioactive medicines and nuclids used in Japan; 4. the radioactive isotopes used generally in the therapeutics in 1971 and 1972; 5. the question of labour. (K.A.)

  16. Nuclear power systems: Their safety. Current issue review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1994-04-01

    Human beings utilize energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. A number of countries have chosen nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy system. At the end of 1992, there were 419 power reactors operating in 29 countries, accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, 13 countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with Lithuania leading at just over 78%, followed closely by France at 72%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 53 power reactors are under construction in 14 countries outside the former USSR. Within the ex-USSR countries, six new reactors are currently under construction. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether of not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986 in the then Soviet Union, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. Subsequent opening of the ex-Soviet nuclear power program to outside scrutiny has done little to calm people's concerns about the safety of nuclear power in that part of the world. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents that have occurred to date, as well as more recent, less dramatic events touching on the safety issue. (author). 7 refs

  17. Why the Japanese Nuclear Power Plants are not trusted? Verification of current nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Since the liberalization of electric power following the trend of structural reform and government's economic and financial rebuild had impacted the management of electric utilities in 1990, current nuclear power comes to be subject to government's leadership and support to promote nuclear energy. The Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy Japan of atomic energy commission in 2005 aims to (1) maintain the 30 to 40% or more share of nuclear energy in electricity generation up to 2030 and afterwards, (2) promote the nuclear fuel cycle and (3) commercialize the fast-breeder reactors. Nuclear Energy National Plan of ministry of economy, trade and industry in 2006 makes reference to construction of FBR demonstration reactor by 2025, development of Japanese next-generation LWR and also construction of second reprocessing plant. Major stakeholders related with nuclear power generation such as politicians, government (the authorities concerned), electric utilities and local governments play respective important role in nuclear policy as 'a tetrahedral structure'. The Niigataken Chuets-oki earthquake reminded risk problems of nuclear power management and shook the nuclear tetrahedron structure, which might collapse with loss of public trust. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel rod behavior modelling and current trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, Ue.

    2001-01-01

    Safety assessment of nuclear reactors is carried out by simulating the events to taking place in nuclear reactors by realistic computer codes. Such codes are developed in a way that each event is represented by differential equations derived based on physical laws. Nuclear fuel is an important barrier against radioactive fission gas release. The release of radioactivity to environment is the main concern and this can be avoided by preserving the integrity of fuel rod. Therefore, safety analyses should cover an assessment of fuel rod behavior with certain extent. In this study, common approaches for fuel behavior modeling are discussed. Methods utilized by widely accepted computer codes are reviewed. Shortcomings of these methods are explained. Current research topics to improve code reliability and problems encountered in fuel rod behavior modeling are presented

  19. Current USAEC seismic requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    The principal seismic and geologic considerations which guide the USAEC in its evaluation of the suitability of proposed sites for nuclear power plants and plant design bases are set forth as design criteria in the AEC regulatory guides. The basic requirements of seismic design and analysis for seismic Category I structures, components, and systems important to public safety have been established in the USAEC regulatory guides and Code of Federal Regulations. It is pointed out that the current state-of-art techniques, best available technology, and additional studies in the field of earthquake engineering can be utilized to resolve seismic concerns. The seismic design requirements for nuclear plants to withstand postulated earthquakes can be standardized and this will be a significant milestone in the continuation of the Nuclear Standardization Program. (author)

  20. Nuclear disasters: current plans and future directions for oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    To show that there is a significant role for oncologists in the event of a terrorist nuclear disaster. Professionals need data on current political issues regarding a nuclear attack already put in place by the administration and the military. Review of what actually occurs during a fission bomb's explosion helps to point out what medical care will be most needed. The author contends that those trained in the oncologies could play a major part. Modern-day America. Potential civilian survivors. Large gaps noted in statewide disaster plans in the public domain. Oncologists must get involved now in disaster planning; statewide plans are necessary throughout the nation; the public needs to know the basics of what to do in the advent of a nuclear bomb explosion.

  1. Current experience with central-station nuclear cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    In considering the potential of the HTGR for nuclear cogeneration, a logical element for investigation is the recent history of nuclear cogeneration experience. Little is found in recent literature; however, the twin nuclear cogeneration plant at Midland is nearing completion and this milestone will no doubt be the basis for a number of reports on the unique cogeneration facility and operating experiences with it. Less well known in the US is the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in Ontario, Canada. Originally designed to cogenerate steam for heavy water production, the Bruce facility is the focus of a major initiative to create an energy park on the shores of Lake Huron. To obtain an improved understanding of the status and implications of current nuclear cogeneration experience, GCRA representatives visited the Ontario Hydro offices in Toronto and subsequently toured the Midland site near Midland, Michigan. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the results of those visits and to develop a series of conclusions regarding the implications for HTGR cogeneration concepts

  2. Current approaches to nuclear power plant life management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, T.; Tajima, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Koyama, M.

    2002-01-01

    extracted additional maintenance measures and incorporated them into their long-term maintenance plans, thereby reinforcing their current maintenance activities. Considering the latest information including domestic and overseas operating experiences and knowledge of academics and experts consigned by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), the Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) of the METI reviewed and studied the technical evaluation and long-term maintenance plans of these electric utility companies. This paper describes the outlines of the NISA's report and related activities on current approaches to cope with the ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan. (Note) In 2001, the MITI was reorganized to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). (author)

  3. China's spent nuclear fuel management: Current practices and future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yun

    2011-01-01

    Although China's nuclear power industry is relatively young and the management of its spent nuclear fuel is not yet a concern, China's commitment to nuclear energy and its rapid pace of development require detailed analyses of its future spent fuel management policies. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy, and to suggest strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program. The study is broken into four sections. The first reviews China's current nuclear fuel cycle program and facilities. The second discusses China's current spent fuel management methods and the storage capability of China's 13 operational nuclear power plants. The third estimates China's total accumulated spent fuel, its required spent fuel storage from present day until 2035, when China expects its first commercialized fast neutron reactors to be operational, and its likely demand for uranium resources. The fourth examines several spent fuel management scenarios for the present period up until 2035; the financial cost and proliferation risk of each scenario is evaluated. The study concludes that China can and should maintain a reprocessing operation to meet its R and D activities before its fast reactor program is further developed. - Highlights: → This study provides an overview of China's fuel cycle program and its reprocessing policy.→ This study suggests strategies for managing its future fuel cycle program.→ China will experience no pressure to lessen the burden of spent fuel storage in the next 30 years.→ China should maintain sufficient reprocessing operations to meet its demands for R and D activities.→ China should actively invest on R and D activities of both fuel cycling and fast reactor programs.

  4. The current status and prospect of nuclear power in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, S. [State Nuclear Power Technology Corp., Beijing (China)

    2014-07-01

    'Full text:' China's nuclear power development has attracted world attention. This paper presented the current status of the nuclear power plant in China. By June 30, 2014, China has 20 operational units of 18.05GWe installed capacity, taking up 1.44% of the country's total. All the units have been operating well without any events above INES Level 1 in 2013. China also has 28 units of 30.5GWe installed capacity under construction, which accounts for around 40% of that in the world. The paper presented the progress of AP1000 in China. China made a national plan for 2011 to 2020 with the target to reach 58GWe operational nuclear power and 30GWe under construction by 2020. The Chinese President Xi Jinping urged recently to speed up the approval for new builds. This paper also presented the work of 'Go Global' by Chinese nuclear companies, i.e., their development of international market. (author)

  5. The current status and prospect of nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.

    2014-01-01

    'Full text:' China's nuclear power development has attracted world attention. This paper presented the current status of the nuclear power plant in China. By June 30, 2014, China has 20 operational units of 18.05GWe installed capacity, taking up 1.44% of the country's total. All the units have been operating well without any events above INES Level 1 in 2013. China also has 28 units of 30.5GWe installed capacity under construction, which accounts for around 40% of that in the world. The paper presented the progress of AP1000 in China. China made a national plan for 2011 to 2020 with the target to reach 58GWe operational nuclear power and 30GWe under construction by 2020. The Chinese President Xi Jinping urged recently to speed up the approval for new builds. This paper also presented the work of 'Go Global' by Chinese nuclear companies, i.e., their development of international market. (author)

  6. Current nuclear employees with psychological difficulties: prevalence, assessment, and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwaj, T.; Chardos, S.; Lavin, P.; Ford, T.; McGee, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Although industry standards and federal regulations require employees of nuclear power plants to demonstrate psychological stability and sound judgment before being initially granted unescorted access to the plant, it is obvious that emotional difficulties can develop subsequently. The development of emotional problems in current plant employees raises concerns about the safety of the public and the plant, the effectiveness of the organizations, the loss of important technical skills and experience, and the human cost to the employee and his/her family. This paper reports the experience of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cases of reconsideration of psychological clearance of unescorted access, i.e., the review of psychological clearances of nuclear plant employees who have developed psychological difficulties

  7. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies: Current Challenges and Future Plans - 12558

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Andrew [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Office of Nuclear Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies office (FCT program) is to provide options for possible future changes in national nuclear energy programs. While the recent draft report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future stressed the need for organization changes, interim waste storage and the establishment of a permanent repository for nuclear waste management, it also recognized the potential value of alternate fuel cycles and recommended continued research and development in that area. With constrained budgets and great expectations, the current challenges are significant. The FCT program now performs R and D covering the entire fuel cycle. This broad R and D scope is a result of the assignment of new research and development (R and D) responsibilities to the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), as well as reorganization within NE. This scope includes uranium extraction from seawater and uranium enrichment R and D, used nuclear fuel recycling technology, advanced fuel development, and a fresh look at a range of disposal geologies. Additionally, the FCT program performs the necessary systems analysis and screening of fuel cycle alternatives that will identify the most promising approaches and areas of technology gaps. Finally, the FCT program is responsible for a focused effort to consider features of fuel cycle technology in a way that promotes nonproliferation and security, such as Safeguards and Security by Design, and advanced monitoring and predictive modeling capabilities. This paper and presentation will provide an overview of the FCT program R and D scope and discuss plans to analyze fuel cycle options and support identified R and D priorities into the future. The FCT program is making progress in implanting a science based, engineering driven research and development program that is evaluating options for a sustainable fuel cycle in the U.S. Responding to the BRC recommendations, any resulting legislative

  8. The current state of FPGA technology in the nuclear domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J.

    2012-07-01

    Field programmable gate arrays are a form of programmable electronic device used in various applications including automation systems. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of FPGA-based systems also for safety automation of nuclear power plants. The interest is driven by the need for reliable new alternatives to replace, on one hand, the aging technology currently in use and, on the other hand, microprocessor and software-based systems, which are seen as overly complex from the safety evaluation point of view. This report presents an overview of FPGA technology, including hardware aspects, the application development process, risks and advantages of the technology, and introduces some of the current systems. FPGAs contain an interesting combination of features from software-based and fully hardware-based systems. Application development has a great deal in common with software development, but the final product is a hardware component without the operating system and other platform functions on which software would execute. Currently the number of FPGA-based applications used for safety functions of nuclear power plants is rather limited, but it is growing. So far there is little experience or common solid understanding between different parties on how FPGAs should be evaluated and handled in the licensing process. (orig.)

  9. The current state of FPGA technology in the nuclear domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta, J.

    2012-01-01

    Field programmable gate arrays are a form of programmable electronic device used in various applications including automation systems. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of FPGA-based systems also for safety automation of nuclear power plants. The interest is driven by the need for reliable new alternatives to replace, on one hand, the aging technology currently in use and, on the other hand, microprocessor and software-based systems, which are seen as overly complex from the safety evaluation point of view. This report presents an overview of FPGA technology, including hardware aspects, the application development process, risks and advantages of the technology, and introduces some of the current systems. FPGAs contain an interesting combination of features from software-based and fully hardware-based systems. Application development has a great deal in common with software development, but the final product is a hardware component without the operating system and other platform functions on which software would execute. Currently the number of FPGA-based applications used for safety functions of nuclear power plants is rather limited, but it is growing. So far there is little experience or common solid understanding between different parties on how FPGAs should be evaluated and handled in the licensing process. (orig.)

  10. High current proton linear accelerators and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnicliffe, P.R.; Chidley, B.G.; Fraser, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible role that high-current proton linear accelerators might play as ''electrical breeders'' in the forthcoming nuclear-power economy. A high-power beam of intermediate energy protons delivered to an actinide-element target surrounded by a blanket of fertile material may produce fissile material at a competitive cost. Criteria for technical performance and, in a Canadian context, for costs are given and the major problem areas outlined not only for the accelerator and its associated rf power source but also for the target assembly. (author)

  11. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations believes that it is of paramount importance to achieve as short a cycle time as is reasonably possible in the evaluation and publication of the A-chains. The panel, therefore, has concentrated its efforts on identifying those factors that have tended to increase the cycle time and on finding ways to remove the obstacles. An important step was made during the past year to address reduction of the size of the published evaluations - another factor that can reduce cycle time. The Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) network adopted new format guidelines, which generated a 30% reduction by eliminating redundancy and/or duplication. A current problem appears to be the rate at which the A-chains are being evaluated, which, on the average, is only about one-half of what it could be. It is hoped that the situation will improve with an increase in the number of foreign centers and an increase in efficiency as more A-chains are recycled by the same evaluator who did the previous evaluation. Progress has been made in the area of on-line access to the nuclear data files in that a subcommittee report describing the requirements of an on-line system has been produced. 2 tabs

  12. Current Practices in Defining Seismic Input for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    This report has been written in the framework of seismic subgroup of the OECD/NEA CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE) to provide a brief review of current practices regarding the definition of the seismic input for design and reevaluation of nuclear power plants. It is taken for granted that, prior to conducting the seismic design of a nuclear facility, a seismic hazard analysis (SHA) has been conducted for the site where the facility is located. This provides some reference motions for defining those that will later be used as input for the dynamic analyses of the facility. The objective of the report is to clarify the current practices in various OECD Member States for defining the seismic input to be used in the dynamic calculations of NPPs, once the SHA results are already at hand. Current practices have been summarized for Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. The main findings of the report are: a) The approaches followed by the regulatory bodies of OECD Member States differ substantially, certainly in relation with the consideration of site effects, but also in the probability level of the event that a nuclear facility should be required to withstand. b) In many countries a probabilistic approach is adopted for the design, in some cases combined with a deterministic one; in other cases, like France, Japan or South Korea, a deterministic approach is followed. c) The US and Japan have the more complete guidelines in relation with site effects. The former provide specific approaches for definition of the seismic input. The latter clearly recognizes the need to propagate the bedrock motion to foundation level, thereby introducing the site effect in some way. d) The definition of bedrock is very heterogeneous in the various countries, although this should not constitute a serious problem if the starting

  13. Conflict nuclear power. Theses for current supply with and without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a lecture at the 2nd Internationally Renewable Energy Storage Conference at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the author of the contribution under consideration reports on theses for current supply with and without nuclear power. (1) Theses for current supply with nuclear energy: Due to a relative amount of 17 % of nuclear energy in the world-wide energy production and due to the present reactor technology, the supplies of uranium amount nearly 50 to 70 years. The security of the nuclear power stations is controversially judged in the public and policy. In a catastrophic accident in a nuclear power station, an amount of nearly 2.5 billion Euro is available for adjustment of damages (cover note). The disposal of radioactive wastes is not solved anywhere in the world. The politically demanded separation between military and civilian use of the nuclear energy technology is not possible. The exit from the nuclear energy is fixed in the atomic law. By any means, the Federal Republic of Germany is not insulated in the European Union according to its politics of nuclear exit. After legal adjustment of the exit from the nuclear energy the Federal Republic of Germany should unfold appropriate activities for the re-orientation of Euratom, Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consideration of the use of nuclear energy in relation to the risks has to result that its current kind of use is not acceptable and to be terminated as fast as possible. (2) Theses for current supply without nuclear energy: The scenario technology enables a transparency of energy future being deliverable for political decisions. In accordance with this scenario, the initial extra costs of the development of the renewable energies and the combined heat and power generation amount approximately 4 billion Euro per year. The conversion of the power generation to renewable energies and combined heat and power generation

  14. Cultural Landscape Inventory for Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    hollow clay tile. Each area is significant for the way that the structures within it are interrelated. ERDC/CERL TR-16-17 21 A steep ridge west of...side of Lake Denmark, located at the northeastern corner of the arsenal. The 900 Area includes several hollow clay tile magazines constructed in...Underground Electric Lines 82712 1983 Chilled Water Distribution System 83210 1942 AAL Sanitary Sewer 84210 1942 AAL Potable Water Distribution

  15. Litigation Technical Support and Services, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    34 d V) W C > - d) 4- -~ 0 - - .4 ..- di L *..L 3~1 3-~ v mi a- a t - --- w- Vdi 4 - ý 0 -4 0 m~ -j m0 m’ .- us 0 Ill i to -v .4 I 4 1 t A ~ 3Ul t -4...2060. Marlow, D. J. 1979g, November 8. Pest control report, October 1979. Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Microfilm RMA182, Franes 2048 -2053 Marlow, D. J

  16. Security with nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in East-West relations and the process of dramatic political change in Europe may result in unprecedented opportunities to reduce the global arsenal of nuclear weapons. Despite these welcome developments, the prospects for effectively controlling the spread of nuclear capability in the Third World have remained much less encouraging. The possibility of large reductions in nuclear weapons poses fundamental questions about their purpose. Why have some states chosen to acquire nuclear weapons? How and why have these decisions been maintained over time? Why have some states elected to approach, but not cross, the nuclear threshold? This book examines the commonalities and differences in political approaches to nuclear weapons both within and between three groups of states: nuclear, non-nuclear and threshold. The chapters explore the evolution of thinking about nuclear weapons and the role these weapons play in national security planning, and question the official security rationales offered by the nuclear weapon states for the maintenance of nuclear capabilities. For the non-nuclear weapon states, the book presents an analysis of alternative ways of assuring security and foreign policy effectiveness. For the threshold states, it examines the regional contexts within which these states maintain their threshold status. This book transcends traditional East-West approaches to analysis of nuclear issues by giving equal prominence to the issues of nuclear proliferation and non-nuclearism. The book also provides a comprehensive analysis of how current approaches to nuclear weapons have evolved both within and among the groups of countries under study

  17. Emerging nuclear energy systems and nuclear weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gsponer, A.; Sahin, S.; Jasani, B.

    1983-01-01

    Generally when considering problems of proliferation of nuclear weapons, discussions are focused on horizontal proliferation. However, the emerging nuclear energy systems currently have an impact mainly on vertical proliferation. The paper indicates that technologies connected with emerging nuclear energy systems, such as fusion reactors and accelerators, enhance the knowledge of thermonuclear weapon physics and will enable production of military useful nuclear materials (including some rare elements). At present such technologies are enhancing the arsenal of the nuclear weapon states. But one should not forget the future implications for horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons as some of the techniques will in the near future be within the technological and economic capabilities of non-nuclear weapon states. Some of these systems are not under any international control. (orig.) [de

  18. Bipolar programmable current supply for superconducting nuclear magnetic resonance magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuniemi, Jaakko; Luusalo, Reeta; Hakonen, Pertti

    1998-09-01

    In high resolution continuous-wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) work well-reproducible, linear sweeps of current are needed. We have developed a microcontroller based programmable current supply, tested with superconducting magnets with inductance of 10 mH and 10 H. We achieved a resolution and noise of 4 ppm. The supply has an internal sweep with programmable ramping rate and a possibility for remote operation from a computer with either GPIB or RS232 interface. It is based on an 18-bit D/A converter. The maximum output current is ±10 A, the sweep rate can be set between 1 μA/s-140 mA/s, and the maximum output voltage is ±2.5 V. In work at ultralow temperatures, especially in superconducting quantum interference device NMR, all rf interference to the experiment should be avoided. One of the sources of this kind of unwanted input is the digital switching noise of fast logic devices. We discuss this problem in the context of our design.

  19. Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

  20. Nuclear security in a transformed world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Dean, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the wake of the failed coup attempt in the Soviet Union, the world stands hopeful that a new era of international peace and cooperation lies ahead. President Bush's unilateral reductions in tactical nuclear weapons and in the alert levels of US forces, coupled with President Gorbachev's largely reciprocal actions, are important steps toward realizing that hope. While bold in the context of recent arms control history, however, these actions are modest in the face of the current enormous opportunity and the shifting threats the world now faces. Even with these welcome unilateral actions, the likely continued presence of thousands of nuclear weapons throughout many of the Soviet republics, the temporary uncertainty over central government command during the coup, and fuller knowledge of Iraq's aggressive efforts to build a nuclear bomb serve as stark reminders that the danger of nuclear catastrophe has not disappeared. Although a deliberate attack by the Soviet Union against the US or Europe is now almost inconceivable, nuclear weapons continue to pose significant threats to US security and world peace. These threats fall into three broad categories: a persistent risk of regional nuclear war involving countries other than the Soviet Union that are already in possession of nuclear weapons or capable of building them; the spread of nuclear weapons to other countries; accidental or unauthorized use. To meet this new challenge, three key steps must be taken: reduce dramatically Soviet and US nuclear arsenals; negotiate restrictions on the arsenals of other nuclear powers; strengthen the nuclear nonproliferation regime

  1. Current NDT activities at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) activities at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM) has been initiated in the Industrial Application Department of the Center which was established in 1976 as the Radioisotope Applications Group for Industry. The Department started its first NDT activity with industrial radiography. The NDT activities have been developed by the support of various national (State Planning Organization (DPT)) and international (IAEA and UNDP) projects. Today, there are five basic NDT techniques (radiography, ultrasonic, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant and eddy current) used in the Industrial Application Department. The Department arranges routinely NDT qualification courses according to ISO 9712 and TS EN 473 standards for level 1 and 2 for Turkish Industry. It also carries out national DPT and IAEA Technical Co-operation projects and gives NDT services in the laboratory and in the field. Digital radiography and digital ultrasonic techniques are being used in advanced NDT applications. This paper describes the NDT activities of CNAEM. (author)

  2. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  3. The brief description in the current nuclear power development trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yong.

    1986-01-01

    There are two important factors for evaluating nuclear electricity,: that is safety and economy. Nowadays the key points for evaluating nuclear power safety are focused on system failure analysis, human factors and operating experiences, transients and ruptures, the integrity of the primary circuit, radioactivity releases and their impact on environment, risk assessment, the nuclear fuel safety and fuel reprocessing. The nuclear power markets will gradually be diverted from the Developed Countries to the Third World Countries. The price of the nuclear power will keep competitive ability continuously. By 2000 year, any major changes will not have occurred in the reactor type of the nuclear power plant

  4. Assessment of the current status of basic nuclear data compilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include: the status of mass-chain evaluations, remote terminal access, other US Nuclear Data Network publications, formats and procedures subcommittee report, keyword follow-up (Phys. Rev. C), and atomic data and nuclear data tables

  5. Generation IV nuclear reactors: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Giorgio; Mancini, Mauro; Todeschini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Generation IV nuclear power plants (GEN IV NPPs) are supposed to become, in many countries, an important source of base load power in the middle–long term (2030–2050). Nowadays there are many designs of these NPPs but for political, strategic and economic reasons only few of them will be deployed. International literature proposes many papers and reports dealing with GEN IV NPPs, but there is an evident difference in the types and structures of the information and a general unbiased overview is missing. This paper fills the gap, presenting the state-of-the-art for GEN IV NPPs technologies (VHTR, SFR, SCWR, GFR, LFR and MSR) providing a comprehensive literature review of the different designs, discussing the major R and D challenges and comparing them with other advanced technologies available for the middle- and long-term energy market. The result of this research shows that the possible applications for GEN IV technologies are wider than current NPPs. The economics of some GEN IV NPPs is similar to actual NPPs but the “carbon cost” for fossil-fired power plants would increase the relative valuation. However, GEN IV NPPs still require substantial R and D effort, preventing short-term commercial adoption. - Highlights: • Generation IV reactors are the middle–long term technology for nuclear energy. • This paper provides an overview and a taxonomy for the designs under consideration. • R and D efforts are in the material, heat exchangers, power conversion unit and fuel. • The life cycle costs are competitive with other innovative technologies. • The hydrogen economy will foster the development of Generation IV reactors

  6. The Current Status and Implications of Nuclear Energy Cultural Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Won

    2006-01-01

    The Korean nuclear energy community paid a high price in terms of the tremendous social costs incurred in the process of securing a site for mid-to-low radioactive waste disposal facility, indicating that interest in the technical danger of nuclear energy has spread to the realm of people's daily lives. Under the circumstances it is important to raise rational public awareness of nuclear science as a foundation of everyday life through nuclear cultural activities. This study examines the various types of public relations activities of the Korea Nuclear Energy Foundation, an organization in charge of promoting nuclear energy, and explores what activities are required to ensure efficient promotion in accordance with development of nuclear culture

  7. Nuclear power reactor core melt accidents. Current State of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemain, Didier; Cenerino, Gerard; Corenwinder, Francois; Raimond, Emmanuel IRSN; Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Couturier, Jean; Debaudringhien, Cecile; Duprat, Anna; Dupuy, Patricia; Evrard, Jean-Michel; Nicaise, Gregory; Berthoud, Georges; Studer, Etienne; Boulaud, Denis; Chaumont, Bernard; Clement, Bernard; Gonzalez, Richard; Queniart, Daniel; Peltier, Jean; Goue, Georges; Lefevre, Odile; Marano, Sandrine; Gobin, Jean-Dominique; Schwarz, Michel; Repussard, Jacques; Haste, Tim; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno; Durin, Michel; Andreo, Francois; Atkhen, Kresna; Daguse, Thierry; Dubreuil-Chambardel, Alain; Kappler, Francois; Labadie, Gerard; Schumm, Andreas; Gauntt, Randall O.; Birchley, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    For over thirty years, IPSN and subsequently IRSN has played a major international role in the field of nuclear power reactor core melt accidents through the undertaking of important experimental programmes (the most significant being the Phebus-FP programme), the development of validated simulation tools (the ASTEC code that is today the leading European tool for modelling severe accidents), and the coordination of the SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) international network of excellence. These accidents are described as 'severe accidents' because they can lead to radioactive releases outside the plant concerned, with serious consequences for the general public and for the environment. This book compiles the sum of the knowledge acquired on this subject and summarises the lessons that have been learnt from severe accidents around the world for the prevention and reduction of the consequences of such accidents, without addressing those from the Fukushima accident, where knowledge of events is still evolving. The knowledge accumulated by the Institute on these subjects enabled it to play an active role in informing public authorities, the media and the public when this accident occurred, and continues to do so to this day. Following the introduction, which describes the structure of this book and highlights the objectives of R and D on core melt accidents, this book briefly presents the design and operating principles (Chapter 2) and safety principles (Chapter 3) of the reactors currently in operation in France, as well as the main accident scenarios envisaged and studied (Chapter 4). The objective of these chapters is not to provide exhaustive information on these subjects (the reader should refer to the general reference documents listed in the corresponding chapters), but instead to provide the information needed in order to understand, firstly, the general approach adopted in France for preventing and mitigating the consequences of core melt

  8. Arsenals : tummalt kõnekas / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Tänavusel Riia filmifestivalil Arsenals nähtust, eelkõige huvitavatest tummfilmiajastu filmidest, sealhulgas Läti esimesest mängufilmist "Kus on tõde? Või juudi naiskursuslase tragöödia" (produtsent S. Mintus, 1913). Lisatud info "Eesti film võitis Riias mitu auhinda", millest nähtub, et Balti võistlusprogrammis oli parim mängufilm "Sügisball", parim dokfilm "Vastutuulesaal" ja publikupreemia ning ühe oikumeenilise žürii preemia sai "Klass"

  9. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil

  10. Commercial US nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-09-01

    Between March 1 and June 15, 1980, the declared size of the commercial light waste reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has decreased another 9 GWe. For the presently declared size: the 165 declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 153 GWe in 2001 and will consume about 870,000 MTU as enrichment feed; the theoretical rate of enrichment requirements will peak at about 19,000,000 SWUs/y in the year 2014; as few as two repositories each with capacity equivalent to 100,000 MTU would hold the waste; and predisposal storage reactor basins and AFRs (away-from-reactor basins) would peak at <85,000 MTU in the year 2020 if the two respositories were commissioned in the years 1997 and 2020. It should be noted that the number of declared LWRs has dropped from 226 on December 31, 1974 to 165 as of this writing. The oil equivalent of the energy loss, assuming a 50% efficiency in use as in cars, is 17,000 million barrels. This is about 10 years of the current rate of US consumption of OPEC oil.

  11. Commercial nuclear reactors and waste: the current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.M.; Robinson, J.V.

    1980-04-01

    During the last five years, the declared size of the commercial light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power industry in the US has steadily decreased. As of January 1980, the total number of power plants had dropped to 191 from the 226 in December 31, 1974. At least another nine were cancelled in the last few months. This report was developed as the first of a series to track implications to waste management due to such changes in the declared size of the industry. For the presently declared size, key conclusions are: the declared reactors will peak at a capacity of 162 GWe and consume about 10 6 MTU as enrichment feed. As few as two repositories of about 100,000 MTHM capacity each would hold the waste. Predisposal storage (reactor basins and AFRs) would peak at less than 100,000 MTHM (in the year 2020) with one repository opening in the year 1997 and the other in the year 2020. Most of the 100,000 MTHM would have to be in AFR storage unless current practice regarding reactor basin size was radically changed

  12. Nuclear power in the Asia-Pacific region. Current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Jia; Otsuki, Takashi; Irie, Kazutomo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the current status and future perspective of nuclear power in the APEC region. We design three scenarios, including Low-nuclear Scenario, Business-as-Usual Scenario (BAU) as well as High-nuclear Scenario, in order to quantitatively evaluate contribution of nuclear power to the low-carbon energy system. Preliminary results from the modeling are presented in the paper, and the drivers and challenges for nuclear power development in the APEC region are discussed. (author)

  13. Current Status and Future Prospects for Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    In the past 50 years, nuclear power has grown from a new scientific development to become a major part of the energy mix in over 30 countries. In 1998, 434 power reactors worldwide produced 2294 billion kWh of electricity, slightly up on 1997 output. Sixteen countries relied on nuclear power for 25 percent or more of their electricity. Accumulated operating experience for nuclear power plants reached over 9,000 reactor-years. In 1998, 36 nuclear power plants were under construction: 14 in Eastern Europe, 12 in the Fat East; 7 in the Middle East and South Asia, 2 in Latin America, 1 in stern Europe (France)

  14. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  15. Report on the Current Technical Issues on ASME Nuclear Code and Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  16. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  17. Current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Min; Kim, Min; Jeong, Hee Jong; Hwang, Jeong Ki; Cho, Chung Hee

    1996-10-01

    China has been carrying out active international cooperation aiming to be a country where is to be an economical super power and an advanced country in nuclear power technology by the year early 2000, and China also has begun to be recognized as the largest potential market for the construction of nuclear power plants(NPPs) expecting to construct more than thirty nuclear power units by the year 2020. China has advanced technology in the basic nuclear science including liquid metal breeder reactor technology, nuclear material, medium and small size power plants, and isotope production technology, and also China has complete nuclear fuel cycle technology. However, China still has low NPP technology. Therefore, it is expected that China may have complementary cooperative relationship with China, it is expected that Korea may have an access to the advanced Chinese nuclear science technology, and may have a good opportunity to explore the Chinese market actively exporting excellent Korean NPP technology, and further may have a good position to the neighboring Asian countries' NPP markets. From this perspective, general Chinese social status, major nuclear R and D activity status, and correct NPP and technology status have been analyzed in this report, and this report is expected to be a useful resource for cooperating with China in future. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 16 refs. (Author)

  18. Current Status of The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Chang Soon

    1977-01-01

    As the application of nuclear medicine to clinics became generalized and it held an important position, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine was founded in 1961, and today it has become known as one of the oldest nuclear medicine societies not only to Asian nations but also to other advanced countries all over the world. Now it has 100 or so regular members composed of students of each medicine filed unlike other medical societies. Only nuclear medicine research workers are eligible for its membership. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine holds its regular general meeting and symposium twice per annom respectively in addition to occasional group gatherings and provincial lectures on nuclear medicine. With an eye to exchanging information on symposium, research and know-how, KSNM issued its initial magazine in 1967. Every year two editions are published. Year after year the contents of treatises are getting elevated with researches on each field including the early study on morphology-greatly improved both in quality and quantity. Of late, a minute and fixed quantity of various matters by dynamical research and radioimmunoassay of every kind has become visibly active. In particular, since KSNM, unlike other local societies, keeps close and frequent contact with the nuclear medicine researchers of world-wide fame, monographs by eminent scholars of the world are carried in its magazine now internationally and well received in foreign countries. Now the magazine has been improved to such an extent that foreign authors quote its contents. KSNM invited many a foreign scholar with a view to exchanging the knowledge of nuclear medicine. Sponsored by nuclear energy institute, the nuclear medicine symposium held in Seoul in October of 1966 was a success with Dr. Wagner participating, a great scholar of world wide fame: It was the first international symposium ever held in Korea, and the Korea Japan symposium held in Seoul 1971 was attended by all distinguished nuclear

  19. Climatic Consequences of Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    A nuclear war between Russia and the United States could still produce nuclear winter, even using the reduced arsenals of about 4000 total nuclear weapons that will result by 2017 in response to the New START treaty. A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history. This scenario, using much less than 1% of the explosive power of the current global nuclear arsenal, would produce so much smoke from the resulting fires that it would plunge the planet to temperatures colder than those of the Little Ice Age of the 16th to 19th centuries, shortening the growing season around the world and threatening the global food supply. Crop model studies of agriculture in the U.S. and China show massive crop losses, even for this regional nuclear war scenario. Furthermore, there would be massive ozone depletion with enhanced ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface. These surprising conclusions are the result of recent research (see URL) by a team of scientists including those who produced the pioneering work on nuclear winter in the 1980s, using the NASA GISS ModelE and NCAR WACCM GCMs. The soot is self-lofted into the stratosphere, and the effects of regional and global nuclear war would last for more than a decade, much longer than previously thought. Nuclear proliferation continues, with nine nuclear states now, and more working to develop or acquire nuclear weapons. The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia, the U.S., and the rest of the world.

  20. Current nuclear non-proliferation policies in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Mitsuru

    1997-01-01

    Although a global nuclear confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union has disappeared, many challenges to nuclear non-proliferation have emerged. Sources of concern, like a nuclear weapon program by Iraq and suspicions of North Korea have caused the adoption of a variety of political and technical measures in order to meet these challenges in the post-Cold War era. This paper describes the following ten policies for non-proliferation: 1) Strengthening the NPT; 2) Nuclear reduction; 3) CTBT and cut-off treaty; 4) Establishment of NWFZs; 5) Counterproliferation; 6) Strengthening the IAEA Safeguards; 7) Control and disposal of nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons; 8) Export control; 9) Registration of plutonium; and 10) Actions against nuclear smuggling. The first four measures can be said to be mainly political policies, the fifth measure (counterproliferation), can be categorized as basically a military policy, and the last five measures can be said to be technical. (J.P.N.)

  1. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2009-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is on the rise over the world. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a well established technique to detect coronary artery disease and to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it has the unique ability to predict the prognosis of the patients. Moreover, the application of ECG-gated images provided the quantitative data and improved the accuracy. This approach has been proved to be cost-effective and suitable for the emerging economies as well as developed countries. However, the utilization of nuclear cardiology procedures vary widely considering the different countries and region of the world. Korea exits 2-3 times less utilization than Japan, and 20 times than the United States. Recently, with the emerging of new technology, namely cardiac CT, cardiac MR and stress echocardiography, the clinical usefulness of nuclear cardiology has been called in question and its role has been redefined. For the proper promotion of nuclear cardiology, special educations should be conducted since the nuclear cardiology has the contact points between nuclear medicine and cardiology. Several innovations are in horizon which will impact the diagnostic accuracy as well as imaging time and cost savings. Development of new tracers, gamma camera technology and hybrid systems will open the new avenue in cardiac imaging. The future of nuclear cardiology based on molecular imaging is very exciting. The newly defined biologic targets involving atherosclerosis and vascular vulnerability will allow the answers for the key clinical questions. Hybrid techniques including SPECT/CT indicate the direction in which clinical nuclear cardiology may be headed in the immediate future. To what extent nuclear cardiology will be passively absorbed by other modalities, or will actively incorporate other modalities, is up to the present and next generation of nuclear cardiologists

  2. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, June Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Coronary artery disease is on the rise over the world. Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a well established technique to detect coronary artery disease and to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it has the unique ability to predict the prognosis of the patients. Moreover, the application of ECG-gated images provided the quantitative data and improved the accuracy. This approach has been proved to be cost-effective and suitable for the emerging economies as well as developed countries. However, the utilization of nuclear cardiology procedures vary widely considering the different countries and region of the world. Korea exits 2-3 times less utilization than Japan, and 20 times than the United States. Recently, with the emerging of new technology, namely cardiac CT, cardiac MR and stress echocardiography, the clinical usefulness of nuclear cardiology has been called in question and its role has been redefined. For the proper promotion of nuclear cardiology, special educations should be conducted since the nuclear cardiology has the contact points between nuclear medicine and cardiology. Several innovations are in horizon which will impact the diagnostic accuracy as well as imaging time and cost savings. Development of new tracers, gamma camera technology and hybrid systems will open the new avenue in cardiac imaging. The future of nuclear cardiology based on molecular imaging is very exciting. The newly defined biologic targets involving atherosclerosis and vascular vulnerability will allow the answers for the key clinical questions. Hybrid techniques including SPECT/CT indicate the direction in which clinical nuclear cardiology may be headed in the immediate future. To what extent nuclear cardiology will be passively absorbed by other modalities, or will actively incorporate other modalities, is up to the present and next generation of nuclear cardiologists.

  3. The current and perspective problems of nuclear power fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Konovalov, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Conception of fuel supply is comprised of supplying of natural uranium resources, nuclear fuel production including engineering stages of refining, enriching, production, use of secondary uranium and plutonium raw materials. The structure of nuclear fuel cycle is considered. Enterprises of the Russian nuclear fuel cycle, world recourses and fundamental producers of uranium are performed, demands in natural uranium of Russian and frontier NPP to 2010 are demonstrated. Dynamics of the development of separate methods - diffusion and centrifugal is presented as well as parameters of fuel supply at Russian and frontier NPP are compared [ru

  4. Current status nuclear training and education in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsono

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear technology was officially recognized through the setting up Panitia Negara untuk Penyelidikan Radioaktivitet in 1954, and the founding of Dewan Tenaga Atom Nasional and Lembaga Tenaga Atom (National Atomic Energy Board) in 1958 which then further reorganized and named BATAN (National Atomic Energy Agency) in 1964. Since the construction of the first research reactor in 1965, BATAN has been operating 3 research reactors. The application of nuclear technology in research, which was started in 1960's, was followed by application in non energy sectors such as agriculture and industries, and the utilization of radiation and radioisotopes in medical therapy and diagnostic. In 1997, in order to separate the control function and the promotion function of the application of nuclear energy in Indonesia, the Government set up two nuclear administrative agencies, i.e. the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) and the Nuclear Energy Control Board (BAPETEN). To provide well-educated and well-trained personnel in the fields of research, development, and application of nuclear technology, BATAN implementing its education and training program through the ETC (BATAN Education and Training Center) and STTN (Polytechnic Institute of Nuclear Technology), which were set up in 1981 and 1991, respectively. While STTN, formerly known as PATN, offers formal education at D3-level and D4-level in Technophysics and Techno-chemistry, the ETC is responsible for implementing education and training program, mainly in nuclear science and technology. In conducting education and training, ETC cooperates also with other education and training institutions, domestic as well as overseas institutions. ETC has set up a national network of nuclear education and training which involves some state universities and school, such as University of Indonesia, University of Gadjah Mada, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bogor Agriculture Institute, University of Pajajaran, and School of Medical

  5. Current Ground Test Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    (approximately 1 GW) with a maximum burn time of 1 hour. The concept utilized lessons learned from NF-1. The strategy breaks down the exhaust into parallel paths to allow flexibility with engine size and mass flow of exhaust. Similar to NF-1, the exhaust is slowed down, cooled, filtered of particulates, filtered of noble gases, and then the clean hydrogen is flared to open air. Another concept proposed by Steve Howe (currently Director of the Center for Space Nuclear Research) to simplify the NTP exhaust filtering is to run the hydrogen exhaust into boreholes underground to filter the exhaust. The two borehole site locations proposed are at the NTS and at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). At NTS, the boreholes are 8' diameter and 1200' deep. The permeability of hydrogen through the soil and its buoyancy will allow it to rise up through the soil and allow the filtering of noble gases and radioactive particulates. The exhaust needs to be cooled to 600C before entering the borehole to avoid soil glazing. Preliminary analysis shows a small buildup of back pressure with time which depends on permeability. Noble gases entering the borehole walls deep can take a long time before reaching the surface. Other factors affecting permeability include borehole pressure, water saturation, and turbulence. Also, a possible need to pump out contaminated water collected at the bottom of the borehole. At INL, the borehole concept is slightly different. The underground borehole has openings to the soil at special depths which have impermeable interbeds above the water table and below the surface to allow the exhaust to travel horizontal between the impermeable layers. Preliminary results indicate better permeability than at NTS. The last option is total containment of the exhaust during the test run. The concept involves slowing down the flow to subsonic in a water cooled diffuser. The hydrogen is burned off in an oxygen rich afterburner with the only products being steam, oxygen, and some noble

  6. Current status of neutron activation analysis and applied nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    A review of recent scientometric studies of citations and publication data shows the present state of NAA and applied nuclear chemistry as compared to other analytical techniques. (author) 9 refs.; 7 tabs

  7. Brief history and current developments of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    The history of nuclear fusion is briefly outlined, the ITER project is described, the advantages of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator are described, alternative projects and mentioned, and prospects for the nearest time to come are shown. (P.A.)

