WorldWideScience

Sample records for current multiplication avalanche

  1. A high current, high speed pulser using avalanche transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Yoneichi; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi

    1985-01-01

    A high current, high speed pulser for the beam pulsing of a linear accelerator is described. It uses seven avalanche transistors in cascade. Design of a trigger circuit to obtain fast rise time is discussed. The characteristics of the pulser are : (a) Rise time = 0.9 ns (FWHM) and (d) Life time asymptotically equals 2000 -- 3000 hr (at 50 Hz). (author)

  2. Nano-multiplication region avalanche photodiodes and arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode with a nano-scale reach-through structure comprising n-doped and p-doped regions, formed on a silicon island on an insulator, so that the avalanche photodiode may be electrically isolated from other circuitry on other silicon islands on the same silicon chip as the avalanche photodiode. For some embodiments, multiplied holes generated by an avalanche reduces the electric field in the depletion region of the n-doped and p-doped regions to bring about self-quenching of the avalanche photodiode. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  3. Origin of large dark current increase in InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J.; Wang, W. J.; Chen, X. R.; Li, N.; Chen, X. S.; Lu, W.

    2018-04-01

    The large dark current increase near the breakdown voltage of an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode is observed and analyzed from the aspect of bulk defects in the device materials. The trap level information is extracted from the temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of the device and the low temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the materials. Simulation results with the extracted trap level taken into consideration show that the trap is in the InP multiplication layer and the trap assisted tunneling current induced by the trap is the main cause of the large dark current increase with the bias from the punch-through voltage to 95% breakdown voltage.

  4. Avalanche diode having reduced dark current and method for its manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; Starbuck, Andrew Lee; Pomerene, Andrew T. S.

    2017-08-29

    An avalanche diode includes an absorption region in a germanium body epitaxially grown on a silicon body including a multiplication region. Aspect-ratio trapping is used to suppress dislocation growth in the vicinity of the absorption region.

  5. Current oscillations in avalanche particle detectors with PNIPN-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukin, K.A.

    1995-08-01

    The model of an avalanche high energy particle detector consisting of two pn-junctions, connected through an intrinsic semiconductor with a reverse biased voltage applied. This detector is able to generate the oscillatory response on the single particle passage through the structure. The possibility of oscillations leading to chaotic behaviour is pointed out

  6. Investigation of silicon/silicon germanium multiple quantum well layers in silicon avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loudon, A.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are currently utilised in many single photon counting systems due to their high efficiency, fast response times, low voltage operation and potentially low cost. For fibre based applications however (at wavelengths 1.3 and 1.55μm) and eye-safe wavelength applications (>1.4μm), Si devices are not suitable due to their 1.1μm absorption edge and hence greatly reduced absorption above this wavelength. InGaAs/InP or Ge SPADs absorb at these longer wavelengths, but both require cryogenic cooling for low noise operation and III-V integration with conventional Si circuitry is difficult. Si/SiGe is currently attracting great interest for optoelectronic applications and attempts to combine Si avalanche photodiodes with Si/SiGe multiple quantum well absorbing layers have been successful. Here, an effort to utilise this material system has shown an improvement in photon counting efficiency above 1.1μm of more than 30 times compared to an all-Si control device. In addition to its longer wavelength response, this Si/SiGe device has room temperature operation, low cost fabrication and is compatible with conventional Si circuitry. (author)

  7. Generation efficiency of single-photon current pulses in the Geiger mode of silicon avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhovtseva, A. V.; Gergel, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistical fluctuations of the avalanche's multiplication efficiency were studied as applied to the single-photon (Geiger) mode of avalanche photodiodes. The distribution function of partial multiplication factors with an anomalously wide (of the order of the average) dispersion was obtained. Expressions for partial feedback factors were derived in terms of the average gain and the corresponding dependences on the diode's overvoltage were calculated. Final expressions for the photon-electric pulse's conversion were derived by averaging corresponding formulas over the coordinate of initiating photoelectron generation using the functions of optical photon absorption in silicon.

  8. Effects of the intrinsic layer width on the band-to-band tunneling current in p-i-n GaN-based avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ling; Bao, Xichang; Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Chao; Yuan, Yonggang; Xu, Jintong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiangyang

    2009-01-01

    Dark current is critical for GaN-based avalanche photodiodes because it significantly increases the noise current and limits the multiplication factor. It has been found that the band-to-band tunneling current is the dominant origin of the dark current for avalanche photodiodes at the onset of breakdown voltage. Experimentally, for GaN-based avalanche photodiodes with a thinner intrinsic layer, the dark current increases nearly exponentially with the applied voltage even at a lower bias voltage. In this paper, the intrinsic layer (i-layer) width of GaN-based avalanche photodiodes has been varied to study its effect on the band-to-band tunneling current. A widely used equation was used to calculate the band-to-band tunneling current of avalanche photodiodes with different i-layer widths (i-layer 0.1 µm, 0.2 µm and 0.4 µm). At −40 V, the band-to-band tunneling current significantly reduces by a magnitude of 10 −15 A with an increase in the i-layer width from 0.1 µm to 0.2 µm, and a magnitude of 10 −29 A with an increase in the i-layer width from 0.2 µm to 0.4 µm. Then, GaN-based avalanche photodiodes (i-layer 0.1 µm, 0.2 µm and 0.4 µm) with different-sized mesa were fabricated. Also, the measurement of dark current of all three different structures was performed, and their multiplication factors were given

  9. Proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, J.; Pawlowski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The work describes the construction of a proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons. It has been shown that in this counter filled with Penning's mixtures Ne+Ar+CO 2 , Ne+CH 4 and Ar+C 2 H 2 , much higher resolutions are obtained than in typical cylindrical counters. In the counter described filled with a mixture of Ne+1%CH 4 , a resolution of fwhm=10.5% has been obtained for E=5.9 keV. (orig.)

  10. Proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, J.; Pawlowski, Z. (Politechnika Warszawska (Poland). Inst. Radioelektroniki)

    1982-09-15

    The work describes the construction of a proportional counter with a uniform electric field in the zone of avalanche multiplication of electrons. It has been shown that in this counter filled with Penning's mixtures Ne+Ar+CO/sub 2/, Ne+CH/sub 4/ and Ar+C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, much higher resolutions are obtained than in typical cylindrical counters. In the counter described filled with a mixture of Ne+1%CH/sub 4/, a resolution of fwhm=10.5% has been obtained for E=5.9 keV.

  11. A new method to improve multiplication factor in micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes with high pixel density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadygov, Z. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ahmadov, F. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Khorev, S. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Sadigov, A., E-mail: saazik@yandex.ru [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Suleymanov, S. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Madatov, R.; Mehdiyeva, R. [Institute of Radiation Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Zerrouk, F. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada)

    2016-07-11

    Presented is a new model describing development of the avalanche process in time, taking into account the dynamics of electric field within the depleted region of the diode and the effect of parasitic capacitance shunting individual quenching micro-resistors on device parameters. Simulations show that the effective capacitance of a single pixel, which defines the multiplication factor, is the sum of the pixel capacitance and a parasitic capacitance shunting its quenching micro-resistor. Conclusions obtained as a result of modeling open possibilities of improving the pixel gain in micropixel avalanche photodiodes with high pixel density (or low pixel capacitance).

  12. Digitally grown AlInAsSb for high gain separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuexi; Han, Xi; Sun, Yaoyao; Jiang, Zhi; Guo, Chunyan; Xiang, Wei; Dong, Yinan; Cui, Jie; Yao, Yuan; Jiang, Dongwei; Wang, Guowei; Xu, Yingqiang; Niu, Zhichuan

    2018-01-01

    We report on the growth of high quality GaSb-based AlInAsSb quaternary alloy by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to fabricate avalanche photodiodes (APDs). By means of high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), phase separation phenomenon of AlInAsSb random alloy with naturally occurring vertical superlattice configuration was demonstrated. To overcome the tendency for phase segregation while maintaining a highly crystalline film, a digital alloy technique with migration-enhanced epitaxy growth method was employed, using a shutter sequence of AlSb, AlAs, AlSb, Sb, In, InAs, In, Sb. AlInAsSb digital alloy has proved to be reproducible and consistent with single phase, showing sharp satellite peaks on HRXRD rocking curve and smooth surface morphology under atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using optimized digital alloy, AlInAsSb separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication (SAGCM) APD was grown and fabricated. At room temperature, the device showed high performance with low dark current density of ∼14.1 mA/cm2 at 95% breakdown and maximum stable gain before breakdown as high as ∼200, showing the potential for further applications in optoelectronic devices.

  13. Fractal multiplication of electron avalanches and streamers: new mechanism of electrical breakdown?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficker, T

    2007-01-01

    Long-lasting problems concerning peculiar statistical behaviour of high populated electron avalanches have been analysed. These avalanches are precursors of streamer breakdown in gases. The present streamer theory fails in explaining severe systematic deviations from the Furry statistics that is believed to be a governing statistical law. Such a deviated behaviour of high populated avalanches seems to be a consequence of a special pre-breakdown mechanism that is rather different from that known so far in discharge physics. This analysis tends towards formulating a modified theoretical concept supplementing the streamer theory by a new statistical view of pre-streamer states. The correctness of the concept is corroborated by a series of experiments

  14. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Ge/graded-SiGe multiplication layers for low-voltage and low-noise Ge avalanche photodiodes on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Yuji; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Okazaki, Kota; Takeda, Kotaro; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Yamada, Koji; Wada, Kazumi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    A new structure is examined for low-voltage and low-noise Ge-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) on Si, where a Ge/graded-SiGe heterostructure is used as the multiplication layer of a separate-absorption-carrier-multiplication structure. The Ge/SiGe heterojunction multiplication layer is theoretically shown to be useful for preferentially enhancing impact ionization for photogenerated holes injected from the Ge optical-absorption layer via the graded SiGe, reflecting the valence band discontinuity at the Ge/SiGe interface. This property is effective not only for the reduction of operation voltage/electric field strength in Ge-based APDs but also for the reduction of excess noise resulting from the ratio of the ionization coefficients between electrons and holes being far from unity. Such Ge/graded-SiGe heterostructures are successfully fabricated by ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition. Preliminary pin diodes having a Ge/graded-SiGe multiplication layer act reasonably as photodetectors, showing a multiplication gain larger than those for diodes without the Ge/SiGe heterojunction.

  16. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Avalanches in insulating gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaart, H.F.A.

    1982-01-01

    Avalanches of charged particles in gases are often studied with the ''electrical method'', the measurement of the waveform of the current in the external circuit. In this thesis a substantial improvement of the time resolution of the measuring setup, to be used for the electrical method, is reported. The avalanche is started by an N 2 -laser with a pulse duration of only 0.6 ns. With this laser it is possible to release a high number of primary electrons (some 10 8 ) which makes it possible to obtain sizeable signals, even at low E/p values. With the setup it is possible to analyze current waveforms with a time resolution down to 1.4 ns, determined by both the laser and the measuring system. Furthermore it is possible to distinguish between the current caused by the electrons and the current caused by the ions in the avalanche and to monitor these currents simultaneously. Avalanche currents are measured in N 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , H 2 O, air of varying humidity, SF 6 and SF 6 /N 2 mixtures. Depending on the nature of the gas and the experimental conditions, processes as diffusion, ionization, attachment, detachment, conversion and secondary emission are observed. Values of parameters with which these processes can be described, are derived from an analysis of the current waveforms. For this analysis already published theories and new theories described in this thesis are used. The drift velocity of both the electrons and the ions could be easily determined from measured avalanche currents. Special attention is paid to avalanches in air becasue of the practical importance of air insulation. (Auth.)

  18. Current concepts in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiethoelter, Horst; Dichgans, Johannes

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains 9 articles dealing with the use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and positron emitted tomography in the diagnosis and staging of multiple sclerosis. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  19. Multiple sclerosis: current immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cuevas-García

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed on its origin: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration. In this review, the immune reaction main components and neurodegeneration present in multiple sclerosis are analyzed, as well as the inflammatory cascade associated with demyelination. Available treatments’ main purpose is to modulate aspects related to the adaptive immune response (B and T cells. The therapeutic challenge will be antigen-specific immune-tolerance induction, for example, with the use of tolerance protocols with peptides or DNA or nanoparticles vaccines. Future therapies should aim to control innate components (microglia, macrophages, astrocytes and to promote remyelination. To optimize the treatment, a combined therapeutic approach targeting the control of inflammatory and neurodegenerative components of the disease and monitoring of biomarkers will be necessary.

  20. An Acoustic Charge Transport Imager for High Definition Television Applications: Reliability Modeling and Parametric Yield Prediction of GaAs Multiple Quantum Well Avalanche Photodiodes. Degree awarded Oct. 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, W. D.; Brennan, K. F.; Summers, C. J.; Yun, Ilgu

    1994-01-01

    Reliability modeling and parametric yield prediction of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which are of interest as an ultra-low noise image capture mechanism for high definition systems, have been investigated. First, the effect of various doping methods on the reliability of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiode (APD) structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. Reliability is examined by accelerated life tests by monitoring dark current and breakdown voltage. Median device lifetime and the activation energy of the degradation mechanism are computed for undoped, doped-barrier, and doped-well APD structures. Lifetimes for each device structure are examined via a statistically designed experiment. Analysis of variance shows that dark-current is affected primarily by device diameter, temperature and stressing time, and breakdown voltage depends on the diameter, stressing time and APD type. It is concluded that the undoped APD has the highest reliability, followed by the doped well and doped barrier devices, respectively. To determine the source of the degradation mechanism for each device structure, failure analysis using the electron-beam induced current method is performed. This analysis reveals some degree of device degradation caused by ionic impurities in the passivation layer, and energy-dispersive spectrometry subsequently verified the presence of ionic sodium as the primary contaminant. However, since all device structures are similarly passivated, sodium contamination alone does not account for the observed variation between the differently doped APDs. This effect is explained by the dopant migration during stressing, which is verified by free carrier concentration measurements using the capacitance-voltage technique.

  1. Lumped transmission line avalanche pulser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Rex

    1995-01-01

    A lumped linear avalanche transistor pulse generator utilizes stacked transistors in parallel within a stage and couples a plurality of said stages, in series with increasing zener diode limited voltages per stage and decreasing balanced capacitance load per stage to yield a high voltage, high and constant current, very short pulse.

  2. Investigation of avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si Mohand, D.; Benhammou, Y.; Depasse, P.; Goyot, M.; Ille, B.; Linard, E.; Martin, F.; Musienko, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Some characteristics and performances of a set of nine Hamamatsu avalanche photodiodes have been investigated. These APDs have equipped a small 3x3 PbWO{sub 4} crystal matrix in X3 beam during the summer of 1995. This note summarizes the main results of this work. An electromagnetic calorimeter with a high resolution is necessary to search for the Higgs if it has a mass between 80 and 160 GeV. A PbWO{sub 4} crystal option has been chosen by the CMS collaboration to achieve this task. The light is collected and converted into an electric charge by an Avalanche Photodiode (APD) followed by a fast preamplifier. The advantage of the APDs is that they are not sensitive to the strong magnetic field when compared to photomultipliers and they are a small nuclear counter effect when compared to PIN diodes. In this study, we have tested nine low capacitance Hamamatsu APDs (S5345) received in spring, 1995 with an area of 0.2 cm{sup 2}. We have measured the capacitance and dark current for each APD. The gain measurements have also been done with gamma sources, continuous and pulsed light. The gain sensitivity versus bias and temperature have also been investigated succinctly. (author). 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Investigation of avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Mohand, D.; Benhammou, Y.; Depasse, P.; Goyot, M.; Ille, B.; Linard, E.; Martin, F.; Musienko, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Some characteristics and performances of a set of nine Hamamatsu avalanche photodiodes have been investigated. These APDs have equipped a small 3x3 PbWO 4 crystal matrix in X3 beam during the summer of 1995. This note summarizes the main results of this work. An electromagnetic calorimeter with a high resolution is necessary to search for the Higgs if it has a mass between 80 and 160 GeV. A PbWO 4 crystal option has been chosen by the CMS collaboration to achieve this task. The light is collected and converted into an electric charge by an Avalanche Photodiode (APD) followed by a fast preamplifier. The advantage of the APDs is that they are not sensitive to the strong magnetic field when compared to photomultipliers and they are a small nuclear counter effect when compared to PIN diodes. In this study, we have tested nine low capacitance Hamamatsu APDs (S5345) received in spring, 1995 with an area of 0.2 cm 2 . We have measured the capacitance and dark current for each APD. The gain measurements have also been done with gamma sources, continuous and pulsed light. The gain sensitivity versus bias and temperature have also been investigated succinctly. (author). 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  4. Statistics of Electron Avalanches and Streamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ficker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the severe systematic deviations of populations of electron avalanches from the Furry distribution, which has been held to be the statistical law corresponding to them, and a possible explanation has been sought. A  new theoretical concept based on fractal avalanche multiplication has been proposed and is shown to be a convenient candidate for explaining these deviations from Furry statistics. 

  5. On the short-circuit and avalanche ruggedness reliability assessment of SiC MOSFET modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, Claudiu; Nawaz, Muhammad; Ilves, Kalle

    2017-01-01

    to failure, a gate-source voltage drop has been recorded, which is associated with a high G-S leakage current. The main failure mechanism, however, is the thermal runaway which leads the devices into avalanche breakdown mode. During the UIS tests, multiple samples from the three vendors of the power modules...

  6. Advances in gas avalanche photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Breskin, Amos; Buzulutskov, A F; Chechik, R; Garty, E; Shefer, G; Singh, B K

    2000-01-01

    Gas avalanche detectors, combining solid photocathodes with fast electron multipliers, provide an attractive solution for photon localization over very large sensitive areas and under high illumination flux. They offer single-photon sensitivity and the possibility of operation under very intense magnetic fields. We discuss the principal factors governing the operation of gas avalanche photomultipliers. We summarize the recent progress made in alkali-halide and CVD-diamond UV-photocathodes, capable of operation under gas multiplication, and novel thin-film protected alkali-antimonide photocathodes, providing, for the first time, the possibility of operating gas photomultipliers in the visible range. Electron multipliers, adequate for these photon detectors, are proposed and some applications are briefly discussed.

  7. Multiple Intelligences: Current Trends in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2009-01-01

    With his theory of multiple intelligences, Howard Gardner challenged the presumption that intelligence is a single innate entity. He maintained that multiple intelligences exist and are related to specific brain areas and symbol systems. Each of the intelligences has its merits and limits, but by using a multiple intelligences approach, more…

  8. From hot rocks to glowing avalanches: Numerical modelling of gravity-induced pyroclastic density currents and hazard maps at the Stromboli volcano (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatici, Teresa; Di Roberto, Alessio; Di Traglia, Federico; Bisson, Marina; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Bertagnini, Antonella; Pompilio, Massimo; Hungr, Oldrich; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    Gravity-induced pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) can be produced by the collapse of volcanic crater rims or due to the gravitational instability of materials deposited in proximal areas during explosive activity. These types of PDCs, which are also known as ;glowing avalanches;, have been directly observed, and their deposits have been widely identified on the flanks of several volcanoes that are fed by mafic to intermediate magmas. In this research, the suitability of landslide numerical models for simulating gravity-induced PDCs to provide hazard assessments was tested. This work also presents the results of a back-analysis of three events that occurred in 1906, 1930 and 1944 at the Stromboli volcano by applying a depth-averaged 3D numerical code named DAN-3D. The model assumes a frictional internal rheology and a variable basal rheology (i.e., frictional, Voellmy and plastic). The numerical modelling was able to reproduce the gravity-induced PDCs' extension and deposit thicknesses to an order of magnitude of that reported in the literature. The best results when compared with field data were obtained using a Voellmy model with a frictional coefficient of f = 0.19 and a turbulence parameter ξ = 1000 m s- 1. The results highlight the suitability of this numerical code, which is generally used for landslides, to reproduce the destructive potential of these events in volcanic environments and to obtain information on hazards connected with explosive-related, mass-wasting phenomena in Stromboli Island and at volcanic systems characterized by similar phenomena.

  9. Spatial shape of avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoxuan; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2017-12-01

    In disordered elastic systems, driven by displacing a parabolic confining potential adiabatically slowly, all advance of the system is in bursts, termed avalanches. Avalanches have a finite extension in time, which is much smaller than the waiting time between them. Avalanches also have a finite extension ℓ in space, i.e., only a part of the interface of size ℓ moves during an avalanche. Here we study their spatial shape 〈S(x ) 〉 ℓ given ℓ , as well as its fluctuations encoded in the second cumulant 〈S2(x ) 〉 ℓ c. We establish scaling relations governing the behavior close to the boundary. We then give analytic results for the Brownian force model, in which the microscopic disorder for each degree of freedom is a random walk. Finally, we confirm these results with numerical simulations. To do this properly we elucidate the influence of discretization effects, which also confirms the assumptions entering into the scaling ansatz. This allows us to reach the scaling limit already for avalanches of moderate size. We find excellent agreement for the universal shape and its fluctuations, including all amplitudes.

  10. On the avalanche generation of runaway electrons during tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Lehnen, M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple zero dimensional model for a tokamak disruption is developed to evaluate the avalanche multiplication of a runaway primary seed during the current quench phase of a fast disruptive event. Analytical expressions for the plateau runaway current, the energy of the runaway beam, and the runaway energy distribution function are obtained allowing the identification of the parameters dominating the formation of the runaway current during disruptions. The effect of the electromagnetic coupling to the vessel and the penetration of the external magnetic energy during the disruption current quench as well as of the collisional dissipation of the runaway current at high densities are investigated. Current profile shape effects during the formation of the runaway beam are also addressed by means of an upgraded one-dimensional model

  11. Avalanche photodiodes for ISABELLE detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    At ISABELLE some requirements for detecting bursts of photons are not met by standard photomultiplier tubes. The characteristics of immunity to magnetic fields, small size (few mm), low power consumption (approx. 100 mW), insensitivity to optical overloads, and wide dynamic range (approx. 60 dB) are achieved with difficulty, if at all, with PMTs. These are characteristics of the solid state avalanche photodiode (APD), the preferred detector for light-wave communications. Successful field tests with APD detectors stimulated the design of standard optical-fiber communication systems to replace wire carriers by the early 1980's. In other characteristics, i.e., counting rate, pulse-height resolution, effective quantum efficiency, detection efficiency, and reliability, bare APDs are equivalent to standard PMTs. APDs with currently available amplifiers cannot resolve single photoelectrons but they could provide reasonable detection efficiencies and pulse-height resolution for packets of approx. > 100 photons. Commercially available APDs can cost up to 100 times as much as PMTs per active area, but they are potentially much cheaper. Six topics are discussed: (1) detectors for light-wave communication and detectors for particles, (2) avalanche photodiodes, (3) commercially available APDs, (4) dynamic response of PMTs and bare APDs, (5) photon counting with cold APDs, and (6) conclusions and recommendations

  12. Avalanche photoconductive switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, M. D.; Druce, R. L.; Wilson, M. J.; Hofer, W. W.

    This paper describes work being done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the avalanche mode of operation of laser triggered photoconductive switches. We have been able to generate pulses with amplitudes of 2 kV to 35 kV and rise times of 300 to 500 ps, and with a switching gain (energy of output electrical pulse vs energy of trigger optical pulse) of 10(exp 3) to over 10(exp 5). Switches with two very different physical configurations and with two different illumination wavelengths (1.06 micrometer, 890 nm) exhibit very similar behavior. The avalanche switching behavior, therefore, appears to be related to the material parameters rather than the optical wavelength or switch geometry. Considerable further work needs to be done to fully characterize and understand this mode of operation.

  13. Avalanche photoconductive switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, M.D.; Druce, R.L.; Wilson, M.J.; Hofer, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work being done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the avalanche mode of operation of laser triggered photoconductive switches. We have been able to generate pulses with amplitudes of 2 kV--35 kV and rise times of 300--500 ps, and with a switching gain (energy of output electrical pulse vs energy of trigger optical pulse) of 10{sup 3} to over 10{sup 5}. Switches with two very different physical configurations and with two different illumination wavelengths (1.06 {mu}m, 890 nm) exhibit very similar behavior. The avalanche switching behavior, therefore, appears to be related to the material parameters rather than the optical wavelength or switch geometry. Considerable further work needs to be done to fully characterize and understand this mode of operation. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Leakage current characteristics of the multiple metal alloy nanodot memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gae Hun; Lee, Jung Min; Yang, Hyung Jun; Song, Yun Heub; Bea, Ji Chel; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    The leakage current characteristics of a multiple metal alloy nanodot device for a nonvolatile random access memory using FePt materials are investigated. Several annealing conditions are evaluated and optimized to suppress the leakage current and to better the memory characterisctics. This work confirmed that the annealing condition of 700 .deg. C in a high vacuum ambience (under 1 x 10 -5 Pa) simultaneously provided good cell characteristics from a high dot density of over 1 x 10 13 /cm 2 and a low leakage current. In addition, a smaller nanodot diameter was found to give a lower leakage current for the multiple nanodot memory. Finally, for the proposed annealing condition, the quadruple FePt multiple nanodot memory with a 2-nm dot diameter provided good leakage current characteristics, showing a threshold voltage shift of under 5% at an initial retention stage of 1000 sec.

  15. Single-Photon-Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to develop single-photon-sensitive short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) avalanche photodiode (APD) receivers based on linear-mode HgCdTe APDs, for application by NASA in light detection and ranging (lidar) sensors. Linear-mode photon-counting APDs are desired for lidar because they have a shorter pixel dead time than Geiger APDs, and can detect sequential pulse returns from multiple objects that are closely spaced in range. Linear-mode APDs can also measure photon number, which Geiger APDs cannot, adding an extra dimension to lidar scene data for multi-photon returns. High-gain APDs with low multiplication noise are required for efficient linear-mode detection of single photons because of APD gain statistics -- a low-excess-noise APD will generate detectible current pulses from single photon input at a much higher rate of occurrence than will a noisy APD operated at the same average gain. MWIR and LWIR electron-avalanche HgCdTe APDs have been shown to operate in linear mode at high average avalanche gain (M > 1000) without excess multiplication noise (F = 1), and are therefore very good candidates for linear-mode photon counting. However, detectors fashioned from these narrow-bandgap alloys require aggressive cooling to control thermal dark current. Wider-bandgap SWIR HgCdTe APDs were investigated in this program as a strategy to reduce detector cooling requirements.

  16. New method for determining avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    2017-01-01

    The avalanche breakdown and Geiger mode of the silicon p-n junction is considered. A precise physically motivated method is proposed for determining the avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The method is based on measuring the dependence of the relative photon detection efficiency (PDE rel ) on the bias voltage when one type of carriers (electron or hole) is injected into the avalanche multiplication zone of the p-n junction. The injection of electrons or holes from the base region of the SiPM semiconductor structure is performed using short-wave or long-wave light. At a low overvoltage (1-2 V) the detection efficiency is linearly dependent on the bias voltage; therefore, extrapolation to zero PDE rel value determines the SiPM avalanche breakdown voltage with an accuracy within a few millivolts. [ru

  17. High current beam transport with multiple beam arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.

    1985-05-01

    Highlights of recent experimental and theoretical research progress on the high current beam transport of single and multiple beams by the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are presented. In the single beam transport experiment (SBTE), stability boundaries and the emittance growth of a space charge dominated beam in a long quadrupole transport channel were measured and compared with theory and computer simulations. Also, a multiple beam ion induction linac (MBE-4) is being constructed at LBL which will permit study of multiple beam transport arrays, and acceleration and bunch length compression of individually focused beamlets. Various design considerations of MBE-4 regarding scaling laws, nonlinear effects, misalignments, and transverse and longitudinal space charge effects are summarized. Some aspects of longitudinal beam dynamics including schemes to generate the accelerating voltage waveforms and to amplify beam current are also discussed

  18. Practical photon number detection with electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, O; Yuan, Z L; Shields, A J

    2012-01-24

    Low-noise single-photon detection is a prerequisite for quantum information processing using photonic qubits. In particular, detectors that are able to accurately resolve the number of photons in an incident light pulse will find application in functions such as quantum teleportation and linear optics quantum computing. More generally, such a detector will allow the advantages of quantum light detection to be extended to stronger optical signals, permitting optical measurements limited only by fluctuations in the photon number of the source. Here we demonstrate a practical high-speed device, which allows the signals arising from multiple photon-induced avalanches to be precisely discriminated. We use a type of silicon avalanche photodiode in which the lateral electric field profile is strongly modulated in order to realize a spatially multiplexed detector. Clearly discerned multiphoton signals are obtained by applying sub-nanosecond voltage gates in order to restrict the detector current.

  19. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  20. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de

    2011-01-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  1. Multiplicity counting from fission chamber signals in the current mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pázsit, I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Pál, L. [Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 114, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nagy, L. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Institute of Nuclear Techniques, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-12-11

    In nuclear safeguards, estimation of sample parameters using neutron-based non-destructive assay methods is traditionally based on multiplicity counting with thermal neutron detectors in the pulse mode. These methods in general require multi-channel analysers and various dead time correction methods. This paper proposes and elaborates on an alternative method, which is based on fast neutron measurements with fission chambers in the current mode. A theory of “multiplicity counting” with fission chambers is developed by incorporating Böhnel's concept of superfission [1] into a master equation formalism, developed recently by the present authors for the statistical theory of fission chamber signals [2,3]. Explicit expressions are derived for the first three central auto- and cross moments (cumulants) of the signals of up to three detectors. These constitute the generalisation of the traditional Campbell relationships for the case when the incoming events represent a compound Poisson distribution. Because now the expressions contain the factorial moments of the compound source, they contain the same information as the singles, doubles and triples rates of traditional multiplicity counting. The results show that in addition to the detector efficiency, the detector pulse shape also enters the formulas; hence, the method requires a more involved calibration than the traditional method of multiplicity counting. However, the method has some advantages by not needing dead time corrections, as well as having a simpler and more efficient data processing procedure, in particular for cross-correlations between different detectors, than the traditional multiplicity counting methods.

  2. Imaging findings of avalanche victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra B.; Grosse, Claudia A.; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Zimmermann, Heinz [University Hospital of Berne, Inselspital, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Skiing and hiking outside the boundaries remains an attractive wilderness activity despite the danger of avalanches. Avalanches occur on a relatively frequent basis and may be devastating. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be acquainted with these injuries. Fourteen avalanche victims (11 men and 3 women; age range 17-59 years, mean age 37.4 years) were air transported to a high-grade trauma centre over a period of 2 years. Radiographs, CT and MR images were prospectively evaluated by two observers in consensus. Musculoskeletal findings (61%) were more frequent than extraskeletal findings (39%). Fractures were most commonly seen (36.6%), involving the spine (14.6%) more frequently than the extremities (9.8%). Blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma were the most frequent extraskeletal findings. A wide spectrum of injuries can be found in avalanche victims, ranging from extremity fractures to massive polytrauma. Asphyxia remains the main cause of death along with hypoxic brain injury and hypothermia. (orig.)

  3. Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) for particle physics and synchrotron applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, N.; Bates, R.; Bullough, M.; Flores, L.; Maneuski, D.; Simon, L.; Tartoni, N.; Doherty, F.; Ashby, J.

    2018-03-01

    A new avalanche silicon detector concept is introduced with a low gain in the region of ten, known as a Low Gain Avalanche Detector, LGAD. The detector's characteristics are simulated via a full process simulation to obtain the required doping profiles which demonstrate the desired operational characteristics of high breakdown voltage (500 V) and a gain of 10 at 200 V reverse bias for X-ray detection. The first low gain avalanche detectors fabricated by Micron Semiconductor Ltd are presented. The doping profiles of the multiplication junctions were measured with SIMS and reproduced by simulating the full fabrication process which enabled further development of the manufacturing process. The detectors are 300 μm thick p-type silicon with a resistivity of 8.5 kΩcm, which fully depletes at 116 V. The current characteristics are presented and demonstrate breakdown voltages in excess of 500 V and a current density of 40 to 100 nAcm‑2 before breakdown measured at 20oC. The gain of the LGAD has been measured with a red laser (660 nm) and shown to be between 9 and 12 for an external bias voltage range from 150 V to 300 V.

  4. Evaluation and operationalization of a novel forest detrainment modeling approach for computational snow avalanche simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, M.; Feistl, T.; Fischer, J.; Bartelt, P.; Bebi, P.; Christen, M.; Grêt-Regamey, A.

    2013-12-01

    -based runout indicator in an avalanche path dependent coordinate system. Analyzing and comparing observed and simulated runout distances statistically revealed values for K suitable to simulate the combined influence of four forest characteristics on avalanche runout: forest type, crown coverage, vertical structure and surface roughness, e.g. values for K were higher for dense spruce and mixed spruce-beech forests compared to open larch forests at the upper treeline. Considering forest structural conditions within avalanche simulation will improve current applications for avalanche simulation tools in mountain forest and natural hazard management considerably. Furthermore, we show that an objective and standardized evaluation of two-dimensional simulation results is essential for a successful evaluation and further calibration of avalanche models in general.

  5. Radiation damage effect on avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Baccaro, S; Cavallari, F; Da Ponte, V; Deiters, K; Denes, P; Diemoz, M; Kirn, Th; Lintern, A L; Longo, E; Montecchi, M; Musienko, Y; Pansart, J P; Renker, D; Reucroft, S; Rosi, G; Rusack, R; Ruuska, D; Stephenson, R; Torbet, M J

    1999-01-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes have been chosen as photon sensors for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the LHC. These sensors should operate in the 4T magnetic field of the experiment. Because of the high neutron radiation in the detector extensive studies have been done by the CMS collaboration on the APD neutron radiation damage. The characteristics of these devices after irradiation have been analized, with particular attention to the quantum efficiency and the dark current. The recovery of the radiation induced dark current has been studied carefully at room temperature and at slightly lower and higher temperatures. The temperature dependence of the defects decay-time has been evaluated.

  6. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  7. Programmable Input Mode Instrumentation Amplifier Using Multiple Output Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankiewicz Bogdan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a programmable input mode instrumentation amplifier (IA utilising second generation, multiple output current conveyors and transmission gates is presented. Its main advantage is the ability to choose a voltage or current mode of inputs by setting the voltage of two configuration nodes. The presented IA is prepared as an integrated circuit block to be used alone or as a sub-block in a microcontroller or in a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which shall condition analogue signals to be next converted by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. IA is designed in AMS 0.35 µm CMOS technology and the power supply is 3.3 V; the power consumption is approximately 9.1 mW. A linear input range in the voltage mode reaches ± 1.68 V or ± 250 µA in current mode. A passband of the IA is above 11 MHz. The amplifier works in class A, so its current supply is almost constant and does not cause noise disturbing nearby working precision analogue circuits.

  8. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: current perspectives on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikes EM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Morghen Sikes,1 Robert W Motl,1 Jayne M Ness2 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS accounts for ~5% of all multiple sclerosis cases, and has a prevalence of ~10,000 children in the USA. POMS is associated with a higher relapse rate, and results in irreversible disability on average 10 years earlier than adult-onset multiple sclerosis. Other manifestations of POMS include mental and physical fatigue, cognitive impairment, and depression. We believe that the health behaviors of physical activity, diet, and sleep may have potential benefits in POMS, and present a scoping review of the existing literature. Methods: We identified papers by searching three electronic databases (PubMed, GoogleScholar, and CINAHL. Search terms included: pediatric multiple sclerosis OR pediatric onset multiple sclerosis OR POMS AND health behavior OR physical activity OR sleep OR diet OR nutrition OR obesity. Papers were included in this review if they were published in English, referenced nutrition, diet, obesity, sleep, exercise, or physical activity, and included pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis as a primary population. Results: Twenty papers were identified via the literature search that addressed health-promoting behaviors in POMS, and 11, 8, and 3 papers focused on diet, activity, and sleep, respectively. Health-promoting behaviors were associated with markers of disease burden in POMS. Physical activity participation was associated with reduced relapse rate, disease burden, and sleep/rest fatigue symptoms. Nutritional factors, particularly vitamin D intake, may be associated with relapse rate. Obesity has been associated with increased risk of developing POMS. POMS is associated with better sleep hygiene, and this may benefit fatigue and quality of life

  9. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: achievements and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Machens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. This principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. This review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and DNA-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated DNA-based/biochemical concept; (ii our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. With familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. This is when DNA-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. However, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. Screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. In this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations.

  10. A transimpedance amplifier for excess noise measurements of high junction capacitance avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, James E; David, John P R; Tozer, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a novel and versatile system for measuring excess noise and multiplication in avalanche photodiodes (APDs), using a bipolar junction transistor based transimpedance amplifier front-end and based on phase-sensitive detection, which permits accurate measurement in the presence of a high dark current. The system can reliably measure the excess noise factor of devices with capacitance up to 5 nF. This system has been used to measure thin, large area Si pin APDs and the resulting data are in good agreement with measurements of the same devices obtained from a different noise measurement system which will be reported separately. (paper)

  11. A discriminator with a current-sum multiplicity output for the PHENIX multiplicity vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.S.; Kennedy, E.J.; Jackson, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    A current output multiplicity discriminator for use in the front-end electronics (FEE) of the Multiplicity Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX detector at RHIC has been fabricated in the a 1.2-micro CMOS, n-well process. The discriminator is capable of triggering on input signals ranging from 0.25 MIP to 5 MIP. Frequency response of the discriminator is such that the circuit is capable of generating an output for every bunch crossing (105 ns) of the RHIC collider. Channel-to-channel threshold matching was adjustable to ± 4 mV. One channel of multiplicity discriminator occupied an area of 85 micro x 630 micro and consumed 515 microW from a single 5-V supply. Details of the design and results from prototype device testing are presented

  12. Avalanches and plastic flow in crystal plasticity: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Cui, Yinan; Ghoniem, Nasr

    2018-01-01

    Crystal plasticity is mediated through dislocations, which form knotted configurations in a complex energy landscape. Once they disentangle and move, they may also be impeded by permanent obstacles with finite energy barriers or frustrating long-range interactions. The outcome of such complexity is the emergence of dislocation avalanches as the basic mechanism of plastic flow in solids at the nanoscale. While the deformation behavior of bulk materials appears smooth, a predictive model should clearly be based upon the character of these dislocation avalanches and their associated strain bursts. We provide here a comprehensive overview of experimental observations, theoretical models and computational approaches that have been developed to unravel the multiple aspects of dislocation avalanche physics and the phenomena leading to strain bursts in crystal plasticity.

  13. Some remarks on the design of HIF current multiplication rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, K.H.

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of heavy ion fusion drivers has now reached a state, where the overall approach has become fairly clear. One design features an RF linac plus current and beam multiplication rings. The present remarks concern the assignment of multiturn injection, beam storage and bunching to an optimized number of rings and transport lines, as well as some criteria for their designs. The main parameter constraints are discussed, showing how they can be met, although there is little flexibility at the present stage of understanding and technology. A shortened version of this report is scheduled for presentation at the ''INS International Symposium on Heavy Ion Accelerators and Their Application to Inertial Fusion'' Tokyo, January 23-27 1984. (author)

  14. Effectiveness of multiple sclerosis treatment with current immunomodulatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS of a putative autoimmune origin characterized by neurologic dysfunction disseminated in space and time due to demyelination and axonal loss that results in progressive disability. Recent advances in understanding the immune pathogenesis of the disease resulted in the introduction of numerous effective immunomodulatoty drugs having diverse mechanisms of action, modes of administration and risk-benefit profiles. This results in more complex albeit more promising treatment selection and choices. The epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis and diagnosis of the disease are discussed. The mode of action and main characteristics of current immunomodulatory drugs for MS and their place in the therapeutic algorithm of the disease based on evidence from clinical trials are described. Speculation on new paradigms, treatment goals and outcome measures aimed at improving the landscape of MS treatment is presented. Multiple disease, drug and patient-related factors should be taken into consideration when selecting the appropriate drug and treatment strategy to the appropriate patient, thus paving the road for personalized medicine in MS.

  15. A novel approach to evaluate and compare computational snow avalanche simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-T. Fischer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative approach for the analysis and interpretation of snow avalanche simulation in three dimensional terrain is presented. Snow avalanche simulation software is used as a supporting tool in hazard mapping. When performing a high number of simulation runs the user is confronted with a considerable amount of simulation results. The objective of this work is to establish an objective, model independent framework to evaluate and compare results of different simulation approaches with respect to indicators of practical relevance, providing an answer to the important questions: how far and how destructive does an avalanche move down slope. For this purpose the Automated Indicator based Model Evaluation and Comparison (AIMEC method is introduced. It operates on a coordinate system which follows a given avalanche path. A multitude of simulation runs is performed with the snow avalanche simulation software SamosAT (Snow Avalanche MOdelling and Simulation – Advanced Technology. The variability of pressure-based run out and avalanche destructiveness along the path is investigated for multiple simulation runs, varying release volume and model parameters. With this, results of deterministic simulation software are processed and analysed by means of statistical methods. Uncertainties originating from varying input conditions, model parameters or the different model implementations are assessed. The results show that AIMEC contributes to the interpretation of avalanche simulations with a broad applicability in model evaluation, comparison as well as examination of scenario variations.

  16. STUDY ON SIMULATION METHOD OF AVALANCHE : FLOW ANALYSIS OF AVALANCHE USING PARTICLE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    塩澤, 孝哉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, modeling for the simulation of the avalanche by a particle method is discussed. There are two kinds of the snow avalanches, one is the surface avalanche which shows a smoke-like flow, and another is the total-layer avalanche which shows a flow like Bingham fluid. In the simulation of the surface avalanche, the particle method in consideration of a rotation resistance model is used. The particle method by Bingham fluid is used in the simulation of the total-layer avalanche. At t...

  17. Experimental method to predict avalanches based on neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhdanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental use of currently available statistical methods to classify the avalanche‑dangerous precipitations and snowfalls in the Kishi Almaty river basin. The avalanche service of Kazakhstan uses graphical methods for prediction of avalanches developed by I.V. Kondrashov and E.I. Kolesnikov. The main objective of this work was to develop a modern model that could be used directly at the avalanche stations. Classification of winter precipitations into dangerous snowfalls and non‑dangerous ones was performed by two following ways: the linear discriminant function (canonical analysis and artificial neural networks. Observational data on weather and avalanches in the gorge Kishi Almaty in the gorge Kishi Almaty were used as a training sample. Coefficients for the canonical variables were calculated by the software «Statistica» (Russian version 6.0, and then the necessary formula had been constructed. The accuracy of the above classification was 96%. Simulator by the authors L.N. Yasnitsky and F.М. Cherepanov was used to learn the neural networks. The trained neural network demonstrated 98% accuracy of the classification. Prepared statistical models are recommended to be tested at the snow‑avalanche stations. Results of the tests will be used for estimation of the model quality and its readiness for the operational work. In future, we plan to apply these models for classification of the avalanche danger by the five‑point international scale.

  18. Avalanche hazard and control in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Blagoveshchensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kazakhstan, area of 124 thousand km2 is prone to the avalanche hazard. Avalanches are released down in mountain regions situated along the eastern boundary of Kazakhstan. Systematic studies of avalanches here were started in 1958 by explorer I.S. Sosedov; later on, I.V. Seversky continued these investigations in Institute of Geography of the Kazakh Soviet Republic. Actually, he founded the Kazakh school of the avalanche studies. In 1970–1980s, five snow-avalanche stations operated in Kazakhstan: two in Il’ Alatau, two in Zhetysu Alatau, and one in the Altai. At the present time, only two stations and two snow-avalanche posts operate, and all of them are located in Il’ Alatau.Since 1951 to 2013, 75 avalanches took place in Kazakhstan, releases of them caused significant damages. For this period 172 people happened to be under avalanches, among them 86 perished. Large avalanche catastrophes causing human victims and destructions took place in Altai in 1977 and in Karatau in 1990. In spring of 1966, only in Il’ Alatau avalanches destroyed more 600 ha of mature fir (coniferous forest, and the total area of forest destroyed here by avalanches amounts to 2677 ha or 7% of the total forest area.For 48 years of the avalanche observations, there were 15 winters with increased avalanche activity in the river Almatinka basin when total volume of released snow exceeded annual mean value of 147 thousand m3. During this period, number of days with winter avalanches changed from three (in season of 1973/1974 to 28 (1986/1987, the average for a year is 16 days for a season. Winter with the total volume of snow 1300 thousand m3 occur once in 150 years. Individual avalanches with maximal volume of 350 thousand m3 happen once in 80 years.Preventive avalanche releases aimed at protection of roads and settlements are used in Kazakhstan since 1974. These precautions are taken in Il’ Alatau, Altai, and on Kalbinsky Range. Avalanches are released with the

  19. CURRENT APPROACHES FOR RESEARCH OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current data concerning features of multiple sclerosis (MS etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment of disease indicate the necessity of personalized approach to the management of MS patients. These features are the variety of possible etiological factors and mechanisms that trigger the development of MS, different courses of disease, and significant differences in treatment efficiency. Phenotypic and pathogenetic heterogeneity of MS requires, on the one hand, the stratification of patients into groups with different treatment depending on a number of criteria including genetic characteristics, disease course, stage of the pathological process, and forms of the disease. On the other hand, it requires the use of modern methods for assessment of individual risk of developing MS, its early diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis of the disease course and the treatment efficiency. This approach is based on the identification and determination of biomarkers of MS including the use of systems biology technology platforms such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics. Research and practical use of biomarkers of MS in clinical and laboratory practice requires the use of a wide range of modern medical and biological, mathematical and physicochemical methods. The group of "classical" methods used to study MS biomarkers includes physicochemical and immunological methods aimed at the selection and identification of single molecular biomarkers, as well as methods of molecular genetic analysis. This group of methods includes ELISA, western blotting, isoelectric focusing, immunohistochemical methods, flow cytometry, spectrophotometric and nephelometric methods. These techniques make it possible to carry out both qualitative and quantitative assay of molecular biomarkers. The group of "classical methods" can also include methods based on polymerase chain reaction (including multiplex and allele-specific PCR and genome sequencing

  20. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin

    2014-01-01

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2 kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1 μJ arrival, the structure with thickness of 650 μm reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (∼4 kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ∼4 kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed

  1. Velocity distribution in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K.; Ito, Y.

    1997-12-01

    In order to investigate the detailed structure of snow avalanches, we have made snow flow experiments at the Miyanomori ski jump in Sapporo and systematic observations in the Shiai-dani, Kurobe Canyon. In the winter of 1995-1996, a new device to measure static pressures was used to estimate velocities in the snow cloud that develops above the flowing layer of avalanches. Measurements during a large avalanche in the Shiai-dani which damaged and destroyed some instruments indicate velocities increased rapidly to more than 50 m/s soon after the front. Velocities decreased gradually in the following 10 s. Velocities of the lower flowing layer were also calculated by differencing measurement of impact pressure. Both recordings in the snow cloud and in the flowing layer changed with a similar trend and suggest a close interaction between the two layers. In addition, the velocity showed a periodic change. Power spectrum analysis of the impact pressure and the static pressure depression showed a strong peak at a frequency between 4 and 6 Hz, which might imply the existence of either ordered structure or a series of surges in the flow.

  2. Forecasting of wet snow avalanche activity: Proof of concept and operational implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Jöbstl, Lisa; Rieder, Hannes; Bellaire, Sascha; Mitterer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    State-of-the-art tools for the operational assessment of avalanche danger include field observations, recordings from automatic weather stations, meteorological analyses and forecasts, and recently also indices derived from snowpack models. In particular, an index for identifying the onset of wet-snow avalanche cycles (LWCindex), has been demonstrated to be useful. However, its value for operational avalanche forecasting is currently limited, since detailed, physically based snowpack models are usually driven by meteorological data from automatic weather stations only and have therefore no prognostic ability. Since avalanche risk management heavily relies on timely information and early warnings, many avalanche services in Europe nowadays start issuing forecasts for the following days, instead of the traditional assessment of the current avalanche danger. In this context, the prognostic operation of detailed snowpack models has recently been objective of extensive research. In this study a new, observationally constrained setup for forecasting the onset of wet-snow avalanche cycles with the detailed snow cover model SNOWPACK is presented and evaluated. Based on data from weather stations and different numerical weather prediction models, we demonstrate that forecasts of the LWCindex as indicator for wet-snow avalanche cycles can be useful for operational warning services, but is so far not reliable enough to be used as single warning tool without considering other factors. Therefore, further development currently focuses on the improvement of the forecasts by applying ensemble techniques and suitable post processing approaches to the output of numerical weather prediction models. In parallel, the prognostic meteo-snow model chain is operationally used by two regional avalanche warning services in Austria since winter 2016/2017 for the first time. Experiences from the first operational season and first results from current model developments will be reported.

  3. Dynamic avalanche behavior of power MOSFETs and IGBTs under unclamped inductive switching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiang; Tian Xiaoli; Lu Shuojin; Zhou Hongyu; Zhu Yangjun; Han Zhengsheng

    2013-01-01

    The ability of high-voltage power MOSFETs and IGBTs to withstand avalanche events under unclamped inductive switching (UIS) conditions is measured. This measurement is to investigate and compare the dynamic avalanche failure behavior of the power MOSFETs and the IGBT, which occur at different current conditions. The UIS measurement results at different current conditions show that the main failure reason of the power MOSFETs is related to the parasitic bipolar transistor, which leads to the deterioration of the avalanche reliability of power MOSFETs. However, the results of the IGBT show two different failure behaviors. At high current mode, the failure behavior is similar to the power MOSFETs situation. But at low current mode, the main failure mechanism is related to the parasitic thyristor activity during the occurrence of the avalanche process and which is in good agreement with the experiment result. (semiconductor devices)

  4. Avalanches and Criticality in Driven Magnetic Skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, S. A.; Reichhardt, C.; Arovas, D. P.; Saxena, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. O.

    2018-03-01

    We show using numerical simulations that slowly driven Skyrmions interacting with random pinning move via correlated jumps or avalanches. The avalanches exhibit power-law distributions in their duration and size, and the average avalanche shape for different avalanche durations can be scaled to a universal function, in agreement with theoretical predictions for systems in a nonequilibrium critical state. A distinctive feature of Skyrmions is the influence of the nondissipative Magnus term. When we increase the ratio of the Magnus term to the damping term, a change in the universality class of the behavior occurs, the average avalanche shape becomes increasingly asymmetric, and individual avalanches exhibit motion in the direction perpendicular to their own density gradient.

  5. Radiation hardness of thin Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, G.; Carulla, M.; Cavallaro, E.; Cindro, V.; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Grinstein, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Lange, J.; Mandić, I.; Medin, G.; Merlos, A.; McKinney-Martinez, F.; Mikuž, M.; Quirion, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Petek, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2018-05-01

    Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) are based on a n++-p+-p-p++ structure where an appropriate doping of the multiplication layer (p+) leads to high enough electric fields for impact ionization. Gain factors of few tens in charge significantly improve the resolution of timing measurements, particularly for thin detectors, where the timing performance was shown to be limited by Landau fluctuations. The main obstacle for their operation is the decrease of gain with irradiation, attributed to effective acceptor removal in the gain layer. Sets of thin sensors were produced by two different producers on different substrates, with different gain layer doping profiles and thicknesses (45, 50 and 80 μm). Their performance in terms of gain/collected charge and leakage current was compared before and after irradiation with neutrons and pions up to the equivalent fluences of 5 ṡ 1015 cm-2. Transient Current Technique and charge collection measurements with LHC speed electronics were employed to characterize the detectors. The thin LGAD sensors were shown to perform much better than sensors of standard thickness (∼300 μm) and offer larger charge collection with respect to detectors without gain layer for fluences gain prolongs the beneficial performance of LGADs. Pions were found to be more damaging than neutrons at the same equivalent fluence, while no significant difference was found between different producers. At very high fluences and bias voltages the gain appears due to deep acceptors in the bulk, hence also in thin standard detectors.

  6. Highly enhanced avalanche probability using sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Namekata, Naoto, E-mail: nnao@phys.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp; Inoue, Shuichiro [Institute of Quantum Science, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Tsujino, Kenji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)

    2014-01-27

    We report on visible light single photon detection using a sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode. Detection efficiency of 70.6% was achieved at a wavelength of 520 nm when an electrically cooled silicon avalanche photodiode with a quantum efficiency of 72.4% was used, which implies that a photo-excited single charge carrier in a silicon avalanche photodiode can trigger a detectable avalanche (charge) signal with a probability of 97.6%.

  7. Hybrid AlGaN-SiC Avalanche Photodiode for Deep-UV Photon Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Federico A.; Sigwarth, John; Goldsman, Neil; Akturk, Akin

    2010-01-01

    The proposed device is capable of counting ultraviolet (UV) photons, is compatible for inclusion into space instruments, and has applications as deep- UV detectors for calibration systems, curing systems, and crack detection. The device is based on a Separate Absorption and Charge Multiplication (SACM) structure. It is based on aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) absorber on a silicon carbide APD (avalanche photodiode). The AlGaN layer absorbs incident UV photons and injects photogenerated carriers into an underlying SiC APD that is operated in Geiger mode and provides current multiplication via avalanche breakdown. The solid-state detector is capable of sensing 100-to-365-nanometer wavelength radiation at a flux level as low as 6 photons/pixel/s. Advantages include, visible-light blindness, operation in harsh environments (e.g., high temperatures), deep-UV detection response, high gain, and Geiger mode operation at low voltage. Furthermore, the device can also be designed in array formats, e.g., linear arrays or 2D arrays (micropixels inside a superpixel).

  8. A probabilistic model for snow avalanche occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, P.; Miescher, A.; Porporato, A.

    2009-04-01

    Avalanche hazard forecasting is an important issue in relation to the protection of urbanized environments, ski resorts and of ski-touring alpinists. A critical point is to predict the conditions that trigger the snow mass instability determining the onset and the size of avalanches. On steep terrains the risk of avalanches is known to be related to preceding consistent snowfall events and to subsequent changes in the local climatic conditions. Regression analysis has shown that avalanche occurrence indeed correlates to the amount of snow fallen in consecutive three snowing days and to the state of the settled snow at the ground. Moreover, since different type of avalanches may occur as a result of the interactions of different factors, the process of snow avalanche formation is inherently complex and with some degree of unpredictability. For this reason, although several models assess the risk of avalanche by accounting for all the involved processes with a great detail, a high margin of uncertainty invariably remains. In this work, we explicitly describe such an unpredictable behaviour with an intrinsic noise affecting the processes leading snow instability. Eventually, this sets the basis for a minimalist stochastic model, which allows us to investigate the avalanche dynamics and its statistical properties. We employ a continuous time process with stochastic jumps (snowfalls), deterministic decay (snowmelt and compaction) and state dependent avalanche occurrence (renewals) as a minimalist model for the determination of avalanche size and related intertime occurrence. The physics leading to avalanches is simplified to the extent where only meteorological data and terrain data are necessary to estimate avalanche danger. We explore the analytical formulation of the process and the properties of the probability density function of the avalanche process variables. We also discuss what is the probabilistic link between avalanche size and preceding snowfall event and

  9. Ionospheric midlatitude electric current density inferred from multiple magnetic satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.

    2013-01-01

    A method for inferring zonal electric current density in the mid-to-low latitude F region ionosphere is presented. We describe a method of using near-simultaneous overflights of the Ørsted and CHAMP satellites to define a closed circuit for an application of Ampère's integral law to magnetic data...... for estimates of main and crustal magnetic fields. Current density in the range ±0.1 μA/m2 is resolved, with the distribution of electric current largely matching known features such as the Appleton anomaly. The currents appear unmodulated at times of either high-negative Dst or high F10.7, which has...... implications for any future efforts to model their effects. We resolve persistent current intensifications between geomagnetic latitudes of 30 and 50° in the postmidnight, predawn sector, a region typically thought to be relatively free of electric currents. The cause of these unexpected intensifications...