  8. Current problems associated with nuclear plant construction contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, Raffaele.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of nuclear electricity generating programmes has brought to the fore the problems associated with construction of this type of power plant. The paper analyses the contracts for such construction and describes the most common, the turnkey contract. The present tendency is to limit the scope of turnkey contracts to the nuclear system or simply to the reactor and this is especially common in advanced nuclear countries such as the US, Canada, Japan, UK and France, and this is also the case in Italy where the question of contracting nuclear plants is debated. In Germany the power utilities hold a large number of shares in the manufacturing industry and the turnkey contract is therefore more economically attractive. A detailed description of the contracting procedure is provided, including the suppliers' and purchasers' responsibilities, plant commissioning tests and handing over of the plant to the operator. (NEA) [fr

  9. Tupperware's Strategy and Current Status of Nuclear Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Eng

    1986-01-01

    Taiwan is poorly endowed with indigenous energy resources. At the present time, its domestic energy consumption is depending over 80% on energy imports. The government energy policy is to diversify the sources and the forms of the imported energy emphasizing the reduction of dependence on oil and the promotion of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Following this policy and guiding principles for the management of the company, Tupperware has formulated and has been implementing its nuclear power development program very diligently and vigorously. Nuclear power generation is seen as a reliable alternative to oil before other new energy sources are commercialized. The generation cost of nuclear power is only one-third of advantage will certainly attract either our country or other countries in the world with similar energy resources situation to make full utilization of nuclear power. In aggressively pursuing the nuclear generation program, Tupperware has made considerable efforts in the following aspects to further assure safety, reliability and also economy of nuclear power operation

  10. Current status of SMPRs and manpower development for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    The development of SMPRs could make it possible for countries with small electrical grids to use nuclear power. SMPRs are still in the developing stages and none of them have the capability of good plant performance. Most of the SMPRs are in the 300 MWe range and a grid capacity of at least 2000 MWe would be required before such a power plant can be connected to the grid. There is a possibility that SMPRs could generate electricity cheaper coal plants requiring desulphurization. An unexpected increase in coal price and adverse environmental effects could make it necessary to use nuclear power in the future. Qualified manpower is required to plan, build and properly operate a nuclear power plant; and the availability of qualified manpower is a pre-condition for deciding to use nuclear power. There is a possibility that Sri Lanka would be able to use nuclear power in the next 15-20 years and a total dependence upon foreign expertise is neither possible nor desirable. Therefore pre-project activities should be considering such things as teaching nuclear science and engineering in the universities and retraining existing professionals, say from the coal power industry. Adequate emphasis must be given to manpower development and to the need to scheduling this development

  11. Current status of nuclear power generation in Japan and directions in water cooled reactor technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, T.

    1991-01-01

    Electric power demand aspects and current status of nuclear power generation in Japan are outlined. Although the future plan for nuclear power generation has not been determined yet the Japanese nuclear research centers and institutes are investigating and developing some projects on the next generation of light water reactors and other types of reactors. The paper describes these main activities

  12. Nuclear fuel manufacturing. Current activities and prospects at INR Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horhoianu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    Development of the CANDU nuclear fuel is currently conducted world wide onto two principal directions: - increasing the service span of the current type of fuel and improving the efficiency of burnup in reactor; - reducing the costs of fuel manufacturing by improving the design and manufacturing technologies in condition of increasing fuel performance. In parallel, a research program, RAAN, is undergoing, concerning the development of advanced CANDU type fuels (SEU, RU, DUPIC, Th), aiming at reducing the overall costs per fuel cycle. In the INR TRIGA reactor a large number of experimental fuel elements manufactured in INR were irradiated under different conditions specific to the CANDU reactor operation. Post irradiation investigations both destructive and non-destructive were carried out in the hot cells at INR Pitesti. The experimental results were used in order to optimize and evaluate the fuel project, to check the fuel manufacturing technologies as well as to certify the computational codes. The local thermo-mechanical analyses by final element methods, modelling the SCC phenomenon, probabilistic evaluation of performance parameters of the fuel, constitute new directions in the modelling and developing computational code. The developed codes were submitted to a thorough validation process to comply with the quality assurance. The excellent results obtained in INR were confirmed by participation in the FUMEX International Exercises of computer code intercomparison, organized by IAEA Vienna. Progress was also recorded in establishing the behaviour of fuel elements failed during reactor operation and the effect their maintenance in the reactor core could have upon the power reactor operation. A system-expert variant was worked out able for a short term analysis of the decisions referring to removing the failing element at Cernavoda NPP. As advanced CANDU fuel is concerned, until now preliminary variants for a fuel bundle with 43 elements containing slightly

  13. Current Status of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Lee, Jong Hyun

    2009-07-01

    To expand the use of nuclear energy, SNF from nuclear power plants must be managed in a safe and environmental friendly and the problem of decreasing uranium should be solved. To resolve this, a dry processing technology Pyroprocessing is focused on. The government started to develop of Pyroprocessing technology in 1997. According to the decision of government based of Atomic Energy Commission in December 2008, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute will construct PRIDE (Pyroprocess Integrated Inactive DEmonstration Facility) by 2011 to prove a consistent process. If Pyroprocessing technology will be developed in the near future, the size of radioactive waste disposal site can be reduced to 100 times compared to the direct disposal. When this technology will be connected to Fast Reactor. high level nuclear waste management of Hundreds of thousands of years may be reduced to hundreds years. However for the commercialization of Pyroprocessing technology, there are some problems to solve. First, because of none commercial facilities in the world of executive experience, so that the facility design, measurement. management and material flow, the critical need for data accumulation. Second, High-level nuclear waste have been known to generate more than the wet methods, it should continue to reduce technology development. In addition, a careful consideration of the residual uranium generating on process also can maximize the efficiency of reducing. The new concept is being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Pyroprocessing technology and nuclear waste processing technology to overcome these drawbacks sUQQested a way

  14. Current Status of the Cyber Threat Assessment for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Doo [KINAC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In December 2014, unknown hackers hacked internal documents sourced from Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and those electronic documents were posted five times on a Social Network Service (SNS). The data included personal profiles, flow charts, manuals and blueprints for installing pipes in the nuclear power plant. Although the data were not critical to operation or sabotage of the plant, it threatened people and caused social unrest in Korea and neighboring countries. In December 2015, cyber attack on power grid caused a blackout for hundreds of thousands of people in Ukraine. The power outage was caused by a sophisticated attack using destructive malware called 'BlackEnergy'. Cyber attacks are reality in today's world and critical infrastructures are increasingly targeted. Critical infrastructures, such as the nuclear power plant, need to be proactive and protect the nuclear materials, assets and facilities from potential cyber attacks. The threat assessment document and its detailed procedure are confidential for the State. Nevertheless, it is easy to find cooperation on assessing and evaluating the threats of nuclear materials and facilities with other government departments or agencies including the national police. The NSSC and KINAC also cooperated with the National Intelligence Service (NIS) and National Security Research Institute (NSR). However, robust cyber threat assessment system and regular consultative group should be established with domestic and overseas organization including NIS, NSR, the National Police Agency and the military force to protect and ensure to safety of people, public and environment from rapidly changing and upgrading cyber threats.

  15. Current Status of the Cyber Threat Assessment for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Doo

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014, unknown hackers hacked internal documents sourced from Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and those electronic documents were posted five times on a Social Network Service (SNS). The data included personal profiles, flow charts, manuals and blueprints for installing pipes in the nuclear power plant. Although the data were not critical to operation or sabotage of the plant, it threatened people and caused social unrest in Korea and neighboring countries. In December 2015, cyber attack on power grid caused a blackout for hundreds of thousands of people in Ukraine. The power outage was caused by a sophisticated attack using destructive malware called 'BlackEnergy'. Cyber attacks are reality in today's world and critical infrastructures are increasingly targeted. Critical infrastructures, such as the nuclear power plant, need to be proactive and protect the nuclear materials, assets and facilities from potential cyber attacks. The threat assessment document and its detailed procedure are confidential for the State. Nevertheless, it is easy to find cooperation on assessing and evaluating the threats of nuclear materials and facilities with other government departments or agencies including the national police. The NSSC and KINAC also cooperated with the National Intelligence Service (NIS) and National Security Research Institute (NSR). However, robust cyber threat assessment system and regular consultative group should be established with domestic and overseas organization including NIS, NSR, the National Police Agency and the military force to protect and ensure to safety of people, public and environment from rapidly changing and upgrading cyber threats

  16. Nuclear disarmament or survival of nuclear arms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroot, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    START II has not yet been ratified by the US or Russian parliaments. Doubts may be raised over whether it will ever be. In the best case there will be more than 20,000 nuclear warheads in the arsenals of these two countries by the year 2003. All five nuclear states consider that nuclear weapons are an essential component of their national defense. It might sound childish but, the whole story is is so often childish: the five powers refuse to break their nuclear toys. They take even all possible measures to maintain and improve them and to ensure the survivability of their arsenals. To prepare for the next arms race..

  17. Current emergency programs for nuclear installations in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi

    2007-01-01

    Large effort has been taken for nuclear emergency programs in Japan especially after the JCO accident. A special law for nuclear emergency was established after the accident. The law extended the scope of emergency preparedness to fuel cycle facilities, research reactors, etc. and clarified the roles and responsibilities of the national government, local governments and license holders. For initial responses, the action levels and action procedures are defined based on environmental doses and specific initial events of NPPs. A senior specialist was dispatched to each site for nuclear emergency and a facility 'Off-site center' to be used as the local emergency headquator was designated at each site. This paper describes the structure of emergency program, responsibility of related organizations and the definition of unusual events for notification and emergency. Emergency preparedness, emergency radiation monitoring and computer-based prediction of on- and off-site situation are also addressed. (author)

  18. Current activities on nuclear desalination in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranaev, Y.D.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the RF desalination programme has been to develop small power floating nuclear seawater desalination complex based on KLT-40 reactor, originally developed for ship propulsion, as an energy source. Russia has sufficient fresh water resource rather evenly distributed over country territory (except for several specific conditions where sea or brackish water desalination is required for reliable long term potable water supply) and only limited internal deployment of this system is expected. Therefore, the development programme is mostly oriented to external market. Development of the floating nuclear desalination complex goes in parallel and is backed by the project of floating nuclear electricity and heat cogeneration plant using two KLT-40 reactors. This plant producing up to 70 MW(e) of electricity and up to 50 Gcal/of heat for district heating is now at the basic design stage and planned to be implemented around the year 2000 in Russia, at the Arctic Sea area

  19. Current issues in nuclear power projects decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.; Rogner, H.

    2011-01-01

    Concluding Comments: Firm government commitment and support - imminent; New financing approaches/models are emerging, repackaging existing methods and combination of project finance/co-operative mode; Global financial crisis will make financing for investors very challenging, especially for large scale infrastructure projects like NNP –financial regulators to impose tougher rules (Basel III, UK bank levy, US Financial Regulatory Bill, etc; Pure project finance is still challenging for nuclear projects - the availability of finance for new NPPs will depend on the initial government support. This presentation presents a “free market” view on investment in nuclear power projects; If the public sector (governments) wishes to invest in nuclear power as part of its socioeconomic development priorities, finance is not a real obstacle; It becomes an issue in the presence of other equally important development needs and private sector participation is sought

  20. Measurement of Nuclear Dependence in Inclusive Charged Current Neutrino Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, Brian George [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Neutrino experiments use heavy nuclei (C, Fe, Pb) to achieve necessary statistics. However, the use of heavy nuclei exposes these experiments to the nuclear dependence of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, which are poorly known and difficult to model. This dissertation presents an analysis of the nuclear dependence of inclusive chargedcurrent neutrino scattering using events in carbon, iron, lead, and scintillator targets of the MINERvA detector. MINERvA (Main INjector ExpeRiment for -A) is a few-GeV neutrinonucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab.

  1. Nuclear proliferation in South Asia: current and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The security of all the countries in the world must be sought through general and complete disarmament. The longer the world waits, the more difficult will the eventual task become. The prime goal should be to make the world a safer place not just for the present, but also for future generations. What is needed is simultaneously a top down global approach and also a down up regional approach. Hence, that is all the more reason for greater realism, sensitivity and flexibility on part of both the nuclear weapon states and the non-nuclear weapon states to deal with what is basically a human problem. 40 refs

  2. The current status of nuclear research reactor in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittichai, C; Kanyukt, R; Pongpat, P [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1998-10-01

    Since 1962, the Thai Research Reactor has been serving for various kinds of activities i.e. the production of radioisotopes for medical uses and research and development on nuclear science and technology, for more than three decades. The existing reactor site should be abandoned and relocated to the new suitable site, according to Thai cabinet`s resolution on the 27 December 1989. The decommissioning project for the present reactor as well as the establishment of new nuclear research center were planned. This paper discussed the OAEP concept for the decommissioning programme and the general description of the new research reactor and some related information were also reported. (author)

  3. Nuclear Power – current status and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions • Nuclear energy is extensively used in the world today as reliable base-load energy • Nuclear energy planning at the low level demand involves building of significant number of new NPPs around the world • Highest rate of new builds is expected in Eastern Asia • New advanced reactor designs known as Gen 3 and 3+ have emerged in recent years • As a result of the Fukushima event in Japan, the advanced reactors will be subjected to additional level of scrutiny and design improvements and changes • As a result of the Fukushima event, the regulatory requirements will become more stringent and demanding

  4. Current Status of Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon

    2009-05-01

    IAEA Technical Meeting(I3-TM-37394) on 'Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy' has been successfully held from March 3 to 6 in 2009 at KAERI/INTEC. The 24 experts from 12 countries participated in this meeting and provided 17 presentations and their opinions and comments in desalination, hydrogen production, and heat application sessions. All of the participants from 12 countries agreed that nuclear power should be the potential carbon-free energy source to replace crude oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fields of non-electric applications such as desalination, hydrogen production, district heating, and industrial processes applications

  5. Nuclear medicine in Tunisia : current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is concerned with the utilisation of radioactivity in vivo or in vitro for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In Tunisia, there are four public departments of nuclear medicine and seven private clinics. 50% of the population is localized in the north, which justifies the existence of 7 public and private departments of nuclear medicine with nine gamma cameras in this region. In the south, there are 30 pour cent of the population that goes to Sfax and 20 pour cent to Sousse where we count two departments with gamma cameras in public services and one in the private sector. The nuclear medicine services in the public sector have 4 SPECT / CT. Siemens is the leading provider of gamma cameras and occupies 73 pour cent of market share, subsequently ranks SMV (13 pour cent) and (GE and GAEDE) have the same proportion of the market share (7 pour cent). For radio-protected rooms, there is a single center with a single chamber from four public services. On the other hand, there are 2/7 private centers that are equipped with five radio-protected electrically rooms. Concerning the human resources, there are 26 doctors and 24 technicians in the public sector. The private sector has 6 doctors and 12 technicians. In 2012, there has been 22000 examinations (diagnostic and therapeutic procedures) in which 14,600 in nuclear medicine departments of public hospitals. Bone scintigraphy ranks first, with a relative frequency of 40-80 pour cent thereafter ranks renal scintigraphy (10-15 pour cent) and then the thyroid scintigraphy (8-12 pour cent). The waiting period is a major problem, especially in the public sector. Taking as an example, for the therapy of thyroid, injection of 100 mCi of I-131 requires a period of waiting more than six months and waiting more than three months for the bone scan. The second problem for patient with cancer is the distance, there are 11 centers concentrated in 3 coastal cities and none in the inner areas of the country, no regional

  6. The nuclear force and the electromagnetic current operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riska, D.O.

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the electromagnetic current operator and the nucleon-nucleon interaction is discussed. The assumptions needed for the construction of the two-body current operator directly from the isospin- and velocity dependent components of the interaction potential are described. The observable consequences of the exchange current operator that is constructed from the interaction are reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Past, current and future aspects of nuclear medicine in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmalingam, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine in Malaysia began initially with the use of radioiodine and radiophosphorous for the investigation and treatment of thyroid and blood disorders around 1960. Following this we went through a phase of organ imaging using radioiodine and radiogold using an early generation Phillips Scanner. In terms of Medical usefulness this proved a big step forward in Malaysian Medicine, basic though the techniques were. The third phase of this speciality came on in the 1970s with the availability of generator scanners. A tremendous spurt in Nuclear Imaging and thyroid function studies took place. We have now together with the University Hospital Gamma Cameras which have considerably widened the scope of Nuclear Medicine especially in the field of cardiovascular studies. Further advances are expected in the future with the availability of medical cyclotrons, positron cameras and emission tomography. However yesterdays problems have not disappeared completely and the training of personnel and provision of up to date Nuclear Medicine laboratories with the latest equipment should be given top priority so as to assure progress in this speciality. (author)

  8. Current research and development at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe (KfK) is funded to 90% by the Federal Republic of Germany and to 10% by the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Since its foundation in 1956 the main objective of the Center is research and development (R and D) in the aera of the nuclear technology and about 2/3 of the research capacity is now devoted to this field. Since 1960 a major activity of KfK is R and D work for the design of fast breeder reactors, including material research, physics, and safety investigations; a prototype of 300 MWe is under construction now in the lower Rhine Valley. For enrichment of 235 U fissile material KfK developed the separation nozzle process; its technical application is realized within an international contract between the Federal Republic of Germany and Brazil. Within the frame of the European Programme on fusion technology KfK develops and tests superconducting magnets for toroidal fusion systems; a smaller activity deals with research on inertial confinement fusion. A broad research programme is carried through for safety investigations of nuclear installations, especially for PWRs; this activity is supplemented by research and development in the field of nuclear materials' safeguards. Development of fast reactors has to initiate research for the reprocessing of spent fuel and waste disposal. In the pilot plant WAK spent fuel from LKWs is reprocessed; research especially tries e.g. to improve the PUREX-process by electrochemical means, vitrification of high active waste is another main activity. First studies are being performed now to clarify the necessary development for reprocessing fast reactor fuel. About 1/3 of the research capacity of KfK deals with fundamental research in nuclear physics, solid state physics, biology and studies on the impact of technology on environment. Promising new technologies as e.g. the replacement of gasoline by hydrogen cells as vehicle propulsion are investigated. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear De-Alerting and the Search for Post-Cold War Nuclear Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fortney, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...... you just can't seem to get rid of it." While no longer the predominant defense issue, many still grapple with the strategic nuclear issue, wondering what we need to do with our "Cold War" nuclear arsenal...

  10. Italian nuclear power industry after nuclear power moratorium: Current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.; Previti, G.

    1992-01-01

    Following Italy's nuclear power referendum results and their interpretation, all construction and operation activities in the field of nuclear power were suspended by a political decision with consequent heavy impacts on Italian industry. Nevertheless, a 'nuclear presidium' has been maintained, thanks to the fundamental contribution of activities abroad, succeeding in retaining national know-how and developing the new technologies called for the new generation of nuclear power plants equipped with intrinsic and/or passive reactor safety systems

  11. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, Daniela; Kouzes, R.; McElroy, R.; Peerani, P.; Baird, K.; Bakel, A.; Borella, M.; Bourne, M.; Bourva, L.; Cave, F.; Chandra, R.; Chernikova, D.; Croft, S.; Dermody, G.; Dougan, A.; Ely, J.; Fanchini, E.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gavron, Victor; Kureta, M.; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Ishiyama, K.; Lee, T.; Martin, Ch.; McKinny, K.; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Orton, Ch.; Pappalardo, A.; Pedersen, B.; Plenteda, R.; Pozzi, S.; Schear, M.; Seya, M.; Siciliano, E.; Stave, S.; Sun, L.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Tagziria, H.; Takamine, J.; Weber, A.-L.; Yamaguchi, T.; Zhu, H.

    2015-01-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3 He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3 He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3 He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3 He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3 He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3 He-alternative technologies.

  12. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    response, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States warned of consequences if North Korea conducted a test; South Korea expressed “deep regret and... Unicorn ,” was conducted in a “down-hole” or vertical shaft configuration similar to an underground nuclear test...26; 2003: Piano, September 19; 2004: Armando, May 25; 2006: Krakatau (jointly with UK), February 23; Unicorn , August 30; 2010: Bacchus, September 15

  13. Some current engineering topics in nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amana, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis based on the principle of fracture mechanics, is presented for several engineering problems occuring in nuclear power plant components. The specific problems covered are: underclad cracking; stress corrosion cracking; cracks in HAZ of nozzle weld; feedwater nozzle corner crack; shift of transition temperature due to neutron irradiation; LWR local-ECC thermal shock experiment; and design and material selection of RPV in terms of fracture mechanics. (B.R.H.)

  14. Understanding nuclear 'pasta': current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro

    2007-01-01

    In cores of supernovae and crusts of neutron stars, nuclei can adopt interesting shapes, such as rods or slabs, etc., which are referred to as nuclear 'pasta'. In recent years, we have studied the pasta phases focusing on their dynamical aspects with a quantum molecular dynamic (QMD) approach. In this article, we review these works. We also focus on the treatment of the Coulomb interaction

  15. Some current aspects of the staff protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudzietzova, J.; Sabol, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses some specific questions of irradiation of workers in various professions on typical nuclear medicine workplace in connection with the performance of their specific tasks. There are also given the results of the monitoring of individual doses, which show the significant differences in exposure of personnel groups. Special attention is paid to the protection of workers and others who come into contact with patients who received high-level radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic purposes. (authors)

  16. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3

  17. Current status of international cooperation on nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragi, Satoru

    1984-01-01

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), as a representative organization in Japan, has been participating in many international cooperations on nuclear safety research. This report reviews the recent achievement and evolution of the international cooperative safety studies. Twelve projects that are based on the agreements between JAERI and foreign organizations are reviewed. As the fuel irradiation studies, the recent achievement of the OECD Halden Reactor Project and the agreement between Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Battelle Memorial Institute, and JAERI are explained. As for the study of reactivity accident, the cooperation of the NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor) project in Japan with PBF, PNS and PHEBUS projects in the U.S., West Germany and France, respectively, are now in progress. The fuel performance in abnormal transient and the experiment and analysis of severe fuel damage are the new areas of international interest. The OECD/LOFT project and ROSA-4 projects are also explained in connection with the FP source term problem and the analysis codes such as RELAP-5 and TRAC. As the safety studies associated with the downstream of the nuclear fuel cycle, the BEFAST project of IAEA and the ISIRS project of OECD/NEA are shortly reviewed. (Aoki, K.)

  18. Current status of countermeasures for ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Tajima, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes ageing coutermeasure program of the nuclear power plants performed by the Japanese Government and industries and related activities, and describes current research program and utilization of the research results for the aged nuclear power plants. Regulatory bodies (NISA of METI: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) reviewed the ageing issues of nuclear power plants to enhance countermeasures for the aged plants. Nuclear Power Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC) entrusted by NISA is carrying out the task relating to the aged plants. (orig.)

  19. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options[Mixed oxide nuclear fuels; Nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they

  20. Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Transmutation potential of current and innovative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the transmutation potential of different nuclear systems from a physical point of view. Transuranium (TRU) elements have been considered, but also long lived fission products (LLFP). The potential for transmutation has to take into account not only the consumption of a specific nucleus (or of a specific 'family' of nuclei), but also the reproduction of other nuclei of higher masses. The present study allows an intercomparison taking into account both aspects. Technological, safety and design constraints were not considered at this stage. However strategic indications for future studies have been obtained. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  2. The 19th KAIF/KNS annual conference growth of nuclear industry and its current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhn, Poong Eil

    2004-01-01

    After the president Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech at the UN general Conference in December 1953, nuclear industry for peaceful uses of nuclear energy has been developed steadily worldwide through international co-operation and collaboration during last half a century. However, from late 1980s, in particular, after Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 and growing public opposition on nuclear waste management and disposal, the growth of nuclear power plants worldwide, except some Asian countries, has been slowed down. Nuclear power currently supplies about 16 % of the world's electricity. In the next 50 years, it is expected that the world energy demand will increase about two times comparing current level while electricity demand will be tripled. Therefore, the nuclear industry should be expanded significantly in the next 50 years to meet the role for 'Prosperity beyond Peace'. The main issues for nuclear industry to take this important role are to increase in economics of nuclear power, and to resolve nuclear waste management and disposal. Some of these issues have been resolved mainly through international co-operation. For example, there are significant efforts to improve economics of nuclear power. This paper reviews worldwide efforts to resolve these issues and mentions what are the remaining ones

  3. Nuclear fuel for WWER reactors. Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the following results from the JSC TVEL post-irradiation studies of full-scale fuel assemblies are discussed: 1) Oxide layer on fuel rod (FR) cladding does not exceed 15 μm; 2) Fission Gas Release does not exceed 3%; 3) Satisfactory condition of cladding. Concerning the operating experience it is noticed that: 1) Design criteria are fulfilled; 2) 5 TVSA are stayed at Kalinin-1 for 6 years up to burnup of 59 MWxdays/kgU; 3) 12 working assemblies (WA) are operated at Kola-3 for 6 years up to burnup of 57 MWxdays/kgU. At the end the following conclusions are made: 1) The main task of further development of nuclear fuel for WWER-1000 reactors is the increasing fuel rod burnup up to 72 MWxdays/kgU and operating life up to 6 years through the increase in uranium load in FA and maximum use of potential built-in in the designs of TVSA and TVS-2; 2) In the nearest future R and D in the field of nuclear fuel for WWER will be directed at justification of maneuvering fuel characteristics as well as at introducing of optimized zirconium alloys

  4. Current status and prospects on Rokkasho nuclear fuel cycle project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    JNFL has been established aiming at fulfillment of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, as well as to contribute to the long-term and stable supply of nuclear power in Japan. 'Uranium Enrichment Plant' with its production of 1,050 SWU/y and planned to be expand to 1,500 SWU/y, 'Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center' with 150,000/200 l drums stored, out of its 400,000 drums capacity, and 'Vitrified Waste Storage Center' with 760 canisters stored, out of its 1440 canisters capacity, are already in its operation. It is now preparing for the operation of '800 t/y Reprocessing Plant' and construction of '130t HM/y MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant'. As for the Reprocessing Plant, 780t of spent fuels has been already received and stored in the storage pools. Main plant is now in the course of test operation and planned to start the commercial operation by July 2006. Due to some defects found during the course of its construction, JNFL is now reviewing the Total Quality Assurance Structure to improve and reinforce its system. And for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant, activities towards obtaining the local autonomy's agreement for the construction are being made energetically. It is essential to obtain the good understanding of the public community to promote these projects successfully; JNFL is putting its best efforts to dispatch all the necessary information to the public in a timely manner. (author)

  5. Key technologies for the current and future challenges of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Sancho, Lou; Roulleaux Dugage, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The current challenges of the nuclear industry are the result of too many uncertainties: low GDP growth of OECD countries, booming state debts, deregulated electricity markets, growing safety regulation and diminishing public support. As a result, nuclear technology companies tend to entrench in their current installed base, while attempting to develop global partnerships to market their products to new nuclear countries, along with viable financing schemes. But new opportunities are lying ahead. In a future context of effective and global climate policies, nuclear energy will have to play a key role in a new energy ecosystem aside the two other clean air energy production technologies: renewable energies and electricity storage. And still, the perspective of long-term sustainability of nuclear energy is still high. This paper explores the opportunity for key innovative technologies to shift the way we think about nuclear in the future energy system while addressing these major challenges. (author)

  6. Are current processes for nuclear emergency management in Europe adequate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E; French, S [Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    We describe the results of process mapping of nuclear emergency management procedures in four European countries. We find clear differences and explore these in relation to their suitability for building a shared understanding across the emergency management team of the evolving situation and a balanced appreciation of the uncertainties. Our findings indicate that there are some issues that cause concern in that the procedures may run smoothly and efficiently but they may also risk underestimating uncertainty or ignore key issues that have only been identified by a minority of experts or models. We are concerned that they do not facilitate the building of shared mental models that the literature such as that on highly reliable organisations has shown is important.

  7. Results and current trends of nuclear methods used in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The significance is evaluated of nuclear methods for agricultural research. The number of breeds induced by radiation mutations is increasing. The main importance of radiation mutation breeding consists in obtaining sources of the desired genetic properties for further hybridization. Radiostimulation is conducted with the aim of increasing yields. The irradiation of foods has not substantially increased worldwide. Very important is the irradiation of excrements and sludges which after such inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms may be used as humus-forming manure or as feed additives. In some countries the method is successfully being used of sexual sterilization for eradication of insect pests. The application of labelled compounds in the nutrition, physiology and protection of plants, farm animals and in food hygiene makes it possible to acquire new and accurate knowledge very quickly. Radioimmunoassay is a highly promising method in this respect. Labelling compounds with the stable 15 N isotope is used for the research of nitrogen metabolism. (M.D.)

  8. Are current processes for nuclear emergency management in Europe adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E; French, S

    2006-01-01

    We describe the results of process mapping of nuclear emergency management procedures in four European countries. We find clear differences and explore these in relation to their suitability for building a shared understanding across the emergency management team of the evolving situation and a balanced appreciation of the uncertainties. Our findings indicate that there are some issues that cause concern in that the procedures may run smoothly and efficiently but they may also risk underestimating uncertainty or ignore key issues that have only been identified by a minority of experts or models. We are concerned that they do not facilitate the building of shared mental models that the literature such as that on highly reliable organisations has shown is important

  9. Current status and future program for nuclear power education in the State University of Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causevski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear Education in the State University 'Ss. Cyril and Methodius' in Skopje, Macedonia is takes place in few Departments and Faculties. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Reactors for electricity generation are the fields studied in the Department of Electric Power Systems and Power Plants in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Skopje. The paper gives the overview of the current status of nuclear education on the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, as well as the future perspectives and programs for improving. In the current module of Power Engineering, the Nuclear Power is studied in two subjects: Basics of Nuclear Energy, and the second one is Nuclear Power Reactors and Nuclear Power Plants. The new concept of studying will include the new module of 'Power Engineering and Energy Management' with 4 subjects, and some of them are modified, transformed or innovated from the old ones, and the others are totally new courses. In the paper also will include some steps that should be done in order to achieve the targets for new improved nuclear education in the field of nuclear power. (author)

  10. A weak current amplifier and output circuit used in nuclear weighing scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jinhua; Zheng Mingquan; Wang Mingqian; Jia Changchun; Jin Hanjuan; Shi Qicun; Tang Ke

    1998-01-01

    A weak current amplifier and output circuit with a maximum nonlinear error of +-0.06% has been developed. Experiments show that it can work stably and therefore be used in nuclear industrial instruments

  11. Current status and future prospective of nuclear industry in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaciu, Gheorghe; Chirica, Teodor

    2004-01-01

    After the collapse, in 1989, of the centralized communist regimes in the Central and Eastern Europe, the Romanian economy experienced significant changes. By 2001 the industrial production decline caused a dramatic drop in the country's electricity consumption. Despite it, the power sector has to cope with many difficulties to cover the electricity demand. Under the circumstances of the economy restructuring, the problems of the Romanian power sector became acute: most of thermal power units are aged (older than 20 years), with low efficiency, low performance indicators, high costs, large staff number; the dependence on imported fossil fuel is high; the environment protection requirements - emphasized by the European institutions - not met; lack of the capital required for fixing these questions. The lack of financial sources at the thermal power plants made the purchase of fuel from import extremely complicated; also, the maintenance programs at the power plants could not be accomplished. It was very difficult to attract investment funds for rehabilitation work or for construction of new capacities in the power plants. Meanwhile, in the last three years, a gradual recovery of the Romanian industry occurred. Now, it becomes less energy intensive, but the growth of the industrial production and the increasing household electricity demand induced higher energy consumption. The development of the nuclear power sector enhances these tendencies. The entire sector is under a reorganization process, with the final purpose to increase efficiency, privatizing the electrical distribution, thermal power plants, and some hydro and support services

  12. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Nuclear Power Reactor Core Melt Accidents. Current State of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaib, Ahmed; Bonneville, Herve; Clement, Bernard; Cranga, Michel; Fichot, Florian; Koundy, Vincent; Meignen, Renaud; Corenwinder, Francois; Leteinturier, Denis; Monroig, Frederique; Nahas, Georges; Pichereau, Frederique; Van-Dorsselaere, Jean-Pierre; Cenerino, Gerard; Jacquemain, Didier; Raimond, Emmanuel; Ducros, Gerard; Journeau, Christophe; Magallon, Daniel; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Tourniaire, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    For over thirty years, IPSN and subsequently IRSN has played a major international role in the field of nuclear power reactor core melt accidents through the undertaking of important experimental programmes (the most significant being the Phebus- FP programme), the development of validated simulation tools (the ASTEC code that is today the leading European tool for modelling severe accidents), and the coordination of the SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) international network of excellence. These accidents are described as 'severe accidents' because they can lead to radioactive releases outside the plant concerned, with serious consequences for the general public and for the environment. This book compiles the sum of the knowledge acquired on this subject and summarises the lessons that have been learnt from severe accidents around the world for the prevention and reduction of the consequences of such accidents, without addressing those from the Fukushima accident, where knowledge of events is still evolving. The knowledge accumulated by the Institute on these subjects enabled it to play an active role in informing public authorities, the media and the public when this accident occurred, and continues to do so to this day

  14. NPDES Permit for Rocky Mountain Arsenal Recycled Water Pipeline in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  15. Bat population monitoring and conservation at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — A study of the bat populations at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) was conducted from 1997–1998, which provided basic population and contaminant...

  16. Nuclear weapons at 70: reflections on the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, B Cameron

    2015-01-01

    August 2015 marks the 70th anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These bombs, the products of the United States Army’s Manhattan Project, helped to end World War II and had enormous long-term effects on global political strategies by setting the stage for the Cold War and nuclear proliferation. This article explores the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project. The state of the war in the summer of 1945 is described, as are how the target cities came to be chosen, deliberations surrounding whether the bombs should be used directly or demonstrated first, and the long-term effects of the Project on individual scientists, the relationship between scientists and society, the subsequent development of nuclear arsenals around the world, and the current status of these arsenals and how they might evolve in the future. (invited comment)

  17. Nuclear weapons at 70: reflections on the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2015-08-01

    August 2015 marks the 70th anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These bombs, the products of the United States Army’s Manhattan Project, helped to end World War II and had enormous long-term effects on global political strategies by setting the stage for the Cold War and nuclear proliferation. This article explores the context and legacy of the Manhattan Project. The state of the war in the summer of 1945 is described, as are how the target cities came to be chosen, deliberations surrounding whether the bombs should be used directly or demonstrated first, and the long-term effects of the Project on individual scientists, the relationship between scientists and society, the subsequent development of nuclear arsenals around the world, and the current status of these arsenals and how they might evolve in the future.

  18. ASME nuclear codes and standards: Scope of coverage and current initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the broad scope of coverage of nuclear codes, standards and guides produced and administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Background information is provided regarding the evolution of the present activities. Details are provided on current initiatives intended to permit ASME to meet the needs of a changing nuclear industry on a worldwide scale. During the early years of commercial nuclear power, ASME produced a code for the construction of nuclear vessels used in the reactor coolant pressure boundary, containment and auxiliary systems. In response to industry growth, ASME Code coverage soon broadened to include rules for construction of other nuclear components, and inservice inspection of nuclear reactor coolant systems. In the years following this, the scope of ASME nuclear codes, standards and guides has been broadened significantly to include air cleaning activities for nuclear power reactors, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, quality assurance programs, cranes for nuclear facilities, qualification of mechanical equipment, and concrete reactor vessels and containments. ASME focuses on globalization of its codes, standards and guides by encouraging and promoting their use in the international community and by actively seeking participation of international members on its technical and supervisory committees and in accreditation activities. Details are provided on current international representation. Initiatives are underway to separate the technical requirements from administrative and enforcement requirements, to convert to hard metric units, to provide for non-U. S. materials, and to provide for translations into non-English languages. ASME activity as an accredited ISO 9000 registrar for suppliers of mechanical equipment is described. Rules are being developed for construction of containment systems for nuclear spent fuel and high-level waste transport packagings. Intensive

  19. Consideration of the legal system required for achievement of current nuclear power plant construction programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellon Fernandez, E.; Forum Atomico Espanol, Madrid)

    1976-01-01

    The extensive nuclear power plant construction programmes currently in progress in western countries require updating of the legislation in force in this field, especially as regards the following: acquisition of the sites necessary by means of a national planning programme of available sites; simplification of formalities concerning issuance of administrative licenses; revision of the principle of absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator which forms the basis of the third party liability system for nuclear damage; radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear plants. Furthermore, this new legislation should be harmonized between the different countries concerned. (N.E.A.) [fr

  20. Historical Review of the Correlation of Ballistic and Metallurgical Characteristics of Domestic Armor at Watertown Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-12-07

    really under- stood. It was learned, then that pearlitic and bainitic microstructures imparted poor impact toughness to steels , pearlitic structures...having a more detrimental effect than bainitic structures, and that a steel could show little or no free ferrite and still pofssess poor shock resistance...arsenal for metallurgical study. The studies at the arsenal revealed that presence of bainitic structures in the core of low alloy NS type steels

  1. Current status of international training center for nuclear security and security issues in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-UK; Sin, Byung Woo

    2013-01-01

    During the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) President Lee declared that Korea will establish an international training center (ITC) for nuclear security near the Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). It will be open to the world in 2014. The government's long term goal is to make the center a hub for education and training in the nuclear field in Asia. The ITC will accomplish this by establishing facilities for practical and realistic exercises through the use of a test bed and various other experiments. The center will also provide comprehensive educational programs for nuclear newcomers. Its main programs include: a well designed educational program, customized training courses, and on-the-job training. This paper will discuss the current status of the ITC and describe practical plans for solving current security issues in Korea. (authors)

  2. Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, Joseph C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Patrice A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Branstetter, Linda [SNL; Hoover, Edward [SNL; O' Brien, Kevin [SNL; Slavin, Adam [SNL; Caswell, David [STANFORD UNIV

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear

  3. You have no right to make me think about this--the de-legitimation of current nuclear policies among key American elites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.G.

    1982-11-16

    Until fairly recently, most segments of the American public, particularly our various elites, supported American nuclear policy, namely the maintenance of large and expanding nuclear stockpiles, the official foreswearing of the use of these weapons in a strategic first-strike, and the policy of threatening retaliation for Soviet nuclear attacks in war, by nuclear attacks on enemy cities and military centers. There is increasing evidence that this support is rapidly eroding; especially among key American elites. This is shown through increasingly vocal dissatisfaction with the continued growth and modernization of the nuclear stockpile; and second, in the dawning awareness of a discrepancy between our official policy of no first-strike and contingency plans to employ first-strike tactical nuclear weapons in the event of a Warsaw Pact attack upon Western Europe. Concerns have surfaced here due both to distaste at the growing size of our nuclear arsenal and the perception that we have not been altogether honest in our official stance of a no first-strike with nuclear weapons. Increasing numbers of Americans are coming to see our nuclear policy as inconsistent, senseless, and, most significantly, immoral, and therefore support a nuclear freeze.

  4. Development and future perspective of nuclear power plants. Current status and future prospect of world nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi NPS accidents occurred on 11 March 2011 brought about great effects on nuclear development not only in Japan but also in the world. In Japan restart of operation of periodically inspected nuclear power plants (NPPs) could not be allowed except Oi NPPs two units and most parties except Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) pledged to possibly phasing out nuclear power at House of Councillors election in July and public opinion was mostly against nuclear power after the accident. LDP clearly stated that, with the inauguration of new government last December, Japan would not pursuing the policy of the prior government of possibly phasing out nuclear power by the 2030s, but would instead make a 'zero-base' review of energy policy. Germany decided to close eight reactors immediately and remaining nine by the end of 2022. For many countries, nuclear power would play an important role in achieving energy security and sustainable development goals. In 2011 NPPs 6 units started operation with 2 units under construction, and in 2012 NPPs 3 units started operation with 7 units under construction. At present there are now over 400 NPPs operating in 31 countries and world trend seemed nuclear development was continued and number of countries newly deploying NPPs was increasing as much as eighteen. This article presented current status and future prospect of world NPPs in details. Japan would like to share its experiences and information obtained from the accident with the world and also promote NPPs overseas to meet the world's expectations. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Current status and issues of nuclear human resource development/General activities of Japan nuclear human resource development network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Hino, Sadami; Tsuru, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net) was established in November 2010 with the aim of developing a framework for mutual cooperation and information sharing among nuclear-related organizations. Although the tasks and goals of developing human resources in the nuclear field have been shifted since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the necessity of fostering capable personnel in this field stays unchanged and the importance of our network activities has further emphasized. The meeting of JN-HRD Net was held on the 5th of February 2013, where its activities by each field were reported and views and opinions were actively exchanged between more than 90 participants. This paper briefly describes current status and issues of JN-HRD Net and its general activities conducted by the JN-HRD Net secretariat. (J.P.N.)