  10. Large area avalanche MRS-photodiodes for nuclear spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermalitski, F A; Zalesski, V B

    1996-12-31

    Problems of application of avalanche photodiodes (APD) in readout systems of nuclear spectrometers are considered. APD`s with a large sensitive area of a diameter 1-5 mm and a high multiplication coefficient 200-1000 are created. MPS-photodiodes provide for the energy resolution 80% at temperature 231 K for detecting gamma-quanta with energy 662 keV. 4 refs.

  11. Critical state transformation in hard superconductors resulting from thermomagnetic avalanches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanenko, V.V.; Kuchuk, E.I.; Rusakov, V.F.; Abaloszewa, I.; Nabialek, A.; Perez-Rodriguez, F.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of magnetic flux dynamics in finite superconductors, obtained using integral and local measurements methods, are presented. Local methods were aimed at clarifying the role of demagnetizing factor in dynamic formation of a complex magnetic structure of the critical state of hard superconductors. To understand the reasons for cardinal restructuring of the induction, we further analyzed the literature data of flux dynamics visualization during avalanches, obtained by magneto-optical methods. New features in the behavior of the magnetic flux during and after the avalanche were discovered. Two stages of the formation of the induction structures in the avalanche area were established, i.e. of homogeneous and heterogeneous filling with the magnetic flux. The mechanism of the inversion of the induction profile was considered. Oscillations in the speed of the front of the magnetic flux were revealed. Transformation of the critical state near the edge of the sample was analyzed. The role of thermal effects and of de-magnetizing factor in the dissipative flux dynamics was shown. Generalized information allowed, in the framework of the Bean concept, to present a model the transformation of the picture of the induction of the critical state and of the superconducting currents of a finite superconductor as a result of flux avalanches for two regimes - of screening and trapping of the magnetic flux.

  12. Smoldering multiple myeloma: prevalence and current evidence guiding treatment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blum A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agnieszka Blum, Despina Bazou, Peter O’Gorman Department of Hematology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, UK Abstract: Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM is an asymptomatic plasma cell proliferative disorder associated with risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM or amyloidosis. In comparison to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, SMM has a much higher risk of progression to MM. Thanks to advances in our understanding of the risk factors, the subset of patients with ultra-high risk of progression to MM (80%–90% at 2 years has been identified. The revision of the diagnostic criteria resulted in changes in the management of this cohort of patients. In contrast to the management guidelines for MGUS patients, SMM patients need to be studied more intensively in order to identify biomarkers necessary for accurate risk stratification. In this review, we focus on the risk of progression from SMM to MM, as well as the influence of early treatment on overall survival, time to progression and quality of life. Keywords: smoldering multiple myeloma, risk factor, biomarker, genomic aberrations, glycan analysis

  13. An improved design for AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with enhanced avalanche ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yin; Cai Qing; Chen Dun-Jun; Lu Hai; Zhang Rong; Zheng You-Dou; Yang Lian-Hong; Dong Ke-Xiu

    2017-01-01

    To enhance the avalanche ionization, we designed a new separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiode (APD) by using a high/low-Al-content AlGaN heterostructure as the multiplication region instead of the conventional AlGaN homogeneous layer. The calculated results show that the designed APD with Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 N/Al 0.45 Ga 0.55 N heterostructure multiplication region exhibits a 60% higher gain than the conventional APD and a smaller avalanche breakdown voltage due to the use of the low-Al-content Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 N which has about a six times higher hole ionization coefficient than the high-Al-content Al 0.45 Ga 0.55 N. Meanwhile, the designed APD still remains a good solar-blind characteristic by introducing a quarter-wave AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors structure at the bottom of the device. (paper)

  14. Observation of the Avalanche of Runaway Electrons in Air in a Strong Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, A. V.; Mesyats, G. A.; Zybin, K. P.; Yalandin, M. I.; Reutova, A. G.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.

    2012-08-01

    The generation of an avalanche of runaway electrons is demonstrated for the first time in a laboratory experiment. Two flows of runaway electrons are formed sequentially in an extended air discharge gap at the stage of delay of a pulsed breakdown. The first, picosecond, runaway electron flow is emitted in the cathode region where the field is enhanced. Being accelerated in the gap, this beam generates electrons due to impact ionization. These secondary electrons form a delayed avalanche of runaway electrons if the field is strong enough. The properties of the avalanche correspond to the existing notions about the runaway breakdown in air. The measured current of the avalanche exceeds up to an order the current of the initiating electron beam.

  15. Terrain Classification of Norwegian Slab Avalanche Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallandvik, Linda; Aadland, Eivind; Vikene, Odd Lennart

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to rely on snow conditions, weather, and human factors when making judgments about avalanche risk because these variables are dynamic and complex; terrain, however, is more easily observed and interpreted. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate (1) the type of terrain in which historical fatal snow avalanche accidents in Norway…

  16. Spatial determination of magnetic avalanche ignition points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, Reem; McHugh, S.; Suzuki, Yoko; Sarachik, M.P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Zeldov, E.; Shtrikman, H.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2008-01-01

    Using time-resolved measurements of local magnetization in the molecular magnet Mn 12 -ac, we report studies of magnetic avalanches (fast magnetization reversals) with non-planar propagating fronts, where the curved nature of the magnetic fronts is reflected in the time-of-arrival at micro-Hall sensors placed at the surface of the sample. Assuming that the avalanche interface is a spherical bubble that grows with a radius proportional to time, we are able to locate the approximate ignition point of each avalanche in a two-dimensional cross-section of the crystal. We find that although in most samples the avalanches ignite at the long ends, as found in earlier studies, there are crystals in which ignition points are distributed throughout an entire weak region near the center, with a few avalanches still originating at the ends

  17. Spatial determination of magnetic avalanche ignition points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaafar, Reem; McHugh, S.; Suzuki, Yoko [Physics Department, City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Sarachik, M.P. [Physics Department, City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States)], E-mail: sarachik@sci.ccny.cuny.edu; Myasoedov, Y.; Zeldov, E.; Shtrikman, H. [Department Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Bagai, R.; Christou, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Using time-resolved measurements of local magnetization in the molecular magnet Mn{sub 12}-ac, we report studies of magnetic avalanches (fast magnetization reversals) with non-planar propagating fronts, where the curved nature of the magnetic fronts is reflected in the time-of-arrival at micro-Hall sensors placed at the surface of the sample. Assuming that the avalanche interface is a spherical bubble that grows with a radius proportional to time, we are able to locate the approximate ignition point of each avalanche in a two-dimensional cross-section of the crystal. We find that although in most samples the avalanches ignite at the long ends, as found in earlier studies, there are crystals in which ignition points are distributed throughout an entire weak region near the center, with a few avalanches still originating at the ends.

  18. Technology developments and first measurements on inverse Low Gain Avalanche Detector (iLGAD) for high energy physics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carulla, M.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; IMB-CNM (CSIC); Flores, D.; IMB-CNM (CSIC); González, J.; Hidalgo, S.; Jaramillo, R.; Merlos, A.; Palomo, F.R.; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D.; Vila, I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The first Inverse Low Gain Avalanche Detector (iLGAD) have been fabricated at IMB-CNM (CSIC). The iLGAD structure includes the multiplication diffusions at the ohmic contact side while the segmentation is implemented at the front side with multiple P + diffusions. Therefore, iLGAD is P on P position-sensitive detector with a uniform electric field all along the device area that guarantees the same signal amplification wherever a particle passes through the sensitive bulk solving the main draw of the LGAD microstrip detector. However, the detection current is dominated by holes flowing back from the multiplication junction with the subsequent transient current pulse duration increase in comparison with conventional LGAD counterparts. Applications of iLGAD range from tracking and timing applications like determination of primary interaction vertex to medical imaging. The paper addresses the optimization of the iLGAD structure with the aid of TCAD simul...

  19. Thermal drift reduction with multiple bias current for MOSFET dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal, M A; Martinez-Olmos, A; Morales, D P; Lopez-Villanueva, J A; Palma, A J [Departamento de Electronica y TecnologIa de Computadores, ETSIIT, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Lallena, A M, E-mail: carvajal@ugr.es [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-06-21

    New thermal compensation methods suitable for p-channel MOSFET (pMOS) dosimeters with the usual dose readout procedure based on a constant drain current are presented. Measuring the source-drain voltage shifts for two or three different drain currents and knowing the value of the zero-temperature coefficient drain current, I{sub ZTC}, the thermal drift of source-drain or threshold voltages can be significantly reduced. Analytical expressions for the thermal compensation have been theoretically deduced on the basis of a linear dependence on temperature of the parameters involved. The proposed thermal modelling has been experimentally proven. These methods have been applied to a group of ten commercial pMOS transistors (3N163). The thermal coefficients of the source-drain voltage and the threshold voltage were reduced from -3.0 mV deg. C{sup -1}, in the worst case, down to -70 {mu}V deg. C{sup -1}. This means a thermal drift of -2.4 mGy deg. C{sup -1} for the dosimeter. When analysing the thermal drifts of all the studied transistors, in the temperature range from 19 to 36 deg. C, uncertainty was obtained in the threshold voltage due to a thermal drift of {+-}9mGy (2 SD), a commonly acceptable value in most radiotherapy treatments. The procedures described herein provide thermal drift reduction comparable to that of other technological or numerical strategies, but can be used in a very simple and low-cost dosimetry sensor.

  20. Current role of radiation therapy for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Giampaolo; Dimaio, Christopher; Abbi, Kamal K S; Pandey, Manoj K; Malysz, Jozef; Creer, Michael H; Zhu, Junjia; Mir, Muhammad A; Varlotto, John M

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a treatment modality traditionally used in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), but little is known regarding the role and effectiveness of RT in the era of novel agents, i.e., immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors. We retrospectively reviewed data from 449 consecutive MM patients seen at our institute in 2010-2012 to assess indications for RT as well as its effectiveness. Pain response was scored similarly to RTOG 0631 and used the Numerical Rating Pain Scale. Among 442 evaluable patients, 149 (34%) patients and 262 sites received RT. The most common indication for RT was palliation of bone pain (n = 109, 42%), followed by prevention/treatment of pathological fractures (n = 73, 28%), spinal cord compression (n = 26, 10%), and involvement of vital organs/extramedullary disease (n = 25, 10%). Of the 55 patients evaluable for pain relief, complete and partial responses were obtained in 76.4 and 7.2%, respectively. Prior RT did not significantly decrease the median number of peripheral blood stem cells collected for autologous transplant, even when prior RT was given to both the spine and pelvis. Inadequacy of stem cell collection for autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) was not significantly different and it occurred in 9 and 15% of patients receiving no RT and spine/pelvic RT, respectively. None of the three cases of therapy-induced acute myelogenous leukemia/MDS occurred in the RT group. Despite the introduction of novel effective agents in the treatment of MM, RT remains a major therapeutic component for the management in 34% of patients, and it effectively provides pain relief while not interfering with successful peripheral blood stem cell collection for ASCT.

  1. Magnetic avalanches in manganese-acetate, "magnetic deflagration"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko

    Mn12-acetate, first synthesized in 1980 by Lis, is one example of a class of many molecules called single molecule magnets (SMMs) or molecular nanomagnets. These molecules have several atomic spins strongly coupled together within each molecule. They exhibit interesting quantum mechanical phenomena at low temperatures such as quantum tunneling of magnetization, which was first found with Mn12-acetate in 1996 by Friedman, et al. , and Berry phase oscillations which were measured in Fe8 (another SMM) in 1999 by Wernsdorfer, et al. In addition to possible application as memory storage and qubits for quantum computers, these systems provide the means for studies of mesoscopic physics as well as the interactions of the molecules with their environment, such as phonon, photon, nuclear spin, intermolecular dipole, and exchange interactions. Mn12-acetate has twelve Mn ions magnetically coupled in the center of the molecule yielding a giant spin of S = 10 at low temperature. It also has a large uniaxial anisotropy of 65 K. Below 3 K, magnetization curves show strong hysteresis due to the anisotropy barrier. At thesis temperatures, the spin relaxes through the barrier by quantum tunneling of magnetization, which produces regularly-spaced multiple resonant steps in the hysteresis curve. Magnetic avalanches, first detected by Paulsen et al., also occur for some samples only at low temperature, leading to a very fast single-step reversal of the full magnetization, which clearly differs from relaxation by tunneling. In this thesis, I present the results of detailed experimental studies of two aspects of magnetic avalanche phenomenon: "conditions for the triggering of avalanches" and "propagation of the avalanche front". In the first study, we find the magnetic fields at which avalanches occur are stochastically distributed in a particular range of fields. For the second study, we conducted local time-resolved measurements. The results indicate the magnetization avalanches spread

  2. Gallium-based avalanche photodiode optical crosstalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, Bruno; Chren, Dominik

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state single photon detectors based on avalanche photodiode are getting more attention in various areas of applied physics: optical sensors, quantum key distribution, optical ranging and Lidar, time-resolved spectroscopy, X-ray laser diagnostics, and turbid media imaging. Avalanche photodiodes specifically designed for single photon counting semiconductor avalanche structures have been developed on the basis of various materials: Si, Ge, GaP, GaAsP, and InGaP/InGaAs at the Czech Technical University in Prague during the last 20 years. They have been tailored for numerous applications. Trends in demand are focused on detection array construction recently. Even extremely small arrays containing a few cells are of great importance for users. Electrical crosstalk between individual gating and quenching circuits and optical crosstalk between individual detecting cells are serious limitation for array design and performance. Optical crosstalk is caused by the parasitic light emission of the avalanche which accompanies the photon detection process. We have studied in detail the optical emission of the avalanche photon counting structure in the silicon- and gallium-based photodiodes. The timing properties and spectral distribution of the emitted light have been measured for different operating conditions to quantify optical crosstalk. We conclude that optical crosstalk is an inherent property of avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode. The only way to minimize optical crosstalk in avalanche photodiode array is to build active quenching circuit with minimum response time

  3. Energy and dissipated work in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, P.; Buser, O.

    2004-12-01

    Using the results of large scale avalanche experiments at the Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test site, the energy balance of several snow avalanches is determined. Avalanches convert approximately one-seventh of their potential energy into kinetic energy. The total potential energy depends strongly on the entrained snowcover, indicating that entrainment processes cannot be ignored when predicting terminal velocities and runout distances. We find energy dissipation rates on the order of 1 GW. Fluidization of the fracture slab can be identified in the experiments as an increase in dissipation rate, thereby explaining the initial and rapid acceleration of avalanches after release. Interestingly, the dissipation rates appear to be constant along the track, although large fluctuations in internal velocity exist. Thus, we can demonstrate within the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics that -- in space -- granular snow avalanches are irreversible, dissipative systems that minimize entropy production because they appear to reach a steady-state non-equilibrium. A thermodynamic analysis reveals that fluctuations in velocity depend on the roughness of the flow surface and viscosity of the granular system. We speculate that this property explains the transition from flowing avalanches to powder avalanches.

  4. Spike avalanches exhibit universal dynamics across the sleep-wake cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago L Ribeiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Scale-invariant neuronal avalanches have been observed in cell cultures and slices as well as anesthetized and awake brains, suggesting that the brain operates near criticality, i.e. within a narrow margin between avalanche propagation and extinction. In theory, criticality provides many desirable features for the behaving brain, optimizing computational capabilities, information transmission, sensitivity to sensory stimuli and size of memory repertoires. However, a thorough characterization of neuronal avalanches in freely-behaving (FB animals is still missing, thus raising doubts about their relevance for brain function.To address this issue, we employed chronically implanted multielectrode arrays (MEA to record avalanches of action potentials (spikes from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of 14 rats, as they spontaneously traversed the wake-sleep cycle, explored novel objects or were subjected to anesthesia (AN. We then modeled spike avalanches to evaluate the impact of sparse MEA sampling on their statistics. We found that the size distribution of spike avalanches are well fit by lognormal distributions in FB animals, and by truncated power laws in the AN group. FB data surrogation markedly decreases the tail of the distribution, i.e. spike shuffling destroys the largest avalanches. The FB data are also characterized by multiple key features compatible with criticality in the temporal domain, such as 1/f spectra and long-term correlations as measured by detrended fluctuation analysis. These signatures are very stable across waking, slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep, but collapse during anesthesia. Likewise, waiting time distributions obey a single scaling function during all natural behavioral states, but not during anesthesia. Results are equivalent for neuronal ensembles recorded from visual and tactile areas of the cerebral cortex, as well as the hippocampus.Altogether, the data provide a comprehensive link between behavior

  5. High-Gain Avalanche Rushing amorphous Photoconductor (HARP) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanioka, K. [NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories, 1-10-11 Kinuta, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: tanioka.k-jg@nhk.or.jp

    2009-09-01

    We have been studying a very sensitive image sensor since the early 1980s. In 1985, the author found for the first time that an experimental pickup tube with an amorphous selenium photoconductive target exhibits high sensitivity with excellent picture quality because of a continuous and stable avalanche multiplication phenomenon. We named the pickup tube with an amorphous photoconductive layer operating in the avalanche-mode 'HARP': High-gain Avalanche Rushing amorphous Photoconductor. A color camera equipped with the HARP pickup tubes has a maximum sensitivity of 11 lx at F8. This means that the HARP camera is about 100 times as sensitive as that of CCD camera for broadcasting. This ultrahigh-sensitivity HARP pickup tube is a powerful tool for reporting breaking news at night and other low-light conditions, the production of scientific programs, and numerous other applications, including medical diagnoses, biotech research, and nighttime surveillance. In addition, since the HARP target can convert X-rays into electrons directly, it should be possible to exploit this capability to produce X-ray imaging devices with unparalleled levels of resolution and sensitivity.

  6. Design and fabrication of an optimum peripheral region for low gain avalanche detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Martínez, Pablo; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Greco, V.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2016-01-01

    Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) represent a remarkable advance in high energy particle detection, since they provide a moderate increase (gain ~10) of the collected charge, thus leading to a notable improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, which largely extends the possible application of Silicon detectors beyond their present working field. The optimum detection performance requires a careful implementation of the multiplication junction, in order to obtain the desired gain on the read out signal, but also a proper design of the edge termination and the peripheral region, which prevents the LGAD detectors from premature breakdown and large leakage current. This work deals with the critical technological aspects required to optimize the LGAD structure. The impact of several design strategies for the device periphery is evaluated with the aid of TCAD simulations, and compared with the experimental results obtained from the first LGAD prototypes fabricated at the IMB-CNM clean room. Solutions for the peripheral region improvement are also provided.

  7. Design and fabrication of an optimum peripheral region for low gain avalanche detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Martínez, Pablo; Flores, D., E-mail: david.flores@imb-cnm.csic.es; Hidalgo, S.; Greco, V.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2016-06-11

    Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) represent a remarkable advance in high energy particle detection, since they provide a moderate increase (gain ~10) of the collected charge, thus leading to a notable improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio, which largely extends the possible application of Silicon detectors beyond their present working field. The optimum detection performance requires a careful implementation of the multiplication junction, in order to obtain the desired gain on the read out signal, but also a proper design of the edge termination and the peripheral region, which prevents the LGAD detectors from premature breakdown and large leakage current. This work deals with the critical technological aspects required to optimize the LGAD structure. The impact of several design strategies for the device periphery is evaluated with the aid of TCAD simulations, and compared with the experimental results obtained from the first LGAD prototypes fabricated at the IMB-CNM clean room. Solutions for the peripheral region improvement are also provided.

  8. Time lapse photography as an approach to understanding glide avalanche activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Jordy; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Avalanches resulting from glide cracks are notoriously difficult to forecast, but are a recurring problem for numerous avalanche forecasting programs. In some cases glide cracks are observed to open and then melt away in situ. In other cases, they open and then fail catastrophically as large, full-depth avalanches. Our understanding and management of these phenomena are currently limited. It is thought that an increase in the rate of snow gliding occurs prior to full-depth avalanche activity so frequent observation of glide crack movement can provide an index of instability. During spring 2011 in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, we began an approach to track glide crack avalanche activity using a time-lapse camera focused on a southwest facing glide crack. This crack melted in-situ without failing as a glide avalanche, while other nearby glide cracks on north through southeast aspects failed. In spring 2012, a camera was aimed at a large and productive glide crack adjacent to the Going to the Sun Road. We captured three unique glide events in the field of view. Unfortunately, all of them either failed very quickly, or during periods of obscured view, so measurements of glide rate could not be obtained. However, we compared the hourly meteorological variables during the period of glide activity to the same variables prior to glide activity. The variables air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, incoming and reflected long wave radiation, SWE, total precipitation, and snow depth were found to be statistically different for our cases examined. We propose that these are some of the potential precursors for glide avalanche activity, but do urge caution in their use, due to the simple approach and small data set size. It is hoped that by introducing a workable method to easily record glide crack movement, combined with ongoing analysis of the associated meteorological data, we will improve our understanding of when, or if, glide avalanche activity will ensue.

  9. Catastrophic avalanches and methods of their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Volodicheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of such phenomenon as “catastrophic avalanche” is presented in this arti-cle. Several situations with releases of catastrophic avalanches in mountains of Caucasus, Alps, and Central Asia are investigated. Materials of snow-avalanche ob-servations performed since 1960s at the Elbrus station of the Lomonosov Moscow State University (Central Caucasus were used for this work. Complex-valued measures of engineering protection demonstrating different efficiencies are consid-ered.

  10. Multiple myoma: current recommendations for imaging; Multiples Myelom: Aktuelle Empfehlungen fuer die Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillengass, J. [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Haematologie, Onkologie und Rheumatologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung Radiologie E010, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung Radiologie E010, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Imaging in monoclonal plasma cell disease serves to detect end organ damage, i.e., osteoporosis or bone destruction. Diffuse or circumscribed bone marrow infiltration without damage to mineralized bone is so far not regarded as end organ damage. Skeletal plain x-ray film survey to detect bone destruction, osteoporosis or fractures. Whole body low-dose computed tomography (CT) and whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow a more sensitive assessment of both mineralized bone and bone marrow, with greater patient comfort and in the case of MRI without ionizing radiation. According to the literature, cross-sectional imaging is clearly superior to skeletal surveys and MRI is more sensitive than CT. Every locally destructive lesion will be detectable with MRI but for assessing the damage to mineralized bone CT is indispensible. The sensitivities of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and MRI are comparable. If available whole body MRI and whole body low dose CT should replace conventional skeletal surveys. This has already been implemented in several centers in Germany. For the initial diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma or symptomatic multiple myeloma, a whole-body MRI and a whole body low-dose CT should be performed. For MGUS and asymptomatic myeloma, whole body MRI only should be performed for follow-up until detection of first bone destruction. Patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma and known bone destruction will usually have whole body low-dose CT, supplemented by MRI studies where clinically required. (orig.) [German] Aufgabe der bildgebenden Diagnostik monoklonaler Plasmazellerkrankungen ist der Nachweis der Endorganschaedigung, d. h. der Osteoporose oder der Destruktion des mineralisierten Knochens. Die alleinige umschriebene oder diffuse Markrauminfiltration ohne knoecherne Destruktion gilt nach heutiger Konvention nicht als Endorganschaedigung. Konventioneller Roentgenskelettstatus

  11. Current reversal in a continuously periodic system driven by an additive noise and a multiplicative noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Chen Shibo; Mei Dongcheng

    2006-01-01

    We study the noise-induce transport and current reversal of Brownian particles in a continuously periodic potential driven by cross correlation between a multiplicative white noise and an additive white noise. We find that directed motion of the Brownian particles can be induced by the correlation between the additive noise and the multiplicative noise. The current reversal and the direction of the current is controlled by the values of the intensity (λ) of the correlated noises and a dimensionless parameter R (R=α/D, D is the intensity of multiplicative noise and α is the intensity of additive noise)

  12. High performance waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si linear mode avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicholas J D; Derose, Christopher T; Brock, Reinhard W; Starbuck, Andrew L; Pomerene, Andrew T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S

    2016-08-22

    We present experimental results for a selective epitaxially grown Ge-on-Si separate absorption and charge multiplication (SACM) integrated waveguide coupled avalanche photodiode (APD) compatible with our silicon photonics platform. Epitaxially grown Ge-on-Si waveguide-coupled linear mode avalanche photodiodes with varying lateral multiplication regions and different charge implant dimensions are fabricated and their illuminated device characteristics and high-speed performance is measured. We report a record gain-bandwidth product of 432 GHz for our highest performing waveguide-coupled avalanche photodiode operating at 1510nm. Bit error rate measurements show operation with BER-12, in the range from -18.3 dBm to -12 dBm received optical power into a 50 Ω load and open eye diagrams with 13 Gbps pseudo-random data at 1550 nm.

  13. Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for microarray systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Don; Jackson, Carl; Redfern, R. Michael; Morrison, Alan P.; Mathewson, Alan

    2002-06-01

    New Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiodes (GM-APD) have been designed and characterized specifically for use in microarray systems. Critical parameters such as excess reverse bias voltage, hold-off time and optimum operating temperature have been experimentally determined for these photon-counting devices. The photon detection probability, dark count rate and afterpulsing probability have been measured under different operating conditions. An active- quench circuit (AQC) is presented for operating these GM- APDs. This circuit is relatively simple, robust and has such benefits as reducing average power dissipation and afterpulsing. Arrays of these GM-APDs have already been designed and together with AQCs open up the possibility of having a solid-state microarray detector that enables parallel analysis on a single chip. Another advantage of these GM-APDs over current technology is their low voltage CMOS compatibility which could allow for the fabrication of an AQC on the same device. Small are detectors have already been employed in the time-resolved detection of fluorescence from labeled proteins. It is envisaged that operating these new GM-APDs with this active-quench circuit will have numerous applications for the detection of fluorescence in microarray systems.

  14. Sixteen-year follow-up of childhood avalanche survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordardottir, E.B.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A; Hansdottir, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    : Childhood survivors (aged 2-19 at the time of exposure) of two avalanches were identified through nationwide registers 16 years later. The PosttraumaticDiagnostic Scale was used to assess current PTSD symptoms. One-way ANOVA was used to explore PTSD symptoms by background and trauma-specific factors......, as well as associations with current SES. Predictors of PTSD symptoms were examined by multivariable regression analysis. Results: Response rate was 66% (108/163). Results from univariate ANOVA analysis revealed that female sex was associated with PTSD symptoms (F =5.96, p...

  15. Snow-avalanche impact craters in southern Norway: Their morphology and dynamics compared with small terrestrial meteorite craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John A.; Owen, Geraint; McEwen, Lindsey J.; Shakesby, Richard A.; Hill, Jennifer L.; Vater, Amber E.; Ratcliffe, Anna C.

    2017-11-01

    This regional inventory and study of a globally uncommon landform type reveals similarities in form and process between craters produced by snow-avalanche and meteorite impacts. Fifty-two snow-avalanche impact craters (mean diameter 85 m, range 10-185 m) were investigated through field research, aerial photographic interpretation and analysis of topographic maps. The craters are sited on valley bottoms or lake margins at the foot of steep avalanche paths (α = 28-59°), generally with an easterly aspect, where the slope of the final 200 m of the avalanche path (β) typically exceeds 15°. Crater diameter correlates with the area of the avalanche start zone, which points to snow-avalanche volume as the main control on crater size. Proximal erosional scars ('blast zones') up to 40 m high indicate up-range ejection of material from the crater, assisted by air-launch of the avalanches and impulse waves generated by their impact into water-filled craters. Formation of distal mounds up to 12 m high of variable shape is favoured by more dispersed down-range deposition of ejecta. Key to the development of snow-avalanche impact craters is the repeated occurrence of topographically-focused snow avalanches that impact with a steep angle on unconsolidated sediment. Secondary craters or pits, a few metres in diameter, are attributed to the impact of individual boulders or smaller bodies of snow ejected from the main avalanche. The process of crater formation by low-density, low-velocity, large-volume snow flows occurring as multiple events is broadly comparable with cratering by single-event, high-density, high-velocity, small-volume projectiles such as small meteorites. Simple comparative modelling of snow-avalanche events associated with a crater of average size (diameter 85 m) indicates that the kinetic energy of a single snow-avalanche impact event is two orders of magnitude less than that of a single meteorite-impact event capable of producing a crater of similar size

  16. Discrimination Voltage and Overdrive Bias Dependent Performance Evaluation of Passively Quenched SiC Single-Photon-Counting Avalanche Photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fei; Yang Sen; Zhou Dong; Lu Hai; Zhang Rong; Zheng You-Dou

    2015-01-01

    In many critical civil and emerging military applications, low-level UV detection, sometimes at single photon level, is highly desired. In this work, a mesa-type 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiode (APD) is designed and fabricated, which exhibits low leakage current and high avalanche gain. When studied by using a passive quenching circuit, the APD exhibits self-quenching characteristics due to its high differential resistance in the avalanche region. The single photon detection efficiency and dark count rate of the APD are evaluated as functions of discrimination voltage and over-drive voltage. The optimized operation conditions of the single photon counting APD are discussed. (paper)

  17. Silicon avalanche photodiodes on the base of metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structures

    CERN Document Server

    Saveliev, V

    2000-01-01

    The development of a high quantum efficiency, fast photodetector, with internal gain amplification for the wavelength range 450-600 nm is one of the critical issues for experimental physics - registration of low-intensity light photons flux. The new structure of Silicon Avalanche Detectors with high internal amplification (10 sup 5 -10 sup 6) has been designed, manufactured and tested for registration of visible light photons and charge particles. The main features of Metal-Resistor-Semiconductor (MRS) structures are the high charge multiplication in nonuniform electric field near the 'needle' pn-junction and negative feedback for stabilization of avalanche process due to resistive layer.

  18. Supershort avalanche electron beam in SF6 and krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Gu, Jianwei; Baksht, Evgeni Kh.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Burachenko, Alexander G.; Yan, Ping; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Shao, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Runaway electrons play an important role in the avalanche formation in nanosecond- and subnanosecond- pulse discharges. In this paper, characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) generated at the subnanosecond and nanosecond breakdown in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) in an inhomogeneous electric field were studied. One pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of ˜130 kV and rise time of 0.3 ns. The other pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of 70 kV and rise time of ˜1.6 ns . SAEB parameters in SF6 are compared with those obtained in krypton (Kr), nitrogen (N2 ), air, and mixtures of SF6 with krypton or nitrogen. Experimental results showed that SAEB currents appeared during the rise-time of the voltage pulse for both pulsers. Moreover, amplitudes of the SAEB current in SF6 and Kr approximately ranged from several to tens of milliamps at atmospheric pressure, which were smaller than those in N2 and air (ranging from hundreds of milliamps to several amperes). Furthermore, the concentration of SF6 additive could significantly reduce the SAEB current in N2-SF6 mixture, but it slightly affected the SAEB current in Kr -SF6 mixture because of the atomic/molecular ionization cross section of the gas had a much greater impact on the SAEB current rather than the electronegativity.

  19. Supershort avalanche electron beam in SF_{6} and krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang (章程

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Runaway electrons play an important role in the avalanche formation in nanosecond- and subnanosecond- pulse discharges. In this paper, characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB generated at the subnanosecond and nanosecond breakdown in sulfur hexafluoride (SF_{6} in an inhomogeneous electric field were studied. One pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of ∼130  kV and rise time of 0.3 ns. The other pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of 70 kV and rise time of ∼1.6  ns. SAEB parameters in SF_{6} are compared with those obtained in krypton (Kr, nitrogen (N_{2}, air, and mixtures of SF_{6} with krypton or nitrogen. Experimental results showed that SAEB currents appeared during the rise-time of the voltage pulse for both pulsers. Moreover, amplitudes of the SAEB current in SF_{6} and Kr approximately ranged from several to tens of milliamps at atmospheric pressure, which were smaller than those in N_{2} and air (ranging from hundreds of milliamps to several amperes. Furthermore, the concentration of SF_{6} additive could significantly reduce the SAEB current in N_{2}-SF_{6} mixture, but it slightly affected the SAEB current in Kr-SF_{6} mixture because of the atomic/molecular ionization cross section of the gas had a much greater impact on the SAEB current rather than the electronegativity.

  20. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  1. Criticality and avalanches in neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Marzieh; Grigolini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Temporal criticality is used as criticality indicator. • The Mittag–Leffler function is proposed as a proper form of temporal complexity. • The distribution of avalanche size becomes scale free in the supercritical state. • The scale-free distribution of avalanche sizes is an epileptic manifestation. -- Abstract: Experimental work, both in vitro and in vivo, reveals the occurrence of neural avalanches with an inverse power law distribution in size and time duration. These properties are interpreted as an evident manifestation of criticality, thereby suggesting that the brain is an operating near criticality complex system: an attractive theoretical perspective that according to Gerhard Werner may help to shed light on the origin of consciousness. However, a recent experimental observation shows no clear evidence for power-law scaling in awake and sleeping brain of mammals, casting doubts on the assumption that the brain works at criticality. This article rests on a model proposed by our group in earlier publications to generate neural avalanches with the time duration and size distribution matching the experimental results on neural networks. We now refine the analysis of the time distance between consecutive firing bursts and observe the deviation of the corresponding distribution from the Poisson statistics, as the system moves from the non-cooperative to the cooperative regime. In other words, we make the assumption that the genuine signature of criticality may emerge from temporal complexity rather than from the size and time duration of avalanches. We argue that the Mittag–Leffler (ML) exponential function is a satisfactory indicator of temporal complexity, namely of the occurrence of non-Poisson and renewal events. The assumption that the onset of criticality corresponds to the birth of renewal non-Poisson events establishes a neat distinction between the ML function and the power law avalanches generating regime. We find that

  2. Phase avalanches in near-adiabatic evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertesi, T.; Englman, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of slow, nearly adiabatic motion of a system, relative changes in the slowness can cause abrupt and high magnitude phase changes, ''phase avalanches,'' superimposed on the ordinary geometric phases. The generality of this effect is examined for arbitrary Hamiltonians and multicomponent (>2) wave packets and is found to be connected (through the Blaschke term in the theory of analytic signals) to amplitude zeros in the lower half of the complex time plane. Motion on a nonmaximal circle on the Poincare-sphere suppresses the effect. A spectroscopic transition experiment can independently verify the phase-avalanche magnitudes

  3. Beyond Critical Exponents in Neuronal Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nir; Butler, Tom; Deville, Robert; Beggs, John; Dahmen, Karin

    2011-03-01

    Neurons form a complex network in the brain, where they interact with one another by firing electrical signals. Neurons firing can trigger other neurons to fire, potentially causing avalanches of activity in the network. In many cases these avalanches have been found to be scale independent, similar to critical phenomena in diverse systems such as magnets and earthquakes. We discuss models for neuronal activity that allow for the extraction of testable, statistical predictions. We compare these models to experimental results, and go beyond critical exponents.

  4. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and repor...

  5. Real time avalanche detection for high risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Avalanches routinely occur on State Highway 21 (SH21) between Lowman and Stanley, Idaho each winter. The avalanches pose : a threat to the safety of maintenance workers and the traveling public. A real-time avalanche detection system will allow the :...

  6. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  7. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, E.; Hendrikx, J.; Fagre, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  8. The December 2008 Crammont rock avalanche, Mont Blanc massif area, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deline

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 0.5 Mm3 rock avalanche that occurred in 2008 in the western Alps and discuss possible roles of controlling factors in the context of current climate change. The source is located between 2410 m and 2653 m a.s.l. on Mont Crammont and is controlled by a densely fractured rock structure. The main part of the collapsed rock mass deposited at the foot of the rock wall. A smaller part travelled much farther, reaching horizontal and vertical travel distances of 3050 m and 1560 m, respectively. The mobility of the rock mass was enhanced by channelization and snow. The rock-avalanche volume was calculated by comparison of pre- and post-event DTMs, and geomechanical characterization of the detachment zone was extracted from LiDAR point cloud processing. Back analysis of the rock-avalanche runout suggests a two stage event.

    There was no previous rock avalanche activity from the Mont Crammont ridge during the Holocene. The 2008 rock avalanche may have resulted from permafrost degradation in the steep rock wall, as suggested by seepage water in the scar after the collapse in spite of negative air temperatures, and modelling of rock temperatures that indicate warm permafrost (T > −2 °C.

  9. Oscillatory regime of avalanche particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukin, K.A.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Colavita, A.A.

    1995-06-01

    We describe the model of an avalanche high energy particle detector consisting of two pn-junctions, connected through an intrinsic semiconductor with a reverse biased voltage applied. We show that this detector is able to generate the oscillatory response on the single particle passage through the structure. The possibility of oscillations leading to chaotic behaviour is pointed out. (author). 15 refs, 7 figs

  10. Avalanches in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, J.; Marte, A.; Amtage, S.; Sang, B.; Rempe, G.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Collisional avalanches are identified to be responsible for an 8-fold increase of the initial loss rate of a large 87Rb condensate. We show that the collisional opacity of an ultracold gas exhibits a critical value. When exceeded, losses due to inelastic collisions are substantially enhanced. Under

  11. The Vaigat Rock Avalanche Laboratory, west-central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, S.; Rosser, N. J.; Szczucinski, W.; Norman, E. C.; Benjamin, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Long, A. J.; Drewniak, M.

    2013-12-01

    Rock avalanches have unusually high mobility and pose both an immediate hazard, but also produce far-field impacts associated with dam breach, glacier collapse and where they run-out into water, tsunami. Such secondary hazards can often pose higher risks than the original landslide. The prediction of future threats posed by potential rock avalanches is heavily reliant upon understanding of the physics derived from an interpretation of deposits left by previous events, yet drawing comparisons between multiple events is normally challenging as interactions with complex mountainous terrain makes deposits from each event unique. As such numerical models and the interpretation of the underlying physics which govern landslide mobility is commonly case-specific and poorly suited to extrapolation beyond the single events the model is tuned to. Here we present a high-resolution LiDAR and hyperspectral dataset captured across a unique cluster of large rock avalanche source areas and deposits in the Vaigat straight, west central Greenland. Vaigat offers the unprecedented opportunity to model a sample of > 15 rock avalanches of various age sourced from an 80 km coastal escarpment. At Vaigat many of the key variables (topography, geology, post-glacial history) are held constant across all landslides providing the chance to investigate the variations in dynamics and emplacement style related to variable landslide volume, drop-heights, and thinning/spreading over relatively simple, unrestricted run-out zones both onto land and into water. Our data suggest that this region represents excellent preservation of landslide deposits, and hence is well suited to calibrate numerical models of run out dynamics. We use this data to aid the interpretation of deposit morphology, structure lithology and run-out characteristics in more complex settings. Uniquely, we are also able to calibrate our models using a far-field dataset of well-preserved tsunami run-up deposits, resulting from the 21

  12. Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.

  13. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanken, K.; Bosse, M.; Möhrke, K.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Kastrup, A.; Antal, A.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

  14. Development of a multiple HTS current lead assembly for corrector magnets application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.L.; Dederer, J.T.; Singh, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    Vapor-cooled current leads used for transmitting power to superconducting power equipment such as the corrector magnets in the SSC spools can introduce a significant heat leak into the cryostat which results in cryogen boil-off. Replenishing the boil-off or refrigerating and liquefying the vapors associated with the cooling of these leads may constitute a significant portion of the operating cost and/or the capital investment of the power equipment. Theoretical studies and experiments have demonstrated that the heat leak introduced by a current lead can be significantly reduced by using ceramic high temperature superconductor (HTSC) as part of the conductor in the current leads. A HTSC reduces heat leak in a current lead by being superconducting in the temperature range below its critical temperature and by having a low temperature thermal conductivity which is generally orders of magnitude lower than the copper alloys commonly used as the current lead conductors. This combination reduces Joule heating and heat conduction, resulting in lower heat leak to the cryostat. To demonstrate the advantages and large scale application of this technology, Westinghouse Science ampersand Technology Center has continued its efforts in High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current lead development. The efforts include qualification testing and selection of commercial sources of HTSC for current leads and the successful development of a 12 x 100 A multiple HTS current lead assembly prototype for SSC Corrector Element Power Lead application. The efforts on the design, fabrication and testing of the multiple HTS lead assembly is reported below

  15. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons in vp and charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.

    1992-03-01

    Using data on vp andbar vp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons are investigated. The analysis is based on ˜20000 events with incident v and ˜10000 events with incidentbar v. The invariant mass W of the total hadronic system ranges from 3 GeV to ˜14 GeV. The experimental multiplicity distributions are fitted by the binomial function (for different intervals of W and in different intervals of the rapidity y), by the Levy function and the lognormal function. All three parametrizations give acceptable values for X 2. For fixed W, forward and backward multiplicities are found to be uncorrelated. The normalized moments of the charged multiplicity distributions are measured as a function of W. They show a violation of KNO scaling.

  16. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-06-01

    To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and reported in prospective, long-term, injury studies in team ball sports. A systematic search of three online databases for articles published before 2016. Publications were included if (1) they collected prospective data on musculoskeletal injuries in individual participants; (2) the study duration was >1 consecutive calendar year/season; and (3) individuals were the unit of analysis. Key study features were summarised, including definitions of injury, how multiple individual injuries were reported and results relating to multiple injuries. Of the 71 publications included, half did not specifically indicate multiple individual injuries; those that did were largely limited to reporting recurrent injuries. Eight studies reported the number/proportion of athletes with more than one injury, and 11 studies presented the mean/number of injuries per athlete. Despite it being relatively common to collect data on individuals across more than one season, the reporting of multiple injuries within individuals is much more limited. Ultimately, better addressing of multiple injuries will improve the accuracy of injury incidence studies and enable more precise targeting and monitoring of the effectiveness of preventive interventions.

  17. X-ray imaging with amorphous selenium: Pulse height measurements of avalanche gain fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, Brian J. M.; Hunt, D. C.; Reznik, A.; Tanioka, K.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Avalanche multiplication in amorphous selenium (a-Se) can provide a large, adjustable gain for active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI), enabling quantum noise limited x-ray imaging during both radiography and fluoroscopy. In the case of direct conversion AMFPI, the multiplication factor for each x ray is a function of its depth of interaction, and the resulting variations in gain can reduce the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the system. An experimental method was developed to measure gain fluctuations by analyzing images of individual x rays that were obtained using a video camera with an a-Se target operated in avalanche mode. Pulse height spectra (PHS) of the charge produced per x ray were recorded for monoenergetic 30.9, 49.4, and 73.8 keV x-ray sources. The rapid initial decay and long tail of each PHS can be explained by a model in which positive charge dominates the initiation of avalanche. The Swank information factor quantifies the effect of gain fluctuation on DQE and was calculated from the PHS. The information factor was found to be 0.5 for a 25 μm a-Se layer with a maximum gain of ∼300. Changing the energy of the incident x ray influenced the range of the primary photoelectron and noticeably affected the tail of the experimental PHS, but did not significantly change the avalanche Swank factor

  18. Rockslide-debris avalanche of May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicken, Harry

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a detailed picture of the rockslide-debris avalanche of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano. It provides a characterization of the deposit, a reinterpretation of the details of the first minutes of the eruption of May 18, and insight into the transport mechanism of the mass movement. Details of the rockslide event, as revealed by eyewitness photographs, are correlated with features of the deposit. The photographs show three slide blocks in the rockslide movement. Slide block I was triggered by a magnitude 5.1 earthquake at 8:32 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time (P.D.T.). An exploding cryptodome burst through slide block II to produce the 'blast surge.' Slide block III consisted of many discrete failures that were carried out in continuing pyroclastic currents generated from the exploding cryptodome. The cryptodome continued to depressurize after slide block III, producing a blast deposit that rests on top of the debris-avalanche deposit. The hummocky 2.5 cubic kilometer debris-avalanche deposit consists of block facies (pieces of the pre-eruption Mount St. Helens transported relatively intact) and matrix facies (a mixture of rocks from the old mountain and cryptodome dacite). Block facies is divided into five lithologic units. Matrix facies was derived from the explosively generated current of slide block III as well as from disaggregation and mixing of debris-avalanche blocks. The mean density of the old cone was measured to be abut 20 percent greater than the mean density of the avalanche deposit. Density in the deposit does not decrease with distance which suggests that debris-avalanche blocks were dilated at the mountain, rather than during transport. Various grain-size parameters that show that clast size converges about a mean with distance suggest mixing during transport. The debris-avalanche flow can be considered a grain flow, where particles -- either debris-avalanche blocks or the clasts within the blocks -- collided and

  19. Several peaks of total current in Trichel pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, O.; Golota, V.; Kadolin, B.; Mankovskyi, S.; Ostroushko, V.; Pashchenko, I.; Taran, G.; Zavada, L.

    2015-01-01

    The numerical simulations of negative corona at constant voltage in Trichel pulse mode are carried out in assumptions of presence and absence of photoemission from cathode. In absence of photoemission two peaks of total current or the step before the main peak were obtained for very small values of ion-electron emission coefficient. In presence of photoemission there were observed several maximums, connected with instability development of the process based on radiation of photons, photoemission, and avalanche multiplication

  20. Characterization of midwave infrared InSb avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abautret, J., E-mail: johan.abautret@ies.univ-montp2.fr; Evirgen, A. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France); Perez, J. P.; Christol, P. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Rothman, J. [CEA-LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cordat, A. [SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France)

    2015-06-28

    This paper focuses on the InSb material potential for the elaboration of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for high performance infrared imaging applications, both in passive or active mode. The first InSb electron-APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy, processed and electrically characterized. The device performances are at the state of the art for the InSb epi-diode technology, with a dark current density J(−50 mV) = 32 nA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Then, a pure electron injection was performed, and an avalanche gain, increasing exponentially, was observed with a gain value near 3 at −4 V at 77 K. The Okuto–Crowell model was used to determine the electron ionization coefficient α(E) in InSb, and the InSb gain behavior is compared with the one of InAs and MCT APDs.

  1. Vortex Avalanches with Periodic Arrays of Pinning Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, J.; Heckel, T.; Kakalios, J.

    2001-03-01

    Numerical simulations by Nori and co-workers of dynamical phase transitions for magnetic vortices in type II superconductors when the defects which act as pinning sites are arranged in a periodic array have found a dramatic non-linear relationship between vortex voltage and driving current.2,4 In order to experimentally test the predictions of these simulations, a macroscopic physical analog of an array of flux vortices in the presense of an ordered lattice of pinning sites has been constructed. This simple table-top experimental system consists of conventional household magnets, arranged in an ordered grid (serving as the lattice of fixed pinning centers). A plexiglass sheet is positioned above these fixed magnets, and another collection of magnets (representing the magnetic flux vortices), oriented so that they are attracted to the fixed magnets are placed on top of the sheet. The entire apparatus is then tilted to a given angle (the analog of the driving voltage) and the velocity of the avalanching magnets is recorded using the induced voltage in a pick-up coil. By varying the ratio of movable magnets to fixed pinning magnets, the filling fraction can be adjusted, as can the pinning strength, by adjusting the separation of the plexiglass sheet between the fixed and movable magnets. The velocity of the avalanching magnets as the filling fraction is varied displays a jamming transition, with a non-trivial dependence on the pinning strength of the lattice of fixed magnets below the sheet.

  2. Current status of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: Application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Hiroaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many studies are currently investigating the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent various infectious diseases. Multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems have been developed to avoid the adverse effects associated with conventional vaccines (i.e., live-attenuated, killed or inactivated pathogens, carrier proteins and cytotoxic adjuvants. Recently, two main approaches have been used to develop multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: (1 the addition of functional components, e.g., T-cell epitopes, cell-penetrating peptides, and lipophilic moieties; and (2 synthetic approaches using size-defined nanomaterials, e.g., self-assembling peptides, non-peptidic dendrimers, and gold nanoparticles, as antigen-displaying platforms. This review summarizes the recent experimental studies directed to the development of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems.

  3. Particle multiplicity in jets and subjets with jet axis from color current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, Wolfgang; Ramos, Redamy Perez

    2008-01-01

    We study the particle multiplicity in a jet or subjet as derived from an energy-multiplicity 2-particle correlation. This definition avoids the notion of a globally fixed jet axis and allows for the study of smaller jet cone openings in a more stable way. The results are sensitive to the mean color current A 0 in the jet from primary parton A 0 , which takes into account intermediate partonic processes in the subjet production where C F A 0 c at high energies. We generalize previous calculations in the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA). The size of the effects related to this jet axis definition is computed for multiplicities in subjets with different opening angles and energies by including contributions from the modified LLA and next-to-modified LLA to the leading order QCD results.

  4. Avalanches in Mn12-Acetate: ``Magnetic Burning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sean; Suzuki, Y.; Graybill, D.; Sarachik, M. P.; Avraham, N.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Chakov, N. E.; Christou, G.

    2006-03-01

    From local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization in single crystals of the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate, we have shown[1] that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. This phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance. The propagation speed of the avalanche depends on the energy stored in each molecule, which can be controlled and tuned using an external magnetic field. We report studies of propagation speed with different external fields in Mn12-acetate. [1] Yoko Suzuki, M.P. Sarachik, E.M. Chudnovsky, S. McHugh, R. Gonzalez-Rubio, N. Avraham, Y. Myasoedov, H. Shtrikman, E. Zeldov, N.E. Chakov and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147201 (2005).

  5. Avalanches in functional materials and geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Avadh; Planes, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the state-of-the art of the present understanding of avalanche phenomena in both functional materials and geophysics. The main emphasis of the book is analyzing these apparently different problems within the common perspective of out-of-equilibrium phenomena displaying spatial and temporal complexity that occur in a broad range of scales. Many systems, when subjected to an external force, respond intermittently in the form of avalanches that often span over a wide range of sizes, energies and durations. This is often related to a class of critical behavior characterized by the absence of characteristic scales. Typical examples are magnetization processes, plastic deformation and failure occuring in functional materials. These phenomena share many similarities with seismicity arising from the earth crust failure due to stresses that originate from plate tectonics.

  6. A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, M.; Tan Jilian; Potenza, R.; D'amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter with a distributed constant delay-line-cathode (PSAC) is described. The strips formed on the printed board were served as the cathode and the delay line for readout of signals. The detector (PSAC) was operated in isobutane gas at the pressure range from 10 to 20 torr. The position resolution is better than 1 mm and the time resolution is about 350 ps, for 252 Cf fission-spectrum source

  7. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Hanken; Katrin Hanken; Mona Bosse; Kim Möhrke; Paul Eling; Andreas Kastrup; Andrea Antal; Helmut Hildebrandt; Helmut Hildebrandt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. Methods: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anoda...

  8. Counteracting Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis with Right Parietal Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanken, Katrin; Bosse, Mona; M?hrke, Kim; Eling, Paul; Kastrup, Andreas; Antal, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. METHODS: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controll...

  9. Nanomechanics of slip avalanches in amorphous plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Penghui; Dahmen, Karin A.; Kushima, Akihiro; Wright, Wendelin J.; Park, Harold S.; Short, Michael P.; Yip, Sidney

    2018-05-01

    Discrete stress relaxations (slip avalanches) in a model metallic glass under uniaxial compression are studied using a metadynamics algorithm for molecular simulation at experimental strain rates. The onset of yielding is observed at the first major stress drop, accompanied, upon analysis, by the formation of a single localized shear band region spanning the entire system. During the elastic response prior to yielding, low concentrations of shear transformation deformation events appear intermittently and spatially uncorrelated. During serrated flow following yielding, small stress drops occur interspersed between large drops. The simulation results point to a threshold value of stress dissipation as a characteristic feature separating major and minor avalanches consistent with mean-field modeling analysis and mechanical testing experiments. We further interpret this behavior to be a consequence of a nonlinear interplay of two prevailing mechanisms of amorphous plasticity, thermally activated atomic diffusion and stress-induced shear transformations, originally proposed by Spaepen and Argon, respectively. Probing the atomistic processes at widely separate strain rates gives insight to different modes of shear band formation: percolation of shear transformations versus crack-like propagation. Additionally a focus on crossover avalanche size has implications for nanomechanical modeling of spatially and temporally heterogeneous dynamics.

  10. Smartphone applications for communicating avalanche risk information - a review of existing practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, M. K. M.; Bogaard, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    Every year, in all mountainous regions, people are victims of avalanches. One way to decrease those losses is believed to be informing about danger levels. The paper presents a study on current practices in the development of smartphones applications that are dedicated to avalanche risk communication. The analysis based on semi-structured interviews with developers of smartphone apps highlights the context of their development, how choices of content and visualization were made as well as how their effectiveness is evaluated. It appears that although the communicators agree on the message to disseminate, its representation triggers debate. Moreover, only simple evaluation processes are conducted but there is a clear awareness that further scientific efforts are needed to analyze the effectiveness of the smartphone apps. Finally, the current or planned possibility for non-experts users to report feedback on the snow and avalanches conditions open the doors to a transition of these apps from one-way communication tools to two-ways communication platforms. This paper also indicates the remaining challenges that avalanche risk communication is facing, although it is disputably the most advanced and standardized practice compared to other natural hazards. Therefore, this research is of interest for the entire field of natural hazards related risk communication.

  11. New advances for modelling the debris avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Sabatino; Cascini, Leonardo; Pastor, Manuel; Castorino, Giuseppe Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Flow-like landslides are a major global hazard and they occur worldwide causing a large number of casualties, significant structural damages to property and infrastructures as well as economic losses. When involving open slopes, these landslides often occur in triangular source areas where initial slides turn into avalanches through further failures and/or eventual soil entrainment. This paper deals with the numerical modelling of the propagation stage of debris avalanches which provides information such as the propagation pattern of the mobilized material, its velocity, thickness and run-out distance. In the paper, a "depth integrated" model is used which allows: i) adequately taking into account the irregular topography of real slopes which greatly affect the propagation stage and ii) using a less time consuming model than fully 3D approaches. The used model is named "GeoFlow_SPH" and it was formerly applied to theoretical, experimental and real case histories (Pastor et al., 2009; Cascini et al., 2012). In this work the behavior of debris avalanches is analyzed with special emphasis on the apical angle, one of the main features of this type of landslide, in relation to soil rheology, hillslope geometry and features of triggering area. Furthermore, the role of erosion has been investigated with reference to the uppermost parts of open slopes with a different steepness. These analyses are firstly carried out for simplified benchmark slopes, using both water-like materials (with no shear strength) and debris type materials. Then, three important case studies of Campania region (Cervinara, Nocera Inferiore e Sarno) are analyzed where debris avalanches involved pyroclastic soils originated from the eruptive products of Vesusius volcano. The results achieved for both benchmark slopes and real case histories outline the key role played by the erosion on the whole propagation stage of debris avalanches. The results are particularly satisfactory since they indicate the

  12. Geomorphological analysis, monitoring and modeling of large rock avalanches in northern Chile (Iquique area) for regional hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugsi Molina, F. X.; Hermanns, R. L.; Crosta, G. B.; Dehls, J.; Sosio, R.; Sepúlveda, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Iquique is a city of about 215,000 inhabitants (Chilean national census 2002) settled on one of the seismic gaps in the South American subduction zone, where a M >8 earthquake with overdue return periods of ca. 100 yr is expected in the near future. The city has only two access roads coming from the east and south. The road to the east comes down along the escarpment that connects the Coastal Cordillera to the Coastal Plain. The road has been blocked by small magnitude earthquake-triggered landslides at least once in recent years. The second road, coming from the south, crosses along the Coastal Plain and connects the city to the airport where at least ten ancient debris deposits related to rock avalanches are found. These facts show the importance of determining the effects of a future high magnitude earthquake on the stability of the slopes in the area and the impact of possible slope failures on people, infrastructure and emergency management. The present work covers an area of approximately 130 km2 parallel to the coastline to the south of Iquique, divided into the two main morphological units briefly mentioned above. The eastern part corresponds to the Coastal Cordillera, a set of smoothed hills and shallow valleys that reaches up to 1200 m asl. This sector is limited to the west by a steep escarpment followed by the Coastal Plain and a narrow emerged marine plateau (1-3 km wide) locally overlaid by deposits of recent rock avalanches. Rock avalanche events have recurrently occurred at two sites to the north and center of the study area on the Coastal Cordillera escarpment. Another major single event has been mapped to the south. Marls, red and black shales, and shallow marine glauconitic deposits from Jurassic constitute the source rock for the rock avalanches in all sites. Clusters of deposits are found in the first two sites (retrogressive advance) with younger events running shorter distances and partially overlaying the older ones. Multiple lobes have been

  13. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Sokratov; Yu. G. Seliverstov; A. L. Shnyparkov; K. P. Koltermann

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoida...