  6. Draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental impact statement-Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex, consisting of some of the newer properties in the National Wildlife Refuge System, is a work in progress. Offering unique assets to surrounding communities, these lands promise to become some of the premier urban wildlife refuges in the country. At the heart of the refuge complex is the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge: 16,000 acres of shortgrass and mixed-grass prairie that is home to bison, bald eagles, migratory songbirds, prairie dogs, and much more—all within the Denver Metropolitan area.This comprehensive conservation plan will be the first in the country designed to begin implementing the Refuge System’s new Urban Refuge Initiative. To accomplish this, we analyzed a wide range of options on how best to support up to one million visitors per year without compromising our principal purposes to protect and preserve fish and wildlife and their habitats. We are fortunate to have inherited a great deal of infrastructure from the U.S. Army, but we are also constrained by the current condition and layout of these facilities. Some of this infrastructure may be acting as barriers to the public—a condition inconsistent with the purposes of the refuge. Accordingly, we have developed a goal to increase and improve suitable access to the refuge, develop sustainable transportation options, and provide more connections among the units of the refuge complex. This increased access will enable people from all walks of life to visit the refuge. The vision we have developed for the refuge complex calls for the restoration of the refuge’s historical habitats, and the reconnection of people with the natural lands of the refuge and of the region at large using a network consisting of multimodal trails, a far-reaching light-rail system, and the Denver International Airport. This refuge is well positioned to leverage and catalyze early investments to create world-class wildlife habitat and a

  7. Heading for the fourth nuclear age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levite, A.E.

    2009-07-01

    The author examines the evolution of the global nuclear order since the advent of nuclear weapons in 1945 to present by breaking down the sixty-plus years of nuclear history into three analytically distinct 'ages', each lasting roughly twenty years. By doing so, the author traces back the roots of the current nuclear predicament to some early seeds of trouble which have gradually grown more profound. He attributes much of the unraveling of the nuclear order to: - Certain inherent weaknesses in the original NPT formula; - Changes in the global distribution of power since the codification of the nuclear order in the 1960's; - The dissemination of nuclear weapon technology; and - Complacency and subsequent disillusionment with the nuclear order since the early 1990's. The paper further analyzes what could precipitate a new nuclear age around 2010. The author argues that such a 'fourth nuclear age' would likely be characterized by either a nuclear anarchy, which he believes has become the default option, or a more benign nuclear order manifested by lower numbers of weapons and stringent controls and restrictions on remaining nuclear arsenals and activities. He concludes by considering the more pressing requirements for regaining nuclear stability

  8. Heading for the fourth nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levite, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examines the evolution of the global nuclear order since the advent of nuclear weapons in 1945 to present by breaking down the sixty-plus years of nuclear history into three analytically distinct 'ages', each lasting roughly twenty years. By doing so, the author traces back the roots of the current nuclear predicament to some early seeds of trouble which have gradually grown more profound. He attributes much of the unraveling of the nuclear order to: - Certain inherent weaknesses in the original NPT formula; - Changes in the global distribution of power since the codification of the nuclear order in the 1960's; - The dissemination of nuclear weapon technology; and - Complacency and subsequent disillusionment with the nuclear order since the early 1990's. The paper further analyzes what could precipitate a new nuclear age around 2010. The author argues that such a 'fourth nuclear age' would likely be characterized by either a nuclear anarchy, which he believes has become the default option, or a more benign nuclear order manifested by lower numbers of weapons and stringent controls and restrictions on remaining nuclear arsenals and activities. He concludes by considering the more pressing requirements for regaining nuclear stability

  9. Current status of nuclear power in the United States and around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKlveen, J W

    1990-09-01

    Nuclear energy's share of the world electricity market has been growing over the past 35 years. In 1989, eight generating units entered commercial operation abroad and three new units were licensed in the U.S. In early 1990, Mexico became the 26th country to produce electricity from nuclear power. Currently the 426 operating reactors supply one sixth of the world's total electrical capacity. Fourteen countries have now operated nuclear plants for 20 or more years. Since 1980, France has been the leader in the use of nuclear power and currently generates three quarters of its electricity from 54 nuclear plants. The U.S. has 112 nuclear plants, the largest number of any country in the world. These plants satisfy almost 20 percent of U.S. electrical energy requirements. Last year Three Mile Island, the would-be icon for everything that is wrong with the nuclear industry was rated as the most efficient nuclear plant in the world. The worldwide trend toward acceptance of nuclear is improving slightly, but many political and societal issues need to be resolved. Whereas recent polls indicate that a majority of the people realize nuclear must be a major contributor to the energy mix of the future, many are reluctant to support the technology until the issue of waste disposal has been resolved. Fears of another Chernobyl, lack of capital, and a new anti-nuclear campaign by Greenpeace will keep the nuclear debate alive in many countries. Additional stumbling blocks in the U.S. include the need to develop a new generation of improved reactor designs which emphasize passive safety features, standardized designs and a stream-lined federal licensing process. Nuclear power is really not dead. Even environmentalists are starting to give it another look. A nuclear renaissance will occur in the U.S. How soon or under what conditions remain to be seen. The next crisis in the U.S. will not be a shortage of energy, rather a shortage of electricity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The current situation and prospect of fundamental research about nuclear logging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Wang Xinguang; Yuan Chao

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear logging technology is one of the important methods to evaluate complex hydrocarbon reservoir in the process of petroleum exploration and development. The fundamental research of nuclear logging is an important step of logging technology innovation. Through analyzing the current situation of the development of nuclear logging technology at home and abroad in recent years, the problems and gaps are pointed out in the field of fundamental research of nuclear logging at home, and the future development of new nuclear logging technologies is concisely analyzed. Therefore, the optimal design and processing are conducted from aspects of ray source, detector, data acquisition and processing method. In addition, the fundamental research of LWD and pulsed neutron logging technology is taken as the main breach. In the fundamental research of nuclear logging technology, innovative thinking should be expressed and the innovation should be achieved in every field of the development of nuclear logging technology. Meanwhile, the logging key lab should be taken as the platform and the latest achievement in the field of nuclear logging technology should be fully utilized. Thus, the level of independent R and D and technology innovation of logging tools will be raised and service for the exploration and development of petroleum and other mineral resources. (authors)

  11. Conflict between civil liberties and nuclear energy safeguards: an analysis of current and prospective Federal regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    The high regard that the U.S. has traditionally placed on individual rights and liberties makes it imperative that nuclear-safeguards measures currently in use or suggested by evaluated in terms of their social costs. A nuclear-safeguards strategy that minimizes civil-liberties impacts as a social cost and allows adequate protection against the threats of nuclear theft and sabotage in the rapidly developing nuclear energy industry must be arrived at. This study explores the possible civil-liberties impacts and the effectiveness of nuclear-safeguards measures which may be or are being used. Case law and statutory law are extensively analyzed to classify the type of civil-liberties impacts that particular nuclear-safeguards measures may impose. Literature addressing the effectiveness of safeguards measures is examined in various contexts often completely outside of the ''security'' disciplines. A comparison of both the civil liberties impact and effectiveness of each nuclear safeguards measure reveals a cost/benefit factor from which conclusions may be drawn. The real issue is whether or not a nuclear safeguards system will interfere with historic respect governmental institutions have given rights and liberties guaranteed in the U.S. It is concluded that physical access controls present only minor civil liberties costs while providing substantial protection against theft and sabotage. Recommendations are made in the form of suggested statutes, regulations, and regulatory guides. Certain inter-agency relationships and methods for establishing those relationships are also suggested

  12. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jerry D.; Clements, Jessica B.; Coffey, Charles W.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Gress, Dustin A.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Nickoloff, Edward L.; Mawlawi, Osama R.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Pizzuitello, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to: Estimate the demand for board‐certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5–10 years,Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, andIdentify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists. As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face‐to‐face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission. PACS number: 01.40.G‐ PMID:26699325

  13. The US Department of Energy Nuclear Data and Low Energy Physics Programs: Aspects of current operational status and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, S.L.; Meyer, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Data and Low-Energy Programs are operated within the Division of Nuclear Physics of the US Department of Energy. The data program supports a range of activities including large scale data measurements, nuclear cross section modelling, and nuclear data compilation and dissemination. The US nuclear data needs and prospects for the future of this effort are currently being addressed and its present status is reviewed. Possibilities for the next generation nuclear data accessibility will be discussed and examples presented. The Low-Energy Nuclear Physics Program supports investigations into low-energy nuclear structure and neutrino physics. Among examples of the latter that are covered is the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

  14. Room-temperature coupling between electrical current and nuclear spins in OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malissa, H.; Kavand, M.; Waters, D. P.; van Schooten, K. J.; Burn, P. L.; Vardeny, Z. V.; Saam, B.; Lupton, J. M.; Boehme, C.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of external magnetic fields on the electrical conductivity of organic semiconductors have been attributed to hyperfine coupling of the spins of the charge carriers and hydrogen nuclei. We studied this coupling directly by implementation of pulsed electrically detected nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The data revealed a fingerprint of the isotope (protium or deuterium) involved in the coherent spin precession observed in spin-echo envelope modulation. Furthermore, resonant control of the electric current by nuclear spin orientation was achieved with radiofrequency pulses in a double-resonance scheme, implying current control on energy scales one-millionth the magnitude of the thermal energy.

  15. Nuclear axial current operators to fourth order in chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, H., E-mail: hermann.krebs@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Epelbaum, E., E-mail: evgeny.epelbaum@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93016 (United States); Meißner, U.-G., E-mail: meissner@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA - High Performance Computing, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We present the complete derivation of the nuclear axial charge and current operators as well as the pseudoscalar operators to fourth order in the chiral expansion relative to the dominant one-body contribution using the method of unitary transformation. We demonstrate that the unitary ambiguity in the resulting operators can be eliminated by the requirement of renormalizability and by matching of the pion-pole contributions to the nuclear forces. We give expressions for the renormalized single-, two- and three-nucleon contributions to the charge and current operators and pseudoscalar operators including the relevant relativistic corrections. We also verify explicitly the validity of the continuity equation.

  16. Current legal issues of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The main issues of current discussions concerning the status of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy are described with focus on the present and future of the EURATOM Treaty. The basic features of the EURATOM Treaty are highlighted and those issues which are currently subject to discussion in foreign literature (e.g. EURATOM's legitimacy, specification of competencies, obsolete provisions, etc.) are pointed out. The major attempts to reform the wording of the EURATOM Treaty and the relevance of the Treaty to its Member States in the future, in relation to the 'Nuclear New Build' in particular, are also described. (orig.)

  17. The use of eddy current testing for nuclear fuel rods cladding evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Silverio F. da; Alencar, Donizete A.; Brito, Mucio Jose D. de

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fuel rods cladding must be tested after their manufacture and during their operational life. This paper describes a study about the use of eddy current test method as a nondestructive tool for nuclear fuel rods cladding evaluation. The experiments were carried out using two different probes: an external probe and an internal probe. The main goal was to verify the sensitivity of the eddy current test system, to develop calibration and reference standards and to establish the main capabilities and limitations presented by this test method for this application. (author)

  18. Dynamical nuclear spin polarization induced by electronic current through double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Monis, Carlos; Platero, Gloria; Inarrea, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    We analyse electron-spin relaxation in electronic transport through coherently coupled double quantum dots (DQDs) in the spin blockade regime. In particular, we focus on hyperfine (HF) interaction as the spin-relaxation mechanism. We pay special attention to the effect of the dynamical nuclear spin polarization induced by the electronic current on the nuclear environment. We discuss the behaviour of the electronic current and the induced nuclear spin polarization versus an external magnetic field for different HF coupling intensities and interdot tunnelling strengths. We take into account, for each magnetic field, all HF-mediated spin-relaxation processes coming from different opposite spin level approaches. We find that the current as a function of the external magnetic field shows a peak or a dip and that the transition from a current dip to a current peak behaviour is obtained by decreasing the HF coupling or by increasing the interdot tunnelling strength. We give a physical picture in terms of the interplay between the electrons tunnelling out of the DQD and the spin-flip processes due to the nuclear environment.

  19. Current situation of the facilities, equipments and human resources in nuclear medicine in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiliutti, Claudia A.

    2008-01-01

    The current situation of nuclear medicine in Argentina, taking into account the facilities, their equipment and human resources available is presented in this paper. A review and analysis of the equipment, including technical characteristics and a survey of the professionals and technicians of the area, was carried out. In Argentina, there are 266 centers of nuclear medicine distributed all over the country. The operating licenses are granted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN). Forty four percent of the installed equipment are SPECT of 1 or 2 heads and 39,4 % are gamma camera. Besides, there are eleven PET operating in Argentina. There are 416 nuclear medicine physicians with individual permit for diagnostic purposes and 50% of them has also individual permit for treatment purposes. With the purpose of analyzing the regional distribution of the available resources in nuclear medicine, the country was divided into 7 geographical regions: City of Buenos Aires, Province of Buenos Aires, Pampa, Cuyo, Northeast, Northwest and Patagonia. From the analysis of the gathered information it is possible to conclude that the nuclear medicine equipment as well as the personnel present an irregular distribution, with a major concentration in the City of Buenos Aires and Province of Buenos Aires. The Northeast region presents the lowest number of Nuclear Medicine centers and the Patagonia region has the lowest number of medicine nuclear physicians with individual permits. The number of SPECT and gamma cameras is 7,3 per million of inhabitants. The information about the available resources in nuclear medicine presented in this paper and its comparison with the international information available provide elements for a better planning of the future activities in the area not only for the operators but also from the regulatory point of view. (author)

  20. Examination of the Current Approaches to State-Level Nuclear Security Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan; Yim, Mansung; Kim, So Young

    2014-01-01

    An effective global nuclear materials security system will cover all materials, employ international standards and best practices, and reduce risks by reducing weapons-usable nuclear material stocks and the number of locations where they are found. Such a system must also encourage states to accept peer reviews by outside experts in order to demonstrate that effective security is in place. It is thus critically important to create an integrative framework of state-level evaluation of nuclear security as a basis for measuring the level and progress of international effort to secure and control all nuclear materials. There have been studies to represent state-level nuclear security with a quantitative metric. A prime example is the Nuclear Materials Security Index (NMSI) by the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Another comprehensive study is the State Level Risk Metric by Texas A and M University (TAMU). This paper examines the current methods with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and identifies the directions for future research to improve upon the existing approaches

  1. Regulatory assessment of safety culture in nuclear organisations - current trends and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronea, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the current practices in the area of regulatory assessment of safety culture in nuclear organisations and of the associated challenges. While the assessment and inspection procedures currently in use by regulatory authorities worldwide are directed primarily at verifying compliance with the licensing basis, there is a recognised need for a more systematic approach to the identification, collection and review of data relevant to the safety culture in licensees' organisations. The paper presents a proposal for using the existing regulatory inspection practices for gathering information relevant to safety culture and for assessing it in an integrated manner. The proposal is based on the latest requirements and guidance issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on management systems for nuclear facilities and activities, particularly as regards the attributes needed for a strong nuclear safety culture. (author)

  2. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 12, September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Nuclear Security Report 2009; G8 Nuclear Safety and Security Group (NSSG); Uranium Production Site Appraisal Team (UPSAT); New Entrant Nuclear Power Programmes Safety Guide on the Establishment of the Safety Infrastructure (DS424)

  3. Safety, Security, and Stability: The Role of Nuclear Control Regimes in a Proliferated World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, James

    1995-01-01

    ... with developing and deploying nuclear weapons. The US, in the past, has refused to provide technical assistance to enhance the safety, security, and stability of proliferating countries' nuclear arsenals-we believe this policy...

  4. Comparison of the Overall Environmental Footprint between Current and Future Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Bourg, S.; Ouvrier, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is anticipated to be one of the possible energy sources which can allow the production of energy at high load with a high level of reliability without significant impact on the environment. Nowadays, most of the countries have chosen an open fuel cycle which basically considers spent nuclear fuel as a waste, whereas others like France, the United Kingdom, Japan and soon China reprocess their spent fuel to recover the plutonium (and partially U) to produce mixed oxide fuel to be irradiated in a second cycle. In a second step, considering the possibility of fertilising 238 U to 239 Pu in fast reactors, recycling major actinides is thought to be a major improvement towards the global sustainability of the nuclear energy: It will indeed allow the natural resource efficiency to be increased by orders of magnitude by consuming quantitatively the natural uranium resource involved. Driven by the Fukushima accident, nuclear energy is currently questioned about its overall environmental impact and footprint. However, very little information is available on the actual footprint of current and future nuclear systems. In order to bring insights on this issue, a life cycle assessment simulation tool NELCAS was developed based on the French nuclear closed fuel cycle. It allows the calculation of representative key environmental indicators and potential impact indicators for the whole nuclear systems. The very good consistency of the results with the literature data confirms the relevance and robustness of NELCAS. It was subsequently used to derive representative indicators for open and future potential fuel cycles, i.e. mixed GEN3 and GEN4 reactors fleet and full GEN4 reactors fleet. The results demonstrate the very significant improvement brought by the actinides recycling and the future fuel cycle. Most of the indicators are very significantly decreased with the implementation of long-term recycling strategies. This paper will

  5. The IAEA international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO): current and future activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Upon resolutions of the IAEA General Conference in 2000, the IAEA initiated International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). The objective of INPRO, which comprises two phases, is to support sustainable deployment and use of nuclear technology to meet the global energy needs in the next 50 years and beyond. During Phase I, work is subdivided into two sub phases. Phase 1A focused on determining user requirements in the areas of economics, environment, safety, proliferation resistance, and recommendations in the area of so-called crosscutting issues, which are legal, institutional, and infrastructure issues accompanying the deployment of nuclear power, and is targeted at developing a methodology and guidelines for the assessment of various nuclear reactor and fuel cycle concepts and approaches. Phase 1A was finalised in June 2003 with its results now available as IAEA TECDOC-1362. Phase 1B has started in July 2003. During this phase interested Member States are performing case studies to validate the INPRO methodology and, later on, to assess selected innovative nuclear energy systems using the updated INPRO methodology. In accordance with the INPRO Terms of Reference, after successful completion of Phase I, Phase II may be initiated to examine the feasibility of commencing international projects on innovative nuclear energy systems. The paper contains a description of the current and future activities of INPRO and summarizes the outcome of the project.(author)

  6. The nuclear borderlands the Manhattan project in post-cold war New Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Masco, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Borderlands explores the sociocultural fallout of twentieth-century America's premier technoscientific project--the atomic bomb. Joseph Masco offers the first anthropological study of the long-term consequences of the Manhattan Project for the people that live in and around Los Alamos, New Mexico, where the first atomic bomb, and the majority of weapons in the current U.S. nuclear arsenal, were designed. Masco examines how diverse groups--weapons scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, neighboring Pueblo Indian Nations and Nuevomexicano communities, and antinuclear activist

  7. Eddy current and ultrasonic fuel channel inspection at Karachi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, W.R.; Alam, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    In November of 1993 and in-service inspection was performed on eight fuel channels in the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. The workscope included ultrasonic and eddy current volumetric examinations, and eddy current measurement of pressure-to calandria tube gap. This paper briefly discusses the planning strategy of the ultrasonic and eddy current examinations, and describes the equipment developed to meet the requirements, followed by details of the actual channel inspection campaign. The presented nondestructive examinations assisted in determining fitness for service of KANUPP reactor channels in general, and confirmed that the problems associated with channel G12 were not generic in nature. (author)

  8. Current situation of the project of 3. and 4. block of nuclear power plant Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchy, L.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution shows the basic information about the crucial milestone of 3. building and the current situation of the project of 3. and 4. block of the nuclear power plant Mochovce. Contribution also shows what activities were realized and what material in area of designation of the technical and safety standard of the project was elaborated in the past, the main activities planned for 2006 have been described, support for Feasibility Study elaborated by ENEL and description of the integrated management system. The basic thesis crucial for the next steps on the project of 3. and 4. block of Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce is presented in the conclusion

  9. Storage and treatment of SNF of Alfa class nuclear submarines: current status and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Sviatoslav; Zabudko, Alexey; Pankratov, Dmitry; Somov, Ivan; Suvorov, Gennady

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The current status and main problems associated with storage, defueling and following treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Nuclear Submarines (NS) with heavy liquid metal cooled reactors are considered. In the final analysis these solutions could be realized in the form of separate projects to be funded through national and bi- and multilateral funding in the framework of the international collaboration of the Russian Federation on complex utilization of NS and rehabilitation of contaminated objects allocated in the North-West region of Russia. (authors)

  10. Metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba: current state and development prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa Verdecia, Pilar; Serra Águila, Rolando A.; García Rodríguez, Lourdes; Moreno León, Yecenia; Bell Hechavarría, Ailec; Jénez Magaña, Yoel

    2016-01-01

    At work the current state of metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba is presented. the main achievements in the implementation of measurement standards and issues affecting the uncertainty of measurements at different levels of hierarchy of the existing chain of traceability for determinations of the activity of F-18 and Ga-68 is described, the main radionuclides expected to be used in the short term in PET and PET / CT applications in the country. Immediate prospects development of measurement standards positronic emitters for use in nuclear medicine in Cuba, in particular the possibilities of establishing equivalence between Cuban standards and national and international standards are also set. (author)

  11. Prospect and current situation survey of nuclear agricultural research in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Lihong; Ye Qingfu; Hua Yuejin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the survey result, which investigated 22 related institutes and universities in the field of nuclear agricultural sciences in China in Sep. 2007, this paper introduces the current status of research conditions, existing facilities and research progress on isotope tracing technology, new biological resources creation, research of nuclear irradiation and irradiation processing technology form 1996 to 2006. Due to not enough financial supports on this field, the development of nuclear agricultural sciences was slow down. However, the solid basis set up during last several decades, and the great efforts made by all the researchers, significant social and economic achievements were gained. Some of the researches have already taken the leading position in the world. (authors)

  12. Nuclear Medicine Technologists' Perception and Current Assessment of Quality: A Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Technologist Section Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, April; Farrell, Mary Beth; Williams, Jessica; Basso, Danny

    2017-06-01

    In 2015, the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Technologist Section (SNMMI-TS) launched a multiyear quality initiative to help prepare the technologist workforce for an evidence-based health-care delivery system that focuses on quality. To best implement the quality strategy, the SNMMI-TS first surveyed technologists to ascertain their perception of quality and current measurement of quality indicators. Methods: An internet survey was sent to 27,989 e-mail contacts. Questions related to demographic data, perceptions of quality, quality measurement, and opinions on the minimum level of education are discussed in this article. Results: A total of 4,007 (14.3%) responses were received. When asked to list 3 words or phrases that represent quality, there were a plethora of different responses. The top 3 responses were image quality, quality control, and technologist education or competency. Surveying patient satisfaction was the most common quality measure (80.9%), followed by evaluation of image quality (78.2%). Evaluation of image quality (90.3%) and equipment functionality (89.4%) were considered the most effective measures. Technologists' differentiation between quality, quality improvement, quality control, quality assurance, and quality assessment seemed ambiguous. Respondents were confident in their ability to assess and improve quality at their workplace (91.9%) and agreed their colleagues were committed to delivering quality work. Of note, 70.7% of respondents believed that quality is directly related to the technologist's level of education. Correspondingly, respondents felt there should be a minimum level of education (99.5%) and that certification or registry should be required (74.4%). Most respondents (59.6%) felt that a Bachelor's degree should be the minimum level of education, followed by an Associate's degree (40.4%). Conclusion: To best help nuclear medicine technologists provide quality care, the SNMMI-TS queried technologists to

  13. Current status and future prospects of nuclear industry in Europe and in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Because we are now in Europe and the world at a defining moment in the history of nuclear energy, facing great opportunities, when everybody is striving to access a safe, reliable and sustainable energy supply, in order to meet the rising global demand. We are currently living through a real nuclear renaissance, driven by the increase of the price of oil and gas, the effect on the environment of CO 2 emissions, and the need of people to have access to energy in order to attain a better standard of living. Nuclear energy is thus considered as one intangible component of any energy mix seeking sustainable development. It is thus a very appropriate time to take stock and evaluate the current situation in France and Europe, and look at the challenges nuclear energy will have to face in the near future. After addressing these issues, if you allow me, I would like in my conclusion to indulge in a brief overview of the world situation and global challenges

  14. Current status and future direction of INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Akira; Moriwaki, Masanao; Sugimoto, Jun; Nakai, Ryodai

    2007-01-01

    INPRO is an international forum to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles so as to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to a sustainable development of the human, and IAEA becomes the secretariat for INPRO. The number of the members counts 28 by recent participation of Japan and U.S.A. now, and it is a unique forum to bring together both technology users and technology holders, that includes 5 countries which do not still have nuclear power generation. Until now it was phase I, and focused its activities to make clear the desired characteristics of nuclear energy system toward the future, and to develop methodology to evaluate various nuclear energy systems, but it shifted to phase II from July, 2006, and it planned three areas of activities such as improvement of evaluation methodology, institutional/infrastructure oriented activities and a collaborative project of technology development. Current status and future direction of INPRO was presented to encourage Japan in significant contributions of these three areas. (T. Tanaka)

  15. The current state of affairs for disaster planning for a nuclear terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The author presents current thinking on the effects of an atomic bomb blast from a medical point of view and will argue that current US Federal plans for a nuclear disaster are simply crude, insufficient, disarticulated, and principally relies on martial law as a means of crowd control. The simple physics of a fusion reaction bomb is discussed along with the plans of other countries, apparently "secret"American plans, which show a poor knowledge of the physics of nuclear bombs as well as poor insight into what will be needed to help the maximum number of citizens. An alternative plan involving computer modeling and educating the public to the effects of a fission explosion are presented. The key issue of statewide planning is discussed, as the Federal government has dumped medical problems on "the local level."

  16. The Nuclear Power Landscape in the Post-Fukushima Era: Thoughts on the Current and Future Effects on Nuclear New-Build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyobeka, B.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear landscape looked very promising before the Fukushima Daiichi accident. In the past five years before the accident, so-called Nuclear Rennainsance looked to be in full swing, with many countries beginning to factor nuclear energy as part of their electricity generation mix. At some point, 43 IAEA Members States confirmed their interest in launching new nuclear power programmes. Whilst only two of these nuclear new-comers have already chosen the reactor designs they would deploy in their new build, it is commonly accepted that the so-called Generation III and Generation III+ would mostly be the designs of the choice for new nuclear build. This presentation seeks to examine the current status of plans for nuclear build after Fukushima, looking into technology and safety issues that would influence the final policy decisions in new nuclear build programmes.(author).

  17. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  18. Compulsory Checking of Nuclear Power Engineering Materials by Direct and Eddy Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, V. V.; Lider, A. M.; Sednev, D. A.; Xu, Shupeng

    2016-08-01

    The testing technology of copper parts designed for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel with application of direct and eddy current has been developed. Measurements results of flaw quantity caused hydrogenation and oxidation processes are presented. Evolution of copper M 001 flaw structure during hydrogenation from gaseous medium is analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the dependence of copper p electrical resistance on number of flaws in its structure has dome shaped character and changes with eddy current frequency change. Number of flaws formed by hydrogen depends on direction (100) or (200) of the crystal structure of copper lattice.

  19. Eddy-current tests on operational evaluation of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a worldwide research on the technical and economical impacts due to failure in tube bundles of nuclear power plant steam generators. An Eddy current non destructive test using Foucault currents for the inspection and failure detection on the tubes, and also the main type of defects. The paper also presents the signals generated by a Zetec MIZ-40 test equipment. This paper also presents a brief description of an automatic system for data analysis which is under development by using a fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence

  20. Current status and future prospects of nuclear energy utilization in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power is recognized as a safe, reliable and competitive energy source in Japan as Japan's 55 nuclear power plants supply about a third of the country's electricity and contribute to the rise in her degree of self-sufficiency in primary energy supply from 4% to 17%. It is also a practical and effective mean to observe the promise of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce CO2 emissions into atmosphere. The development of nuclear science and engineering, on the other hand, contributes not only to the advancement of science and technology in various fields but also to the improvement of health and living standards of the people as well as to the industrial prosperity through the application of radiation to medical diagnosis, cancer treatment, insect pest control, production of semi-conductors, radial tiers, etc. Major goal of current nuclear energy policy in Japan is to enrich the basic measures that compose the basis for the utilization of nuclear energy technologies in civil society and encourage academia and industries to innovate themselves to grapple the challenge, while sustaining the share of nuclear power in electricity generation after the year 2030 at the level equal to or greater than the current level of 30-40% based on the strategy to recycle uranium and plutonium from nuclear spent fuels, in addition to the expansion of the use of radiation technologies. Major policy areas are the improvement of institutional and financial arrangements to promote safe and effective utilization of nuclear energy technology including radiation technologies, the promotion of effective and efficient research and development activities, and the promotion of bilateral and multilateral cooperative activities necessary and or useful for facilitating these activities, in addition to nurturing the international political and institutional environment suitable for the sound promotion of nuclear energy utilization in the world. To pursue these goals, Japanese government and industries

  1. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 6, March 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) International Conference on Illicit Nuclear Trafficking which took place in November 2007 in Edinburgh. The principal aim of the conference was to examine the threat and context of illicit nuclear trafficking of radioactive material, specifically, what is being done to combat such trafficking and where more needs to be done. The conference was also to consider how the obligations and commitments of the legally binding and non-binding international instruments could be and are being implemented by various States. 2) INSAG Message on Nuclear Safety Infrastructure in which the INSAG Chairman Richard Meserve addressed nuclear safety in the current context and various issues that warrant special attention. 3) approved for publication the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. 4) The Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN)

  2. Chromium does not belong in the diabetes treatment arsenal : Current evidence and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Gijs Wd; Bilo, Henk Jg; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; Kleefstra, Nanne

    2014-01-01

    Chromium is considered to have positive effects on insulin sensitivity and is marketed as an adjunctive therapy for inducing glucose tolerance in cases of insulin resistance ("the glucose tolerance factor"). Case reports on patients who received prolonged parenteral nutrition indeed showed that the

  3. Current Status and Future Outlook of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuro; Yoshii, Ryosuke

    2007-07-01

    For Japan, a country poor in natural resources, in light of the tough energy situation in recent times, a National Energy Strategy with energy security at its core was established in May 2006. The key point of the Strategy is nuclear power generation, and the aim is to ensure that nuclear power generation continues to account for 30 to 40 percent or more of total electricity generated even after 2030. The first step to achieving this goal is to make maximum use of existing plants (55 plants, 49580MWe), and the aim is to achieve a 60-year service life by making improvements to plant operation and maintenance, such as extending current monitoring and maintenance of plant condition, and the implementation of plant aging management. In Japan, plant construction has been continuous since the 1970s. The current new plant construction plan (13 plants, 17230MWe) is to be achieved with a concerted, cohesive national effort. In addition, in order to complete the nuclear fuel cycle, a reprocessing plant is being constructed strictly for peaceful use, and construction of a site for disposing of high-level radioactive waste is also proceeding. Development of the next generation light water reactors and fast breeder reactor cycle is also underway. (auth)

  4. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 11, June 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2008; Feedback from IRS Topical Studies and Events Applied to Safety Standards; Education and Training Programmes at the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security; Peer Review of Operational Safety Performance (PROSPER)

  5. Current situation of management of radioactive wastes in the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, Priscila M.; Silva, Joao C.P.; Echternacht, Marcus V.

    2000-01-01

    As its own legal responsibility, Nuclear Engineering Institute - IEN has received radioactive wastes generated in Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo states. But, from July 1997 to June 1999, IEN was not able to receive wastes because of the lack of space in the temporary repository. Recent studies show that increasing the treatment facilities could contribute to optimize the disposal of wastes. According to National Commission of Nuclear Energy resolutions, IEN was several times requested for discarding of lightning rods containing Am-241 and Ra-226. This fact motivated IEN to look for options to make possible the receiving of wastes until a new deposit were built. A temporary place was prepared and since last July it has been receiving wastes again. In this paper it is described the current structure of radioactive waste management at IEN, objectives and goals to be reached until December 2000. (author)

  6. Exothermic reaction induced by high-density current in metals: Possible nuclear origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, J. [Laboratoire des sciences nucleaires, CNAM 2, rue Conte 75141, Cedex 03 Paris (France)]. E-mail: dufourj@cnam.fr; Murat, D.; Dufour, X.; Foos, J. [Laboratoire des sciences nucleaires, CNAM 2, rue Conte 75141, Cedex 03 Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    Since 1989, many experimenters worked on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR). They face both an experimental and a theoretical dilemma: how to design simple and convincing experiments in a complex system and if the phenomenon has a nuclear origin, why do they observe no radiation. A rather simple water mass flow calorimeter was designed to study this phenomenon under different experimental conditions. First results indicate that a high-density current induced an exothermic reaction in a hydrogen processed palladium wire. A working hypothesis is presented to solve the theoretical dilemma. This working hypothesis is based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance. We underline that a working hypothesis is not a theory presented to explain the phenomenon; this is just a conceptual scheme to drive the authors to build experiments. (author)

  7. Exothermic reaction induced by high-density current in metals: Possible nuclear origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.; Murat, D.; Dufour, X.; Foos, J.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1989, many experimenters worked on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR). They face both an experimental and a theoretical dilemma: how to design simple and convincing experiments in a complex system and if the phenomenon has a nuclear origin, why do they observe no radiation. A rather simple water mass flow calorimeter was designed to study this phenomenon under different experimental conditions. First results indicate that a high-density current induced an exothermic reaction in a hydrogen processed palladium wire. A working hypothesis is presented to solve the theoretical dilemma. This working hypothesis is based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance. We underline that a working hypothesis is not a theory presented to explain the phenomenon; this is just a conceptual scheme to drive the authors to build experiments. (author)

  8. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 14, March 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Highlights of the 2nd International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems, Cape Town, 14 December 2009. Denial of Shipment of Radioactive Material. Emergency Preparedness Review (EPREV)

  9. The current uranium exploration activities of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyada, H.

    2001-01-01

    As of November 1996, Japan's total installed commercial nuclear power generation capacity was 42 GW(e), accounting for 34% of total electric energy generation. By 2010, Japan intends to have an installed electricity generation capacity of 70.5 GW(e). This will increase the country's demand for nat Ural uranium from 7,700 t U in 1994 (13% of the world consumption) to 13,800 t U in 2010 (17%-19% of the world projected consumption). However, Japan's known uranium resources at Ningyo-Toge and Tono deposits, are estimated at roughly only 6,600 t U. The Long-term Programme for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy (adopted in 1994) calls for diversification through long-term purchasing contracts, independent exploration and involvement in mining vent Ures, with the objective of ensuring independence and stability in Japan's development and utilization of nuclear energy. The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has been commissioned to carry out the task of independent exploration. PNC is carrying out exploration projects in Canada, Australia, USA and China targeting unconformity related type deposits with an eye to privatizing them. Currently about 40,000 t U of uranium resources are held by PNC. PNC has been carrying out the following related activities: (1) Reference surveys on uranium resources to delineate the promising areas; (2) Development of uranium exploration technology; (3) Information surveys on the nuclear industries to project long-term supply and demand; (4) International Cooperation programme on uranium exploration with Asian countries. (author)

  10. Can we do without nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The author first recalls the background of nuclear deterrence and the history of the French nuclear arsenal within the Cold War context. He comments the evolution of this arsenal after the US initiatives during the 1980's, and then analyses the situation at the beginning of the 21. century: end of the East-West confrontation, increase of NATO's interventions abroad, war against terrorism by the USA. But the Iranian and North-Korean nuclear programs gave a new momentum to the nuclear. The author discusses the various concepts and approaches of nuclear doctrines and deterrence, and wanders whether France still needs a doctrine relying on nuclear weapons as nuclear weapons are actually present, as the French deterrence doctrine is put in question again, and as some countries seem to be an actual nuclear threat (North Korea, Iran)

  11. International Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Safety Regulation: Current Status and Way Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. W.; Byeon, M. J.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Global effort and initiatives undertaken after the Fukushima Daiichi accident was the adoption of the Vienna Declaration on Nuclear Safety in February 2015. The Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) collaboratively prepared the documentation of the Declaration and unanimously adopted it with the idea to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and to mitigate such consequences should they occur. The OECD/NEA has been working closely with its member and partner countries to identify lessons learnt and follow-up actions at the national and international levels so as to maintain and enhance the level of safety at nuclear facilities following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. In 2013, the NEA published a report entitled The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt detailing the key immediate responses of the NEA and its member countries. Subsequent to the publish of the report and based on the lessons presented, NEA published a new report entitled Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: Nuclear Safety Improvements and Lessons Learnt, focusing on what has been done by the Agency and its member countries to improve safety since the accident in 2011. cooperation based on the needs of technical area would further enhance effectiveness of cooperative activities and would enable to foresee future regulatory needs which can be considered when establishing a strategy. Since the establishment of NSSC in 2011, NSSC has played a major role in concluding agreements with regulatory bodies of other countries. Despite of the change, KINS, yet, is able to pursue technical-specified cooperation as a TSO under the umbrella of agreements between governments or regulatory bodies. establishment of expert pool and systematic mid- and long-term capacity building framework of relevant experts would enhance continuity and expertise. Currently, most of the participants or

  12. The future of the NPT and measures to reduce nuclear dangers in the age of Trump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Daryl G.

    2017-11-01

    Through the decades, the international nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation enterprise, though imperfect, has curbed nuclear proliferation and limited the number of nuclear-armed states to nine, forced reductions in major-power nuclear arsenals, ended nuclear testing by all but one state, and created an informal taboo against nuclear weapons use.

  13. Report on the second Congress of the Russian nuclear medicine society and on International conference Current problems of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Chernov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the work of Second Congress of Russian Nuclear Medicine Society and International Conference - Current problems of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceuticals, - held in Obninsk in October, 2000, is adduced. Reports presented in the conference are dedicated to various aspects of application of radionuclide methods to cardiology, angiology, oncology, surgery, hematology, endocrinology, pediatrics and neurology. Problems in the development of radiopharmaceutical, training and skill advancement of experts, dosimetry and radiation safety in nuclear medicine were discussed. Congress considered the organizational problems in Russian nuclear medicine [ru

  14. Current status of LTO licensing programme for Bohunice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, J.; Kupca, L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of long term operation (LTO) licensing programme for Bohunice nuclear power plant is to demonstrate that the relevant structures and components shall perform their functions throughout the entire LTO period during which they shall meet all the relevant safety requirements. All the activities-which should result in utility's request to obtain the licence for LTO-must be performed in line with the relevant legal basis. As of May 2012, the anticipated duration of currently running programme is thirteen months. All relevant documentation, required by the established legal basis, shall be submitted to the licensing authority one year before the Unit 3 design life expiry. (author)

  15. Current nuclear industry practices with regard to the integration of surveillances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.; Smith, C.

    1992-04-01

    Commercial nuclear industry practices regarding the integration of technical specification (TS) surveillance and maintenance activities are identified in this report. A questionnaire was developed and used to obtain current industry practices from NRC Regional personnel and INEL engineers with utility experience. Some of these practices indicate that the scheduling of TS surveillance and maintenance items could be more effectively coordinated. Also, must utilities do not formally consider risk implications when they are scheduling maintenance. Methodologies and approaches for proposing and evaluating changes to improve the integration of TS surveillance and maintenance activities have been identified for planned future work

  16. Assessment of Mechanisms Impacting N-Nitrosodimethylamine Fate Within the North Boundary Containment System, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunnison, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was for many years a site of military chemical weapons manufacturing activities, including manufacture and assembly of weapons containing intermediate and toxic chemical end-products, incendiary...

  17. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 279 IMCOM-Southeast Region: Redstone Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Goddard, James K.

    2010-09-30

    Report describing a building retuning workshop presented to staff at Redstone Arsenal. Document includes issues identified during building audits and recommendations for future activities to reduce energy use at the site.

  18. Nuclear accidents and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocanin, R.; Amidzic, B.

    2005-01-01

    The numerous threats are our cruel reality. There is a great arsenal of nuclear weapons. Nuclear terrorism and nuclear accidents are always possible, especially during the transport and handling different nuclear material. Terrorist organisation also goes for coming into the possession of the nuclear means. Specific and important problem is human radioactive contamination in using nuclear energy for peaceful and military purpose. So, realisation of the universal and united system of NBCD gives us a possibility by using the modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units to react in a real time and successfully perform monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination. (author) [sr

  19. Current status of nuclear cardiology practice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Diana; Peix, Amalia; Orellana, Pilar; Vitola, Joao; Mut, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Plaza, Crosby; Becic, Tarik; Dondi, Maurizio; Estrada, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the world is ever growing. They represent the first cause of death worldwide and in Latin America. Nuclear cardiology has a well-established role in the management of patient with CVDs and is being increasingly integrated into the healthcare systems in the region. However, there remains variability as to the infrastructure available across the countries, in terms of existing technology, radiopharmaceuticals, and human resources. The approximate number of gamma (γ) cameras in the region is 1348, with an average of 2.25 per million population; Argentina and Brazil having the largest number. Nearly 80% of the existing cameras are single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), of which 8% are hybrid SPECT-CT systems. Positron emission tomography technology is steadily increasing, and currently, there is an average of 0.25 scanners per million inhabitants, indicating that there is a potential to expand the capacities in order to cover the needs. Four countries have nuclear reactors for research purposes, which allow the production of technetium-99 m (Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Peru), while four (Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, and Mexico) assemble 99 Mo- 99m Tc generators. As for the nuclear cardiology studies, about 80% of studies performed are gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging; less than 10% are multi-gated acquisition (mainly for evaluation of cardiac toxicity in cancer patients), and the other 10% correspond to other types of studies, such as viability detection, and adrenergic innervation studies with 123 I-MIBG. Physical stress is preferred, when possible, based on the clinical condition of the patient. Regarding human resources, there is an average of 1.1 physicians and 1.3 technologists per γ camera, with 0.1 medical physicists and 0.1 radiopharmacists per center in the region. The future of nuclear cardiology in Latin America and the Caribbean is encouraging, with great potential and possibilities for growth

  20. Qualification Practices in Nuclear Industry: Steam Generator Eddy Current Probe Qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrous, M.; Gracin, R.

    2010-01-01

    Through history of nuclear power plant operation, a large number of nuclear power plant forced outages related to tube failures occurred. It resulted with large amount of repair and outage costs, what initiated implementation of regulated practice of periodical tube examination and tube condition monitoring. Purpose of examinations is to detect existing or potential tube degradations that could affect tube integrity and therefore result in forced outages and unwanted costs related to emergency repair activities and loss of ability for electrical power production. With increased examination activities, additional information about steam generator tube condition became available and additional methods for ensuring tube integrity became available. As the number of examination solutions increased, need for validation and assessment of examination methods occurred. For that purpose, a large number of standards and guidelines with its requirements were implemented in nuclear industry regulatory requirements to ensure that adequately validated examinations are applied. With this purpose, qualification requirements for inspection activities were implemented with other requirements. With progress of technology, progress was also achieved in examination methods and more advanced examination methods and advanced inspection systems were developed. This advancement is accompanied by advancement in regulatory requirements regarding inspection and monitoring of tube integrity and condition. Ultimate goal of implementation of qualification processes and its requirements in all aspects of nuclear industry is to achieve minimal rate of forced outages, which would ensure maximum electrical power production capabilities and maximum optimization of operational costs while maintaining safe operation in accordance with environmental policies. This article will focus on qualification of steam generator eddy current bobbin probe.(author).

  1. Plans of reorganization of USA nuclear military complex and provision of military program by special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenovskaya, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    Consideration is given to plans and implementation of the program of reorganization of USA nuclear military complex, related with conducted reduction of nuclear arsenal after concluding the Strategic Nuclear Armament Reduction Treaty. Particular attention is paid to problems of satisfying short-term and long-term requirements in special nuclear materials and in tritium in particular

  2. Network communication for remote technology and NDT controls on current nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitaine, A.