  14. Avalanche and streamer mode operation of resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli, R.; Makeev, V.; Santonico, R.

    1996-01-01

    A resistive plate chamber was operated at voltages increasing in steps of 200 V over a 3 kV interval and the transition between the avalanche and streamer modes was studied. The avalanche amplitude was observed to be exponentially dependent on the operating voltage up to a value, characteristic of the gas, where the avalanche saturation occurs and delayed streamer signals start to appear. Signal waveforms, charge and timing distributions are reported. (orig.)

  15. Ultralow noise midwave infrared InAs-GaSb strain layer superlattice avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, Shubhrangshu; Banerjee, Koushik; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Plis, Elena; Rodriguez, Jean Baptiste; Krishna, Sanjay; Grein, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Eye-safe midwavelength infrared InAs-GaSb strain layer superlattice p + -n - -n homojunction avalanche photodiodes (APDs) grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy were fabricated and characterized. Maximum multiplication gain of 1800 was measured at -20 V at 77 K. Excess noise factors between 0.8 and 1.2 were measured up to gain of 300. Gain of 200 was measured at 120 K. Exponential nature of the gain as a function of reverse bias along with low excess noise factor at higher gain confirms single carrier electron-only impact ionization in the avalanche regime. Decrease in the multiplication gain at higher temperatures correlates with standard APD characteristics

  16. NOTES performed using multiple ports of entry: Current experience and potential implications for urologic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Estevao; Rolanda, Carla; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    An isolated transgastric port raises serious limitations in performing natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) complex procedures in the urology field. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, several solutions has been advanced, such as the hybrid approach (adding a single abdominal port access) or the pure NOTES combined approach (joining multiple natural orifice ports). To review the current state of experimental and clinical results of multiple ports in NOTES, a literature search of PubMed was performed, seeking publications from January 2002 to 2008 on NOTES. In addition, we looked at pertinent abstracts of annual meetings of the American Urological Association, the European Association of Urology, and the World Congress of Endourology from 2007. Multiple ports of entry seem to be necessary, mainly for moderately complex procedures. Thus, we could find studies using the hybrid approach (combination of transgastric or transvaginal access with a single transabdominal port), or using the pure NOTES combined approach (transgastric and transvesical, transvaginal and transcolonic, or transgastric and transvaginal). There is still limited experience in humans using these approaches, and no comparative studies exist to date. It is predictable that for moderately complex procedures, we will need multiple ports, so the transvaginal-transabdominal (hybrid) approach is the most appealing, whereas in a pure NOTES perspective, the transgastric-transvesical approach seems to be the preferred approach. We are waiting for new equipment and instruments that are more appropriate for these novel techniques.

  17. Multiple brain metastases - current management and perspectives for treatment with electrochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert, Mette; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Gehl, Julie

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the advanced oncological treatments of cancer, an overall increase in cancer incidence, and better diagnostic tools, the incidence of brain metastases is on the rise. This review addresses the current treatment options for patients with multiple brain metastases, presenting...... of the chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin by 300 times. Preclinical data are promising and the first patient has been treated in an ongoing clinical trial for patients with brain metastases. Perspectives for ECT in the brain include treatment of primary and secondary brain tumors as well as soft tissue metastases elsewhere....

  18. PREVALENCE OF MULTIPLE ADDICTIONS AND CURRENT TREATMENT BY DRUG TREATMENT CENTRES IN DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keen, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Substance-use disorders (SUD cause severe problems both globally and locally. Research suggests that multiple addictions create a more complex illness. This study investigated whether in-patients admitted for SUD at three drug treatment centres in Durban, South Africa had other, undiagnosed addictions. It utilised a three-phase concurrent mixed-methods design and initially screened for gambling and sex addiction. Results showed that, of the sample of 123 participants, 54% had either sex or gambling and 24% had both addictions which current treatment programmes neither assessed for nor treated. Recommendations include suggestions to update current assessment and treatment approaches and the need to train professional staff at drug treatment centres.

  19. Lifetime of Bubble Rafts: Cooperativity and Avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Hernán; Kiefer, Flavien; Langevin, Dominique

    2007-06-01

    We have studied the collapse of pseudo-bi-dimensional foams. These foams are made of uniformly sized soap bubbles packed in an hexagonal lattice sitting at the top of a liquid surface. The collapse process follows the sequence: (1) rupture of a first bubble, driven by thermal fluctuations and (2) a cascade of bursting bubbles. We present a simple numerical model which captures the main characteristics of the dynamics of foam collapse. We show that in a certain range of viscosities of the foaming solutions, the size distribution of the avalanches follows power laws as in self-organized criticality processes.

  20. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  1. Tuning magnetization avalanches in Mn12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; McHugh, S.; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-03-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of magnetic avalanches (abrupt magnetization reversals) in the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate using a micron-sized Hall sensor array. Measurements were taken for: (a) fixed magnetic field (constant barrier against spin reversal); and (b) fixed energy release obtained by adjusting the barrier and δM. A detailed comparison with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [1] will be presented and discussed. [1] D. A. Garanin and E. M. Chudnovsky, Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)

  2. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutosh.bhardwaj@cern.ch; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-11-11

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  3. TCAD simulation of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, Ranjeet; Jain, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, detailed simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool, Silvaco for non-irradiated and irradiated LGAD (Low Gain Avalanche Detector) devices has been carried out. The effects of different design parameters and proton irradiation on LGAD operation are discussed in detail. An already published effective two trap bulk damage model is used to simulate the radiation damage without implementing any acceptor removal term. The TCAD simulation for irradiated LGAD devices produce decreasing gain with increasing fluence, similar to the measurement results. The space charge density and electric field distribution are used to illustrate the possible reasons for the degradation of gain of the irradiated LGAD devices.

  4. Solar-Blind Photodetector with High Avalanche Gains and Bias-Tunable Detecting Functionality Based on Metastable Phase α-Ga2O3/ZnO Isotype Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuanhu; Xu, Yang; Zhou, Dong; Yang, Sen; Ren, Fang-Fang; Lu, Hai; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Ye, Jiandong

    2017-10-25

    The metastable α-phase Ga 2 O 3 is an emerging material for developing solar-blind photodetectors and power electronic devices toward civil and military applications. Despite its superior physical properties, the high quality epitaxy of metastable phase α-Ga 2 O 3 remains challenging. To this end, single crystalline α-Ga 2 O 3 epilayers are achieved on nonpolar ZnO (112̅0) substrates for the first time and a high performance Au/α-Ga 2 O 3 /ZnO isotype heterostructure-based Schottky barrier avalanche diode is demonstrated. The device exhibits self-powered functions with a dark current lower than 1 pA, a UV/visible rejection ratio of 10 3 and a detectivity of 9.66 × 10 12 cm Hz 1/2 W -1 . Dual responsivity bands with cutoff wavelengths at 255 and 375 nm are observed with their peak responsivities of 0.50 and 0.071 A W -1 at -5 V, respectively. High photoconductive gain at low bias is governed by a barrier lowing effect at the Au/Ga 2 O 3 and Ga 2 O 3 /ZnO heterointerfaces. The device also allows avalanche multiplication processes initiated by pure electron and hole injections under different illumination conditions. High avalanche gains over 10 3 and a low ionization coefficient ratio of electrons and holes are yielded, leading to a total gain over 10 5 and a high responsivity of 1.10 × 10 4 A W -1 . Such avalanche heterostructures with ultrahigh gains and bias-tunable UV detecting functionality hold promise for developing high performance solar-blind photodetectors.

  5. The current practice of using multiple representations in year 4 science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenmanee, Chanoknat; Thathong, Kongsak

    2018-01-01

    Multiple representations have been widely used as a reasoning tool for understanding complex scientific concepts. Thus this study attempted to investigate the current practice of using multiple representations on Year 4 science classrooms in terms of modes and levels which appear in curriculum documents, teaching plans, tasks and assessments, teaching practices, and students' behaviors. Indeed, documentary analysis, classroom observation, and interview were used as the data collection methods. First of all, Year 4 science documents were analyzed. Then classroom observation was used as a collecting method to seek what actually happen in the classroom. Finally, in-depth interviews were used to gather more information and obtain meaningful data. The finding reveals that many modes of verbal, visual, and tactile representations within three levels of representations are posed in Year 4 documents. Moreover, according to classroom observations and interviews, there are three main points of applying multiple representations into classrooms. First of all, various modes of representations were used, however, a huge number of them did not come together with the levels. The levels of representations, secondly, macroscopic and cellular levels were introduced into all classrooms while symbolic level was provided only in some classrooms. Finally, the connection of modes and levels pointed out that modes of representations were used without the considerations on the levels of them. So, it seems to be that teaching practice did not meet the aims of curriculum. Therefore, these issues were being considered in order to organize and design the further science lessons.

  6. Plasma-induced evolution behavior of space-charge-limited current for multiple-needle cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Limin; Liu Lie; Zhang Jun; Wen Jianchun; Liu Yonggui; Wan Hong

    2009-01-01

    Properties of the plasma and beam flow produced by tufted carbon fiber cathodes in a diode powered by a ∼500 kV, ∼400 ns pulse are investigated. Under electric fields of 230-260 kV cm -1 , the electron current density was in the range 210-280 A cm -2 , and particularly at the diode gap of 20 mm, a maximum beam power density of about 120 MW cm -2 was obtained. It was found that space-charge-limited current exhibited an evolution behavior as the accelerating pulse proceeded. There exists a direct relation between the movement of plasma within the diode and the evolution of space-charge-limited current. Initially in the accelerating pulse, the application of strong electric fields caused the emission sites to explode, forming cathode flares or plasma spots, and in this stage the space-charge-limited current was approximately described by a multiple-needle cathode model. As the pulse proceeded, these plasma spots merged and expanded towards the anode, thus increasing the emission area and shortening the diode gap, and the corresponding space-charge-limited current followed a planar cathode model. Finally, the space-charge-limited current is developed from a unipolar flow into a bipolar flow as a result of the appearance of anode plasma. In spite of the nonuniform distribution of cathode plasma, the cross-sectional uniformity of the extracted electron beam is satisfactory. The plasma expansion within the diode is found to be a major factor in the diode perveance growth and instability. These results show that these types of cathodes can offer promising applications for high-power microwave tubes.

  7. Electric field distribution and simulation of avalanche formation due ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field distributions and their role in the formation of avalanche due to the passage of heavy ions in parallel grid avalanche type wire chamber detectors are evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation. The relative merits and demerits of parallel and crossed wire grid configurations are studied. It is found that the crossed ...

  8. High voltage short plus generation based on avalanche circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuanfeng; Yu Xiaoqi

    2006-01-01

    Simulate the avalanche circuit in series with PSPICE module, design the high voltage short plus generation circuit by avalanche transistor in series for the sweep deflection circuit of streak camera. The output voltage ranges 1.2 KV into 50 ohm load. The rise time of the circuit is less than 3 ns. (authors)

  9. Design and characterization of single photon avalanche diodes arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Tudisco, S.; Lanzanò, L.; Musumeci, F.; Privitera, S.; Scordino, A.; Condorelli, G.; Fallica, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.

    2010-05-01

    During the last years, in collaboration with ST-Microelectronics, we developed a new avalanche photo sensor, single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) see Ref.[S. Privitera, et al., Sensors 8 (2008) 4636 [1];S. Tudisco et al., IEEE Sensors Journal 8 (2008) 1324 [2

  10. Measuring neuronal avalanches in disordered systems with absorbing states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi-Schappo, M.; Tragtenberg, M. H. R.

    2018-04-01

    Power-law-shaped avalanche-size distributions are widely used to probe for critical behavior in many different systems, particularly in neural networks. The definition of avalanche is ambiguous. Usually, theoretical avalanches are defined as the activity between a stimulus and the relaxation to an inactive absorbing state. On the other hand, experimental neuronal avalanches are defined by the activity between consecutive silent states. We claim that the latter definition may be extended to some theoretical models to characterize their power-law avalanches and critical behavior. We study a system in which the separation of driving and relaxation time scales emerges from its structure. We apply both definitions of avalanche to our model. Both yield power-law-distributed avalanches that scale with system size in the critical point as expected. Nevertheless, we find restricted power-law-distributed avalanches outside of the critical region within the experimental procedure, which is not expected by the standard theoretical definition. We remark that these results are dependent on the model details.

  11. Reducing financial avalanches by random investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Building on similarities between earthquakes and extreme financial events, we use a self-organized criticality-generating model to study herding and avalanche dynamics in financial markets. We consider a community of interacting investors, distributed in a small-world network, who bet on the bullish (increasing) or bearish (decreasing) behavior of the market which has been specified according to the S&P 500 historical time series. Remarkably, we find that the size of herding-related avalanches in the community can be strongly reduced by the presence of a relatively small percentage of traders, randomly distributed inside the network, who adopt a random investment strategy. Our findings suggest a promising strategy to limit the size of financial bubbles and crashes. We also obtain that the resulting wealth distribution of all traders corresponds to the well-known Pareto power law, while that of random traders is exponential. In other words, for technical traders, the risk of losses is much greater than the probability of gains compared to those of random traders.

  12. Avalanches of Singing Sand in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    The song of dunes is a natural phenomenon that has arisen travellers' curiosity for a long time, from Marco Polo to R.A. Bagnold. Scientific observations in the XXth century have shown that the sound is emitted during a shear flow of these particular grains, the free surface of the flow having coherent vibrations like a loud speaker. The sound emission is also submitted to a threshold effect with many parameters like humidity, flow speed, surface of the grains. The sound has been reproduced in laboratory avalanche experiments close to the natural phenomenon on field, but set in a channel with a hard bottom and a few centimeters of sand flowing, which contradicts explanations of the sound that involve a sand dune under the avalanche flow. Flow rates measurements also show the presence of a plug region in the flow above the sheared band, with the same characteristic length as the coherence zones of the sound. Finally we show experimentally that the Froude number, once modified to take into account the height of this plug band, is the parameter that sets the amplitude of the sound, and produces a threshold that depends on the grain type.

  13. Townsend coefficients of gases in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Though much work has been done by many authors in the last few years in the development and application of avalanche counters for ion radiation, it is based upon values of the Townsend coefficients as the essential gas parameter, which were determined many years ago for much lower reduced field strengths F/p than prevail in such counters. Therefore absolute determinations of α in vapours of methyl alcohol, cyclohexane, acetone, and n-heptene were performed under original conditions of avalanche counters. The values obtained do not differ by more than 30%-50% from the former values indeed, extrapolated over F/p for the first three mentioned substances, but the amounts of A and B in the usual representation α/p=A exp(-B(F/p)) are much greater for the stronger reduced fields. This is of importance for such counter properties as the dependence of pulse heights on pressure, voltage, electrode distance etc., which are governed by other combinations of A and B than α/p itself. A comparison of results for different ionic radiations shows a marked influence of the primary ionization density along the particle tracks which is hard to explain. (Auth.)

  14. Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changhyuk, E-mail: cl678@cornell.edu; Johnson, Ben, E-mail: bcj25@cornell.edu; Molnar, Alyosha, E-mail: am699@cornell.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2015-06-08

    An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.

  15. Temperature and current dependent electroluminescence measurements on colour-coded multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbauer, Werner [OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); FH Deggendorf (Germany); Laubsch, Ansgar; Peter, Matthias; Mayer, Tobias; Bader, Stefan; Oberschmid, Raimund; Hahn, Berthold [OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Benstetter, Guenther [FH Deggendorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    As the efficiency and the luminous flux have been increased enormously in the last few years, today Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are even pushed to applications like general lighting and Home Cinema Projection. Still, InGaN/GaN heterostructure based LEDs suffer from loss-mechanisms like non-radiative defect and Auger recombination, carrier leakage and piezo-field induced carrier separation. To optimize the high current efficiency we evaluated the benefit of Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) compared to Single Quantum Well (SQW) LEDs. Temperature dependent electroluminescence of colour-coded structures with different Indium content in certain Quantum Wells was measured. The experiments demonstrated a strong temperature and current dependence of the MQW operation. The comparison between different LED structures showed effectively the increased LED performance of those structures which operate with a well adjusted MQW active area. Due to the enhanced carrier distribution in the high current range, these LEDs show a higher light output and additionally a reduced wavelength shift.

  16. Temperature and current dependent electroluminescence measurements on colour-coded multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergbauer, Werner; Laubsch, Ansgar; Peter, Matthias; Mayer, Tobias; Bader, Stefan; Oberschmid, Raimund; Hahn, Berthold; Benstetter, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    As the efficiency and the luminous flux have been increased enormously in the last few years, today Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are even pushed to applications like general lighting and Home Cinema Projection. Still, InGaN/GaN heterostructure based LEDs suffer from loss-mechanisms like non-radiative defect and Auger recombination, carrier leakage and piezo-field induced carrier separation. To optimize the high current efficiency we evaluated the benefit of Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) compared to Single Quantum Well (SQW) LEDs. Temperature dependent electroluminescence of colour-coded structures with different Indium content in certain Quantum Wells was measured. The experiments demonstrated a strong temperature and current dependence of the MQW operation. The comparison between different LED structures showed effectively the increased LED performance of those structures which operate with a well adjusted MQW active area. Due to the enhanced carrier distribution in the high current range, these LEDs show a higher light output and additionally a reduced wavelength shift

  17. A superconducting quadrupole array for transport of multiple high current beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Shuman, D.

    1999-01-01

    We present a conceptual design of a superconducting quadrupole magnet array for the side-by-side transport of multiple high current particle beams in induction linear accelerators. The magnetic design uses a modified cosine 20 current distribution inside a square cell boundary. Each interior magnet's neighbors serve as the return flux paths and the poles are placed as close as possible to each other to facilitate this. No iron is present in the basic 2-D magnetic design; it will work at any current level without correction windings. Special 1/8th quadrupoles are used along the transverse periphery of the array to contain and channel flux back into the array, making every channel look as part of an infinite array. This design provides a fixed dimension array boundary equal to the quadrupole radius that can be used for arrays of any number of quadrupole channels, at any field level. More importantly, the design provides magnetic field separation between the array and the induction cores which may be surrounding it. Flux linkage between these two components can seriously affect the operation of both of them

  18. Performance and simulation of a double-gap resistive plate chamber in the avalanche mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong Byung Sik; Hong Seong Jong; Ito, M; Kang, T I; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee Hyup Woo; Lee, K B; Lee Kyong Sei; Lee Seok Jae; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee June Tak; Ryu, M S; Sim Kwang Souk

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the time and the charge signals of a prototype double-gap resistive plate chamber for the endcap region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The chamber was built with relatively low-resistivity bakelite. The time and the charge results demonstrate that the high- voltage plateau, which satisfies various CMS requirements for the efficiency, the noise cluster rate, the fraction of the large signal, and the streamer probability, can be extended at least up to 400 V with the present design. In addition, a simple avalanche multiplication model is studied in detail. The model can reproduce the experimental charge spectra reasonably well. The charge information enables us to estimate the effective Townsend coefficient in avalanche-mode operation.

  19. Mapping flux avalanches in MgB2 films-equivalence between magneto-optical imaging and magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colauto, F; Choi, E M; Lee, J Y; Lee, S I; Yurchenko, V V; Johansen, T H; Ortiz, W A

    2007-01-01

    Vortex avalanches are known to occur in MgB 2 films within a certain range of temperatures and magnetic fields. These events, resulting from a thermomagnetic instability, were first revealed by real-time magneto-optical imaging, which exposed dendritic paths of abrupt flux propagation. This very powerful technique has, however, a practical limitation, since sensors that are currently available cannot be used at high magnetic fields. This letter shows that results obtained using dc magnetometry are in good correspondence with those furnished by magneto-optical imaging, demonstrating that the two techniques can be efficiently used as complementary tools to map vortex avalanches in superconducting films. (rapid communication)

  20. CRITICAL RADAR: TOOL AND METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING CURRENT PROJECTS USING MULTIPLE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M. Ferrari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many resources are invested in measurement processes of projects indicators without, however, give a clear view of which projects deserves the right attention at the right time. This paper proposes the use of statistics, through the analysis of multiple variables and their interrelationships, to give better basis to a critical assessment methodology of current projects used in a multinational mining company. The contribution of the research is to report the methodology called Critical Radar which is based on a graphical tool with simple operationalization that can support the decision making in complex environments, and has great flexibility across the different market scenarios and possible changes in companies guidelines. The tool has great potential to help evaluate current projects due to their characteristics of flexible use in different business areas; high degree of freedom for improvement; use of known market tool in its development; ease of viewing the results through charts and notes and user freedom to use any existing indicators in the company if complied with some statistical data quality characteristics.

  1. Current multiple sclerosis treatments have improved our understanding of MS autoimmune pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roland; Sospedra, Mireia; Rosito, Maria; Engelhardt, Britta

    2016-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults. When MS is not treated, it leads to irreversible and severe disability. The etiology of MS and its pathogenesis are not fully understood. The recent discovery that MS-associated genetic variants code for molecules related to the function of specific immune cell subsets is consistent with the concept of MS as a prototypic, T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease targeting the CNS. While the therapeutic efficacy of the currently available immunomodulatory therapies further strengthen this concept, differences observed in responses to MS treatment as well as additional clinical and imaging observations have also shown that the autoimmune pathogenesis underlying MS is much more complex than previously thought. There is therefore an unmet need for continued detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of disease-relevant adaptive immune cells and tissues directly derived from MS patients to unravel the immune etiology of MS in its entire complexity. In this review, we will discuss the currently available MS treatment options and approved drugs, including how they have contributed to the understanding of the immune pathology of this autoimmune disease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. On the high gain operation of low-pressure microdot gas avalanche chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breskin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Microdot avalanche chambers (MDOT) equipped with thin semitransparent Cr photocathodes, were characterized with UV photons at low gas pressure. Gains superior to 10 4 were reached with gas multiplication at the dots. In a mode where preamplification in the gas volume precedes the additional dot multiplication, gains superior to 10 6 were measured at 30-60 torr of propane. The fast amplification mechanism results in narrow high amplitude pulses with 2-3 ns rise time, visible with no further electronic amplification means. We present here our preliminary results and briefly discuss potential applications. (orig.)

  3. Avalanche analysis from multi-electrode ensemble recordings in cat, monkey and human cerebral cortex during wakefulness and sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eDehghani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-organized critical states are found in many natural systems, from earthquakes to forest fires, they have also been observed in neural systems, particularly, in neuronal cultures. However, the presence of critical states in the awake brain remains controversial. Here, we compared avalanche analyses performed on different in vivo preparations during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep and REM sleep, using high-density electrode arrays in cat motor cortex (96 electrodes, monkey motor cortex and premotor cortex and human temporal cortex (96 electrodes in epileptic patients. In neuronal avalanches defined from units (up to 160 single units, the size of avalanches never clearly scaled as power-law, but rather scaled exponentially or displayed intermediate scaling. We also analyzed the dynamics of local field potentials (LFPs and in particular LFP negative peaks (nLFPs among the different electrodes (up to 96 sites in temporal cortex or up to 128 sites in adjacent motor and pre-motor cortices. In this case, the avalanches defined from nLFPs displayed power-law scaling in double logarithmic representations, as reported previously in monkey. However, avalanche defined as positive LFP (pLFP peaks, which are less directly related to neuronal firing, also displayed apparent power-law scaling. Closer examination of this scaling using the more reliable cumulative distribution function (CDF and other rigorous statistical measures, did not confirm power-law scaling. The same pattern was seen for cats, monkey and human, as well as for different brain states of wakefulness and sleep. We also tested other alternative distributions. Multiple exponential fitting yielded optimal fits of the avalanche dynamics with bi-exponential distributions. Collectively, these results show no clear evidence for power-law scaling or self-organized critical states in the awake and sleeping brain of mammals, from cat to man.

  4. Overspill avalanching in a dense reservoir network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamede, George L.; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Schneider, Christian M.; de Araújo, José Carlos; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability of communities, agriculture, and industry is strongly dependent on an effective storage and supply of water resources. In some regions the economic growth has led to a level of water demand that can only be accomplished through efficient reservoir networks. Such infrastructures are not always planned at larger scale but rather made by farmers according to their local needs of irrigation during droughts. Based on extensive data from the upper Jaguaribe basin, one of the world’s largest system of reservoirs, located in the Brazilian semiarid northeast, we reveal that surprisingly it self-organizes into a scale-free network exhibiting also a power-law in the distribution of the lakes and avalanches of discharges. With a new self-organized-criticality-type model we manage to explain the novel critical exponents. Implementing a flow model we are able to reproduce the measured overspill evolution providing a tool for catastrophe mitigation and future planning. PMID:22529343

  5. Anthropogenic effect on avalanche and debris flow activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of the change in snow avalanches and debris flows activity due to the anthropogenic pressure on vegetation and relief. The changes in dynamical characteristics of selected snow avalanches and debris flows due to the anthropogenic activity are quantified. The conclusion is made that the anthropogenic effects on the snow avalanches and debris flows activity are more pronounced than the possible effects of the climate change. The necessity is expressed on the unavoidable changes of the natural environment as the result of a construction and of use of the constructed infrastructure to be account for in corresponding planning of the protection measures.

  6. Avalanche localization and its effects in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Okuno, H.; Walenta, A.H.

    1977-11-01

    Avalanche development around the anode wire in a gas proportional counter is investigated. In the region of proportional gas amplification, the avalanche is found to be well localized on one side of the anode wire, where the electrons arrive along the field lines from the point of primary ionization. Induced signals on electrodes surrounding the anode wire are used to measure the azimuthal position of the avalanche on the anode wire. Practical applications of the phenomena such as left-right assignment in drift chambers and measurement of the angular direction of the primary ionization electrons drifting towards the anode wire are discussed

  7. Neural avalanches at the critical point between replay and non-replay of spatiotemporal patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scarpetta

    Full Text Available We model spontaneous cortical activity with a network of coupled spiking units, in which multiple spatio-temporal patterns are stored as dynamical attractors. We introduce an order parameter, which measures the overlap (similarity between the activity of the network and the stored patterns. We find that, depending on the excitability of the network, different working regimes are possible. For high excitability, the dynamical attractors are stable, and a collective activity that replays one of the stored patterns emerges spontaneously, while for low excitability, no replay is induced. Between these two regimes, there is a critical region in which the dynamical attractors are unstable, and intermittent short replays are induced by noise. At the critical spiking threshold, the order parameter goes from zero to one, and its fluctuations are maximized, as expected for a phase transition (and as observed in recent experimental results in the brain. Notably, in this critical region, the avalanche size and duration distributions follow power laws. Critical exponents are consistent with a scaling relationship observed recently in neural avalanches measurements. In conclusion, our simple model suggests that avalanche power laws in cortical spontaneous activity may be the effect of a network at the critical point between the replay and non-replay of spatio-temporal patterns.

  8. Prediction of electromagnetic pulse generation by picosecond avalanches in high-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The gas avalanche switch is a laser-activated, high-voltage switch, consisting of a set of pulse-charged electrodes in a high-pressure gas. Induced electrons from a picosecond-scale laser pulse initiate an avalanche discharge between high-voltage and grounded electrodes. If the voltage, pressure, and dimensions are correct, the rapid avalanche, fueled by the immense number of electrons available in the gas, collapses the applied voltage in picoseconds and generates electromagnetic pulses with widths as short as 1-10 ps and 3 dB bandwidths of 20-120 GHz. With proper voltage or pressure detuning, wider pulses and lower bandwidths occur. In addition to picosecond electromagnetic pulse generation, application of this switch should result in ultra-fast Marx bank pulsers. A number of versions of the switch are possible. The simplest is a parallel plate capacitor, consisting of a gas between two parallel plate conductors. High voltage is applied across the two plates. A parallel plate, Blumlein geometry features a center electrode between two grounded parallel plates. This geometry emits a single pulse in each direction along the parallel plates. A frozen wave geometry with multiple, oppositely charged center electrodes will emit AC pulses. Series switches consisting of gas gaps between two electrodes are also possible

  9. Multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography with variable duration of alternating phase elution steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A; Shishilov, Oleg N

    2014-06-20

    The multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography separation processes consist of a succession of two isocratic counter-current steps and are characterized by the shuttle (forward and back) transport of the sample in chromatographic columns. In this paper, the improved MDM method based on variable duration of alternating phase elution steps has been developed and validated. The MDM separation processes with variable duration of phase elution steps are analyzed. Basing on the cell model, analytical solutions are developed for impulse and non-impulse sample loading at the beginning of the column. Using the analytical solutions, a calculation program is presented to facilitate the simulation of MDM with variable duration of phase elution steps, which can be used to select optimal process conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture. Two options of the MDM separation are analyzed: 1 - with one-step solute elution: the separation is conducted so, that the sample is transferred forward and back with upper and lower phases inside the column until the desired separation of the components is reached, and then each individual component elutes entirely within one step; 2 - with multi-step solute elution, when the fractions of individual components are collected in over several steps. It is demonstrated that proper selection of the duration of individual cycles (phase flow times) can greatly increase the separation efficiency of CCC columns. Experiments were carried out using model mixtures of compounds from the GUESSmix with solvent systems hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of the theory. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Calibration of snow avalanche mathematical models using the data of real avalanches in the Ile (Zailiyskiy Alatau Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Blagoveshchensky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of the dry friction and turbulent friction coefficients is necessary for computer simulation of avalanches. The method of back calculation based on data on actual avalanches is used for this purpose. The article presents the results of the calibration of the Eglit’s and RAMMS models for Ile Alatau range condi‑ tions. The range is located in Kazakhstan. The data on six avalanches in the same avalanche site were used. Five avalanches were dry, and one avalanche was wet. Avalanches volume varied from 2000 to 12000  m3. Maximum speed avalanches were between 15 and 30  m/s, the flow height  – from 3 to 10  m. Series of back calculations with different values of the friction coefficients was made to obtain the calibrated coeffi‑ cients. The calibrated coefficients were chosen under condition of the best fit with real avalanches. The cal‑ ibrated coefficients were following. For the Eglit’s model for dry avalanches of the volume 2000–5000  m3 μ = 0.46÷0.48, k = 0.005–0.006, and the volume 8000–12000 m3 μ = 0.38÷0.42, k = 0.002÷0.003. For RAMMS model for dry avalanches of the volume of 2000–5000 m3 μ (dry friction coefficient = 0.35÷0.4, ξ (viscous friction coefficient = 1500÷2000 m/s2, and the volume 8,000–12,000 m3 μ = 0.3÷0.35, ξ = 2000÷3000 m/s2. For wet avalanches of the volume 12,000 m3 μ = 0.35, ξ = 1500 m/s2. The work on the calibration will be con‑ tinued to obtain the friction coefficients for the Eglit’s and RAMMS models. The additional data on real ava‑ lanches will be needed for this purpose.

  11. Avalanche mode of high-voltage overloaded p{sup +}–i–n{sup +} diode switching to the conductive state by pulsed illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyuregyan, A. S., E-mail: ask@vei.ru [Lenin All-Russia Electrical Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    A simple analytical theory of the picosecond switching of high-voltage overloaded p{sup +}–i–n{sup +} photodiodes to the conductive state by pulsed illumination is presented. The relations between the parameters of structure, light pulse, external circuit, and main process characteristics, i.e., the amplitude of the active load current pulse, delay time, and switching duration, are derived and confirmed by numerical simulation. It is shown that the picosecond light pulse energy required for efficient switching can be decreased by 6–7 orders of magnitude due to the intense avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes. This offers the possibility of using pulsed semiconductor lasers as a control element of optron pairs.

  12. Avalanche mode of high-voltage overloaded p+–i–n+ diode switching to the conductive state by pulsed illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple analytical theory of the picosecond switching of high-voltage overloaded p + –i–n + photodiodes to the conductive state by pulsed illumination is presented. The relations between the parameters of structure, light pulse, external circuit, and main process characteristics, i.e., the amplitude of the active load current pulse, delay time, and switching duration, are derived and confirmed by numerical simulation. It is shown that the picosecond light pulse energy required for efficient switching can be decreased by 6–7 orders of magnitude due to the intense avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes. This offers the possibility of using pulsed semiconductor lasers as a control element of optron pairs

  13. Relation of the runaway avalanche threshold to momentum space topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2018-02-01

    The underlying physics responsible for the formation of an avalanche instability due to the generation of secondary electrons is studied. A careful examination of the momentum space topology of the runaway electron population is carried out with an eye toward identifying how qualitative changes in the momentum space of the runaway electrons is correlated with the avalanche threshold. It is found that the avalanche threshold is tied to the merger of an O and X point in the momentum space of the primary runaway electron population. Such a change of the momentum space topology is shown to be accurately described by a simple analytic model, thus providing a powerful means of determining the avalanche threshold for a range of model assumptions.

  14. Discrimination capability of avalanche counters detecting different ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prete, G.; Viesti, G.; Padua Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The discrimination capability of avalanche counters to detect different ionizing particles has been studied using a 252 Cf source. Pulse height, pulse-height resolution and timing properties have been measured as a function of the reduced applied voltage for parallel-plate and parallel-grid avalanche counters. At the highest applied voltages, space charge effects shift the pulse-height signal of the avalanche counter away from being linearly proportional to the stopping power of the detected particles and cause the pulse-height resolution to deteriorate. To optimize the avalanche counter capability, without loss of time resolution, it appears better to operate the detector at voltages well below the breakdown threshold. Measurements with 32 S ions are also reported. (orig.)

  15. Technology developments and first measurements of Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) for high energy physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, G.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; Baselga, M.; Fleta, C.; Flores, D.; Greco, V; Hidalgo, S.; Mandić, I.; Kramberger, G.; Quirion, D.; Ullan, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new concept of silicon radiation detector with intrinsic multiplication of the charge, called Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD). These new devices are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) normally used for optical and X-ray detection applications. The main differences to standard APD detectors are the low gain requested to detect high energy charged particles, and the possibility to have fine segmentation pitches: this allows fabrication of microstrip or pixel devices which do not suffer from the limitations normally found [1] in avalanche detectors. In addition, a moderate multiplication value will allow the fabrication of thinner devices with the same output signal of standard thick substrates. The investigation of these detectors provides important indications on the ability of such modified electrode geometry to control and optimize the charge multiplication effect, in order to fully recover the collection efficiency of heavily irradiated silicon detectors, at reasonable bias voltage, compatible with the voltage feed limitation of the CERN High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) experiments [2]. For instance, the inner most pixel detector layers of the ATLAS tracker will be exposed to fluences up to 2×10 16 1 MeV n eq /cm 2 , while for the inner strip detector region fluences of 1×10 15 n eq /cm 2 are expected. The gain implemented in the non-irradiated devices must retain some effect also after irradiation, with a higher multiplication factor with respect to standard structures, in order to be used in harsh environments such those expected at collider experiments

  16. Transient events in bright debris discs: Collisional avalanches revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Context. A collisional avalanche is set off by the breakup of a large planetesimal, releasing vast amounts of small unbound grains that enter a debris disc located further away from the star, triggering there a collisional chain reaction that could potentially create detectable transient structures. Aims: We investigate this mechanism, using for the first time a fully self-consistent code coupling dynamical and collisional evolutions. We also quantify for the first time the photometric evolution of the system and investigate whether or not avalanches could explain the short-term luminosity variations recently observed in some extremely bright debris discs. Methods: We use the state-of-the-art LIDT-DD code. We consider an avalanche-favoring A6V star, and two set-ups: a "cold disc" case, with a dust release at 10 au and an outer disc extending from 50 to 120 au, and a "warm disc" case with the release at 1 au and a 5-12 au outer disc. We explore, in addition, two key parameters: the density (parameterized by its optical depth τ) of the main outer disc and the amount of dust released by the initial breakup. Results: We find that avalanches could leave detectable structures on resolved images, for both "cold" and "warm" disc cases, in discs with τ of a few 10-3, provided that large dust masses (≳1020-5 × 1022 g) are initially released. The integrated photometric excess due to an avalanche is relatively limited, less than 10% for these released dust masses, peaking in the λ 10-20 μm domain and becoming insignificant beyond 40-50 μm. Contrary to earlier studies, we do not obtain stronger avalanches when increasing τ to higher values. Likewise, we do not observe a significant luminosity deficit, as compared to the pre-avalanche level, after the passage of the avalanche. These two results concur to make avalanches an unlikely explanation for the sharp luminosity drops observed in some extremely bright debris discs. The ideal configuration for observing an

  17. Multiple current sheets in a double auroral oval observed from the MAGION-2 and MAGION-3 satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Echim

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A case is described of multiple current sheets crossed by the MAGION-2 satellite in the near-midnight quieting auroral oval. The data were obtained by the magnetometer experiment onboard. Results show during a quieting period after a preceding substorm, or during an early growth phase of the next substorm, two double-sheet current bands, POLB and EQUB, located at respectively the polar and equatorial borders of the auroral oval separated by about 500 km in latitude. This is consistent with the double-oval structure during recovery introduced by Elphinstone et al. (1995. Within the POLB, the magnetic field data show simultaneous existence of several narrow parallel bipolar current sheets within the upward current branch (at 69.5–70.3° invariant latitude with an adjacent downward current branch at its polar side at (70.5–71.3°. The EQUB was similarly stratified and located at 61.2–63.5° invariant latitude. The narrow current sheets were separated on average by about 35 km and 15 km, respectively, within the POLB and EQUB. A similar case of double-oval current bands with small-scale structuring of their upward current branches during a quieting period is found in the data from the MAGION-3 satellite. These observations contribute to the double-oval structure of the late recovery phase, and add a small-scale structuring of the upward currents producing the auroral arcs in the double- oval pattern, at least for the cases presented here. Other observations of multiple auroral current sheets and theories of auroral arc multiplicity are briefly discussed. It is suggested that multiple X-lines in the distant tail, and/or leakage of energetic particles and FA currents from a series of plasmoids formed during preceding magnetic activity, could be one cause of highly stratified upward FA currents at the polar edge of the quieting double auroral oval.

  18. La Carte de Localisation Probable des Avalanches (CPLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles BORREL

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available La Carte de Localisation Probable des Avalanches (CPLA indique l’enveloppe des limites extrêmes connues atteintes par les avalanches, ainsi que les travaux de protection associés. Il s’agit d’un document informatif et non d’une carte de risque. Depuis 1990, les données thématiques sont numérisées.

  19. Stretched exponentials and power laws in granular avalanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D. A.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1999-02-01

    We introduce a model for granular surface flow which exhibits both stretched exponential and power law avalanching over its parameter range. Two modes of transport are incorporated, a rolling layer consisting of individual particles and the overdamped, sliding motion of particle clusters. The crossover in behaviour observed in experiments on piles of rice is attributed to a change in the dominant mode of transport. We predict that power law avalanching will be observed whenever surface flow is dominated by clustered motion.

  20. Simulation of Chirping Avalanche in Neighborhood of TAE gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Herb; Breizman, Boris; Wang, Ge; Zheng, Linjin

    2016-10-01

    A new kinetic code, CHIRP, focuses on the nonlinear response of resonant energetic particles (EPs) that destabilize Alfven waves which then can produce hole and clump phase space chirping structures, while the background plasma currents are assumed to respond linearly to the generated fields. EP currents are due to the motion arising from the perturbed field that is time averaged over an equilibrium orbit. A moderate EP source produces TAE chirping structures that have a limited range of chirping that do not reach the continuum. When the source is sufficiently strong, an EPM is excited in the lower continuum and it chirps rapidly downward as its amplitude rapidly grows in time. This response resembles the experimental observation of an avalanche, which occurs after a series of successive chirping events with a modest frequency shift, and then suddenly a rapid large amplitude and rapid frequency burst to low frequency with the loss of EPs. From these simulation observations we propose that in the experiment the EP population is slowly increasing to the point where the EPM is eventually excited. Supported by SCIDAC Center for Nonlinear Simulation of Energetic Particles Burning Plasmas (CSEP).

  1. Multiplicities of secondary hadrons produced in vp and overlinevp charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grässler, H.; Lanske, D.; Schulte, R.; Jones, G. T.; Middleton, R. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; Böckmann, K.; Gebel, W.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Nellen, B.; Grant, A.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Chima, J. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Aderholz, M.; Deck, L.; Schmitz, N.; Settles, R.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicić, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.; Aachen-Birmingham-Bonn-CERN-Imperial College-München (MPI)-Oxford Collaboration

    1983-08-01

    In an experiment with the hydrogen bubble chamber BEBC at CERN multiplicities of hadrons produced in νp and overlinevp interactions have been investigated. Results are presented on the multiplicities of charged hadrons and neutral pions, forward and backward multiplicities of charged hadrons and correlations between forward and backward multiplicities. Comparisons are made with hadronic reactions and e +e - annihilation. In the framework of the quark-parton model the data imply similar charged multiplicities for the fragments of a u- and a d-quark, and a larger multiplicities for the fragments of a uu- than for a ud-diquark. The correlation data suggest independent fragmentation of the quark and diquark for hadronic masses above ˜ 7 GeV and local charge compensation within an event.

  2. Multiplicities of secondary hadrons produced in vp and anti vp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessler, H.; Lanske, D.; Schulte, R.; Chima, J.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1983-01-01

    In an experiment with the hydrogen bubble chamber BEBC at CERN multiplicities of hadrons produced in vp and anti vp interactions have been investigated. Results are presented on the multiplicities of charged hadrons and neutral pions, forward and backward multiplicities of charged hadrons and correlations between forward and backward multiplicities. Comparisons are made with hadronic reactions and e + e - annihilation. In the framework of the quark-parton model the data imply similar charged multiplicities for the fragments of a u- and a d-quark, and larger multiplicities for the fragments of a uu- than for a ud-diquark. The correlation data suggest independent fragmentation of the quark and diquark for hadronic masses above approx.= 7 GeV and local charge compensation within an event. (orig.)

  3. Burial duration, depth and air pocket explain avalanche survival patterns in Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Dal Cappello, Tomas; Zweifel, Benjamin; Würtele, Andreas; Renner, Andreas; Falk, Markus; Brugger, Hermann

    2016-08-01

    To calculate the first Austrian avalanche survival curve and update a Swiss survival curve to explore survival patterns in the Alps. Avalanche accidents occurring between 2005/06 and 2012/13 in Austria and Switzerland were collected. Completely buried victims (i.e. burial of the head and chest) in open terrain with known outcome (survived or not survived) were included in the analysis. Extrication and survival curves were calculated using the Turnbull algorithm, as in previous studies. 633 of the 796 completely buried victims were included (Austria n=333, Switzerland n=300). Overall survival was 56% (Austria 59%; Switzerland 52%; p=0.065). Time to extrication was shorter in Austria for victims buried ≤60min (p15min. The survival curves resembled those previously published and support the idea that underlying survival patterns are reproducible. The results are in accordance with current recommendations for management of avalanche victims and serve as a reminder that expedient companion rescue within a few minutes is critical for survival. An air pocket was shown to be a positive prognostic factor for survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Response variability of different anodal transcranial direct current stimulation intensities across multiple sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Claudia; Lindquist, Martin A; Celnik, Pablo A

    It is well known that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is capable of modulating corticomotor excitability. However, a source of growing concern has been the observed inter- and intra-individual variability of tDCS-responses. Recent studies have assessed whether individuals respond in a predictable manner across repeated sessions of anodal tDCS (atDCS). The findings of these investigations have been inconsistent, and their methods have some limitations (i.e. lack of sham condition or testing only one tDCS intensity). To study inter- and intra-individual variability of atDCS effects at two different intensities on primary motor cortex (M1) excitability. Twelve subjects participated in a crossover study testing 7-min atDCS over M1 in three separate conditions (2 mA, 1 mA, sham) each repeated three times separated by 48 h. Motor evoked potentials were recorded before and after stimulation (up to 30min). Time of testing was maintained consistent within participants. To estimate the reliability of tDCS effects across sessions, we calculated the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC). AtDCS at 2 mA, but not 1 mA, significantly increased cortical excitability at the group level in all sessions. The overall ICC revealed fair to high reliability of tDCS effects for multiple sessions. Given that the distribution of responses showed important variability in the sham condition, we established a Sham Variability-Based Threshold to classify responses and to track individual changes across sessions. Using this threshold an intra-individual consistent response pattern was then observed only for the 2 mA condition. 2 mA anodal tDCS results in consistent intra- and inter-individual increases of M1 excitability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrophysiological and behavioral effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Marina; Rufener, Katharina S; Kuehne, Maria; Matzke, Mike; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Zaehle, Tino

    2018-03-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms affecting patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sustained cognitive effort induces cognitive fatigue, operationalized as subjective exhaustion and fatigue-related objective alertness decrements with time-on-task. During prolonged cognitive testing, MS patients show increased simple reaction times (RT) accompanied by lower amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the P300 event-related potential. Previous studies suggested a major role of structural and functional abnormalities in the frontal cortex including a frontal hypo-activation in fatigue pathogenesis. In the present study we investigated the neuromodulatory effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on objective measures of fatigue-related decrements in cognitive performance in MS patients. P300 during an auditory oddball task and simple reaction times in an alertness test were recorded at baseline, during and after stimulation. Compared to sham, anodal tDCS caused an increase in P300 amplitude that persisted after the end of stimulation and eliminated the fatigue-related increase in RT over the course of a testing session. Our findings demonstrate that anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC can counteract performance decrements associated with fatigue thereby leading to an improvement in the patient's ability to cope with sustained cognitive demands. This provides causal evidence for the functional relevance of the left DLPFC in fatigue pathophysiology. The results indicate that tDCS-induced modulations of frontal activity can be an effective therapeutic option for the treatment of fatigue-related declines in cognitive performance in MS patients.

  6. Counteracting fatigue in multiple sclerosis with right parietal anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hanken

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time and errors with prolonged time-on-task. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. Methods: In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1,5mA was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20min of a 40min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5mA over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. TDCS was delivered for 20min before patients performed a 20min lasting visual vigilance task.Results: Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in reaction time associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation.Conclusions: Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in reaction times during vigilance performance but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  7. Counteracting Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis with Right Parietal Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanken, Katrin; Bosse, Mona; Möhrke, Kim; Eling, Paul; Kastrup, Andreas; Antal, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20 min of a 40-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. tDCS was delivered for 20 min before patients performed a 20-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in RT associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation. Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in RTs during vigilance performance, but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  8. Simulations of plasma heating caused by the coalescence of multiple current loops in a proton-boron fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruki, T.; Yousefi, H. R.; Sakai, J.-I.

    2010-01-01

    Two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of a dense plasma focus were performed to investigate a plasma heating process caused by the coalescence of multiple current loops in a proton-boron-electron plasma. Recently, it was reported that the electric field produced during the coalescence of two current loops in a proton-boron-electron plasma heats up all plasma species; proton-boron nuclear fusion may therefore be achievable using a dense plasma focus device. Based on this work, the coalescence process for four and eight current loops was investigated. It was found that the return current plays an important role in both the current pinch and the plasma heating. The coalescence of four current loops led to the breakup of the return current from the pinched plasma, resulting in plasma heating. For the coalescence of eight current loops, the plasma was confined by the pinch but the plasma heating was smaller than the two and four loop cases. Therefore the heating associated with current loop coalescence depends on the number of initial current loops. These results are useful for understanding the coalescence of multiple current loops in a proton-boron-electron plasma.

  9. Avalanche outbreaks emerging in cooperative contagions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiran; Chen, Li; Ghanbarnejad, Fakhteh; Grassberger, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The spreading of contagions can exhibit a percolation transition, which separates transitory prevalence from outbreaks that reach a finite fraction of the population. Such transitions are commonly believed to be continuous, but empirical studies have shown more violent spreading modes when the participating agents are not limited to one type. Striking examples include the co-epidemic of the Spanish flu and pneumonia that occurred in 1918 (refs , ), and, more recently, the concurrent prevalence of HIV/AIDS and a host of diseases. It remains unclear to what extent an outbreak in the presence of interacting pathogens differs from that due to an ordinary single-agent process. Here we study a mechanistic model for understanding contagion processes involving inter-agent cooperation. Our stochastic simulations reveal the possible emergence of a massive avalanche-like outbreak right at the threshold, which is manifested as a discontinuous phase transition. Such an abrupt change arises only if the underlying network topology supports a bottleneck for cascaded mutual infections. Surprisingly, all these discontinuous transitions are accompanied by non-trivial critical behaviours, presenting a rare case of hybrid transition. The findings may imply the origin of catastrophic occurrences in many realistic systems, from co-epidemics to financial contagions.

  10. First approximations in avalanche model validations using seismic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Lafon, Pere; Suriñach, Emma; Bartelt, Perry; Pérez-Guillén, Cristina; Tapia, Mar; Sovilla, Betty

    2017-04-01

    Avalanche dynamics modelling is an essential tool for snow hazard management. Scenario based numerical modelling provides quantitative arguments for decision-making. The software tool RAMMS (WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF) is one such tool, often used by government authorities and geotechnical offices. As avalanche models improve, the quality of the numerical results will depend increasingly on user experience on the specification of input (e.g. release and entrainment volumes, secondary releases, snow temperature and quality). New model developments must continue to be validated using real phenomena data, for improving performance and reliability. The avalanches group form University of Barcelona (RISKNAT - UB), has studied the seismic signals generated from avalanches since 1994. Presently, the group manages the seismic installation at SLF's Vallée de la Sionne experimental site (VDLS). At VDLS the recorded seismic signals can be correlated to other avalanche measurement techniques, including both advanced remote sensing methods (radars, videogrammetry) and obstacle based sensors (pressure, capacitance, optical sender-reflector barriers). This comparison between different measurement techniques allows the group to address the question if seismic analysis can be used alone, on more additional avalanche tracks, to gain insight and validate numerical avalanche dynamics models in different terrain conditions. In this study, we aim to add the seismic data as an external record of the phenomena, able to validate RAMMS models. The seismic sensors are considerable easy and cheaper to install than other physical measuring tools, and are able to record data from the phenomena in every atmospheric conditions (e.g. bad weather, low light, freezing make photography, and other kind of sensors not usable). With seismic signals, we record the temporal evolution of the inner and denser parts of the avalanche. We are able to recognize the approximate position

  11. CMOS-based avalanche photodiodes for direct particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapels, Christopher J.; Squillante, Michael R.; Lawrence, William G.; Augustine, Frank L.; Christian, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology are augmenting Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) as imaging devices and cameras in some demanding optical imaging applications. Radiation Monitoring Devices are investigating the APS concept for nuclear detection applications and has successfully migrated avalanche photodiode (APD) pixel fabrication to a CMOS environment, creating pixel detectors that can be operated with internal gain as proportional detectors. Amplification of the signal within the diode allows identification of events previously hidden within the readout noise of the electronics. Such devices can be used to read out a scintillation crystal, as in SPECT or PET, and as direct-conversion particle detectors. The charge produced by an ionizing particle in the epitaxial layer is collected by an electric field within the diode in each pixel. The monolithic integration of the readout circuitry with the pixel sensors represents an improved design compared to the current hybrid-detector technology that requires wire or bump bonding. In this work, we investigate designs for CMOS APD detector elements and compare these to typical values for large area devices. We characterize the achievable detector gain and the gain uniformity over the active area. The excess noise in two different pixel structures is compared. The CMOS APD performance is demonstrated by measuring the energy spectra of X-rays from 55 Fe

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation over multiple days enhances motor performance of a grip task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Julie; Voisin, Julien; Milot, Marie-Hélène; Higgins, Johanne; Boudrias, Marie-Hélène

    2017-09-01

    Recovery of handgrip is critical after stroke since it is positively related to upper limb function. To boost motor recovery, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising, non-invasive brain stimulation technique for the rehabilitation of persons with stroke. When applied over the primary motor cortex (M1), tDCS has been shown to modulate neural processes involved in motor learning. However, no studies have looked at the impact of tDCS on the learning of a grip task in both stroke and healthy individuals. To assess the use of tDCS over multiple days to promote motor learning of a grip task using a learning paradigm involving a speed-accuracy tradeoff in healthy individuals. In a double-blinded experiment, 30 right-handed subjects (mean age: 22.1±3.3 years) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to an anodal (n=15) or sham (n=15) stimulation group. First, subjects performed the grip task with their dominant hand while following the pace of a metronome. Afterwards, subjects trained on the task, at their own pace, over 5 consecutive days while receiving sham or anodal tDCS over M1. After training, subjects performed de novo the metronome-assisted task. The change in performance between the pre and post metronome-assisted task was used to assess the impact of the grip task and tDCS on learning. Anodal tDCS over M1 had a significant effect on the speed-accuracy tradeoff function. The anodal tDCS group showed significantly greater improvement in performance (39.28±15.92%) than the sham tDCS group (24.06±16.35%) on the metronome-assisted task, t(28)=2.583, P=0.015 (effect size d=0.94). Anodal tDCS is effective in promoting grip motor learning in healthy individuals. Further studies are warranted to test its potential use for the rehabilitation of fine motor skills in stroke patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Posttraumatic stress and other health consequences of catastrophic avalanches: A 16-year follow-up of survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Edda Bjork; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur Anna; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Resnick, Heidi; Shipherd, Jillian C; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind

    2015-05-01

    To date, no study has investigated the effects of avalanches on survivor's health beyond the first years. The aim of this study was to examine long-term health status 16 years after exposure to avalanches using a matched cohort design. Mental health, sleep quality and somatic symptoms among avalanche survivors (n=286) and non-exposed controls (n=357) were examined. Results showed that 16% of survivors currently experience avalanche-specific PTSD symptoms (PDS score>14). In addition, survivors presented with increased risk of PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (>85th percentile) (aRR=1.83; 98.3% CI [1.23-2.74]); sleep-related problems (PSQI score>5) (aRR=1.34; 95% CI [1.05-1.70]); PTSD-related sleep disturbances (PSQI-A score≥4) (aRR=1.86; 95% CI [1.30-2.67]); musculoskeletal and nervous system problems (aRR 1.43; 99% CI 1.06-1.93) and gastrointestinal problems (aRR 2.16; 99% CI 1.21-3.86) compared to the unexposed group. Results highlight the need for treatment for long-term PTSD symptoms and sleep disruption in disaster communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in (anti)neutrino-deuterium charged- and neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejans, B.; Tenner, A.G.; Apeldoorn, G.W. van

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in νn, νp, antiνn and antiνp charged-current interactions for the hadronic energy range 2GeV ≤ W ≤ 14GeV (corresponding approximately to the neutrino energy range 5GeV ≤ E ≤ 150GeV). The experimental distributions are analysed in terms of binomial distributions. With increasing hadronic energy it is found a smooth transition from an ordinary binomial via Poissonian to the negative binomial function. KNO scaling holds approximately for the multiplicity distribution for the whole phase space. Data on the multiplicity distributions for neutral-current interactions are also presented

  15. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.

    1991-10-01

    Using data on νp and anti νp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons are investigated. The analysis is based on ∝ 20 000 events with incident ν and ∝ 10 000 events with incident anti ν. The invariant mass W of the total hadronic system ranges from 3 GeV to ∝ 14 GeV. The experimental multiplicity distributions are fitted by the binomial function (for different intervals of W and in different intervals of the rapidity y), by the Levy function and the lognormal function. All three parametrizations give acceptable values for χ 2 /NDF. For fixed W, forward and backward multiplicities are found to be uncorrelated. The normalized moments of the charged multiplicity distributions are measured as a function of W. They show a violation of KNO scaling. (orig.)

  16. Multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Burke, S.

    1992-01-01

    Using data on νp and anti νp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons are investigated. The analysis is based on ∝20 000 events with incident ν and ∝10 000 events with incident anti ν. The invariant mass W of the total hadronic system ranges from 3 GeV to ∝14 GeV. The experimental multiplicity distributions are fitted by the binomial function (for different intervals of W and in different intervals of the rapidity y), by the Levy function and the lognormal function. All three parametrizations give acceptable values for χ 2 /NDF. For fixed W, forward and backward multiplicities are found to be uncorrelated. The normalized moments of the charged multiplicity distributions are measured as a function of W. They show a violation of KNO scaling. (orig.)

  17. Intermittent flow under constant forcing: Acoustic emission from creep avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Liu, Hanlong; Jin, Linsen; Jiang, Deyi; Xiao, Yang; Jiang, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    While avalanches in field driven ferroic systems (e.g., Barkhausen noise), domain switching of martensitic nanostructures, and the collapse of porous materials are well documented, creep avalanches (avalanches under constant forcing) were never observed. Collapse avalanches generate particularly large acoustic emission (AE) signals and were hence chosen to investigate crackling noise under creep conditions. Piezoelectric SiO2 has a strong piezoelectric response even at the nanoscale so that we chose weakly bound SiO2 spheres in natural sandstone as a representative for the study of avalanches under time-independent, constant force. We found highly non-stationary crackling noise with four activity periods, each with power law distributed AE emission. Only the period before the final collapse shows the mean field behavior (ɛ near 1.39), in agreement with previous dynamic measurements at a constant stress rate. All earlier event periods show collapse with larger exponents (ɛ = 1.65). The waiting time exponents are classic with τ near 2.2 and 1.32. Creep data generate power law mixing with "effective" exponents for the full dataset with combinations of mean field and non-mean field regimes. We find close agreement with the predicted time-dependent fiber bound simulations, including events and waiting time distributions. Båth's law holds under creep conditions.

  18. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not

  19. Outpatient Art Therapy with Multiple Personality Disorder: A Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings of a 1993 questionnaire completed by 46 North American art therapists that focuses on the outpatient treatment of multiple personality disorder. Includes information on role in diagnosing, fees and third-party payment, and therapeutic activities. Treatment issues include pacing and containment, and managing the client's chronic…

  20. Non-contact current and voltage sensor having detachable housing incorporating multiple ferrite cylinder portions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Gary D.; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C.; Schappert, Michael A.

    2016-04-26

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing formed from two portions that mechanically close around the wire and that contain the current and voltage sensors. The current sensor is a ferrite cylinder formed from at least three portions that form the cylinder when the sensor is closed around the wire with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap between two of the ferrite portions along the circumference to measure current. A capacitive plate or wire is disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  1. On Multiple Hall-Like Electron Currents and Tripolar Guide Magnetic Field Perturbations During Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Andrew P.; Eriksson, Stefan; Nakamura, Takuma; Gershman, Daniel J.; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick D.; Giles, Barbara; Pollock, Craig; Paterson, William R.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Burch, James L.

    2018-02-01

    Two magnetopause current sheet crossings with tripolar guide magnetic field signatures were observed by multiple Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft during Kelvin-Helmholtz wave activity. The two out-of-plane magnetic field depressions of the tripolar guide magnetic field are largely supported by the observed in-plane electron currents, which are reminiscent of two clockwise Hall current loop systems. A comparison with a three-dimensional kinetic simulation of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and vortex-induced reconnection suggests that MMS likely encountered the two Hall magnetic field depressions on either side of a magnetic reconnection X-line. Moreover, MMS observed an out-of-plane current reversal and a corresponding in-plane magnetic field rotation at the center of one of the current sheets, suggesting the presence of two adjacent flux ropes. The region inside one of the ion-scale flux ropes was characterized by an observed decrease of the total magnetic field, a strong axial current, and significant enhancements of electron density and parallel electron temperature. The flux rope boundary was characterized by currents opposite this axial current, strong in-plane and converging electric fields, parallel electric fields, and weak electron-frame Joule dissipation. These return current region observations may reflect a need to support the axial current rather than representing local reconnection signatures in the absence of any exhausts.

  2. Frequency and amplitude modulation of ultra-compact terahertz quantum cascade lasers using an integrated avalanche diode oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Fabrizio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Vitiello, Miriam S

    2016-03-15

    Mode-locked comb sources operating at optical frequencies underpin applications ranging from spectroscopy and ultrafast physics, through to absolute frequency measurements and atomic clocks. Extending their operation into the terahertz frequency range would greatly benefit from the availability of compact semiconductor-based sources. However, the development of any compact mode-locked THz laser, which itself is inherently a frequency comb, has yet to be achieved without the use of an external stimulus. High-power, electrically pumped quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have recently emerged as a promising solution, owing to their octave spanning bandwidths, the ability to achieve group-velocity dispersion compensation and the possibility of obtaining active mode-locking. Here, we propose an unprecedented compact architecture to induce both frequency and amplitude self-modulation in a THz QCL. By engineering a microwave avalanche oscillator into the laser cavity, which provides a 10 GHz self-modulation of the bias current and output power, we demonstrate multimode laser emission centered around 3 THz, with distinct multiple sidebands. The resulting microwave amplitude and frequency self-modulation of THz QCLs opens up intriguing perspectives, for engineering integrated self-mode-locked THz lasers, with impact in fields such as nano- and ultrafast photonics and optical metrology.

  3. Fully Integrated Linear Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) Array with Parallel Readout Circuit in a Standard 180 nm CMOS Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, S.; Bull, S.; Pitter, M. C.; Harrison, Ian.

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of a SPAD device and its subsequent use in an actively quenched single photon counting imaging system, and was fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. A low-doped p- guard ring (t-well layer) encircling the active area to prevent the premature reverse breakdown. The array is a 16×1 parallel output SPAD array, which comprises of an active quenched SPAD circuit in each pixel with the current value being set by an external resistor RRef = 300 kΩ. The SPAD I-V response, ID was found to slowly increase until VBD was reached at excess bias voltage, Ve = 11.03 V, and then rapidly increase due to avalanche multiplication. Digital circuitry to control the SPAD array and perform the necessary data processing was designed in VHDL and implemented on a FPGA chip. At room temperature, the dark count was found to be approximately 13 KHz for most of the 16 SPAD pixels and the dead time was estimated to be 40 ns.

  4. Characteristics of debris avalanche deposits inferred from source volume estimate and hummock morphology around Mt. Erciyes, central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Naruhashi, Ryutaro; Okumura, Koji; Zaiki, Masumi; Kontani, Ryoichi

    2018-02-01

    deeper than the reported cases of other DADs. This suggests that the debris avalanche must have flowed further downstream and beyond the current DAD extent. Assessments of the DAD incorporating the topographic constraints can provide further insights into the risk and mitigation of potential disasters in the study area.

  5. Characteristics of debris avalanche deposits inferred from source volume estimate and hummock morphology around Mt. Erciyes, central Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Hayakawa

    2018-02-01

    60–75 m, which is much deeper than the reported cases of other DADs. This suggests that the debris avalanche must have flowed further downstream and beyond the current DAD extent. Assessments of the DAD incorporating the topographic constraints can provide further insights into the risk and mitigation of potential disasters in the study area.

  6. Study of charged hadron multiplicities in charged-current neutrino-lead interactions in the OPERA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N.; Malgin, A.; Matveev, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Shakirianova, I. [INR - Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, A.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Tioukov, V.; Voevodina, E. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Podgrudkov, D.; Roganova, T. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, SINP MSU - Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Mizutani, F.; Ozaki, K.; Shibayama, E.; Takahashi, S. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Ariga, A.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Vuilleumier, J.L. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ariga, T. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Kyushu University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Kose, U.; Longhin, A.; Pupilli, F.; Stanco, L. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bodnarchuk, I.; Chukanov, A.; Dmitrievski, S.; Gornushkin, Y.; Sotnikov, A.; Vasina, S. [JINR - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno (Italy); ' ' Gruppo Collegato' ' INFN, Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Laudisio, F.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); Buonaura, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Galati, G.; Hosseini, B.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M.C.; Strolin, P. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Chernyavskiy, M.; Gorbunov, S.; Okateva, N.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); D' Ambrosio, N.; Di Marco, N.; Schembri, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); De Serio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Paparella, L.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Amo Sanchez, P. del; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H. [LAPP, Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Di Ferdinando, D.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirri, G.; Tenti, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dracos, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A. [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Ebert, J.; Hagner, C.; Hollnagel, A.; Wonsak, B. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Fini, R.A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Fornari, F.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Pozzato, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Fukuda, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Ishiguro, K.; Kitagawa, N.; Komatsu, M.; Miyanishi, M.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Rokujo, H.; Sato, O.; Shiraishi, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Gentile, V. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Goldberg, J. [Technion, Department of Physics, Haifa (Israel); Guler, A.M.; Kamiscioglu, M. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Gustavino, C.; Loverre, P.; Monacelli, P.; Rosa, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Jakovcic, K.; Ljubicic, A.; Malenica, M. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kamiscioglu, C. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey); Kim, S.H.; Park, B.D.; Yoon, C.S. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Klicek, B.; Stipcevic, M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kodama, K. [Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi (Japan); Matsuo, T.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Mikado, S. [Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba (Japan); Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Votano, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Polukhina, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physical Institute Moscow, Moscow (Russian Federation); Terranova, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G. [IIHE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for ν{sub μ} → ν{sub τ} oscillations in appearance mode through the direct observation of tau neutrinos in the CNGS neutrino beam. In this paper, we report a study of the multiplicity of charged particles produced in charged-current neutrino interactions in lead. We present charged hadron average multiplicities, their dispersion and investigate the KNO scaling in different kinematical regions. The results are presented in detail in the form of tables that can be used in the validation of Monte Carlo generators of neutrino-lead interactions. (orig.)

  7. Electric properties and carrier multiplication in breakdown sites in multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneemann, Matthias; Carius, Reinhard; Rau, Uwe [IEK5-Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich 52425 (Germany); Kirchartz, Thomas, E-mail: t.kirchartz@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich 52425 (Germany); Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, Duisburg 47057 (Germany)

    2015-05-28

    This paper studies the effective electrical size and carrier multiplication of breakdown sites in multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. The local series resistance limits the current of each breakdown site and is thereby linearizing the current-voltage characteristic. This fact allows the estimation of the effective electrical diameters to be as low as 100 nm. Using a laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurement with a high spatial resolution, we find carrier multiplication factors on the order of 30 (Zener-type breakdown) and 100 (avalanche breakdown) as new lower limits. Hence, we prove that also the so-called Zener-type breakdown is followed by avalanche multiplication. We explain that previous measurements of the carrier multiplication using thermography yield results higher than unity, only if the spatial defect density is high enough, and the illumination intensity is lower than what was used for the LBIC method. The individual series resistances of the breakdown sites limit the current through these breakdown sites. Therefore, the measured multiplication factors depend on the applied voltage as well as on the injected photocurrent. Both dependencies are successfully simulated using a series-resistance-limited diode model.

  8. Investigations of single-electron avalanches in a proportional drift tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.S.; Armitage, J.C.; Chevreau, P.; Heinrich, J.G.; Lu, C.; McDonald, I.; McDonald, K.T.; Miller, B.; Secrest, D.; Weckel, J.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information on single-electron drift and avalanche behavior has a basic interest in an investigation of gas-chamber performance. Its timing, avalanche distribution, attachment by the working gas mixtures, etc., provide various criteria for choosing the best suitable gas mixture under a specific experimental circumstance. Investigations of single-electron avalanches in a proportional drift tube have been carried out with a pulsed N 2 laser. The study consists of two aspects: timing properties, and fluctuations in the gas avalanche

  9. Avalanche effect in the planar array of superheated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meagher, G.; Pond, J.; Kotlicki, A.; Turrell, B.G.; Eska, G.; Drukier, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    An avalanche effect has been observed in a cryogenic detector based on the planar array of superheated superconductors (PASS). The indium PASS, fabricated by photolithography on a mylar substrate, consisted of 40 well-separated lines each containing about 175 spheres of diameter 18 μm and separation 20 μm with those at the end being shielded by superconducting wire. The magnetic field was applied in the PASS plane parallel to the lines. Avalanche events in which several granules changed their state from superconducting to normal were triggered by the nucleation of the transition in a single grain by an alpha particle. (author)

  10. High gain multigap avalanche detectors for Cerenkov ring imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, R.S.; Lavender, W.M.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Williams, S.H.

    1980-10-01

    We report on a continuing study of multigap parallel plate avalanche chambers, primarily as photoelectron detectors for use with Cerenkov ring imaging counters. By suitable control of the fields in successive gaps and by introducing screens to reduce photon feedback to the cathode the gain many be increased considerably. We have obtained gains in excess of 6 x 10/sup 7/ for photoelectrons with a good pulse height spectrum and expect to increase this further. We discuss the use of resistive anodes to give avalanche positions in two dimensions by charge division.

  11. Avalanche size scaling in sheared three-dimensional amorphous solid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Nicholas; Schiøtz, Jakob; Lemaître, A.

    2007-01-01

    We study the statistics of plastic rearrangement events in a simulated amorphous solid at T=0. Events are characterized by the energy release and the "slip volume", the product of plastic strain and system volume. Their distributions for a given system size L appear to be exponential......, but a characteristic event size cannot be inferred, because the mean values of these quantities increase as L-alpha with alpha similar to 3/2. In contrast with results obtained in 2D models, we do not see simply connected avalanches. The exponent suggests a fractal shape of the avalanches, which is also evidenced...

  12. State-of-the-art performance of GaAlAs/GaAs avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, H. D.; Nakano, K.; Tomasetta, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ga(0.15)Al(0.85)As/GaAs avalanche photodiodes have been successfully fabricated. The performance of these detectors is characterized by a rise time of less than 35 ps, an external quantum efficiency with an antireflection coating of 95% at 0.53 microns, and a microwave optical gain of 42 dB. The dark current density is in the low range (10 to the minus A/sq cm) at one-half the breakdown voltages, and rises to 0.0001 A/sq cm at 42 dB optical gain.

  13. Spectral dependence of the main parameters of ITE silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Grynglas, Maria; Wegrzecki, Maciej

    2001-08-01

    New applications for avalanche photodiodes (APDs) as in systems using visible radiation, have prompted the need for the evaluation of detection properties of ITE APDs in the 400 divided by 700 nm spectral range. The paper presents the method and result of studies on the spectral dependence of the gain, dark and noise currents, sensitivity and excess noise factor of ITE APDs. The studies have shown that ITE APDs optimized for the near IR radiation can be effectively applied in the detection of radiation above the 500 nm wavelength.

  14. The genetics of multiple sclerosis: review of current and emerging candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-Culla M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Maider Muñoz-Culla,1,2 Haritz Irizar,1,2 David Otaegui1,2 1Multiple Sclerosis Unit, Instituto Biodonostia, San Sebastián, Spain; 2Red Española de Esclerosis Múltiple (REEM, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex disease in which environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors determine the risk of developing the disease. The human leukocyte antigen region is the strongest susceptibility locus linked to MS, but it does not explain the whole heritability of the disease. To find other non-human leukocyte antigen loci associated with the disease, high-throughput genotyping, sequencing, and gene-expression studies have been performed, producing a valuable quantity of information. An overview of the genomic and expression studies is provided in this review, as well as microRNA-expression studies, highlighting the importance of combining all the layers of information in order to elucidate the causes or pathological mechanisms occurring in the disease. Genetics in MS is a promising field that is presumably going to be very productive in the next decade understanding the cross talk between all the factors contributing to the development of MS. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, genetics, gene expression, microRNA

  15. NRC Information No. 88-86: Operating with multiple grounds in direct current distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    During recent NRC maintenance inspections at Quad Cities, Oconee, and D.C. Cook power reactor facilities, it was found that plants had been operating with multiple grounds in the dc distribution systems for extended periods. Specific examples are described. Most nuclear power plant dc systems are two-wire ungrounded, combination battery/charger systems equipped with ground detection. Typical ground detection system features include a remote annunciator and a local indicator and/or recorder. Ground detectors are incorporated in the dc system so that if a single ground point does occur, immediate steps can be taken to clear the ground fault from the system. Failure to respond to a single ground will mask subsequent grounds. Multiple grounds can cause the indiscriminate operation of equipment, which may have safety consequences. Grounds can cause control circuit fuses to fail and can render important safety equipment inoperable as previously described. Furthermore, batteries have a designed capacity to supply power during a station blackout condition, and this capacity can be affected by the presence of unanalyzed loads in the form of multiple grounds. It is recognized that troubleshooting and finding grounds on a dc system are difficult tasks that may affect plant operation. The licensees previously mentioned have reviewed their designs and conditions for potential impact on safety system operability and have taken corrective actions to minimize the effect of grounds

  16. SNOW AVALANCHE ACTIVITY IN PARÂNG SKI AREA REVEALED BY TREE-RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MESEȘAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Snow Avalanche Activity in Parâng Ski Area Revealed by Tree-Rings. Snow avalanches hold favorable conditions to manifest in Parâng Mountains but only one event is historically known, without destructive impact upon infrastructure or fatalities and this region wasn’t yet the object of avalanche research. The existing ski infrastructure of Parâng resort located in the west of Parâng Mountains is proposed to be extended in the steep slopes of subalpine area. Field evidence pinpoints that these steep slopes were affected by snow avalanches in the past. In this study we analyzed 11 stem discs and 31 increment cores extracted from 22 spruces (Picea abies (L. Karst impacted by avalanches, in order to obtain more information about past avalanches activity. Using the dendrogeomorphological approach we found 13 avalanche events that occurred along Scărița avalanche path, since 1935 until 2012, nine of them produced in the last 20 years. The tree-rings data inferred an intense snow avalanche activity along this avalanche path. This study not only calls for more research in the study area but also proves that snow avalanches could constitute an important restrictive factor for the tourism infrastructure and related activities in the area. It must be taken into consideration by the future extension of tourism infrastructure. Keywords: snow avalanche, Parâng Mountains, dendrogeomorphology, ski area.

  17. Characterizing the nature and variability of avalanche hazard in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandro, Bret; Haegeli, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    The snow and avalanche climate types maritime, continental and transitional are well established and have been used extensively to characterize the general nature of avalanche hazard at a location, study inter-seasonal and large-scale spatial variabilities and provide context for the design of avalanche safety operations. While researchers and practitioners have an experience-based understanding of the avalanche hazard associated with the three climate types, no studies have described the hazard character of an avalanche climate in detail. Since the 2009/2010 winter, the consistent use of Statham et al. (2017) conceptual model of avalanche hazard in public avalanche bulletins in Canada has created a new quantitative record of avalanche hazard that offers novel opportunities for addressing this knowledge gap. We identified typical daily avalanche hazard situations using self-organizing maps (SOMs) and then calculated seasonal prevalence values of these situations. This approach produces a concise characterization that is conducive to statistical analyses, but still provides a comprehensive picture that is informative for avalanche risk management due to its link to avalanche problem types. Hazard situation prevalence values for individual seasons, elevations bands and forecast regions provide unprecedented insight into the inter-seasonal and spatial variability of avalanche hazard in western Canada.

  18. Mechanisms of generation of membrane potential resonance in a neuron with multiple resonant ionic currents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Fox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal membrane potential resonance (MPR is associated with subthreshold and network oscillations. A number of voltage-gated ionic currents can contribute to the generation or amplification of MPR, but how the interaction of these currents with linear currents contributes to MPR is not well understood. We explored this in the pacemaker PD neurons of the crab pyloric network. The PD neuron MPR is sensitive to blockers of H- (IH and calcium-currents (ICa. We used the impedance profile of the biological PD neuron, measured in voltage clamp, to constrain parameter values of a conductance-based model using a genetic algorithm and obtained many optimal parameter combinations. Unlike most cases of MPR, in these optimal models, the values of resonant- (fres and phasonant- (fϕ = 0 frequencies were almost identical. Taking advantage of this fact, we linked the peak phase of ionic currents to their amplitude, in order to provide a mechanistic explanation the dependence of MPR on the ICa gating variable time constants. Additionally, we found that distinct pairwise correlations between ICa parameters contributed to the maintenance of fres and resonance power (QZ. Measurements of the PD neuron MPR at more hyperpolarized voltages resulted in a reduction of fres but no change in QZ. Constraining the optimal models using these data unmasked a positive correlation between the maximal conductances of IH and ICa. Thus, although IH is not necessary for MPR in this neuron type, it contributes indirectly by constraining the parameters of ICa.

  19. Enhanced Phase-Shifted Current Control for Harmonic Cancellation in Three-Phase Multiple Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz

    2017-01-01

    A phase-shifted current control can be employed to mitigate certain harmonics induced by the Diode Rectifiers (DR) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) as the front-ends of multiple parallel Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. However, the effectiveness of the phase-shifted control relies...... on the loading condition of each drive unit as well as the number of drives in parallel. In order to enhance the harmonic cancellation by means of the phase-shifted current control, the currents drawn by the rectifiers should be maintained almost at the same level. Thus, this paper firstly analyzes the impact...... of unequal loading among the parallel drives, and a scheme to enhance the performance is introduced to improve the quality of the total grid current, where partial loading operation should be enabled. Simulation and experimental case studies on multidrive systems have demonstrated that the enhanced phase...

  20. Degradation and Its Control of Ultraviolet Avalanche Photodiodes Using PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomoki; Uchida, Shigeto; Tanaka, Keita; Fujisawa, Takanobu; Kasada, Hirofumi; Ando, Koshi; Akaiwa, Kazuaki; Ichino, Kunio

    2018-05-01

    We investigated device degradation in PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe organic-inorganic hybrid ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes (UV-APDs). ZnSSe/n-GaAs wafers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and PEDOT:PSS window layers were formed by inkjet technique. We observed rapid degradation with APD-mode stress (˜ 30 V) in the N2 (4 N) atmosphere, while we observed no marked change in forward bias current stress and photocurrent stress. In the case of a vacuum condition, we observed no detectable degradation in the dark avalanche current with APD-mode stress. Therefore, the degradation in the PEDOT:PSS/ZnSSe interface under the APD-mode stress was caused by the residual water vapor or oxygen in the N2 atmosphere and could be controlled by vacuum packaging.

  1. Influence of 2 MeV electrons irradiation on gallium phosphide light-emitting diodes reverse currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Vorobiov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of reverse electrophysical characteristics study of red and green LEDs, initial and irradiated with 2 MeV electrons were given. It was found that reverse current was predominantly caused by carriers tunneling at Urev ≤ 9 V, and by the avalanche multiplication at Urev ≥ 13 V, in the range U = 9 ÷ 13 V both mechanisms are available. Current increase at high voltage areas (Urev > 19 V is limited by the base resistance of diode. In the case of significant reverse currents (I > 1 mA irradiation of diodes leads to the shift of reverse current-voltage characteristics into the high voltages direction.

  2. Measurement of multiplicity and momentum spectra in the current fragmentation region of the Breit frame at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-01-01

    Charged particle production has been measured in Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events using the ZEUS detector over a large range of Q 2 from 10 to 1280 GeV 2 . The evolution with Q of the charged multiplicity and scaled momentum has been investigated in the current fragmentation region of the Breit frame. The data are used to study QCD coherence effects in DIS and are compared with corresponding e + e - data in order to test the universality of quark fragmentation. (orig.)

  3. EXTREME WINTERS IN XX–XXI CENTURIES AS INDICATORS OF SNOWINESS AND AVALANCHE HAZARD IN THE PAST AND EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Oleynikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the global climate change and increasing frequency of weather events focus is on prediction of climate extremes. Large-scale meteorological anomalies can cause long-term paralysis of social and economic infrastructure of the major mountain regions and even individual states. In winter periods, these anomalies are associated with prolonged heavy snowfalls and associated with them catastrophic avalanches which cause significant social and economic damage. The climate system maintains a certain momentum during periods of adjustment and transition to other conditions in the ratio of heat and moisture and contains a climate «signal» of the climates of the past and the future. In our view seasonal and yearly extremes perform the role of these indicators, study of which enables for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the real situation of the climate periods related to the modern ones. The paper provides an overview of the criteria for selection of extreme winters. Identification of extremely cold winters during the period of instrumental observation and assessment of their snowiness and avalanche activity done for the Elbrus region, which is a model site for study of the avalanche regime in the Central Caucasus. The studies aim to identify the extreme winters in the Greater Caucasus, assess their frequency of occurrence, characterize the scale and intensity of the avalanche formation. The data obtained can be used to identify winter-analogues in the reconstruction and long-term forecast of avalanches

  4. W 2 and Q 2 dependence of charged hadron and pion multiplicities in vp andbar vp charged current interactionscharged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Hoffmann, E.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1990-03-01

    Using data on vp andbar vp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the average multiplicities of charged hadrons and pions are determined as functions of W 2 and Q 2. The analysis is based on ˜20000 events with incident v and ˜10000 events with incidentbar v. In addition to the known dependence of the average multiplicity on W 2 a weak dependence on Q 2 for fixed intervals of W is observed. For W>2 GeV and Q 2>0.1 GeV2 the average multiplicity of charged hadrons is well described by =a 1+ a 2ln( W 2/GeV2)+ a 3ln( Q 2/GeV2) with a 1=0.465±0.053, a 2=1.211±0.021, a 3=0.103±0.014 for the vp and a 1=-0.372±0.073, a 2=1.245±0.028, a 3=0.093±0.015 for thebar vp reaction.

  5. Boosting Cognition : Effects of Multiple-Session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Working Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, L.J.; Kroese, H.A.; Slagter, H.A.

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for neurocognitive enhancement. Several studies have shown that just a single session of tDCS over the left dorsolateral pFC (lDLPFC) can improve the core cognitive function of working memory (WM) in healthy adults. Yet, recent

  6. Adaptation of eddy current methods to the multiple problems of reactor testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumm, W.

    1975-01-01

    In reactor testing, the eddy current method is mainly used for the testing of surface regions inside the pressure vessel, on welds and joints, and for the testing of thin-walled pipes, e.g. the heat exchanger pipes. (RW/AK) [de

  7. Large-area NbN superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detectors with saturated detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Grein, Matthew E.; Gudmundsen, Theodore J.; McCaughan, Adam; Najafi, Faraz; Berggren, Karl K.; Marsili, Francesco; Dauler, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    Superconducting circuits comprising SNSPDs placed in parallel—superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors, or SNAPs—have previously been demonstrated to improve the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by increasing the critical current. In this work, we employ a 2-SNAP superconducting circuit with narrow (40 nm) niobium nitride (NbN) nanowires to improve the system detection efficiency to near-IR photons while maintaining high SNR. Additionally, while previous 2-SNAP demonstrations have added external choke inductance to stabilize the avalanching photocurrent, we show that the external inductance can be entirely folded into the active area by cascading 2-SNAP devices in series to produce a greatly increased active area. We fabricated series-2-SNAP (s2-SNAP) circuits with a nanowire length of 20 μm with cascades of 2-SNAPs providing the choke inductance necessary for SNAP operation. We observed that (1) the detection efficiency saturated at high bias currents, and (2) the 40 nm 2-SNAP circuit critical current was approximately twice that for a 40 nm non-SNAP configuration.

  8. The genetics of multiple sclerosis: review of current and emerging candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Culla, Maider; Irizar, Haritz; Otaegui, David

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease in which environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors determine the risk of developing the disease. The human leukocyte antigen region is the strongest susceptibility locus linked to MS, but it does not explain the whole heritability of the disease. To find other non-human leukocyte antigen loci associated with the disease, high-throughput genotyping, sequencing, and gene-expression studies have been performed, producing a valuable quantity of information. An overview of the genomic and expression studies is provided in this review, as well as microRNA-expression studies, highlighting the importance of combining all the layers of information in order to elucidate the causes or pathological mechanisms occurring in the disease. Genetics in MS is a promising field that is presumably going to be very productive in the next decade understanding the cross talk between all the factors contributing to the development of MS. PMID:24019748

  9. Gut Microbiota in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Current Applications and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yue

    2018-01-01

    The gut environment and gut microbiome dysbiosis have been demonstrated to significantly influence a range of disorders in humans, including obesity, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The etiology of MS is not clear, and it should involve both genetic and extrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors responsible for predisposition to MS remain elusive. Recent studies on MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have found that gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE. Thus, gut microbiome adjustment may be a future direction of treatment in MS. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of the gut microbiota, the connection between the brain and the gut, and the changes in gut microbiota in MS/EAE, and we explore the possibility of applying microbiota therapies in patients with MS. PMID:29805314

  10. Group Dynamics and Decision Making: Backcountry Recreationists in Avalanche Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Leslie Shay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of decision-making characteristics of recreational backcountry groups when making a decision of where to travel and ride in avalanche terrain from the perspective of individuals. Decision-making characteristics encompassed communication, decision-making processes, leadership,…

  11. heat flow in a finite isolated pulsed avalanche semiconductor diode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1981-03-01

    Mar 1, 1981 ... high-power high-efficiency avalanche semiconductor devices. The ... computed, and useful practical design curves for a specified operation .... iv. For spherical shells of radius, ρ(x,y,z) = √x2+y2+z2. > R, the heat source.

  12. Hybrid phase transition into an absorbing state: Percolation and avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjae; Choi, S.; Stippinger, M.; Kertész, J.; Kahng, B.

    2016-04-01

    Interdependent networks are more fragile under random attacks than simplex networks, because interlayer dependencies lead to cascading failures and finally to a sudden collapse. This is a hybrid phase transition (HPT), meaning that at the transition point the order parameter has a jump but there are also critical phenomena related to it. Here we study these phenomena on the Erdős-Rényi and the two-dimensional interdependent networks and show that the hybrid percolation transition exhibits two kinds of critical behaviors: divergence of the fluctuations of the order parameter and power-law size distribution of finite avalanches at a transition point. At the transition point global or "infinite" avalanches occur, while the finite ones have a power law size distribution; thus the avalanche statistics also has the nature of a HPT. The exponent βm of the order parameter is 1 /2 under general conditions, while the value of the exponent γm characterizing the fluctuations of the order parameter depends on the system. The critical behavior of the finite avalanches can be described by another set of exponents, βa and γa. These two critical behaviors are coupled by a scaling law: 1 -βm=γa .

  13. Positron camera with high-density avalanche chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfrass, D.; Enghardt, W.; Fromm, W.D.; Wohlfarth, D.; Hennig, K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of an extensive investigation of the properties of high-density avalanche chambers (HIDAC) are presented. This study has been performed in order to optimize the layout of HIDAC detectors, since they are intended to be applied as position sensitive detectors for annihilation radiation in a positron emission tomograph being under construction. (author)

  14. Snow avalanche hazard of the Krkonose National Park, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahůt, Jan; Klimeš, Jan; Balek, Jan; Hájek, P.; Červená, L.; Lysák, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 86-90 ISSN 1744-5647 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20132015115 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : snow avalanches * hazard * inventory * hazard mitigation * Krkonoše Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  15. Optical fibers and avalanche photodiodes for scintillator counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.R.; Palmer, R.B.; Strand, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Fine hodoscopes can be made of new scintillating optical fibers and one half inch end-on PMT's. An avalanche photodiode with small size and immunity to magnetic fields remains as a tempting new device to be proven as a photodetector for the fibers

  16. Rock avalanches clusters along the northern Chile coastal scarp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G. B.; Hermanns, R. L.; Dehls, J.; Lari, S.; Sepulveda, S.

    2017-07-01

    Rock avalanche clusters can be relevant indicators of the evolution of specific regions. They can be used to define: the type and intensity of triggering events, their recurrence and potential probability of occurrence, the progressive damage of the rock mass, the mechanisms of transport and deposition, as well as the environmental conditions at the time of occurrence. This paper tackles these subjects by analyzing two main clusters of rock avalanches (each event between 0.6 and 30 Mm3), separated by few kilometers and located along the coastal scarp of Northern Chile, south of Iquique. It lies, hence, within a seismic area characterized by a long seismic gap that ended on April 1st, 2014 with a Mw 8.2 earthquake. The scar position, high along the coastal cliff, supports seismic triggering for these clusters. The deposits' relative positions are used to obtain the sequence of rock avalanching events for each cluster. The progressive decrease of volume in the sequence of rock avalanches forming each cluster fits well the theoretical models for successive slope failures. These sequences seem to agree with those derived by dating the deposits with ages spanning between 4 kyr and 60 kyr. An average uplift rate of 0.2 mm/yr in the last 40 kyr is estimated for the coastal plain giving a further constraint to the rock avalanche deposition considering the absence of reworking of the deposits. Volume estimates and datings allow the estimation of an erosion rate contribution of about 0.098-0.112 mm km- 2 yr- 1 which is well comparable to values presented in the literature for earthquake induced landslides. We have carried out numerical modeling in order to analyze the mobility of the rock avalanches and examine the environmental conditions that controlled the runout. In doing so, we have considered the sequence of individual rock avalanches within the specific clusters, thus including in the models the confining effect caused by the presence of previous deposits. Bingham

  17. Current–voltage characteristics of high-voltage 4H-SiC p{sup +}–n{sub 0}–n{sup +} diodes in the avalanche breakdown mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, P. A., E-mail: Pavel.Ivanov@mail.ioffe.ru; Potapov, A. S.; Samsonova, T. P.; Grekhov, I. V. [Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    p{sup +}–n{sub 0}–n{sup +} 4H-SiC diodes with homogeneous avalanche breakdown at 1860 V are fabricated. The pulse current–voltage characteristics are measured in the avalanche-breakdown mode up to a current density of 4000 A/cm{sup 2}. It is shown that the avalanche-breakdown voltage increases with increasing temperature. The following diode parameters are determined: the avalanche resistance (8.6 × 10{sup –2} Ω cm{sup 2}), the electron drift velocity in the n{sub 0} base at electric fields higher than 10{sup 6} V/cm (7.8 × 10{sup 6} cm/s), and the relative temperature coefficient of the breakdown voltage (2.1 × 10{sup –4} K{sup –1}).

  18. The development of structures in analogue and natural debris avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paguican, Engielle Mae; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Grosse, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    All types of rockslide-debris avalanches present a plethora of internal structures that are also well observed on the surface. Many of these are seen as faults and folds that can be used to determine deformation history and kinematics. We present two sets of simple and well-constrained experiments of reduced basal friction laboratory rockslides, equivalent to a highly deformed simple shear layer, with plug-flow. These follow the original ramp-slide work of Shea and van Wyk de Vries (Geosphere, 2008). The experiments used a curved ramp where materials accelerate until reaching a gently-sloped depositional surface and a constantly inclined ramp with a more regular slope and longer slides. A detailed description of deposit structures, their sequential formation and morphology is then used to investigate the transport type and deformation chronology from slide initiation to runout stopping of avalanches. Results using a curved ramp show accumulation and thickening at where the slope decreases. The thickened mass then further remobilises and advances by secondary collapse of the mass. Such a stop-start process may be important in many mountainous avalanches where there are rapid changes in slope. The constantly inclined ramp shows shearing and extensional structures at the levees and a set of compression and extension structures in the middle. We noted that frontal accumulation during flow occurs as materials at the front move slower relative to those in the medial and proximal zones. This also leads to secondary frontal collapse, and helps to maintain a thicker mass that can flow further. Descriptions and analyses of these structures are then applied to the kinematics and dynamics of natural examples. We study the 2006 Guinsaugon Rockslide event in the Philippines and find that frontal accumulation and secondary avalanching had also occurred and were important in determining the distribution and runout of the mass. Frontal bulking and collapse may also have occurred at

  19. Inductive fault current limiter based on multiple superconducting rings of small diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, M R; Cabo, L; Veira, J A; Vidal, F

    2004-01-01

    We present a fault current limiter prototype based on the use of a secondary comprised of an array of magnetic cores of small sections, each one of them with several superconducting rings. The main advantage of this configuration is that it is easier to make small diameter superconducting rings which, in addition, are more homogeneous and allow better refrigeration. We then present detailed measurements that show that, in addition to these advantages, this prototype offers the same limitation performances than when using a unique core and a superconducting ring with an equivalent area as the array of small section cores

  20. Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamic equations at the second order for multi-component systems with multiple conserved currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnai, Akihiko; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2010-01-01

    We derive the second order hydrodynamic equations for the relativistic system of multi-components with multiple conserved currents by generalizing the Israel-Stewart theory and Grad's moment method. We find that, in addition to the conventional moment equations, extra moment equations associated with conserved currents should be introduced to consistently match the number of equations with that of unknowns and to satisfy the Onsager reciprocal relations. Consistent expansion of the entropy current leads to constitutive equations which involve the terms not appearing in the original Israel-Stewart theory even in the single component limit. We also find several terms which exhibit thermal diffusion such as Soret and Dufour effects. We finally compare our results with those of other existing formalisms.

  1. MO-AB-BRA-07: Low Dose Imaging with Avalanche Amorphous Selenium Flat Panel Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuermann, J; Howansky, A; Goldan, A; Tanioka, K; Zhao, W [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Leveille, S; Tousignant, O [2Analogic Canada, Saint-laurent, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We present the first active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) capable of producing x-ray quantum noise limited images at low doses by overcoming the electronic noise through signal amplification by photoconductive avalanche gain (gav). The indirect detector fabricated uses an optical sensing layer of amorphous selenium (a-Se) known as High-Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP). The detector design is called Scintillator HARP (SHARP)-AMFPI. This is the first image sensor to utilize solid-state HARP technology. Methods: The detector’s electronic readout is a 24 × 30 cm{sup 2} array of thin film transistors (TFT) with a pixel pitch of 85 µm. The HARP structure consists of a 15 µm layer of a-Se isolated from the high voltage (HV) and signal electrode by a 2 µm thick hole blocking layer and electron blocking layer, respectively, to reduce dark current. A 150 µm thick structured CsI scintillator with reflective backing and a fiber optic faceplate (FOP) was coupled to the semi-transparent HV bias electrode of the HARP structure. Images were acquired using a 30 kVp Mo/Mo spectrum typically used in mammography. Results: Optical sensitivity measurements demonstrate that gav = 76 ± 5 can be achieved over the entire active area of the detector. At a constant dose to the detector of 6.67 µGy, image quality increases with gav until the effective electronic noise is negligible. Quantum noise limited images can be obtained with doses as low as 0.18 µGy. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing avalanche gain to overcome electronic noise. The indirect detector fabricated is the first solid-state imaging sensor to use HARP, and the largest active area HARP sensor to date. Our future work is to improve charge transport within the HARP structure and utilize a transparent HV electrode.

  2. Dealing with the white death: avalanche risk management for traffic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Christoph M; Bründl, Michael; Rhyner, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses mitigation strategies to protect traffic routes from snow avalanches. Up to now, mitigation of snow avalanches on many roads and railways in the Alps has relied on avalanche sheds, which require large initial investments resulting in high opportunity costs. Therefore, avalanche risk managers have increasingly adopted organizational mitigation measures such as warning systems and closure policies instead. The effectiveness of these measures is, however, greatly dependent on human decisions. In this article, we present a method for optimizing avalanche mitigation for traffic routes in terms of both their risk reduction impact and their net benefit to society. First, we introduce a generic framework for assessing avalanche risk and for quantifying the impact of mitigation. This allows for sound cost-benefit comparisons between alternative mitigation strategies. Second, we illustrate the framework with a case study from Switzerland. Our findings suggest that site-specific characteristics of avalanche paths, as well as the economic importance of a traffic route, are decisive for the choice of optimal mitigation strategies. On routes endangered by few avalanche paths with frequent avalanche occurrences, structural measures are most efficient, whereas reliance on organizational mitigation is often the most appropriate strategy on routes endangered by many paths with infrequent or fuzzy avalanche risk. Finally, keeping a traffic route open may be very important for tourism or the transport industry. Hence, local economic value may promote the use of a hybrid strategy that combines organizational and structural measures to optimize the resource allocation of avalanche risk mitigation.

  3. Single photon detection in a waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicholas J D; Gehl, Michael; Derose, Christopher T; Starbuck, Andrew L; Pomerene, Andrew T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S

    2017-07-10

    We examine gated-Geiger mode operation of an integrated waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode (APD) and demonstrate single photon detection at low dark count for this mode of operation. Our integrated waveguide-coupled APD is fabricated using a selective epitaxial Ge-on-Si growth process resulting in a separate absorption and charge multiplication (SACM) design compatible with our silicon photonics platform. Single photon detection efficiency and dark count rate is measured as a function of temperature in order to understand and optimize performance characteristics in this device. We report single photon detection of 5.27% at 1310 nm and a dark count rate of 534 kHz at 80 K for a Ge-on-Si single photon avalanche diode. Dark count rate is the lowest for a Ge-on-Si single photon detector in this range of temperatures while maintaining competitive detection efficiency. A jitter of 105 ps was measured for this device.

  4. Observing and characterizing avalanche activity in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal, using Pleiades and airborne HDR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah; Nicholson, Lindsey; Klug, Christoph; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf; Bucher, Tilman; Brauchle, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    In the high, steep terrain of the Khumbu Himal, Nepal, snow avalanches play an important role in glacier mass balance, and rockfall supplies much of the rock material that forms the extensive debris covers on glaciers in the region. Information on the frequency and size of gravitational mass movements is helpful for understanding current and future glacier behaviour but currently lacking. In this study we use a combination of high resolution Pleiades optical satellite imagery in conjunction with airborne HDR imagery of slopes in deep shadow or overexposed snow slopes, provided by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) MACS system (see Brauchle et al., MM3.2/GI2.12/GMPV6.4/HS11.13/NH8.9/SSS12.24), to undertake a qualitative observational study of the gravitational processes evident in these sets of imagery. We classify the features found and discuss their likely frequency in the context of previously published research findings. Terrain analysis based upon digital terrain models derived from the same Pleiades imagery is used to investigate the slope angle, degree of confinement, curvature and aspect of observed avalanche and rock fall tracks. This work presents a first overview of the types of gravitational slides affecting glaciers of the Khumbu Himal. Subsequent research efforts will focus on attempting to quantify volumes of mass movement using repeat satellite imagery.

  5. An avalanche counter and encoder system for counting and mapping radioactive specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britten, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    A parallel plate counter utilizes avalanche event counting over a large area with the ability to locate radioactive sources in two dimensions. One novel embodiment comprises a gas-filled chamber formed by a stretched stainless steel window cathode spaced from a flat semiconductive anode surface between which a high voltage is applied. When a beta ray, for example, enters the chamber, an ionization event occurs and the avalanche effect multiplies the event and results in charge collection on the anode surface for a limited period of time before the charge leaks away. An encoder system, comprising a symmetrical array of planar conductive surfaces separated from the anode by a dielectric material, couples charge currents the amplitude of which define the relative position of the ionization event. A number of preferred encoder system embodiments are disclosed including a novel matrix or grid pattern of electrical paths connected to voltage dividers and charge sensitive integrating amplifiers. The amplitude of coupled current delivered to the amplifiers defines the location of the event, and spatial resolution for a given signal-to-noise ratio can be controlled by changing the number of such amplifiers. (author) 11 figs

  6. Multiple current peaks in room-temperature atmospheric pressure homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by high-voltage tunable nanosecond pulse in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-05-13

    Room temperature homogenous dielectric barrier discharge plasma with high instantaneous energy efficiency is acquired by using nanosecond pulse voltage with 20-200 ns tunable pulse width. Increasing the voltage pulse width can lead to the generation of regular and stable multiple current peaks in each discharge sequence. When the voltage pulse width is 200 ns, more than 5 organized current peaks can be observed under 26 kV peak voltage. Investigation also shows that the organized multiple current peaks only appear in homogenous discharge mode. When the discharge is filament mode, organized multiple current peaks are replaced by chaotic filament current peaks.

  7. Residual currents in a multiple-inlet system and the conundrum of the tidal period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Matute, Matias; Gerkema, Theo

    2015-04-01

    In multiple-inlet systems, one may find that, on average, flood dominates in some inlets, while ebb dominates in others. In that case, there is a residual flow through the system, i.e. there is a net flow if one integrates over a tidal period. Conceptually, this seems straightforward. However, to measure such a residual flow presents several difficulties. First, one needs to cover the entire cross-sections of all the inlets over a year or longer to take into account the variability due to wind. Second, the residual flow is usually much smaller than the tidal prisms and hence more uncertain in view of error bars. Third, the duration of 'the' tidal period when calculating a tidally averaged flow is not well defined. Should one take the time between alternate slack tides, or between consecutive high (or low) waters, or other options? There appears to be a fundamental ambiguity in the duration of the tidal period; here we discuss its origins. The problem of defining the tidal period seems to have received little attention in the literature, or perhaps it has not been perceived as a problem at all. One reason for this neglect may be that the focus in tidal analysis is often on the (main) individual tidal constituents, whose periods are well-defined. Indeed, the harmonic method developed by Kelvin exploits this fact, making it possible to predict high and low waters precisely by adding up the different constituents after their amplitudes and phases have been determined empirically for the location in question. The period between subsequent high (or low) waters is then simply an outcome of this method. Another reason for neglecting this problem may be that the main interest was in computing a representative quantity such as the yearly average residual flow through the inlets. For such quantities, the definition of the tidal period is not as relevant since one integrates over a much longer period. Recently, however, it has been shown, for the Western Dutch Wadden Sea, that

  8. Automated identification of potential snow avalanche release areas based on digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Y.; Kumar, S.; Veitinger, J.; Christen, M.; Stoffel, A.; Snehmani

    2013-05-01

    The identification of snow avalanche release areas is a very difficult task. The release mechanism of snow avalanches depends on many different terrain, meteorological, snowpack and triggering parameters and their interactions, which are very difficult to assess. In many alpine regions such as the Indian Himalaya, nearly no information on avalanche release areas exists mainly due to the very rough and poorly accessible terrain, the vast size of the region and the lack of avalanche records. However avalanche release information is urgently required for numerical simulation of avalanche events to plan mitigation measures, for hazard mapping and to secure important roads. The Rohtang tunnel access road near Manali, Himachal Pradesh, India, is such an example. By far the most reliable way to identify avalanche release areas is using historic avalanche records and field investigations accomplished by avalanche experts in the formation zones. But both methods are not feasible for this area due to the rough terrain, its vast extent and lack of time. Therefore, we develop an operational, easy-to-use automated potential release area (PRA) detection tool in Python/ArcGIS which uses high spatial resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and forest cover information derived from airborne remote sensing instruments as input. Such instruments can acquire spatially continuous data even over inaccessible terrain and cover large areas. We validate our tool using a database of historic avalanches acquired over 56 yr in the neighborhood of Davos, Switzerland, and apply this method for the avalanche tracks along the Rohtang tunnel access road. This tool, used by avalanche experts, delivers valuable input to identify focus areas for more-detailed investigations on avalanche release areas in remote regions such as the Indian Himalaya and is a precondition for large-scale avalanche hazard mapping.

  9. Automated identification of potential snow avalanche release areas based on digital elevation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bühler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of snow avalanche release areas is a very difficult task. The release mechanism of snow avalanches depends on many different terrain, meteorological, snowpack and triggering parameters and their interactions, which are very difficult to assess. In many alpine regions such as the Indian Himalaya, nearly no information on avalanche release areas exists mainly due to the very rough and poorly accessible terrain, the vast size of the region and the lack of avalanche records. However avalanche release information is urgently required for numerical simulation of avalanche events to plan mitigation measures, for hazard mapping and to secure important roads. The Rohtang tunnel access road near Manali, Himachal Pradesh, India, is such an example. By far the most reliable way to identify avalanche release areas is using historic avalanche records and field investigations accomplished by avalanche experts in the formation zones. But both methods are not feasible for this area due to the rough terrain, its vast extent and lack of time. Therefore, we develop an operational, easy-to-use automated potential release area (PRA detection tool in Python/ArcGIS which uses high spatial resolution digital elevation models (DEMs and forest cover information derived from airborne remote sensing instruments as input. Such instruments can acquire spatially continuous data even over inaccessible terrain and cover large areas. We validate our tool using a database of historic avalanches acquired over 56 yr in the neighborhood of Davos, Switzerland, and apply this method for the avalanche tracks along the Rohtang tunnel access road. This tool, used by avalanche experts, delivers valuable input to identify focus areas for more-detailed investigations on avalanche release areas in remote regions such as the Indian Himalaya and is a precondition for large-scale avalanche hazard mapping.

  10. Application of statistical and dynamics models for snow avalanche hazard assessment in mountain regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchaninova, A.

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of extreme avalanche runout distances, flow velocities, impact pressures and volumes is an essential part of snow engineering in mountain regions of Russia. It implies the avalanche hazard assessment and mapping. Russian guidelines accept the application of different avalanche models as well as approaches for the estimation of model input parameters. Consequently different teams of engineers in Russia apply various dynamics and statistical models for engineering practice. However it gives more freedom to avalanche practitioners and experts but causes lots of uncertainties in case of serious limitations of avalanche models. We discuss these problems by presenting the application results of different well known and widely used statistical (developed in Russia) and avalanche dynamics models for several avalanche test sites in the Khibini Mountains (The Kola Peninsula) and the Caucasus. The most accurate and well-documented data from different powder and wet, big rare and small frequent snow avalanche events is collected from 1960th till today in the Khibini Mountains by the Avalanche Safety Center of "Apatit". This data was digitized and is available for use and analysis. Then the detailed digital avalanche database (GIS) was created for the first time. It contains contours of observed avalanches (ESRI shapes, more than 50 years of observations), DEMs, remote sensing data, description of snow pits, photos etc. Thus, the Russian avalanche data is a unique source of information for understanding of an avalanche flow rheology and the future development and calibration of the avalanche dynamics models. GIS database was used to analyze model input parameters and to calibrate and verify avalanche models. Regarding extreme dynamic parameters the outputs using different models can differ significantly. This is unacceptable for the engineering purposes in case of the absence of the well-defined guidelines in Russia. The frequency curves for the runout distance

  11. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, M; Zhao, W; Tanioka, K; Decrescenzo, G; Rowlands, J A

    2012-11-01

    The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography∕fluoroscopy (R∕F) applications. The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all clinically relevant

  12. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  13. InGaAs/InAlAs single photon avalanche diode for 1550 nm photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao; Xie, Shiyu; Zhou, Xinxin; Calandri, Niccolò; Sanzaro, Mirko; Tosi, Alberto; Tan, Chee Hing; Ng, Jo Shien

    2016-03-01

    A single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with an InGaAs absorption region, and an InAlAs avalanche region was designed and demonstrated to detect 1550 nm wavelength photons. The characterization included leakage current, dark count rate and single photon detection efficiency as functions of temperature from 210 to 294 K. The SPAD exhibited good temperature stability, with breakdown voltage dependence of approximately 45 mV K(-1). Operating at 210 K and in a gated mode, the SPAD achieved a photon detection probability of 26% at 1550 nm with a dark count rate of 1 × 10(8) Hz. The time response of the SPAD showed decreasing timing jitter (full width at half maximum) with increasing overbias voltage, with 70 ps being the smallest timing jitter measured.

  14. The state of multiple sclerosis: current insight into the patient/health care provider relationship, treatment challenges, and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintoré M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mar Tintoré,1 Maggie Alexander,2 Kathleen Costello,3 Martin Duddy,4 David E Jones,5 Nancy Law,6 Gilmore O’Neill,7 Antonio Uccelli,8 Robert Weissert,9 Sibyl Wray10 1Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 2European Multiple Sclerosis Platform, Brussels, Belgium; 3National Multiple Sclerosis Society, Denver, CO, USA; 4Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK; 5Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 6Nancy Law Consulting LLC, Parker, CO, USA; 7Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA; 8Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 9Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; 10Hope Neurology Multiple Sclerosis Center, Knoxville, TN, USA Background: Managing multiple sclerosis (MS treatment presents challenges for both patients and health care professionals. Effective communication between patients with MS and their neurologist is important for improving clinical outcomes and quality of life. Methods: A closed-ended online market research survey was used to assess the current state of MS care from the perspective of both patients with MS (≥18 years of age and neurologists who treat MS from Europe and the US and to gain insight into perceptions of treatment expectations/goals, treatment decisions, treatment challenges, communication, and satisfaction with care, based on current clinical practice. Results: A total of 900 neurologists and 982 patients completed the survey, of whom 46% self-identified as having remitting-relapsing MS, 29% secondary progressive MS, and 11% primary progressive MS. Overall, patients felt satisfied with their disease-modifying therapy (DMT; satisfaction related to comfort in speaking with their neurologist and participation in their DMT decision-making process. Patients who self-identified as having relapsing-remitting MS were more likely to be very satisfied with their treatment

  15. Rock-avalanche dynamics revealed by large-scale field mapping and seismic signals at a highly mobile avalanche in the West Salt Creek valley, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Rex L.; Allstadt, Kate E.; Kochevar, Bernard; Schmitt, Robert G.; Morgan, Matthew L.; White, Jonathan L.; Stratton, Benjamin T.; Hayashi, Timothy A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    On 25 May 2014, a rain-on-snow–induced rock avalanche occurred in the West Salt Creek valley on the northern flank of Grand Mesa in western Colorado (United States). The avalanche mobilized from a preexisting rock slide in the Green River Formation and traveled 4.6 km down the confined valley, killing three people. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous United States because of its large size (54.5 Mm3) and high mobility (height/length = 0.14). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, unmanned aircraft system imagery as a base for field mapping, and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with an early morning landslide/debris flow that started ∼10 h before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted ∼3.5 min and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich core continued to move slowly. Since 25 May 2014, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls have created new structures and modified avalanche topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core was likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional strength. These results indicate that the West Salt Creek avalanche, and probably other long-traveled avalanches, could be modeled as two layers: a thin, liquefied

  16. ALS-based hummock size-distance relationship assessment of Mt Shasta debris avalanche deposit, Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, Riccardo; Carn, Simon; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The failure of destabilized volcano flanks is a likely occurrence during the lifetime of a stratovolcano, generating large debris avalanches and drastically changing landforms around volcanoes. The significant hazards associated with these events in the Cascade range were demonstrated, for example, by the collapse of Mt St Helens (WA), which triggered its devastating explosive eruption in 1980. The rapid modification of the landforms due to these events makes it difficult to estimate the magnitude of prehistoric avalanches. However, the widespread preservation of hummocks along the course of rockslide-debris avalanches is highly significant for understanding the physical characteristics of these landslides. Mt Shasta is a 4,317 m high, snow-capped, steep-sloped stratovolcano located in Northern California. The current edifice began forming on the remnants of an ancestral Mt Shasta that collapsed ~300-380k years ago producing one of the largest debris avalanches known on Earth. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) covers a surface of ~450 km2 across the Shasta valley, with an estimated volume of ~26 km3. We analyze ALS data on hummocks from the prehistoric Shasta valley DAD in northern California (USA) to derive the relationship between hummock size and distance from landslide source, and interpret the geomorphic significance of the intercept and slope coefficients of the observed functional relationships. Given the limited extent of the ALS survey (i.e. 40 km2), the high-resolution dataset is used for validation of the morphological parameters extracted from freely available, broader coverage DTMs such as the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The ALS dataset also permits the identification of subtle topographic features not apparent in the field or in coarser resolution datasets, including a previously unmapped fault, of crucial importance for both seismic and volcanic hazard assessment in volcanic areas. We present evidence from the Shasta DAD of neotectonic

  17. Characterization of new hexagonal large area Geiger Avalanche Photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccone, V.; Aguilar, J.A.; Della Volpe, D.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Basili, A.