    2001-01-01

    Among the most important targets for ''UTILITIES'' are to increase nuclear power plant availability and reduce the workers dosimetry. A possible way to reach these targets is to reduce the duration of the refueling period and to limit the number of operators in the work areas It is necessary to use remote technology and to provide much equipment to support the main activities during refueling. Remote technology is a possible solution to remove operators from the maintenance area. The main activities concerned are the NDT inspection on the primary components and fuel handling system. Recent progress on remote technology made by the electronic industry and network communication has increased their capacities. It is easier now to use them, and more and more people are familiar with these technologies. Internet, manufacturing, supervision, and surgery use these technologies. Now it seems appropriate to examine these technologies for current maintenance in nuclear plants. Remote technologies and communication network can help to solve current difficulties in the maintenance field and dosimetry limits. For a long time, many people thought that the cost and the difficulty of applying new technologies would be not extremely expensive, but this is no longer the case. Now with the first feed back we can show that these technologies are a good answer for increased availability and reduction of dosimetry. (author)

  3. Network communication for remote technology and NDT controls on current nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, A. [Electricite de France, 92 - Clamart (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires

    2001-07-01

    Among the most important targets for ''UTILITIES'' are to increase nuclear power plant availability and reduce the workers dosimetry. A possible way to reach these targets is to reduce the duration of the refueling period and to limit the number of operators in the work areas It is necessary to use remote technology and to provide much equipment to support the main activities during refueling. Remote technology is a possible solution to remove operators from the maintenance area. The main activities concerned are the NDT inspection on the primary components and fuel handling system. Recent progress on remote technology made by the electronic industry and network communication has increased their capacities. It is easier now to use them, and more and more people are familiar with these technologies. Internet, manufacturing, supervision, and surgery use these technologies. Now it seems appropriate to examine these technologies for current maintenance in nuclear plants. Remote technologies and communication network can help to solve current difficulties in the maintenance field and dosimetry limits. For a long time, many people thought that the cost and the difficulty of applying new technologies would be not extremely expensive, but this is no longer the case. Now with the first feed back we can show that these technologies are a good answer for increased availability and reduction of dosimetry. (author)

  4. Which logic for further nuclear disarmament?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the author is to draw a picture of the current situation of nuclear disarmament in the world. Budgetary necessities and deficit reduction could become an opportunity window for nuclear disarmament over the next years. The continued stalemate at the Conference of Disarmament (CD) illustrates that good will is not enough. Public awareness of nuclear issues in countries like India, Pakistan, Israel or China has always been very low. When it comes to States policies, if one considers that the nuclear world consists of 8/9 States (5 official Nuclear-weapon states (NWS) and 3/4 de facto NWS), 50% or more than 50% of them, depending on the place of North-Korea in the field, have been maintaining or increasing their arsenal and do not show any real sign to reverse the trend. As far as open literature is concerned, it can be argued that Iran is approaching the nuclear threshold. It appears that nuclear disarmament can only be the result of a peace process or at least of eased tensions, even if that condition is necessary but not sufficient. To go forward on the path of nuclear disarmament 3 conditions have to be fulfilled: progress in the process of democratization of states (for instance North-Korea), progress in the resolution of major regional conflicts (for instance India-Pakistan conflict), and never forget other weapons. (A.C.)

  5. Eddy current detection of spacers in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.W.; Schankula, J.; Sullivan, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Garter Spring (GS) spacers in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors maintain separation between the hot pressure tube and surrounding moderator cooled calandria tube. Eddy current detection of the four GSs provides assurance that spacers are at or close to design positions and are performing their intended function of maintaining a non-zero gap between pressure tube and calandria tube. Pressure tube constrictions, resulting from relatively less diametral creep at end-of-fuel bundle locations, also produce large eddy current signals. Large constrictions, present in higher service pressure tubes, can produce signals that are 10 times larger than GS signals, reducing GS detectability to 30% in standard GS-detect probes. The introduction of field-focussing elements into the design of the standard GS detection eddy current probe has been used to recover the detectability of GS spacers by increasing the signal amplitude obtained from GSs relative to that from constrictions by a factor of 10. The work presented here compares laboratory, modelling and in-reactor measurements of GS and constriction signals obtained from the standard probe with that obtained from field-focussed eddy current probe designs. (author)

  6. Nuclear chiral axial currents and applications to few-nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, Alessandro [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This Thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part discusses basic aspects of chiral effective field theory and the formalism, based on time ordered perturbation theory, used to to derive the nuclear potentials and currents from the chiral Lagrangians. The second part deals with the actual derivation, up to one loop, of the two-nucleon potential and one- and two-nucleon weak axial charge and current. In both derivations ultraviolet divergences generated by loop corrections are isolated using dimensional regularization. The resulting axial current is finite and conserved in the chiral limit, while the axial charge requires renormalization. A complete set of contact terms for the axial charge up to the relevant order in the power counting is constructed. The third part of this Thesis discusses two applications: (i) the calculation of the Gamow-Teller matrix element of tritium, used to constrain the single low-energy constant entering the axial current; (ii) the calculation of neutrino-deuteron inclusive cross sections at low energies. These results have confirmed previous predictions obtained in phenomenological approaches. These latter studies have played an important role in the analysis and interpretation of experiments at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  7. Assessing thermochromatography as a separation method for nuclear forensics. Current capability vis-a-vis forensic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.E.; Garrison, J.R.; Hall, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security. However, many current laboratory analysis techniques are based on methods developed without the imperative for timely analysis that underlies the post-detonation forensics mission requirements. Current analysis of actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials requires time-consuming chemical separation coupled with nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. High-temperature gas-phase separations have been used in the past for the rapid separation of newly created elements/isotopes and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. We are assessing the utility of this method for rapid separation in the gas-phase to accelerate the separations of radioisotopes germane to post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations. The existing state of the art for thermo chromatographic separations, and its applicability to nuclear forensics, will be reviewed. (author)

  8. Nuclear reactors and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almagro, J.C.; Estrada Oyuela, M.E.; Garcia Moritan, R.

    1987-01-01

    From a brief analysis of the perspectives of nuclear weapons arsenals reduction, a rational use of the energetic potential of the ogives and the authentic destruction of its warlike power is proposed. The fissionable material conversion contained in the nuclear fuel ogives for peaceful uses should be part of the disarmament agreements. This paper pretends to give an approximate idea on the resources re assignation implicancies. (Author)

  9. The Uranium Recovery Industry and the Current Nuclear Renaissance — A Health Physicists Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.H., E-mail: sbrown@senes.ca [SENES, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Concurrent with the recognition that nuclear generated electricity must play an increasing role in worldwide energy supply and in consideration of the new nuclear power plants ordered or planned, the demand for uranium needed to fuel these reactors has already outpaced supplies. Accordingly, the price of uranium (typically expressed as US$ per pound U{sub 3}O{sub 8} equivalent) had increased significantly in recent years. As a result, numerous new and reconstituted uranium recovery projects are being developed in the United States and in other countries that possess considerable uranium ore reserves (e.g., Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Namibia, and others). It should be noted that in the United States, the current reactor fleet of 104 operating units, which generate 20 percent of the US’s base-load electricity, requires approximately 55 million pounds of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year, but only about 4–5 million pounds per year is produced domestically. That is, over 90 percent of current demand, ignoring anticipated increase in requirements in the near future as new plants come online, must come from foreign sources. Domestic uranium production over the last 10 years reached a low of about two million pounds in 2003 and has been increasing steadily since then. Uranium recovery as defined in this paper encompasses conventional uranium mining and milling as well as in situ recovery techniques and the recovery of uranium as a byproduct from other processes, such as phosphoric acid production. Following a brief history of uranium recovery in the US, the paper describes the basic methods and technologies associated with conventional uranium mining, conventional uranium milling and In Situ Recovery (ISR). The “health physicists perspective” is introduced into these discussions by providing summaries of the various radiological environmental monitoring and operational health physics programs that are required for these facilities. Applicable regulatory

  10. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  11. Government perspective on current and likely future developments affecting the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.

    2000-01-01

    In October 1998 the Government published its Energy Sources White Paper, making it clear that what it wanted was an energy policy developed in a competitive market framework. The Government considers a competitive market is absolutely essential for both industrial and domestic energy users but the challenge for energy in the twenty-first century, not only in the UK but increasingly the world over, is how to deliver a competitive market and at the same time fulfil broader expectations for energy, particularly social, environmental, security and diversity objectives. Quite clearly, the nuclear industry needs to fit into this policy and the Government recognizes that it is a key player in achieving these goals. But it must be the industry itself, not the Government, that is the driver for change. The DTI believes that if the current and future economic opportunities in the nuclear industry are to be realized then there are challenges to be met in three areas: cost; waste management; and safety, environment and public confidence. This paper discusses the ways in which the industry can, with the Government's help, successfully meet these challenges. (author)

  12. Current status of ACE format libraries for MCNP at nuclear date center of KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Gil, Choong Sup; Lee, Young Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The current status of ACE format MCNP/MCNPX libraries by NDC of KAERI is presented with a short description of each library. Validation calculations with recent nuclear data evaluations ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and JENDL-4.0 have been carried out by the MCNP5 code for 119 criticality benchmark problems taken from the expanded criticality validation suite supplied by LANL. The overall performances of the ACE format KN-libraries have been analyzed in comparison with the results calculated with the ENDF/B-VII.0-based ENDF70 library of LANL. It was confirmed that the ENDF/B-VII.1-based KNE71 library showed better performances than the others by comparing the RMS errors and χ2 values for five benchmark categories as well as whole benchmark problems. ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 have a tendency to yield more reliable MCNP calculation results within certain confidence intervals regarding the total uncertainties for the keff values. It is found that the adoption of the latest evaluated nuclear data might ensure better outcomes in various research and development areas.

  13. Spallation neutron production and the current intra-nuclear cascade and transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Goldenbaum, F.

    2001-01-01

    A recent renascent interest in energetic proton-induced production of neutrons originates largely from the inception of projects for target stations of intense spallation neutron sources, like the planned European Spallation Source (ESS), accelerator-driven nuclear reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, and also from the application for radioactive beams. In the framework of such a neutron production, of major importance is the search for ways for the most efficient conversion of the primary beam energy into neutron production. Although the issue has been quite successfully addressed experimentally by varying the incident proton energy for various target materials and by covering a huge collection of different target geometries --providing an exhaustive matrix of benchmark data-- the ultimate challenge is to increase the predictive power of transport codes currently on the market. To scrutinize these codes, calculations of reaction cross-sections, hadronic interaction lengths, average neutron multiplicities, neutron multiplicity and energy distributions, and the development of hadronic showers are confronted with recent experimental data of the NESSI collaboration. Program packages like HERMES, LCS or MCNPX master the prevision of reaction cross-sections, hadronic interaction lengths, averaged neutron multiplicities and neutron multiplicity distributions in thick and thin targets for a wide spectrum of incident proton energies, geometrical shapes and materials of the target generally within less than 10% deviation, while production cross-section measurements for light charged particles on thin targets point out that appreciable distinctions exist within these models. (orig.)

  14. Defects and their inspectability by UT in current heavy section steels for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, S.; Ohkubo, Y.; Takeya, M.; Wataya, M.

    1983-01-01

    The ultrasonic examination (UT, hereinafter) techniques and their equipment have been improved in search of the defects in steels and structures for nuclear power plant components, while the acceptance standards of the defects became continually more stringent in a ''sword and armour'' race. Consequently, the steel making technique had to respond in minimizing the possible defects in steels with successful results in the past two decades. The conventional UT procedures cover basically the following categories of function. 1) Detection and location of defects. 2) Sizing of defects. 3) Characterization of defects. 4) Structure and residual stress effects in ultrasonic field. With proper considerations to the configuration of the steels under examination, the inspectability of the possible defects is further to be optimized. However, the final evaluation has often to be left to the discretion of a competent NDE engineer, well experienced in UT and knowledgeable in steel making. It is therefore the intention of the present paper to review the states-of-the-art of the defects found in the current heavy section steels for primary and secondary components of nuclear power plant, manufactured by the authors' plant. Typical defects, detectable size of them and inspectability of them are discussed

  15. Current status of nuclear power plant I and C systems (2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Young; Park, J.H.; Lee, J.S. and others

    2000-12-01

    Analog type I and C Systems of Nuclear Power Plants are being replaced by digital type systems because of the aging problems of the I and C systems. New NPPs have adopted computer-based digital I and C systems because the economical efficiency and the usability of the systems become higher than the analog I and C systems. However, the digital I and C systems have not been applied to NPPs because the reliability of computer systems and software has not been validated. The research works for reliability of the systems have been performed in many institutions. In this study, we reviewed the current status of I and C systems for advanced NPPs that have developed in Korea as well as in other countries until this year. We hope to use the result of this study to plan for a localization of NPP I and C systems. In this study, the I and C systems of advanced reactors such as AP600 and NUPLEX 80+ of U.S.A, CANDU 9 of Canada, APWRs and ABWRs of Japan, N4 of France, and KNGR, KALIMER, and SMART of Korea were reviewed. We reviewed the nuclear policy of U.S.A and Europe, and the NPP digital I and C systems developed in many international research institutes. Using this result, we extracted items to be researched and classified those by types of reactors. Then, we established the localization method of NPP digital I and C systems.

  16. Current status of nuclear power plant I and C systems (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Young; Park, J. H.; Lee, J. S. and others

    2000-12-01

    Analog type I and C Systems of Nuclear Power Plants are being replaced by digital type systems because of the aging problems of the I and C systems. New NPPs have adopted computer-based digital I and C systems because the economical efficiency and the usability of the systems become higher than the analog I and C systems. However, the digital I and C systems have not been applied to NPPs because the reliability of computer systems and software has not been validated. The research works for reliability of the systems have been performed in many institutions. In this study, we reviewed the current status of I and C systems for advanced NPPs that have developed in Korea as well as in other countries until this year. We hope to use the result of this study to plan for a localization of NPP I and C systems. In this study, the I and C systems of advanced reactors such as AP600 and NUPLEX 80+ of U.S.A, CANDU 9 of Canada, APWRs and ABWRs of Japan, N4 of France, and KNGR, KALIMER, and SMART of Korea were reviewed. We reviewed the nuclear policy of U.S.A and Europe, and the NPP digital I and C systems developed in many international research institutes. Using this result, we extracted items to be researched and classified those by types of reactors. Then, we established the localization method of NPP digital I and C systems

  17. Spallation neutron production and the current intra-nuclear cascade and transport codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Enke, M.; Galin, J.; Herbach, C.-M.; Hilscher, D.; Jahnke, U.; Letourneau, A.; Lott, B.; Neef, R.-D.; Nünighoff, K.; Paul, N.; Péghaire, A.; Pienkowski, L.; Schaal, H.; Schröder, U.; Sterzenbach, G.; Tietze, A.; Tishchenko, V.; Toke, J.; Wohlmuther, M.

    A recent renascent interest in energetic proton-induced production of neutrons originates largely from the inception of projects for target stations of intense spallation neutron sources, like the planned European Spallation Source (ESS), accelerator-driven nuclear reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, and also from the application for radioactive beams. In the framework of such a neutron production, of major importance is the search for ways for the most efficient conversion of the primary beam energy into neutron production. Although the issue has been quite successfully addressed experimentally by varying the incident proton energy for various target materials and by covering a huge collection of different target geometries --providing an exhaustive matrix of benchmark data-- the ultimate challenge is to increase the predictive power of transport codes currently on the market. To scrutinize these codes, calculations of reaction cross-sections, hadronic interaction lengths, average neutron multiplicities, neutron multiplicity and energy distributions, and the development of hadronic showers are confronted with recent experimental data of the NESSI collaboration. Program packages like HERMES, LCS or MCNPX master the prevision of reaction cross-sections, hadronic interaction lengths, averaged neutron multiplicities and neutron multiplicity distributions in thick and thin targets for a wide spectrum of incident proton energies, geometrical shapes and materials of the target generally within less than 10% deviation, while production cross-section measurements for light charged particles on thin targets point out that appreciable distinctions exist within these models.

  18. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.; Kasturi, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant's electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant's protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well

  19. Direct Measurement of Nuclear Dependence of Charged Current Quasielasticlike Neutrino Interactions Using MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, M.; Ghosh, A.; Walton, T.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Cai, T.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Valencia, E.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Minerva Collaboration

    2017-08-01

    Charged-current νμ interactions on carbon, iron, and lead with a final state hadronic system of one or more protons with zero mesons are used to investigate the influence of the nuclear environment on quasielasticlike interactions. The transferred four-momentum squared to the target nucleus, Q2, is reconstructed based on the kinematics of the leading proton, and differential cross sections versus Q2 and the cross-section ratios of iron, lead, and carbon to scintillator are measured for the first time in a single experiment. The measurements show a dependence on the atomic number. While the quasielasticlike scattering on carbon is compatible with predictions, the trends exhibited by scattering on iron and lead favor a prediction with intranuclear rescattering of hadrons accounted for by a conventional particle cascade treatment. These measurements help discriminate between different models of both initial state nucleons and final state interactions used in the neutrino oscillation experiments.

  20. Current status and future planning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station after Great East Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouer, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) clean-up and decommissioning activities require a lot of R and D and careful project management due to its severity of damage. Inability of access inside the reactor and turbine buildings due to harsh environment results in large uncertainties which make the project planning difficult R and R activities will be conducted in parallel with on-site clean-up and maintenance activities. In order to cope with this unprecedented challenge, the government, laboratories, academicians, vendors, manufacturers, and other partners have joined together to support tokyo electric Power Company, Inc (TEPCO). This paper will summarize the current status and mid-and long-term plan for the clean-up and decommissioning of Units 1 to 4 of Fukushima Daiichi NPS as of March, 2012. (Author) 15 refs.

  1. Eddy current monitoring of spacers in coolant channel assemblies of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhole, V.M.; Rastogi, P.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1993-01-01

    An eddy current testing method has been standardised for monitoring spacer springs which are used in coolant channel assemblies of pressurised heavy water nuclear reactors (PHWRs). The standard bobbin coil probe used for monitoring the spacer spring detects only the location but does not monitor the tilt orientation and tilt angle of a tilted spacer spring. The knowledge of location along with the tilt orientation of the spacer spring greatly improves the performance of repositioning methods. A modified probe with angular windings has been developed in laboratory tests for monitoring the location as well as the tilt orientation of the spacer springs. Experimental results are presented showing excellent performance of the modified probe in monitoring the exact location as well as tilt orientation of a spacer spring. The modified probe has also been used successfully in the field during repositioning of spacer springs in PHWRs before commissioning. (Author)

  2. Eddy currents signal processing for steam generator inspection in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1992-01-01

    Steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants are periodically checked by means of eddy current probes. The output of a probe is composed of three types of signals: known events (rolling zone, support plates, U-bend part), noise (mainly metallurgical noise) and possible flaws. The latter are random transients, both in arrival time and in shape: they have to be detected and then estimated, before to be fed to the high level stages of a diagnostic system. The objective of the study presented is to develop a semi-automatic system, which could manage and process more than 1 M-bytes of data per tube and provide an operator with reliable diagnostics proposals within a few minutes. This can be achieved only by cooperation of several digital signal processing techniques: detection, segmentation, estimation, noise subtraction, adaptive filtering, modelization, pattern recognition. The paper describes some of these items

  3. Arrangements within MAFF for dealing with a nuclear emergency. Current and future improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, N.D.; Naylor, G.P.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) has overall responsibility for the safety of the food supply in England. In the event of a domestic or overseas nuclear accident, MAFF's main responsibility is to ensure that consumers are protected from exposure to radiation through food chain pathways. Scientists in MAFF's Radiological Protection Unit will be responsible for assessing the impact of the accident on the terrestrial food chain. The emergency strategy of MAFF when accident information becomes available is discussed. The current emergency tool kit consists of result logging and data handling, atmospheric and environmental transfer code, geographical information system, and RIMNET (facilities for the collection, transfer, analysis and display of sampling data). (R.P.)

  4. Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers. Because of the unique characteristics and distinctive aims of various types of molecular imaging, deep learning applications can be different from other fields. In this context, the review deals with current perspectives of deep learning in molecular imaging particularly in terms of development of biomarkers. Finally, future challenges of deep learning application for molecular imaging and future roles of experts in molecular imaging will be discussed.

  5. Current status and prospects of France's nuclear sector and France's vision of the nuclear renaissance throughout the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugat, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Industrial companies are merging of forging alliances, and are competing for the securing of a stable supply of uranium resources; different states are discussing in order to establish partnership or cooperation agreements, on both the bilateral or multilateral side. in other words, the nuclear scene is more changing and active than ever. This burst of activity is motivated by the renewed interest in the nuclear energy throughout the world. In order to meet the expectation of more and more people wanting to have access to energy, nuclear energy has to face important challenges: the highest level of safety is required, the nuclear waste must be dealt with in a responsible and sustainable way, and the trust and acceptance of the public must be consolidated. France, being a long time supporter of nuclear energy is of course an actor of this Renaissance, and is strengthening its nuclear sector in order to meet the criteria expressed above. i will detail in my speech what are the steps taken in france in order to do so, and share my view of what should be a sustainable development of nuclear energy in the world, providing electricity while keeping a clean record on safety and non proliferation matters. We are clearly at a turning point in the history of nuclear energy, perfectly illustrated by the shift in the position of a quite large number of environmentalists, considering now nuclear as a sound option in order to produce base load energy without emitting greenhouse effect gas. Given the constraints at stake, it seems clear that more and more countries will turn to nuclear for their energy needs. It is up to us, the advanced countries in this field, gathered here today in Korea, to help this happen. It is up to us to lead the way, and show the world that electricity can be produced from nuclear with the highest standards of safety at competitive come along with no additional threat regarding non proliferation issues. All the major nuclear countries, including of

  6. Eddy current proximity measurement of perpendicular tubes from within pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P. F. D.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel channels in CANDU® (CANada Deuterium Uranium) nuclear reactors consist of two non-concentric tubes; an inner pressure tube (PT) and a larger diameter calandria tube (CT). Up to 400 horizontally mounted fuel channels are contained within a calandria vessel, which also holds the heavy water moderator. Certain fuel channels pass perpendicularly over horizontally oriented tubes (nozzles) that are part of the reactor's liquid injection shutdown system (LISS). Due to sag, these fuel channels are at risk of coming into contact with the LISS nozzles. In the event of contact between the LISS nozzle and CT, flow-induced vibrations from within the moderator could lead to fretting and deformation of the CT. LISS nozzle proximity to CTs is currently measured optically from within the calandria vessel, but from outside the fuel channels. Measurement by an independent means would provide confidence in optical results and supplement cases where optical observations are not possible. Separation of PT and CT, known as gap, is monitored from within the PT using a transmit-receive eddy current probe. Investigation of the eddy current based gap probe as a tool to also measure proximity of LISS nozzles was carried out experimentally in this work. Eddy current response as a function of LISS-PT proximity was recorded. When PT-CT gap, PT wall thickness, PT resistivity and probe lift-off variations were not present this dependence could be used to determine the LISS-PT proximity. This method has the potential to provide LISS-CT proximity using existing gap measurement data. Obtaining LISS nozzle proximity at multiple inspection intervals could be used to provide an estimate of the time to LISS-CT contact, and thereby provide a means of optimizing maintenance schedules.

  7. Online marketing for book publishers: a case study of Arsenal Pulp Press and Chronicle Books

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The internet is changing how we go about our personal and professional lives—not only is web use increasing, the type of online tools that are becoming commonplace and the way they are being used is evolving. This paper examines the online marketing and publicity efforts of Arsenal Pulp Press and Chronicle Books, providing an overview of a number of online tools and considering the role of online marketing and publicity for book publishers in the age of web 2.0. Some of the online marketing t...

  8. Current status and features of the T-2 Nuclear Information Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    This service is run by Group T-2 (Nuclear Theory and Applications) of the Theoretical Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. The author works on nuclear modeling, nuclear data, cross sections, nuclear masses, ENDF, NJOY data processing, nuclear astrophysics, radioactivity, radiation shielding, data for medical radiotherapy, data for high-energy accelerator applications, data and codes for fission and fusion systems, and more. For an introduction to the field of nuclear data and his site, take his Guided Tour. Much of this information can also be accessed using anonymous ftp t2.lanl.gov

  9. Eddy current examination of the nuclear fuel elements of IPR-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Roger F.; Frade, Rangel T.; Oliveira, Paulo F.; Silva, Marlucio A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F.

    2015-01-01

    Tubes of AISI 304 stainless steel as well as tubes of Aluminum 1100-F are used as cladding of the fuel elements of TRIGA MARK 1 nuclear research reactor. Usually, these tubes are periodically inspected by means of visual test and sipping test. The visual test allows the detection of changes occurred at the external fuel elements surface, such as those promoted by corrosion processes. However, this test method cannot be used for detection of internal discontinuities at the tube walls. Sipping test allows the detection of fuel elements in which the cladding has failed, but it is not able to determine the place where the discontinuity is located. In turn, eddy current testing, an electromagnetic nondestructive test method, allows the detection of discontinuities and monitoring their growth. In this paper, a study about the use of eddy current testing for detection and characterization of discontinuities in the fuel elements cladding is proposed. The study involves the development of probes able to operate in underwater inspections, the design and manufacture of reference standards and the development of a test methodology to perform the evaluations. (author)

  10. Eddy current examination of the nuclear fuel elements of IPR-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Roger F.; Frade, Rangel T.; Oliveira, Paulo F.; Silva, Marlucio A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F., E-mail: rfs@cdtn.br, E-mail: rtf@cdtn.br, E-mail: pfo@cdtn.br, E-mail: mas@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvasf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Tubes of AISI 304 stainless steel as well as tubes of Aluminum 1100-F are used as cladding of the fuel elements of TRIGA MARK 1 nuclear research reactor. Usually, these tubes are periodically inspected by means of visual test and sipping test. The visual test allows the detection of changes occurred at the external fuel elements surface, such as those promoted by corrosion processes. However, this test method cannot be used for detection of internal discontinuities at the tube walls. Sipping test allows the detection of fuel elements in which the cladding has failed, but it is not able to determine the place where the discontinuity is located. In turn, eddy current testing, an electromagnetic nondestructive test method, allows the detection of discontinuities and monitoring their growth. In this paper, a study about the use of eddy current testing for detection and characterization of discontinuities in the fuel elements cladding is proposed. The study involves the development of probes able to operate in underwater inspections, the design and manufacture of reference standards and the development of a test methodology to perform the evaluations. (author)

  11. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-15

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982.

  12. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-01

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982

  13. Vanishing current hysteresis under competing nuclear spin pumping processes in a quadruplet spin-blockaded double quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaha, S., E-mail: s-amaha@riken.jp [Quantum Spin Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ICORP, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Functional System Research Group, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatano, T. [Quantum Spin Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ICORP, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai-shi, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Tarucha, S. [Quantum Spin Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, ICORP, 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Quantum Functional System Research Group, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Gupta, J. A.; Austing, D. G. [National Research Council of Canada, M50, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2015-04-27

    We investigate nuclear spin pumping with five-electron quadruplet spin states in a spin-blockaded weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Two types of hysteretic steps in the leakage current are observed on sweeping the magnetic field and are associated with bidirectional polarization of nuclear spin. Properties of the steps are understood in terms of bias-voltage-dependent conditions for the mixing of quadruplet and doublet spin states by the hyperfine interaction. The hysteretic steps vanish when up- and down-nuclear spin pumping processes are in close competition.

  14. China's current status and long-term outlook of nuclear power and radioactive waste disposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    This study identified the current status and long-term outlook of China's nuclear power development and radioactive waste disposal management after the 3.11 FUKUSHIMA accidents. China strengthened the actions for achieving nuclear power safety and cost efficiency as well as safety management of radioactive waste. It is a hard work to expand the capacity to 58 GW, the governmental target in 2020. The long-term development will strongly depend on the progress in safety management of nuclear power and radioactive waste and economic competitiveness. (author)

  15. Current economic cost, the ARENH (Regulated Access to the Historic (EDF) Nuclear Energy Supplier) price, the differential rent and the scarcity rent of nuclear power: some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to explain the ARENH mechanism, the regulated price at which the EDF (France's historic monopoly supplier) must sell part of its production to its competitors in the framework of the Nome Act (New Organisation of the Electricity Market). This price by its nature is different from the Current Economic Cost (CEC) of nuclear power, as estimated by France's Government Accounting Office in its report submitted in January 2012. These two approaches revert to the problem of the determination of the scarcity rent of nuclear power in the context of the liberalised European market, in which nuclear power benefits from a 'cost' advantage relative to thermal electricity generated from fossil fuels. Furthermore, scarcity rent is not the same thing as differential rent. Selling a nuclear kWh at the price of a 'gas' kWh at certain times results in a differential rent enabling nuclear generated power to cover fixed costs. One can only speak of scarcity rent for nuclear power when the price at which the kWh is sold allows the recovery of more than is necessary to cover overall costs of nuclear power and it is this scarcity rent and its allocation that is the subject of debate. (author)

  16. Gadolinium for neutron detection in current nuclear instrumentation research: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumazert, J.; Coulon, R.; Lecomte, Q.; Bertrand, G. H. V.; Hamel, M.

    2018-02-01

    Natural gadolinium displays a number of remarkable physical properties: it is a rare earth element, composed of seven stable or quasi-stable isotopes, with an exceptionally high magnetization and a Curie point near room temperature. Its use in the field of nuclear instrumentation historically relates to its efficiency as a neutron poison in power reactors. Gadolinium is indeed the naturally occurring element with the highest interaction probability with neutrons at thermal energy, shared between Gd-157 (15.65%, 254000 b cross section) and Gd-155 (14.8%, 60900 b) isotopes. Considering that neutron capture results in an isotopic change, followed by a radiative rearrangement of nuclear and atomic structures, Gd may be embodied not merely as a neutron poison but as a neutron converter into a prompt photon and an electron source term. Depending on the nature and energy of the reaction products (from a few-keV Auger electrons up to 8 MeV gamma rays) that the detector aims at isolating as an indirect neutron signature, a variety of sensor media and counting methods have been introduced during the last decades. This review first draws a theoretical description of the radiative cascade following Gd(n , γ) capture. The cascade may be subdivided into regions of interest, each corresponding to dedicated detection designs and optimizations whose current status is detailed. This inventory has allowed the authors to extract and benchmark key figures of merit for the definition of a detection scheme: neutron attenuation, neutron sensitivity (cps/nv), gamma rejection, neutron detection limit in a mixed field, intrinsic or extrinsic moderation, and transportability. On this basis, the authors have identified promising paths for Gd-based neutron detection in contemporary instrumentation.

  17. Formulation of nuclear safety under various induced events. Part 1. Current status and challenges for risk-informed activities in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Kentaro; Yamato, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Subcommittee published in March 2013 a report on 'Seminar on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident' (hereinafter referred to as Seminar Report), and has thereafter continued discussions on the challenges that were pointed out in Seminar Report as the target of discussions. This commentary series summarizes the current situation and challenges for the ideal way of nuclear safety against a variety of causal events as one of the above challenges. This paper, as Part 1 of the above theme, firstly summarizes the current state of the challenges of regulatory bodies and business operators who are engaging risk information utilization. It secondly discusses the future risk information utilization of regulations and business operators, realization of integrated decision-making process, timeliness and promptness required in decision-making, and future efforts including incentives. (A.O.)

  18. Atmospheric effects and societal consequences of regional scale nuclear conflicts and acts of individual nuclear terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2007-04-01

    We assess the potential damage and smoke production associated with the detonation of small nuclear weapons in modern megacities. While the number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986, the number of nuclear weapons states is increasing and the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build substantial arsenals of low-yield (Hiroshima-sized) explosives. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in megacities, which might be targeted in a nuclear conflict. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as previously estimated in analyses for full scale nuclear wars using high-yield weapons, if the small weapons are targeted at city centers. A single "small" nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in the major historical conflicts of many countries. We analyze the likely outcome of a regional nuclear exchange involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). We find that such an exchange could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II, or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Megacities exposed to atmospheric fallout of long-lived radionuclides would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Our analysis shows that smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war would rise into the upper troposphere due to pyro-convection. Robock et al. (2007) show that the smoke would subsequently rise deep into the stratosphere due

  19. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 10, March 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The current issue contains information about the following meetings: Application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors (the 'Code'). Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS II); Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention). The document also gives an overview on International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ)

  20. Current status and future prospects of Korean standardized nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieh, C.-H.; Park, S.-K.; Lee, B.-R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reviewed a brief history of Korean nuclear industry since the first Kori-1 plant operation in 1978 with special emphasis on the NSSS and BOP design and engineering, and the design approaches for nuclear power plants in the future. Continued effort to enhance plant economy and operational safety has been made by increasing plant size, and improving safety features, systems and component reliability in various design aspects. Korean nuclear industry is now trying to be one of the major contributors to the world nuclear field in sharing nuclear technology gained from past experience and developed through internation technical cooperation programs

  1. Reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems at nuclear power plants: a discussion of NUREG/CR-2989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems typical of most nuclear power plants was estimated by using fault-tree analysis of selected typical designs. The failure probabilities used in the fault trees were calculated from extensive historical data collected from Licensee Event Reports and from operating experience information obtained from nuclear plant licensees. Trends of diesel generator independent failure on demand are included. No one or two improvements can be made at all plants to increase significantly the industry-average emergency alternating-current power system reliability; the most beneficial improvements are varied and plant specific

  2. Eddy current automatic inspection of heat exchangers in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazal, M.; Scopelliti, J.D.; Mendez, J.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation describes the eddy current tube inspection techniques for heavy heat exchangers in nuclear power stations. The purpose of these eddy current tests, is first to determine the integrity of the heat exchanger tubes, and to characterize the related types of defects in each case following to their analysis and cause determination and subsequent inspection planning. This task requires a group highly qualified personnel with high tech automate equipment. The organization of the group required a correct function and task assignment in order to achieve efficiency in scheduling, with simultaneous inspection to different components in a continuous base and uninterruptedly. A lead specialist is in charge of the group, which is set up by several shift supervisors, a qualified tele manipulator installation crew a number of qualified tele manipulator operators, and the specialist for data acquisition and certified eddy current signal evaluators plus some other support technicians and administrations helpers. In order to comply with inspection requirements, a bunch of technical procedures had to be developed. The following equipment is available nowadays: Zetec SM-13, SM-23 and SM-22 tele manipulators for inspection probes positioning, with different shapes and configuration (rotating probes, flexible probes for U-Bends, and magnetic saturation probes endowed with their own driving units) and remote data acquisition units identified as MIZ-18 A and MIZ-30, which are remotely operated from a mobile lab installed in a trailer, outside the reactor building. The available equipment allows a simultaneous inspection of three different plant components (two steam generators and a moderator heat exchanger). We are also in a position of performing eddy current tube inspection in more than a NSP at the same time. The Zetec Eddynet software is used in the manipulator operation and for the data acquisition and defect evaluation. This software operates within Windows

  3. Current status of materials development of nuclear fuel cladding tubes for light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zhengang, E-mail: duan_zg@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Yang, Huilong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Satoh, Yuhki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Murakami, Kenta; Kano, Sho; Zhao, Zishou; Shen, Jingjie [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki, E-mail: abe.hiroaki@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Nakagun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Zirconium-based (Zr-based) alloys have been widely used as materials for the key components in light water reactors (LWRs), such as fuel claddings which suffer from waterside corrosion, hydrogen uptakes and strength loss at elevated temperature, especially during accident scenarios like the lost-of-coolant accident (LOCA). For the purpose of providing a safer, nuclear leakage resistant and economically viable LWRs, three general approaches have been proposed so far to develop the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings: optimization of metallurgical composition and processing of Zr-based alloys, coatings on existing Zr-based alloys and replacement of current Zr-based alloys. In this manuscript, an attempt has been made to systematically present the historic development of Zr-based cladding, including the impacts of alloying elements on the material properties. Subsequently, the research investigations on coating layer on the surface of Zr-based claddings, mainly referring coating materials and fabrication methods, have been broadly reviewed. The last section of this review provides the introduction to alternative materials (Non-Zr) to Zr-based alloys for LWRs, such as advanced steels, Mo-based, and SiC-based materials.

  4. Current status of materials development of nuclear fuel cladding tubes for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zhengang; Yang, Huilong; Satoh, Yuhki; Murakami, Kenta; Kano, Sho; Zhao, Zishou; Shen, Jingjie; Abe, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Zirconium-based (Zr-based) alloys have been widely used as materials for the key components in light water reactors (LWRs), such as fuel claddings which suffer from waterside corrosion, hydrogen uptakes and strength loss at elevated temperature, especially during accident scenarios like the lost-of-coolant accident (LOCA). For the purpose of providing a safer, nuclear leakage resistant and economically viable LWRs, three general approaches have been proposed so far to develop the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings: optimization of metallurgical composition and processing of Zr-based alloys, coatings on existing Zr-based alloys and replacement of current Zr-based alloys. In this manuscript, an attempt has been made to systematically present the historic development of Zr-based cladding, including the impacts of alloying elements on the material properties. Subsequently, the research investigations on coating layer on the surface of Zr-based claddings, mainly referring coating materials and fabrication methods, have been broadly reviewed. The last section of this review provides the introduction to alternative materials (Non-Zr) to Zr-based alloys for LWRs, such as advanced steels, Mo-based, and SiC-based materials.

  5. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, John D.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Gin, Stephane; Inagaki, Yaohiro

    2013-01-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps

  6. Current status and applications of somatic cell nuclear transfer in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Goo; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2010-11-01

    Although somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology and applications are well developed in most domesticated and laboratory animals, their use in dogs has advanced only slowly. Many technical difficulties had to be overcome before preliminary experiments could be conducted. First, due to the very low efficiency of dog oocyte maturation in vitro, in vivo matured oocytes were generally used. The nucleus of an in vivo matured oocyte was removed and a donor cell (from fetal or adult fibroblasts) was injected into the oocyte. Secondly, fusion of the reconstructed oocytes was problematic, and it was found that a higher electrical voltage was necessary, in comparison to other mammalian species. By transferring the resulting fused oocytes into surrogate females, several cloned offspring were born. SCNT was also used for producing cloned wolves, validating reproductive technologies for aiding conservation of endangered or extinct breeds. Although examples of transgenesis in canine species are very sparse, SCNT studies are increasing, and together with the new field of gene targeting technology, they have been applied in many fields of veterinary or bio-medical science. This review summarizes the current status of SCNT in dogs and evaluates its potential future applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. South Africa: The Good International Nuclear Citizen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitre, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Since South Africa destroyed its nuclear arsenal, it has claimed the status of 'good international nuclear citizen', a position confirmed by its engagement in the nonproliferation regime. Pretoria plays a bridge-building role between states with and without nuclear weapons as well as in instances of proliferation. Recent changes have raised doubts around its position, a movement which could threaten South Africa's nuclear diplomacy

  8. Therapeutic applications of Rhenium-188 in nuclear medicine and oncology - Current status and expected future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The increasing use of unsealed radioactive targeting agents for cancer treatment requires the routine availability of cost-effective radioisotopes. Rhenium-188 (Re-188; half-life 16.9 hours) is a high-energy beta-emitter (E max 2.12 MeV), readily available no- max carrier-added from the alumina-based tungsten-188 (half-life 69 days)/rhenium-188 generator system. Rhenium-188 also emits a 155 keV (15%) gamma photon, permitting gamma camera imaging for biodistribution and dosimetry evaluation. The versatile chemistry of rhenium allows attachment to a wide variety of targeting molecules for Re-188 applications in nuclear oncology for both palliative metastatic treatment and targeted tumor therapy - radionuclide synovectomy, and coronary restenosis therapy. The long parent half-life and consistent performance provide an indefinite generator shelf-life of several months with high Re-188 elution yields (75-85 %) and consistently low W-188 parent breakthrough ( -6 ). Simple post-elution concentration methods have been developed which provide very high specific volume solution of Re-188 for radiolabeling (> 700 mCi/mL saline/1 Ci generator). Over 60 physician-sponsored clinical trials are currently in progress worldwide with applications in nuclear medicine, nuclear oncology and interventional cardiology. A variety of Re-188-labeled therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals and devices are being developed for clinical trials currently in progress for treatment of both benign and metastatic oncological disorders. Palliation of metastatic bone pain with Re-188-HEDP - prepared from a simple 'kit' - has been demonstrated as a cost-effective alternative to similar agents. Recent studies have in fact demonstrated the enhancement of progression-free interval and survival time by repeated Re-188-HEDP injections to patients with metastatic disease from prostate cancer. The use of the Re-188-labeled antiNCA95 (CD66) antibody in conjunction with external beam irradiation is an

  9. Current status of construction of nuclear power plants No. 7, No. 8 in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sug, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The up-to-date accomplishment and future work in the construction of nuclear power plants in Korea are outlined. The scope of the construction project of the No. 7 and No. 8 power plants, selection of the suppliers of the main instruments, assessment of the planning, architecture, engineering, construction fund, procurement of nuclear fuel, and the necessities of home production of various nuclear materials are briefly summarized. (author)

  10. Current challenges to U.S. nuclear fuel cycle policies: arguments and tactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, G.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear debate has become virulent in the United States in recent years. Opponents of nuclear power have developed the debate in Congress, in Federal Courts and Federal Agencies which are the principal forums. They use mass media, elaborate strategies, adopt arguments and tactics of a political, economic and technical nature. This paper examines several aspects of their intervention in the nuclear decision-making process of the authorities. (NEA) [fr

  11. Third party nuclear liability regime in the Romanian legislation - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Chiripus, V.