    2013-06-01

    Photomultipliers (PMTs) are the standard detector for construction of the current generation of imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). Despite impressive improvements in QE and reliability in the last years, these devices suffer from the limitation of being unable to operate in the partially illuminated sky (during full or partial moon periods) as the excess light leads to a significant increase in the rate of ageing of the devices themselves and consequently limit the life of the camera. A viable alternative is the large area Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs also known as Silicon Photomultipliers or SiPMs) that are commercially available from different producers in various types and dimensions. The sufficiency of the maturity of this technology for application to Cherenkov Astronomy has already been demonstrated by the FACT telescope. One of the camera designs under study for the 4 m Davies Cotton Telescope foresees the utilization of a large area G-APDs coupled to non imaging light concentrators. In collaboration with Hamamatsu and deriving from their current technology, we have designed a new hexagonal shaped large area G-APD HEX S12516 which when coupled to a Winston cone of 24 degrees cutting angle allows for a pixel angular resolution of 0.25 degrees for a f/D 1.4 telescope with a diameter of 4 m. The device, available in 2 different cell size configurations (50 μm and 100 μm), is divided into 4 different channels powered in common cathode mode. A temperature sensor was included for a better temperature evaluation in the characterization phase. The first 3 prototypes were fully characterized and the results are compared to the larger area devices commercially available such as the S10985-050C (2x2 array of 3x3 mm 2 G-APDs). The photo-detection efficiency is measured applying the Poisson statistics method using pulsed LED at 7 different wavelengths from 355 to 670 nm and for different bias over-voltages (V ov ). Optical crosstalk and

  18. Reduction in spread of excitation from current focusing at multiple cochlear locations in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Monica; Landsberger, David M

    2016-03-01

    Channel interaction from a broad spread of excitation is likely to be a limiting factor in performance by cochlear implant users. Although partial tripolar stimulation has been shown to reduce spread of excitation, the magnitude of the reduction is highly variable across subjects. Because the reduction in spread of excitation is typically only measured at one electrode for a given subject, the degree of variability across cochlear locations is unknown. The first goal of the present study was to determine if the reduction in spread of excitation observed from partial tripolar current focusing systematically varies across the cochlea. The second goal was to measure the variability in reduction of spread of excitation relative to monopolar stimulation across the cochlea. The third goal was to expand upon previous results that suggest that scaling of verbal descriptors can be used to predict the reduction in spread of excitation, by increasing the limited number of sites previously evaluated and verify the relationships remain with the larger dataset. The spread of excitation for monopolar and partial tripolar stimulation was measured at 5 cochlear locations using a psychophysical forward masking task. Results of the present study suggest that although partial tripolar stimulation typically reduces spread of excitation, the degree of reduction in spread of excitation was found to be highly variable and no effect of cochlear location was found. Additionally, subjective scaling of certain verbal descriptors (Clean/Dirty, Pure/Noisy) correlated with the reduction in spread of excitation suggesting sound quality scaling might be used as a quick clinical estimate of channels providing a reduction in spread of excitation. This quick scaling technique might help clinicians determine which patients would be most likely to benefit from a focused strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Control Strategies for Islanded Microgrid using Enhanced Hierarchical Control Structure with Multiple Current-Loop Damping Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Shen, Pan; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the modeling, controller design, and stability analysis of the islanded microgrid (MG) using enhanced hierarchical control structure with multiple current loop damping schemes is proposed. The islanded MG is consisted of the parallel-connected voltage source inverters using LCL...... output filters, and the proposed control structure includes: the primary control with additional phase-shift loop, the secondary control for voltage amplitude and frequency restoration, the virtual impedance loops which contains virtual positive- and negative-sequence impedance loops at fundamental...... frequency, and virtual variable harmonic impedance loop at harmonic frequencies, and the inner voltage and current loop controllers. A small-signal model for the primary and secondary controls with additional phase-shift loop is presented, which shows an over-damped feature from eigenvalue analysis...

  20. Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes under pulsed current conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Ikeda, Masao, E-mail: mikeda2013@sinano.ac.cn; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Shuming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhou, Kun; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Semiconductors (CAS), Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Zongshun [Institute of Semiconductors (CAS), Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-07-21

    Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different quantum barrier thicknesses under pulsed current conditions have been analyzed taking into account the related effects including deformation caused by lattice strain, quantum confined Stark effects due to polarization field partly screened by carriers, band gap renormalization, Stokes-like shift due to compositional fluctuations which are supposed to be random alloy fluctuations in the sub-nanometer scale, band filling effect (Burstein-Moss shift), and quantum levels in finite triangular wells. The bandgap renormalization and band filling effect occurring at high concentrations oppose one another, however, the renormalization effect dominates in the concentration range studied, since the band filling effect arising from the filling in the tail states in the valence band of quantum wells is much smaller than the case in the bulk materials. In order to correlate the carrier densities with current densities, the nonradiative recombination rates were deduced experimentally by curve-fitting to the external quantum efficiencies. The transition energies in LEDs both with 15 nm quantum barriers and 5 nm quantum barriers, calculated using full strengths of theoretical macroscopic polarization given by Barnardini and Fiorentini [Phys. Status Solidi B 216, 391 (1999)] are in excellent accordance with experimental results. The LED with 5 nm barriers has been shown to exhibit a higher transition energy and a smaller blue shift than those of LED with 15 nm barriers, which is mainly caused by the smaller internal polarization field in the quantum wells.

  1. Radiation damage of multipixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes irradiated with low-energy γ's and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y.; Yun, Y. B. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, J. M. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. S.; Yoon, Y. S. [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Eun, J. W. [Namseoul University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A few types of multipipixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (also referred to as silicon photomultipliers SiPMs) are irradiated with 1 to 2.5 MeV γ's and electrons. We characterize radiation damage effects appearing in the reverse bias current, the dark current and count rate, the pixel gain, and the photon detection efficiency of the devices. An interesting observation on the dark current and count rate is made and linked to the specific damage caused by the irradiation.

  2. A new web-based system to improve the monitoring of snow avalanche hazard in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourova, Ekaterina; Maldonado, Eric; Leroy, Jean-Baptiste; Alouani, Rachid; Eckert, Nicolas; Bonnefoy-Demongeot, Mylene; Deschatres, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Snow avalanche data in the French Alps and Pyrenees have been recorded for more than 100 years in several databases. The increasing amount of observed data required a more integrative and automated service. Here we report the comprehensive web-based Snow Avalanche Information System newly developed to this end for three important data sets: an avalanche chronicle (Enquête Permanente sur les Avalanches, EPA), an avalanche map (Carte de Localisation des Phénomènes d'Avalanche, CLPA) and a compilation of hazard and vulnerability data recorded on selected paths endangering human settlements (Sites Habités Sensibles aux Avalanches, SSA). These data sets are now integrated into a common database, enabling full interoperability between all different types of snow avalanche records: digitized geographic data, avalanche descriptive parameters, eyewitness reports, photographs, hazard and risk levels, etc. The new information system is implemented through modular components using Java-based web technologies with Spring and Hibernate frameworks. It automates the manual data entry and improves the process of information collection and sharing, enhancing user experience and data quality, and offering new outlooks to explore and exploit the huge amount of snow avalanche data available for fundamental research and more applied risk assessment.

  3. The Acheron rock avalanche deposit, Canterbury, New Zealand : age and implications for dating landslides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Bell, D.H.; Davies, T.R.H.

    2012-01-01

    New radiocarbon ages for wood samples retrieved from the base of the Acheron rock avalanche near Porters Pass, Canterbury, show a clustering of ages between 1370 and 1101 yr BP. This is significantly dissimilar to the established radiocarbon age of 500 ± 69 yr BP (NZ547), from weathering-rind thickness measurements and from lichen studies. This contradiction impacts on current calibrations of lichenometric and weathering-rind dating methods, which has serious implications for landslide and earthquake dates based on them. A 500-600 yr BP earthquake event along the Porters Pass-Amberley Fault Zone has been dated in an adjacent trench and is consistent with previous dates but does not correspond to the Acheron rock avalanche emplacement as previously proposed. The landslide may have been caused by either a Porters Pass Fault event (1100-800 yr BP) or by the better-constrained Round Top event (1010 ± 50 yr BP) on the Alpine Fault. (author). 30 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Athermal avalanche in bilayer superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V. B., E-mail: verma@nist.gov; Lita, A. E.; Stevens, M. J.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate that two superconducting nanowires separated by a thin insulating barrier can undergo an avalanche process. In this process, Joule heating caused by a photodetection event in one nanowire and the associated production of athermal phonons which are transmitted through the barrier cause the transition of the adjacent nanowire from the superconducting to the normal state. We show that this process can be utilized in the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, reduce system jitter, maximize device area, and increase the external efficiency over a very broad range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the avalanche mechanism may provide a path towards a superconducting logic element based on athermal gating.

  5. Study of an avalanche-mode resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, J.; Ban, Y.; Liu, H.T.; Zhu, Z.M.; Zhu, Z.Y.; Chen, T.; Ma, J.G.; Ye, Y.L.

    2000-01-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPCs) are widely used to detect high-energy charged particles, especially muons, due to the high gain, moderate time and spatial resolution, simple design and low cost of these detectors. While the simple streamer mode is adequate for cosmic-ray and low-rate accelerator experiments, the avalanche mode is required for high-rate experiments such as CMS at LHC. In this paper construction of a medium-sized double-gap RPC made of Chinese materials is reported. The experimental set-up of cosmic-ray and muon beam tests are introduced. The avalanche mode was clearly observed. Good efficiency and time resolution were obtained from the beam test at CERN under normal irradiation conditions. At very high radiation background the chamber efficiency decreases, indicating the necessity to change the resistivity value of the Chinese bakelites. (author)

  6. Stability of the discretization of the electron avalanche phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.villa@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy); Barbieri, Luca, E-mail: luca.barbieri@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy); Gondola, Marco, E-mail: marco.gondola@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy); Leon-Garzon, Andres R., E-mail: andresricardo.leon@polimi.it [CMIC Department “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133, Milano (Italy); Malgesini, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.malgesini@rse-web.it [Ricerca Sul Sistema Energetico (RSE), Via Rubattino 50, 20134, Milano (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    The numerical simulation of the discharge inception is an active field of applied physics with many industrial applications. In this work we focus on the drift-reaction equation that describes the electron avalanche. This phenomenon is one of the basic building blocks of the streamer model. The main difficulty of the electron avalanche equation lies in the fact that the reaction term is positive when a high electric field is applied. It leads to exponentially growing solutions and this has a major impact on the behavior of numerical schemes. We analyze the stability of a reference finite volume scheme applied to this latter problem. The stability of the method may impose a strict mesh spacing, therefore a proper stabilized scheme, which is stable whatever spacing is used, has been developed. The convergence of the scheme is treated as well as some numerical experiments.

  7. Plasma simulation of electron avalanche in a linear thyratron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Thyratrons typically operate at sufficiently small PD (pressure x electrode separation) that holdoff is obtained by operating on the near side of the Paschen curve, and by shielding the slot in the control grid so there is no straight line path for electrons to reach the anode from the cathode. Electron avalanche is initiated by pulsing the control grid to a high voltage. Upon collapse of voltage in the cathode-control grid space, the discharge is sustained by penetration of potential through the control grid slot into the cathode-control grid region. To better understand the electron avalanche process in multi-grid and slotted structures such as thyratrons, a plasma simulation code has been constructed. This effort is in support of a companion program in which a linear thyratron is being electrically and spectroscopically characterized

  8. Universal Critical Dynamics in High Resolution Neuronal Avalanche Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nir; Ito, Shinya; Brinkman, Braden A. W.; Shimono, Masanori; DeVille, R. E. Lee; Dahmen, Karin A.; Beggs, John M.; Butler, Thomas C.

    2012-05-01

    The tasks of neural computation are remarkably diverse. To function optimally, neuronal networks have been hypothesized to operate near a nonequilibrium critical point. However, experimental evidence for critical dynamics has been inconclusive. Here, we show that the dynamics of cultured cortical networks are critical. We analyze neuronal network data collected at the individual neuron level using the framework of nonequilibrium phase transitions. Among the most striking predictions confirmed is that the mean temporal profiles of avalanches of widely varying durations are quantitatively described by a single universal scaling function. We also show that the data have three additional features predicted by critical phenomena: approximate power law distributions of avalanche sizes and durations, samples in subcritical and supercritical phases, and scaling laws between anomalous exponents.

  9. A micropixel avalanche phototransistor for time of flight measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadigov, A., E-mail: saazik@yandex.ru [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Institute of Radiation Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Suleymanov, S. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Institute of Radiation Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ahmadov, F. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Ahmadov, G. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Abdullayev, K. [National Aviation Academy, Baku (Azerbaijan); Akberov, R. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Institute of Radiation Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Heydarov, N. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Madatov, R. [Institute of Radiation Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mukhtarov, R. [National Aviation Academy, Baku (Azerbaijan); Nazarov, M.; Valiyev, R. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-02-11

    This paper presents results of studies of the silicon based new micropixel avalanche phototransistor (MAPT). MAPT is a modification of well-known silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) and differs since each photosensitive pixel of the MAPT operates in Geiger mode and comprises an individual micro-transistor operating in binary mode. This provides a high amplitude single photoelectron signal with significantly shorter rise time. The obtained results are compared with appropriate parameters of known SiPMs. - Highlights: • A new photo detector – micropixel avalanche phototransistor was developed. • MAPT has a matrix of microtransistors with fast output. • In these modules the duration of the leading edge of the signal from the photodetectors are not worse than 50–100 ps.

  10. Tuning magnetic avalanches in the molecular magnet Mn12 -acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, S.; Wen, Bo; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-05-01

    Using micron-sized Hall sensor arrays to obtain time-resolved measurements of the local magnetization, we report a systematic study in the molecular magnet Mn12 acetate of magnetic avalanches controllably triggered in different fixed external magnetic fields and for different values of the initial magnetization. The speeds of propagation of the spin-reversal fronts are in good overall agreement with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)].

  11. Propagation of avalanches in Mn12-acetate: magnetic deflagration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Sarachik, M P; Chudnovsky, E M; McHugh, S; Gonzalez-Rubio, R; Avraham, Nurit; Myasoedov, Y; Zeldov, E; Shtrikman, H; Chakov, N E; Christou, G

    2005-09-30

    Local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization of single crystals of Mn12-acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity that is roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. We argue that this phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance.

  12. Azimuthal spread of the avalanche in proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, H.; Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.; Walenta, A.H.

    1978-10-01

    The angular distribution of the avalanche around the anode wire in the gas proportional counter is determined by measuring the distribution of positive ions arriving on cathode strips surrounding the anode wire for each single event. The shape and width of the distribution depend on such factors as the gas gain, the anode diameter, the counting gas and the primary ionization density. Effects of these factors are studied systematically, and their importance for practical counter applications is discussed

  13. A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with two-dimensional readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Massai, M.M.; Spandre, G.; Torquati, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with a 200 μm anode pitch has been built and successfully tested in our laboratory. A gas gain of 10 4 and an energy resolution of 18% (FWHM) at 6 keV have been measured using a gas mixture of argon-CO 2 at atmospheric pressure. A preliminary measurement of the positional sensitivity indicates that a spatial resolution of 50 μm can be obtained. (orig.)

  14. Avalanche fluctuations within the multigap resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerron Zeballos, E.; Crotty, I.; Lamas Valverde, J.; Veenhof, R.J.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.

    1996-01-01

    The multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) was originally designed to have improved time resolution (compared to the wide gap RPC), but also to keep the good high rate behaviour and ease of construction associated with the wide gap RPC. However in addition we observed a very long efficiency plateau, even at high rates. Here we consider fluctuations in avalanche growth, and show that the inherent ''averaging'' of these fluctuations can account for the enhanced performance of the multigap RPC. (orig.)

  15. Kinetic modelling of runaway electron avalanches in tokamak plasmas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nilsson, E.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Granetz, R.S.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Vlainic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2015), č. článku 095006. ISSN 0741-3335 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma physics * runaway electrons * knock-on collisions * tokamak * Fokker-Planck * runaway avalanches Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.404, year: 2015

  16. Meshfree simulation of avalanches with the Finite Pointset Method (FPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Isabel; Kuhnert, Jörg; Kolymbas, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Meshfree methods are the numerical method of choice in case of applications which are characterized by strong deformations in conjunction with free surfaces or phase boundaries. In the past the meshfree Finite Pointset Method (FPM) developed by Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) has been successfully applied to problems in computational fluid dynamics such as water crossing of cars, water turbines, and hydraulic valves. Most recently the simulation of granular flows, e.g. soil interaction with cars (rollover), has also been tackled. This advancement is the basis for the simulation of avalanches. Due to the generalized finite difference formulation in FPM, the implementation of different material models is quite simple. We will demonstrate 3D simulations of avalanches based on the Drucker-Prager yield criterion as well as the nonlinear barodesy model. The barodesy model (Division of Geotechnical and Tunnel Engineering, University of Innsbruck, Austria) describes the mechanical behavior of soil by an evolution equation for the stress tensor. The key feature of successful and realistic simulations of avalanches - apart from the numerical approximation of the occurring differential operators - is the choice of the boundary conditions (slip, no-slip, friction) between the different phases of the flow as well as the geometry. We will discuss their influences for simplified one- and two-phase flow examples. This research is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the FWF Austrian Science Fund.

  17. First Townsend coefficient of organic vapour in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sernicki, J.

    1990-01-01

    A new concept is presented in the paper for implementing the proven method of determining the first Townsend coefficient (α) of gases using an avalanche counter. The A and B gas constants, interrelated by the expression α/p=A exp[-B/(K/p)], are analyzed. Parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) with an electrode spacing d from 0.1 to 0.4 cm have been employed for the investigation, arranged to register low-energy alpha particles at n-heptane vapour pressures of p≥5 Torr. An in-depth discussion is given, covering the veracity and the behaviour vs K/p, of the n-heptane A and B constants determined at reduced electric-field intensity values ranging from 173.5 to 940 V/cm Torr; the constants have been found to depend upon d. The results of the investigation are compared to available data of the α coefficient of organic vapours used in avalanche counters. The PPAC method of determining α reveals some imperfections at very low values of the pd product. (orig.)

  18. AN MHD AVALANCHE IN A MULTI-THREADED CORONAL LOOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, A. W.; Cargill, P. J.; Tam, K. V. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Browning, P. K., E-mail: awh@st-andrews.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-20

    For the first time, we demonstrate how an MHD avalanche might occur in a multithreaded coronal loop. Considering 23 non-potential magnetic threads within a loop, we use 3D MHD simulations to show that only one thread needs to be unstable in order to start an avalanche even when the others are below marginal stability. This has significant implications for coronal heating in that it provides for energy dissipation with a trigger mechanism. The instability of the unstable thread follows the evolution determined in many earlier investigations. However, once one stable thread is disrupted, it coalesces with a neighboring thread and this process disrupts other nearby threads. Coalescence with these disrupted threads then occurs leading to the disruption of yet more threads as the avalanche develops. Magnetic energy is released in discrete bursts as the surrounding stable threads are disrupted. The volume integrated heating, as a function of time, shows short spikes suggesting that the temporal form of the heating is more like that of nanoflares than of constant heating.

  19. Avalanches in the Bean critical-state model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barford, W.

    1997-01-01

    A macroscopic equation of motion for the flux density in dirty type-II superconductors is introduced. The flux density is subject to various types of spatially varying pinning force. When there is no stick-slip dynamics, i.e., when the static pinning force equals the dynamic pinning force, it is shown that in both one and two dimensions an increase in the surface magnetic field leads to an overall height change and hence to a change in magnetization equal to the change in the surface magnetic field. More interesting behavior occurs on introducing stick-slip dynamics, i.e., when the static pinning force exceeds the dynamic pinning force. In this limit a distribution of avalanche sizes over four orders of magnitude is found for a 100x100 lattice. Apart from the anomalous behavior at large sizes, this is shown to fit a distribution of the form P(s)∼s -ν exp(-s/α), where s is the avalanche size. The anomalous behavior for large sizes corresponds to avalanches which involve most of the lattice and, hence, cause the flux to open-quotes slide over the edge,close quotes as detected by a change in the edge magnetization. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. A discrete model of the development and relaxation of a local microbreakdown in silicon avalanche photodiodes operating in the Geiger mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanyushin, I. V.; Gergel, V. A.; Gontar', V. M.; Zimoglyad, V. A.; Tishin, Yu. I.; Kholodnov, V. A.; Shcheleva, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    A new discrete theoretical model of the development and relaxation of a local microbreakdown in silicon avalanche photodiodes operating in the Geiger mode is developed. It is shown that the spreading resistance in the substrate profoundly affects both the amplitude of a single-photon electrical pulse and the possibility of attaining the steady-state form of the avalanche breakdown excluding the Geiger mode of the photodiode's operation. The model is employed to interpret the experimental data obtained using test single-photon cells of avalanche photodiodes fabricated on the basis of the 0.25-μm silicon technology with the use of deep implantation to form the region of avalanche multiplication for the charge carriers. Excellent functional properties of the studied type of the single-photon (Geiger) cell are noted. A typical amplitude characteristic of the cell for optical radiation with the wavelength λ = 0.56 μm in the irradiance range of 10 -3 -10 2 lx is presented; this characteristic indicates that the quantum efficiency of photoconversion is extremely high

  1. Non-Geiger-Mode Single-Photon Avalanche Detector with Low Excess Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Lo, YuHwa; Farr, William

    2010-01-01

    This design constitutes a self-resetting (gain quenching), room-temperature operational semiconductor single-photon-sensitive detector that is sensitive to telecommunications optical wavelengths and is scalable to large areas (millimeter diameter) with high bandwidth and efficiencies. The device can detect single photons at a 1,550-nm wavelength at a gain of 1 x 10(exp 6). Unlike conventional single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), where gain is an extremely sensitive function to the bias voltage, the multiplication gain of this device is stable at 1 x 10(exp 6) over a wide range of bias from 30.2 to 30.9 V. Here, the multiplication gain is defined as the total number of charge carriers contained in one output pulse that is triggered by the absorption of a single photon. The statistics of magnitude of output signals also shows that the device has a very narrow pulse height distribution, which demonstrates a greatly suppressed gain fluctuation. From the histograms of both pulse height and pulse charge, the equivalent gain variance (excess noise) is between 1.001 and 1.007 at a gain of 1 x 10(exp 6). With these advantages, the device holds promise to function as a PMT-like photon counter at a 1,550- nm wavelength. The epitaxial layer structure of the device allows photons to be absorbed in the InGaAs layer, generating electron/hole (e-h) pairs. Driven by an electrical field in InGaAs, electrons are collected at the anode while holes reach the multiplication region (InAlAs p-i-n structure) and trigger the avalanche process. As a result, a large number of e-h pairs are created, and the holes move toward the cathode. Holes created by the avalanche process gain large kinetic energy through the electric field, and are considered hot. These hot holes are cooled as they travel across a p -InAlAs low field region, and are eventually blocked by energy barriers formed by the InGaAsP/ InAlAs heterojunctions. The composition of the InGaAsP alloy was chosen to have an 80 me

  2. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-01-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ∼5 × 10 10 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  3. Two-dimensional simulation research of secondary electron emission avalanche discharge on vacuum insulator surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.

  4. Two-dimensional simulation research of secondary electron emission avalanche discharge on vacuum insulator surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data

  5. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  6. Granular avalanches on the Moon: Mass-wasting conditions, processes, and features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokelaar, B. P.; Bahia, R. S.; Joy, K. H.; Viroulet, S.; Gray, J. M. N. T.

    2017-09-01

    Seven lunar crater sites of granular avalanches are studied utilizing high-resolution images (0.42-1.3 m/pixel) from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera; one, in Kepler crater, is examined in detail. All the sites are slopes of debris extensively aggraded by frictional freezing at their dynamic angle of repose, four in craters formed in basaltic mare and three in the anorthositic highlands. Diverse styles of mass wasting occur, and three types of dry-debris flow deposit are recognized: (1) multiple channel-and-lobe type, with coarse-grained levees and lobate terminations that impound finer debris, (2) single-surge polylobate type, with subparallel arrays of lobes and fingers with segregated coarse-grained margins, and (3) multiple-ribbon type, with tracks reflecting reworked substrate, minor levees, and no coarse terminations. The latter type results from propagation of granular erosion-deposition waves down slopes dominantly of fine regolith, and it is the first recognized natural example. Dimensions, architectures, and granular segregation styles of the two coarse-grained deposit types are like those formed in natural and experimental avalanches on Earth, although the timescale of motion differs due to the reduced gravity. Influences of reduced gravity and fine-grained regolith on dynamics of granular flow and deposition appear slight, but we distinguish, for the first time, extensive remobilization of coarse talus by inundation with finer debris. The (few) sites show no clear difference attributable to the contrasting mare basalt and highland megaregolith host rocks and their fragmentation. This lunar study offers a benchmarking of deposit types that can be attributed to formation without influence of liquid or gas.

  7. Improving the performance of the MWPC X-ray imaging detector by means of the Multi-Step Avalanche technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray imaging systems based on conventional MWPC technology and artificial delay line readout techniques have been developed at RAL for several applications over a period of some eight years. It is perceived that very limited scope exists for the further improvement of the imaging capability of the standard MWPC design. Attention has therefore been turned to the possibility of exploiting the Multi-Step Avalanche (MSA) system of electron multiplication in this context. Results from a prototype system are presented which show spatial resolution better than that achieved in the MWPC systems. The facility for controlling the effective depth of the detector electronically is also demonstrated. (author)

  8. Statistical evaluation of waveform collapse reveals scale-free properties of neuronal avalanches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleena eShaukat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural avalanches are a prominent form of brain activity characterized by network-wide bursts whose statistics follow a power-law distribution with a slope near 3/2. Recent work suggests that avalanches of different durations can be rescaled and thus collapsed together. This collapse mirrors work in statistical physics where it is proposed to form a signature of systems evolving in a critical state. However, no rigorous statistical test has been proposed to examine the degree to which neuronal avalanches collapse together. Here, we describe a statistical test based on functional data analysis, where raw avalanches are first smoothed with a Fourier basis, then rescaled using a time-warping function. Finally, an F ratio test combined with a bootstrap permutation is employed to determine if avalanches collapse together in a statistically reliable fashion. To illustrate this approach, we recorded avalanches from cortical cultures on multielectrode arrays as in previous work. Analyses show that avalanches of various durations can be collapsed together in a statistically robust fashion. However, a principal components analysis revealed that the offset of avalanches resulted in marked variance in the time-warping function, thus arguing for limitations to the strict fractal nature of avalanche dynamics. We compared these results with those obtained from cultures treated with an AMPA/NMDA receptor antagonist (APV/DNQX, which yield a power-law of avalanche durations with a slope greater than 3/2. When collapsed together, these avalanches showed marked misalignments both at onset and offset time-points. In sum, the proposed statistical evaluation suggests the presence of scale-free avalanche waveforms and constitutes an avenue for examining critical dynamics in neuronal systems.

  9. Amplitude−temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated during subnanosecond breakdown in air and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasenko, V. F., E-mail: vft@loi.hcei.tsc.ru; Baksht, E. Kh.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I. [Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Current Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    The amplitude−temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with an amplitude of up to 100 A, as well as of the breakdown voltage and discharge current, are studied experimentally with a picosecond time resolution. The waveforms of discharge and SAEB currents are synchronized with those of the voltage pulses. It is shown that the amplitude−temporal characteristics of the SAEB depend on the gap length and the designs of the gas diode and cathode. The mechanism for the generation of runaway electron beams in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  10. Amplitude-temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated during subnanosecond breakdown in air and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The amplitude-temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with an amplitude of up to 100 A, as well as of the breakdown voltage and discharge current, are studied experimentally with a picosecond time resolution. The waveforms of discharge and SAEB currents are synchronized with those of the voltage pulses. It is shown that the amplitude-temporal characteristics of the SAEB depend on the gap length and the designs of the gas diode and cathode. The mechanism for the generation of runaway electron beams in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  11. Theory of suppressing avalanche process of carrier in short pulse laser irradiated dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H. X., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu; Zu, X. T., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu; Xiang, X. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zheng, W. G.; Yuan, X. D. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, K., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu [Department of Materials Engineering and Sciences, University of Michigan, 413B Space Research Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Gao, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P. O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    A theory for controlling avalanche process of carrier during short pulse laser irradiation is proposed. We show that avalanche process of conduction band electrons (CBEs) is determined by the occupation number of phonons in dielectrics. The theory provides a way to suppress avalanche process and a direct judgment for the contribution of avalanche process and photon ionization process to the generation of CBEs. The obtained temperature dependent rate equation shows that the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics, e.g., fused silica, increase nonlinearly with the decreases of temperature. Present theory predicts a new approach to improve the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics.

  12. IFKIS - a basis for managing avalanche risk in settlements and on roads in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bründl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available After the avalanche winter of 1999 in Switzerland, which caused 17 deaths and damage of over CHF 600 mill. in buildings and on roads, the project IFKIS, aimed at improving the basics of organizational measures (closure of roads, evacuation etc. in avalanche risk management, was initiated. The three main parts of the project were the development of a compulsory checklist for avalanche safety services, a modular education and training course program and an information system for safety services. The information system was developed in order to improve both the information flux between the national centre for avalanche forecasting, the Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, and the local safety services on the one hand and the communication between avalanche safety services in the communities on the other hand. The results of this project make a valuable contribution to strengthening organizational measures in avalanche risk management and to closing the gaps, which became apparent during the avalanche winter of 1999. They are not restricted to snow avalanches but can also be adapted for dealing with other natural hazard processes and catastrophes.

  13. Information processing occurs via critical avalanches in a model of the primary visual cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolotto, G. S.; Girardi-Schappo, M.; Gonsalves, J. J.; Tragtenberg, M. H. R.; Pinto, L. T.

    2016-01-01

    We study a new biologically motivated model for the Macaque monkey primary visual cortex which presents power-law avalanches after a visual stimulus. The signal propagates through all the layers of the model via avalanches that depend on network structure and synaptic parameter. We identify four different avalanche profiles as a function of the excitatory postsynaptic potential. The avalanches follow a size-duration scaling relation and present critical exponents that match experiments. The structure of the network gives rise to a regime of two characteristic spatial scales, one of which vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. (paper)

  14. Snow Avalanche Disturbance Ecology: Examples From the San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, S.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated landscape ecology approaches to characterize snow avalanche paths based on patterns of plant species composition and evidence of disturbance. Historical records of avalanche incidents, patterns in the annual growth layers of woody plants, and distributions of plant species can be used to quantify and map the frequency and magnitude of snow slide events. Near Silverton, Colorado, a series of snow storms in January of 2005 resulted in many avalanche paths running full track at 30 and 100 year return frequency. Many avalanches cut fresh trimlines, widening their tracks by uprooting, stripping, and breaking mature trees. Powerful avalanches deposited massive piles of snow, rocks, and woody debris in their runout zones. We used cross-section discs and cores of representative downed trees to detect dendro-ecological signals of past snow avalanche disturbance. Avalanche signals included impact scars from the moving snow and associated wind blast, relative width of annual growth rings, and development of reaction wood in response to tilting. Initial measurements of plant diversity and disturbance along the elevation gradient of an avalanche path near Silverton indicate that avalanche activity influences patterns of forest cover, contributes to the high local plant species diversity, and provides opportunities for new seedling establishment.

  15. Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Brucella Typing Reveals Multiple Lineages in Brucella melitensis Currently Endemic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. In China, brucellosis is recognized as a reemerging disease mainly caused by Brucella melitensis specie. To better understand the currently endemic B. melitensis strains in China, three Brucella genotyping methods were applied to 110 B. melitensis strains obtained in past several years. By MLVA genotyping, five MLVA-8 genotypes were identified, among which genotypes 42 (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2 was recognized as the predominant genotype, while genotype 63 (1-5-3-13-2-3-3-2 and a novel genotype of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 were second frequently observed. MLVA-16 discerned a total of 57 MLVA-16 genotypes among these Brucella strains, with 41 genotypes being firstly detected and the other 16 genotypes being previously reported. By BruMLSA21 typing, six sequence types (STs were identified, among them ST8 is the most frequently seen in China while the other five STs were firstly detected and designated as ST137, ST138, ST139, ST140, and ST141 by international multilocus sequence typing database. Whole-genome sequence (WGS-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based typing and phylogenetic analysis resolved Chinese B. melitensis strains into five clusters, reflecting the existence of multiple lineages among these Chinese B. melitensis strains. In phylogeny, Chinese lineages are more closely related to strains collected from East Mediterranean and Middle East countries, such as Turkey, Kuwait, and Iraq. In the next few years, MLVA typing will certainly remain an important epidemiological tool for Brucella infection analysis, as it displays a high discriminatory ability and achieves result largely in agreement with WGS-SNP-based typing. However, WGS-SNP-based typing is found to be the most powerful and reliable method in discerning Brucella strains and will be popular used in the future.

  16. Profiles of current speed, direction and other data from ADCP casts from MULTIPLE SHIPS from 01 January 1996 to 25 May 1999 (NODC Accession 9900096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profiles of current speed , direction and other data from ADCP casts from MULTIPLE SHIPS. Data were collected by the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) from 01...

  17. A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasschau, Margaret; Sherman, Kathleen; Haider, Lamia; Frontario, Ariana; Shaw, Michael; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Charvet, Leigh

    2015-12-26

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that uses low amplitude direct currents to alter cortical excitability. With well-established safety and tolerability, tDCS has been found to have the potential to ameliorate symptoms such as depression and pain in a range of conditions as well as to enhance outcomes of cognitive and physical training. However, effects are cumulative, requiring treatments that can span weeks or months and frequent, repeated visits to the clinic. The cost in terms of time and travel is often prohibitive for many participants, and ultimately limits real-world access. Following guidelines for remote tDCS application, we propose a protocol that would allow remote (in-home) participation that uses specially-designed devices for supervised use with materials modified for patient use, and real-time monitoring through a telemedicine video conferencing platform. We have developed structured training procedures and clear, detailed instructional materials to allow for self- or proxy-administration while supervised remotely in real-time. The protocol is designed to have a series of checkpoints, addressing attendance and tolerability of the session, to be met in order to continue to the next step. The feasibility of this protocol was then piloted for clinical use in an open label study of remotely-supervised tDCS in multiple sclerosis (MS). This protocol can be widely used for clinical study of tDCS.

  18. Design of six pulse bridge multiplication converter model for current harmonic elimination of three phase ac-dc converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, M.A.; Helepoto, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of semiconductor technology and wide spread use of power electronic devices in power system have open the era of the power system harmonics due to increasing penetration of non-linear loads. Harmonics are widely admitted as most important issues of power quality which must be eliminated to maintain power system reliability. The tolerable THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) values must be bounded in well-defined limits recognized by IEEE-519 standard. In this work, in order to eliminate the current harmonics produced by non-linear loads, six pulse multiplication converter technique in conjunction with STSSHPE (Single Tuned Shunt Harmonic Passive Filter) is proposed. The proposed model has the capacity of harmonic cancellation of the dominant 3rd order harmonics. Besides that, the 5th and 7th order harmonics are also reduced to a diminishing level. The hardware model has been experimentally tested by PQA (Power Quality Analyzer) and simulation model is designed using MATLAB software. The acquired results have been measured by considering THD values in terms of current and voltage. Furthermore, they have been compared against IEEE-519 performance standards. The prosed model, successfully bounds the total harmonic distortion under defined limits by IEEE-519 standard. (author)

  19. Impulse response measurement in the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Pal, Ravinder

    2018-04-01

    HgCdTe based mid-wave infrared focal plane arrays (MWIR FPAs) are being developed for high resolution imaging and range determination of distant camouflaged targets. Effect of bandgap grading on the response time in the n+/ν/p+ HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is evaluated using impulse response measurement. Gain normalized dark current density of 2 × 10-9 A/cm2 at low reverse bias for passive mode and 2 × 10-4 A/cm2 at -8 V for active mode is measured in the fabricated APD device, yielding high gain bandwidth product of 2.4 THZ at the maximum gain. Diffusion of carriers is minimized to achieve transit time limited impulse response by introducing composition grading in the HgCdTe epilayer. The noise equivalent photon performance less than one is achievable in the FPA that is suitable for active cum passive imaging applications.

  20. Etching of anode wire deposits with CF4/isobutane (80:20) avalanches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, R.; Henderson, R.S.; Faszer, W.; Salomon, M.

    1990-11-01

    An ionization exposure of 0.5 coulombs per cm of wire in a gas mixture of CF 4 /isobutane (80:20) is shown to reverse anode wire damage in single-wire chambers. Several chambers aged in argon/ethane (50:50) and argon/ethane/ethanol (50:50:0.2) and having pulse height reductions of 25-30% have recovered pulse heights and currents to greater than 98% of their initial values. Inspection of the anode wires indicates that the thick deposits caused by the exposure in argon/ethane have been removed. Auger electron spectroscopy reveals only a thin residual layer containing primarily carbon and oxygen. This etching ability of CF 4 /isobutane (80:20) avalanches may explain the extremely good ageing characteristics previously reported for this mixture. (Author) (13 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.)

  1. Etching of anode wire deposits with CF4/isobutane (80:20) avalanches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, R.; Henderson, R.S.; Faszer, W.; Salomon, M.

    1991-01-01

    An ionization exposure of 0.5 C per cm of wire in a gas mixture of CF 4 /isobutane (80:20) is shown to reverse anode wire damage in single-wire chambers. Several chambers aged in argon/ethane (50:50) and argon/ethane/ethanol (50:50:0.2) and having pulse height reduction of 25-30% have recovered pulse heights and currents to greater than 98% of their initial values. Inspection of the anode wires indicates that the thick deposits caused by the exposure in argon/ethane have been removed. Auger electron spectroscopy reveals only a thin residual layer containing primarily carbon and oxygen. This etching ability of CF 4 /isobutane (80:20) avalanches may explain the extremely good ageing characteristics previously reported for this mixture. (orig.)

  2. Subsampling effects in neuronal avalanche distributions recorded in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munk Matthias HJ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems in nature are characterized by complex behaviour where large cascades of events, or avalanches, unpredictably alternate with periods of little activity. Snow avalanches are an example. Often the size distribution f(s of a system's avalanches follows a power law, and the branching parameter sigma, the average number of events triggered by a single preceding event, is unity. A power law for f(s, and sigma = 1, are hallmark features of self-organized critical (SOC systems, and both have been found for neuronal activity in vitro. Therefore, and since SOC systems and neuronal activity both show large variability, long-term stability and memory capabilities, SOC has been proposed to govern neuronal dynamics in vivo. Testing this hypothesis is difficult because neuronal activity is spatially or temporally subsampled, while theories of SOC systems assume full sampling. To close this gap, we investigated how subsampling affects f(s and sigma by imposing subsampling on three different SOC models. We then compared f(s and sigma of the subsampled models with those of multielectrode local field potential (LFP activity recorded in three macaque monkeys performing a short term memory task. Results Neither the LFP nor the subsampled SOC models showed a power law for f(s. Both, f(s and sigma, depended sensitively on the subsampling geometry and the dynamics of the model. Only one of the SOC models, the Abelian Sandpile Model, exhibited f(s and sigma similar to those calculated from LFP activity. Conclusion Since subsampling can prevent the observation of the characteristic power law and sigma in SOC systems, misclassifications of critical systems as sub- or supercritical are possible. Nevertheless, the system specific scaling of f(s and sigma under subsampling conditions may prove useful to select physiologically motivated models of brain function. Models that better reproduce f(s and sigma calculated from the physiological

  3. Martian Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Process and Associated Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Telana L.; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Gregory T.; Nithianandam, Jeyasingh

    2010-01-01

    Mars' dynamic atmosphere displays localized dust devils and larger, global dust storms. Based on terrestrial analog studies, electrostatic modeling, and laboratory work these features will contain large electrostatic fields formed via triboelectric processes. In the low-pressure Martian atmosphere, these fields may create an electron avalanche and collisional plasma due to an increase in electron density driven by the internal electrical forces. To test the hypothesis that an electron avalanche is sustained under these conditions, a self-consistent atmospheric process model is created including electron impact ionization sources and electron losses via dust absorption, electron dissociation attachment, and electron/ion recombination. This new model is called the Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Model (DDEAM). This model solves simultaneously nine continuity equations describing the evolution of the primary gaseous chemical species involved in the electrochemistry. DDEAM monitors the evolution of the electrons and primary gas constituents, including electron/water interactions. We especially focus on electron dynamics and follow the electrons as they evolve in the E field driven collisional gas. When sources and losses are self-consistently included in the electron continuity equation, the electron density grows exponentially with increasing electric field, reaching an equilibrium that forms a sustained time-stable collisional plasma. However, the character of this plasma differs depending upon the assumed growth rate saturation process (chemical saturation versus space charge). DDEAM also shows the possibility of the loss of atmospheric methane as a function of electric field due to electron dissociative attachment of the hydrocarbon. The methane destruction rates are presented and can be included in other larger atmospheric models.

  4. Pressure-Dependent Friction on Granular Slopes Close to Avalanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassous, Jérôme; Humeau, Antoine; Boury, Samuel; Casas, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the sliding of objects on an inclined granular surface close to the avalanche threshold. Our experiments show that the stability is driven by the surface deformations. Heavy objects generate footprintlike deformations which stabilize the objects on the slopes. Light objects do not disturb the sandy surfaces and are also stable. For intermediate weights, the deformations of the surface generate a sliding of the objects. The solid friction coefficient does not follow the Amontons-Coulomb laws, but is found minimal for a characteristic pressure. Applications to the locomotion of devices and animals on sandy slopes as a function of their mass are proposed.

  5. Pressure-Dependent Friction on Granular Slopes Close to Avalanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassous, Jérôme; Humeau, Antoine; Boury, Samuel; Casas, Jérôme

    2017-08-04

    We investigate the sliding of objects on an inclined granular surface close to the avalanche threshold. Our experiments show that the stability is driven by the surface deformations. Heavy objects generate footprintlike deformations which stabilize the objects on the slopes. Light objects do not disturb the sandy surfaces and are also stable. For intermediate weights, the deformations of the surface generate a sliding of the objects. The solid friction coefficient does not follow the Amontons-Coulomb laws, but is found minimal for a characteristic pressure. Applications to the locomotion of devices and animals on sandy slopes as a function of their mass are proposed.

  6. Studies of light emission by continuously sensitive avalanche chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Dominik, W.; Fabre, J.P.; Gaudaen, J.; Sauli, F.; Suzuki, M.

    1988-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the optical recording of images of electron avalanches between parallel meshes have been studied. The emission spectra of gas mixtures have been investigated, where triethylamine (TEA), tetrakis(dimethylamine)ethylene (TMAE), and nitrogen, are used as the photon-emitting agents. For a given charge gain, the photon intensity decreases with electric field. This favours amplification between parallel meshes instead of wires. The use of intensified CCD cameras permits the recording of the local energy loss along the tracks. (orig.)

  7. Energy pumping in electrical circuits under avalanche noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kiyoshi; Sagawa, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    We theoretically study energy pumping processes in an electrical circuit with avalanche diodes, where non-Gaussian athermal noise plays a crucial role. We show that a positive amount of energy (work) can be extracted by an external manipulation of the circuit in a cyclic way, even when the system is spatially symmetric. We discuss the properties of the energy pumping process for both quasistatic and finite-time cases, and analytically obtain formulas for the amounts of the work and the power. Our results demonstrate the significance of the non-Gaussianity in energetics of electrical circuits.

  8. Systematic test on fast time resolution parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Li Guangwu; Gu Xianbao; Chen Yanchao; Zhang Gang; Zhang Wenhui; Yan Guohong

    2011-01-01

    Systematic test on each detect unit of parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) used in the fission multi-parameter measurement was performed with a 241 Am α source to get the time resolution and position resolution. The detectors work at 600 Pa flowing isobutane and with-600 V on cathode. The time resolution was got by TOF method and the position resolution was got by delay line method. The time resolution of detect units is better than 400 ps, and the position resolution is 6 mm. The results show that the demand of measurement is fully covered. (authors)

  9. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  10. Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) in CMOS 0.35 µm technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellion, D.; Jradi, K.; Brochard, N. [Le2i – CNRS/Univ. de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Prêle, D. [APC – CNRS/Univ. Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Ginhac, D. [Le2i – CNRS/Univ. de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

    2015-07-01

    Some decades ago single photon detection used to be the terrain of photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. However, PMT has several disadvantages such as low quantum efficiency, overall dimensions, and cost, making them unsuitable for compact design of integrated systems. So, the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in new integrated single-photon detectors called Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) or Geiger-mode APD. SPAD are working in avalanche mode above the breakdown level. When an incident photon is captured, a very fast avalanche is triggered, generating an easily detectable current pulse. This paper discusses SPAD detectors fabricated in a standard CMOS technology featuring both single-photon sensitivity, and excellent timing resolution, while guaranteeing a high integration. In this work, we investigate the design of SPAD detectors using the AMS 0.35 µm CMOS Opto technology. Indeed, such standard CMOS technology allows producing large surface (few mm{sup 2}) of single photon sensitive detectors. Moreover, SPAD in CMOS technologies could be associated to electronic readout such as active quenching, digital to analog converter, memories and any specific processing required to build efficient calorimeters (Silicon PhotoMultiplier – SiPM) or high resolution imagers (SPAD imager). The present work investigates SPAD geometry. MOS transistor has been used instead of resistor to adjust the quenching resistance and find optimum value. From this first set of results, a detailed study of the dark count rate (DCR) has been conducted. Our results show a dark count rate increase with the size of the photodiodes and the temperature (at T=22.5 °C, the DCR of a 10 µm-photodiode is 2020 count s{sup −1} while it is 270 count s{sup −1} at T=−40 °C for a overvoltage of 800 mV). A small pixel size is desirable, because the DCR per unit area decreases with the pixel size. We also found that the adjustment

  11. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of analog random multiplicative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.B.M.; Vermelho, M.V.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio - AL, 57072-970 (Brazil); Lyra, M.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio - AL, 57072-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelo@if.ufal.br; Viswanathan, G.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio - AL, 57072-970 (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    We investigate non-Gaussian statistical properties of stationary stochastic signals generated by an analog circuit that simulates a random multiplicative process with weak additive noise. The random noises are originated by thermal shot noise and avalanche processes, while the multiplicative process is generated by a fully analog circuit. The resulting signal describes stochastic time series of current interest in several areas such as turbulence, finance, biology and environment, which exhibit power-law distributions. Specifically, we study the correlation properties of the signal by employing a detrended fluctuation analysis and explore its multifractal nature. The singularity spectrum is obtained and analyzed as a function of the control circuit parameter that tunes the asymptotic power-law form of the probability distribution function.

  12. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-03-03

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57–96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0–2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  13. The state of multiple sclerosis: current insight into the patient/health care provider relationship, treatment challenges, and satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintoré, Mar; Alexander, Maggie; Costello, Kathleen; Duddy, Martin; Jones, David E; Law, Nancy; O’Neill, Gilmore; Uccelli, Antonio; Weissert, Robert; Wray, Sibyl

    2017-01-01

    Background Managing multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment presents challenges for both patients and health care professionals. Effective communication between patients with MS and their neurologist is important for improving clinical outcomes and quality of life. Methods A closed-ended online market research survey was used to assess the current state of MS care from the perspective of both patients with MS (≥18 years of age) and neurologists who treat MS from Europe and the US and to gain insight into perceptions of treatment expectations/goals, treatment decisions, treatment challenges, communication, and satisfaction with care, based on current clinical practice. Results A total of 900 neurologists and 982 patients completed the survey, of whom 46% self-identified as having remitting-relapsing MS, 29% secondary progressive MS, and 11% primary progressive MS. Overall, patients felt satisfied with their disease-modifying therapy (DMT); satisfaction related to comfort in speaking with their neurologist and participation in their DMT decision-making process. Patients who self-identified as having relapsing-remitting MS were more likely to be very satisfied with their treatment. Top challenges identified by patients in managing their DMT were cost, side effects/tolerability of treatment, and uncertainty if treatment was working. Half of the patients reported skipping doses, but only 68% told their health care provider that they did so. Conclusion Several important differences in perception were identified between patients and neurologists concerning treatment selection, satisfaction, expectations, goals, and comfort discussing symptoms, as well as treatment challenges and skipped doses. The study results emphasize that patient/neurologist communication and patient input into the treatment decision-making process likely influence patient satisfaction with treatment. PMID:28053511

  14. The state of multiple sclerosis: current insight into the patient/health care provider relationship, treatment challenges, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintoré, Mar; Alexander, Maggie; Costello, Kathleen; Duddy, Martin; Jones, David E; Law, Nancy; O'Neill, Gilmore; Uccelli, Antonio; Weissert, Robert; Wray, Sibyl

    2017-01-01

    Managing multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment presents challenges for both patients and health care professionals. Effective communication between patients with MS and their neurologist is important for improving clinical outcomes and quality of life. A closed-ended online market research survey was used to assess the current state of MS care from the perspective of both patients with MS (≥18 years of age) and neurologists who treat MS from Europe and the US and to gain insight into perceptions of treatment expectations/goals, treatment decisions, treatment challenges, communication, and satisfaction with care, based on current clinical practice. A total of 900 neurologists and 982 patients completed the survey, of whom 46% self-identified as having remitting-relapsing MS, 29% secondary progressive MS, and 11% primary progressive MS. Overall, patients felt satisfied with their disease-modifying therapy (DMT); satisfaction related to comfort in speaking with their neurologist and participation in their DMT decision-making process. Patients who self-identified as having relapsing-remitting MS were more likely to be very satisfied with their treatment. Top challenges identified by patients in managing their DMT were cost, side effects/tolerability of treatment, and uncertainty if treatment was working. Half of the patients reported skipping doses, but only 68% told their health care provider that they did so. Several important differences in perception were identified between patients and neurologists concerning treatment selection, satisfaction, expectations, goals, and comfort discussing symptoms, as well as treatment challenges and skipped doses. The study results emphasize that patient/neurologist communication and patient input into the treatment decision-making process likely influence patient satisfaction with treatment.

  15. Hole-Initiated-Avalanche, Linear-Mode, Single-Photon-Sensitive Avalanche Photodetector with Reduced Excess Noise and Low Dark Count Rate, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A radiation hard, single photon sensitive InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver technology will be demonstrated useful for long range space based optical...

  16. Update on Linear Mode Photon Counting with the HgCdTe Linear Mode Avalanche Photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey D.; Kinch, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the gain-voltage characteristic of the mid-wavelength infrared cutoff HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is discussed both experimentally and theoretically as a function of the width of the multiplication region. Data are shown that demonstrate a strong dependence of the gain at a given bias voltage on the width of the n- gain region. Geometrical and fundamental theoretical models are examined to explain this behavior. The geometrical model takes into account the gain-dependent optical fill factor of the cylindrical APD. The theoretical model is based on the ballistic ionization model being developed for the HgCdTe APD. It is concluded that the fundamental theoretical explanation is the dominant effect. A model is developed that combines both the geometrical and fundamental effects. The model also takes into account the effect of the varying multiplication width in the low bias region of the gain-voltage curve. It is concluded that the lower than expected gain seen in the first 2 × 8 HgCdTe linear mode photon counting APD arrays, and higher excess noise factor, was very likely due to the larger than typical multiplication region length in the photon counting APD pixel design. The implications of these effects on device photon counting performance are discussed.

  17. Low power wide spectrum optical transmitter using avalanche mode LEDs in SOI CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, V.; Dutta, S; Annema, AJ; Hueting, RJE; Steeneken, P.G.; Nauta, B

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a low power monolithically integrated optical transmitter with avalanche mode light emitting diodes in a 140 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Avalanche mode LEDs in silicon exhibit wide-spectrum electroluminescence (400 nm < λ < 850 nm), which has a significant

  18. Current Understanding on the Role of Standard and Immunoproteasomes in Inflammatory/Immunological Pathways of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bellavista

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major intracellular molecular machinery for protein degradation and maintenance of protein homeostasis in most human cells. As ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a critical role in the regulation of the immune system, it might also influence the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS. Both ex vivo analyses and animal models suggest that activity and composition of ubiquitin-proteasome system are altered in MS. Proteasome isoforms endowed of immunosubunits may affect the functionality of different cell types such as CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and B cells as well as neurons during MS development. Furthermore, the study of proteasome-related biomarkers, such as proteasome antibodies and circulating proteasomes, may represent a field of interest in MS. Proteasome inhibitors are already used as treatment for cancer and the recent development of inhibitors selective for immunoproteasome subunits may soon represent novel therapeutic approaches to the different forms of MS. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the potential role of proteasomes in MS and discuss the pro et contra of possible therapies for MS targeting proteasome isoforms.

  19. Multiple sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation and upper extremity rehabilitation in stroke: A review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco Triccas, L; Burridge, J H; Hughes, A M; Pickering, R M; Desikan, M; Rothwell, J C; Verheyden, G

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the methodology in particular treatment options and outcomes and the effect of multiple sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with rehabilitation programmes for upper extremity recovery post stroke. A search was conducted for randomised controlled trials involving tDCS and rehabilitation for the upper extremity in stroke. Quality of included studies was analysed using the Modified Downs and Black form. The extent of, and effect of variation in treatment parameters such as anodal, cathodal and bi-hemispheric tDCS on upper extremity outcome measures of impairment and activity were analysed using meta-analysis. Nine studies (371 participants with acute, sub-acute and chronic stroke) were included. Different methodologies of tDCS and upper extremity intervention, outcome measures and timing of assessments were identified. Real tDCS combined with rehabilitation had a small non-significant effect of +0.11 (p=0.44) and +0.24 (p=0.11) on upper extremity impairments and activities at post-intervention respectively. Various tDCS methods have been used in stroke rehabilitation. The evidence so far is not statistically significant, but is suggestive of, at best, a small beneficial effect on upper extremity impairment. Future research should focus on which patients and rehabilitation programmes are likely to respond to different tDCS regimes. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Space charge limited avalanche growth in multigap resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akindinov, A.N.; Kaidalov, A.B.; Kisselev, S.M.; Alici, A.; Basile, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Anselmo, F.; Antonioli, P.; Romeo, G. Cara; Cindolo, F.; Baek, Y.; Kim, D.H.; Cosenza, F.; Caro, A. De; Pasquale, S. De; Bartolomeo, A. Di; Girard, M. Fusco; Guida, M.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Kim, D.W.; Laurenti, G.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.C.; Lioublev, E.; Luvisetto, M.L.; Margotti, A.; Martemiyanov, A.N.; Nania, R.; Noferini, F.; Otiougova, P.; Pierella, F.; Polozov, P.A.; Scapparone, E.; Scioli, G.; Sellitto, S.B.; Smirnitski, A.V.; Tchoumakov, M.M.; Valenti, G.; Vicinanza, D.; Voloshin, K.G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zagreev, B.V.; Zampolli, C.; Zichichi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The ALICE TOF array will be built using the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber(MRPC) configured as a double stack. Each stack contains 5 gas gaps with width of 250 μm. There has been an intense R and D effort to optimise this new detector to withstand the problems connected with the high level of radiation at the LHC. One clear outcome of the R and D is that the growth of the gas avalanche is strongly affected by space charge. The effect of the space charge is a decrease in the rate of change in gain with electric field; this allows more stable operation of this detector. We have measured the gain as a function of the electric field and also measured the ratio of the fast charge to the total charge produced in the gas gap. It is well established that RPCs built with 250 μm gas gap have a much superior performance than 2 mm gaps; we discuss and compare the performance of 250 μm gap MRPCs with 2 mm gap RPCs to show the importance of space-charge limitation of avalanche growth. (orig.)