    2004-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined by Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damages, as well as Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper aims at presenting to the audience the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the scope of Law no. 703/2001, as well as the subjects to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania (with special emphasis on the relevant responsibilities of nuclear operators), the Romanian nuclear damages compensation system, statute of limitation for claims, types of insurance and financial guarantees covering against civil liability for nuclear damages, limits of nuclear operators' liability, specific requirements regarding the insurance, responsibilities of control and supervision bodies, assessment of nuclear damage.(author)

  12. The Ukraine crisis and the nuclear order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The cooling of relations between the West and Russia in the face of the Ukraine crisis could well have negative consequences for the international nuclear order, both for Ukraine strictly speaking and for the global non-proliferation regime. It is first of all worth noting that Ukraine, which became an independent nation State following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, inherited considerable strategic (comprising between 1300 and 1600 warheads depending on the source) and tactical nuclear arsenals, making it, based on the cited figures, the third largest nuclear power in the world. Yet in December 1994, in the margins of the CSCE Summit in Budapest, it agreed, not without some reluctance, to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non- Nuclear-Weapon State in exchange for positive and negative security assurances from the 5 Nuclear- Weapon States, which included, amongst others, recognition of its sovereignty and its territorial integrity. In June 1996, its entire nuclear arsenal was transferred to Russia. This historical fact is not lost on any of the actors in the present crisis, and there is nothing to prevent one from thinking that Ukraine, in the case of an infringement upon its vital interests, might question its commitment to nuclear disarmament. Beyond this risk, there is concern that the entirety of the nuclear non-proliferation regime may be weakened. At the bilateral level, the pursuit of the reduction of the Russian and U.S. nu-clear arsenals launched in the framework of the 2010 New START Treaty could be seriously com-promised if, as feared, the time for confidence and transparency between Moscow and Washing-ton is over. The development of direct dialogue must be closely followed over the course of the coming months. At the multilateral level, the NPT, whose next Review Conference will take place in 2015, could be exploited by certain States on the grounds that denuclearization is a fragile process that might be called into

  13. On the Generalized Correlation Equation of Welding Current for the Tig Welding Machine Used in Nuclear Fuel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Efrizon

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fabrication, welding plays a very important role to join the end cap to the tube. In order to determine the welding current in TIG welding process for various materials, weld geometries and welding rates, the correlation between the welding current and the other parameters are needed. This paper presents the correlation of those parameters mentioned above. The proposed correlation was tested and produced satisfactory results. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow, Picatinny Arsenal and vicinity, Morris County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, L.M.; Rice, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water flow in glacial sediments and bedrock at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J., was simulated by use of a three-dimensional finite-difference ground- water-flow model. The modeled area includes a 4.3-square-mile area that extends from Picatinny Lake to the Rockaway River. Most of the study area is bounded by the natural hydrologic boundaries of the ground-water system. eophysical logs, lithologic logs, particle-size data, and core data from selected wells and surface geophysical data were analyzed to define the hydrogeologic framework. Hydrogeologic sections and thickness maps define six permeable and three low-permeability layers that are represented in the model as aquifers and confining units, respectively. Hydrologic data incorporated in the model include a rate of recharge from precipitation of 22 inches per year, estimated from long-term precipitation records and estimates of evapotranspiration. Additional recharge from infiltration along valleys was estimated from measured discharge of springs along the adjacent valley walls and from estimates of runoff from upland drainage that flows to the valley floor. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities of permeable and low-permeability layers were estimated from examination of aquifer-test data, gamma-ray logs, borehole cuttings, and previously published data. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in glacial sediments range from 10 to 380 feet per day. Vertical hydraulic conductivities of the low-permeability layers range from 0.01 to 0.7 feet per day. The model was calibrated by simulating steady-state conditions during 1989-93 and by closely matching simulated and measured ground-water levels, vertical ground-water-head differences, and streamflow gain and loss. Simulated steady-state potentiometric- surface maps produced for the six permeable layers indicate that ground water in the unconfined material within Picatinny Arsenal flows predominantly toward the center of the valley, where it discharges to Green

  15. Consequences of Regional Scale Nuclear Conflicts and Acts of Individual Nuclear Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Robock, A.; Bardeen, C.; Oman, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2006-12-01

    The number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986. However, the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races, and for a significant expansion in the number of nuclear weapons states. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build weapons if they so desire. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in "megacities", which are ideal targets for nuclear weapons. We find that low yield weapons, which new nuclear powers are likely to construct, can produce 100 times as many fatalities and 100 times as much smoke from fires per kt yield as high-yield weapons, if they are targeted at city centers. A single low-yield nuclear detonation in an urban center could lead to more fatalities, in some cases by orders of magnitude, than have occurred in major historical conflicts. A regional war between the smallest current nuclear states involving 100 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) could produce direct fatalities comparable to all of those worldwide in World War II (WW-II), or to those once estimated for a "counterforce" nuclear war between the superpowers. Portions of megacities attacked with nuclear devices or exposed to fallout of long-lived isotopes, through armed conflict or terrorism, would likely be abandoned indefinitely, with severe national and international implications. Smoke from urban firestorms in a regional war might induce significant climatic and ozone anomalies on global scales. While there are many uncertainties in the issues we discuss here, the major uncertainties are the type and scale of conflict that might occur. Each of these potential hazards deserves careful analysis by governments worldwide advised by a broad section of the world scientific community, as well as widespread

  16. Current construction status of Korea Wolsong Nuclear Environment Management Center (low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Through the RANDEC delegation tour to Korea in Nov. 2009, we have earned new information on recent development of the radioactive waste management in Korea. In this report, we will introduce such development in Korea, focusing on the current construction status of Korean LILW (low and intermediate level radioactive waste) disposal site, now called, Wolsong Nuclear Environment Management Center. (author)

  17. Current status of sea transport of nuclear fuel materials and LLW in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    Along with the basic policy of the nuclear fuel cycle of Japan, many fuel cycle facilities have been already constructed in Rokkasho-Mura, Aomori prefecture, such as the uranium enrichment plant, the low level waste disposal center and the receiving pool of the spent nuclear fuels for reprocessing. These facilities belong to the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited. (JNFL). Domestic sea transport of the spent nuclear fuels (SF) has been carried out since 1977 to the Tokai Reprocessing Plant, and the first sea transport of the SF to the fuel cycle facility in Rokkasho-Mura was done in Oct, 1998 using a new exclusive ship 'Rokuei-Maru'. Sea transport of the low level radioactive wastes (LLW) has been carried out since 1992 to the Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center, and about 130,000 LLW drams were transported from the nuclear power plant sites. These sea transport have demonstrated the safety of the transport of the nuclear fuel cycle materials. It is hoped that the safe sea transport of the nuclear fuel materials will contribute to the more progress of the nuclear fuel cycle activities of Japan. (author)

  18. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 8, September 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) International Workshops on Denial of Shipments raise awareness of suppliers, recipients, regulators, carriers/consignors and international organizations of the problems relating to denials of radioactive shipments to determine effective measures to prevent or reduce the instances of shipment denials and delays. 2) Communication and knowledge Management in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security (NS). 3) Nuclear Security at the Beijing Olympics - an excellent example of the IAEA's work in protecting large scale public events. 4) The Incident and Emergency Centre's Participation in the ConvEx 3 Exercise, 9-10 July 2008, which took place at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant in Mexico. During the 43 hour long exercise, the Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) was fully activated. Staff members participating in the exercise represented different departments within the IAEA and the diversity of their knowledge and experience ensured an effective response

  19. Current status of education and training in nuclear technology in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.U.

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for the introduction, promotion and safety issues of nuclear science and technology in the country. During the last four decades, a significant development has been achieved in the field of food and agriculture, medicine, industries and environment using nuclear technology. Education and training in science and technology played a vital role to achieve the significant development in these fields. Some local public universities and BAEC training facilities at home and abroad have played mainly a key role to develop the human resource in the field of nuclear science and technology. Over the last four decades, BAEC with its various specialized establishments has played a focused role in the advancement, understanding and usage of nuclear science and technologies in the country. Through years of cumulative efforts, BAEC has developed a pool of research infrastructure, capacity and human resources having been trained extensively at home and abroad in their respective fields. The trained manpower in the different fields of science and technology are working in the country to solve some national problems like arsenic contamination in drinking water, iodine deficiency disease goitre, cancer and many others. BAEC is going to establish a Nuclear Training Institute which will also have residential facilities. Government has already assured to fund to establish the Nuclear Training Centre in the campus of AERE, Savar. BAEC placed a formal proposal for Affiliation with Jahangirnagar University for Awarding Post Graduate Degrees in different specialized fields of nuclear science and technology. As this might take some time for implementation; therefore, BAEC has decided to start the academic program immediately under the present set-up of the organization. With this view, BAEC proposes to affiliate its Nuclear Training Institute with the Jahangirnagar University for pursuing academic degree programmes i.e. post

  20. Current Status and Issues of Nuclear Engineering Research and Educational Facilities in Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    It is important to discuss about nuclear engineering research and educational facilities in universities after new educational foundation. 12 universities investigated issues and a countermeasure of them. The results of a questionnaire survey, issues and countermeasure are shown in this paper. The questionnaire on the future nuclear researches, development of education, project, maintenance of nuclear and radioactive facilities and accelerator, control of uranium in subcritical test facilities, use of new corporation facilities, the fixed number of student, number of graduate, student experiments, themes of experiments and researches, the state of educational facilities are carried out. The results of questionnaire were summarized as followings: the fixed number of student (B/M/D) on nuclear engineering, exercise of reactor, education, themes, educational and research facilities, significance of nuclear engineering education in university and proposal. (S.Y.)

  1. Current issues in the transport of radioactive waste and spent fuel: work by the World Nuclear Transport Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H-J.; Bonnardel-Azzarelli, B. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste are generated from nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. These materials have to be treated, stored and eventually sent to a repository site. Transport of wastes between these various stages is crucial for the sustainable utilization of nuclear energy. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SSR-6) have, for many decades, provided a safe and efficient framework for radioactive materials transport and continue to do so. However, some shippers have experienced that in the transport of certain specific radioactive wastes, difficulties can be encountered. For example, some materials produced in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are unique in terms of composition or size and can be difficult to characterize as surface contaminated objects (SCO) or homogeneous. One way WNTI (World Nuclear Transport Institute) helps develop transport methodologies is through the use of Industry Working Groups, bringing together WNTI members with common interests, issues and experiences. The Back-End Transport Industry Working Group focuses on the following issues currently. - Characterization of Waste: techniques and methods to classify wastes - Large Objects: slightly contaminated large objects (ex. spent steam generators) transport - Dual Use Casks: transportable storage casks for spent nuclear fuels, including the very long term storage of spent fuel - Fissile Exceptions: new fissile exceptions provisions of revised TS-R-1 (SSR-6) The paper gives a broad overview of current issues for the packaging and transport of radioactive wastes and the associated work of the WNTI. (author)

  2. Discovery of Ubiquitin Deamidases in the Pathogenic Arsenal of Legionella pneumophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Valleau

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Legionella pneumophila translocates the largest known arsenal of over 330 pathogenic factors, called “effectors,” into host cells during infection, enabling L. pneumophila to establish a replicative niche inside diverse amebas and human macrophages. Here, we reveal that the L. pneumophila effectors MavC (Lpg2147 and MvcA (Lpg2148 are structural homologs of cycle inhibiting factor (Cif effectors and that the adjacent gene, lpg2149, produces a protein that directly inhibits their activity. In contrast to canonical Cifs, both MavC and MvcA contain an insertion domain and deamidate the residue Gln40 of ubiquitin but not Gln40 of NEDD8. MavC and MvcA are functionally diverse, with only MavC interacting with the human E2-conjugating enzyme UBE2N (Ubc13. MavC deamidates the UBE2N∼Ub conjugate, disrupting Lys63 ubiquitination and dampening NF-κB signaling. Combined, our data reveal a molecular mechanism of host manipulation by pathogenic bacteria and highlight the complex regulatory mechanisms integral to L. pneumophila’s pathogenic strategy. : Legionella pneumophila, possessing the largest known arsenal of effectors, continues to reveal unique approaches to host cell control. Valleau et al. decrypt the functions of a trio of effectors, discovering a pair of ubiquitin-specific deamidases, their regulation by a neighboring dual-specificity protein inhibitor, and a mechanism of NF-κB suppression. Keywords: pathogen-host interaction, ubiquitination, Legionella, UBE2N/Ubc13, NF-κB signaling, Type IV secretion system, effectors, metaeffector, cycle inhibiting factor

  3. The current status of Chinese nuclear power industry and its future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Daogang

    2010-01-01

    During the past 30 years, economy of China has being grown strongly. Even in the year 2009, when the world was hit by the financial crisis, China still kept the 8.7% growth rate. GDP of China has reached 4222G USD. This figure makes China to become the third economic giant in the world. All of the world are focusing on the high-speed development of economy in China; meanwhile they also pay much attention on the energy consumption in China. In addition, as one of the policy to keep the stable supply of the energy and to cut off the drain of CO 2 , China now are building more and more nuclear power stations. Many developed countries are very interested in the big market. Some have already joined in the construction of nuclear power stations in China, while some may concern about the supply of the nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear safety in China. The present paper will give a close-up view on China status of the energy, especially the nuclear power industry. It is expected that the international community could have deeper and more complete understanding on the nuclear industry in China, moreover cooperate with China to improve the peace and safe utilization of nuclear energy for the sustainable development of the world. (author)

  4. Current status and prospects of the nuclear industry in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulke, Larry

    2004-01-01

    On December 8, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower captured the desires and hopes of the nations of the world in his 'Atoms for Peace' speech to the United Nations General Assembly. In the last 50 years, many nations have transformed Eisenhower's General Assembly. In the last 50 years, many nations have transformed Eisenhower's dream of the future the peaceful power of the atom into everyday reality. Civilian nuclear power reactors provide electricity without adding to global warming or air pollution. Radioisotopes have proven to be invaluable in medicine, agriculture, industry, and space exploration. It is not coincidental that the origin of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is closely related to the 'Atoms for Peace' initiative. Two days after the Atoms for Peace address, asmall group of engineers and scientists from the infant atomic energy field met in New York City. They were to consider forming what they were calling an institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering. Such an organization--they would write in the invitation for the next meeting--would, in part, stimulate the declassification of nuclear information, in line with Eisenhower's plan. The next year, on October 11, 1954, after a heated discussion, the group settled on a name: the American Nuclear Society. The ANS treasures its association with the Korean Atomic Industrial Forum and the Korean Nuclear Societuy in mutual efforts to extend the benefits of nuclear science and technology

  5. The Current Status and Future Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Oh, So Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians, technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6 million in vitro studies in 2008, and ranked fourth in the number of presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) in 2008. The successful progress in this field has allowed Korea to focus on the international promotion of nuclear medicine, especially in the developing and underdeveloped countries. In consequence, the Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was established in 2001, and Seoul hosted the 9th Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) in 2006. In the future, Korea will strive to sustain its rate of advancement in the field and make every effort to share its progress and promote the exchange of scientific information at the international level.

  6. Results of operation and current safety performance of nuclear facilities located in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; Khvostova, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    After the NPP radiation accidents in Russia and Japan, a safety statu of Russian nuclear power plants causes concern. A repeated life time extension of power unit reactor plants, designed at the dawn of the nuclear power engineering in the Soviet Union, power augmentation of the plants to 104-109%, operation of power units in a daily power mode in the range of 100-70-100%, the use of untypical for NPP remixed nuclear fuel without a careful study of the results of its application (at least after two operating periods of the research nuclear installations), the aging of operating personnel, and many other management actions of the State Corporation "Rosatom", should attract the attention of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technical and Atomic Supervision (RosTekhNadzor), but this doesn't happen. The paper considers safety issues of nuclear power plants operating in the Russian Federation. The authors collected statistical information on violations in NPP operation over the past 25 years, which shows that even after repeated relaxation over this period of time of safety regulation requirements in nuclear industry and highly expensive NPP modernization, the latter have not become more safe, and the statistics confirms this. At a lower utilization factor high-power pressure-tube reactors RBMK-1000, compared to light water reactors VVER-440 and 1000, have a greater number of violations and that after annual overhauls. A number of direct and root causes of NPP mulfunctions is still high and remains stable for decades. The paper reveals bottlenecks in ensuring nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear facilities. Main outstanding issues on the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined. Information on emissions and discharges of radioactive substances, as well as fullness of storages of solid and liquid radioactive waste, located at the NPP sites are presented. Russian NPPs stress test results are submitted, as well as data on the coming removal from operation of NPP

  7. Computational modeling of the behavior of nuclear materials (2). Molecular simulations for nuclear materials. Current situation and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Taira; Itakura, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Molecular simulations for nuclear materials aim to reproduce atomistic-scale phenomena induced by irradiation and infer the change in material properties. In the present work, recent progress in this field is presented. In particular, the following three topics are explained: (1) Quantification of lattice defects formation process induced by fast neutron collision. (2) Identification of dislocation-channeling mechanism induced by interactions between defect clusters and dislocations. (3) Modeling of the three dimensional movement of defect clusters using molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  8. Current situation of spent fuel management in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant, Veracruz, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), owner and operator of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (2 x 654 MWe BWR), has twice decided to increase the storage capacity of the spent fuel pools of the reactors. The Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), the national nuclear regulatory authority, approved the increase by a factor of 2.66 in the storage capacity proposal by CFE in 1989. Each reactor spent fuel pool can now hold 614 t HM. The reracking was done at a cost of about US $13 per kg U, which will add only 0.042 mills per kWh to the fuel cycle cost. (author)

  9. Current status of radioactive waste management from nuclear applications in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan Sik Chun

    1997-01-01

    Korea has been in operation of nuclear research reactor(s) since the first research reactor, TRIGA MARK-II type, started to operate in 1965. The third research reactor, HANARO, has begun to operate since 1995 while other research reactors have been shut down for their decommissioning and will be dismantled in near future. The RI application wastes have been collected and stored at the Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) separately from the operational wastes of nuclear power plant (NPP) which are being stored at on-site storage of each NPP. 10 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Regulation of the complete fuel cycle current and proposed nuclear legislation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the Canadian nuclear programme, the problems of contamination and uranium mine safety and the national and international concern about proliferation have emphasized the need for a systematic and strong control over nuclear activities. Although the 1946 Atomic Energy Control Act provides the Atomic Energy Control Board with most of the powers necessary to achieve this, the new Act has been introduced to clarify jurisdiction and to strengthen the Board, which would then be renamed the Nuclear Control Board. Its duty would be to control health, safety and the environmental and other security aspects of the complete fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  11. Climatic Effects of Regional Nuclear War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Luke D.

    2011-01-01

    We use a modern climate model and new estimates of smoke generated by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the response of the climate system to a regional nuclear war between emerging third world nuclear powers using 100 Hiroshima-size bombs (less than 0.03% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) on cities in the subtropics. We find significant cooling and reductions of precipitation lasting years, which would impact the global food supply. The climate changes are large and longlasting because the fuel loadings in modern cities are quite high and the subtropical solar insolation heats the resulting smoke cloud and lofts it into the high stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow. While the climate changes are less dramatic than found in previous "nuclear winter" simulations of a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers, because less smoke is emitted, the changes seem to be more persistent because of improvements in representing aerosol processes and microphysical/dynamical interactions, including radiative heating effects, in newer global climate system models. The assumptions and calculations that go into these conclusions will be described.

  12. Current concept of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priman, V.; Vesely, P.; Sedina, M.

    2001-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the major activities within the nuclear fuel cycle as practised by the Czech utility CEZ, a. s. Efforts in the fuel cycle practice are focused on the implementation of standard business principles with CEZ's contractual suppliers; application of new legislation and international design standards; and on achieving a higher technical standard of nuclear fuel and its better overall utilisation by nuclear power plants. Business activities in the procurement of nuclear materials and their diversification are discussed. The last part of the article, which is devoted to the fuel cycle back-end, describes the adopted strategy of extended spent fuel storage associated with a postponement of the final disposal. The basic principles of the CEZ's fuel cycle back-end strategy are also summarised. (author)

  13. Nuclear power in Russia: Current status and prospective; Atomnaya ehnergetika Rossii: sostoyanie i perspektivy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A K [Minatom, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation describes the following issues: mane factors determining the situation with power in Russian Federation; prospects of nuclear power in Russian Federation; modern demands on NPP safety in Russia.

  14. Nuclear liability legislation in the Czech Republic - current status and expected development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaruba, P.; Posad, M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper gives a short introduction to the present situation of operation and construction of nuclear power plants in the Czech Republic, including some basic technical data and background information. It then continues in providing up to date information on the Czech nuclear legislation, which followed the adoption of the Atomic Act. It also gives consideration of various questions and problems in the light of the respective legal clauses (e.g. minimum insurance requirements, treatment of small reactors and small quantities of nuclear material, state guarantees etc.). The paper provides some more detailed information about the practical application of the insurance clauses of the Atomic Act, including some time-related questions. The final part of the paper is dedicated to insurance matters, especially the present functions and activities of the Czech Nuclear Insurance Pool which was officially founded in 1995 and is now concluding the fifth year of business activities. (author)

  15. Conditions, history and current problems of the Latin America nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirek, H.

    1986-01-01

    The study at hand investigates the history of development and the provisions of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, signed on February 14, 1967, as well as the power of its institutions, and the safety, political limitations of the Treaty's goals and purposes as a result of the nuclear states' military interests. The book presents a documentation and an analysis of the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in Latin America; it investigates the chances of a diversion of fissile material for military purposes, i.e. the production of nuclear weapons, and subsequently discusses the safeguards measures of the IAEA. The book finally examines whether the nuclear free zone of Latin America which has been existing for 20 years now has the chance to survive within the next decade. (orig./HP) [de

  16. An Analysis of the Current Status of Media Reports about the social acceptance of nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Yeon; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Wons Seok

    2016-01-01

    The object of this paper is to analyze intensively media reports on nuclear energy to share information in information and technology centric society. As this study is not focus on special incident, but it is setting any period. So we established database on media report refer to nuclear industry and then we analysed them by social scientific method. This paper dealt with data construction, standard of data classification, data analysis method, continue to operate Wolsung 1 reactor and public acceptance

  17. An Analysis of the Current Status of Media Reports about the social acceptance of nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Yeon; Lee, Jae Young [Handong University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wons Seok [SFRA, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The object of this paper is to analyze intensively media reports on nuclear energy to share information in information and technology centric society. As this study is not focus on special incident, but it is setting any period. So we established database on media report refer to nuclear industry and then we analysed them by social scientific method. This paper dealt with data construction, standard of data classification, data analysis method, continue to operate Wolsung 1 reactor and public acceptance.

  18. The current status and future prospects of the Korean nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, countries all over the world are becoming aware of the values and importance of nuclear energy which can help respond to energy crises caused by a sharp rise in oil prices and protect the earth from global warming. Since 1978, when Kori Unit 1(587MW), opened the nuclear generation era as a semi-domestic energy resource in Korea which is absolutely in short supply of energy, nuclear power generation in Korea has developed continuously for the past 28 years. Four new units including the Yonggwang 5 and 6 and Ulchin 5 and 6 have been successfully completed, raising the total nuclear installed capacity to 17,716MW from 20 units. At present, the nuclear generation in Korea is stably supplying about 40% of total electric generation, which is the fundamental energy of the nation, supporting the dynamic economic growth of Korea. In particular, Korean nuclear industry has been achieving excellent performance in nuclear power plant operation. The average capacity factor in 2005 hit the record of 95.5%, surpassing the previous record of 94.2% in 2003 in two years. Kori Unit 4 and another four units were listed at the top five in the capacity factor rating list of 2005 released by Nucleonics Week. In 2005, the site for radioactive waste disposal, which had been a long-cherished hope and the largest pending issue of the nuclear industry, was successfully selected in Korea through resident ballot as the first case of a national policy project, and as such, a national agenda was solved after 19 long years. Such a method in site selection has a significant meaning and establishes an excellent precedence; a large national policy project was decided upon by the residents themselves. As one of the model countries of building and operating nuclear power plants and technological independence, Korea is willing to contribute to the common goals of the world nuclear circle which can be summarized into energy security and environment preservation, by sharing accumulated

  19. Development of incident progress prediction technologies for nuclear emergency preparedness. Current status and future subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Kusunoki, Takayoshi; Kawasaki, Ikuo; Yanagi, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Iwasaki, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear licensees are required to maintain a prediction system during normal condition for using a nuclear emergency by the Basic Plan for Disaster Prevention of government. With prediction of the incident progress, if the present condition of nuclear power plant is understood appropriately and it grows more serious with keeping the present situation, it is in predicting what kind of situation will be occurred in the near future, choosing the effective countermeasures against the coming threat, and understanding the time available of intervention time. Following the accident on September 30 1999 in the nuclear fuel fabrication facility in Tokai Village of Ibaraki Prefecture, the Institute of Nuclear Safety System started development of incident progress prediction technologies for nuclear emergency preparedness. We have performed technical applications and made improvements in nuclear emergency exercises and verified the developed systems using the observed values of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. As a result, our developed Incident Progress Prediction System was applied to nuclear emergency exercises and we accumulated knowledge and experience by which we improved the system to make predictions more rapidly and more precisely, including for example, the development of a prediction method for leak size of reactor coolant. On the other hand, if a rapidly progressing incident occurs, since end users need simple and quick predictions about the public's protection and evacuation areas, we developed the Radioactive Materials Release, Radiation Dose and Radiological Protection Area Prediction System which changed solving an inverse problem into a forward problem solution. In view of the water-level-decline incident of the spent fuel storage facility at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the spent fuel storage facility water level and the water temperature evaluation tool were improved. Such incident progress prediction technologies were

  20. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems. Volume 2. Current status of biofouling surveillance and control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Johnson, K.I.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the current status of techniques for detection and control of cooling-water system fouling by bivalve mollusks at nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of these techniques is evaluated on the basis of information gathered from a literature review and in interviews with nuclear power plant personnel. Biofouling detection techniques examined in this report include regular maintenance, in-service inspection, and testing. Generally, these methods have been inadequate for detecting biofouling. Recommendations for improving biofouling detection capabilities are presented. Biofouling prevention (or control) methods that are examined in this report include intake screen systems, thermal treatment, preventive maintenance, chemical treatment alternatives, and antifoulant coatings. Recommendations for improving biofouling control methods at operating nuclear power plants are presented. Additional techniques that could be implemented at future power plants or that require further research are also described

  1. Current trends in codal requirements for safety in operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivasista, K.; Shah, Y.K.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Code of practice on safety in nuclear power plant operation states the requirements to be met during operation of a nuclear power plant for assuring safety. Among various stages of authorization, regulatory body issues authorization for operation of a nuclear power plant, monitors and enforces regulatory requirements. The responsible organization shall have overall responsibility and the plant management shall have the primary responsibility for ensuring safe and efficient operation of its nuclear power plants. A set of codal requirements covering technical and administrative aspects are mandatory for the plant management to implement to ensure that the nuclear power plant is operated in accordance with the design intent. Requirements on operating procedures and instructions establish operation and maintenance, inspection and testing of the plant in a planned and systematic way. The requirements on emergency preparedness programme establish with a reasonable assurance that, in the event of an emergency situation, appropriate measures can be taken to mitigate the consequences. Commissioning requirements verify performance criteria during commissioning to ensure that the design intent and QA requirements are met. Several modifications in systems important to safety required during operation of a nuclear power plant are regulated. However new operational codal requirements arising out of periodic safety review, operational experience feedback, life management, probabilistic safety assessment, physical security, safety convention and obligations and decommissioning are not covered in the present code of practice for safety in nuclear power plant operation. Codal provisions on 'Review by operating organization on aspects of design having implications on operability' are also required to be addressed. The merits in developing such a methodology include acceptance of the design by operating organization, ensuring maintainability, proper layout etc. in the new designs

  2. Current state of the communications program concerning nuclear energy following the JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Rie

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Public trust in nuclear energy was significantly affected by a criticality accident that occurred in September 1999 at JCO's uranium re-conversion plant in Tokai-mura Village, Ibaraki Prefecture, some 120 kilometres north-east of Tokyo. An opinion survey was taken with local citizens in December that year, asking them how their views on nuclear energy changed after the accident. The survey findings indicate a grave fact that the citizens, who had lived in harmony with nuclear energy for the past 40 years, lost their confidence in this energy source because of the accident. The mishap also led to severer public opinion on nuclear energy at the nation-wide level, bringing forth a serious impediment to such projects as the siting of new nuclear power plants, the use of plutonium in light water reactors, intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel, and the promotion of high-level radioactive waste disposal. Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organisation analysed the critical situation surrounding nuclear energy development in the country. Based on the analysis results, JAERO is now actively promoting an interactive, participatory program that meets people's needs, in an effort to regain public trust in nuclear energy. We, at JAERO, believe that greater importance should be attached to the offer of relevant information to the rising generation that will play a leading role in future society. The most typical of JAERO activities for junior and senior high school students include an Essay Content launched in 1968 in commemoration of Atomic Energy Day on October 26 every year and a Radiation Workshop established in 1978. Through more than 11,000 essays collected from junior and senior high school students across the county, this report discusses how these young people think of the JCO criticality accident and what they expect of nuclear energy development in the years ahead. Amid growing public concern with radiation following the JCO accident, the report also

  3. Dark current spectroscopy of space and nuclear environment induced displacement damage defects in pinned photodiode based CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloir, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    CMOS image sensors are envisioned for an increasing number of high-end scientific imaging applications such as space imaging or nuclear experiments. Indeed, the performance of high-end CMOS image sensors has dramatically increased in the past years thanks to the unceasing improvements of microelectronics, and these image sensors have substantial advantages over CCDs which make them great candidates to replace CCDs in future space missions. However, in space and nuclear environments, CMOS image sensors must face harsh radiation which can rapidly degrade their electro-optical performances. In particular, the protons, electrons and ions travelling in space or the fusion neutrons from nuclear experiments can displace silicon atoms in the pixels and break the crystalline structure. These displacement damage effects lead to the formation of stable defects and to the introduction of states in the forbidden bandgap of silicon, which can allow the thermal generation of electron-hole pairs. Consequently, non ionizing radiation leads to a permanent increase of the dark current of the pixels and thus a decrease of the image sensor sensitivity and dynamic range. The aim of the present work is to extend the understanding of the effect of displacement damage on the dark current increase of CMOS image sensors. In particular, this work focuses on the shape of the dark current distribution depending on the particle type, energy and fluence but also on the image sensor physical parameters. Thanks to the many conditions tested, an empirical model for the prediction of the dark current distribution induced by displacement damage in nuclear or space environments is experimentally validated and physically justified. Another central part of this work consists in using the dark current spectroscopy technique for the first time on irradiated CMOS image sensors to detect and characterize radiation-induced silicon bulk defects. Many types of defects are detected and two of them are identified

  4. Nuclear power faces up to competition. A textbook on current controversial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goering, R.W.; Oesterwind, D.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power plants should face up to competition in the energy sector, and nuclear power reactor technology should at last be discussed without bias. The criteria to be applied are: environmental effects, availability, economics, safety and general acceptance. For decades now nuclear power plant operation has been proving to meet the first three of the above criteria. But although the engineered safety concepts and the available operating data proved successful and reliable, the safety philosophy underlying nuclear reactor technology still could not win general acceptance among the population. There have been considerable advances in engineered nuclear safety over the last few years. Reactors have been designed on the basis of a novel safety philosophy. Such novel concepts deserve a new approach for assessment, taking into account the worldwide population explosion, increasing energy consumption, and rising environmental hazards. The book in hand reviews and explains the advanced safety concepts, so that readers can get insight into the safety qualities of novel reactor types and thus criteria for novel assessment. (orig.) [de

  5. The current status of Korea's Nuclear Power Plant Industry and the Need for International Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woo [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    As an executive in charge of the nuclear power plant sector at Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction ('Doosan'), which is the nation's only major supplier of nuclear power plant equipment and materials, I would like to tell you about how the nation's nuclear power plant industry has developed and in what direction it is currently expected to advance, with the focus on my company's nuclear business activities. In 1980, Doosan built a large factory in Chang won with the aim of engaging in the industrial plant business, including production of power plant equipment and materials. This factory is now capable of producing equipment and materials for large-capacity power plants, ranging from the production of casting and forging to the final assembly of power plant equipment. The Korean government took the dramatic step of integrating power plant facilities of several companies into one entity, and have Doosan take over it. The nation continued to build nuclear power plants while making efforts to achieve self-reliance in the relevant technology.

  6. 4. International Conference on Current Problems in Nuclear Physics and Atomic Energy (NPAE-Kyiv2012). Proceedings. Part I and Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyshnevskyi, Ivan M.

    2012-01-01

    Such wide area of topics, discussed during the Conference, is closely connected with the interests of our country to develop the fundamental research in the field of nuclear physics, which is the base of nuclear energy. The purpose of the Conference was to bring together scientists to share their knowledge in the current problems in nuclear physics and atomic energy. consideration of the spherical ground-state proton emitters, while nuclear deformations are supposed to be further included by standard way

  7. Current situation and future of a nuclear power plan in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messi, E.

    2006-01-01

    After the crisis suffered by Argentina during the first years of the new millennium, the economic variables improved significantly, thus showing the need for an increase in the electric supply. While the growth rate of the electric demand has been of a steady 4%, the electric supply didn't come along as expected; mainly due to the decrease in the gas reserves, among other things. This scenario opens new opportunities for the nuclear area in our country: especially with Atucha II NPP termination that will contribute with 745 MWe gross output, together with Embalse NPP's life extension and refurbishment, and the analysis for the installation of new generation nuclear power plants in the decades to come, therefore strengthening the nuclear industry in Argentina. (author)

  8. A step toward nuclear sanity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Long, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that Reykjavik formally ended as a diplomatic failure, but it has begun an overdue revolution in perceptions. At long last, both superpowers have the in concrete terms that vastly smaller nuclear arsenals would make them safer. Implicitly, they are saying that nuclear weapons are not useful weapons. Those insights are a prerequisite to nuclear sanity. The United States has proposed to eliminate all strategic ballistic missiles, on land and submarines, in two five-year steps. During that period, we (and presumably the Soviet Union) would develop missile defenses to be deployed in ten years. The first part of this plan makes excellent sense. Ballistic missiles explode on their targets ten to thirty minutes after launch. Today's huge and accurate missile arsenals have forced both superpowers to adopt a hair-trigger stance: they might launch missiles simply on warning of attack

  9. Nuclear medicine imaging in clinical practice: Current applications and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, G.; Maini, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The following conclusions can be drawn: 1) Even though developments in data digitalization enable also other imaging techniques to extract functional information, it is likely that nuclear medicine will keep and possibly increase its key role for functional studies requiring quantitative data analyses. This statement is true at present and it will probably remain true for a long time to come. 2) Nuclear medicine is and will remain an important clinical tool also for morphological or morphodynamic studies in selected situations. Of course the integration of nuclear medicine studies with other diagnostic procedures is highly desirable. The highest clinical yield of multi-test diagnostic protocols will be anyway obtained by the wisest physician as sophysticated technology is no substitution for intelligent clinical judgment. 3) The development of new radiopharmaceuticals with well characterized biokinetic features allowing precise tissue characterization opens new frontiers to be exploited by nuclear medicine centers equipped with conventional technology (digital gammacameras, SPECT). 4) Positron emission tomography is the most important new development of nuclear medicine imaging. Not only PET has already shown its enormous possibilities for physiological and pathophysiological studies, but the clinical relevance of selected applications has been proved. More experience is however needed to assess systematically the whole impact of PET studies in clinical practice and to perform dependable cost/benefit studies. 5) Among all other imaging techniques NMR is the closest to nuclear medicine because of a strict ''compatibility of aptitudes, training and methodology'' (4). Accordingly future improvements of both methods will be better achieved if they could be integrated and the results compared with the same institutions

  10. Decommissioning commercial nuclear facilities: a review and analysis of current regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, A.H.; Lippek, H.E.; Tegeler, P.D.; Easterling, J.D.

    1979-08-01

    This report describes and analyzes the regulatory requirements and guidelines applicable to the decommissioning of commercial light water reactors, other commercial nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and byproduct utilization facilities, as contained principally in the United States Code, the United States Code of Federal Regulations, and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guides. State requirements are discussed where appropriate. The report provides general background informaion to license applicants and to other interested parties. Included is an outline of procedural steps required of an applicant to comply with decommissioning regulatory requiremets

  11. Current status of training and informing teachers on nuclear energy education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondo, T.

    1994-01-01

    In Japan, school education is conducted under a national unified system and the subject of nuclear energy is dealt with at lower and upper secondary level in social studies and science lessons. However, since opposition to nuclear energy is strong in Japan, the Ministry of Education does not provide any education on the subject for teachers. Some organizations, not related to the Ministry of Education, provide information for teachers (experiments, computer-assisted instruction, forums, conferences). A survey of awareness on energy and environment, carried out by JAERO amongst Japanese and European upper secondary school students, is presented

  12. Nuclear fuel for NPPs: current status and main trends of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, V.

    2013-01-01

    The customer’s main requirements to nuclear fuel at the present day are: to provide high performance of operational reliability of fuel; to uprate NPP’s capacity to the level of more than 100% from the designed one; to increase fuel cycle length; to increase the burnup of the fuel; to introduce load-follow mode at NPPs. To achieve this requirements the following TVEL activities are presented: New FA designs; Modern designing methods; New automated technologies of nuclear fuel fabrication; Driving to Zero Failure; Increase in safety and reliability of operation; Increase in economical efficiency of fuel utilization; Decrease in amount of spent fuel

  13. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 9, December 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) IRRS Lessons Learned Workshop held on 3-5 November 2008, Seville. The main purpose of the workshop was to provide information to interested Member States regarding the IRRS, to discuss their experiences and lessons learned from the regulatory review conducted at the CSN and to explore further improvements in the planning and implementation of the IRRS, including the establishment of a network of experts from regulatory authorities. 2) Highlights of the 52 General Conference. 3) The 2008 IAEA General Conference welcomed the endorsement of the new International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) User's Manual. 4) Safety and Security Infrastructure for Countries Embarking on Nuclear Power Programmes

  14. Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) - current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerski, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging has progressed rapidly from laboratory curiosity to commercial exploitation and clinical application in the space of only three years. The physical principles underlying the technique are described and the equipment requirements outlined. The question of optimal magnetic field strength is discussed. (author)

  15. Adaptation and Integration in the Nuclear Family: Some Thoughts on the Current Status of the Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Michael

    The paper briefly outlines some of the factors which influence the differentiation of leadership roles in the nuclear family, such that it may or may not occur, and that it may or may not occur along lines of sexual identity. Three general categories of factors are discussed: (1) the impact of individual differences in the family members; (2) the…

  16. Fire damage data analysis as related to current testing practices for nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevan, J.; MacDougall, E.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A review of reports of specific fires which have occurred in nuclear power plants in the United States is presented. A limited comparison of cable and similar fires with results of the IEEE 383 fire test used to evaluate cable insulation is also presented

  17. Waste management, decommissioning and environmental restoration for Canada's nuclear activities: 'Current practices and future needs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society conference on Waste Management, Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration for Canada's Nuclear Activities was held on May 8-11, 2005 in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The objective of this Conference was to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of views on the technical, regulatory and social challenges and opportunities in radioactive waste management, nuclear facility decommissioning and environmental restoration activities in Canada. The Conference was organized into several plenary sessions and eight technical tracks: Low- and intermediate-level wastes; Uranium mining and milling wastes; Used nuclear fuel; Decommissioning; Environmental restoration; Policy, economics and social issues; Licensing and regulatory issues; and, Radioactive materials transportation. The three-day Conference involved waste management, decommissioning and environmental technology practitioners; delegates from industry, academia, and government agencies and regulators; consulting engineers; financial and legal experts; and other specialists working in the field. While the Conference had a primarily Canadian focus, about 10 per cent of the submissions received came from foreign and international organizations, which provided insights into how other countries are dealing with similar issues

  18. Current status and prospects for the nuclear industry in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, Donald C.

    2008-01-01

    The future of the nuclear industry in America, I talk about the 'stars aligning' for nuclear energy as we began taking a serious look at new strategies to meet a growing demand for energy. These stars are : · The existing plants are operating well and at high safety standards · The production costs have become very competitive · The U. S. has a growing need for base load generation · Public support is at an all-time high · And, while I was chairman of the Nuclear Energy Institute, the U. S. Energy Bill was passed - with strong bipartisan support The U. S. Department of Energy estimates demand for electricity will increase in our country by 50 percent over the next 20 years. Put another way, we will need to build over 1,000 new power plants by 2020. That's about one per week. So we must work now to ensure that further supply is available, which will require exploration of new sources of power, including the latest nuclear technologies

  19. Current developments in mechanized non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilinger, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants require frequent in-service activities to be carried out conscientiously in areas potentially hazardous to human operators (because of the associated radiation exposure), such as non-destructive testing of pressurized components of the steam system. Locations to be inspected in this way include the reactor pressure vessel, core internals, steam generators, pressurizers, and pipes. The codes to be used as a basis of these inspections demand high absolute positioning and repeating accuracy. These requirements can be met by mechanized test procedures. Accordingly, many new applications of, mostly mobile, robots have been developed over the past few years. The innovative control and sensor systems for stationary and mobile robots now on the market offer a potential for economic application in a large number of new areas in inspection, maintenance and service in nuclear power plants. More progress in this area is expected for the near future. Areva NP founded the new NDT Center, NETEC (Non-destructive Examination Technical Center), as a global technical center for non-destructive materials testing. NETEC is to advance research and development of all basic NDT technologies, robotics included. For many years, intelligeNDT has offered solutions and products for a variety of inspection and testing purposes and locations in nuclear power plants and is involved in continuous further development of the experience collected in nuclear power plants on the spot. (orig.)

  20. Eddy current testing on structures of nuclear-grade IG-110 graphite for acceptance test in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Saikusa, Akio; Iyoku, Tatsuo

    1993-09-01

    Core and core support graphite structures in the HTTR are mainly made of IG-110 graphite which is fine-grained isotropic and nuclear-grade. Nondestructive inspection with eddy current testing is planned to be applied to these graphite structures. Eddy current testing is widely applied to metallic structures and its testing method has been already established. On the other hand, the characteristics of graphite are quite different in micro-structure from these of metals. Therefore, the eddy current testing method provided for metallic structures can not be applied directly to graphite structures. Thus the eddy current testing method and condition were established for the graphite structures made of IG-110 graphite. (author)

  1. Nuclear power in Kazakhstan and current status of the BN-350 fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, S.

    1998-01-01

    Atomic scientific-industrial complex of Republic of Kazakhstan consist of: Number of natural uranium mines, two plants of U 3 O 8 production at Aktau and Stepnogorsk towns, metallurgical plant producing fuel pellets for RBMK and WWER fuel assemblies. Fast breeder reactor with sodium coolant BN - 350 at Aktau. The average share of BN-350 in total electricity production is 0.7%. Taking into account common condition industrial in Kazakhstan have no significant improvement the total electricity production on goal and oil station stayed on the same level as in 1996. According to government decision in 1998 the following structure of atomic complex have been established. Several rather serious events should be mentioned. In January 1998 the Provision of licensing in nuclear field was signed by Prime Ministry and now Kazakhstan have all necessary acts for starting this process. In April 1998 the General Program of development atomic scientific and industrial complex of Kazakhstan had been reported to Government and got approval in whole. In particular this program are including the design and construction NPP for electricity production on the lake Balhash, and two NPP for heating Almaty and new capital Akmola. In April 1998 the law on Radiation protection had got approval of Parliament and now President should sign it. In January the Nuclear Technologies Safety Center (NTSC) had been established by group of organizations such as KAEA, NNC, University, Nuclear Society of Kazakhstan, Center of standardization and Almaty local administration. NTSC have established as a society independent experts in the field nuclear safety. With cooperation with ANL an expertise on nuclear safety of BN-350 will be done related to long-term spent fuel storage

  2. Assessing the optimism-pessimism debate: Nuclear proliferation, nuclear risks, and theories of state action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Nathan Edward

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the current debate in international relations literature over the risks associated with the proliferation of nuclear weapons. On this subject, IR scholars are divided into roughly two schools: proliferation 'optimists,' who argue that proliferation can be beneficial and that its associated hazards are at least surmountable, and proliferation 'pessimists,' who believe the opposite. This debate centers upon a theoretical disagreement about how best to explain and predict the behavior of states. Optimists generally ground their arguments on rational deterrence theory and maintain that nuclear weapons can actually increase stability among states, while pessimists often ground their arguments on 'organization theory,' which contends that organizational, bureaucratic, and other factors prevent states from acting rationally. A major difficulty with the proliferation debate, however, is that both sides tend to advance their respective theoretical positions without adequately supporting them with solid empirical evidence. This dissertation detailed analyses of the nuclear programs in the United States, Russia, China, India, and Pakistan to determine whether countries with nuclear weapons have adequate controls over their nuclear arsenals and tissue material stockpiles (such as highly enriched uranium and plutonium). These case studies identify the strengths and weaknesses of different systems of nuclear controls and help predict what types of controls proliferating states are likely to employ. On the basis of the evidence gathered from these cases, this dissertation concludes that a further spread of nuclear weapons would tend to have seriously negative effects on international stability by increasing risks of accidental, unauthorized, or inadvertent use of nuclear weapons and risks of thefts of fissile materials for use in nuclear or radiological devices by aspiring nuclear states or terrorist groups. (author)

  3. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. Issue no. 4, June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    allow a broad discussion and to form a consolidated opinion. This should apply to requests for assistance from recipient states as well from donor states/organizations. Participation in the RSTCG is based on competencies and responsibilities. Currently the following divisions/sections within the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Safety and Security with responsibilities related to the control and management of radioactive sources are represented: Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety with responsibilities in radiation safety related to sealed radioactive sources, Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, with responsibilities in recovery, conditioning, storage and/or repatriation and Office of Nuclear Security with responsibilities in the protection against malicious acts (through the whole life cycle of sources)

  4. Nuclear medicine in Uzbekistan and current status of radionuclide therapy in the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, N.; Khodjibekova, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The population of Uzbekistan is 26 million and to cater to this population we have only two nuclear medicine departments; one at the Clinical Centre for Surgery and the other at the Institute of Endocrinology, both situated in Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan. Over the years through its own initiatives and through the support provided by several International Organizations including the IAEA, Uzbekistan has been able to marginally improve its nuclear medicine services. SPECT imaging was introduced through generous support from IAEA in the year 2001. As a result of this, the country is now able to provide modern in vivo nuclear medicine service to the population in a limited scale. At the Clinical Centre for Surgery we are able to provide gamma camera and SPECT imaging services to patients suffering from various nephro-urological, cardiac, neuro and oncological disorders. The other nuclear medicine centre at the Institute of Endocrinology does not have any modern imaging system. However it has been engaged in providing radionuclide therapy service for thyroid diseases like thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. From the year 1983 to 1999 the country has reported a total number of 6374 cases of Thyroid Cancer. This number is growing each year, for example the incidence of thyroid cancer in 1989 was 1.95 per 100,000, which has grown to 2.39 per 100,000 in 1999. While the Institute of Endocrinology provides therapeutic service to thyroid diseases, the main role of the Nuclear Medicine Department of Republic Specialized Center of Surgery is in following-up of patients after therapy by performing large dose I-131 whole body imaging, screening for metastases and for assessment of results of radioactive iodine therapy. Besides treating thyroid diseases with I-131 limited services are also available for treatment of polycythemia vera rubra with P-32 and radionuclide therapy for metastatic bone pain. Radionuclide therapy is growing rapidly around the world

  5. Nuclear security and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozal, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show that the classical distinction between the military nuclear law and the civil nuclear law is outdated. The technologies are dual and might be misused from a pacific to a military goal. The central element of the nuclear law is thus the integration of the safety rules: the nuclear risk being universal, it has created an universal law (first part) that reflects our scientific knowledge and might thus evaluate. This universal law has been a factor of nuclear security (part 2), as in 50 years, there had been only one major nuclear accident and no nuclear conflict. The horizontal proliferation has been limited and the international community has understood that time had come to reduce our arsenals. (author)

  6. Beijing's nuclear strategy makes China a major player

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses China's nuclear strategy which is a subject of debate among Asia experts, even as Sino-Soviet relations warm to a point unseen since the 1950s. China lags in the number and sophistication of its weapons. But modernization, national pride and the shrinking U.S. and Soviet arsenals have made Beijing and an increasingly important player. Beijing insists that its arsenal is strictly for defensive purposes; they have signed an agreement to make the South Pacific a nuclear-free zone

  7. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 15, February 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Supporting radiation protection in medicine. Wano's pre-startup support. One stop for incident and emergency communications. Emergency preparedness in IAEA Member States. Sophisticated On-Site Nuclide Identification (RanidSONNI). Over land, sea and air: safe and secure transport of radioactive material. INES at 20: Success from simplicity. IAEA and Ibero-American Forum - strengthening ties. Highlights of the 54th IAEA General Conference, 20-24 September 2010. Highlights of the International conference on Challenges faced by TSOs. Department of Nuclear Safety programme highlights

  8. Current status of operation, utilization and refurbishment of the Dalat nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Duy Hien.

    1993-01-01

    The reconstructed nuclear research reactor at Dalat, Vietnam has been put into operation since March 1984. Up to present a cumulative operation time of 13,172 hrs at nominal power (500 kW) has been recorded. Production of radioisotopes for medical uses, element analysis by using activation techniques, as well as fundamental and applied research with filtered neutrons are the main activities of reactor utilizations. The problems facing Dalat Nuclear Research Institute are the ageing of the re-used TRIGA-MARK-II reactor components (especially the corrosion of the reactor tank), as well as the obsolescence of many equipment and components of the reactor control and instrumentation system. Refurbishment works are being in process with the technical and financial supports from the Vietnam government and the IAEA. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs, 10 figs

  9. Dressed dibaryon production as a new mechanism for basic nuclear force and meson-exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    A novel concept for the nuclear force is introduced. The approach assumes that a specific dressed six-quark state (dressed dibaryon) is generated in NN collision at intermediate and short ranges. The new dressing mechanism providing π-, σ-, ρ- and ω-meson clouds around the six quark core is discussed. These novel components produce both strong intermediate-range attraction and short-range repulsion in the NN sector due to the s-channel exchange mechanism which is supplemented with conventional π- and 2π- Yukawa exchanges at intermediate and long ranges. The model developed is demonstrated to lead to numerous new effects and contributions in many fields of nuclear physics. (author)

  10. Nuclear waste: A look at current use of funds and cost estimates for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy has revised its long-range cost estimates for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other highly radioactive waste from about $20 billion to between $21 billion and $41 billion. Delays in meeting some program milestones have added to the costs of the program and consequently DOE has proposed a 5-year delay for the first repository to come on-line. These program uncertainties will limit confidence in the estimates for the next several years. One such uncertainty is the estimated quantity of spent fuel for disposal. DOE's estimating approach overstates the amount of spent fuel that utilities will generate and the fees that they will pay into the Nuclear Waste Fund. As a result, DOE may not be collecting fees at a rate that will cover total program costs and may be overbuilding the waste system

  11. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed

  12. Aerospace use of nuclear energy and current biological problems of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Verde, R; Conte, L

    1982-08-25

    An examination of the danger to man which could result from accidents caused by the use of nuclear energy for space purposes leads to the presentation of parameters establishing levels of environmental contamination by radionucleids from the stratotroposphere. The factors affecting the transport of radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere are indicated and the importance of their deposition and absorption by man through the alimentary canal is emphasised.

  13. Evaluation of nuclear accidents consequences. Risk assessment methodologies, current status and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    General description of the structure and process of the probabilistic methods of assessment the external consequences in the event of nuclear accidents is presented. attention is paid in the interface with Probabilistic Safety Analysis level 3 results (source term evaluation) Also are described key issues in accident consequence evaluation as: effects evaluated (early and late health effects and economic effects due to countermeasures), presentation of accident consequences results, computer codes. Briefly are presented some relevant areas for the applications of Accident Consequence Evaluation

  14. Current status of the tasks performed by the Nuclear Fuel Department for the CAREM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Federico; Perez, Lidia E.; Perez, Aaldo; Marchi, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    CAREM Project required to the Nuclear Fuels Department to perform the necessary tasks to define the powder characteristics and natural UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 , UO 2 -1.8 and 3.1 % enrichment fuel pellets manufacturing and control parameters. To start with these tasks it was necessary to hire and train staff, begin the licensing process of the facilities, update infrastructure works and equipment of existing facilities. A brief description of the tasks performed is shown. (author)

  15. Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The current status of technology January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, I.S.; Kelly, B.R.; Wood, E.

    1987-02-01

    The Study assesses the degree and status of research and development worldwide on Direct Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel. It is limited to technological, radiological and waste management aspects appertaining to Light Water and AGR Reactor Systems and reviews the 'State of the Art' in terms of applicability to the United Kingdom. The report concludes that much technology exists both at National and International level which the UK can apply to the subject of Direct Disposal. (author)

  16. Engineered barrier development for a nuclear waste repository in basalt: an integration of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    This document represents a compilation of data and interpretive studies conducted as part of the engineered barriers program of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The overall objective of these studies is to provide information on barrier system designs, emplacement and isolation techniques, and chemical reactions expected in a nuclear waste repository located in the basalts underlying the Hanford Site within the state of Washington. Backfills, waste-basalt interactions, sorption, borehole plugging, etc., are among the topics discussed.

  17. Monitoring techniques for the impact assessment during nuclear and radiological emergencies: current status and the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    Preparedness and response capability for Nuclear and Radiological emergencies, existing world over, are mainly based on the requirement of responding to radiation emergency caused by nuclear or radiological accidents. Cosmos satellite accident, plutonium contamination at Polaris, nuclear accidents like Kystium, Windscale, TMI and Chernobyl, radiological accidents at Goiania etc have demonstrated the requirement of improved radiation monitoring techniques. For quick decision making, state of the art monitoring methodology which can support quantitative and qualitative impact assessment is essential. Evaluation of radiological mapping of the area suspected to be contaminated needs ground based as well as aerial based monitoring systems to predict the level of radioactive contamination on ground. This will help in delineating the area and deciding the required countermeasures, based on the quantity and type of radionuclides responsible for it. The response can be successful with the effective use of i) Early Warning System ii) Mobile Monitoring System and iii) Aerial Gamma Spectrometric System. Selection of the monitoring methodology and survey parameters and assessment of situation using available resources etc. are to be optimized depending on the accident scenario. Recently, many countries and agencies like IAEA have expressed the requirement for responding to other types of nuclear/radiological emergencies i.e, man made radiation emergency situations aimed at harming public at large that can also lead to environmental contamination and significant exposure to public. Reports of lost / misplaced / stolen radioactive sources from many countries are alarming as safety and security of these radioactive sources are under challenge. The monitoring methodology has to take into account of the increase in such demands and more periodic monitoring in suspected locations is to be carried out. Detection of orphan sources possible amidst large heap of metallic scraps may pose

  18. Risk informed regulation of nuclear facilities: Overview of the current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This report provides guidance on the use of risk information by regulatory bodies as part of an integrated decision making process. This addresses the way in which risk information is being used in decisions about safety issues at nuclear plants, sometimes referred to as risk informed decision making, and how risk information is being used by regulatory bodies as an input into the activities that they carry out, sometimes referred to as risk informed regulation

  19. Current summary of international extreme load design requirements for nuclear power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of extreme load design criteria both as to rate and depth within any national jurisdiction as applied to nuclear power plant design is a function of several factors. The prime factor is the number of nuclear power plant facilities which are operating, under construction or planned in a given country. The second most important factor seems to be the degree of development of a domestic independent nuclear steam system supplier, NSSS vendor. Finally, countries whose domestic NSSS firms are active in the export market appear to have more active criteria development programs or at least they appear more visible to the foreign observer. For the purposes of this paper, extreme loads are defined as those loads having probability of occurence less than 10 -1 /yr and whose occurence could result in radiological consequences in excess of those permitted by national health standards. The specific loads considered include earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), airplane crash, detonation, and high energy system rupture. The paper identifies five national centers for extreme load criteria development; Canada, Great Britian, USA, USSR, and West Germany with both France and Japan also about to appear as independent centers of criteria development. Criteria under development by each national center are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  20. Inventing an arsenal: adaptive evolution and neofunctionalization of snake venom phospholipase A2 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Vincent J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication followed by functional divergence has long been hypothesized to be the main source of molecular novelty. Convincing examples of neofunctionalization, however, remain rare. Snake venom phospholipase A2 genes are members of large multigene families with many diverse functions, thus they are excellent models to study the emergence of novel functions after gene duplications. Results Here, I show that positive Darwinian selection and neofunctionalization is common in snake venom phospholipase A2 genes. The pattern of gene duplication and positive selection indicates that adaptive molecular evolution occurs immediately after duplication events as novel functions emerge and continues as gene families diversify and are refined. Surprisingly, adaptive evolution of group-I phospholipases in elapids is also associated with speciation events, suggesting adaptation of the phospholipase arsenal to novel prey species after niche shifts. Mapping the location of sites under positive selection onto the crystal structure of phospholipase A2 identified regions evolving under diversifying selection are located on the molecular surface and are likely protein-protein interactions sites essential for toxin functions. Conclusion These data show that increases in genomic complexity (through gene duplications can lead to phenotypic complexity (venom composition and that positive Darwinian selection is a common evolutionary force in snake venoms. Finally, regions identified under selection on the surface of phospholipase A2 enzymes are potential candidate sites for structure based antivenin design.

  1. The arsenal of pathogens and antivirulence therapeutic strategies for disarming them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brannon JR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available John R Brannon,1 Maria Hadjifrangiskou1,21Division of Molecular Pathogenesis, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, 2Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Pathogens deploy an arsenal of virulence factors (VFs to establish themselves within their infectious niche. The discovery of antimicrobial compounds and their development into therapeutics has made a monumental impact on human and microbial populations. Although humans have used antimicrobials for medicinal and agricultural purposes, microorganism populations have developed and shared resistance mechanisms to persevere in the face of classical antimicrobials. However, a positive substitute is antivirulence therapy; antivirulence therapeutics prevent or interrupt an infection by counteracting a pathogen’s VFs. Their application can reduce the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials and dampen the frequency with which resistant strains emerge. Here, we summarize the contribution of VFs to various acute and chronic infections. In correspondence with this, we provide an overview of the research and development of antivirulence strategies.Keywords: virulence factors, antivirulence therapeutics, biofilms, regulation, Escherichia coli, quorum sensing, persister cells

  2. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  3. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  4. Report on the current situation with regard to nuclear fuel and the operations of Svensk Kaernbraenslefoersoerjning AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The cost of supplying nuclear fuel, including the reserve stockpile, has averaged about SEK 0.033/kWhe during the report period. Within the sea transportation system, the ship m/s Sigyn was delivered during the month of October. The temporary storage facility for spent fuel, CLAB, is scheduled to be completed at Simpevarp at the beginning of 1985. Licensing applications have been submitted to the appropriate authorities for the construction of a final repository for reactor waste (SFR) in an underground facility to be built in the rock adjacent to the Forsmark nuclear power station. The first outbound shipment from Ringhals under the reprocessing contract between SKBF and COGEMA of France is planned to take place around the start of 1983. Reprocessing will commence in 1985 at the earliest. The uranium (approx. 850 tonnes) and plutonium (approx. 6 tonnes) obtained from reprocessing is Swedish property. Broad and long-range research is currently being conducted in order to further refine the technology and select a site for the final repository, SFL. Efforts are now being concentrated on the final storage of spent fuel without reprocessing. Construction of the repository is scheduled to start in 2010 and operation in 2020. SKBF has been entrusted with the management of the international Stripa project. Pursuant to the new Financing Act, SKBF submitted a report on 30 June of this year to the National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (NAK). The report included a cost estimate in 1981 prices for the management and various stages in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The estimate, comes out to SEK 32 billion, which represents about 10percent of the value of the electrical power produced by the nuclear power plants. The Government has decided upon a rate of SEK 0.017/kWhe of electricity generated by nuclear power as the 1982 charge to be paid to the state (NAK). The total cost picture for nuclear fuel (including provision for the costs of decommissioning of nuclear power

  5. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China. Current status and suggestion on future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Wang Xunqing

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviewed the main achievements of nuclear agricultural sciences, analyzed its developmental gap and provided some thoughts on its future development in China. Since the research and application of nuclear agricultural sciences was initiated in 1956, it has penetrated into the main fields of agriculture and made outstanding achievements, in some fields, China keeps a leading place in the world. By the end of 2001, China obtained 625 mutant varieties and strains, accounting for 27.2% of the total number in the world. The total planting area of the mutant varieties amounted to about 9 million hectares, and brought about an annual increase of grains by 3-4 million tons, cotton by 1.5-1.8 million tons, oilseeds by 0.75 million tons, with total annual economic benefit of 3.3-4.0 billion RMB Yuan. Among the released mutant varieties, 18 were awarded the national innovation prize. China approved national hygiene standards for 6 classes of irradiated foods, and 17 national technological standards of irradiated foods. The annual amount of irradiated foods and agricultural commodities ranged from 80-100 thousand tons. In general, the application of nuclear agricultural sciences in mutation breeding, space breeding, agricultural isotope tracers, food irradiation, sterile insect technique and radiation hormesis, has made considerable advancement and gained tremendous economic, social as well as ecological benefits. As a result, the IAEA and its technical officials highly evaluated nuclear agriculture in China. In 1999, China was approved as the RCA lead country for thematic agriculture. In considering its future development, the focus should be placed on the applied basic research and the development of some key technologies, and endeavor to make some breakthroughs in the molecular mechanism of mutation breeding and space breeding, irradiation quarantine technology , isotope tracing in environmental protection, animal health and production. The general objective is

  6. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 7, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) International Conference on Radioecology and Environmental Radioactivity 15-20 June 2008, Bergen organized by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) and the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) in cooperation with IAEA, WHO, OECD/NEA, the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Journal of environmental Radioactivity (JER). This conference has evolved from the merging of the series of conferences by ECORAD and of the International Conferences on Radioactivity in the Environment. The primary objective of the conference was to review all scientific themes related to the study of environmental radioactivity and to identify new societal needs and requirements for regulatory bodies and industry. All sources of radiation, from industrial discharges in planned exposure situations through to sources in existing and emergency exposure situations, were included in the scope of the conference. 2) The Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Safety and Security Regulatory Agencies (the FORO); 3) Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant in the earthquake on 16 July 2007 - plant's response and effects and lessons learned

  7. Direct current linear measurement sub-assembly data and test methods. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The M.C.H./M.E.N.T.3 document is concerned with sub-assemblies intended for measuring on a linear scale the neutron fluence rate or radiation dose rate when connected with nuclear detectors working in current. The symbols used are described. Some definitions and a bibliography are given. The main characteristics of direct current linear measurement sub-assemblies are then described together with corresponding test methods. This type of instrument indicates on a linear scale the level of a direct current applied to its input. The document reviews linear sub-assemblies for general purpose applications, difference amplifiers for monitoring, and averaging amplifiers. The document is intended for electronics manufacturers, designers, persons participating in acceptance trials and plant operators [fr

  8. A standardized procedure for eddy-current testing of stainless steel, thin-walled nuclear fuel element cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.; Raj, B.; Bhattacharya, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thin-walled nuclear fuel cladding tubes made of AISI 316 stainless steel have been examined by eddy-current testing. Standardization of the procedures has required investigations on optimizing the test frequency, finding a method to locate a defect with respect to the probe reference end, and the use of standard defects and sequential metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing, to understand the influence of the nature of defects on the impedance output signals. Test frequency and method of locating the defect were optimized by the use of standard defects made by machining in reference cladding tubes. Subsequent metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing revealed mainly clusters of inclusions but also other types of defects. The effect of the distribution of inclusions along the length of the tube on the impedance output is discussed. (author)

  9. Standardized procedure for eddy-current testing of stainless steel, thin-walled nuclear fuel element cladding tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, P; Raj, B; Bhattacharya, D K [Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India)

    1982-10-01

    Thin-walled nuclear fuel cladding tubes made of AISI 316 stainless steel have been examined by eddy-current testing. Standardization of the procedures has required investigations on optimizing the test frequency, finding a method to locate a defect with respect to the probe reference end, and the use of standard defects and sequential metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing, to understand the influence of the nature of defects on the impedance output signals. Test frequency and method of locating the defect were optimized by the use of standard defects made by machining in reference cladding tubes. Subsequent metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing revealed mainly clusters of inclusions but also other types of defects. The effect of the distribution of inclusions along the length of the tube on the impedance output is discussed.

  10. Current status on research and development of accelerator-driven system and nuclear transmutation technology in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho

    2013-01-01

    This status report describes the current status on research and development (R and D) of accelerator-driven system (ADS) and nuclear transmutation techniques (NTT), including nuclear data, accelerator techniques, Pb-Bi target, fuel technologies and reactor physics, in East Asian countries: Japan, Korea and China. The report also includes all presentation materials presented in 'the 10th International Workshop on Asian Network for ADS and NTT (ADS+NTT 2012)' held at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka, Japan on 6th and 7th December, 2012. The objective of this workshop is to make actual progress of ADS R and D especially in East Asian countries, as well as in European countries, through sharing mutual interests and conducting the information exchange each other. The 5 of 27 papers presented at the entitled report and meeting are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Yersinia virulence factors - a sophisticated arsenal for combating host defences [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Atkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human pathogens Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica cause enterocolitis, while Yersinia pestis is responsible for pneumonic, bubonic, and septicaemic plague. All three share an infection strategy that relies on a virulence factor arsenal to enable them to enter, adhere to, and colonise the host while evading host defences to avoid untimely clearance. Their arsenal includes a number of adhesins that allow the invading pathogens to establish a foothold in the host and to adhere to specific tissues later during infection. When the host innate immune system has been activated, all three pathogens produce a structure analogous to a hypodermic needle. In conjunction with the translocon, which forms a pore in the host membrane, the channel that is formed enables the transfer of six ‘effector’ proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. These proteins mimic host cell proteins but are more efficient than their native counterparts at modifying the host cell cytoskeleton, triggering the host cell suicide response. Such a sophisticated arsenal ensures that yersiniae maintain the upper hand despite the best efforts of the host to counteract the infecting pathogen.

  12. One-pion exchange current corrections for nuclear magnetic moments in relativistic mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Yao, J.M.; Meng Jie; Arima, Akito

    2011-01-01

    The one-pion exchange current corrections to isoscalar and isovector magnetic moments of double-closed shell nuclei plus and minus one nucleon with A = 15, 17, 39 and 41 have been studied in the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory and compared with previous relativistic and non-relativistic results. It has been found that the one-pion exchange current gives a negligible contribution to the isoscalar magnetic moments but a significant correction to the isovector ones. However, the one-pion exchange current enhances the isovector magnetic moments further and does not improve the corresponding description for the concerned nuclei in the present work. (author)

  13. A linear current injection generator for the generation of electrons in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Moutushi; Thakur, Satish Kumar; Agiwal, Mamta; Sholapurwala, Zarir H.

    2011-01-01

    While, operating a nuclear reactor it is absolutely necessary for generating a chain reaction or fission. A chain reaction can be initiated by bombardment of a heavy nucleus with fast moving particles. One of the common methods used for generating a fast moving particle is injecting a very high voltage into a particle accelerator and accelerating high energy particle beams using machine like cyclotron, synchrotron, linear accelerators i.e. linac and similar equipment. These equipment generated and run by several high voltage applications like simple high voltage DC systems and supplies or pulsed electron systems. (author)

  14. 2012: the world on the brink of a nuclear proliferation crisis; Annee 2012: le monde au bord d'une crise de proliferation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norlain, Bernard

    2012-02-15

    The author's determined plea that France gives up its dogmatic position on nuclear weapons and takes the lead in a nuclear disarmament movement is based on a conviction that the concept of nuclear deterrence is outdated, the fear of rapidly-growing proliferation in 2012 and the excessive cost of ownership of the French nuclear arsenal

  15. Development of an intelligent high-voltage direct-current power supply for nuclear detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuliang

    1997-01-01

    The operation and performances of a new type direct-current high-voltage power supply are described. The power supply with intelligent feature is controlled by a single-chip microcomputer (8031), and various kinds of output voltage can be preset. The output-voltage is monitored and regulated by the single-chip microcomputer and displayed by LED. The output voltage is stable when the load current is within the allowable limits

  16. Current role of the radiographers in imaging diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy in modern departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karidova, S.; Velkova, K.; Panamska, K.; Petkova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the communication we set out to focus the attention of the medical staff and the public on the place and the constantly growing role (relative burden) of the radiographers in imaging diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy in the field of modern medicine. The advanced radiographers level and rapid development of the contemporary equipment and apparatuses used in imaging diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, as well as the methods of their utilization, presuppose very good and constantly improving theoretical and practical training of the imaging technician. The radiographer fulfills responsible tasks under the guidance of the physician or independently and bears specific responsibilities. Having mastered the fundamentals of radiation protection, the imaging technician protects both himself and the patient from the impact of ionizing radiation. To be able to fulfill his/her constantly increasing duties and obligations, the imaging radiographer has acquired wide knowledge of general education subjects, subjects of general medicine and special subjects. The radiographer has a good knowledge of Latin and a modern foreign language, and he is also computer literate so as to be able to cope with the widely spread visualizing methods. The radiographer acquires additional post-graduate training to work in narrowly specialized fields as well as to improve his/her qualifications

  17. Current status of generation III nuclear power and assessment of AP1000 developed by Westinghouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingchang

    2005-01-01

    In order to make greater contributions to the environment, new nuclear power systems will be needed to meet the increase of electricity demand and to replace plants to be decommissioned. A series of new designs, so called Generation III and Generation III +, are being developed to ensure their deployment in a Near-Term Deployment Road-map in US by 2010 and in Europe by 2015. The AP1000, developed by Westinghouse, is a two-loop 1000 MWe PWR with passive safety features and extensive simplifications to enhance its competitiveness in cost and tariff. It is the first Generation III + plant receiving the Final Design Approval by the US NRC. This paper briefly describes AP1000 design features and technical specifications, and presents a more detailed design evaluation with reference to relevant literatures. Both the opportunity and challenges for nuclear power development in China during the first decade of the 21 st century in a historic transition from Gen II to Gen III are analyzed. The key is to balance risks and benefits if the first AP1000 to be settled down in China. (author)

  18. Establishing the Appropriate Attributes in Current Human Reliability Assessment Techniques for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, Jane; Munley, Gary; Dang, Vinh; Wreathall, John; Bye, Andreas; Cooper, Susan; Marble, Julie; Peters, Sean; Xing, Jing; Fauchille, Veronique; Fiset, Jean Yves; Haage, Monica; Johanson, Gunnar; Jung, Won Dae; Kim, Jaewhan; Lee, Seung Jung; Kubicek, Jan; Le Bot, Pierre; Pesme, Helene; Preischl, Wolfgang; Salway, Alice; Amri, Abdallah; Lamarre, Greg; White, Andrew; )

    2015-03-01

    This report presents the results of a joint task of the Working Groups on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) and on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF) of the OECD/NEA CSNI, to identify desirable attributes of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) methods, and to evaluate a range of HRA methods used in OECD member countries against those attributes. The purpose of this project is to provide information that will support regulators and operators of nuclear facilities when making judgements about the appropriateness of HRA methods for conducting assessments in support of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSA). The task was performed by an international team of Human Factors, HRA and PSA experts from a broad range of OECD member countries. As in other reviews of HRA methods, the study did not set out to recommend or promote the use of any particular HRA method. Rather the study aims to identify the strengths and limitations of commonly used and developing methods to aid those responsible for production of HRAs in selecting appropriate tools for specific HRA applications. The study also aims to assist regulators when making judgements on the appropriateness of the application of an HRA technique within nuclear-related probabilistic safety assessments. The report is aimed at practitioners in the field of human reliability assessment, human factors, and risk assessment more generally

  19. Current trends on internal dosimetry for patient protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gisone, P.A.; Kunst, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The associated risk-benefit analyses in nuclear medicine implicitly performed by the clinician have been straightforward. Relatively low administered activity activities yield important diagnostic information, the benefit of which far outweigh any potential risk associated with the attendant normal tissue radiation doses. Such small risk to benefit ratios have been very forgiving of possible inaccuracies in dose estimates. With the ongoing development of new radiopharmaceutical and the increasing therapeutic application of internal radionuclides, radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine continues to evolve from population- and organ-average to patient-specific dose estimation. Patient-specific dosimetry refers to the estimation of radiation dose to tissues of a specific-patients based on their individual body and measured biokinetics rather than an average anthropomorphic model and hypothetic kinetic. The importance of dosimetry specific-patient considers to avoid the risk of an unsuitable treatment and/or with probability of damage to the patient. This is illustrated by the dosimetric approaches to radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. The most common prescription algorithm to fix the activity administered to a hyperthyroid patient does not consider individual parameters that are highly variable (thyroid uptake, biological half-life, thyroid mass). Its arbitrary approach doesn't permit individually optimized therapy and it may be inappropriate and even hazardous. (author)

  20. Current status and development of heat exchangers for boiling water reactor nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yoshio; Nishioka, Shuji; Ito, Shizuo

    1975-01-01

    More efficient and reliable operation is required for BWR heat exchangers because of nuclear plant safety and other reasons. Heat exchangers are classified into two categories of systems, the system for normal operation and the system for emergency operation. The present state and future improvement of heat exchangers are described in view of heat transfer performance, material selection, structural design, vibration, and so on. When noncondensing gas exists in vapour, heat transfer performance deteriorates, so that the heat transfer characteristics should be corrected by the adaption of venting the non condensing gas from the system. Heat transfer tubes should have high corrosion resistance to working fluid as well as high thermal conductivity, strength and economy. From that point of view, 30% cupro-nickel tubes will be replaced with 10% cupro-nickel tubes or titanium tubes though some technical development is necessary. These heat exchangers are now designed according to the MITI criteria for the technology concerning nuclear and thermal power generation, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sec. III and some other criteria. Most of heat transfer tube failures are caused from the tube vibration induced by working fluid flow, so that the vibration test and analysis were performed on U-tube elements. Some correction was obtained for design and fabrication techniques. (Iwase, T.)

  1. Current status of nuclear research reactor management and utilization program in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramrattana, M.; Busamongkol, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The TRR1/M1 is the first research reactor and has been in operational for more than 20 years. During the three decades of research reactor operation in Thailand the utilization of research reactor have been broadened in different fields such as agriculture, medicine and industry. Limitation on utilization of the existing reactor in various fields has led to establishing of a new nuclear research center, Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC). The ONRC comprises three major facilities, namely Reactor Island, Isotope Production Facility and Waste Processing and Storage Facility. The reactor itself is a 10 MW TRIGA-type fuels, moderated and cooled by light water with beryllium and heavy water as the reflectors. It is a multi-purpose reactor consisting of different facilities inside and around the core for radioisotope production, medical and industrial uses; and for beam experiments such as High Resolution Powder Diffractometry (HRPD), Neutron Radiography (NR), Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA), and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The center is expected to be operational by year 2001. (author)

  2. Current situation of the project finishing of the building of 3 and 4 block of the nuclear power plant Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznan, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the contribution there is the basic information mentioned about history of building and the current situation at the finishing of the building of 3 and 4 block of the Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce with the use of project digitization. Further on the contribution shows what kinds of supporting material has been elaborated, what kind of decisions have been issued to the finishing of the building, way of financing and also the assumption of investment return under the defined conditions. An orientation time schedule of the finishing of the building and the crucial steps for its security are presented in the conclusion

  3. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  4. Current state of knowledge of water radiolysis effects on spent nuclear fuel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Sunder, S.

    2000-07-01

    Literature data on the effect of water radiolysis products on spent-fuel oxidation and dissolution are reviewed. Effects of gamma radiolysis, alpha radiolysis, and dissolved O 2 or H 2 O 2 in unirradiated solutions are discussed separately. Also, the effect of carbonate in gamma-irradiated solutions and radiolysis effects on leaching of spent fuel are reviewed. In addition, a kinetic model for calculating the corrosion rates of UO 2 in solutions undergoing radiolysis is discussed. The model gives good agreement between calculated and measured corrosion rates in the case of gamma radiolysis and in unirradiated solutions containing dissolved oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. However, the model fails to predict the results of alpha radiolysis. In a recent study , it was shown that the model gave good agreement with measured corrosion rates of spent fuel exposed in deionized water. The applications of radiolysis studies for geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel are discussed. (author)

  5. Adequacy of current systems for monitoring extremity exposures at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.D.; Harty, R.

    1985-01-01

    In general, only a small portion of workers at commercial nuclear power plants are limited by extremity exposures, and these workers can be readily identified. There seems to be no need for increased badging among the radiation workers. However, those workers who are extremity limited may not be receiving adequate dosimetry. For workers handling compact sources, unless contrary information is available, the tip of the thumb of the dominant hand can be assumed to be the limiting site, and dose to the thumb tip averaged over one square centimeter at the basal layer of the skin should be measured or estimated. As discussed briefly in this paper, the assessment of dose in high gradient fields can be a difficult task. The particular dosimeter studied is a band-aid type composed of a thermoluminescent material embedded in a carbon matrix under 4 mils of plastic. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique are discussed

  6. Seismic hazard analysis of nuclear installations in France. Current practice and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadioun, B [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    The methodology put into practice in France for the evaluation of seismic hazard on the sites of nuclear facilities is founded on data assembled country-wide over the past 15 years, in geology, geophysics and seismology. It is appropriate to the regional seismotectonic context (interplate), characterized notably by diffuse seismicity. Extensive use is made of information drawn from historical seismicity. The regulatory practice described in the RFS I.2.c is reexamined periodically and is subject to up-dating so as to take advantage of new earthquake data and of the results gained from research work. Acquisition of the basic data, such as the identification of active faults and the quantification of site effect, which will be needed to achieve improved preparedness versus severe earthquake hazard in the 21st century, will necessarily be the fruit of close international cooperation and collaboration, which should accordingly be actively promoted. (J.P.N.)

  7. Current and future role of agreements for cooperation as the framework for international nuclear commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, P.N.

    1976-01-01

    An agreement for cooperation in the civil use of atomic energy was established by Congress as the primary vehicle for ensuring that the benefits of cooperation outweigh the risks. The elements and nature of the agreement for cooperation are reviewed in this article. The evolution of some of the more significant provisions of the agreements and the type of activities conducted under them are discussed. The question is raised as to whether or not these agreements for cooperation are strong enough in the light of nations of the world becoming more concerned with the implications of burgeoning nuclear power activities. The question, ''Should these agreements be elevated to the status of treaties.'' is asked also

  8. Current status of medical training for facing chemical, biological and nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Cepena, Eulises; Gell Labannino, Adia; Perez Perez, Aristides

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was conducted in 200 sixth year-medical students from the Faculty 2 of Medical University in Santiago de Cuba during 2011-2012, with the purpose of determining some of deficiencies affecting their performance during chemical, biological or nuclear disasters, for which an unstructured survey and an observation guide were applied. In the series demotivation of some students regarding the topic, poor theoretical knowledge of the topic, the ignorance of ways to access information and the little use of this topic in college scientific events were evidenced, which also involved the little systematization of the content on disasters and affected the objectives of medical training with comprehensive profile

  9. Report on the current situation and the perspectives for nuclear equipment in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietti, A.; Hubert, G.; Frant, G.

    1994-01-01

    1993 was the year the 1300 MW series was completed as the twentieth GOLFECH 2 unit came on line. The 1400 MW-N4 series has progressed as planned: the first CHOOZ B unit is due to be connected to the grid in the Winter of 95/96. The fourth unit of the series, CIVAUX 2 was engaged in 1993. As for the FNR system, 1994 should be the year when the CREYS-MALVILLE power plant project, which will play a vital role in gathering industrial experience on this system, is restarted. In spite of the present weak development forecasts, nuclear power has strong prospects over the next fifty years. Therefore, EDF is working on several projects with the object of reinforcing safety and maintaining economic competitiveness, while, at the same time, taking into account the results of the research carried out into different systems and industrial criteria. (authors). 5 figs

  10. Seismic hazard analysis of nuclear installations in France. Current practice and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    The methodology put into practice in France for the evaluation of seismic hazard on the sites of nuclear facilities is founded on data assembled country-wide over the past 15 years, in geology, geophysics and seismology. It is appropriate to the regional seismotectonic context (interplate), characterized notably by diffuse seismicity. Extensive use is made of information drawn from historical seismicity. The regulatory practice described in the RFS I.2.c is reexamined periodically and is subject to up-dating so as to take advantage of new earthquake data and of the results gained from research work. Acquisition of the basic data, such as the identification of active faults and the quantification of site effect, which will be needed to achieve improved preparedness versus severe earthquake hazard in the 21st century, will necessarily be the fruit of close international cooperation and collaboration, which should accordingly be actively promoted. (J.P.N.)

  11. Current status of research and development for nuclear heating reactor in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dazhong; Ma Changwen; Dong Duo

    1987-01-01

    At present the coal is the main source for district heating in China. It results in serious problems for transportation and pollution. Nuclear district heating reactor can substitute the coal and supply the clear and ecenomic heat energy for the cities. A feasibility studies for a district heating reactor with the power of 450 MW(t) in Harbin were carried out. With cooperation of heating boilers heat demand of 1.2 million pupulation can be satisfied. 600 x 10 3 tons coal per year can be saved. The temperature of the heat grid is 130/70 deg C. The main parameters of the 450 MW(t) and 5 MW(t) heating reactors are given. The technical design, safety aspects, economic analysis and the stability of test loop are also discussed. (Liu)

  12. Preliminary research on eddy current bobbin quantitative test for heat exchange tube in nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pan; Shao, Wenbin; Liao, Shusheng

    2016-02-01

    For quantitative defects detection research on heat transfer tube in nuclear power plants (NPP), two parts of work are carried out based on the crack as the main research objects. (1) Production optimization of calibration tube. Firstly, ASME, RSEM and homemade crack calibration tubes are applied to quantitatively analyze the defects depth on other designed crack test tubes, and then the judgment with quantitative results under crack calibration tube with more accuracy is given. Base on that, weight analysis of influence factors for crack depth quantitative test such as crack orientation, length, volume and so on can be undertaken, which will optimize manufacture technology of calibration tubes. (2) Quantitative optimization of crack depth. Neural network model with multi-calibration curve adopted to optimize natural crack test depth generated in in-service tubes shows preliminary ability to improve quantitative accuracy.

  13. Eddy-current inspection of high flux isotope reactor nuclear control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.H.; Chitwood, L.D.

    1981-07-01

    Inner control rods for the High Flux Isotope Reactor were nondestructively inspected for defects by eddy-current techniques. During these examinations aluminum cladding thickness and oxide thickness on the cladding were also measured. Special application techniques were required because of the high-radiation levels (approx. 10 5 R/h at 30 cm) present and the relatively large temperature gradients that occurred on the surface of the control rods. The techniques used to perform the eddy-current inspections and the methods used to reduce the associated data are described

  14. Study on ICT specification devices compared with needs and current technologies at Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fauzi Haris; Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Mohd Hafez Mohd Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In line with current development of ICT, Malaysian government has planned and introduced several initiatives based on ICT strategies. In Economic Transformation Programs, these matters were mentioned in Chapter 13 entitled Communication Content and Infrastructure. In order to make these plans successful, sustainability and preparedness of ICT are required. ICT devices were not focused only on computer but also others components that supported and increased the performance of computer itself. This paper discussed on data produced from study of current ICT needs in line with technology and in future hopefully it can support all the planning made by the government. (author)

  15. INTERNET and information about nuclear sciences. The world wide web virtual library: nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this work author proposes to constitute new virtual library which should centralize the information from nuclear disciplines on the INTERNET, in order to them to give first and foremost the connection on the most important links in set nuclear sciences. The author has entitled this new virtual library The World Wide Web Library: Nuclear Sciences. By constitution of this virtual library next basic principles were chosen: home pages of international organizations important from point of view of nuclear disciplines; home pages of the National Nuclear Commissions and governments; home pages of nuclear scientific societies; web-pages specialized on nuclear problematic, in general; periodical tables of elements and isotopes; web-pages aimed on Chernobyl crash and consequences; web-pages with antinuclear aim. Now continue the links grouped on web-pages according to single nuclear areas: nuclear arsenals; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear aspects of biology (radiobiology); nuclear chemistry; nuclear company; nuclear data centres; nuclear energy; nuclear energy, environmental aspects of (radioecology); nuclear energy info centres; nuclear engineering; nuclear industries; nuclear magnetic resonance; nuclear material monitoring; nuclear medicine and radiology; nuclear physics; nuclear power (plants); nuclear reactors; nuclear risk; nuclear technologies and defence; nuclear testing; nuclear tourism; nuclear wastes; nuclear wastes. In these single groups web-links will be concentrated into following groups: virtual libraries and specialized servers; science; nuclear societies; nuclear departments of the academic institutes; nuclear research institutes and laboratories; centres, info links

  16. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J.

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs

  17. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J. (comps.)

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  18. EXTRACSION: a system for automatic Eddy Current diagnosis of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.; Zorgati, R.

    1992-01-01

    Improving speed and quality of Eddy Current non-destructive testing of steam generator tubes leads to automation of all process that contribute to diagnosis. This paper describes how signal processing, pattern recognition and artificial and artificial intelligence are used to build a software package that is able to automatically provide an efficient diagnosis. (author)

  19. Extraction: a system for automatic eddy current diagnosis of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.; Zorgati, R.

    1994-01-01

    Improving speed and quality of Eddy Current non-destructive testing of steam generator tubes leads to automatize all processes that contribute to diagnosis. This paper describes how we use signal processing, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence to build a software package that is able to automatically provide an efficient diagnosis. (authors). 2 figs., 5 refs

  20. The Creys-Malville nuclear power plant. Information in central data processing during current microbreaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garelly, H.