  1. Does Avalanche Shovel Shape Affect Excavation Time: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Schindelwig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Europe and North America, approximately 150 fatalities occur as a result of avalanches every year. However, it is unclear whether certain shovel shapes are more effective than others in snow removal during avalanche victim recovery. The objective was to determine the performance parameters with a developed standardized test using different shovel shapes and to determine sex-specific differences. Hence, several parameters were determined for clearing the snow from a snow filled box (15 men, 14 women. A flat (F and a deep (D shovel blade with the shaft connected straight (S or in clearing mode (C were used for the investigation of the shovel shapes FS, DC and the subsequent use of DC&DS. Mean snow mass shifted per unit time increased significantly from 1.50 kg/s with FS to 1.71 kg/s (14% with DS and further to 1.79 kg/s (4% with DC&DS for all participants. Snow mass shifted per unit time was 44% higher (p < 0.05 for men than for women. In excavation operations, the sex-specific physical performance should be taken into account. The results were limited to barely binding snow, because only with this snow did the tests show a high reliability.

  2. Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitropol' skii, M M; Khote' enkov, V A; Khodakov, G S

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the probabilistic aspects of the development of an electron avalanche arising under the influence of a powerful laser beam in a solid transparent dielectric. The distribution function of time and relative fluctuation of the number of electrons was found. The width of the probability function of failure was determined as a function of intensity. The relative dispersion of time of beginning of breakdown can also be determined. Its numerical value under identical conditions is +-7%. These results are similar to the experimentally defined dispersion from an earlier work. The data produced also show that, in spite of the clearly probabilistic nature of the development of an avalanche, the slight width of the distribution causes the use of the threshold criterion for rupture of transparent dielectrics by laser radiation to be practically correct. The dependence of I/sub 0/ on pulse length agrees with experimental data, whereas I/sub 0/ (V) is significantly weaker than the actually observed value. This disagreement can be explained by various imperfections in the structure of the crystals and by their contamination, the frequency of appearance of which, in the focal volume, is proportional to its size and which were not considered in the theoretical statements developed here.

  3. Data collapse and critical dynamics in neuronal avalanche data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas; Friedman, Nir; Dahmen, Karin; Beggs, John; Deville, Lee; Ito, Shinya

    2012-02-01

    The tasks of information processing, computation, and response to stimuli require neural computation to be remarkably flexible and diverse. To optimally satisfy the demands of neural computation, neuronal networks have been hypothesized to operate near a non-equilibrium critical point. In spite of their importance for neural dynamics, experimental evidence for critical dynamics has been primarily limited to power law statistics that can also emerge from non-critical mechanisms. By tracking the firing of large numbers of synaptically connected cortical neurons and comparing the resulting data to the predictions of critical phenomena, we show that cortical tissues in vitro can function near criticality. Among the most striking predictions of critical dynamics is that the mean temporal profiles of avalanches of widely varying durations are quantitatively described by a single universal scaling function (data collapse). We show for the first time that this prediction is confirmed in neuronal networks. We also show that the data have three additional features predicted by critical phenomena: approximate power law distributions of avalanche sizes and durations, samples in subcritical and supercritical phases, and scaling laws between anomalous exponents.

  4. Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casteller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1 to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2 to highlight the potential of Nothofagus pumilio tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.

  5. Contrasting Responses of the Humboldt Current Ecosystem between the Holocene and MIS5e Interglacials Revealed from Multiple Sediment Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatteci, R.; Schneider, R. R.; Blanz, T.; Martinez, P.; Crosta, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Humboldt Current Ecosystem (HCE) off Peru yields about 10% of the global fish catch, producing more fish per unit area than any other region in the world. The high productivity is maintained by the upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water from the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), driven by strong trade winds. However, the potential impacts of climate change on upwelling dynamics and oceanographic conditions in the near future are uncertain, threatening local and global economies. Here, we unravel the response of the HCE to contrasting climatic conditions during the last two interglacials (i.e. Holocene and MIS5e) providing an independent insight about the relation between climatic factors and upwelling and productivity dynamics. For this purpose, we used multiple cores to reconstruct past changes in OMZ and upwelling intensity, productivity and fish biomass variability. Chronologies for the Holocene were obtained by multiple 14C ages and laminae correlations among cores, while for the MIS5e they were mainly done by correlation of prominent features in several proxies with other published records. We used a multiproxy approach including alkenones to reconstruct sea surface temperatures, δ15N as a proxy for water column denitrification, redox sensitive metals as proxies for sediment redox conditions, and diatom and fish debris assemblages to reconstruct ecological changes. The results show a very different response of the HCE to climate conditions during the last 2 interglacials, likely driven by changes in Tropical Pacific dynamics. During the Holocene we find that 1) the Late Holocene exhibits higher multi-centennial scale variability compared to the Early Holocene, 2) increased upwelling and a weak OMZ during the mid-Holocene, and 3) long term increase in productivity (diatoms and fishes) from the Early to the Late Holocene. During the MIS5e we find an 1) intense OMZ, 2) strong water column stratification, 3) high siliceous biomass, and 4) low fish biomass compared

  6. Multiplicities of secondary hadrons produced in #betta#p and anti #betta#p charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessler, H.; Lanske, D.; Schulte, R.; Chima, J.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Talebzadeh, M.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Corrigan, G.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Saitta, B.; Wells, J.

    1983-02-01

    In an experiment with the hydrogen bubble chamber BEBC at CERN multiplicities of hadrons produced in #betta#p and anti #betta# interactions have been investigated. Results are presented on the multiplicities of charged hadrons and neutral pions, forward and backward multiplicities of charged hadrons and correlations between forward and backward multiplicities. Comparisons are made with hadronic reactions and e + e - annihilation. In the framework of the quark-parton model the data imply similar charged multiplicities for the fragments of a u- and a d-quark, and larger multiplicities for the fragments of a uu- than for a ud-diquark. The correlation data suggest independent fragmentation of the quark and diquark for hadronic masses above approx.=7 GeV and local charge compensation within an event. (orig.)

  7. Multiple negative differential resistance devices with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio for practical multi-valued logic and memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) device with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with a conventional MOSFET, which suppresses the valley current with transistor off-leakage level. Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in tunnel junction provides the first peak, and the second peak and valley are generated from the suppression of diffusion current in tunnel diode by the off-state MOSFET. The multiple NDR curves can be controlled by doping concentration of tunnel junction and the threshold voltage of MOSFET. By using complementary multiple NDR devices, five-state memory is demonstrated only with six transistors.

  8. Kinetic modelling of runaway electron avalanches in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, E; Peysson, Y; Saint-Laurent, F; Decker, J; Granetz, R S; Vlainic, M

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electrons can be generated in tokamak plasmas if the accelerating force from the toroidal electric field exceeds the collisional drag force owing to Coulomb collisions with the background plasma. In ITER, disruptions are expected to generate runaway electrons mainly through knock-on collisions (Hender et al 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 S128–202), where enough momentum can be transferred from existing runaways to slow electrons to transport the latter beyond a critical momentum, setting off an avalanche of runaway electrons. Since knock-on runaways are usually scattered off with a significant perpendicular component of the momentum with respect to the local magnetic field direction, these particles are highly magnetized. Consequently, the momentum dynamics require a full 3D kinetic description, since these electrons are highly sensitive to the magnetic non-uniformity of a toroidal configuration. For this purpose, a bounce-averaged knock-on source term is derived. The generation of runaway electrons from the combined effect of Dreicer mechanism and knock-on collision process is studied with the code LUKE, a solver of the 3D linearized bounce-averaged relativistic electron Fokker–Planck equation (Decker and Peysson 2004 DKE: a fast numerical solver for the 3D drift kinetic equation Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA), through the calculation of the response of the electron distribution function to a constant parallel electric field. The model, which has been successfully benchmarked against the standard Dreicer runaway theory now describes the runaway generation by knock-on collisions as proposed by Rosenbluth (Rosenbluth and Putvinski 1997 Nucl. Fusion 37 1355–62). This paper shows that the avalanche effect can be important even in non-disruptive scenarios. Runaway formation through knock-on collisions is found to be strongly reduced when taking place off the magnetic axis, since trapped electrons can not contribute to the runaway electron population. Finally

  9. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF INDIVIDUAL SNOW AVALANCHE RISK ASSESSMENT IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Shnyparkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Government of the Russian Federation considerably increased attention to the exploitation of the Russian Arctic territories. Simultaneously, the evaluation of snow avalanches danger was enhanced with the aim to decrease fatalities and reduce economic losses. However, it turned out that solely reporting the degree of avalanche danger is not sufficient. Instead, quantitative information on probabilistic parameters of natural hazards, the characteristics of their effects on the environment and possibly resulting losses is increasingly needed. Such information allows for the estimation of risk, including risk related to snow avalanches. Here, snow avalanche risk is quantified for the Khibiny Mountains, one of the most industrialized parts of the Russian Arctic: Major parts of the territory have an acceptable degree of individual snow avalanche risk (<1×10-6. The territories with an admissible (10-4–10-6 or unacceptable (>1×10-4 degree of individual snow avalanche risk (0.5 and 2% of the total area correspond to the Southeast of the Khibiny Mountains where settlements and mining industries are situated. Moreover, due to an increase in winter tourism, some traffic infrastructure is located in valleys with an admissible or unacceptable degree of individual snow avalanches risk.

  10. Modeling the influence of snow cover temperature and water content on wet-snow avalanche runout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vera Valero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Snow avalanche motion is strongly dependent on the temperature and water content of the snow cover. In this paper we use a snow cover model, driven by measured meteorological data, to set the initial and boundary conditions for wet-snow avalanche calculations. The snow cover model provides estimates of snow height, density, temperature and liquid water content. This information is used to prescribe fracture heights and erosion heights for an avalanche dynamics model. We compare simulated runout distances with observed avalanche deposition fields using a contingency table analysis. Our analysis of the simulations reveals a large variability in predicted runout for tracks with flat terraces and gradual slope transitions to the runout zone. Reliable estimates of avalanche mass (height and density in the release and erosion zones are identified to be more important than an exact specification of temperature and water content. For wet-snow avalanches, this implies that the layers where meltwater accumulates in the release zone must be identified accurately as this defines the height of the fracture slab and therefore the release mass. Advanced thermomechanical models appear to be better suited to simulate wet-snow avalanche inundation areas than existing guideline procedures if and only if accurate snow cover information is available.

  11. Avalanches near a solid insulator in nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.M.; Sudarshan, T.S.; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208)

    1989-01-01

    The pulsed Townsend (PT) technique was used to record the growth of avalanches near a solid insulator in nitrogen gas at 0.1 MPa. Several other nonconventional techniques for releasing initiatory electrons at the cathode are discussed. In this paper, experimental results of avalanches initiated by illuminating a fast (0.6-ns) nitrogen laser onto the cathode triple junction are presented. Data were recorded with plexiglas, Teflon, high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, Delrin, etc. Effect of surface condition, variation of the distance between insulator surface and the avalanche initiation region, and the effect of a large number of previous avalanches on the avalanche characteristics at a particular voltage were studied. The Townsend primary ionization coefficient, hereafter referred to as growth coefficient (α), and drift velocity (V/sub e/) were evaluated through the PT technique. Results indicate that the avalanche growth in the vicinity of a solid insulator is less than that in an identical plain gas gap. Existence of a nonuniform field as a result of surface charges on the insulator and/or field modifications due to the avalanche space charge are believed to be responsible for this behavior

  12. Studies of avalanche photodiodes for scintillating fibre tracking readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenker, H.; Thomas, J.

    1993-01-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) operating in ''Geiger Mode'' have been studied in a fibre tracking readout environment. A fast recharge circuit has been developed for high rate data taking, and results obtained from a model fibre tracker in the test beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented. A high rate calibrated light source has been developed using a commercially available laser diode and has been used to measure the efficiency of the devices. The transmission of the light from a 1mm fibre onto a 0.5mm diameter APD surface has been identified as the main problem in the use of these particular devices for scintillating fibre tracking in the Superconducting Supercollider environment. Solutions to this problem are proposed

  13. Adaptive aperture for Geiger mode avalanche photodiode flash ladar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Han, Shaokun; Xia, Wenze; Lei, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Although the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) flash ladar system offers the advantages of high sensitivity and simple construction, its detection performance is influenced not only by the incoming signal-to-noise ratio but also by the absolute number of noise photons. In this paper, we deduce a hyperbolic approximation to estimate the noise-photon number from the false-firing percentage in a GM-APD flash ladar system under dark conditions. By using this hyperbolic approximation function, we introduce a method to adapt the aperture to reduce the number of incoming background-noise photons. Finally, the simulation results show that the adaptive-aperture method decreases the false probability in all cases, increases the detection probability provided that the signal exceeds the noise, and decreases the average ranging error per frame.

  14. Avalanche photodiode based time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Keiichi, E-mail: kogasawara@swri.edu; Livi, Stefano A.; Desai, Mihir I.; Ebert, Robert W.; McComas, David J.; Walther, Brandon C. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    This study reports on the performance of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) as a timing detector for ion Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. We found that the fast signal carrier speed in a reach-through type APD enables an extremely short timescale response with a mass or energy independent <2 ns rise time for <200 keV ions (1−40 AMU) under proper bias voltage operations. When combined with a microchannel plate to detect start electron signals from an ultra-thin carbon foil, the APD comprises a novel TOF system that successfully operates with a <0.8 ns intrinsic timing resolution even using commercial off-the-shelf constant-fraction discriminators. By replacing conventional total-energy detectors in the TOF-Energy system, APDs offer significant power and mass savings or an anti-coincidence background rejection capability in future space instrumentation.

  15. TCAD simulations for a novel single-photon avalanche diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiangliang; Yang, Jia; Yang, Hongjiao; Tang, Lizhen; Liu, Weihui

    2015-03-01

    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) device with P+-SEN junction, and a low concentration of N-type doping circular virtual guard-ring was presented in this paper. SEN layer of the proposed SPAD has high concentration of N-type doping, causing the SPAD low breakdown voltage (~14.26 V). What's more, an efficient and narrow (about 2μm) guard-ring of the proposed SPAD not only can withstand considerably higher electric fields for preventing edge breakdown, but also offers a little increment in fill factor compared with existing SPADs due to its small area. In addition, some Silvaco TCAD simulations have been done and verify characteristics and performance of the design in this work.

  16. Avalanche dynamics for active matter in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C. J. O.; Reichhardt, C.

    2018-02-01

    Using numerical simulations, we examine the dynamics of run-and-tumble disks moving in a disordered array of fixed obstacles. As a function of increasing active disk density and activity, we find a transition from a completely clogged state to a continuous flowing phase, and in the large activity limit, we observe an intermittent state where the motion occurs in avalanches that are power law distributed in size with an exponent of β =1.46. In contrast, in the thermal or low activity limit we find bursts of motion that are not broadly distributed in size. We argue that in the highly active regime, the system reaches a self-jamming state due to the activity-induced self-clustering, and that the intermittent dynamics is similar to that found in the yielding of amorphous solids. Our results show that activity is another route by which particulate systems can be tuned to a nonequilibrium critical state.

  17. An excess noise measurement system for weak responsivity avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Dimler, Simon J.; Baharuddin, Aina N. A. P.; Green, James E.; David, John P. R.

    2018-06-01

    A system for measuring, with reduced photocurrent, the excess noise associated with the gain in avalanche photodiodes (APDs), using a transimpedance amplifier front-end and based on phase-sensitive detection is described. The system can reliably measure the excess noise power of devices, even when the un-multiplied photocurrent is low (~10 nA). This is more than one order of magnitude better than previously reported systems and represents a significantly better noise signal to noise ratio. This improvement in performance has been achieved by increasing the value of the feedback resistor and reducing the op-amp bandwidth. The ability to characterise APD performance with such low photocurrents enables the use of low power light sources such as light emitting diode rather than lasers to investigate the APD noise performance.

  18. Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sciacca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Single photon detection is one of the most challenging goals of photonics. In recent years, the study of ultra-fast and/or low-intensity phenomena has received renewed attention from the academic and industrial communities. Intense research activity has been focused on bio-imaging applications, bio-luminescence, bio-scattering methods, and, more in general, on several applications requiring high speed operation and high timing resolution. In this paper we present design and characterization of bi-dimensional arrays of a next generation of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs. Single photon sensitivity, dark noise, afterpulsing and timing resolution of the single SPAD have been examined in several experimental conditions. Moreover, the effects arising from their integration and the readout mode have also been deeply investigated.

  19. Mechanics of debris flows and rock avalanches: Chapter 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Fernando, Harindra Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are geophysical phenomena intermediate in character between rock avalanches and flash floods. They commonly originate as water-laden landslides on steep slopes and transform into liquefied masses of fragmented rock, muddy water, and entrained organic matter that disgorge from canyons onto valley floors. Typically including 50%–70% solid grains by volume, attaining speeds >10 m/s, and ranging in size up to ∼109 m3, debris flows can denude mountainsides, inundate floodplains, and devastate people and property (Figure 43.1). Notable recent debris-flow disasters resulted in more than 20,000 fatalities in Armero, Colombia, in 1985 and in Vargas state, Venezuela, in 1999.

  20. Are dragon-king neuronal avalanches dungeons for self-organized brain activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcangelis, L.

    2012-05-01

    Recent experiments have detected a novel form of spontaneous neuronal activity both in vitro and in vivo: neuronal avalanches. The statistical properties of this activity are typical of critical phenomena, with power laws characterizing the distributions of avalanche size and duration. A critical behaviour for the spontaneous brain activity has important consequences on stimulated activity and learning. Very interestingly, these statistical properties can be altered in significant ways in epilepsy and by pharmacological manipulations. In particular, there can be an increase in the number of large events anticipated by the power law, referred to herein as dragon-king avalanches. This behaviour, as verified by numerical models, can originate from a number of different mechanisms. For instance, it is observed experimentally that the emergence of a critical behaviour depends on the subtle balance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms acting in the system. Perturbing this balance, by increasing either synaptic excitation or the incidence of depolarized neuronal up-states causes frequent dragon-king avalanches. Conversely, an unbalanced GABAergic inhibition or long periods of low activity in the network give rise to sub-critical behaviour. Moreover, the existence of power laws, common to other stochastic processes, like earthquakes or solar flares, suggests that correlations are relevant in these phenomena. The dragon-king avalanches may then also be the expression of pathological correlations leading to frequent avalanches encompassing all neurons. We will review the statistics of neuronal avalanches in experimental systems. We then present numerical simulations of a neuronal network model introducing within the self-organized criticality framework ingredients from the physiology of real neurons, as the refractory period, synaptic plasticity and inhibitory synapses. The avalanche critical behaviour and the role of dragon-king avalanches will be discussed in

  1. Gun muzzle flash detection using a single photon avalanche diode array in 0.18µm CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savuskan, Vitali; Jakobson, Claudio; Merhav, Tomer; Shoham, Avi; Brouk, Igor; Nemirovsky, Yael

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) 2D array is used to record and sample muzzle flash events in the visible spectrum, from representative weapons. SPADs detect the emission peaks of alkali salts, potassium or sodium, with spectral emission lines around 769nm and 589nm, respectively. The alkali salts are included in the gunpowder to suppress secondary flashes ignited during the muzzle flash event. The SPADs possess two crucial properties for muzzle flash imaging: (i) very high photon detection sensitivity, (ii) a unique ability to convert the optical signal to a digital signal at the source pixel, thus practically eliminating readout noise. The sole noise sources are the ones prior to the readout circuitry (optical signal distribution, avalanche initiation distribution and nonphotonic generation). This enables high sampling frequencies in the kilohertz range without significant SNR degradation, in contrast to regular CMOS image sensors. This research will demonstrate the SPAD's ability to accurately sample and reconstruct the temporal behavior of the muzzle flash in the visible wavelength, in the presence of sunlight. The reconstructed signal is clearly distinguishable from background clutter, through exploitation of flash temporal characteristics and signal processing, which will be reported. The frame rate of ~16 KHz was chosen as an optimum between SNR degradation and temporal profile recognition accuracy. In contrast to a single SPAD, the 2D array allows for multiple events to be processed simultaneously. Moreover, a significant field of view is covered, enabling comprehensive surveillance and imaging.

  2. Long-wavelength photonic integrated circuits and avalanche photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Zaytsev, Sergey; Pauchard, Alexandre; Hummel, Steve; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2001-10-01

    Fast-growing internet traffic volume require high data communication bandwidth over longer distances. Access network bottlenecks put pressure on short-range (SR) telecommunication systems. To effectively address these datacom and telecom market needs, low-cost, high-speed laser modules at 1310 to 1550 nm wavelengths and avalanche photodetectors are required. The great success of GaAs 850nm VCSEls for Gb/s Ethernet has motivated efforts to extend VCSEL technology to longer wavelengths in the 1310 and 1550 nm regimes. However, the technological challenges associated with materials for long wavelength VCSELs are tremendous. Even with recent advances in this area, it is believed that significant additional development is necessary before long wavelength VCSELs that meet commercial specifications will be widely available. In addition, the more stringent OC192 and OC768 specifications for single-mode fiber (SMF) datacom may require more than just a long wavelength laser diode, VCSEL or not, to address numerous cost and performance issues. We believe that photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which compactly integrate surface-emitting lasers with additional active and passive optical components with extended functionality, will provide the best solutions to today's problems. Photonic integrated circuits have been investigated for more than a decade. However, they have produced limited commercial impact to date primarily because the highly complicated fabrication processes produce significant yield and device performance issues. In this presentation, we will discuss a new technology platform of InP-based PICs compatible with surface-emitting laser technology, as well as a high data rate externally modulated laser module. Avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are the key component in the receiver to achieve high data rate over long transmission distance because of their high sensitivity and large gain- bandwidth product. We have used wafer fusion technology to achieve In

  3. Informal social networks of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : Relationship with age, communicative abilities and current living arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A.A.J.; Post, W.J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regression analysis for 200 people

  4. Alpha- and gamma-detection by the avalanche detectors with metal-resistor-semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetokhin, S.S.; Evtushenko, V.P.; Zalesskij, V.B.; Malyshev, S.A.; Chudakov, V.A.; Shunevich, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Possibility to use silicon avalanche photodetectors with metal-resistor-semiconductor structure with 0.12 cm 2 photosensitive area as detectors of α-particles, as well as, photodetector of γ-quanta scintillation detector is shown. When detection of α-particles the energy resolution reaches 10%. R energy resolution for avalanche photodetector-CsI(Tl) scintillator system cooled up to - 60 deg C at 59 keV ( 241 Am) and 662 keV ( 137 Cs) energy of γ-quanta constitutes 60% and 80%, respectively. R minimal value in the conducted experiments is determined by the degree of irregularity of avalanche amplification along the photodetector area

  5. Spatially Extended Avalanches in a Hysteretic Capillary Condensation System: Superfluid 4He in Nuclepore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, M.P.; Wootters, A.H.; Hallock, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Capacitive studies of hysteretic capillary condensation of superfluid 4 He in Nuclepore have shown that the initial draining of the pores occurs over a small range of the chemical potential with avalanches present as groups of pores drain. In the work reported here, the avalanches in this system are shown to be nonlocal events which involve pores distributed at low density across the entire sample. The nonlocal avalanche behavior is shown to be enabled by the presence of a superfluid film connection among the pores. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Modulation method for a multiple drive system based on a two-stage direct power conversion topology with reduced input current ripple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    operation. This is a cost effective topology compared to a standard matrix converter because the multiple three-phase loads share the cost of the controlled rectification stage. A new method to reduce the high frequency ripple from the input current is also proposed based on interleaving the switching...

  7. Reverse leakage current characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well ultraviolet/blue/green light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengjun; Lv, Jiajiang; Wu, Yini; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Chenju; Liu, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the reverse leakage current characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) near-ultraviolet (NUV)/blue/green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Experimental results showed that the NUV LED has the smallest reverse leakage current whereas the green LED has the largest. The reason is that the number of defects increases with increasing nominal indium content in InGaN/GaN MQWs. The mechanism of the reverse leakage current was analyzed by temperature-dependent current–voltage measurement and capacitance–voltage measurement. The reverse leakage currents of NUV/blue/green LEDs show similar conduction mechanisms: at low temperatures, the reverse leakage current of these LEDs is attributed to variable-range hopping (VRH) conduction; at high temperatures, the reverse leakage current of these LEDs is attributed to nearest-neighbor hopping (NNH) conduction, which is enhanced by the Poole–Frenkel effect.

  8. Breakdown of Zero-Energy Quantum Hall State in Graphene in the Light of Current Fluctuations and Shot Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Antti; Kumar, Manohar; Elo, Teemu; Liu, Ying; Abhilash, T. S.; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2018-06-01

    We have investigated the cross-over from Zener tunneling of single charge carriers to avalanche type of bunched electron transport in a suspended graphene Corbino disk in the zeroth Landau level. At low bias, we find a tunneling current that follows the gyrotropic Zener tunneling behavior. At larger bias, we find an avalanche type of transport that sets in at a smaller current the larger the magnetic field is. The low-frequency noise indicates strong bunching of the electrons in the avalanches. On the basis of the measured low-frequency switching noise power, we deduce the characteristic switching rates of the avalanche sequence. The simultaneous microwave shot noise measurement also reveals intrinsic correlations within the avalanche pulses and indicate a decrease in correlations with increasing bias.

  9. An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC and its relationship to field-aligned current, ring current, and plasmapause location determined using multiple spacecraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC is a latitudinally narrow channel of unstable F-region plasma with intense westward drift in the dusk-to-midnight sector ionosphere. AWFCs tend to overlap the equatorward edge of the auroral oval, and their life cycle is often synchronised to that of substorms: they commence close to substorm expansion phase onset, intensify during the expansion phase, and then decay during the recovery phase. Here we define for the first time the relationship between an AWFC, large-scale field-aligned current (FAC, the ring current, and plasmapause location. The Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar, observed a jet-like AWFC during ~08:35 to 13:28 UT on 7 April 2001. The initiation of the AWFC was preceded by a band of equatorward expanding ionospheric scatter (BEES which conveyed an intense poleward electric field through the inner plasma sheet. Unlike previous AWFCs, this event was not associated with a distinct substorm surge; rather it occurred during an interval of persistent, moderate magnetic activity characterised by AL~−200 nT. The four Cluster spacecraft had perigees within the dusk sector plasmasphere, and their trajectories were magnetically conjugate to the radar observations. The Waves of High frequency and Sounder for Probing Electron density by Relaxation (WHISPER instruments on board Cluster were used to identify the plasmapause location. The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE EUV experiment also provided global-scale observations of the plasmapause. The Cluster fluxgate magnetometers (FGM provided successive measurements specifying the relative location of the ring current and filamentary plasma sheet current. An analysis of Iridium spacecraft magnetometer measurements provided estimates of large-scale ionospheric FAC in relation to the AWFC evolution. Peak flows in the AWFC were located close to the peak of a Region 2

  10. The properties of ITE's silicon avalanche photodiodes within the spectral range used in scintillation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Wegrzecka, I

    1999-01-01

    The design and properties of 3 mm silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at ITE are presented. Their performance parameters within the spectral range applicable in scintillation detection (400-700 nm) are discussed and compared to those for near infrared radiation.

  11. Readout of scintillator light with avalanche photodiodes for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ruru; Fremout, A.; Tavernier, S.; Bruyndonckx, P.; Clement, D.; Loude, J.-F.; Morel, C.

    1999-01-01

    The noise properties and other relevant characteristics of avalanche photodiodes have been investigated with the perspective of replacing photomultiplier tubes in positron emission tomography. It is clearly demonstrated that they are a valid alternative to photomultiplier tubes in this application

  12. Prediction of picosecond voltage collapse and electromagnetic wave generation in gas avalanche switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.; Duong-Van, M.; Villa, F.

    1988-01-01

    A picosecond speed switch, the Gas Avalanche Switch (GAS), has been proposed for GeV linear accelerators. The medium is gas at high pressure (100 - 700 atm). An avalanche discharge is induced between pulse-charged high voltage electrodes by electron deposition from a fast laser pulse. Avalanche electrons move to the positive electrode, causing the applied voltage to collapse in picoseconds. A two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic electron fluid computer code calculates the avalanche evolution and voltage collapse in air for an infinite parallel plate capacitor with a 0.1 mm spacing. Calculations are done for an accelerator switch geometry consisting of a 0.7 mm wide by 0.8 mm high, rectangular, high voltage center electrode (CE) between the grounded plates of a parallel plate line of 2 mm spacing. Several variations of CE elevation and initial electron deposition are investigated The 2D character of the outgoing TEM waves is shown

  13. Progresses in the simulation of Resistive Plate Chambers in avalanche mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Altieri, S.; Bruno, G.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P

    1999-08-01

    New results about the simulation of Resistive Plate Chambers are reported; particular emphasis is put in the understanding of charge spectra in regions where deviations from the pure avalanche mode of operation can be present.

  14. The simulation of resistive plate chambers in avalanche mode: charge spectra and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M. E-mail: Marcello.abbrescia@ba.infn.it; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Altieri, S.; Bruno, G.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P

    1999-07-21

    A model to simulate the avalanche formation process and the induced signal in a Resistive Plate Chamber is presented. A first investigation of the effects of various parameters on the performance of this detector is reported. (author)

  15. A new solver for granular avalanche simulation: Indoor experiment verification and field scale case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoLiang; Li, JiaChun

    2017-12-01

    A new solver based on the high-resolution scheme with novel treatments of source terms and interface capture for the Savage-Hutter model is developed to simulate granular avalanche flows. The capability to simulate flow spread and deposit processes is verified through indoor experiments of a two-dimensional granular avalanche. Parameter studies show that reduction in bed friction enhances runout efficiency, and that lower earth pressure restraints enlarge the deposit spread. The April 9, 2000, Yigong avalanche in Tibet, China, is simulated as a case study by this new solver. The predicted results, including evolution process, deposit spread, and hazard impacts, generally agree with site observations. It is concluded that the new solver for the Savage-Hutter equation provides a comprehensive software platform for granular avalanche simulation at both experimental and field scales. In particular, the solver can be a valuable tool for providing necessary information for hazard forecasts, disaster mitigation, and countermeasure decisions in mountainous areas.

  16. The properties of ITE's silicon avalanche photodiodes within the spectral range used in scintillation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wegrzecki, Maciej

    1999-04-01

    The design and properties of 3 mm silicon avalanche photodiodes developed at ITE are presented. Their performance parameters within the spectral range applicable in scintillation detection (400-700 nm) are discussed and compared to those for near infrared radiation.

  17. Informal Social Networks of People with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: Relationship with Age, Communicative Abilities and Current Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Post, W. J.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) have limited informal social contacts. Research to determine the factors which can positively influence establishing sound informal social contacts is required. Materials and Methods: Regression analysis for 200 people with PIMD was used to analyse how age,…

  18. Development of new hole-type avalanche detectors and the first results of their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P.; Di Mauro, A.; Martinengo, P.; Peskov, V.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new detector of photons and charged particles- a hole-type structure with electrodes made of a double layered resistive material: a thin low resistive layer coated with a layer having a much higher resistivity. One of the unique features of this detector is its capability to operate at high gas gains (up to 10E4) in air or in gas mixtures with air. They can also operate in a cascaded mode or be combined with other detectors, for example with GEM. This opens new avenues in their applications. Several prototypes of these devices based on new detectors and oriented on practical applications were developed and successfully tested: a detector of soft X-rays and alpha particles, a flame sensor, a detector of dangerous gases. All of these detectors could operate stably even in humid air and/or in dusty conditions. The main advantages of these detectors are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. For example, due to the avalanche multiplication, the detectors of flames and dangerous gases...

  19. HIGH-SPEED IMAGING AND WAVEFRONT SENSING WITH AN INFRARED AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranec, Christoph; Atkinson, Dani; Hall, Donald; Jacobson, Shane; Chun, Mark [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Law, Nicholas M., E-mail: baranec@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    Infrared avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays represent a panacea for many branches of astronomy by enabling extremely low-noise, high-speed, and even photon-counting measurements at near-infrared wavelengths. We recently demonstrated the use of an early engineering-grade infrared APD array that achieves a correlated double sampling read noise of 0.73 e{sup −} in the lab, and a total noise of 2.52 e{sup −} on sky, and supports simultaneous high-speed imaging and tip-tilt wavefront sensing with the Robo-AO visible-light laser adaptive optics (AO) system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5 m telescope. Here we report on the improved image quality simultaneously achieved at visible and infrared wavelengths by using the array as part of an image stabilization control loop with AO-sharpened guide stars. We also discuss a newly enabled survey of nearby late M-dwarf multiplicity, as well as future uses of this technology in other AO and high-contrast imaging applications.

  20. Multiwire proportional chamber and multistage avalanche chamber with low concentration photoionization gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Pingde; Xu Zhiqing; Tang Xiaowei

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of multiwire proportional chamber and multistage avalanche chamber filled with argon and photoionization gas (C 2 H 5 ) 3 N were measured. The spatial resolution curves and output pulse height spectra were measured as well. Low concentration (C 2 H 5 ) 3 N can play an effective part in quenching. At very low concentration, the phenomena of avalanche transverse expansion was observed obviously

  1. Parameters of an avalanche of runaway electrons in air under atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    The features of runaway-electron avalanches developing in air under atmospheric pressures are investigated in the framework of a three-dimensional numerical simulation. The simulation results indicate that an avalanche of this type can be characterized, besides the time and length of its exponential growth, by the propagation velocity and by the average kinetic energy of the runaway electrons. It is shown that these parameters obey the similarity laws applied to gas discharges.

  2. High pressure pulsed avalanche discharges: Scaling of required preionization rate for homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N.; Axnaes, I.; Nilsson, J.O.; Eninger, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Homogeneous high-pressure discharges can be formed by pulsed avalanche breakdown, provided that the individual avalanche heads have diffused to a large enough radius to overlap before streamer breakdown occurs. The overlap condition can be met by using an external mechanism to preionize the neutral gas, e.g., x-rays or uv radiation. There are several scenarios, (1) to preionize the gas, and then trigger the discharge by the sudden application of an electric field, (2) to apply an overvoltage over the discharge and trigger the discharge by external ionization, or (3) to have a continuous rate of external ionization and let the E field rise, with a comparatively long time constant τ, across the breakdown value (E/n) 0 . The authors here study the last of these scenarios, which gives a very efficient use of the preionization source because the avalanche startpoint can accumulate during the pre-avalanche phase. The authors have found that the required avalanche startpoint density N st.p , defined as the density of individual single, or clusters of, electrons at the time when the electric field crosses the breakdown value, scales with pressure and rise time as N st.p ∝ p 21/4 τ -3/4 . This pressure scaling disagrees with the p 3/2 scaling found by Levatter and Lin (J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 210), while the rise time scaling agrees satisfactorily with their results. For an E field which rises slowly across the breakdown value, the pre-avalanche accumulation of electrons must be taken into account, as well as the fact that the density n e of free electrons becomes larger than the density N st.p of independent avalanche heads: when electron impact ionization closely balances attachment, individual electrons are replaced by clusters of electrons which are too close to form individual avalanche heads

  3. Secondary instability in drift wave turbulence as a mechanism for avalanche and zonal flow formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Champeaux, S.; Malkov, M.

    2001-01-01

    We report on recent developments in the theory of secondary instability in drift-ITG turbulence. Specifically, we explore secondary instability as a mechanism for avalanche formation. A theory of radially extended streamer cell formation and self-regulation is presented. Aspects of streamer structure and dynamics are used to estimate the variance of the drift-wave induced flux. The relation between streamer cell structures and the avalanche concept is discussed, as are the implications of our results for transport modeling. (author)

  4. Post-glacial rock avalanches in the Obersee Valley, Glarner Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelisen, Jan; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Vockenhuber, Christoph; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2015-06-01

    The geological record of prehistoric rock avalanches provides invaluable data for assessing the hazard posed by these rare but destructive mass movements. Here we investigate two large rock avalanches in the Obersee valley of the Glarner Alps, Switzerland, providing detailed mapping of landslide and related Quaternary phenomena, revised volume estimates for each event, and surface exposure dating of rock avalanche deposits. The Rautispitz rock avalanche originated from the southern flank of the Obersee valley, releasing approximately 91 million m3 of limestone on steeply-dipping bedding planes. Debris had maximum horizontal travel distance of ~ 5000 m, a fahrboeschung angle (relating fall height to length) of 18°, and was responsible for the creation of Lake Obersee; deposits are more than 130 m thick in places. The Platten rock avalanche encompassed a source volume of 11 million m3 sliding from the northern flank of the Obersee valley on similar steeply-dipping limestone beds (bedrock forms a syncline under the valley). Debris had a maximum horizontal travel distance of 1600 m with a fahrboeschung angle of 21°, and is more than 80 m thick in places. Deposits of the Platten rock avalanche are superposed atop those from the Rautispitz event at the end of the Obersee valley where they dam Lake Haslensee. Runout for both events was simulated using the dynamic analysis code DAN3D; results showed excellent match to mapped deposit extents and thickness and helped confirm the hypothesized single-event failure scenarios. 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of 13 deposited boulders revealed a Younger Dryas age of 12.6 ± 1.0 ka for the Rautispitz rock avalanche and a mid-Holocene age of 6.1 ± 0.8 ka for the Platten rock avalanche. A seismological trigger is proposed for the former event due to potentially correlated turbidite deposits in nearby Lake Zurich.

  5. Transmission line pulse system for avalanche characterization of high power semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Michele; Ascione, Giovanni; De Falco, Giuseppe; Maresca, Luca; De Laurentis, Martina; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    Because of the increasing in power density of electronic devices for medium and high power application, reliabilty of these devices is of great interest. Understanding the avalanche behaviour of a power device has become very important in these last years because it gives an indication of the maximum energy ratings which can be seen as an index of the device ruggedness. A good description of this behaviour is given by the static IV blocking characteristc. In order to avoid self heating, very relevant in high power devices, very short pulses of current have to be used, whose value can change from few milliamps up to tens of amps. The most used method to generate short pulses is the TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) test, which is based on charging the equivalent capacitance of a transmission line to high value of voltage and subsequently discharging it onto a load. This circuit let to obtain very short square pulses but it is mostly used for evaluate the ESD capability of semiconductor and, in this environment, it generates pulses of low amplitude which are not high enough to characterize the avalanche behaviour of high power devices . Advanced TLP circuit able to generate high current are usually very expensive and often suffer of distorption of the output pulse. In this article is proposed a simple, low cost circuit, based on a boosted-TLP configuration, which is capable to produce very square pulses of about one hundreds of nanosecond with amplitude up to some tens of amps. A prototype is implemented which can produce pulses up to 20A of amplitude with 200 ns of duration which can characterize power devices up to 1600V of breakdown voltage. Usage of microcontroller based logic make the circuit very flexible. Results of SPICE simulation are provided, together with experimental results. To prove the effectiveness of the circuit, the I-V blocking characteristics of two commercial devices, namely a 600V PowerMOS and a 1200V Trench-IGBT, are measured at different

  6. Determination of the excess noise of avalanche photodiodes integrated in 0.35-μm CMOS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Tomislav; Brandl, Paul; Zimmermann, Horst

    2018-04-01

    The excess noise of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) integrated in a high-voltage (HV) CMOS process and in a pin-photodiode CMOS process, both with 0.35-μm structure sizes, is described. A precise excess noise measurement technique is applied using a laser source, a spectrum analyzer, a voltage source, a current meter, a cheap transimpedance amplifier, and a personal computer with a MATLAB program. In addition, usage for on-wafer measurements is demonstrated. The measurement technique is verified with a low excess noise APD as a reference device with known ratio k = 0.01 of the impact ionization coefficients. The k-factor of an APD developed in HV CMOS is determined more accurately than known before. In addition, it is shown that the excess noise of the pin-photodiode CMOS APD depends on the optical power for avalanche gains above 35 and that modulation doping can suppress this power dependence. Modulation doping, however, increases the excess noise.

  7. Evaluation of Space Radiation Effects on HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Sullivan, William III; Beck, Jeff; Hubbs, John E.

    2018-01-01

    We report the results from proton and gamma ray radiation testing of HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays developed by Leonardo DRS for space lidar detectors. We tested these devices with both approximately 60 MeV protons and gamma rays, with and without the read out integrated circuit (ROIC). We also measured the transient responses with the device fully powered and with the APD gain from unity to greater than 1000. The detectors produced a large current impulse in response to each proton hit but the response completely recovered within 1 microsecond. The devices started to have persistent damage at a proton fluence of 7e10 protons/cm2, equivalent to 10 krad(Si) total ionization dose. The dark current became much higher after the device was warmed to room temperature and cooled to 80K again, but it completely annealed after baking at 85 C for several hours. These results showed the HgCdTe APD arrays are suitable for use in space lidar for typical Earth orbiting and planetary missions provided that provisions are made to heat the detector chip to 85 C for several hours after radiation damage becomes evident that system performance is impacted.

  8. Radiation Detection Measurements with a New 'Buried Junction' Silicon Avalanche Photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, R; Rouleau, D; Dautet, H; McIntyre, R J; McSween, D; Webb, P

    1999-01-01

    An improved version of a recently developed 'Buried Junction' avalanche photodiode (APD), designed for use with scintillators, is described and characterized. This device, also called the 'Reverse APD', is designed to have a wide depletion layer and thus low capacitance, but to have high gain only for e-h pairs generated within the first few microns of the depletion layer. Thus it has high gain for light from scintillators emitting in the 400-600 nm range, with relatively low dark current noise and it is relatively insensitive to minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). An additional feature is that the metallurgical junction is at the back of the wafer, leaving the front surface free to be coupled to a scintillator without fear of junction contamination. The modifications made in this device, as compared with the earlier diode, have resulted in a lower excess noise factor, lower dark current, and much-reduced trapping. The electrical and optical characteristics of this device are described and measurements of ener...

  9. Statistical analysis and trends of wet snow avalanches in the French Alps over the period 1959-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaim, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Since an avalanche contains a significant proportion of wet snow, its characteristics and its behavior change significantly (heterogeneous and polydisperse). Even if on a steep given slope, wet snow avalanches are slow. They can flow over gentle slopes and reach the same extensions as dry avalanches. To highlight the link between climate warming and the proliferation of wet snow avlanches, we crossed two well-documented avalanche databases: the permanent avalanche chronicle (EPA) and the meteorological re-analyzes. For each avalanche referenced in EPA, a moisture index I is buit. It represents the ratio of the thickness of the wet snow layer to the total snow thickness, at the date of the avalanche on the concerned massif at 2400 m.a.s.l. The daily and annual proportion of avalanches exceeding a given threshold of I are calculated for each massif of the French alps. The statistical distribution of wet avalanches per massif is calculated over the period 1959-2009. The statistical quantities are also calculated over two successive periods of the same duration 1959-1984 and 1984-2009, and the annual evolution of the proportion of wet avalanches is studied using time-series tools to detect potential rupture or trends. This study showed that about 77% of avalanches on the French alpine massif mobilize dry snow. The probability of having an avalanche of a moisture index greater than 10 % in a given year is 0.2. This value varies from one massif to another. The analysis between the two successive periods showed a significant growth of wet avalanches on 20 massifs and a decrease on 3 massifs. The study of time-series confirmed these trends, which are of the inter-annual variability level.

  10. Application-oriented research on plasma channeling of a large pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingye

    2000-01-01

    Utilizing the avalanche effect of plasma produced by the collision of energetic primary electrons with hydrogen molecules in a plasma, channeling of a large pulsed current is achieved, with the plasma acting as the carrier

  11. CURRENT - DIRECTION and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From World-Wide Distribution from 18940101 to 19931231 (NODC Accession 9400068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SCUDS (Surface CUrrent Data Summary) Data from Robert Rushton collected between 1894 and 1993 was submitted by Richard Enkoji of NAVOCEANO (US Naval Oceanographic...

  12. Variability at Multiple Scales: Using an Array of Current and Pressure Sensor Equipped Inverted Echo Sounders to Measure the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    of Current- and Pressure - Sensor Equipped Inverted Echo Sounders to Measure the Ocean 5b. GRANT NUMBER NOOO 14-15-1-2857 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...inverted echo sounders (lESs) equipped with pressure and current sensors (CPIESs). CPIESs are moored instruments that measure the round-trip acoustic...at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The goals of this project were to enhance the pool of pressure - sensor equipped lESs available at the

  13. Acceleration, current amplification and emittance in MBE-4, an experimental multiple beam induction linear accelerator for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, A.I.; Gough, D.E.; Keefe, D.; Meuth, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report on the implementation of a second schedule of acceleration and current amplification in MBE-4. Control of the beam current within the bunch is improved over that in the first schedule by the addition of several small amplitude induction pulsers to compensate for acceleration errors and to control the ends of the bunch. Measurements of the longitudinal and transverse emittance are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Multiple solutions in the theory of direct current glow discharges: Effect of plasma chemistry and nonlocality, different plasma-producing gases, and 3D modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, P. G. C.; Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Física, CCCEE, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Município, 9000 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    The work is aimed at advancing the multiple steady-state solutions that have been found recently in the theory of direct current (DC) glow discharges. It is shown that an account of detailed plasma chemistry and non-locality of electron transport and kinetic coefficients results in an increase of the number of multiple solutions but does not change their pattern. Multiple solutions are shown to exist for discharges in argon and helium provided that discharge pressure is high enough. This result indicates that self-organization in DC glow microdischarges can be observed not only in xenon, which has been the case until recently, but also in other plasma-producing gases; a conclusion that has been confirmed by recent experiments. Existence of secondary bifurcations can explain why patterns of spots grouped in concentric rings, observed in the experiment, possess in many cases higher number of spots in outer rings than in inner ones.

  15. Novel micropixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD) with super high pixel density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfimov, N.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Dovlatov, A.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Guskov, A.; Khovanskiy, N.; Krumshtein, Z.; Leitner, R.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olchevski, A.; Rezinko, T.; Sadovskiy, A.; Sadygov, Z.; Savin, I.; Tchalyshev, V.; Tyapkin, I.; Yarygin, G.; Zerrouk, F.

    2011-01-01

    In many detectors based on scintillators the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are used as photodetectors. At present photodiodes are finding wide application. Solid state photodetectors allow operation in strong magnetic fields that are often present in applications, e.g. some calorimeters operating near magnets, combined PET and MRT, etc. The photon detection efficiency (PDE) of photodiodes may reach values a few times higher than that of PMTs. Also, they are rigid, compact and have relatively low operating voltage. In the last few years Micropixel Avalanche PhotoDiodes (MAPD) have been developed and started to be used. The MAPD combines a lot of advantages of semiconductor photodetectors and has a high gain, which is close to that of the PMT. Yet, they have some disadvantages, and one of them is a limited dynamic range that corresponds to a total number of pixels. The novel deep microwell MAPD with high pixel density produced by the Zecotek Company partially avoids this disadvantage. In this paper characteristics of these photodetectors are presented in comparison with the PMT characteristics. The results refer to measurements of the gain, PDE, cross-talks, photon counting and applications: beam test results of two different 'Shashlyk' EM calorimeters for COMPASS (CERN) and NICA-MPD (JINR) with the MAPD readout and a possibility of using the MAPD in PET.

  16. Multi-stage low-pressure avalanche chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanevskij, Yu.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Smykov, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-stage avalanche-chamber filled with isobutane operating at the pressure of 6 torr is described. The chamber comprises an amplifying gap, drift gap and multiwire proportional chamber with interelectrode gaps equal to 4 mm. The anode plane of the proportional chamber is winded of wire 2 μm in diameter with 2 mm pitch. The cathode are winded orthogonally to anode wires of wire 50 μm in diameter with 1 mm pitch. Drift and preamplifier gaps are formed by grid electrodes made of wire 50 μm in diameter with dimension of the cell equal to 1x1 mm. Width of the drift gap is 5 mm, width of the preamplification gap is 3 or 9 mm. Coordinate data are removed from the cathodes of the proportional chamber by means of delay lines. Sensitive square of the chamber equals 240x180 mm. Gas gain coefficient is 3x10 6 at its square nonuniformity equal to approximately 3%. Spatial resolution by both coordinates equals 170 μm; spatial resolution for isotropic α-emitters located close to the preamplifier gap is equal to 500 μm

  17. The Importance of Damage Potential for Avalanche Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, M.; Fuchs, S.

    2003-04-01

    Risk is normally expressed as a function of recurrence probability of a process and its related damage potential. Various physical and empirical models describing the process aspect of the risk formula exist in the field of avalanche risk management while studies on damage potential are rare. Due to the changes of the socio-economic structures in mountain regions (urban sprawl, population growth, increased mobility and tourism) these studies are mandatory. This study focuses on different possibilities to obtain obligatory input parameters for multitemporal studies in settlement areas. A conceptual method that records the damage potential (probability of presence, evaluation of buildings) was developed and applied in Tyrol, Austria. A second approach, working with real-time insurance values for buildings and population growth, was tested in Grison, Switzerland. The different developments of the damage potential in the two alpine study areas are highlighted; their influences on the risk formula are discussed. The results of both studies show the advantages and disadvantages of each method, such as precision, amount of time needed and possibilities of implementing in a GIS. The results serve to improve risk determination and point out an unnoticed increase of damage potential and risk in apparently safe settlement areas.

  18. A parallel plate avalanche chamber for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgei, R.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the interaction point of relativistic heavy ions in the Diogene target, we have built and tested an X-Y low pressure parallel plate avalanche chamber. It uses three thin metallized foils and is filled with isobutane. A preliminary study shows that it is the only detector with the required specifications: efficiency, accurate position determination and a small uniform amount of material for the particle beam to go through. The electronics system is designed for reliability, easy adjustments and high stability. The interaction point is given on delay-line read-out. This represents the optimum compromise between low price and good performance. Laboratory measurements of gain, efficiency and position accuracy are done with an alpha-particle source. Two of these detectors are working at the Saturne National Laboratory. They allow the trajectory of several tens of particles (among a million per second) to be reconstructed. With an argon beam at 400 MeV per nucleon, the position uncertainty in the target has been measured to be 0.5 mm (standard deviation). This uncertainty is 0.3 mm for each detector, with an efficiency of 94 per cent. Our set-up, which is now operational, improves the accuracy of the results and speed of analysis of Diogene experiments devoted to the study of central collisions between heavy ions [fr

  19. Laser annealing heals radiation damage in avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jin Gyu [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are a practical option for space-based quantum communications requiring single-photon detection. However, radiation damage to APDs significantly increases their dark count rates and thus reduces their useful lifetimes in orbit. We show that high-power laser annealing of irradiated APDs of three different models (Excelitas C30902SH, Excelitas SLiK, and Laser Components SAP500S2) heals the radiation damage and several APDs are restored to typical pre-radiation dark count rates. Of nine samples we test, six APDs were thermally annealed in a previous experiment as another solution to mitigate the radiation damage. Laser annealing reduces the dark count rates further in all samples with the maximum dark count rate reduction factor varying between 5.3 and 758 when operating at -80 C. This indicates that laser annealing is a more effective method than thermal annealing. The illumination power to reach these reduction factors ranges from 0.8 to 1.6 W. Other photon detection characteristics, such as photon detection efficiency, timing jitter, and afterpulsing probability, fluctuate but the overall performance of quantum communications should be largely unaffected by these variations. These results herald a promising method to extend the lifetime of a quantum satellite equipped with APDs. (orig.)

  20. Novel micropixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD) with superhigh pixel density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfimov, N.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Dovlatov, A.

    2010-01-01

    In many detectors based on scintillators the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are used as photodetectors. At present photodiodes are finding wide application. Solid state photodetectors allow operation in strong magnetic fields that are often present in applications, e.g., some calorimeters operating near magnets, combined PET and MRT, etc. The photon detection efficiency (PDE) of photodiodes may reach values a few times higher than that of PMTs. Also, they are rigid, compact and have relatively low operating voltage. In the last few years Micropixel Avalanche PhotoDiodes (MAPDs) have been developed and started to be used. The MAPD combines a lot of advantages of semiconductor photodetectors and has a high gain, which is close to that of the PMT. Yet, they have some disadvantages, and one of them is a limited dynamic range that corresponds to a total number of pixels. The novel deep microwell MAPD with high pixel density produced by Zecotek Company partially avoids this disadvantage. In this paper characteristics of these photodetectors are presented in comparison with the PMT characteristics. The results refer to measurements of the gain, PDE, cross-talks, photon counting and applications: beam test results of two different 'Shashlyk' EM calorimeters for COMPASS (CERN) and NICA-MPD (JINR) with the MAPD readout and a possibility of using the MAPD in PET

  1. Observed tail current systems associated with bursty bulk flows and auroral streamers during a period of multiple substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-instrument study of a substorm bursty bulk flow (BBF and auroral streamer. During a substorm on 25 August 2003, which was one of a series of substorms that occurred between 00:00 and 05:00 UT, the Cluster spacecraft encountered a BBF event travelling Earthwards and duskwards with a velocity of ~500 km s−1 some nine minutes after the onset of the substorm. Coincident with this event the IMAGE spacecraft detected an auroral streamer in the substorm auroral bulge in the Southern Hemisphere near the footpoints of the Cluster spacecraft. Using FluxGate Magnetometer (FGM data from the four Cluster spacecraft, we determine the field-aligned currents in the BBF, using the curlometer technique, to have been ~5 mA km−2. When projected into the ionosphere, these currents give ionospheric field-aligned currents of ~18 A km−2, which is comparable with previously observed ionospheric field-aligned currents associated with BBFs and auroral streamers. The observations of the BBF are consistent with the plasma "bubble" model of Chen and Wolf (1993. Furthermore, we show that the observations of the BBF are consistent with the creation of the BBF by the reconnection of open field lines Earthward of a substorm associated near-Earth neutral line.

  2. Observed tail current systems associated with bursty bulk flows and auroral streamers during a period of multiple substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Forsyth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a multi-instrument study of a substorm bursty bulk flow (BBF and auroral streamer. During a substorm on 25 August 2003, which was one of a series of substorms that occurred between 00:00 and 05:00 UT, the Cluster spacecraft encountered a BBF event travelling Earthwards and duskwards with a velocity of ~500 km s−1 some nine minutes after the onset of the substorm. Coincident with this event the IMAGE spacecraft detected an auroral streamer in the substorm auroral bulge in the Southern Hemisphere near the footpoints of the Cluster spacecraft. Using FluxGate Magnetometer (FGM data from the four Cluster spacecraft, we determine the field-aligned currents in the BBF, using the curlometer technique, to have been ~5 mA km−2. When projected into the ionosphere, these currents give ionospheric field-aligned currents of ~18 A km−2, which is comparable with previously observed ionospheric field-aligned currents associated with BBFs and auroral streamers. The observations of the BBF are consistent with the plasma "bubble" model of Chen and Wolf (1993. Furthermore, we show that the observations of the BBF are consistent with the creation of the BBF by the reconnection of open field lines Earthward of a substorm associated near-Earth neutral line.

  3. Characterization and quality control of avalanche photodiode arrays for the Clear-PEM detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Conceicao; Amaral, Pedro; Carrico, Bruno; Ferreira, Miguel; Luyten, Joan; Moura, Rui; Ortigao, Catarina; Rato, Pedro; Varela, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Clear-PEM is a Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) prototype being developed in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN. This device is a dedicated PET camera for mammography, based on LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals, Avalanche PhotoDiodes (APD) and a fast, low-noise electronics readout system, designed to examine both the breast and the axillary lymph node areas, and aiming at the detection of tumors down to 2 mm in diameter. The prototype has two planar detector heads, each composed of 96 detector modules. The Clear-PEM detector module is composed of a matrix of 32 identical 2x2x20 mm 3 LYSO:Ce crystals read at both ends by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays (4x8) for Depth-of-Interaction (DoI) capability. The APD arrays were characterized by the measurement of gain and dark current as a function of bias voltage, under controlled temperature conditions. Two independent setups were used. The full set of 398 APD arrays followed a well-defined quality control (QC) protocol, aiming at the rejection of arrays not complying within defined specifications. From a total of 398 arrays, only 2 (0.5%) were rejected, reassuring the trust in these detectors for prototype assembly and future developments

  4. Progress in the use of avalanche photodiodes for readout for calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenker, H.; Morgan, K.; Regan, T.

    1991-09-01

    During the past year the Superconducting Super Collider Tracking Group has progressed from acquisition of its first avalanche photodiode (APD) to installation of a 96-channel array of the devices. The work was motivated by the desire to learn how to use APDs as the sensitive elements in a fiber tracking detector, moderated by the presence of limited resources and the absence of activity within groups outside the SSC Laboratory on such a project. We chose, therefore, to team up with an ongoing research effort which intended to evaluate both pre-shower and shower-maximum detectors and various means of sensing the light produced. The pre-shower detector is made of layers of scintillating fibers similar to a fiber tracker. The shower-maximum detector uses optical fibers to transmit the light from scintillating plates to the readout devices. Our contribution has been to develop the APD array for use in this test from concept to operation. Currently, the equipment is installed in Fermilab's MP beamline awaiting delivery to the final 36 APDs and exposure to the beam. 9 refs., 18 figs

  5. Application of An Avalanche Photodiode in Synchrotron-Based Ultra-fast X-Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, S.-K.; Liu Jinyuan; Wang Jin; Powell, Christopher F.

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of using avalanche photodiode has been investigated while operated in current or continuous wave mode to accommodate high-intensity synchrotron x-ray beams in an ultra-fast x-radiography. To achieve a time resolution of 1 μs or better in a time-resolved x-radiograhic experiment, the entire time-sequence of the APD response to the pulsed synchrotron x-ray beam is recorded with time resolution of 1-2 ns. We have characterized the APD detector in the continuous wave mode to reveal its linearity, signal to noise ratio, and the time response with various circuit configurations. We have demonstrated that signal-to-noise ratio better than 1000 can be achieved, which is limited only by Poisson statistics. These detectors, coupled with finely focused x-rays, have been used to study structure and dynamics of supersonic fuel sprays with 50 μm-spatial resolution and μs-temporal resolution in the region close to an injection nozzle

  6. Review of supershort avalanche electron beam during nanosecond-pulse discharges in some gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor F. Tarasenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB plays an important role in nanosecond-pulse discharges. This paper aims at reviewing experiments results on characteritics of SAEB and its spectra in different gases in nanosecond-pulse discharges. All the joint experiments were carried in the Institute of High Current Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In these experiments, the generation of a SAEB in SF6 in an inhomogeneous electric field was studied on three generators with pulse rise times of 0.3, 0.5 and ∼2 ns. Firstly, the comparison of SAEB parameters in SF6 with those obtained in other gases (air, nitrogen, argon, and krypton is introduced. Secondly, the SAEB spectra in SF6 and air at pressures of 10 kPa (75 torr, and 0.1 MPa (750 torr are reviewed and discussed. Finally, 1.5-D theoretical simulation of the supershort pulse of the fast electron beam in a coaxial diode filled with SF6 at atmospheric pressure is described. The simulation was carried out in the framework of hybrid model for discharge and runaway electron kinetics. The above research progress can provide better understanding of the investigation into the mechanism of nanosecond-pulse discharges.

  7. A concept for optimizing avalanche rescue strategies using a Monte Carlo simulation approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Reiweger

    Full Text Available Recent technical and strategical developments have increased the survival chances for avalanche victims. Still hundreds of people, primarily recreationists, get caught and buried by snow avalanches every year. About 100 die each year in the European Alps-and many more worldwide. Refining concepts for avalanche rescue means to optimize the procedures such that the survival chances are maximized in order to save the greatest possible number of lives. Avalanche rescue includes several parameters related to terrain, natural hazards, the people affected by the event, the rescuers, and the applied search and rescue equipment. The numerous parameters and their complex interaction make it unrealistic for a rescuer to take, in the urgency of the situation, the best possible decisions without clearly structured, easily applicable decision support systems. In order to analyse which measures lead to the best possible survival outcome in the complex environment of an avalanche accident, we present a numerical approach, namely a Monte Carlo simulation. We demonstrate the application of Monte Carlo simulations for two typical, yet tricky questions in avalanche rescue: (1 calculating how deep one should probe in the first passage of a probe line depending on search area, and (2 determining for how long resuscitation should be performed on a specific patient while others are still buried. In both cases, we demonstrate that optimized strategies can be calculated with the Monte Carlo method, provided that the necessary input data are available. Our Monte Carlo simulations also suggest that with a strict focus on the "greatest good for the greatest number", today's rescue strategies can be further optimized in the best interest of patients involved in an avalanche accident.

  8. Stellar Winds and Dust Avalanches in the AU Mic Debris Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Eugene; Fung, Jeffrey, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    We explain the fast-moving, ripple-like features in the edge-on debris disk orbiting the young M dwarf AU Mic. The bright features are clouds of submicron dust repelled by the host star’s wind. The clouds are produced by avalanches: radial outflows of dust that gain exponentially more mass as they shatter background disk particles in collisional chain reactions. The avalanches are triggered from a region a few au across—the “avalanche zone”—located on AU Mic’s primary “birth” ring at a true distance of ∼35 au from the star but at a projected distance more than a factor of 10 smaller: the avalanche zone sits directly along the line of sight to the star, on the side of the ring nearest Earth, launching clouds that disk rotation sends wholly to the southeast, as observed. The avalanche zone marks where the primary ring intersects a secondary ring of debris left by the catastrophic disruption of a progenitor up to Varuna in size, less than tens of thousands of years ago. Only where the rings intersect are particle collisions sufficiently violent to spawn the submicron dust needed to seed the avalanches. We show that this picture works quantitatively, reproducing the masses, sizes, and velocities of the observed escaping clouds. The Lorentz force exerted by the wind’s magnetic field, whose polarity reverses periodically according to the stellar magnetic cycle, promises to explain the observed vertical undulations. The timescale between avalanches, about 10 yr, might be set by time variability of the wind mass loss rate or, more speculatively, by some self-regulating limit cycle.

  9. Emplacement of rock avalanche material across saturated sediments, Southern Alp, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Davies, T. R.; McSaveney, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The spreading of material from slope failure events is not only influenced by the volume and nature of the source material and the local topography, but also by the materials encountered in the runout path. In this study, evidence of complex interactions between rock avalanche and sedimentary runout path material were investigated at the 45 x 106 m3 long-runout (L: 4.8 km) Round Top rock avalanche deposit, New Zealand. It was sourced within myolinitic schists of the active strike-slip Alpine Fault. The narrow and in-failure-direction elongate source scarp is deep-seated, indicating slope failure was triggered by strong seismic activity. The most striking morphological deposit features are longitudinal ridges aligned radially to source. Trenching and geophysical surveys show bulldozed and sheared substrate material at ridge termini and laterally displaced sedimentary strata. The substrate failed at a minimum depth of 3 m indicating a ploughing motion of the ridges into the saturated material below. Internal avalanche compression features suggest deceleration behind the bulldozed substrate obstacle. Contorted fabric in material ahead of the ridge document substrate disruption by the overriding avalanche material deposited as the next down-motion hummock. Comparison with rock avalanches of similar volume but different emplacement environments places Round Top between longer runout avalanches emplaced over e.g. playa lake sediments and those with shorter travel distances, whose runout was apparently retarded by topographic obstacles or that entrained high-friction debris. These empirical observations indicate the importance of runout path materials on tentative trends in rock avalanche emplacement dynamics and runout behaviour.

  10. Radiation Tests of Single Photon Avalanche Diode for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Francesco; Marisaldi, Martino; MacCagnani, Piera; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Prest, Michela; Berra, Alessandro; Bolognini, Davide; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; hide

    2013-01-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been recently studied as photodetectors for applications in space missions. In this presentation we report the results of radiation hardness test on large area SPAD (actual results refer to SPADs having 500 micron diameter). Dark counts rate as low as few kHz at -10 degC has been obtained for the 500 micron devices, before irradiation. We performed bulk damage and total dose radiation tests with protons and gamma-rays in order to evaluate their radiation hardness properties and their suitability for application in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space mission. With this aim SPAD devices have been irradiated using up to 20 krad total dose with gamma-rays and 5 krad with protons. The test performed show that large area SPADs are very sensitive to proton doses as low as 2×10(exp 8) (1 MeV eq) n/cm2 with a significant increase in dark counts rate (DCR) as well as in the manifestation of the "random telegraph signal" effect. Annealing studies at room temperature (RT) and at 80 degC have been carried out, showing a high decrease of DCR after 24-48 h at RT. Lower protons doses in the range 1-10×10(exp 7) (1 MeV eq) n/cm(exp 2) result in a lower increase of DCR suggesting that the large-area SPADs tested in this study are well suitable for application in low-inclination LEO, particularly useful for gamma-ray astrophysics.

  11. Nonlinear response and avalanche behavior in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, B.; Samwer, K.

    2017-08-01

    The response to different stress amplitudes at temperatures below the glass transition temperature is analyzed by mechanical oscillatory excitation of Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass samples in single cantilever bending geometry. While low amplitude oscillatory excitations are commonly used in mechanical spectroscopy to probe the relaxation spectrum, in this work the response to comparably high amplitudes is investigated. The strain response of the material is well below the critical yield stress even for highest stress amplitudes, implying the expectation of a linear relation between stress and strain according to Hooke's Law. However, a deviation from the linear behavior is evident, which is analyzed in terms of temperature dependence and influence of the applied stress amplitude by two different approaches of evaluation. The nonlinear approach is based on a nonlinear expansion of the stress-strain-relation, assuming an intrinsic nonlinear character of the shear or elastic modulus. The degree of nonlinearity is extracted by a period-by-period Fourier-analysis and connected to nonlinear coefficients, describing the intensity of nonlinearity at the fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies. The characteristic timescale to adapt to a significant change in stress amplitude in terms of a recovery timescale to a steady state value is connected to the structural relaxation time of the material, suggesting a connection between the observed nonlinearity and primary relaxation processes. The second approach of evaluation is termed the incremental analysis and relates the observed response behavior to avalanches, which occur due to the activation and correlation of local microstructural rearrangements. These rearrangements are connected with shear transformation zones and correspond to localized plastic events, which are superimposed on the linear response behavior of the material.

  12. Current evidence on the potential therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Ruiz, M; Sospedra, M; Arce Arce, S; Tejeiro-Martínez, J; Benito-León, J

    2018-06-10

    A growing number of studies have evaluated the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for the symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). We performed a PubMed search for articles, recent books, and recommendations from the most relevant clinical practice guidelines and scientific societies regarding the use of TMS as symptomatic treatment in MS. Excitatory electromagnetic pulses applied to the affected cerebral hemisphere allow us to optimise functional brain activity, including the transmission of nerve impulses through the demyelinated corticospinal pathway. Various studies into TMS have shown statistically significant improvements in spasticity, fatigue, lower urinary tract dysfunction, manual dexterity, gait, and cognitive deficits related to working memory in patients with MS; however, the exact level of evidence has not been defined as the results have not been replicated in a sufficient number of controlled studies. Further well-designed, randomised, controlled clinical trials involving a greater number of patients are warranted to attain a higher level of evidence in order to recommend the appropriate use of TMS in MS patients across the board. TMS acts as an adjuvant with other symptomatic and immunomodulatory treatments. Additional studies should specifically investigate the effect of conventional repetitive TMS on fatigue in these patients, something that has yet to see the light of day. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer-aided design of multifrequency eddy-current tests for layered conductors with multiple property variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeds, W E; Dodd, C V; Scott, G W

    1979-10-01

    Our program is part of a larger project designed to develop multifrequency eddy-current inspection techniques for multilayered conductors with parallel planar boundaries. To reduce the need to specially program each new problem, a family of programs that handle a large class of related problems with only minor editorial and interactive changes were developed. Programs for two types of cylindrical coil probes were developed: the reflection probe, which contains the driver and pickup coils and is used from one side of the specimen, and the through-transmission probe set, which places the driver and pickup coils on opposite sides of the conductor stack. The programs perform the following basic functions: (1) simulation of an ideal instrument's response to specific conductor and defect configurations, (2) control of an eddy-current instrument interfaced to a minicomputer to acquire and record actual instrument responses to test specimens, (3) construction of complex function expansions to relate instrument response to conductor and defect properties by using measured or computed responses and properties, and (4) simulation of a microcomputer on board the instrument by the interfaced minicomputer to test the analytical programming for the microcomputer. The report contains the basic equations for the computations, the main and subroutine programs, instructions for editorial changes and program execution, analyses of the main programs, file requirements, and other miscellaneous aids for the user.

  14. Preliminary remote sensing assessment of the catastrophic avalanche in Langtang Valley induced by the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hiroto; Watanabe, Manabu; Tomii, Naoya

    2016-04-01

    A major earthquake, measuring 7.8 Mw, occurred on April 25, 2015, in Lamjung district, central Nepal, causing more than 9,000 deaths and 23,000 injuries. During the event, termed the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, the most catastrophic collapse of the mountain side was reported in the Langtang Valley, located 60 km north of Kathmandu. In this collapse, a huge boulder-rich avalanche and a sudden air pressure wave traveled from a steep south-facing slope to the bottom of a U-shaped valley, resulting in more than 170 deaths. Accurate in-situ surveys are necessary to investigate such events, and to find out ways to avoid similar catastrophic events in the future. Geospatial information obtained from multiple satellite observations is invaluable for such surveys in remote mountain regions. In this study, we (1) identify the collapsed sediment using synthetic aperture radar, (2) conduct detailed mapping using high-resolution optical imagery, and (3) estimate sediment volumes from digital surface models in order to quantify the immediate situation of the avalanched sediment. (1) Visual interpretation and coherence calculations using Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) images give a consistent area of sediment cover. Emergency observation was carried out the day after the earthquake, using the PALSAR-2 onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, "DAICHI-2"). Visual interpretation of orthorectified backscatter amplitude images revealed completely altered surface features, over which the identifiable sediment cover extended for 0.73 km2 (28°13'N, 85°30'E). Additionally, measuring the decrease in normalized coherence quantifies the similarity between the pre- and post-event surface features, after the removal of numerous noise patches by focal statistics. Calculations within the study area revealed high-value areas corresponding to the visually identified sediment area. Visual interpretation of the amplitude images and the coherence

  15. Evaluating terrain based criteria for snow avalanche exposure ratings using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delparte, Donna; Jamieson, Bruce; Waters, Nigel

    2010-05-01

    Snow avalanche terrain in backcountry regions of Canada is increasingly being assessed based upon the Avalanche Terrain Exposure Scale (ATES). ATES is a terrain based classification introduced in 2004 by Parks Canada to identify "simple", "challenging" and "complex" backcountry areas. The ATES rating system has been applied to well over 200 backcountry routes, has been used in guidebooks, trailhead signs and maps and is part of the trip planning component of the AVALUATOR™, a simple decision-support tool for backcountry users. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers a means to model and visualize terrain based criteria through the use of digital elevation model (DEM) and land cover data. Primary topographic variables such as slope, aspect and curvature are easily derived from a DEM and are compatible with the equivalent evaluation criteria in ATES. Other components of the ATES classification are difficult to extract from a DEM as they are not strictly terrain based. An overview is provided of the terrain variables that can be generated from DEM and land cover data; criteria from ATES which are not clearly terrain based are identified for further study or revision. The second component of this investigation was the development of an algorithm for inputting suitable ATES criteria into a GIS, thereby mimicking the process avalanche experts use when applying the ATES classification to snow avalanche terrain. GIS based classifications were compared to existing expert assessments for validity. The advantage of automating the ATES classification process through GIS is to assist avalanche experts with categorizing and mapping remote backcountry terrain.

  16. Lowering effect of radioactive irradiation on breakdown voltage and electron avalanche pulse characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahashi, Akira; Nakano, Toru; Hosokawa, Tatsuzo; Miyoshi, Yosinori.

    1976-01-01

    In the time resolving measurement of the growing process and breakdown of electron avalanche in a gap of uniform electric field, the phenomenon that DC breakdown voltage slightly lowered was observed when β ray was irradiated as the initial electron source, as compared with unirradiated condition. Beta source used is 90 Sr- 90 Y of 2 mCi in radiative equilibrium. The experimental results and the examination are described in detail. In brief, the remarkable superposition of succeeding avalanche pulse over the preceeding avalanche pulse waveform was observed under the gap condition in which the breakdown voltage decreased in β-ray irradiation. Thus this superposition of avalanche pulses is considered as one of the causes of the breakdown voltage reduction. When β source is used as the initial electron source, the number of supplied initial electrons is very large as compared with unity, and at the same time, a great number of initial electrons can be supplied within the diffusion radius r of avalanche. Then the effect of initial electron number n 0 was considered by employing a diagram for breakdown scheme. The transition from Townsend type breakdown to streamer type breakdown occurs owing to increasing n 0 , and in that condition, the breakdown voltage lowers slightly. (Wakatsuki, Y)

  17. SWIR HgCdTe avalanche photiode focal plane array performances evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borniol, E.; Rothman, J.; Salveti, F.; Feautrier, P.

    2017-11-01

    One of the main challenges of modern astronomical instruments like adaptive optics (AO) systems or fringe trackers is to deal with the very low photons flux detection scenarios. The typical timescale of atmospheric turbulences being in the range of some tens of milliseconds, infrared wavefront sensors for AO systems needs frame rates higher than 1 KHz leading to integration times lower than 1 ms. This integration time associated with a low irradiance results in a few number of integrated photons per frame per pixel. To preserve the information coming from this weak signal, the focal plane array (FPA) has to present a low read out noise, a high quantum efficiency and a low dark current. Up to now, the output noise of high speed near infrared sensors is limited by the silicon read out circuit noise. The use of HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes with high gain at moderate reverse bias and low excess noise seems then a logical way to reduce the impact of the read noise on images signal to noise ratio. These low irradiance passive imaging applications with integration times in the millisecond range needs low photodiode dark current and low background current. These requirements lead to the choice of the photodiode cut off wavelength. The short wave infrared (SWIR) around 3 μm is a good compromise between the gain that can be obtain for a given APD bias and the background and dark current. The CEA LETI HgCdTe APD technology, and a fine analysis of the gain curve characteristic are presented in [1] and won't be detailed here. The response time of the APD is also a key factor for a high frame rate FPA. This parameter has been evaluated in [2] and the results shows cut off frequencies in the GHz range. In this communication we report the performances of a SWIR APD FPA designed and fabricated by CEA LETI and SOFRADIR for astrophysical applications. This development was made in the frame of RAPID, a 4 years R&D project funded by the French FUI (Fond Unique Interministériel). This

  18. Analysis of avalanche risk factors in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recreational activities in snow-covered mountainous terrain in the backcountry account for the vast majority of avalanche accidents. Studies analyzing avalanche risk mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e., how many, when and where people are recreating, as data on recreational activity in the winter mountains are scarce. To fill this gap, we explored volunteered geographic information on two social media mountaineering websites - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. Based on these data, we present a spatiotemporal pattern of winter backcountry touring activity in the Swiss Alps and compare this with accident statistics. Geographically, activity was concentrated in Alpine regions relatively close to the main Swiss population centers in the west and north. In contrast, accidents occurred equally often in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. Weekends, weather and avalanche conditions influenced the number of recreationists, while the odds to be involved in a severe avalanche accident did not depend on weekends or weather conditions. However, the likelihood of being involved in an accident increased with increasing avalanche danger level, but also with a more unfavorable snowpack containing persistent weak layers (also referred to as an old snow problem). In fact, the most critical situation for backcountry recreationists and professionals occurred on days and in regions when both the avalanche danger was critical and when the snowpack contained persistent weak layers. The frequently occurring geographical pattern of a more unfavorable snowpack structure also explains the relatively high proportion of accidents in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. These results have practical implications: avalanche forecasters should clearly communicate the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem to the backcountry user, particularly if persistent weak layers are of concern. Professionals and recreationists, on the

  19. Changes in H-Reflex Recruitment After Trans-Spinal Direct Current Stimulation With Multiple Electrode Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kuck

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS is an electro-modulatory tool with possible application in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. TsDCS generates a small electric field, aiming to induce lasting, functional neuromodulation in the targeted neuronal networks. Earlier studies have shown significant modulatory effects after application of lumbar tsDCS. However, for clinical application, a better understanding of application specific factors is required. Our goal was to investigate the effect of different electrode configurations using lumbar spinal tsDCS on spinal excitability. We applied tsDCS (2.5 mA, 15 min in 10 healthy subjects with three different electrode configurations: (1 Anode and cathode placed over vertebra T11, and the posterior left shoulder respectively (LSC-S (one polarity, and (2 Both electrodes placed in equal distance (ED (7 cm above and below vertebra T11, investigated for two polarities (ED-Anodal/Cathodal. The soleus H-Reflex is measured before, during and after tsDCS in either electrode configuration or a sham condition. To account for genetic predispositions in response to direct current stimulation, subject BDNF genotype was assessed. Stimulation in configuration ED-Cathodal induced an amplitude reduction of the H-reflex, 30 min after tsDCS with respect to baseline, whereas none of the other configurations led to significant post intervention effects. BDNF genotype did not correlate with post intervention effects. Furthermore, we failed to replicate effects shown by a previous study, which highlights the need for a better understanding of methodological and subject specific influences on tsDCS outcome. The H-reflex depression after tsDCS (Config. ED-Cathodal provides new insights and may foster our understanding of the working mechanism of tsDCS.

  20. Methods of evaluation of accuracy with multiple essential parameters for eddy current measurement of pressure tube to calandria tube gap in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokralla, S., E-mail: shaddy.shokralla@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, IMS NDE Projects, Ajax, Ontario (Canada); Krause, T.W., E-mail: thomas.krause@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The purpose of inspection qualification of a particular inspection system is to show that it meets applicable inspection specification requirements. Often a requirement of the inspection system is that it meets a particular accuracy. In the case of a system with multiple inputs accompanied by additional influential parameters, calculation of the system's output accuracy can be formidable. Measurement of pressure-tube to calandria tube gap in CANDU reactors using an eddy current based technique is presented as a particular example of a system where multiple essential parameters combine to generate a final uncertainty for the inspection system. This paper outlines two possible methods of calculating such a system's accuracy, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. (author)

  1. Current practices in the prediction and prevention of preterm birth in patients with higher-order multiple gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily; Hunter, Tiffany; Okun, Nanette; Farine, Dan

    2015-05-01

    We sought to determine the interventions utilized by maternal-fetal medicine specialists in the prediction and prevention of preterm labor in higher-order multiple (HOM) gestations. Online questionnaires and email surveys were sent to all the maternal-fetal medicine specialists in Canada (n=122). Questionnaire items included interventions physicians routinely recommended for HOM gestations including: (1) bed rest; (2) cervical length measurement on transvaginal ultrasound; (3) corticosteroids use; (4) cerclage; and (5) tocolytic therapy. Response rate was 66% (81/122), with 68% of respondents in practice for >10 years. Of physicians, 91% did not routinely recommend bed rest (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7-97.2). In all, 82% (95% CI, 73.63-90.4%) recommended routine cervical length assessment with 32.3% (95% CI, 20.7-43.2) and 37.1% (95% CI, 25.3-48.6) of this group suggesting assessment at 16-18 and 19-21 weeks, respectively. Frequency of assessment varied from biweekly (53.3%; 95% CI, 40.9-65.0), to monthly (23.3%; 95% CI, 12.8-33.1), to a single measurement repeated only if abnormal (12.5%; 95% CI, 4.5-20.8). In all, 28% (95% CI, 18.2-37.8) recommended routine administration of corticosteroids for lung maturation. Timing of administration varied, with 24% initiating steroids between 24-26 weeks, 59% between 27-28 weeks, and 17% after 28 weeks. None reported routine cerclage placement. However, 71% (95% CI, 61.1-80.8) would perform cerclage based on history or ultrasound. Of respondents, 81% (95% CI, 72.4-89.5) would consider using tocolytic agents for threatened preterm labor including calcium channel blockers (94%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (5%), and nitroglycerin transdermal patch (24%). The variable practice guidelines and paucity of data for management of HOM pregnancy places the onus on individual practitioners to develop their own management schemes. This results in heterogeneous management, which is based on conflicting international

  2. Multiple relaxation processes in high-energy ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide: Thermally stimulated depolarization current study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Maneesha; Quamara, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy ion irradiation effects on the thermally stimulated depolarization current (Tdc) behaviour of kapton-H samples (12.5 μm) irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (fluence 5 x 10 4 , 10 5 and 5 x 10 5 ions/cm 2 ) have been investigated. The TSDC spectra of the irradiated samples reveal that the β-peak (appearing around 80-110 deg. C) associated with dipolar relaxation has been significantly affected owing to the demerization of carbonyl groups due to irradiation. The TSDC spectra also reveal a new relaxation process (termed as γ-relaxation) around 30 deg. C, due to increased water absorptivity in irradiated samples. The peak around 200 deg. C (α-peak) associated with space charge relaxation process also shows a behavioural change with ion irradiation. The peak not only shifts towards the higher temperature with increasing fluence but also show an increase in its activation energy (0.33-0.99 eV) with increasing polarizing field. The creation of new deep energy trap centers due to the formation of conjugated bonds after irradiation is responsible for this modification. The Cole-Cole distribution curves show the formation of new sub-polar group with different characteristic relaxation time

  3. On the relativistic large-angle electron collision operator for runaway avalanches in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embréus, O.; Stahl, A.; Fülöp, T.

    2018-02-01

    Large-angle Coulomb collisions lead to an avalanching generation of runaway electrons in a plasma. We present the first fully conservative large-angle collision operator, derived from the relativistic Boltzmann operator. The relation to previous models for large-angle collisions is investigated, and their validity assessed. We present a form of the generalized collision operator which is suitable for implementation in a numerical kinetic equation solver, and demonstrate the effect on the runaway-electron growth rate. Finally we consider the reverse avalanche effect, where runaways are slowed down by large-angle collisions, and show that the choice of operator is important if the electric field is close to the avalanche threshold.

  4. Scaling behavior of individual barkhausen avalanches in nucleation-mediated magnetization reversal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2009-11-09

    We report the scaling behavior of Barkhausen avalanches along the hysteresis loop of a CoCrPt alloy film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for every field step of 200 Oe. Individual Barkhausen avalanches are directly observed via high-resolution soft X-ray microscopy with a spatial resolution of 15 nm. The Barkhausen avalanches exhibit a power-law scaling behavior, where the scaling exponent of the power-law distribution drastically changes from 1 {+-} 0.04 to 1.47 {+-} 0.03 as the applied magnetic field approaches the coercivity of the CoCrPt film. We infer that this is due to the coupling of adjacent domains.

  5. Trigger mechanisms of debris avalanche. Comparison between Bandai-san 1888 and the other cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ui, Tadahide

    1988-08-25

    This report describes a trial of classifying the trigger mechanisms of debris avalanche in a volcanic action, on the basis of a geography and the structure of the sedimentation. Reason of disintegration is diversified but the debris avalanche is caused by the destruction of the unstable mountain mass. In the case of the 1888 debris avalanche of Bandai-san, a small steam explosion at the end of the strato-volcanic activity caused the instability of a part of the mountain mass, inducing a landslide. At the active period of the volcano, a viscous magma penetrates into the volcano mass, sometimes deforming the mountain body and eventually reaching disintegration. Furthermore, an eroded valley on the surface of the volcano body develops and disintegrates and, also along the slope of the volcano, a disintegration towards the sea-bottom will occur. (4 figs, 4 tabs, 19 refs)

  6. Intracellular calcium signals display an avalanche-like behavior over multiple lengthscales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía eLopez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many natural phenomena display "self-organized criticality'' (SOC. This refers to spatially extended systems for which patterns of activity characterized by different lengthscales can occur with a probability density that follows a power law with pattern size. Differently from power laws at phase transitions, systems displaying SOC do not need the tuning of an external parameter. Here we analyze intracellular calcium Ca2+ signals, a key component of the signaling toolkit of almost any cell type. Ca2+ signals can either be spatially restricted (local or propagate throughout the cell (global. Different models have suggested that the transition from local to global signals is similar to that of directed percolation. Directed percolation has been associated, in turn, to the appearance of self-organized criticality. In this paper we discuss these issues within the framework of simple models of Ca2+ signal propagation. We also analyze the size distribution of local signals ("puffs'' observed in immature Xenopus Laevis oocytes. The puff amplitude distribution obtained from observed local signals is not Gaussian with a noticeable fraction of large size events. The experimental distribution of puff areas in the spatio-temporal record of the image has a long tail that is approximately log-normal. The distribution can also be fitted with a power law relationship albeit with a smaller goodness of fit. The power law behavior is encountered within a simple model that includes some coupling among individual signals for a wide range of parameter values. An analysis of the model shows that a global elevation of the Ca2+ concentration plays a major role in determining whether the puff size distribution is long-tailed or not. This suggests that Ca2+-clearing from the cytosol is key to determine whether IP3-mediated Ca2+ signals can display a SOC-like behavior or not.

  7. A mineralogical and granulometric study of Cayambe volcano debris avalanche deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detienne, M.; Delmelle, P.; Guevara, A.; Samaniego, P.; Bustillos, J.; Sonnet, P.; Opfergelt, S.

    2013-12-01

    Volcano flank/sector collapse represents one of the most catastrophic volcanic hazards. Various volcanic and non-volcanic processes are known to decrease the stability of a volcanic cone, eventually precipitating its gravitational failure. Among them, hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks leading to clay mineral formation is recognized as having a large negative impact on rock strength properties. Furthermore, the presence of hydrothermal clays in the collapsing mass influences the behavior of the associated volcanic debris avalanche. In particular, clay-containing debris avalanches seem to travel farther and spread more widely than avalanches of similar volume but which do not incorporate hydrothermally-altered materials. However, the relationship between hydrothermal alteration, flank collapse and debris avalanche behavior is not well understood. The objective of this study is to better determine the volume and composition of hydrothermal clay minerals in the poorly characterized debris avalanche deposit (DAD) of Cayambe composite volcano, located in a densely populated area ~70 km northeast of Quito, Ecuador. Cayambe DAD originated from a sector collapse, which occurred less than 200 ka ago. The DAD is 10-20 m thick and has an estimated total volume of ~0.85 Km3. The H/L ratio (where H is the vertical drop and L is the travel distance of the avalanche) for Cayambe DAD is ~0.095, suggesting a high mobility. In the medial-distal zone, at 9-20 km from its source, the DAD consists of an unstratified and unsorted matrix supporting millimetric to metric clasts. It has a matrix facies (i.e. rich in particles DAD behaved as a cohesive debris flow. Analysis of 13 matrix samples reveals a large variability in particle size distribution. This may reflect poor mixing of the collapsed material during transport. The clay fraction content in the matrix ranges from 15 to 30 wt.%, and does not show a relationship with the sample position in the DAD. Mineralogical

  8. Error diagrams and temporal correlations in a fracture model with characteristic and power-law distributed avalanches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Y.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; Pacheco, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    to the heterogeneity of the system. In one regime, a characteristic event is observed while for the second regime a power-law spectrum of avalanches is obtained reminiscent of self-organized criticality. We find that both regimes are different when predicting large avalanches and that, in the second regime...

  9. Rockfalls, Avalanches and Landslides at Augustine Volcano, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroin, N.; McNutt, S. R.; Reyes, C.; Sentman, D. D.

    2006-12-01

    Rockfalls, avalanches, and landslides have been frequently recorded in seismic data at Augustine Volcano for many years. Typical years, such as 2003 or 2004, had several dozen such events that were strong enough to trigger the automatic event detection system. Seventeen rockfalls occurred in 2003, mostly in late summer when air temperatures were highest. In 2004, 28 events occurred -- also in late summer. Typical events lasted about 30 sec, had frequencies greater than 6 Hz, and were well recorded on summit stations, suggesting that they were rockfalls from the steep summit dome into the adjacent moat area. In 2005, both the rate and the occurrence pattern changed. Rockfall activity began in April 2006 and continued through fall and early winter, after peaking in May and June. Overall there were more than 340 rockfalls in 2005, including both small and large events. The 2005 rockfall activity increased at nearly the same time as both earthquake activity and ground heating, suggesting that higher temperatures and steaming contributed to mechanical instabilities of the surface dome rocks. We examined relative amplitudes and frequency contents at station pairs to determine relative locations of the rockfalls by assuming both higher amplitudes and higher frequencies are associated with events closer to a given station. When a low-light camera was installed at Augustine in January 2006, we were able to confirm these relations because of the clear correlation between rockfalls, debris flows, and pyroclastic flows to the east (towards the camera) and higher amplitudes and frequencies at east station AUE. Other events had higher amplitudes and frequencies at west station AUW with no material seen moving eastward. Still other events moved towards the north, with amplitudes being nearly equivalent at both AUE and AUW. Compound events also occurred, with mass flow in several directions simultaneously. As the new steep-sided and unstable dome grew in spring 2006, rockfalls and

  10. Using stereo satellite imagery to account for ablation, entrainment, and compaction in volume calculations for rock avalanches on Glaciers: Application to the 2016 Lamplugh Rock Avalanche in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette-Kirton, Erin; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Zhou, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    The use of preevent and postevent digital elevation models (DEMs) to estimate the volume of rock avalanches on glaciers is complicated by ablation of ice before and after the rock avalanche, scour of material during rock avalanche emplacement, and postevent ablation and compaction of the rock avalanche deposit. We present a model to account for these processes in volume estimates of rock avalanches on glaciers. We applied our model by calculating the volume of the 28 June 2016 Lamplugh rock avalanche in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. We derived preevent and postevent 2‐m resolution DEMs from WorldView satellite stereo imagery. Using data from DEM differencing, we reconstructed the rock avalanche and adjacent surfaces at the time of occurrence by accounting for elevation changes due to ablation and scour of the ice surface, and postevent deposit changes. We accounted for uncertainties in our DEMs through precise coregistration and an assessment of relative elevation accuracy in bedrock control areas. The rock avalanche initially displaced 51.7 ± 1.5 Mm3 of intact rock and then scoured and entrained 13.2 ± 2.2 Mm3 of snow and ice during emplacement. We calculated the total deposit volume to be 69.9 ± 7.9 Mm3. Volume estimates that did not account for topographic changes due to ablation, scour, and compaction underestimated the deposit volume by 31.0–46.8 Mm3. Our model provides an improved framework for estimating uncertainties affecting rock avalanche volume measurements in glacial environments. These improvements can contribute to advances in the understanding of rock avalanche hazards and dynamics.

  11. Swedish skiers knowledge, experience and attitudes towards off-piste skiing and avalanches

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtensson, Stefan; Wikberg, Per-Olov; Palmgren, Petter

    2013-01-01

    The winter of 2012/2013 was the most accident-prone season in the Swedish avalanche history with a total of seven dead Swedes. In April 2013 the Swedish Mountain Safety Council initiated a web-based survey aimed towards Swedish skiers. The aim was to identify the target group's knowledge, experience and attitudes towards off-piste skiing and avalanches. Respondents were asked to answer a total of 28 questions. 1047 Swedish off-piste skiers answered, and we analysed them in more detail. The Sw...

  12. Gas sampling calorimeter studies in proportional, saturated avalanche, and streamer modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Yoh, J.; Morse, R.; Procario, M.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, satisfactory new results were obtained at SLAC from gas sampling calorimeters running in the saturated avalanche mode within the energy range of 1.5 to 17.5 GeV. To study the higher energy behavior of this mode, more tests were carried out in the M4 beamline at Fermilab. This paper contains results obtained from the MAC prototype electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters running in the proportional, saturated avalanche, and the streamer regions for energies between 12 and 150 GeV

  13. A method to harness global crowd-sourced data to understand travel behavior in avalanche terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, J.; Johnson, J.

    2015-12-01

    To date, most studies of the human dimensions of decision making in avalanche terrain has focused on two areas - post-accident analysis using accident reports/interviews and, the development of tools as decision forcing aids. We present an alternate method using crowd-sourced citizen science, for understanding decision-making in avalanche terrain. Our project combines real-time GPS tracking via a smartphone application, with internet based surveys of winter backcountry users as a method to describe and quantify travel practices in concert with group decision-making dynamics, and demographic data of participants during excursions. Effectively, we use the recorded GPS track taken within the landscape as an expression of the decision making processes and terrain usage by the group. Preliminary data analysis shows that individual experience levels, gender, avalanche hazard, and group composition all influence the ways in which people travel in avalanche terrain. Our results provide the first analysis of coupled real-time GPS tracking of the crowd while moving in avalanche terrain combined with psychographic and demographic correlates. This research will lead to an improved understanding of real-time decision making in avalanche terrain. In this paper we will specifically focus on the presentation of the methods used to solicit, and then harness the crowd to obtain data in a unique and innovative application of citizen science where the movements within the terrain are the desired output data (Figure 1). Figure 1: Example GPS tracks sourced from backcountry winter users in the Teton Pass area (Wyoming), from the 2014-15 winter season, where tracks in red represent those recorded as self-assessed experts (as per our survey), and where tracks in blue represent those recorded as self-assessed intermediates. All tracks shown were obtained under similar avalanche conditions. Statistical analysis of terrain metrics showed that the experts used steeper terrain than the

  14. The Chimborazo sector collapse and debris avalanche : deposit characteristics as evidence of emplacement mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, B.; Vries de, B. V.; Barba, D.; Leyrit, H.; Robin, Claude; Alcaraz, S.; Samaniego, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Chimborazo is a Late Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcano located at the southwest end of the main Ecuadorian volcanic arc. It experienced a large sector collapse and debris avalanche (DA) of the initial edifice (CH-1). This left a 4 km wide scar, removing 8.0 +/- 0.5 km(3) of the edifice. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) is abundantly exposed throughout the Riobamba Basin to the Rio Chambo, more than 35 km southeast of the volcano. The DAD averages a thickness of 40 m, covers about 280 km...

  15. W2 and Q2 dependence of charged hadron and pion multiplicities in νp and anti νp charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Allport, P.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1990-01-01

    Using data on νp and anti νp charged current interactions from a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC at CERN, the average multiplicities of charged hadrons and pions are determined as functions of W 2 and Q 2 . The analysis is based on ∝20000 events with incident ν and ∝10000 events with incident anti ν. In addition to the known dependence of the average multiplicity on W 2 a weak dependence on Q 2 for fixed intervals of W is observed. For W>2 Gev and Q 2 >0.1 GeV 2 the average multiplicity of charged hadrons is well described by =a 1 +a 2 ln(W 2 /GeV 2 )+a 3 ln(Q 2 /GeV 2 ) with a 1 =0.465±0.053, a 2 =1.211±0.021, a 3 =0.103±0.014 for the νp and a 1 =-0.372±0.073, a 2 =1.245±0.028, a=30.093±0.015 for the anti νp reaction. (orig.)

  16. Multiple-Fault Detection Methodology Based on Vibration and Current Analysis Applied to Bearings in Induction Motors and Gearboxes on the Kinematic Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jose Saucedo-Dorantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gearboxes and induction motors are important components in industrial applications and their monitoring condition is critical in the industrial sector so as to reduce costs and maintenance downtimes. There are several techniques associated with the fault diagnosis in rotating machinery; however, vibration and stator currents analysis are commonly used due to their proven reliability. Indeed, vibration and current analysis provide fault condition information by means of the fault-related spectral component identification. This work presents a methodology based on vibration and current analysis for the diagnosis of wear in a gearbox and the detection of bearing defect in an induction motor both linked to the same kinematic chain; besides, the location of the fault-related components for analysis is supported by the corresponding theoretical models. The theoretical models are based on calculation of characteristic gearbox and bearings fault frequencies, in order to locate the spectral components of the faults. In this work, the influence of vibrations over the system is observed by performing motor current signal analysis to detect the presence of faults. The obtained results show the feasibility of detecting multiple faults in a kinematic chain, making the proposed methodology suitable to be used in the application of industrial machinery diagnosis.

  17. On-coil multiple channel transmit system based on class-D amplification and pre-amplification with current amplitude feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Natalia; Heilman, Jeremiah A; Riffe, Matthew J; Heid, Oliver; Vester, Markus; Griswold, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    A complete high-efficiency transmit amplifier unit designed to be implemented in on-coil transmit arrays is presented. High power capability, low power dissipation, scalability, and cost minimization were some of the requirements imposed to the design. The system is composed of a current mode class-D amplifier output stage and a voltage mode class-D preamplification stage. The amplitude information of the radio frequency pulse was added through a customized step-down DC-DC converter with current amplitude feedback that connects to the current mode class-D stage. Benchtop measurements and imaging experiments were carried out to analyze system performance. Direct control of B1 was possible and its load sensitivity was reduced to less than 10% variation from unloaded to full loaded condition. When using the amplifiers in an array configuration, isolation above 20 dB was achieved between neighboring coils by the amplifier decoupling method. High output current operation of the transmitter was proved on the benchtop through output power measurements and in a 1.5T scanner through flip angle quantification. Finally, single and multiple channel excitations with the new hardware were demonstrated by receiving signal with the body coil of the scanner. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Regional snow-avalanche detection using object-based image analysis of near-infrared aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Korzeniowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Snow avalanches are destructive mass movements in mountain regions that continue to claim lives and cause infrastructural damage and traffic detours. Given that avalanches often occur in remote and poorly accessible steep terrain, their detection and mapping is extensive and time consuming. Nonetheless, systematic avalanche detection over large areas could help to generate more complete and up-to-date inventories (cadastres necessary for validating avalanche forecasting and hazard mapping. In this study, we focused on automatically detecting avalanches and classifying them into release zones, tracks, and run-out zones based on 0.25 m near-infrared (NIR ADS80-SH92 aerial imagery using an object-based image analysis (OBIA approach. Our algorithm takes into account the brightness, the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI, the normalised difference water index (NDWI, and its standard deviation (SDNDWI to distinguish avalanches from other land-surface elements. Using normalised parameters allows applying this method across large areas. We trained the method by analysing the properties of snow avalanches at three 4 km−2 areas near Davos, Switzerland. We compared the results with manually mapped avalanche polygons and obtained a user's accuracy of > 0.9 and a Cohen's kappa of 0.79–0.85. Testing the method for a larger area of 226.3 km−2, we estimated producer's and user's accuracies of 0.61 and 0.78, respectively, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.67. Detected avalanches that overlapped with reference data by > 80 % occurred randomly throughout the testing area, showing that our method avoids overfitting. Our method has potential for large-scale avalanche mapping, although further investigations into other regions are desirable to verify the robustness of our selected thresholds and the transferability of the method.

  19. Using GIS and Google Earth for the creation of the Going-to-the-Sun Road Avalanche Atlas, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Dundas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Snow avalanche paths are key geomorphologic features in Glacier National Park, Montana, and an important component of mountain ecosystems: they are isolated within a larger ecosystem, they are continuously disturbed, and they contain unique physical characteristics (Malanson and Butler, 1984). Avalanches impact subalpine forest structure and function, as well as overall biodiversity (Bebi et al., 2009). Because avalanches are dynamic phenomena, avalanche path geometry and spatial extent depend upon climatic regimes. The USGS/GNP Avalanche Program formally began in 2003 as an avalanche forecasting program for the spring opening of the ever-popular Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR), which crosses through 37 identified avalanche paths. Avalanche safety and forecasting is a necessary part of the GTSR spring opening procedures. An avalanche atlas detailing topographic parameters and oblique photographs was completed for the GTSR corridor in response to a request from GNP personnel for planning and resource management. Using ArcMap 9.2 GIS software, polygons were created for every avalanche path affecting the GTSR using aerial imagery, field-based observations, and GPS measurements of sub-meter accuracy. Spatial attributes for each path were derived within the GIS. Resulting products include an avalanche atlas book for operational use, a geoPDF of the atlas, and a Google Earth flyover illustrating each path and associated photographs. The avalanche atlas aids park management in worker safety, infrastructure planning, and natural resource protection by identifying avalanche path patterns and location. The atlas was created for operational and planning purposes and is also used as a foundation for research such as avalanche ecology projects and avalanche path runout modeling.

  20. A method to quench and recharge avalanche photo diodes for use in high rate situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, T.O.; Fenker, H.C.; Thomas, J.; Oliver, J.

    1992-06-01

    We present a new method of using Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDS) for low level light detection in Geiger mode in high rate situations such as those encountered at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The new technique is readily adaptable to implementation in CMOS VLSI

  1. A simple and accurate method for bidimensional position read-out of parallel plate avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breskin, A.; Zwang, N.

    1977-01-01

    A simple method for bidimensional position read-out of Parallel Plate Avalanche counters (PPAC) has been developed, using the induced charge technique. An accuracy better than 0.5 mm (FWHM) has been achieved for both coordinates with 5.5. MeV α-particles at gas pressures of 10-40 torr. (author)

  2. Scintillation detector composed by new type of avalanche photodiode and CsI(Tl) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jingtang; Chen Duanbao; Li Zuhao; Mao Yufang; Dong Xiaoli

    1996-01-01

    Using S5345 type of avalanche photodiode produced by Hamamatsu for the CsI(Tl) crystal readout, the spectrum of γ ray were measured. Energy resolution of 6.8% for 1.27 MeV γ ray from 22 Na source was obtained. The relation between energy resolution and coupling area, dimension of crystal, shaping time and bias were measured

  3. Study on the property of the avalanche photodiode as the readout component for scintillation crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jingtang; Chen Duanbao; Zhu Guoyi; Mao Yufang; Dong Xiaoli; Li Zuhao

    1996-01-01

    The new avalanche photodiode (APD) and a CsI(Tl) crystal formed a scintillation detector. The energy spectrum of γ rays was measured by this detector. The measured results were compared with that measured by photomultiplier. Our plan is to use APD as PbWO 4 readout component for forward luminosity electromagnetic calorimeter at τ-C factory

  4. A position sensitive parallel plate avalanche fission detector for use in particle induced fission coincidence measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plicht, J. van der

    1980-01-01

    A parallel plate avalanche detector developed for the detection of fission fragments in particle induced fission reactions is described. The active area is 6 × 10 cm2; it is position sensitive in one dimension with a resolution of 2.5 mm. The detector can withstand a count rate of 25000 fission

  5. Calorimeter detector consisting of a KMgF3 scintillator and parallel-plate avalanche chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzulutskov, A.F.; Turchanovich, L.K.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillations of a KMgF 3 crystal have been detected in the parallel-plate avalanche chamber with a TEA gaseous photocathode, the scintillation signal is shown to be much higher than the direct ionization one. The characteristic properties of the calorimeters on the basis of such structure with electrical and optical readout are discussed. 10 refs.; 4 figs

  6. Avalanches and generalized memory associativity in a network model for conscious and unconscious mental functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Maheen; Wedemann, Roseli S.; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2018-01-01

    We explore statistical characteristics of avalanches associated with the dynamics of a complex-network model, where two modules corresponding to sensorial and symbolic memories interact, representing unconscious and conscious mental processes. The model illustrates Freud's ideas regarding the neuroses and that consciousness is related with symbolic and linguistic memory activity in the brain. It incorporates the Stariolo-Tsallis generalization of the Boltzmann Machine in order to model memory retrieval and associativity. In the present work, we define and measure avalanche size distributions during memory retrieval, in order to gain insight regarding basic aspects of the functioning of these complex networks. The avalanche sizes defined for our model should be related to the time consumed and also to the size of the neuronal region which is activated, during memory retrieval. This allows the qualitative comparison of the behaviour of the distribution of cluster sizes, obtained during fMRI measurements of the propagation of signals in the brain, with the distribution of avalanche sizes obtained in our simulation experiments. This comparison corroborates the indication that the Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics formalism may indeed be more well suited to model the complex networks which constitute brain and mental structure.

  7. Implications of geomorphological research for recent and prehistoric avalanches and related hazards at Huascaran, Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Jan; Vilímek, V.; Omelka, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2009), s. 193-209 ISSN 0921-030X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : rock debris avalanches * natural hazards * Huascaran Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.217, year: 2009

  8. Experimental determination of the electron-avalanche and the electron-ion recombination coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.; Boer, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The electron-ion recombination coefficient γ and the avalanche coefficient δ = (α − a) · vd, where α and a are the ionizat ion and attachment coefficients respectively and vd the drift velocity of the electrons, have been experimentally determined in a self-sustained CO2-laser system (1:1:3 mixture)

  9. Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Integrated to All-Digital CMOS Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Brian

    2016-04-08

    This article reviews MIT Lincoln Laboratory's work over the past 20 years to develop photon-sensitive image sensors based on arrays of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Integration of these detectors to all-digital CMOS readout circuits enable exquisitely sensitive solid-state imagers for lidar, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging.

  10. Cosmic Ray Measurements by Scintillators with Metal Resistor Semiconductor Avalanche Photo Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Akindinov, Alexandre; Mal'kevich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    An educational set-up for cosmic ray physics experiments is described. The detector is based on scintillator tiles with a readout through metal resistor semiconductor (MRS) avalanche photo diode (APD) arrays. Typical measurements of the cosmic angular distribution at sea level and a study of the East-West asymmetry obtained by such a device are…

  11. Automatic scanning of Cerenkov light photograms from a multistep avalanche chamber using a television digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascon, M.; Zanella, G.

    1980-01-01

    A television digitizer and its application to automatic scanning of Cerenkov imaging using the multistep avalanche chamber in front of optical spark chamber are described. The results are of interest in the adoption of the automatic scanning of photographic plates of these events or for the on-line application of the television digitizer itself. (orig.)

  12. Massive Formation of Equiaxed Crystals by Avalanches of Mushy Zone Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, A.; Stefan-Kharicha, M.; Kharicha, A.; Wu, M.

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that the growth and motion of equiaxed crystals govern important microstructural features, especially in larger castings such as heavy ingots. To determine the origin of the equiaxed crystals, heterogeneous nucleation, and/or fragmentation of dendrite arms from columnar regions are often discussed. In the present study, we demonstrate that under certain conditions relatively large areas of mushy regions slide downward and form spectacular crystal avalanches. These avalanches crumble into thousands of dendritic fragments, whereby the larger fragments immediately sediment and the smaller proceed to behave as equiaxed crystals. Traces of such crystal avalanches can be seen by conspicuous equiaxed layers in the lower part of the casting. From the arguments in the discussion, it is believed that such a phenomenon may occur in alloys which reveal an upward solutal buoyancy in the interdendritic mush. This would include certain steels and other alloys such as Cu-Al, Pb-Sn, or Ni-Al-alloys. Moreover, the occurrence of crystal avalanches contribute to the formation of V-segregations.

  13. Current transport mechanisms in mercury cadmium telluride diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [Institute of Defence Scientists and Technologists, CFEES Complex, Brig. S. K. Majumdar Marg, Delhi 110054 (India); Li, Qing; He, Jiale; Hu, Weida, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [National Lab for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); He, Kai; Lin, Chun [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports the results of modelling of the current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of a planar mid-wave Mercury Cadmium Telluride photodiode in a gate controlled diode experiment. It is reported that the diode exhibits nearly ideal I-V characteristics under the optimum surface potential leading to the minimal surface leakage current. Deviations from the optimum surface potential lead to non ideal I–V characteristics, indicating a strong relationship between the ideality factor of the diode with its surface leakage current. Diode's I–V characteristics have been modelled over a range of gate voltages from −9 V to −2 V. This range of gate voltages includes accumulation, flat band, and depletion and inversion conditions below the gate structure of the diode. It is shown that the I–V characteristics of the diode can be very well described by (i) thermal diffusion current, (ii) ohmic shunt current, (iii) photo-current due to background illumination, and (iv) excess current that grows by the process of avalanche multiplication in the gate voltage range from −3 V to −5 V that corresponds to the optimum surface potential. Outside the optimum gate voltage range, the origin of the excess current of the diode is associated with its high surface leakage currents. It is reported that the ohmic shunt current model applies to small surface leakage currents. The higher surface leakage currents exhibit a nonlinear shunt behaviour. It is also shown that the observed zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode over the entire gate voltage range is the sum of ohmic shunt resistance and estimated zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode from its thermal saturation current.

  14. Developing an Experimental Simulation Method for Rock Avalanches: Fragmentation Behavior of Brittle Analogue Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordén Haug, Øystein; Rosenau, Matthias; Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Gravitational mass movement on earth and other planets show a scale dependent behavior, of which the physics is not fully understood. In particular, the runout distance for small to medium sized landslides (volume dynamics control small and large landslides/rock avalanches. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this scale dependent behavior, but no consensus has been reached. Experimental simulations of rock avalanches usually involve transport of loose granular material down a chute. Though such granular avalanche models provide important insights into avalanche dynamics, they imply that the material fully disintegrate instantaneously. Observations from nature, however, suggests that a transition from solid to "liquid" occurs over some finite distance downhill, critically controlling the mobility and energy budget of the avalanche. Few experimental studies simulated more realistically the material failing during sliding and those were realized in a labscale centrifuge, where the range of volumes/scales is limited. To develop a new modeling technique to study the scale dependent runout behavior of rock avalanches, we designed, tested and verified several brittle materials allowing fragmentation to occur under normal gravity conditions. According to the model similarity theory, the analogue material must behave dynamically similar to the rocks in natural rock avalanches. Ideally, the material should therefore deform in a brittle manner with limited elastic and ductile strains up to a certain critical stress, beyond which the material breaks and deforms irreversibly. According to scaling relations derived from dimensional analysis and for a model-to-prototype length ratio of 1/1000, the appropriate yield strength for an analogue material is in the order of 10 kPa, friction coefficient around 0.8 and stiffness in the order of MPa. We used different sand (garnet, quartz) in combination with different matrix materials (sugar, salt, starch, plaster) to cement

  15. Volcanic avalanche fault zone with pseudotachylite and gouge in French Massif Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Karine; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Structures and textures with sedimentological variations at different scales of the lithofacies assemblage help us to constrain the basal kinematic transition from non-depositional to depositional conditions during volcanic avalanche emplacement. In the well-exposed impact-sheared contact along volcanic avalanche fault zone in the French Massif Central, we observe how the granular textures of the pseudotachylite and fault gouge have recorded the propagation of shock wave with granular oscillatory stress. Sequential events of basal aggradation along avalanche fault zone have been established related to fractal D-values, temperature pressure regime and oscillatory stress during slow wave velocity. A typical lithofacies assemblage with a reverse grading shows the pseudotachylite and fault gouge. A cataclastic gradient is characterised by the fractal D-values from 2.7 in jigsaw breccias with pseudotachylite partial melt, to 2.6 in the polymodal gouge. Shock, brecciation and comminution produce cataclastic shear bands in the pseudotachylite and quartz microstructures along the basal contact of the volcanic debris-avalanche deposit. Gouge microstructures show granular segregation, cataclasis with antithetic rotational Riedel shear, and an arching effect between the Riedel shear bands. X-ray microtomography provided 3D microfabrics along the clastic vein in the sandy-gouge. From the available statistical dataset, a few equations have been developed implicating the same cataclastic origin with a co-genetic evolution of lithofacies. An impact wave during primary shear propagation may contribute to produce hydroclastic matrix, pseudotachylite partial melt and proximal gouge thixotropy with v 50m/s and a T < 654 °C. The interseismic period with oscillatory stress is related to crushed clasts and basaltic melt around 800 °C, Riedel shear bands with granular segregation along the fault gouge. The secondary shock by matrix-rich avalanche (ΔP = 10GPa, T ≥ 1000-1500

  16. Numerical simulations of compact intracloud discharges as the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche-Extensive Air Shower process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Nag, A.; Rakov, V. A.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Compact intracloud discharges (CIDs) are sources of the powerful, often isolated radio pulses emitted by thunderstorms. The VLF-LF radio pulses are called narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs). It is still not clear how CIDs are produced, but two categories of theoretical models that have previously been considered are the Transmission Line (TL) model and the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche-Extensive Air Showers (RREA-EAS) model. In this paper, we perform numerical calculations of RREA-EASs for various electric field configurations inside thunderstorms. The results of these calculations are compared to results from the other models and to the experimental data. Our analysis shows that different theoretical models predict different fundamental characteristics for CIDs. Therefore, many previously published properties of CIDs are highly model dependent. This is because of the fact that measurements of the radiation field usually provide information about the current moment of the source, and different physical models with different discharge currents could have the same current moment. We have also found that although the RREA-EAS model could explain the current moments of CIDs, the required electric fields in the thundercloud are rather large and may not be realistic. Furthermore, the production of NBPs from RREA-EAS requires very energetic primary cosmic ray particles, not observed in nature. If such ultrahigh-energy particles were responsible for NBPs, then they should be far less frequent than is actually observed.