    1980-01-01

    Having recalled a few definitions and some statistics, mention is then made of the problem of current microbreak measurement, the software facilities to be employed so that they do not affect the operation of the data processing system and their effects on the software [fr

  1. How current are EURATOM provisions on nuclear supply and ownership in view of the European Union's enlargement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, A.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is mainly based on two papers presented at nuclear law conferences in 1998 and 2001, respectively setting out the special provisions governing supplies of nuclear fuels to the European Union (Chapter 6 of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, hereinafter referred to as the 'Euratom Treaty') and the right of ownership of the Euratom Community (Chapter 8 of the Euratom Treaty). These special Treaty provisions cannot be compared to anything observed in other legal systems. Hence, with their introduction into the legal systems of the new European Union member states, the question arises as to how current these provisions are and how they have been implemented in practice. Two of the fundamental objectives of the Euratom Treaty most relevant in this field are to ensure that all users in the Community receive a regular and equitable supply of ores and nuclear fuels (Article 2d Euratom) and to exercise the Community's right of ownership with respect to special fissile materials (Article 2f Euratom). Furthermore, the objectives of ensuring the establishment of the basic installations necessary for the development of nuclear energy in the Community (Article 2c Euratom), of safeguarding that material is not diverted from its intended use (Article 2e Euratom), of establishing a common market (Article 2g Euratom) and of maintaining external relations (Article 2h Euratom) can be relevant to nuclear trade and to the Supply Agency's action. The Treaty's philosophy with regard to supply and ownership is the result of a delicate compromise between public authority interventionism and a more free market approach. The interventionism resulted in a monopolistic system of supplies (exclusive right to conclude contracts, right of option, public authority ownership), whereas the free market approach brought about the commercial organisation of the entity responsible for the implementation of supply provisions (separate legal entity, market

  2. International Conference 'Current Problems in Nuclear Physics and Atomic Energy'. May 29 - Jun 03 2006. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyshnevskyi, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The collective processes in atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions and processes with exotic nuclei, rare nuclear processes, relativistic nuclear physics, neutron physics, physics of nuclear reactors, problems of atomic energy and reactors of the future, applied nuclear physics and technique of experiments was discussed in this conference

  3. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-10-01

    related to the effects on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate is the only clinically available pan - (alpha, beta, gamma PPAR balanced activator. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Among major fibrates, bezafibrate appears to have the strongest and fenofibrate the weakest effect on HDL-C. Current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events because even intensive statin therapy does not eliminate the residual cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL and/or high triglycerides. As compared with statin monotherapy (effective mainly on LDL-C levels and plaque stabilization, the association of a statin with a fibrate will also have a major impact on triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle size. Moreover, in the specific case of bezafibrate one could expect neutralizing of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins. Though muscle pain and myositis is an issue in statin/fibrate treatment, adverse interaction appears to occur to a significantly greater extent when gemfibrozil is administered. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate seems to be safer and better tolerated. Combined fibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and may lead to additional cardiovascular risk reduction, as could be suggested for fenofibrate following ACCORD Lipid study subgroup analysis and for bezafibrate on the basis of one small randomized study and multiple observational data. Therefore, in appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia fibrates- either as monotherapy or combined with statins – are consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Fibrates currently constitute an indispensable part of the modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  4. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2012-10-11

    glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Bezafibrate is the only clinically available pan - (alpha, beta, gamma) PPAR balanced activator. Bezafibrate decreases blood glucose level, HbA1C, insulin resistance and reduces the incidence of T2DM compared to placebo or other fibrates. Among major fibrates, bezafibrate appears to have the strongest and fenofibrate the weakest effect on HDL-C. Current therapeutic use of statins as monotherapy is still leaving many patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia at high risk for coronary events because even intensive statin therapy does not eliminate the residual cardiovascular risk associated with low HDL and/or high triglycerides. As compared with statin monotherapy (effective mainly on LDL-C levels and plaque stabilization), the association of a statin with a fibrate will also have a major impact on triglycerides, HDL and LDL particle size. Moreover, in the specific case of bezafibrate one could expect neutralizing of the adverse pro-diabetic effect of statins. Though muscle pain and myositis is an issue in statin/fibrate treatment, adverse interaction appears to occur to a significantly greater extent when gemfibrozil is administered. However, bezafibrate and fenofibrate seems to be safer and better tolerated. Combined fibrate/statin therapy is more effective in achieving a comprehensive lipid control and may lead to additional cardiovascular risk reduction, as could be suggested for fenofibrate following ACCORD Lipid study subgroup analysis and for bezafibrate on the basis of one small randomized study and multiple observational data. Therefore, in appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia fibrates- either as monotherapy or combined with statins - are consistently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Fibrates currently constitute an indispensable part of the modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  5. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country's nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  6. Towards a beyond 1 GHz solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: External lock operation in an external current mode for a 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki; Ebisawa, Yusuke; Tennmei, Konosuke; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Nakagome, Hideki; Hosono, Masami; Takasugi, Kenji; Hase, Takashi; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Yamazaki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a higher magnetic field is important for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). But a conventional low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet cannot exceed 1 GHz (23.5 T) due to the critical magnetic field. Thus, we started a project to replace the Nb 3 Sn innermost coil of an existing 920 MHz NMR (21.6 T) with a Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) innermost coil. Unfortunately, the HTS magnet cannot be operated in persistent current mode; an external dc power supply is required to operate the NMR magnet, causing magnetic field fluctuations. These fluctuations can be stabilized by a field-frequency lock system based on an external NMR detection coil. We demonstrate here such a field-frequency lock system in a 500 MHz LTS NMR magnet operated in an external current mode. The system uses a 7 Li sample in a microcoil as external NMR detection system. The required field compensation is calculated from the frequency of the FID as measured with a frequency counter. The system detects the FID signal, determining the FID frequency, and calculates the required compensation coil current to stabilize the sample magnetic field. The magnetic field was stabilized at 0.05 ppm/3 h for magnetic field fluctuations of around 10 ppm. This method is especially effective for a magnet with large magnetic field fluctuations. The magnetic field of the compensation coil is relatively inhomogeneous in these cases and the inhomogeneity of the compensation coil can be taken into account.

  7. Analysis and solution of spike current of intermediate range for nuclear instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingqiang; Xiao Yu; Xue Bin; Wang Yinli

    2015-01-01

    During the initial start-up of HYH NPP unit 1, spike currents occurred in intermediate range channel of RPN system and reactor trip was triggered. After analyzing the operation principle of intermediate range channel and site inspection, and doing simulating test, the root cause was fixed on the bug of range switching of intermediate range channel. Then a solution based on parameters optimizing was made and executed on site. (authors)

  8. Harmonic effects of solar geomagnetically induced currents on the electrical distribution system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.P.; Kasturi, S.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.

    1992-01-01

    Most previous analysis on the effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on electric utility systems has steady-state phenomena, with the main interest in the generator step-up transformer and the off-site power system. This paper begins to investigate the possible effects that a GIC event might have on the power plant itself, by examining the harmonic distortion that could exist at various voltage levels in the on-site distribution system

  9. Temperature sensitivity study of eddy current and digital gauge probes for nuclear fuel rod oxide measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Faith R.; Lind, R. Paul; Smith, James A.

    2018-04-01

    Novel fuels are part of the nationwide effort to reduce the enrichment of Uranium for energy production. Performance of such fuels is determined by irradiating their surfaces. To test irradiated samples, the instrumentation must operate remotely. The plate checker used in this experiment at Idaho National Lab (INL) performs non-destructive testing on fuel rod and plate geometries with two different types of sensors: eddy current and digital thickness gauges. The sensors measure oxide growth and total sample thickness on research fuels, respectively. Sensor measurement accuracy is crucial because even 10 microns of error is significant when determining the viability of an experimental fuel. One parameter known to affect the eddy current and thickness gauge sensors is temperature. Since both sensor accuracies depend on the ambient temperature of the system, the plate checker has been characterized for these sensitivities. The manufacturer of the digital gauge probes has noted a rather large coefficient of thermal expansion for their linear scale. It should also be noted that the accuracy of the digital gauge probes are specified at 20°C, which is approximately 7°C cooler than the average hot-cell temperature. In this work, the effect of temperature on the eddy current and digital gauge probes is studied, and thickness measurements are given as empirical functions of temperature.

  10. Observations on some current issues pertaining to nuclear power plant seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper the author addresses some of those areas in which it is believed major research and development should be undertaken in the years immediately ahead if significant advances in earthquake engineering especially applicable to nuclear power plant design are to be achieved. From the standpoint of excitation (loading) the paper dwells extensively on concepts of so-called effective acceleration, with some comments also given on response spectra and modifications thereto. In the areas of resistance of structures attention is devoted to the topics of damping, ductility (energy absorption), and associated margins of strength to resist overloading. The need for developing comprehensive field measurement programs of ground and structural response throughout the world is cited. Future progress in earthquake engineering hinges in large part on developing a confirmatory basis for the technology, partly through continuing developments of analysis techniques and corresponding laboratory testing, but most importantly field observations in actual earthquakes which can be interpreted rationally to lend verification and support to the theoretical and design bases. Finally, the important topic of equipment seismic resistance is singled out for attention. (orig.)

  11. Current status for applications of hydrophobic platinum catalysts in tritium removal from nuclear effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, Irina; Ionita, Gheorghe; Varlam, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Based on the long experience of the authors, in the preparation, testing and evaluation of the performances of hydrophobic catalysts, and based on the reviewed references, this paper presents up-to-date R and D results on the preparation methods and applications of the hydrophobic catalysts, in deuterium and tritium separation. The objectives of the paper are: 1. to provide a database for selection of the most appropriate catalyst and catalytic packing for above mentioned processes; 2. to evaluate the potentiality of hydrophobic Pt-catalysts in the deuterium and tritium separation; 3. to assess and find a new procedure for preparation of a new improved hydrophobic catalyst. The merits of the hydrophobic catalysts are shown in comparison to hydrophilic catalysts. As results of the review some general conclusions about the applications of hydrophobic catalysts in environmental field are as follow: 1. the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts packed in the trickle bed reactors showed a high catalytic activity and long stability; 2. the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts for tritium removal from liquid and gaseous effluent in nuclear field was entirely confirmed on industrial scale; 3. the extension of the utilization of the hydrophobic Pt-catalysts to other new processes, which take place in presence of liquid water or high humidity, like VOCs oxidation from wastewater or H 2 -O 2 catalytic recombination, are subject to testing

  12. Current steel forgings and their properties for steam generator of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoharu; Murai, Etsuo; Sato, Ikuo [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan). Muroran Plant; Suzuki, Kimiaki; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Tsukada, Hisashi [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    On the steel forging (SF) elements for steam generator (SG) of the pressurized water type light water reactor (PWR), from a viewpoint of upgrading in their improvements of design and materials, here were described on three materials such as integrated steel forgings, high strength steel forgings, and vacuum carbon deoxidisation (VCD) steel forgings. On production of SG, by using the integrated SF, not only structural soundness of SG is upgraded, but also inspections containing inspections under production and usage become easier, to bring minimization of maintenance inspection and reduction of exposure under operation. And, in order to reduce weight of SG and upgrade seismic resistance, SA508, a Cl.3a high strength SF (620 MPa class in tensile strength) is used for some nuclear plants. Here were introduced material properties of this SF and described its chemical components and heat treatment condition. And, as a method to reduce macro- and micro-segregation of materials and to upgrade homogeneity of material property, a method combined deoxidisation of steel due to carbon monoxide reaction with crystal grain minimization due to addition of aluminum was investigated. In addition, properties of a low Si-SA508 Cl.3 steel using this method was compared with that of usual SA508 Cl.3 steel. (G.K.)

  13. Current status and ageing management of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Nhi Dien [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2000-10-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a 500 kW swimming pool type reactor loaded with the Soviet WWR-M2 fuel elements, moderated and cooled by light water. It was reconstructed and upgraded from the former 250 kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor built in 1963. The first criticality of the renovated reactor was in November 1983 and it has been put in regular operation at nominal power since March 1984. The DNRR is operated mainly in continuous runs of 100 hrs every 4 weeks, for radioisotope production, neutron activation analyses and other research purposes. The remaining time is devoted to maintenance work and to short runs for reactor physics studies as well. From its first start-up to the end of 1998, it totaled about 20,000 hrs of operation at nominal power. After ten years of operation, reactor general inspection and refurbishment were implemented in the 1992-1996 period. In April 1994, refueling work was executed with adding of 11 fresh fuel elements to the reactor core. At present, the reactor has been working with 100-fuel element configuration. Corrosion study has been implemented by visual inspection of the reactor pool tank and some other inside components which remain unchanged from the previous TRIGA reactor. The inspections were carried out with the assistance of some experts from other countries. Some visual inspection results have been obtained and the nature of the electrochemical corrosion and related aspects were little by little identified. In this paper, the operation status of the Dalat reactor is presented, and some activities related to the ageing management of the reactor pool tank and its inside components are also discussed. (author)

  14. Current status and ageing management of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Nhi Dien

    2000-01-01

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a 500 kW swimming pool type reactor loaded with the Soviet WWR-M2 fuel elements, moderated and cooled by light water. It was reconstructed and upgraded from the former 250 kW TRIGA Mark-II reactor built in 1963. The first criticality of the renovated reactor was in November 1983 and it has been put in regular operation at nominal power since March 1984. The DNRR is operated mainly in continuous runs of 100 hrs every 4 weeks, for radioisotope production, neutron activation analyses and other research purposes. The remaining time is devoted to maintenance work and to short runs for reactor physics studies as well. From its first start-up to the end of 1998, it totaled about 20,000 hrs of operation at nominal power. After ten years of operation, reactor general inspection and refurbishment were implemented in the 1992-1996 period. In April 1994, refueling work was executed with adding of 11 fresh fuel elements to the reactor core. At present, the reactor has been working with 100-fuel element configuration. Corrosion study has been implemented by visual inspection of the reactor pool tank and some other inside components which remain unchanged from the previous TRIGA reactor. The inspections were carried out with the assistance of some experts from other countries. Some visual inspection results have been obtained and the nature of the electrochemical corrosion and related aspects were little by little identified. In this paper, the operation status of the Dalat reactor is presented, and some activities related to the ageing management of the reactor pool tank and its inside components are also discussed. (author)

  15. The NPT and nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, D.; Simpson, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the oldest unachieved aims of international nuclear disarmament and arms limitation negotiations is a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The history of the international negotiations, their outcomes and the consequences of Test Ban for the nuclear arsenals of the nuclear weapons states is discussed. The linkage between a CTBT and the Non-Proliferation Treaty is examined. Two strategies for moving towards a CTBT are compared; one a direct one, the other an incremental route. Both have several alternatives which are considered. (UK)

  16. Reduced program of inspection by induced currents for condenser of Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Mendonca, H.

    1986-01-01

    In this work it's presented a reduced inspection in service program by the technique of induced currents to the turbine condenser of Embalse's Power Plant (Cordoba). The authors based its elaboration on the results obtained in the exam of a small number of tubes and on experience obtained through four inspections in the condensers of Atucha I Power Plant, through mathematical models of oxygen and ammoniac distribution in both Power Plants, and its experimental verification in the case of Atucha I. This program improves the quality of inspection thereby reducing time, equipment and personnel employed. (C.M.) [pt

  17. The current situation of waste management at German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottenrott, G.; Mirschinka, V.

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given about the main points of the agreement between the four utility companies and the German government on June 11, 2001, concerning waste management and disposal. The current waste management situation is compared with the effects of the agreement on the future development of the German waste management concept. Major innovations are the discontinuation of reprocessing, the establishment of local intermediate storage facilities for fuel elements and the suspension of the exploration works conducted on the salt dome at Gorleben. (orig.)

  18. Current forgings and their properties for steam generator of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; Suzuki, Komei; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Sato, Ikuo

    1997-01-01

    Current steel forgings for steam generator (SG) of PWR plant are reviewed in the aspect of design and material improvement. The following three items are introduced. The use of integral type steel forgings for the fabrication of steam generator enhances the structural integrity and makes easier fabrication and inspection including in-service inspection. The following examples of current integral type forgings developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. (JSW) are introduced: (1) primary head integrated with nozzles, manways and supports; (2) steam drum head integrated with nozzle and handhole; (3) conical shell integrated with cylindrical sections and handholes. In order to decrease the weight of steam generator, the high strength materials such as SA508, Cl.3a steel have been adopted in some cases. The properties of this steel are introduced and the chemistry and heat treatment condition are discussed. As one of the methods to minimize the macro- and micro-segregations, the use of vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), i.e. deoxidization of steel by gaseous CO reaction, with addition of Al for grain refining was investigated. The properties of SA508, Cl.3 steels with Low Si content are compared with those of conventional one

  19. Current forgings and their properties for steam generator of nuclear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; Suzuki, Komei; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Sato, Ikuo [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Current steel forgings for steam generator (SG) of PWR plant are reviewed in the aspect of design and material improvement. The following three items are introduced. The use of integral type steel forgings for the fabrication of steam generator enhances the structural integrity and makes easier fabrication and inspection including in-service inspection. The following examples of current integral type forgings developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. (JSW) are introduced: (1) primary head integrated with nozzles, manways and supports; (2) steam drum head integrated with nozzle and handhole; (3) conical shell integrated with cylindrical sections and handholes. In order to decrease the weight of steam generator, the high strength materials such as SA508, Cl.3a steel have been adopted in some cases. The properties of this steel are introduced and the chemistry and heat treatment condition are discussed. As one of the methods to minimize the macro- and micro-segregations, the use of vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), i.e. deoxidization of steel by gaseous CO reaction, with addition of Al for grain refining was investigated. The properties of SA508, Cl.3 steels with Low Si content are compared with those of conventional one.

  20. Eddy-current testing of nuclear fuel cladding tubes using tilted encircling coil system, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Renzhong; Sekine, Kazuyoshi; Shimizu, Hisaji; Tsukui, Kazushige; Urata, Megumu.

    1989-01-01

    The eddy current testing method with external encircling-coils has been widely used as a standard technique for inspection of defects in irradiated zircaloy cladding tubes. In this inspection, the systematic procedure to reliably characterize defects is required. This paper describes the newly developed external tilted encircling-coil system, in which the coil axis is inclined by an angle α to the sample tube axis, for reliable determination of the sort, location and size of defects. As the results of experimental work concerning some kinds of artificial defects in zircaloy cladding tubes using newly designed tilted coil system, an adaptable general-procedure for characterization of defects has been proposed. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that in the case of smaller tilt angles of coil, the signal-to noise ratio for defect response in this coil system is approximately equal to that of ordinary encircling coil system. (author)

  1. Digital driver of alternate current motors of the control rods in a nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz M, E.

    1996-01-01

    The updating of the instruments as the operation console of the TRIGA Mark III Salazar Reactor is based on the use of a personal computer that works as data acquisition and control device. The power changes on the reactor have been made through the inserting or extraction of four control rods, that they are operated by mechanisms based in alternate current motors. That is with the object to handling each of the bars and so avoiding too the degradation about the performance of the computer of process. Also it is using four drives of smart kind which do the basic duties for generating the control signals and verifying the sensors state of the limits in continuous form. The computer and drivers are organized as a ring net using the serial port R S-232. The computer of process sends the orders and the identification of destination instrument throughout the net. (Author)

  2. Current status and technology development of Reprocessing Plant in Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    It is a problem that the vitrified waste could not be produced at the down nozzle in glass furnace by accumulation of platinum group metals contented in high-level radioactive waste. This article describes our efforts to solve the problem. The glass furnace, glassification process, development of glassification technology in Japan, structure of glass furnace, improvement of glass furnace now in use, improvement of glassification technology, and development of new glass furnace and new glass materials are explained. Configuration drawing of glass furnace, heating method, glass flow from the down nozzle, existing state of platinum group metals in glass, comparison between the current glass furnace and advance furnace, analysis result of inner part of furnace, and measurement result of density, viscosity and heat capacity of molten glass are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  3. The political economics of the permanent war and the political economics of the nuclear war. Strategic approaches for Latin America; La economia politica de la guerra permanente y la economia politica de la guerra nuclear. Aproximaciones estrategicas para America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez L, I.I

    2005-07-01

    This work treats on the hypothesis that the American imperialism uses its nuclear arsenal for reforming geographical spaces that allow him to impel its economic development in the context of the progressive exhaustion of the natural resources of the planet and of the ferocious dispute for market niches and investment destinations, and like the political and military decisions crawl to the different scenarios of economic competition. In the chapter 1 it is insinuated like has been reproduced the Warlike-industrial Complex (CBI) American from the second world postwar period until the present time in the idea of explaining like it is that it is valorized to the capital in scale enlarged starting from the denominated sector producing of destruction means and understanding that the system specifically capitalist is a system where continually the is destroyed previously taken place to manufacture a new merchandise in a luck of creative destruction. In the chapter 2, the topic of the specific contradictions of the CBI is approached that disable him to be the tip of lance of the world imperialism. The chapter 3 try on the productive linkages in the production of nuclear bombs, as well as in the production of the vectors of nuclear transportation and on the implications derived for the world security of the different industries associated to the nuclear energy (as the petroleum, the electricity, the natural gas) and to the transportation vectors of these locating which you/they are the different States where the world supremacy is disputed and that they have like one of its so many negotiation-confrontation letters its nuclear strategic arsenals. What is looked for in a thermonuclear war is the enemy's total elimination, from their offensive capacity, their defensive capacity, until their supplies, their reservations, etc., with the result that the chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis are presented to offer a better understanding that they mean the nuclear arsenals in the

  4. The political economics of the permanent war and the political economics of the nuclear war. Strategic approaches for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez L, I.I.

    2005-01-01

    This work treats on the hypothesis that the American imperialism uses its nuclear arsenal for reforming geographical spaces that allow him to impel its economic development in the context of the progressive exhaustion of the natural resources of the planet and of the ferocious dispute for market niches and investment destinations, and like the political and military decisions crawl to the different scenarios of economic competition. In the chapter 1 it is insinuated like has been reproduced the Warlike-industrial Complex (CBI) American from the second world postwar period until the present time in the idea of explaining like it is that it is valorized to the capital in scale enlarged starting from the denominated sector producing of destruction means and understanding that the system specifically capitalist is a system where continually the is destroyed previously taken place to manufacture a new merchandise in a luck of creative destruction. In the chapter 2, the topic of the specific contradictions of the CBI is approached that disable him to be the tip of lance of the world imperialism. The chapter 3 try on the productive linkages in the production of nuclear bombs, as well as in the production of the vectors of nuclear transportation and on the implications derived for the world security of the different industries associated to the nuclear energy (as the petroleum, the electricity, the natural gas) and to the transportation vectors of these locating which you/they are the different States where the world supremacy is disputed and that they have like one of its so many negotiation-confrontation letters its nuclear strategic arsenals. What is looked for in a thermonuclear war is the enemy's total elimination, from their offensive capacity, their defensive capacity, until their supplies, their reservations, etc., with the result that the chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis are presented to offer a better understanding that they mean the nuclear arsenals in the

  5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  6. Nuclear effects in (anti)neutrino charge-current quasielastic scattering at MINER νA kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Antonov, A. N.; Megias, G. D.; González-Jiménez, R.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Udías, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We compare the characteristics of the charged-current quasielastic (anti)neutrino scattering obtained in two different nuclear models, the phenomenological SuperScaling Approximation and the model using a realistic spectral function S(p, ɛ) that gives a scaling function in accordance with the (e, e‧ ) scattering data, with the recent data published by the MiniBooNE, MINER νA, and NOMAD collaborations. The spectral function accounts for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) correlations by using natural orbitals from the Jastrow correlation method and has a realistic energy dependence. Both models provide a good description of the MINER νA and NOMAD data without the need of an ad hoc increase of the value of the mass parameter in the axial-vector dipole form factor. The models considered in this work, based on the the impulse approximation (IA), underpredict the MiniBooNE data for the flux-averaged charged-current quasielastic {ν }μ ({\\bar{ν }}μ ){+}12\\text{C} differential cross section per nucleon and the total cross sections, although the shape of the cross sections is represented by the approaches. The discrepancy is most likely due to missing of the effects beyond the IA, e.g., those of the 2p–2h meson exchange currents that have contribution in the transverse responses.

  7. Nuclear weapons and the Arab-Israeli conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomas, P.

    1989-01-01

    The implications of the clandestine Israeli nuclear arsenal for the conflict in the Middle East are studied in the light of emerging Arab reactions to it. The opportunities for European influence on the policy and programmes of this threshold state are described

  8. Specific transport and storage solutions: Waste management facing current and future stakes of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, Helene; Gagner, Laurent; Gendreau, Francoise; Presta, Anne

    2006-01-01

    With major projects ongoing or being planned, and also with the daily management of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities, the role of transport and/or storage packaging has been often overlooked. Indeed, the packaging development process and transport solutions implemented are a key part of the waste management challenge: protection of people and environment. During over four decades, the AREVA Group has developed a complete and coherent system for the transport of waste produced by nuclear industries. The transport solutions integrate the factors to consider, as industrial transportation needs, various waste forms, associated hazards and current regulations. Thus, COGEMA LOGISTICS has designed, licensed and manufactured a large number of different transport, storage and dual purpose cask models for residues and all kinds of radioactive wastes. The present paper proposes to illustrate how a company acting both as a cask designer and a carrier is key to the waste management issue and how it can support the waste management policy of nuclear producers through their operational choices. We will focus on the COGEMA LOGISTICS technical solutions implemented to guarantee safe and secure transportation and storage solutions. We will describe different aspects of the cask design process, insisting on how it enables to fulfill both customer needs and regulation requirements. We will also mention the associated services developed by the AREVA Business Unit Logistics (COGEMA LOGISTICS, TRANSNUCLEAR, MAINCO, and LEMARECHAL CELESTIN) in order to manage transportation of liquid and solid waste towards interim or final storage sites. The paper has the following contents: About radioactive waste; - Radioactive waste classification; - High level activity waste and long-lived intermediate level waste; - Long-lived low level waste; - Short-lived low- and intermediate level waste; - Very low level waste; - The radioactive waste in nuclear fuel cycle; - Packaging design and

  9. An automated eddy current in-service inspection system for nuclear steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, N.S.

    1981-06-01

    A prototype steam generator in-service inspection system incorporating remotely-controlled instrumentation linked by a digital transmission line to an instrument and control trailer outside the reactor containment has been designed and manufactured and is presently undergoing field tests. The (Monel 400) steam generator tubes are scanned two at a time using absolute eddy current probes controlled by two remotely-operated probe drives at a scanning speed of 0.5 m/s. The probes are positioned on the tubesheet by a light-weight (1.5 kg) microprocessor-operated tubesheet walker mechanism. Digitized control and data signals are transmitted up to 300 m to the control trailer. There the control and analysis computers extract the relevant signal information and present it in condensed form as labelled graphics on CRT consoles for on-line visual assessment. Hard copy output is also provided for each tube scanned (one per minute). Condensed data is archived on magnetic tapes for additional off-line analysis and comparisons with other inspections

  10. Current trends towards a new regulation and evolution of fire protection systems technologies in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Sanjuan, G.

    1996-01-01

    For some time now, the field of Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants has, with its own peculiarities in an otherwise general process, been the centre of some controversy caused by tendencies to reduce regulatory inflexibility by transforming what was originally a prescriptive, pro grammatical and deterministic regulatory system into a system based on risk assessment and operating experience. Such tendencies include: Cost Beneficial Licensing Actions (CBLA) Use of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) as a tool for evaluating the impact of postulated fires in nuclear safety Improvement of communications between the regulatory body and the industry These trends have coincided with the arduous process of requalifying passive fire-resistant protection materials, such as Thermo lag and others, which are used to separate redundant Safe Shutdown trains with fire-resistance ranges of one (1) hour or three (3) hours, in compliance with some of the alternatives that Appendix R to 10 CFR 50 offers. The process has involved a lot of effort and financial cost in requalification and in employing compensatory measures until operability of the fire-resistant materials is reestablished. A new test methodology has been created for these barriers (GL 86-10, Supplement 1) and new materials have become available and are currently undergoing qualification. (Author)

  11. The current CEA/DRN safety approach for the design and the assessment of future nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, G.L.; Pinto, P.L.; Costa, M.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the document is to present the basis of the safety approach currently implemented by the CEA/DRN, both for the design and the assessment of innovative systems and future nuclear installations. This approach is the result of the experience maturated, within the context of the CEA/DRN Innovative Programme through practical applications over several future concepts, both for fission and fusion reactors, as well as for waste disposal. The background of this experience is structured coherently with the European Safety Authorities recommendations and the European Utilities Requirements (EUR). The Defence In Depth principle and its application, by means, among others, of the barrier concept, remains the basis of the safety design process of future nuclear installations. Its adequacy is checked through the safety assessment. The methodology for Lines Of Defence (LOD) implementation as well as the one for the LOD architecture assessment is shown and motivated. The document shows that the clear and unambiguous definition of the safety approach provides an essential base for the organisation of the design tasks, being sure that the safety aspects are correctly taken into account and implemented, and for an adequate safety assessment of the final design, both from qualitative point of view as well as for the quantitative safety analysis. (author)

  12. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring boards. Specifications and test methods of direct current period meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefort, Henri; Chapelot; Ramard; Tardif; Tournier; Vaux

    1973-11-01

    After a few words of introduction, mention of the main notations used and the definition of certain terms, the field of application of the document is outlined and a list of references given. The main specifications of electronic 'direct current period meter' subassemblies for the monitoring, control and safety of nuclear reactors are then defined and the corresponding test methods described. The apparatus measures on a logarithmic scale the neutron fluence rate of a reactor by means of an ionisation chamber and supplies 'period' data relative to the fluence rate variation in time. The specifications and test methods are given for the different components: logarithmic amplifier, time derivative unit, threshold releases, high tension supply for ionisation chamber, auxiliary circuits and finally the complete period meter. (author) [fr

  13. Probes for inspections of heat exchanges installed at nuclear power plants type PWR by eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alonso F.O.

    2007-01-01

    From all non destructive examination methods usable to perform integrity evaluation of critical equipment installed at nuclear power plants (NPP), eddy current test (ET) may be considered the most important one, when examining heat exchangers. For its application, special probes and reference calibration standards are employed. In pressurized water reactor (PWR) NPPs, a particularly critical equipment is the steam generator (SG), a huge heat exchanger that contains thousands of U-bend thin wall tubes. Due to its severe working conditions (pressure and temperature), that component is periodically examined by means of ET. In this paper a revision of the operating fundamentals of the main ET probes, used to perform SG inspections is presented. (author)

  14. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  15. Nuclear deterrence in second tier nuclear weapon states: a case study of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Manpreet

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear deterrence today anchors the national security of all states that possess nuclear weapons. Certain principles or requirements of nuclear deterrence are the same for all such countries. For instance, the ability to threaten with unacceptable damage, or the ability to raise the costs of an action that an adversary might want to take by threatening punishment that would make the act seem meaningless and even regrettable. But must every nuclear nation indulge in an exercise of large-scale warhead accumulation or yield refinements through nuclear testing, or creation of elaborate nuclear war fighting plans in order to claim credible deterrence? Can the practice of deterrence in the second tier states follow a different course? The study examines the manner in which India is engaged in constructing a credible and stable deterrence relationship with two of its nuclear armed adversaries, Pakistan and China with an arsenal much smaller, and command and control structures far simpler than in any of the P-5 nations. Does this difference impact the nature of its nuclear deterrence? In its efforts at creating and sustaining credible nuclear deterrence should India necessarily be expected to follow the same path and rules as those of the P-5? Would it be compelled to build hundreds of warheads and a huge weapons infrastructure? Would a deterrence based on anything less not be credible or stable? The study concludes that even countries with small nuclear arsenals behave no differently from states that possess several thousands of such weapons. The assumption that small nuclear arsenals and rudimentary command and control lend themselves to temptations of easy nuclear use is misplaced. Credible nuclear deterrence between India and Pakistan or India and China would hold on the same bases it has held elsewhere - fear of nuclear destruction, imposition of unacceptable damage, and the ability to rationally calculate and weigh the benefits against the costs of use of nuclear

  16. Reactor safety research program. A description of current and planned reactor safety research sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The reactor safety research program, sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research, is described in terms of its program objectives, current status, and future plans. Elements of safety research work applicable to water reactors, fast reactors, and gas cooled reactors are presented together with brief descriptions of current and planned test facilities. (U.S.)

  17. Wavelets transforms and fuzzy logic in the eddy-current inspection of nuclear power plants steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear power plants steam generators around the world have presented early damage history in their tubes, caused either by design errors or by inappropriate operation, which besides reducing the availability and the safety of the nuclear power plants it also generates heavy economical burden. To monitor the steam generators operational condition, the Eddy Current testing of their tubes is the non destructive method used to detect, localize, classify and to size the defects. The inspection is performed by inserting probes with coils in the tubes generating a signal correlated to the defect. These signals produced by the probe electric circuit are composed by the resistance and the inductive components which can be combined to produce a Lissajous figure in the complex plane. However, Eddy-Current signals contain noise which induce subjectivity inducing to errors in the inspector diagnosis. It is not uncommon to have different diagnosis from two inspectors about the same signal. The present work has the objective of supplying a methodology to analyze the signals which could help the inspector in the difficult task of interpreting the Eddy Current signals. It is proposed a method to remove the noise based on Wavelets Transforms. It is also proposed a normalization in the signal phase angle measurements. Furthermore, two additional characteristics are also studied, namely: the signal amplitudes and the widths of the Lissajous petals. The use of a Fuzzy Logic based inference engine is also developed and its use is demonstrated to be viable. The defects studied in this work are those which produces volumetric changes in the material. In order to test the proposed methodology, several artificial defects were produced in tubes using different types of materials like: brass, 316L stainless steel and Inconel 600 to produce a experimental data base. An Eddy-Current inspection equipment, the MIZ-17ET was used. Around 1000 time series signals of defects were acquired through

  18. Decadal reduction of Chinese agriculture after a regional nuclear war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Mills, Michael; Stenke, Andrea; Helfand, Ira

    2015-02-01

    A regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan could decrease global surface temperature by 1°C-2°C for 5-10 years and have major impacts on precipitation and solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Using a crop simulation model forced by three global climate model simulations, we investigate the impacts on agricultural production in China, the largest grain producer in the world. In the first year after the regional nuclear war, a cooler, drier, and darker environment would reduce annual rice production by 30 megaton (Mt) (29%), maize production by 36 Mt (20%), and wheat production by 23 Mt (53%). With different agriculture management—no irrigation, auto irrigation, 200 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer, and 10 days delayed planting date—simulated national crop production reduces 16%-26% for rice, 9%-20% for maize, and 32%-43% for wheat during 5 years after the nuclear war event. This reduction of food availability would continue, with gradually decreasing amplitude, for more than a decade. Assuming these impacts are indicative of those in other major grain producers, a nuclear war using much less than 1% of the current global arsenal could produce a global food crisis and put a billion people at risk of famine.

  19. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, Simon [Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies - RUSI, Whitehall, London, SW1A 2ET (United Kingdom); Larsen, Jeffrey [Larsen Consulting Group, 3710 Woodland Dr Ste 2100, Anchorage, AK 99517 (United States); Yost, David [Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Kamp, Karl-Heinz [NATO Defense College, Via Giorgio Pelosi 1, 00143, Roma (Italy); Edelman, Eric [Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments - CSBA, 1667 K Sreet NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, 20006 (United States); Valasek, Tomas [Centre for European Reform - CER, 14 Great College Street, Westminster, London, SW1P 3RX (United Kingdom); Garcia Cantalapiedra, David [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-26

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  20. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunn, Simon; Larsen, Jeffrey; Yost, David; Kamp, Karl-Heinz; Edelman, Eric; Valasek, Tomas; Garcia Cantalapiedra, David

    2011-01-01

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  1. India and the nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    India has sought a nuclear-test ban for the last 42 years bur is now unable to sign the Comprehensive Test ban Treaty (CTBT) when it is in its final form and moved to block its transmittal from the Conference on Disarmament to the UN General assembly. The negotiating mandate for the CTBT required it to effectively contribute to the process of disarmament. It is towards this end that India proposed amendments. Nuclear disarmament is fundamental for India's strategic and security interests. The only viable solution to India's security concerns related to nuclear weapons is in pursuing total elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals

  2. New concepts of nuclear reactors and fuel cycles: performing agile technometric studies to understand the promises and the current reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O., E-mail: jsreis@ipen.br, E-mail: barroso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The progress of previous projects pointed out the need to face some problems of software for detecting emerging research and development trends from databases of scientific publication. Given the lack of efficient computing applications dedicated to this purpose that we consider to be an artifact of great usefulness to better planning R and D programs in institutions, which are obliged to manage and develop, with limited resources and within the realm of complex and multidisciplinary technology fields as is the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector. We performed a review of the currently available software in such a way that we could clearly delineate the opportunity to develop new tools. As a result, we developed a software called Cite snake, which was especially designed to help the detection and study of emerging trends from the analysis of networks of various types extracted from the scientific databases. Using this powerful and stable computational tool, we performed preliminary analyzes of emerging research and development trends in a few thematic fields. The case that concerns this paper is the one devoted to the eld of Generation IV Nuclear Power Generation Systems. We analyzed the productivity of authors, co-authorship networks, co-citation networks, development structure and emerging sub-areas of research. The idea was to nd what reactors and fuel cycles have evolved more over the past ten years, in such a way to compare the what from the most promising concepts selected from the Generation Four Initiative have better evolved to fulfill some of their promises. (author)

  3. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New concepts of nuclear reactors and fuel cycles: performing agile technometric studies to understand the promises and the current reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.

    2013-01-01

    The progress of previous projects pointed out the need to face some problems of software for detecting emerging research and development trends from databases of scientific publication. Given the lack of efficient computing applications dedicated to this purpose that we consider to be an artifact of great usefulness to better planning R and D programs in institutions, which are obliged to manage and develop, with limited resources and within the realm of complex and multidisciplinary technology fields as is the case of the Brazilian nuclear sector. We performed a review of the currently available software in such a way that we could clearly delineate the opportunity to develop new tools. As a result, we developed a software called Cite snake, which was especially designed to help the detection and study of emerging trends from the analysis of networks of various types extracted from the scientific databases. Using this powerful and stable computational tool, we performed preliminary analyzes of emerging research and development trends in a few thematic fields. The case that concerns this paper is the one devoted to the eld of Generation IV Nuclear Power Generation Systems. We analyzed the productivity of authors, co-authorship networks, co-citation networks, development structure and emerging sub-areas of research. The idea was to nd what reactors and fuel cycles have evolved more over the past ten years, in such a way to compare the what from the most promising concepts selected from the Generation Four Initiative have better evolved to fulfill some of their promises. (author)

  5. Real-world nuclear decision making: using behavioral economics insights to adjust nonproliferation and deterrence policies to predictable deviations from rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Knopf, Jeffrey W.; Harrington, Anne I.; Pomper, Miles

    2016-01-01

    42 p. The invention of nuclear weapons created unprecedented challenges for the world. Even today, seventy years after the first atomic weapons test, the effort to find effective policies and strategies for dealing with nuclear weapons remains a daunting challenge. From early in the nuclear age, attention focused on deterrence as a strategy to prevent nuclear war. By the 1960s, key states were also seeking to limit the growth of nuclear arsenals and spread of nuclear arms through tools suc...

  6. March to Armageddon: The United States and the nuclear arms race, 1939 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powaski, R.

    1987-01-01

    This history of the events, forces, and factors that have brought the world to the brink of nuclear holocaust probes two basic questions: what factors perpetuate the nuclear arms race and why is it so difficult to end. Starting with the opening days of World War II, this study traces the escalating arms race up to the present and notes that, while nuclear arsenals continue to grow, nuclear arms treaties are on the verge of collapse.

  7. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, Paul William; Zavarin, Mavrik; Wang, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  8. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  9. Trends concerning description of radiation and nuclear-related matters in current textbooks used at junior and senior high schools in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tatsuo; Sekimoto, Junko; Takagi, Shinji; Iiri, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Descriptions on topics concerning radiation and nuclear energy in textbooks currently used in junior and senior high schools in Japan have been examined and summarized. As for the textbooks used in junior high schools, both in science studies and in social (geography/society) studies, the description is unsatisfactory for the reviewers in the following points: the space describing the radiation and nuclear-related problems has become considerably reduced than before, and as a general tendency the demerits of nuclear-related matters are stressed than the merits, while the renewable energies are much more favorably treated than the actual role. As for the textbooks of senior high schools on science studies written based on the new education guidelines, the present reviewers acknowledge the description has considerably been improved than before. However, as for those in the fields of social studies, geography/history, etc., the situation is similar to the cases of junior high schools described above. That is, the description on radiation and nuclear-related matters are generally not sufficient, and incorrect or unfair views on the value of nuclear energy are sometimes seen, in such a manner that the demerits of nuclear energy production or anxiety for radiation/radioactivity and for waste disposal are treated in much space than the merits, in special reference to the cases of nuclear accidents. (author)

  10. Apollinaire et le détournement de l’arsenal militaire : la vitesse comme vecteur amoureux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Cuillé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le détournement de l’arsenal militaire se comprend à la lumière des spéculations de F.T Marinetti sur la vitesse, notion esthétique fédérant le futurisme italien. Le canon de 75, au service duquel Apollinaire est affecté, fut considéré comme une prouesse technologique dont la vélocité devait permettre une victoire fulgurante contre l’Allemagne. C’est ce vecteur de vitesse qui devient le support d’une nouvelle poétique. Certains Calligrammes se lisent dès lors comme un dispositif grâce auquel le poète-artilleur reconfigure, pour la contester, l’opposition entre l’idéal féminin et la luxure, deux postulations que Marinetti déclare exorciser par la magie de la vitesse.

  11. Determination of geohydrologic framework and extent of d- water contamination using surface geophysical techniques at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre

    1986-01-01

    Seismic-refraction, electric-resistivity sounding, and electromagnetic conductivity techniques were used to determine the geohydrologic framework and extent of groundwater contamination at Picatinny Arsenal in northern New Jersey. The area studied encompasses about 4 sq mi at the southern end of the Arsenal. The bedrock surface beneath the glacial sediments was delineated by seismic-refraction techniques. Data for 12 seismic lines were collected using a 12-channel engineering seismograph. Competent bedrock crops out on both sides of the valley, but is about 290 ft below land surface in the deepest part of the topographic valley. Where the exposed bedrock surface forms steep slopes on the valley side, it remains steep below the valley fill. Likewise, gentle bedrock valley slopes have gentle subsurface slopes. The deepest part of the bedrock valley is along the southern extension of the Green Pond fault. The electric-resistivity sounding technique was used to determine the sediment types. Data were collected from four sites using the offset Wenner electrode configuration. Below the surface layer, the sediments have apparent and computed resistivity values of 120 to 170 ohm-meters. These values correspond to a saturated fine-grained sediment such as silt or interbedded sand and clay. Groundwater contamination was by electromagnetic conductivity techniques using transmitting and receiving coils separated by 32.8 ft and 12 ft. Thirteen sites have apparent conductivity values exceeding 15 millimhos/m. Of these, seven sites indicate groundwater contamination from a variety of sources including a sanitary landfill, pyrotechnic testing ground, burning area, former domestic sewage field, salt storage facility, hazardous waste disposal lagoon, sewage treatment plant, and fertilizer storage shed. Three areas underlain by clay or muck are interpreted to be free of contamination. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Nuclear arms cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Soviet Union's demise five years ago brought an end to the Cold War, the 45-year arms race between the Soviet superpower and the United States. The euphoria that greeted the end of this bloodless conflict has dampened somewhat, however, as U.S. officials and their counterparts in the former Soviet republics come to grips with its legacy: thousands of highly toxic and politically destabilizing nuclear weapons. With no more perceived need for much of their vast arsenals, the governments have agreed to dismantle large numbers of nuclear warheads. But the agencies involved in this task face a daunting technical and political problem: what to do with the thousands of tons of plutonium and uranium that are the main ingredients of nuclear weapons

  13. Applications of the conserved vector current theory and the partially conserved axial-vector current theory to nuclear beta-decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tint, M.

    The contribution of the mesonic exchange effect to the conserved vector current in the first forbidden β-decay of Ra E is estimated under the headings: (1) The conserved vector current. (2) The CVC theory and the first forbidden β-decays. (3) Shell model calculations of some matrix-elements. (4) Direct calculation of the exchange term. Considering the mesonic exchange effect in the axial vector-current of β-decay the partially conserved axial vector current theory and experimental results of the process p + p → d + π + are examined. (U.K.)

  14. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the former Watertown arsenal property, Site 34 and Site 41, Watertown, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Justus, A.L.; Flynn, K.F.

    1983-10-01

    During the MED/AEC era, work involving radioactive materials was conducted at various sites within the arsenal complex. Building 34 housed a uranium machine shop, and a portion of Building 41 contained a foundry that was used for uranium work. Information provided by site personnel indicated that only depleted uranium was used in these buildings. Results of radiological analyses of contaminated material found at these sites indicated depleted uranium with uranium-236. Both buildings have been razed. The remnants still in place consist of the concrete floor slabs, access drives, and underground utility service trenches. This area is currently under the control of the Watertown Redevelopment Authority of Watertown, Massachusetts. During the period from June 25 through July 1, 1981, the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Occupational Health and Safety Division (OHS) Radiological Survey Group (RSG), conducted a radiological survey of Building Sites 34 and 41 at the direction of the US Department of Energy. Significant levels of contamination were found at 33 locations on the pad of Site 34 and in 5 out of 15 soild corings from the perimeter of the pad. No contamination was found on the pad of Site 41; however, two-thirds of this pad was covered with soil up to 4 ft thick. One of the 14 soil corings taken adjacent to the pad of Site 41 had elevated levels of uranium. Levels of contamination in excess of criteria, as identified in ANSI 13.12 and NRC Guidelines, were found at this site. The analyses of the samples from the sewer access points also revealed uranium and radium-226 anomalies. Therefore, according to NRC guidelines dated July 1982, it must be concluded that they are contaminated

  15. Muusikamaailm : Rostropovitshi suurprojekt. Festival "Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Vermeuleni preemia 2000. Thielemann jääb Berliini. Henri Tomasi ئ 100 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    M. Rostropovitsh tõi publiku ette Shostakovitshi ooperi "Mtsenski maakonna leedi Macbeth". Festivalist Arsenal Baroque" Metzis. Rahvusvahelisest festivalist "UltraSchall" Berliinis. Matthijs Vermeuleni nim. preemia sai tänavu R. Rijnvos. C. Thielemann jääb Deutsche Operi muusikadirektoriks veel aastani 2007. Lühidalt H. Tomasist

  16. China as a nuclear power: its military policy and its role in world politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.

    1986-01-01

    With their current conventional weapons, it is impossible for the Chinese to check a Soviet invasion. And, given China's defense technology and the priority of economic development, the prospect of a rapid defense modernization is also not too good. More importantly, since China has changed from a revolutionary power into a status quo power, it can no longer lure the enemy deep and use the strategy of people's war to sink the enemy. Under these circumstances, China has no choice but to use nuclear weapons for national defense. Resting national security on nuclear weapons is a matter of necessity rather than of choice to China. But his strategy unavoidably conflicts with another of China's needs: the need to polish its peace-loving image. To extricate itself from the dilemma, China has chosen to actively participate in the game of arms control - a tactic that can make China appear peace-loving and, if it really leads the superpowers to cut their nuclear arsenals, can also bolster China's national security. In fact, even if Chinese participation in arms control does not force the superpowers to cut their nuclear weapons, it has already encouraged the mounting global anti-nuclear movement, and increased the pressure on the superpowers

  17. Current status and future directions of nuclear education in elementary and secondary education. Several measures for revitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masami; Tsuruta, Takao; Shibata, Toshikazu

    1999-01-01

    It has been a long time since a necessity to deepen education concerning energy, in particular, nuclear-related education in the elementary and secondary education curriculums in Japan was pointed out. To attain this objective, the nuclear industry and the education industry should work in close cooperation. As the Ministry of Education's Course of Study substantially regulates the direction of school education in Japan, nuclear energy experts should be involved in its development from an early stage in an appropriate manner. At least, training for the teaching profession for science teachers should include experiments related to nuclear energy and radiation. It is considered quite effective to provide incumbent teachers with various training opportunities by nuclear organizations in order to solve the problem in question. (author)

  18. Nuclear arms race gearing for speedup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heylin, M.

    1981-01-01

    To probe the rationale behind the big buildup in US strategic arms that is presaged by the current enhanced R and D effort - and to explore the broader, more long-term role of science and technology in the nuclear arms race - C and EN in recent months spoke with a host of experts both within and outside the defense establishment. It is a topic of incredible complexity, high controversy, and of the highest stakes imaginable - the survival of civilization. This buildup will include over the next decade, apart from the MX, a new, highly accurate, submarine-launched ballistic missile and a fleet of very large submarines to carry it; an air-launched cruise missile; a new long-range bomber; a new intermediate-range missile and a new ground-launched cruise missile, both capable of hitting targets in the Soviet Union from proposed bases in Western Europe; and a new sea-launched cruise missile that can be fired from conventional submarines or other naval vessels. To spokesmen for, and members of, the defense establishment the US buildup is prudent, even minimal. According to them, it is needed to keep the US at least on a par with the growth of Soviet strategic might which was very substantial in the 1970's and which will carry over into the 1980's with further major gains. It also is needed to keep the lid on Soviet expansionism; and it is the best way to prevent a nuclear war. To critics, the proposed buildup is the height of lunacy. According to them, the US strategic arsenal is more than adequate today. And it can continue to serve its only legitimate purpose - to deter nuclear war, no matter how much the Soviets may choose to build up their nuclear forces - with a much-more-modest modernization program

  19. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  20. Project for export system construction of nuclear equipment to IAEA; survey on current market status of the nuclear related international organizations and the domestic possible suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, T S; Cho, H K; Kim, H J [Korea Atomic Industrial Forum, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    Republic of Korea are keeping the dynamic activities in IAEA as the 8th advanced nuclear country over the world but has occupied very low late less than 0.01% in supplying the equipments to IAEA. About 6,000 nuclear equipment suppliers are registered in IAEA Supply Roster over the world but only 3 Suppliers of our country are registered in IAEA Supply Roster. The supply of nuclear industrial products equivalent to about 100 million dollars into IAEA market will endorse not only the international authorization for our technology and products but also give contribution to activate the domestic nuclear industries in order to increase its expert. The explanation for IAEA procurement market to the 53 nuclear companies will be made on May 16, 2001, and the participants for the export of their goods will be selected. And then we will do all possible supports by the government and related organizations for them to register in IAEA Supply Roster. 21 refs. (Author)

  1. Consideration on the current status and issues of sensitive information management concerning the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Tomoaki; Madarame, Haruki

    2009-01-01

    The confidentiality system concerning the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities was enacted by revision of the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law in 2005. We made a comparative analysis with the information security in governmental agencies or financial sectors, in order to consider the way the sensitive information management concerning the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities should be. The considerations in this paper are as follows. (1) In order to secure a suitable level of security, close cooperation should be achieved among related governmental agencies. (2) A cycle that continuously evaluates whether suitable management is performed should be established. (3) Excessive secretiveness should be eliminated. (4) An information-sharing system among the related persons beyond the frame of governmental agencies and electricity companies should be established. (5) Improvement in the social acceptability of the sensitive information management is important. (6) Although it is important to perform evaluation by the consideration of suitable balance with information disclosure, it is also important that it is positively shown to society. (author)

  2. The atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his recent research that has uncovered the fact that nuclear war may carry in its wake a climatic catastrophe, which he calls ''nuclear winter.'' He says the effects of nuclear war would not be restricted to the combatant nations. Agriculture in the Northern Hemisphere would be devasted by even a ''small'' nuclear war. The propagating ecological consequences all over the Earth are likely to be severe. The Southern Hemisphere will be cold and dark. Global arsenals, now about twenty times the nuclear winter threshold, are growing

  3. A Study on Current Status of Detection Technology and Establishment of National Detection Regime against Nuclear/Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung Woo; Jang, Sung Soon; Lee, Joung Hoon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2009-01-01

    Since 1990s, some events - detection of a dirty bomb in a Russian nation park in 1995, 9/11 terrorist attack to WTC in 2001, discovery of Al-Qaeda's experimentation to build a dirty bomb in 2003 etc - have showed that nuclear or radiological terrorism relating to radioactive materials (hereinafter 'radioactive materials' is referred to as 'nuclear material, nuclear spent fuel and radioactive source') is not incredible but serious and credible threat. Thus, to respond to the new threat, the international community has not only strengthened security and physical protection of radioactive materials but also established prevention of and response to illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. In this regard, our government has enacted or revised the national regulatory framework with a view to improving security of radioactive materials and joined the international convention or agreement to meet this international trend. For the purpose of prevention of nuclear/radiological terrorism, this paper reviews physical characteristics of nuclear material and existing detection instruments used for prevention of illicit trafficking. Finally, national detection regime against nuclear/radiological terrorism based on paths of the smuggled radioactive materials to terrorist's target building/area, national topography and road networks, and defence-in-depth concept is suggested in this paper. This study should contribute to protect people's health, safety and environment from nuclear/radiological terrorism

  4. Current status of personnel exposure at nuclear power plants and other medical, industrial and educational facilities in JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumiaki

    1991-01-01

    The state of radiation exposure of the workers engaging in radiation works in Japanese nuclear power stations, the factors of the radiation exposure of the workers engaging in radiation works, the countermeasures for reducing exposure in nuclear power stations, the state of radiation exposure of doctors, the workers engaging in radiation works, researchers and others in medical, industrial, research and educational and other facilities in Japan, the factors of their radiation exposure and the countermeasures for reducing the exposure, and the comparison of the exposure in nuclear power stations with that in medical, industrial, research and educational facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  5. The current state of inservice testing programs at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants - a regulatory overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Colaccino, J.

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves at U.S. nuclear power plants to provide consistency in the implementation of regulatory requirements and to enhance communications among utility licensees who may have, like NSSS vendors, similar kinds and numbers of components or comparable IST programs. Documents discussed include the ASME Operation and Maintenance Standards Parts 6 and 10 (covering inservice testing of pumps and valves in light water reactor power plants), the draft NUREG-1482, Guidelines for Inservice Testing at Nuclear Power Plants (including review comments by Nuclear Management and Resource Council), and applicable Licensee Event Reports including summaries of several reports relating to IST

  6. Current perspectives on nuclear power plant risks and the use of risk-based information in regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D F; Ernst, M L; Murphy, J

    1987-08-01

    For the first five years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has supported extensive studies of severe accidents. One outcome of this work is a set of advanced method for analyzing the probabilities, source terms, consequences, and risks of such accidents. These methods are being applied to a set of six U.S. commercial nuclear power plants, covering a wide spread of nuclear steam supply systems and containment designs. This work is to be documented in the Reactor Risk Reference Document, NUREG-1150, and supporting contractors reports. The methods being used for NUREG-1150, and some initial plant results, are briefly described in this paper.

  7. Prerequisites for a nuclear weapons convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, W.

    1999-01-01

    A Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC) would prohibit the research, development, production, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use and threat of use of nuclear weapons and would serve their total elimination.' In this fashion it follows the model laid out by the biological and chemical weapons conventions. The NWC would encompass a few other treaties and while replacing them should learn from their experiences. The Nuclear Weapons Convention should at some given point in the future replace the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and so resolve its contradictions and shortcomings. The main objectives of an NWC Would be: reduction of the nuclear arsenals of the 'five' nuclear weapons powers down to zero within a set of fixed periods of time; elimination of stockpiles of weapons-usable materials and, where existent, nuclear warheads in de-facto nuclear weapon and threshold states; providing assurance that all states will retain their non-nuclear status forever

  8. Shielding Effectiveness Measurements Applied to Safety Assessment Predictions at Picatinny Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tesny, Neal; Litz, Marc; Conrad, David; Dilks, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    .... The results of the measurements show that attenuation factors provided in the current configuration are sufficient to provide acceptable environmental and safety protection from high-power RF impulse...

  9. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuocolo, A

    2011-06-01

    The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011.

  10. Nuclear disarmament: France as a model; Desarmement nucleaire: prendre la France pour modele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodka-Gallien, Philippe [Institut francais d' analyse strategique, 12-14 rue du general Niox, 75016 Paris (France)

    2012-02-15

    The path taken by the French nuclear weapon programme shows unceasing pragmatism combined with a will to maintain the deterrence capability of the arsenal and the position it accords the country in the world's strategic structure. The abolition recommended by the US President would leave military matters open to conventional superpowers

  11. A Northeast Asia nuclear-free zone: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.

    1995-01-01

    Northeast Asia is the only region in the world in which the technological potential to make nuclear weapons is combined with deep-seated (though currently attenuated) historical animosities. In South Asia the technical potential to go nuclear has already been realised and curbing vertical proliferation in India and Pakistan has become the name of the game. The traditional - and mostly American - argument against nuclear-free zones was that they encouraged the 'nuclear allergy' and in so doing undermined deterrence. In the post-Cold War era this argument is no longer relevant. The instruments of deterrence - the still huge nuclear arsenals of Russia and America - remain largely in place, yet the fear of aggression which provided their only justification has almost completely disappeared. The case for Nuclear-weapon-free zones (NWFZs) today relates to the modest role they may play in the global campaign against nuclear proliferation. Ideally, as suggested in the North Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (NEANFZ) proposal outlined above, the zones should be broad in scope with the various elements acting synergistically to reinforce each other. While each of the technical provisions of an NFZ is important in its own right, and while the total effect should be greater than the sum of the parts, the most important consequence of creating such regimes is ultimately political. It is the enhancement of what the US and its allies sought throughout the Cold War to suppress - namely 'the nuclear allergy'. NFZs are, above all, about creating norms which delegitimise nuclearism. The promotion of a NEANFZ, initially modest in scope but with optional protocols outlining an agenda for expansion, should be supported not least as a means of generating public debate on the dangers of proliferation in the region. The anti-proliferation debate is too important to be left to the arms control experts who have too great a predilection for technical supply-side solutions. In the last analysis

  12. Meeting summary of the second CSNI specialist meeting on simulators and plant analyzers - Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Second CSNI Specialist Meeting on Simulators and Plant Analyzers: Current Issues in Nuclear Power Plant Simulation was held in Espoo, Finland, from September 29 through October 2, 1997. It was organised by CSNI Principal Working Group on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2), Task Group on Thermal Hydraulic Applications (TG-THA), in co-operation with Technical Research Centre of Finland. The meeting in Espoo attracted some 90 participants from 17 countries. A total of 49 invited papers were presented in the meeting in addition to 7 simulator system demonstrations. Ample time was reserved for the presentations and informal discussions during the four meeting days. The previous meeting held in Lappeenranta, Finland, in 1992 collected some 85 participants from 12 countries, presenting a total of 40 papers. The meeting was structured into 6 sessions covering the important aspects of development and use of simulators and plant analyzers: Session I: New objectives, Requirements and Concepts. This session covered the progress experienced since the 1. simulator meeting and tried to address the changing role of simulators based on the changes in users' needs and developing possibilities. Session II: Trends in Simulation Technology. This session was reserved for studying the current trends in the simulation technology: software environments, visualisation, simulator configuration tools, programming languages and computer systems. Session III: Training and human factor studies using simulators. This session was created for studying the status of different uses of simulators such as educational simulators, human factor studies and integrated safety assessment in addition to traditional training. Regarding to the severe accidents, a question was raised whether the simulator use should be for training or education. Session IV: Modelling techniques. The session on modelling techniques was included to cover recent developments in the modelling techniques applicable to training

  13. The current state and issues regarding communication from the nuclear energy industry to the mass media in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The mass media has the potential to effect the utilization of nuclear power in Japan. In most cases journalists contact PR staff of the nuclear energy industry (hereinafter called 'the industry') to collect information about various events of nuclear energy. The industry is always ready to distribute related information and hold a press conference timely when necessary. In terms of the organizational structure for the PR activities each electric power company organizes the PR section in-house. The PR staff provides journalists with information on a daily basis. For the purpose of grasping the mass media's awareness, the author conducted interviews with 22 journalists who had experience in reporting news on nuclear energy subjects. The result showed that the journalists recognized the necessity of nuclear energy. The interviewees suggested that a proper press launch should be needed at just the right time especially in emergency situations and a press release should be more easily understandable. This interview showed that journalists considered the media reports as reflection of citizens' opinion. Most of the journalists realize that the influence of the media coverage should not be negligible and they acknowledge commutation between the two sides is gradually improved compared to before. (author)

  14. The current CEA/DRN safety approach for the design and the assessment of non-electrical applications of nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, G.L.; Costa, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the basis of the safety approach currently implemented by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - Nuclear Reactor Directorate (CEA/DRN), both for the design and the assessment of innovative systems and future nuclear installations. It is considered that the described approach is applicable to the plants built for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat. This is typically the case of Nuclear Desalination Installations. This approach is the result of the experience maturated, within the context of the CEA/DRN Innovative Programme, through practical applications over several future concepts (both fission and fusion plants). The background of this experience is structured coherently with the European Safety Authorities recommendations, the European Utilities Requirements (EUR) and the ''fundamental safety objectives'' defined by the IAEA. The Defence In Depth principle and its application, by means, among others, of the barrier concept, remains the basis of the safety design process of future nuclear installations. Its adequacy is checked through the safety assessment. The methodology for Lines of Defence (LOD) implementation as well as the one for the LOD architecture assessment is shown and motivated. The document shows that the clear and unambiguous definition of the safety approach provides an essential base for the organisation of the design tasks, being sure that the safety aspects are correctly taken into account and implemented, and for an adequate safety assessment of the final design, both from qualitative point of view as well as for the quantitative safety analysis. (author)

  15. Nuclear weapons headed for the trash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkin, W.M.; Durrant, D.; Kristensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    Whether he intended it or not, Bush has taken steps that mean the beginning of the end for nuclear weapons. His proposals significantly reduce the numbers of nuclear weapons and the burdens associated with deploying and controlling them. And although he retains many of the options for continuing and regenerating the nuclear arsenal, he has exposed the fact that there are no longer any grand justifications or doctrinal needs for nuclear weapons - and that the nuclear machine is choking on its economic, political, environmental, and human contradictions. The initiatives fundamentally altered the nuclear stance of both nations. Yet, as momentous as the changes were, they were set in motion in an almost businesslike manner. Neither leader truly framed the moves as an end to the nuclear age. But they didn't need to. The steps they have taken practically guarantee it

  16. A review of the current status of nuclear data for major and minor isotopes of thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, we present a critical overview of the status of the available nuclear data of isotopes of thorium fuel cycle, viz., 230 Th, 232 Th, 231 Pa, 233 Pa, 232 U, 233 U and 234 U. Induced in the main body of the paper is a critical analysis of information contained in the two basic evaluated nuclear data files JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI (Rev.5) recently released by the IAEA/NDS as a result of truly international efforts. In some of the cases, the information and data given in EXFOR is examined to get an idea of the status of measured nuclear data of these isotopes. Some comments regarding gaps in experimental data as of 1999 are included in the discussion. Most of these experimental data were those generated two decades ago. In addition, generally, these experimental data are very limited in comparison to the voluminous nuclear data generated for the uranium-plutonium cycle. Experimental data is absent in most of the cases and, in such cases, evaluated cross sections in the two basic evaluated nuclear data files JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI(Rev.5) are based upon theoretical models and nuclear systematics. Some of these differences between JEF-2.2 and its source ENDF/B-V that were carried over to ENDF/B-VI(Rev.5) are explained. The role and the importance of 231 Pa and 233 Pa in the thorium fuel cycle in advanced concepts such as the Energy Amplifier are mentioned. New calculations of criticality property of 231 Pa and 233 Pa are presented using the neutron reaction data of JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI(Rev.5). The possible influence of 230 Th is examined with respect to its cross sections and production of 231 Pa in a typical Indian PHWR environment. The quality assurance in design and safety studies in nuclear energy in the next few decades and centuries require new and improved data with high accuracy and energy resolution. As a starter, the nuclear data of the set of isotopes of thorium fuel cycle discussed in this paper is a challenging sample for consideration as a

  17. Achievements, current status and prospects for Russian-American cooperation in nuclear material physical protection, control and accounting - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    The process of upgrading the material physical protection, control and accounting systems is an ongoing and long-term process that consists of modernization measuring equipment and methodologies, improving, data exchange and processing technologies, and improving administrative procedures. The positive results that was already achieved form a foundation upon which this collaboration may extend into other new and important areas, such as - the second and third lines of defence, which are directed toward countering illegal trafficking not only in nuclear materials, but in other hazardous substances that constitute a threat to the nuclear sites and national security of the countries [ru

  18. The current state of development works for manufacturing and methods of controlling the nuclear fuel for NPPs of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeychuk, N.P.; Levenets, V.V.; Krasnorutsky, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results of NSC KIPT researches on manufacturing the fuel microspheres and pellets based on uranium dioxide. The data on fuel characteristics for different manufacturing stages are given. The problems of improving the fuel quality with changing the structure characteristics of pellets are considered. Demonstrated is the hardware for pellet controlling and presented are the new ways for developing the methods of controlling the nuclear fuel: X-ray fluorescent analysis; complex of nuclear-physical methods on the base of accelerators; laser-excitation energy-mass-spectrometer. (author)

  19. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 13, December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: Highlights of the 53rd IAEA General Conference, 14-18 September 2009. Current status of the Building, Testing and Using the Response Assistance Network (RANET). 10th Meeting of the ANSN Steering Committee. The document also gives an overview on International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS)

  20. U.S. Department Of Energy's nuclear engineering education research: highlights of recent and current research-II. 5. Automation of Nuclear Fuel Pellet Quality Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvan, Shahla; Song, Xiaolong

    2001-01-01

    At the present time, nuclear fuel pellet inspection is performed by humans using the naked eye for judgment and decision making as to whether to accept or reject the pellet. Unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets will be costly, and having too many low-quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. The current practice of pellet inspection by humans is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. In addition, manual inspection is cumbersome since the inspector must keep the pellet at arm's length and must wear glasses to protect the lenses of his or her eyes. The pellets are taken from a pellet sizing machine, dumped onto a rack, and shaken into rows; they are then viewed as a group. The entire group is rotated 90 deg four times to provide the inspector with a 360-deg view of each pellet. The pellets are examined for certain types of cracks, chips, and unusual markings, i.e., water stains and machine banding. These defects appear at any location on the pellet surface image with different intensity, size, shape, and background noise. Figure 1 shows typical defective fuel pellets with chip, banded, and end defects. The goal of this work is to automate the pellet inspection process. A prototype of such an inspection system is developed. The system examines photographic images of pellets using various artificial intelligence techniques for image analysis and defect classification. Figure 2 shows the user interface of this inspection system, which is built using Java programming language. A total of 252 pellets with various defects was available for this research. Each pellet was photographed four times at rotations of 90 deg. The resultant black-and-white negatives were scanned into the computer in 256 gray scale mode. The inspection of a fuel pellet by image analysis involves several steps, as described in Fig. 3 and as follows: Step 1-On-line image conversion: This process involves on-line digitization of the input image. Step 2-Reference model: The second

  1. Reviving the art of sociability : Madame de Genlis’s Post-Revolutionary Salon at the Arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Conroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Madame de Genlis est connue comme une critique des philosophes grâce à son dialogue Les dîners du baron d’Holbach (1822. Son tableau d’une sociabilité positive, Les soupers chez la maréchale de Luxembourg (1828, est beaucoup moins connu. Les soupers posent l’idéal d’une socialibilité de cour comme étant supérieure à ce qu’elle voyait comme la sociabilité perverse des Lumières et l’incivilité de la période révolutionnaire. Mais ces dialogues sont loin d’être une simple représentation historique de la conversation dans la haute société. Ils sont plutôt des modèles pratiques pour l’art de la conversation, conçus pour fournir un remède moral à une société divisée. Issus de son expérience comme salonnière à la Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, les dialogues fictionnalisés des années 1820 ré-inventent l’idée de la sociabilité au XVIIIe siècle pour convenir aux goûts des lideurs du XIXe siècle.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the scorpion Scorpiops jendeki: implication for the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yingliang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Euscorpiidae, which covers Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, is one of the most widely distributed scorpion groups. However, no studies have been conducted on the venom of a Euscorpiidae species yet. In this work, we performed a transcriptomic approach for characterizing the venom components from a Euscorpiidae scorpion, Scorpiops jendeki. Results There are ten known types of venom peptides and proteins obtained from Scorpiops jendeki. Great diversity is observed in primary sequences of most highly expressed types. The most highly expressed types are cytolytic peptides and serine proteases. Neurotoxins specific for sodium channels, which are major groups of venom components from Buthidae scorpions, are not detected in this study. In addition to those known types of venom peptides and proteins, we also obtain nine atypical types of venom molecules which haven't been observed in any other scorpion species studied to date. Conclusion This work provides the first set of cDNAs from Scorpiops jendeki, and one of the few transcriptomic analyses from a scorpion. This allows the characterization of a large number of venom molecules, belonging to either known or atypical types of scorpion venom peptides and proteins. Besides, our work could provide some clues to the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal by comparison with venom data from other scorpion lineages.

  3. The Aristotelian Heritage in Early Naval Architecture. From the Venice Arsenal to the French Navy, 1500-1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrie David Ferreiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper examines the Aristotelian roots of the mechanics of naval architecture, beginning with Mechanical Problems, through its various interpretations by Renaissance mathematicians including Vettor Fausto and Galileo at the Venice Arsenal, and culminating in the first synthetic works of naval architecture by the French navy professor Paul Hoste at the end of the seventeenth century.

  4. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  5. Current developments in mechanized non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants; Aktuelle Entwicklungen bei mechanisierten, zerstoerungsfreien Pruefungen in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilinger, R. [intelligeNDT System und Services GmbH und Co. KG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Nuclear power plants require frequent in-service activities to be carried out conscientiously in areas potentially hazardous to human operators (because of the associated radiation exposure), such as non-destructive testing of pressurized components of the steam system. Locations to be inspected in this way include the reactor pressure vessel, core internals, steam generators, pressurizers, and pipes. The codes to be used as a basis of these inspections demand high absolute positioning and repeating accuracy. These requirements can be met by mechanized test procedures. Accordingly, many new applications of, mostly mobile, robots have been developed over the past few years. The innovative control and sensor systems for stationary and mobile robots now on the market offer a potential for economic application in a large number of new areas in inspection, maintenance and service in nuclear power plants. More progress in this area is expected for the near future. Areva NP founded the new NDT Center, NETEC (Non-destructive Examination Technical Center), as a global technical center for non-destructive materials testing. NETEC is to advance research and development of all basic NDT technologies, robotics included. For many years, intelligeNDT has offered solutions and products for a variety of inspection and testing purposes and locations in nuclear power plants and is involved in continuous further development of the experience collected in nuclear power plants on the spot. (orig.)

  6. Economics and resources analysis of the potential use of reprocessing options by the current Spanish nuclear reactor park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Merino Rodriguez, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.

    2014-07-01

    Reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel serves multiple purposes, from Pu separation and recovery for MOX fuel fabrication to reduction of high level waste volume, and is nowadays being implemented in several countries like France, Japan, Russia or United Kingdom. This work is aimed at exploring the possibility (in resources and economic terms) of implementing reprocessing for MOX fabrication in Spain. (Author)

  7. Status of the U.S. nuclear option, conditions leading to its resurgence, and current licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidi, J.

    2007-01-01

    The projected increase in electricity demand, increased concern over emissions along with more stringent emission requirements, volatility of the gas and oil supplies and prices, and the convergence of favourable conditions and legislation make nuclear power a practical option for meeting future electricity base-load demands. (author)

  8. Current Activities on Nuclear Safety Culture in Korea. How to meet the challenges for Safety and Safety Culture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chaewoon [International Policy Department Policy and Standard Division, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Gusung-Dong Yuseong-Ku, 305-338 DAEJEON (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    'Statement of Nuclear Safety Policy' declared by the Korean Government elucidates adherence to the principle of 'priority to safety'. The 3. Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) more specifically addressed the necessity to develop and apply 'safety culture evaluation criteria' and to strengthen safety management of concerned organizations in an autonomous way. Putting these policies as a backdrop, Korean Government has taken diverse safety culture initiatives and has encouraged the relevant organizations to develop safety culture practices of their own accord. Accordingly, KHNP, the operating organization in Korea, developed a 'safety culture performance indicator', which has been used to evaluate safety mind of employees and the evaluation results have been continuously reflected in operational management and training programs. Furthermore, KHNP inserted 'nuclear safety culture subject' into every course of more than two week length, and provided employees with special lectures on safety culture. KINS, the regulatory organization, developed indicators for the safety culture evaluation based on the IAEA Guidelines. Also, KINS has hosted an annual Nuclear Safety Technology Information Meeting to share information between regulatory organizations and industries. Furthermore, KINS provided a nuclear safety culture class to the new employees and they are given a chance to participate in performance of a role-reversal socio-drama. Additionally, KINS developed a safety culture training program, published training materials and conducted a 'Nuclear Safety Culture Basic Course' in October 2007, 4 times of which are planed this year. In conclusion, from Government to relevant organizations, 'nuclear safety culture' concept is embraced as important and has been put into practice on a variety of forms. Specifically, 'education and training' is a starting line and sharing

  9. Nuclear Waste State-of-the-Art Report 2007 - responsibility of current generation, freedom of future generations. Main report from the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The state-of-the-art report presented by the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM) in 2007 is of a slightly different character than the state-of-the-art reports published previously. This year KASAM felt the need to provide an overall picture in relatively easily accessible form of all its assessments since the first state-of-the-art report in 1986. Some of it has of course been rendered obsolete by subsequent events, but surprisingly much is still relevant. The purpose of this main report to provide an overall picture in relatively easily accessible form of all our assessments since the first state-of-the-art report in 1986. Some of it has of course been rendered obsolete by subsequent events, but surprisingly much is still relevant. Another purpose is to describe in general terms the course of events within which these assessments were made in order to contribute to a fundamental understanding of the complexity of managing the nuclear waste issue

  10. Current significant challenges in the decommissioning and environmental remediation of radioactive facilities: A perspective from outside the nuclear industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Cerezo, V; Domínguez-Vilches, E; González-Barrios, A J

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of implementing an extrajudicial environmental mediation procedure in the socioenvironmental conflict associated with routine operation of the El Cabril Disposal Facility for low- and medium- activity radioactive waste (Spain). We analyse the socio-ethical perspective of this facility's operation with regard to its nearby residents, detailing the structure and development of the environmental mediation procedure through the participation of society and interested parties who are or may become involved in such a conflict. The research, action, and participation method was used to apply the environmental mediation procedure. This experience provides lessons that could help improve decision-making processes in nuclear or radioactive facility decommissioning projects or in environmental remediation projects dealing with ageing facilities or with those in which nuclear or radioactive accidents/incidents may have occurred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station - occurrence of the accident, current situation and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation author analyse course of accident on Fukushima Dai-chi NPPs as well as consequences of this disaster. The following parts are presented: (1) Occurrence of the accident; (2) Evacuation of the residential people; (3) Deterioration and protraction of the accident; (4) Impact on society; (5) Situation of decontamination; (6) Long-term steps towards decommissioning; (7) Situation of other nuclear power stations; (8) Conclusions and lessons learned.

  12. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear weapons have traditionally occupied an important place in Russia's national security strategy. This tradition goes back to the Soviet times, when the country invested considerable efforts into building its nuclear arsenal and achieving strategic parity with the United States. As Russia and the United States have been reducing their nuclear arsenals since the end of the Cold War, their relationship has undergone a complex transformation toward cooperation and partnership mixed with suspicion and rivalry. The focus of Russia's nuclear policy, however, has remained essentially unchanged - it still considers strategic balance with the United States to be an important element of national security and pays considerable attention to maintaining the deterrent potential of its strategic forces. Russia does recognize the emergence of new threats - it cannot ignore the threats related to regional instabilities and conflicts on its own territory and in bordering states, such as the tensions in the Caucasus or the war in Afghanistan, the terrorist activity that is associated with these conflicts, as well as the problems that stem from nuclear and missile proliferation. These, however, are not given a high priority in Russia's security policy. For example, the new military doctrine adopted in February 2010, opens the list of military threats with the expansion of geographical and political reach of NATO, which is followed by the threat to strategic stability and then by deployment of missile defense. Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and destabilizing local conflicts are placed much further down the list. Even when it comes to confronting the issues of local instabilities and terrorism, Russia's leadership tends to see these issues through the prism of its strategic strength, alleging that terrorist attacks are a reaction to Russia's perceived weakness. This way of looking at the issues effectively redefines national security problems to conform to the traditional view

  13. Germany and the nuclear non-proliferation; Current situation and prospects; Deutschland und die nukleare Nichtverbreitung; Zwischenbilanz und Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisinger, J.

    1993-07-01

    A summary is given of the consequences, both positive and negative, of international non-proliferation policy. The numerous, complex branches and connections of national measures and inter-stake agreements for the peaceful, controlled uses of nuclear technology and related military technologies are expertly described, and assessed on their effectiveness. Weak aspects of the nuclear non-proliferation regime are pointed out and past reforms are illustrated and assessed in the light of recent developments. The interests of the German Federal Republic from the centre of this analysis. The author shows that, after a certain hesitary, German diplomacy has now become active in the establishment of an international non-proliferation regime. He concludes that Germany should take a strong initiative role in maintaining a peaceful international nuclear order. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ein Resuemee der bisherigen Erfolge und Misserfolge internationaler Nichtverbreitungspolitik gezogen. Die komplexen, vielfach veraestelten und verschachtelten nationalen Massnahmen und zwischenstaatlichen Vereinbarungen zur Ueberwachung und friedlichen Zweckbindung von Nukleartechnologie und militaerisch relevanten Anschlusstechnologien werden sachkundig erlaeutert und auf ihre Wirksamkeit ueberprueft. Schwachstellen des nuklearen Nichtverbreitungsregimes werden offengelegt, Reformschritte der vergangenen Jahre werden dargestellt und im Lichte der juengsten Entwicklungen bewertet. Dabei steht die Interessenlage der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Zentrum der Analyse. Der Autor zeigt, dass die deutsche Diplomatie sich nach einer gewissen Zurueckhaltung schliesslich aktiv in die Gestaltung des internationalen Nichtverbreitungsregimes eingeschaltet hat. Er plaediert fuer eine kraftvolle Initiativrolle Deutschlands zur Erhaltung einer friedlichen internationalen Nuklearordnung. (orig.)

  14. Current status of nuclear decay data and report on the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on the measurement and evaluation of transactinium isotope nuclear decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Vaninbroukx, R.

    1984-01-01

    In 1977, the IAEA organized a Coordinated Research Programme to address the needs for highly accurate actinide-nuclide decay data identified at the first Advisory Group Meeting on Transactinium Isotope Nuclear Data, held in Karlsruhe in 1975. During the years of its existence, this CRP has made significant strides towards achieving the goals outlined at Karlsruhe and subsequently refined at a second Advisory Group Meeting, held in Cadarache in 1979. In this paper, the make-up of the CRP and its work in the areas of decay-data measurement and evaluation are presented and its significant accomplishments summarized. We also discuss the contents and philosophy of the final report, containing the results of the measurements and evaluations carried out by the CRP participants, to be published following the planned termination of this Programme in November, 1984. 82 references

  15. Europe's nuclear superpowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seignious, G.M. II; Yates, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Both Great Britain and France are on the verge of nuclear buildups ambitious enough to turn either one into the world's third nuclear superpower. The authors note that the expansion of British and French arsenals will add greatly to the West's nuclear firepower, but on balance these forces will actually weaken Western security. The reason is that they will be deployed largely in potentially vulnerable and destabilizing modes. In addition, they will threaten the unity of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the viability of the alliance's nuclear doctrine. Perhaps most important, these forces will almost certainly spark a counterbuild-up by the Soviets and fatally complicate the task of arms control. The authors feel, therefore, that the time to include British and French forces in nuclear arms talks is now - before the planned increase in their nuclear might takes place. London and Paris have authorized programs that can give them unprecedented influence with the superpowers and should use this opportunity to slow the arms race, not supercharge it

  16. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. Issue no. 3, April 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This newsletter reports on the manual for first responders to a radiological emergency, the IAEA's testing laboratory for radiation measurement, monitoring and protection, which is the first UN laboratory accredited to the international standard ISO17025, and the International Conference on Lessons Learned fro the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Nuclear Activities. The IAEA, in recognition of this critical need, has developed a Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency with the objective to provide practical guidance for those responding within the first few hours of a radiological emergency. This guidance document is co-sponsored by the Comite technique international de prevention et d'extinction du feu (CTIF), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The Manual for First Responders provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. The guidance also contains practical procedures and tools on the response to a radiological emergency again easily and quickly adaptable by Member States to prepare first responders to respond adequately to a radiological emergency. The Manual can be used for training purposes at the preparedness stage as well as during the response. The Policy and Programme Support Section (PPSS) within the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Security (NSRW) has been operating, for many years, a laboratory (the Testing Laboratory) for radiation safety monitoring of individuals and workplaces. The establishment of a quality management system, as required in the International Basic Safety Standards (the BSS), started in 2000 to cover all measurement methods of the laboratory. This system is based on the international standard ISO17025 (General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories). PPSS

  17. SON68 nuclear glass dissolution kinetics: Current state of knowledge and basis of the new GRAAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)], E-mail: pierre.frugier@cea.fr; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Chave, T. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Bonin, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DIR/DS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Godon, N.; Lartigue, J.-E.; Jollivet, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Ayral, A. [IEM/CNRS-ENSCM Universite Montpellier 2, CC 047, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); De Windt, L. [ENSMP, CG, 35 rue St Honore, 77305 Fontainebleau cedex (France); Santarini, G. [CEA Saclay HC/CAB, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2008-10-15

    This article summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning aqueous alteration of R7T7-type nuclear containment glasses, represented mainly by the inactive reference glass designated SON68. Based on this review, we propose to describe the glass alteration kinetics up to and including the final residual rate regime by means of a new mechanistic model known as GRAAL (glassreactivitywithallowanceforthealterationlayer). Phenomenological analysis findings are reviewed for the various glass alteration regimes: interdiffusion, initial rate, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular circumstances, resumption of alteration. These alteration regimes are associated with predominant mechanisms. Published work interpreting and modeling these mechanisms was examined in detail. There is a broad consensus on the general mechanisms of the initial rate and even the interdiffusion regime, whereas the mechanisms controlling the rate drop remain a subject of dispute not only with regard to nuclear glasses but also for the dissolution of silicate minerals. The reaction affinity responsible for the rate drop is expressed differently by different authors and depending on the underlying theories. The disagreement concerns the nature of the phase (glass or gel) or the activated complex controlling the rate drop, which in turn determines the elements that must be taken into account in the overall affinity term. Progress in recent years, especially in identifying the mechanisms responsible for the residual rate, has shed new light on these issues, allowing us to propose new theoretical foundations for modeling the different kinetic regimes of SON68 nuclear glass dissolution. The GRAAL model considers that water diffusion in the passivating reaction zone (the gel formed under saturation conditions) is a rate-limiting step in the overall glass dissolution kinetics. Moreover, this passivation zone is a soluble phase whose stability is directly dependent on the nature of the

  18. Large-scale nuclear structure calculations for spin-dependent WIMP scattering with chiral effective field theory currents

    OpenAIRE

    Klos, P.; Menéndez, J.; Gazit, D.; Schwenk, A.

    2013-01-01

    We perform state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations of the structure factors for elastic spin-dependent WIMP scattering off 129,131Xe, 127I, 73Ge, 19F, 23Na, 27Al, and 29Si. This comprehensive survey covers the non-zero-spin nuclei relevant to direct dark matter detection. We include a pedagogical presentation of the formalism necessary to describe elastic and inelastic WIMP-nucleus scattering. The valence spaces and nuclear interactions employed have been previously used in nucl...

  19. Current in-pile absorbed dose measurements at the Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences - Vinca, Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draganic, G I [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1966-11-15

    So far in-pile absorbed dose measurements have been limited only to experiments in the RA reactor at the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences at Vinca (6.5 D{sub 2}O moderated and 2% enriched uranium). The methods used for absorbed dose and neutron flux measurements were 1,2 discussed in some earlier reports at the IAEA meetings. The purpose of the present report is to illustrate the further development of methods of determining in-pile absorbed doses (author)

  20. Long-term worldwide effects of multiple nuclear weapons detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The NAS report, issued in 1975 shocked the scientific community by suggesting that detonation of a fraction of the world's nuclear arsenal (10 4 megatons) could produce a major, 30-70%, reduction in stratospheric ozone, lasting a year or more. The consequences of such a reduction in the natural barrier to solar ultraviolet radiation include the potential extinction of mammalian life. The summary section of the 1975 report is reprinted here