  17. TH-CD-207B-07: Noise Modeling of Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) for Photon Counting CT Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Z; Zheng, X; Deen, J; Peng, H [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) has recently emerged as a promising photodetector for biomedical imaging applications. Due to its high multiplication gain (comparable to PMT), fast timing, low cost and compactness, it is considered a good candidate for photon counting CT. Dark noise is a limiting factor which impacts both energy resolution and detection dynamic range. Our goal is to develop a comprehensive model for noise sources for SiPM sensors. Methods: The physical parameters used in this work were based upon a test SPAD fabricated in 130nm CMOS process. The SPAD uses an n+/p-well junction, which is isolated from the p-substrate by a deep n-well junction. Inter-avalanche time measurement was used to record the time interval between two adjacent avalanche pulses. After collecting 1×106 counts, the histogram was obtained and multiple exponential fitting process was used to extract the lifetime associated with the traps within the bandgap. Results: At room temperature, the breakdown voltage of the SPAD is ∼11.4V and shows a temperature coefficient of 7.7mV/°C. The dark noise of SPAD increases with both the excess biasing voltage and temperature. The primary dark counts from the model were validated against the measurement results. A maximum relative error of 8.7% is observed at 20 °C with an excess voltage of 0.5V. The probabilities of after-pulsing are found to be dependent of both temperature and excess voltage. With 0.5V excess voltage, the after-pulsing probability is 63.5% at - 30 °C and drops to ∼6.6% at 40 °C. Conclusion: A comprehensive noise model for SPAD sensor was proposed. The model takes into account of static, dynamic and statistical behavior of SPADs. We believe that this is the first SPAD circuit simulation model that includes the band-to-band tunneling dark noise contribution and temporal dependence of the after-pulsing probability.

  18. Measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure isobutane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Iara Batista de

    2010-01-01

    In this work it is presented measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient (α) in pure isobutane obtained with a parallel plate chamber, protected against discharges by one electrode (anode) of high resistivity glass (ρ = 2 x 10 12 Ω.cm). The method applied was the Pulsed Townsend, where the primary ionization is produced through the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam onto a metallic electrode (cathode). The electric currents measured with the chamber operating in both ionization and avalanche regimes were used to calculate the gaseous multiplication coefficient by the solution of the Townsend equation for uniform electric fields. The validation of the technique was provided by the measurements of gaseous multiplication coefficient in pure nitrogen, a widely studied gas, which has well-established data in literature. The α coefficients in isobutane were measured as a function of the reduced electric field in the range of 139Td up to 208Td. The obtained values were compared with those simulated by Imonte software (version 4.5) and the only experimental results available in the literature, recently obtained in our group. This comparison showed that the results are concordant within the experimental errors. (author)

  19. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  20. Analysis of surface dark current dependent upon surface passivation in APD based on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hong Joo; Roh, Cheong Hyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hong Goo; Hahn, Cheol-Koo; Kim, Dong Ho; Park, Jung Ho

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the dependence of reverse dark current on two types of surface passivation, one of which is polyimide and the other is SiN x , for InAs quantum dots/GaAs separate absorption, charge, multiplication avalanche photodiode (SACM APD). From the experimental results, we found that dark current was dominated by surface current, and not bulk current. It was also noted that SiN x passivation has a surface current that is lower by three to nine times in magnitude than that in polyimide passivation in the whole range of bias. To analyze the difference in dark current due to the passivation types, we propose the theoretical current components. This shows that the dark current of both passivation types is mainly composed of generation–recombination (G–R) and tunneling components, originating from the surface. However, each component has a different magnitude for passivation types, which can be explained by carrier concentration and trap density. The dependence of dark current on temperature shows the different behaviors between passivation types and supports a theoretical description of current components

  1. Numerical investigation on the dynamics and evolution mechanisms of multiple-current-pulse behavior in homogeneous helium dielectric-barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A systematic investigation on the dynamics and evolution mechanisms of multiple-current-pulse (MCP behavior in homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge (HDBD is carried out via fluid modelling. Inspecting the simulation results, two typical discharge regimes, namely the MCP-Townsend regime and MCP-glow regime, are found prevailing in MCP discharges, each with distinctive electrical and dynamic properties. Moreover, the evolution of MCP behavior with external parameters altering are illustrated and explicitly discussed. It is revealed that the discharge undergoes some different stages as external parameters vary, and the discharge in each stage follows a series of distinctive pattern in morphological characteristics and evolution trends. Among those stages, the pulse number per half cycle is perceived to observe non-monotonic variations with applied voltage amplitude (Vam and gap width (dg increasing, and a merging effect among pulses, mainly induced by the enhanced contribution of sinusoidal component to the total current, is considered responsible for such phenomenon. The variation of incipient discharge peak phase (Φpm is dominated by the value of Vam as well as the proportion of total applied voltage that drops across the gas gap. Moreover, an abnormal, dramatic elevation in Jpm with dg increasing is observed, which could be evinced by the strengthened glow discharge structure and therefore enhanced space charge effect.

  2. High peak current operation of x-ray free-electron laser multiple beam lines by suppressing coherent synchrotron radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru; Kondo, Chikara; Inagaki, Takahiro; Togawa, Kazuaki; Fukami, Kenji; Nakazawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Taichi; Morimoto, Osamu; Yoshioka, Masamichi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Otake, Yuji; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The parallel operation of multiple beam lines is an important means to expand the opportunity of user experiments at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facilities. At SPring-8 Angstrom free-electron laser (SACLA), the multi-beam-line operation had been tested using two beam lines, but transverse coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects at a dogleg beam transport severely limited the laser performance. To suppress the CSR effects, a new beam optics based on two double bend achromat (DBA) structures was introduced for the dogleg. After the replacement of the beam optics, high peak current bunches of more than 10 kA are now stably transported through the dogleg and the laser pulse output is increased by a factor of 2-3. In the multi-beam-line operation of SACLA, the electron beam parameters, such as the beam energy and peak current, can be adjusted independently for each beam line. Thus the laser output can be optimized and wide spectral tunability is ensured for all beam lines.

  3. Multiple-source current steering in subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease (the VANTAGE study): a non-randomised, prospective, multicentre, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Lars; Jain, Roshini; Chen, Lilly; Maarouf, Mohamed; Barbe, Michael T; Allert, Niels; Brücke, Thomas; Kaiser, Iris; Beirer, Sebastian; Sejio, Fernando; Suarez, Esther; Lozano, Beatriz; Haegelen, Claire; Vérin, Marc; Porta, Mauro; Servello, Domenico; Gill, Steven; Whone, Alan; Van Dyck, Nic; Alesch, Francois

    2015-07-01

    High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) with a single electrical source is effective for motor symptom relief in patients with Parkinson's disease. We postulated that a multiple-source, constant-current device that permits well defined distribution of current would lead to motor improvement in patients with Parkinson's disease. We did a prospective, multicentre, non-randomised, open-label intervention study of an implantable DBS device (the VANTAGE study) at six specialist DBS centres at universities in six European countries. Patients were judged eligible if they were aged 21-75 years, had been diagnosed with bilateral idiopathic Parkinson's disease with motor symptoms for more than 5 years, had a Hoehn and Yahr score of 2 or greater, and had a Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale part III (UPDRS III) score in the medication-off state of more than 30, which improved by 33% or more after a levodopa challenge. Participants underwent bilateral implantation in the subthalamic nucleus of a multiple-source, constant-current, eight-contact, rechargeable DBS system, and were assessed 12, 26, and 52 weeks after implantation. The primary endpoint was the mean change in UPDRS III scores (assessed by site investigators who were aware of the treatment assignment) from baseline (medication-off state) to 26 weeks after first lead implantation (stimulation-on, medication-off state). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01221948. Of 53 patients enrolled in the study, 40 received a bilateral implant in the subthalamic nucleus and their data contributed to the primary endpoint analysis. Improvement was noted in the UPDRS III motor score 6 months after first lead implantation (mean 13·5 [SD 6·8], 95% CI 11·3-15·7) compared with baseline (37·4 [8·9], 34·5-40·2), with a mean difference of 23·8 (SD 10·6; 95% CI 20·3-27·3; p<0·0001). One patient died of pneumonia 24 weeks after implantation, which was judged to be unrelated to the procedure

  4. A simulated avalanche search and rescue mission induces temporary physiological and behavioural changes in military dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverio, Silvana; Barbato, Olimpia; Cavallina, Roberta; Guelfi, Gabriella; Iaboni, Martina; Zasso, Renato; Di Mari, Walter; Santoro, Michele Matteo; Knowles, Toby G

    2016-09-01

    Saving human lives is of paramount importance in avalanche rescue missions. Avalanche military dogs represent an invaluable resource in these operations. However, their performance can be influenced by several environmental, social and transport challenges. If too severe, these are likely to activate a range of responses to stress, which might put at risk the dogs' welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the physiological and behavioural responses of a group of military dogs to a Simulated Avalanche Search and Rescue mission (SASR). Seventeen avalanche dogs from the Italian Military Force Guardia di Finanza (SAGF dogs) were monitored during a simulated search for a buried operator in an artificial avalanche area (SASR). Heart rate (HR), body temperature (RBT) and blood samples were collected at rest the day before the trial (T0), immediately after helicopter transport at the onset of the SASR (T1), after the discovery of the buried operator (T2) and 2h later (T3). Heart rate (HR), rectal body temperature (RBT), cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. During the search mission the behaviour of each SAGF dog was measured by focal animal sampling and qualitatively assessed by its handler and two observers. Inter-rater agreement was evaluated. Snow and environmental variables were also measured. All dogs successfully completed their search for the buried, simulated victim within 10min. The SASR was shown to exert significant increases on RBT, NEFA and cortisol (Pdog's search mission ability was found only for motivation, signalling behaviour, signs of stress and possessive reward playing. More time signalling was related to shorter search time. In conclusion, despite extreme environmental and training conditions only temporary physiological and behavioural changes were recorded in the avalanche dogs. Their excellent performance in successful simulated SASR

  5. First characterisation of the "Rumi-Pana" rock avalanche deposits (Famatina Range, La Rioja, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Pullarello, José; Derron, Marc-Henri; Penna, Ivanna; Leiva, Alicia; Jaboyadoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Active mountain fronts are subject to large scale slope collapses which have the capacity to run long distances on piedmont areas. Along time, fluvial activity and other gravitatory processes can intensively erode and mask primary features related to the collapses. Therefore, to reconstruct the history of their occurrence, further analyses are needed, e.g. sedimentologic analyses. This work focuses on the occurrence of large rock avalanches in the Vinchina region, La Rioja (28°43'27.81'' S / 68°00'25.42'' W) on the western side of the Famatina range(Argentina). Here, photointerpretation of high resolution satellite images (Google Earth) allowed us to identify two rock avalanches, main scarps developed at 2575 and 2750 m a.s.l. . There are no absolute ages for these deposits, however, comparing their preservation degree with those dated further north (in similar climatic and landscape dynamics contexts [i]), we can suggest these rock avalanches took place during the Pleistocene. We carried out a fieldwork survey in this remote area, including classical landslide mapping, structural analysis, deposits characterization and sampling. The deposits reach the valley bottom (at around 1700 m a.s.l.) with runouts about 5 and 5.3 km long. In one of the cases, the morphology of the deposit is well preserved, allowing to reconstruct accurately its extension. However, in the second case, the deposits are strongly eroded by courses draining the mountain front, therefore further analyses should be done to reconstruct its extension. In addition to morphologic interpretations, a multiscale grain-size analysis was done to differentiate rock avalanches from other hillslope deposits: (1) 3D surface models of surface plots (5x5m) have been built by SfM photogrammetry; 2) classical sieving and 3) laser grain-size analysis of deposits. Samples were collected on different parts of the slope, but also along cross sections through the avalanche deposit. This deposits characterization will

  6. Novel methodology to perform sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)-based multiple-breath wash-in and washout in infants using current commercially available equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, P M; Robinson, P D; Lindblad, A; Oberli, D

    2016-11-01

    Multiple-breath inert gas washout (MBW) is ideally suited for early detection and monitoring of serious lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis, in infants and young children. Validated commercial options for the MBW technique are limited, and suitability of nitrogen (N 2 )-based MBW is of concern given the detrimental effect of exposure to pure O 2 on infant breathing pattern. We propose novel methodology using commercially available N 2 MBW equipment to facilitate 4% sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) multiple-breath inert gas wash-in and washout suitable for the infant age range. CO 2 , O 2 , and sidestream molar mass sensor signals were used to accurately calculate SF 6 concentrations. An improved dynamic method for synchronization of gas and respiratory flow was developed to take into account variations in sidestream sample flow during MBW measurement. In vitro validation of triplicate functional residual capacity (FRC) assessments was undertaken under dry ambient conditions using lung models ranging from 90 to 267 ml, with tidal volumes of 28-79 ml, and respiratory rates 20-60 per minute. The relative mean (SD, 95% confidence interval) error of triplicate FRC determinations by washout was -0.26 (1.84, -3.86 to +3.35)% and by wash-in was 0.57 (2.66, -4.66 to +5.79)%. The standard deviations [mean (SD)] of percentage error among FRC triplicates were 1.40 (1.14) and 1.38 (1.32) for washout and wash-in, respectively. The novel methodology presented achieved FRC accuracy as outlined by current MBW consensus recommendations (95% of measurements within 5% accuracy). Further clinical evaluation is required, but this new technique, using existing commercially available equipment, has exciting potential for research and clinical use. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Proof-of-concept and feasibility demonstrations for an avalanche photodiode/photoelastic modulator-based imaging polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on the successful heritage of JPL’s Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI), we propose infusing HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) array technology...

  8. Recalculation of an artificially released avalanche with SAMOS and validation with measurements from a pulsed Doppler radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sailer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A joint experiment was carried out on 10 February 1999 by the Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research (SFISAR and the Austrian Institute for Avalanche and Torrent Research (AIATR, of the Federal Office and Re-search Centre for Forests, BFW to measure forces and velocities at the full scale experimental site CRÊTA BESSE in VALLÉE DE LA SIONNE, Canton du Valais, Switzerland. A huge avalanche could be released artificially, which permitted extensive investigations (dynamic measurements, im-provement of measurement systems, simulation model verification, design of protective measures, etc.. The results of the velocity measurements from the dual frequency pulsed Doppler avalanche radar of the AIATR and the recalculation with the numerical simulation model SAMOS are explained in this paper.

  9. Intrinsic Bistability and Critical Slowing in Tm3+/Yb3+ Codoped Laser Crystal with the Photon Avalanche Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Li-Xue, Chen; Xin-Lu, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We present theoretically a novel intrinsic optical bistability (IOB) in the Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ codoped system with a photon avalanche mechanism. Numerical simulations based on the rate equation model demonstrate distinct IOB hysteresis and critical slowing dynamics around the avalanche thresholds. Such an IOB characteristic in Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ codoped crystal has potential applications in solid-state bistable optical displays and luminescence switchers in visible-infrared spectra. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  10. Infrasound array criteria for automatic detection and front velocity estimation of snow avalanches: towards a real-time early-warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, E.; Ripepe, M.; Ulivieri, G.; Kogelnig, A.

    2015-11-01

    Avalanche risk management is strongly related to the ability to identify and timely report the occurrence of snow avalanches. Infrasound has been applied to avalanche research and monitoring for the last 20 years but it never turned into an operational tool to identify clear signals related to avalanches. We present here a method based on the analysis of infrasound signals recorded by a small aperture array in Ischgl (Austria), which provides a significant improvement to overcome this limit. The method is based on array-derived wave parameters, such as back azimuth and apparent velocity. The method defines threshold criteria for automatic avalanche identification by considering avalanches as a moving source of infrasound. We validate the efficiency of the automatic infrasound detection with continuous observations with Doppler radar and we show how the velocity of a snow avalanche in any given path around the array can be efficiently derived. Our results indicate that a proper infrasound array analysis allows a robust, real-time, remote detection of snow avalanches that is able to provide the number and the time of occurrence of snow avalanches occurring all around the array, which represent key information for a proper validation of avalanche forecast models and risk management in a given area.

  11. Assessing the value of real-time snow and avalanche information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Antonia; Adams, Marc; Schuster, Martin; Berner, Martin; Nagy, Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    This poster presentation shows first results from a pilot study on exploring the possibilities of using existing and new information and communication technologies (ICT) for snow and avalanche assessments. Today, ICT solutions allow the utilisation of information at a high spatiotemporal resolution, due to the widespread availability of internet access, high computing power and affordable mobile devices. Therefore, there is an increasing request for up to date information on snow and avalanche decision-making. However, there are challenges that need to be addressed from different view points. These include topics in the field of technological feasibility of providing a stable network, exchanging trustworthy information and motivation of experts to participate. This contribution discusses the lessons-learnt, from the establishment of a platform to the user-experience.

  12. Setting best practice criteria for self-differencing avalanche photodiodes in quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler-Sidki, Alexander; Dynes, James F.; Lucamarini, Marco; Roberts, George L.; Sharpe, Andrew W.; Savory, Seb J.; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the security of avalanche photodiodes as single photon detectors for quantum key distribution has been subjected to much scrutiny. The most prominent example of this surrounds the vulnerability of such devices to blinding under strong illumination. We focus on self-differencing avalanche photodiodes, single photon detectors that have demonstrated count rates exceeding 1 GCounts/s resulting in secure key rates over 1 MBit/s. These detectors use a passive electronic circuit to cancel any periodic signals thereby enhancing detection sensitivity. However this intrinsic feature can be exploited by adversaries to gain control of the devices using illumination of a moderate intensity. Through careful experimental examinations, we define here a set of criteria for these detectors to avoid such attacks.

  13. Observation of Spectral Signatures of 1/f Dynamics in Avalanches on Granular Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong W.; Nishino, Thomas K.

    1997-03-01

    Granular piles of monodisperse glass spheres, 0.46+0.03 mm in diameter, have been studied. The base diameter of the pile has been varied from 3/8" to 2" in 1/8" increments. A single-grain dispenser with greater than 95consisting of a stepping motor-actuated reciprocating arm with a single-grain scoop. Each grain is dropped on the apex of the pile with lowest possible landing velocity at intervals at least 30longer than the duration of largest avalanches for each given pile. Each grain being added and being lost in avalanches from the pile is optically detected and recorded. The power spectrum of the net addition of grains to the pile as a function of time is found to be robustly 1/f for all base sizes. A wide variety of dynamical properties of 1/f systems, as obtained from the high precision data, will be presented.

  14. The Large-Scale Debris Avalanche From The Tancitaro Volcano (Mexico): Characterization And Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, S.; Gigli, G.; Falorni, G.; Garduno Monroy, V. H.; Arreygue, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Tancitaro is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano located in the Michoacán Guanajuato volcanic field within the west-central portion of the trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The volcanism in this area is characterized by two composite volcanoes, the highest of which is the Tancitaro volcanic edifice (3840 m), some low angle lava cones and more than 1,000 monogenetic cinder cones. The distribution of the cinder cones is controlled by NE-SW active faults, although there are also additional faults with NNW-SSE trends along which some cones are aligned. The Tancitaro stratovolcano is located at the intersection of the tectonical structures that originate these alignments. All this geological activity has contributed to the gravitational instability of the volcano, leading to a huge sector collapse which produced the investigated debris avalanche. The collapse structure is an east-facing horseshoe-shaped crater (4 km wide and 5.3 km long), related with a large fan that was deposited within the Tepalcatepec depression. The deposit starts only 7 km downslope from the failure scar, it is 66 km long and covers an area of approximately 1155 km2. The landslide magnitude is about 20 km3 and it was firstly determined by the reconstruction of the paleo-edifice using a GIS software and then validated by the observation of significant outcrops. The fan was primarily formed by the deposit of this huge debris avalanche and subsequently by debris flow and fluvial deposits. Field investigations on the fan area highlighted the presence of two texturally distinct parts, which are referred to the 'block facies' and the 'matrix facies'. The first sedimentary structure is responsible for the typical hummock morphologies in the proximal area, as seen in many other debris avalanche deposits. Instead in the distal zones, the deposit is made up by the 'mixed block and matrix facies'. Blocks and megablocks, some of which are characterized by a jigsaw puzzle texture, gradually decrease in size

  15. The performance of photon counting imaging with a Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Ji, Zhong-Jie; Chen, Qian

    2013-01-01

    In principle, photon counting imaging can detect a photon. With the development of low-level-light image intensifier techniques and low-level-light detection devices, photon counting imaging can now detect photon images under extremely low illumination. Based on a Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode single photon counter, an experimental system for photon counting imaging was built through two-dimensional scanning of a SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector. The feasibility of the imaging platform was validated experimentally. Two images with different characteristics, namely, the USAF 1951 resolution test panel and the image of Lena, were chosen to evaluate the imaging performance of the experimental system. The results were compared and analysed. The imaging properties under various illumination and scanning steps were studied. The lowest illumination limit of the SPAD photon counting imaging was determined. (letter)

  16. Mean secondary electron yield of avalanche electrons in the channels of a microchannel plate detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; Suszcynsky, D.M.; Harper, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    By modeling the statistical evolution of an avalanche created by 20 keV protons impacting the input surface of a z-stack microchannel plate (MCP) detector, the mean secondary electron yield γ C of avalanche electrons propagating through a MCP channel is measured to equal 1.37 for 760 V per MCP in the z stack. This value agrees with other studies that used MCP gain measurements to infer γ C . The technique described here to measure γ C is independent of gain saturation effects and simplifying assumptions used in the segmented dynode model, both of which can introduce errors when inferring γ C through gain measurements. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Characterisation of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britvitch, I. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Ilia.britvitch@psi.ch; Johnson, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Renker, D. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stoykov, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Lorenz, E. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Max Planck Institute for Physics, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2007-02-01

    Recently developed multipixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs) are very promising candidates for the detection of light in medical imaging instruments (e.g. positron emission tomography) as well as in high-energy physics experiments and astrophysical applications. G-APDs are especially well suited for morpho-functional imaging (multimodality PET/CT, SPECT/CT, PET/MRI, SPECT/MRI). G-APDs have many advantages compared to conventional photosensors such as photomultiplier tubes because of their compact size, low-power consumption, high quantum efficiency and insensitivity to magnetic fields. Compared to avalanche photodiodes and PIN diodes, they are advantageous because of their high gain, reduced sensitivity to pick up and the so-called nuclear counter effect and lower noise. We present measurements of the basic G-APD characteristics: photon detection efficiency, gain, inter-cell crosstalk, dynamic range, recovery time and dark count rate.

  18. Characterisation of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvitch, I.; Johnson, I.; Renker, D.; Stoykov, A.; Lorenz, E.

    2007-01-01

    Recently developed multipixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs) are very promising candidates for the detection of light in medical imaging instruments (e.g. positron emission tomography) as well as in high-energy physics experiments and astrophysical applications. G-APDs are especially well suited for morpho-functional imaging (multimodality PET/CT, SPECT/CT, PET/MRI, SPECT/MRI). G-APDs have many advantages compared to conventional photosensors such as photomultiplier tubes because of their compact size, low-power consumption, high quantum efficiency and insensitivity to magnetic fields. Compared to avalanche photodiodes and PIN diodes, they are advantageous because of their high gain, reduced sensitivity to pick up and the so-called nuclear counter effect and lower noise. We present measurements of the basic G-APD characteristics: photon detection efficiency, gain, inter-cell crosstalk, dynamic range, recovery time and dark count rate

  19. Anatomy of a turbidity current: Concentration and grain size structure of a deep-sea flow revealed by multiple-frequency acoustic profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.; Parsons, D. R.; Paull, C. K.; Barry, J.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gwiazda, R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Maier, K. L.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents are responsible for transporting large volumes of sediment to the deep ocean, yet remain poorly understood due to the limited number of field observations of these episodic, high energy events. As part of the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment high resolution, sub-minute acoustic velocity and backscatter profiles were acquired with downward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) distributed along the canyon on moorings at depths ranging from 270 to 1,900 m over a period of 18 months. Additionally, three upward-looking ADCPs on different frequencies (300, 600 and 1200 kHz) profiled the water column above a seafloor instrument node (SIN) at 1850 m water depth. Traps on the moorings collected sediment carried by the flows at different heights above the seafloor and sediment cores were taken to determine the depositional record produced by the flows. Several sediment-laden turbidity flows were observed during the experiment, three of which ran out for more than 50 km to water depths of greater than 1,900 m and were observed on all of the moorings. Flow speeds of up to 6 m/s were observed and individual moorings, anchored by railroad wheels, moved up to 7.8 km down-canyon during these powerful events. We present results based on a novel analysis of the multiple-frequency acoustic data acquired by the ADCPs at the SIN integrated with grain size data from the sediment traps, close to the deepest mooring in the array where the flow thickened to the 70 m height of the ADCP above the bed. The analysis allows, for the first time, retrieval of the suspended sediment concentration and vertical distribution of grain size structure within a turbidity in spectacular detail. The details of the stratification and flow dynamics will be used to re-evaluate and discuss our existing models for these deep-sea flows.

  20. The characteristic patterns of neuronal avalanches in mice under anesthesia and at rest: An investigation using constrained artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöpfel, Thomas; Leech, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Local perturbations within complex dynamical systems can trigger cascade-like events that spread across significant portions of the system. Cascades of this type have been observed across a broad range of scales in the brain. Studies of these cascades, known as neuronal avalanches, usually report the statistics of large numbers of avalanches, without probing the characteristic patterns produced by the avalanches themselves. This is partly due to limitations in the extent or spatiotemporal resolution of commonly used neuroimaging techniques. In this study, we overcome these limitations by using optical voltage (genetically encoded voltage indicators) imaging. This allows us to record cortical activity in vivo across an entire cortical hemisphere, at both high spatial (~30um) and temporal (~20ms) resolution in mice that are either in an anesthetized or awake state. We then use artificial neural networks to identify the characteristic patterns created by neuronal avalanches in our data. The avalanches in the anesthetized cortex are most accurately classified by an artificial neural network architecture that simultaneously connects spatial and temporal information. This is in contrast with the awake cortex, in which avalanches are most accurately classified by an architecture that treats spatial and temporal information separately, due to the increased levels of spatiotemporal complexity. This is in keeping with reports of higher levels of spatiotemporal complexity in the awake brain coinciding with features of a dynamical system operating close to criticality. PMID:29795654

  1. Intermittency, avalanche statistics, and long-term correlations in a turbulent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, Omar; Sentíes, José M; Anabitarte, Ernesto; López, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    We study the turbulent dynamics of a helium plasma in a non-confining cylindrical configuration. Our experimental setup allows us to analyze particle transport in different plasma regions. We find that, whereas the transport is diffusive in the innermost regions of the plasma, distinctive non-diffusive features appear in regions away from the center. Indeed, at the plasma edge we find that particle flux exhibits a power-law distribution of avalanche durations, intermittency, and long-term correlations. (paper)

  2. Network dynamics in nociceptive pathways assessed by the neuronal avalanche model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu José

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional electroencephalography provides a critical assessment of pain responses. The perception of pain, however, may involve a series of signal transmission pathways in higher cortical function. Recent studies have shown that a mathematical method, the neuronal avalanche model, may be applied to evaluate higher-order network dynamics. The neuronal avalanche is a cascade of neuronal activity, the size distribution of which can be approximated by a power law relationship manifested by the slope of a straight line (i.e., the α value. We investigated whether the neuronal avalanche could be a useful index for nociceptive assessment. Findings Neuronal activity was recorded with a 4 × 8 multichannel electrode array in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Under light anesthesia, peripheral pinch stimulation increased the slope of the α value in both the ACC and S1, whereas brush stimulation increased the α value only in the S1. The increase in α values was blocked in both regions under deep anesthesia. The increase in α values in the ACC induced by peripheral pinch stimulation was blocked by medial thalamic lesion, but the increase in α values in the S1 induced by brush and pinch stimulation was not affected. Conclusions The neuronal avalanche model shows a critical state in the cortical network for noxious-related signal processing. The α value may provide an index of brain network activity that distinguishes the responses to somatic stimuli from the control state. These network dynamics may be valuable for the evaluation of acute nociceptive processes and may be applied to chronic pathological pain conditions.

  3. Rock avalanche and rock glacier: A compound landform study from Hornsund, Svalbard

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartvich, Filip; Blahůt, Jan; Stemberk, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 276, JAN 1 (2017), s. 244-256 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079; GA MŠk(CZ) LG15007 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : ERT * TLS (LiDAR) * lichenometry * morphometry * rock avalanche * rock glacier * Schmidt hammer * Svalbard * Hornsund Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  4. Stable solutions of a scalar conservation law for particle-size segregation in dense granular avalanches

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, M.; Gray, J. M N T; Thornton, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Dense, dry granular avalanches are very efficient at sorting the larger particles towards the free surface of the flow, and finer grains towards the base, through the combined processes of kinetic sieving and squeeze expulsion. This generates an inversely graded particle-size distribution, which is fundamental to a variety of pattern formation mechanisms, as well as subtle size-mobility feedback effects, leading to the formation of coarse-grained lateral levees that create channels in geophys...

  5. Light from electron avalanches and background rejection in X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmund, O.H.W.; Sanford, P.W.; Mason, I.M.; Culhane, J.L.; Cockshott, R.

    1980-01-01

    A modified version of the parallel plate imaging proportional counter, developed to register images of cosmic x-ray sources in the focal planes of x-ray telescopes, has been constructed to investigate the application of risetime discrimination to the scintillation pulses caused by the electron avalanche process. It is shown that efficient background event rejection (> 90%) is achieved and the application of this system for x-ray astronomy is discussed. (U.K.)

  6. X-ray spectrometry with Peltier-cooled large area avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.M.P.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    2004-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the response of a Peltier-cooled large-area avalanche photodiode are investigated. Detector gain, energy linearity, energy resolution and minimum detectable energy are studied at different operation temperatures. Detector energy resolution and lowest detectable X-ray energy present a strong improvement as the operation temperature is reduced from 25 to 15 deg. C and slower improvements are achieved for temperatures below 10 deg. C

  7. Study of influence of gas mixture composition on the multistep avalanche chambers characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdushukurov, D.A.; Zanevskij, Yu.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the concentration of organic quenchers on the operation of multistep avalanche chambers /MSAC/ has been studied. An empirical dependence of the gas amplification factor of MSAC on the quencher concentration has been derived. Measures are considered to increase the stability of the MSAC operation. To improve the MSAC operation argon + n-heptane, neon + methane and neon + argon + methane mixtures are suggested

  8. Local and global performance of double-gap resistive plate chambers operated in avalanche mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Altieri, S.; Belli, G.; Bruno, G.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.; Sergueev, S

    1999-09-21

    Two large double-gap resistive plate chambers, with 2 and 3 mm gap widths, were tested to study their response uniformity when operated in avalanche mode. The effects of mechanical tolerances and the presence of the spacers is thoroughly examined. Results on efficiency and time resolution are presented. We find that average performance and response uniformity over the whole chamber surface are fully adequate to the requirements of future collider experiments. (author)

  9. High speed, wide dynamic range analog signal processing for avalanche photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Walder, J P; Pangaud, P

    2000-01-01

    A wide dynamic range multi-gain analog transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit has been developed for avalanche photodiode signal processing. The 96 dB input dynamic range is divided into four ranges of 12-bits each in order to provide 40 MHz analog sampled data to a 12-bits ADC. This concept which has been integrated in both BiCMOS and full complementary bipolar technology along with fitted design techniques will be presented.

  10. High speed, wide dynamic range analog signal processing for avalanche photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.P.; El Mamouni, Houmani; Pangaud, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    A wide dynamic range multi-gain analog transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit has been developed for avalanche photodiode signal processing. The 96 dB input dynamic range is divided into four ranges of 12-bits each in order to provide 40 MHz analog sampled data to a 12-bits ADC. This concept which has been integrated in both BiCMOS and full complementary bipolar technology along with fitted design techniques will be presented

  11. High speed, wide dynamic range analog signal processing for avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, J.P. E-mail: walder@in2p3.fr; El Mamouni, Houmani; Pangaud, Patrick

    2000-03-11

    A wide dynamic range multi-gain analog transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit has been developed for avalanche photodiode signal processing. The 96 dB input dynamic range is divided into four ranges of 12-bits each in order to provide 40 MHz analog sampled data to a 12-bits ADC. This concept which has been integrated in both BiCMOS and full complementary bipolar technology along with fitted design techniques will be presented.

  12. Delphinid systematics and biogeography with a focus on the current genus Lagenorhynchus: Multiple pathways for antitropical and trans-oceanic radiation

    KAUST Repository

    Banguera Hinestroza, Eulalia

    2014-11-01

    The six species currently classified within the genus Lagenorhynchus exhibit a pattern of antitropical distribution common among marine taxa. In spite of their morphological similarities they are now considered an artificial grouping, and include both recent and the oldest representatives of the Delphinidae radiation. They are, therefore, a good model for studying questions about the evolutionary processes that have driven dolphin speciation, dispersion and distribution. Here we used two different approaches. First we constructed a multigenic phylogeny with a minimum amount of missing data (based on 9 genes, 11,030 bp, using the 6 species of the genus and their closest relatives) to infer their relationships. Second, we built a supermatrix phylogeny (based on 33 species and 27 genes) to test the effect of taxon sampling on the phylogeny of the genus, to provide inference on biogeographic history, and provide inference on the main events shaping the dispersion and radiation of delphinids. Our analyses suggested an early evolutionary history of marine dolphins in the North Atlantic Ocean and revealed multiple pathways of migration and radiation, probably guided by paleoceanographic changes during the Miocene and Pliocene. L. acutus and L albirostris likely shared a common ancestor that arose in the North Atlantic around the Middle Miocene, predating the radiation of subfamilies Delphininae, Globicephalinae and Lissodelphininae. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immune response induced by Epstein-Barr virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis peptides in current and past infectious mononucleosis: a risk for multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, G; Madeddu, G; Cossu, D; Galleri, G; Manetti, R; Babudieri, S; Mura, M Stella; Sechi, L A

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the mechanism linking these pathologies is unclear. Different reports indicate the association of EBV, and recently Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), with MS. For a better understanding of the role of these pathogens, the host response induced by selected antigenic peptides in subjects with a history of IM that significantly increases the risk of MS was investigated. Both humoral and cell-mediated response against peptides able to induce a specific immune activation in MS patients deriving from lytic and latent EBV antigens BOLF1(305-320), EBNA1(400-413), from MAP MAP_4027(18-32), MAP_0106c(121-132) and from human proteins IRF5(424-434) and MBP(85-98) in subjects with current and past IM were examined. EBNA1 and MAP_0106c peptides were able to induce a humoral immune response in subjects with a history of clinical IM in an independent manner. Moreover, these peptides were capable of inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor α by CD14+ monocyte cells. Our results highlight that EBV and MAP may be involved independently in the same causal process leading to MS in subjects with a history of IM. © 2015 EAN.

  14. The Gap in the Current Research on the Link between Health Locus of Control and Multiple Sclerosis: Lessons and Insights from a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neurological disease whose etiology has not been fully understood yet in detail. Empirical findings show how psychosocial symptoms are very important features of the clinical presentation of MS, having a deep impact on patient's quality of life, and thus psychological coping strategies may play a central role in reducing the burden of the disease and improving patient's satisfaction of life. MS progression and relapses/exacerbations are unpredictable and may depend on factors such as stressor chronicity, frequency, severity, type, and individual patient characteristics such as depression, personality, locus of control (LOC, optimism, and perceived social support. Due to its importance for health-care delivery, rehabilitation, and nursing, here, we make a systematic review on the current state-of-the-art studies concerning the relationship between LOC and MS, according to the PRISMA guidelines, and we assess the quality and the completeness of the studies using the CONSORT instrument, underpinning their limitations, and suggesting how to fill the gap in this research field.

  15. A new CMOS SiGeC avalanche photo-diode pixel for IR sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Carlos; Forester, Lynn; Diniz, Pedro C.

    2009-05-01

    Near-infra-red sensing with silicon is limited by the bandgap of silicon, corresponding to a maximum wavelength of absorption of 1.1 μm. A new type of CMOS sensor is presented, which uses a SiGeC epitaxial film in conjunction with novel device architecture to extend absorption into the infra-red. The SiGeC film composition and thickness determine the spectrum of absorption; in particular for SiGeC superlattices, the layer ordering to create pseudo direct bandgaps is the critical parameter. In this new device architecture, the p-type SiGeC film is grown on an active region surrounded by STI, linked to the S/D region of an adjacent NMOS, under the STI by a floating N-Well. On a n-type active, a P-I-N device is formed, and on a p-type active, a P-I-P device is formed, each sensing different regions of the spectrum. The SiGeC films can be biased for avalanche operation, as the required vertical electric field is confined to the region near the heterojunction interface, thereby not affecting the gate oxide of the adjacent NMOS. With suitable heterojunction and doping profiles, the avalanche region can also be bandgap engineered, allowing for avalanche breakdown voltages that are compatible with CMOS devices.

  16. Statistical distributions of avalanche size and waiting times in an inter-sandpile cascade model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batac, Rene; Longjas, Anthony; Monterola, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Sandpile-based models have successfully shed light on key features of nonlinear relaxational processes in nature, particularly the occurrence of fat-tailed magnitude distributions and exponential return times, from simple local stress redistributions. In this work, we extend the existing sandpile paradigm into an inter-sandpile cascade, wherein the avalanches emanating from a uniformly-driven sandpile (first layer) is used to trigger the next (second layer), and so on, in a successive fashion. Statistical characterizations reveal that avalanche size distributions evolve from a power-law p(S)≈S-1.3 for the first layer to gamma distributions p(S)≈Sαexp(-S/S0) for layers far away from the uniformly driven sandpile. The resulting avalanche size statistics is found to be associated with the corresponding waiting time distribution, as explained in an accompanying analytic formulation. Interestingly, both the numerical and analytic models show good agreement with actual inventories of non-uniformly driven events in nature.

  17. Memory effect in gated single-photon avalanche diodes: a limiting noise contribution similar to afterpulsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A.; Di Sieno, L.; Cubeddu, R.; Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Pifferi, A.

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, emerging applications, such as diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy (e.g., functional brain imaging and optical mammography), in which a wide dynamic range is crucial, have turned the interest towards Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD). In these fields, the use of a fast-gated SPAD has proven to be a successful technique to increase the measurement sensitivity of different orders of magnitude. However, an unknown background noise has been observed at high illumination during the gate-OFF time, thus setting a limit to the maximum increase of the dynamic range. In this paper we describe this noise in thin-junction silicon single-photon avalanche diode when a large amount of photons reaches the gated detector during the OFF time preceding the enabling time. This memory effect increases the background noise with respect to primary dark count rate similarly to a classical afterpulsing process, but differently it is not related to a previous avalanche ignition in the detector. We discovered that memory effect increases linearly with the power of light impinging on the detector and it has an exponential trend with time constants far different from those of afterpulsing and independently of the bias voltage applied to the junction. For these reasons, the memory effect is not due to the same trapping states of afterpulsing and must be described as a different process.

  18. Influence of roughness bottom on the dynamics of a buoyant cloud : application to a powder avalanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, D.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Naaim, M.; Caccamo, P.

    2009-04-01

    A powder avalanche is referred to as a turbulent flow of snow particles in air. In the past such avalanches have been modelled by buoyant cloud in a watertank: buoyant clouds flow along an inclined plane from a small immersed tank with a release gate (injection is of short duration). The powder avalanches are simulated by a heavy fluid (salt water + colorant or kaolin) which is dispersing in a lighter one. Such experiments allow studies for the influence of roughness bottoms on the dynamics of a buoyant clouds. The authors studied the flows of buoyant clouds on an uniform slope of 20° with different roughness: smooth PVC, abrasive paper, bottom covered with glued particles of PMMA or with glued glass beads of different sizes arranged in a compact way. The released volume varies between 2 to 4 liters and the density of salted water is 1.2. Two cameras are used to obtain the height together with the front velocity. Inside the study area the front velocity is approximately constant and the height of the clouds varies linearly with the distance from the released gate as usually observed in previous experiments. So for each roughness a front velocity and height growth can be defined. It was shown from the experiments that: As the bottom increases in roughness, the front speed increases and the height growth decreases. Nevertheless the height of glued elements does not seem to be the most appropriate parameter to characterize the roughness.

  19. La carte de localisation des phénomènes d'avalanche (CLPA : enjeux et perspectives The Localization Map of Avalanche Phenomena (CLPA in French: stakes and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Bonnefoy, Gilles Borrel, Didier Richard, Laurent Bélanger et Mohamed Naaim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Après presque quarante ans d’existence, la carte de localisation des phénomènes d'avalanche (CLPA constitue aujourd’hui un outil incontournable pour la prise en compte du risque d’avalanche dans l’aménagement et la gestion des territoires de montagne. Pour optimiser la sécurité des zones urbanisées, ce dispositif a su se rénover par une mise à jour régulière et étendue des données et l'étude de nouvelles zones, mais aussi par une meilleure diffusion auprès des opérationnels et du public concernés. Les auteurs nous rappellent ici l'évolution du fonctionnement de la CLPA et l'intérêt d'élargir la valorisation de ses données dans de nouveaux outils scientifiques.The Localization Map of Avalanche Phenomena (CLPA in French was created in 1971 as a response to the deadly avalanche occurred in Val d’Isère (February 1970, 39 persons killed. The aim is to inventory and to memorize areas where avalanches occurred in the past in order to keep in memory precisely greatest limits of those avalanches. The CLPA was rapidly considered as an essential element for developing plan in mountain areas. After the other catastrophic avalanche, which occurred in the Montroc Village (Chamonix in February 1999, it was recommended “the mutual valuation of the EPA and the CLPA integrated into an information system containing the information on avalanches and the information on the other natural risks in mountain”. The ministry in charge of environment decided therefore to continue and to modernize the CLPA, mission that was assigned to the Cemagref with the ONF collaboration. This modernization was based on the end of maps and testimonies records digitizing, on the compilation of summary notes concerning main avalanches information in reference to a mountain massif, on the institution of a durable updating of the map and on the possibility of having all information on line on the website www.avalanches.fr. Information recorded in the

  20. Modelling of illuminated current–voltage characteristics to evaluate leakage currents in long wavelength infrared mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, Vishnu; Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, Weida

    2014-01-01

    The current–voltage characteristics of long wavelength mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors have been studied using a recently suggested method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. Diodes fabricated on in-house grown arsenic and vacancy doped epitaxial layers were evaluated for their leakage currents. The thermal diffusion, generation–recombination (g-r), and ohmic currents were found as principal components of diode current besides a component of photocurrent due to illumination. In addition, both types of diodes exhibited an excess current component whose growth with the applied bias voltage did not match the expected growth of trap-assisted-tunnelling current. Instead, it was found to be the best described by an exponential function of the type, I excess  = I r0  + K 1 exp (K 2 V), where I r0 , K 1 , and K 2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. A study of the temperature dependence of the diode current components and the excess current provided the useful clues about the source of origin of excess current. It was found that the excess current in diodes fabricated on arsenic doped epitaxial layers has its origin in the source of ohmic shunt currents. Whereas, the source of excess current in diodes fabricated on vacancy doped epitaxial layers appeared to be the avalanche multiplication of photocurrent. The difference in the behaviour of two types of diodes has been attributed to the difference in the quality of epitaxial layers

  1. At-Home Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS With Telehealth Support for Symptom Control in Chronically-Ill Patients With Multiple Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Riggs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS delivered in multiple sessions can reduce symptom burden, but access of chronically ill patients to tDCS studies is constrained by the burden of office-based tDCS administration. Expanded access to this therapy can be accomplished through the development of interventions that allow at-home tDCS applications.Objective: We describe the development and initial feasibility assessment of a novel intervention for the chronically ill that combines at-home tDCS with telehealth support.Methods: In the developmental phase, the tDCS procedure was adjusted for easy application by patients or their informal caregivers at home, and a tDCS protocol with specific elements for enhanced safety and remote adherence monitoring was created. Lay language instructional materials were written and revised based on expert feedback. The materials were loaded onto a tablet allowing for secure video-conferencing. The telehealth tablet was paired with an at-home tDCS device that allowed for remote dose control via electronic codes dispensed to patients prior to each session. tDCS was delivered in two phases: once daily on 10 consecutive days, followed by an as needed regimen for 20 days. Initial feasibility of this tDCS-telehealth system was evaluated in four patients with advanced chronic illness and multiple symptoms. Change in symptom burden and patient satisfaction were assessed with the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (CMSAS and a tDCS user survey.Results: The telehealth-tDCS protocol includes one home visit and has seven patient-tailored elements and six elements enhancing safety monitoring. Replicable electrode placement at home without 10–20 EEG measurement is achieved via a headband that holds electrodes in a pre-determined position. There were no difficulties with patients’ training, protocol adherence, or tolerability. A total of 60 tDCS sessions were applied. No session required discontinuation, and

  2. At-Home Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) With Telehealth Support for Symptom Control in Chronically-Ill Patients With Multiple Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Alexa; Patel, Vaishali; Paneri, Bhaskar; Portenoy, Russell K; Bikson, Marom; Knotkova, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) delivered in multiple sessions can reduce symptom burden, but access of chronically ill patients to tDCS studies is constrained by the burden of office-based tDCS administration. Expanded access to this therapy can be accomplished through the development of interventions that allow at-home tDCS applications. Objective: We describe the development and initial feasibility assessment of a novel intervention for the chronically ill that combines at-home tDCS with telehealth support. Methods: In the developmental phase, the tDCS procedure was adjusted for easy application by patients or their informal caregivers at home, and a tDCS protocol with specific elements for enhanced safety and remote adherence monitoring was created. Lay language instructional materials were written and revised based on expert feedback. The materials were loaded onto a tablet allowing for secure video-conferencing. The telehealth tablet was paired with an at-home tDCS device that allowed for remote dose control via electronic codes dispensed to patients prior to each session. tDCS was delivered in two phases: once daily on 10 consecutive days, followed by an as needed regimen for 20 days. Initial feasibility of this tDCS-telehealth system was evaluated in four patients with advanced chronic illness and multiple symptoms. Change in symptom burden and patient satisfaction were assessed with the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (CMSAS) and a tDCS user survey. Results: The telehealth-tDCS protocol includes one home visit and has seven patient-tailored elements and six elements enhancing safety monitoring. Replicable electrode placement at home without 10-20 EEG measurement is achieved via a headband that holds electrodes in a pre-determined position. There were no difficulties with patients' training, protocol adherence, or tolerability. A total of 60 tDCS sessions were applied. No session required discontinuation, and there were no adverse

  3. Cataclysmic Rock Avalanche from El Capitan, Yosemite Valley, circa 3.6 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    El Capitan in Yosemite Valley is one of the largest and most iconic granite faces in the world. Despite glacially steepened walls exceeding 90 degrees, a historic database shows relatively few rock falls from El Capitan in the past 150 years. However, a massive bouldery deposit beneath the southeast face suggests an earlier rock avalanche of unusually large size. Spatial analysis of airborne LiDAR data indicate that the rock avalanche deposit has a volume of ~2.70 x 106 m3, a maximum thickness of 18 m, and a runout distance of 660 m, roughly twice the horizontal extent of the adjacent talus. The deposit is very coarse on its distal edge, with individual boulder volumes up to 2500 m3. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure dates from boulders distributed across the deposit confirm this interpretation. Four 10Be samples are tightly clustered between 3.5 and 3.8 ka, with a mean age of 3.6 +/- 0.6 ka. A fifth sample gives a much older age of 22.0 ka, but a glacier occupied Yosemite Valley at this time, prohibiting deposition; thus, the older age likely results from exposure on the cliff face prior to failure. The similarity of ages and overall morphology suggest that the entire deposit formed during a single event. The mean exposure age coincides with inferred Holocene rupture of the northern Owens Valley and/or White Mountain fault(s) between 3.3 and 3.8 ka (Lee et al., 2001; Bacon and Pezzopane, 2007). This time coincidence, combined with the fact that historic rupture of the Owens Valley fault in A.D. 1872 generated numerous large rock falls in Yosemite Valley, strongly suggests that the El Capitan rock avalanche was triggered by a seismic event along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada circa 3.6 ka. As there is not an obvious "scar" on the expansive southeast face, the exact source area of the rock avalanche is not yet known. Detrital apatite U-Th/(He) thermochronometry can determine the elevation(s) from which rock fall boulders originate, but significant inter-sample age

  4. Numerical modeling of debris avalanches at Nevado de Toluca (Mexico): implications for hazard evaluation and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2007-05-01

    The present study concerns the numerical modeling of debris avalanches on the Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Mexico) using TITAN2D simulation software, and its application to create hazard maps. Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age, located in central México near to the cities of Toluca and México City; its past activity has endangered an area with more than 25 million inhabitants today. The present work is based upon the data collected during extensive field work finalized to the realization of the geological map of Nevado de Toluca at 1:25,000 scale. The activity of the volcano has developed from 2.6 Ma until 10.5 ka with both effusive and explosive events; the Nevado de Toluca has presented long phases of inactivity characterized by erosion and emplacement of debris flow and debris avalanche deposits on its flanks. The largest epiclastic events in the history of the volcano are wide debris flows and debris avalanches, occurred between 1 Ma and 50 ka, during a prolonged hiatus in eruptive activity. Other minor events happened mainly during the most recent volcanic activity (less than 50 ka), characterized by magmatic and tectonic-induced instability of the summit dome complex. According to the most recent tectonic analysis, the active transtensive kinematics of the E-W Tenango Fault System had a strong influence on the preferential directions of the last three documented lateral collapses, which generated the Arroyo Grande and Zaguàn debris avalanche deposits towards E and Nopal debris avalanche deposit towards W. The analysis of the data collected during the field work permitted to create a detailed GIS database of the spatial and temporal distribution of debris avalanche deposits on the volcano. Flow models, that have been performed with the software TITAN2D, developed by GMFG at Buffalo, were entirely based upon the information stored in the geological database. The modeling software is built upon equations

  5. Effect of gas heating on the generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam in the pulse-periodic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Sorokin, D. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-07-01

    The generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam (UAEB) in nitrogen in the pulse-periodic regime is investigated. The gas temperature in the discharge gap of the atmospheric-pressure nitrogen is measured from the intensity distribution of unresolved rotational transitions ( C 3Π u , v' = 0) → ( B 3Π g , v″ = 0) in the nitrogen molecule for an excitation pulse repetition rate of 2 kHz. It is shown that an increase in the UAEB current amplitude in the pulse-periodic regime is due to gas heating by a series of previous pulses, which leads to an increase in the reduced electric field strength as a result of a decrease in the gas density in the zone of the discharge formation. It is found that in the pulse-periodic regime and the formation of the diffuse discharge, the number of electrons in the beam increases by several times for a nitrogen pressure of 9 × 103 Pa. The dependences of the number of electrons in the UAEB on the time of operation of the generator are considered.

  6. CMOS integrated avalanche photodiodes and frequency-mixing optical sensor front end for portable NIR spectroscopy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ruida; Sthalekar, Chirag; Joyner, Valencia M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and measurement results of two avalanche photodiode structures (APDs) and a novel frequency-mixing transimpedance amplifier (TIA), which are key building blocks towards a monolithically integrated optical sensor front end for near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy applications. Two different APD structures are fabricated in an unmodified 0.18 \\im CMOS process, one with a shallow trench isolation (STI) guard ring and the other with a P-well guard ring. The APDs are characterized in linear mode. The STI bounded APD demonstrates better performance and exhibits 3.78 A/W responsivity at a wavelength of 690 nm and bias voltage of 10.55 V. The frequency-mixing TIA (FM-TIA) employs a T-feedback network incorporating gate-controlled transistors for resistance modulation, enabling the simultaneous down-conversion and amplification of the high frequency modulated photodiode (PD) current. The TIA achieves 92 dS Ω conversion gain with 0.5 V modulating voltage. The measured IIP(3) is 10.6/M. The amplifier together with the 50 Ω output buffer draws 23 mA from a1.8 V power supply.

  7. Pulse oximeter using a gain-modulated avalanche photodiode operated in a pseudo lock-in light detection mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Tetsuo; Araki, Tsutomu

    2006-01-01

    We propose a reflection-type pulse oximeter, which employs two pairs of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a gated avalanche photodiode (APD). One LED is a red one with an emission wavelength λ = 635 nm and the other is a near-infrared one with that λ = 945 nm, which are both driven with a pulse mode at a frequency f (=10 kHz). Superposition of a transistor-transistor-logic (TTL) gate pulse on a direct-current (dc) bias, which is set so as not exceeding the breakdown voltage of each APD, makes the APD work in a gain-enhanced operation mode. Each APD is gated at a frequency 2f (=20 kHz) and its output signal is fed into a laboratory-made lock-in amplifier that works in synchronous with the pulse modulation signal of each LED at a frequency f (=10 kHz). A combination of the gated APD and the lock-in like signal detection scheme is useful for the reflection-type pulse oximeter thanks to the capability of detecting a weak signal against a large background (BG) light.

  8. Analysis of the snow-atmosphere energy balance during wet-snow instabilities and implications for avalanche prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mitterer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wet-snow avalanches are notoriously difficult to predict; their formation mechanism is poorly understood since in situ measurements representing the thermal and mechanical evolution are difficult to perform. Instead, air temperature is commonly used as a predictor variable for days with high wet-snow avalanche danger – often with limited success. As melt water is a major driver of wet-snow instability and snow melt depends on the energy input into the snow cover, we computed the energy balance for predicting periods with high wet-snow avalanche activity. The energy balance was partly measured and partly modelled for virtual slopes at different elevations for the aspects south and north using the 1-D snow cover model SNOWPACK. We used measured meteorological variables and computed energy balance and its components to compare wet-snow avalanche days to non-avalanche days for four consecutive winter seasons in the surroundings of Davos, Switzerland. Air temperature, the net shortwave radiation and the energy input integrated over 3 or 5 days showed best results in discriminating event from non-event days. Multivariate statistics, however, revealed that for better predicting avalanche days, information on the cold content of the snowpack is necessary. Wet-snow avalanche activity was closely related to periods when large parts of the snowpack reached an isothermal state (0 °C and energy input exceeded a maximum value of 200 kJ m−2 in one day, or the 3-day sum of positive energy input was larger than 1.2 MJ m−2. Prediction accuracy with measured meteorological variables was as good as with computed energy balance parameters, but simulated energy balance variables accounted better for different aspects, slopes and elevations than meteorological data.

  9. HgCdTe e-avalanche photodiode detector arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Initial results on the MWIR e-APD detector arrays with 30 μm pitch fabricated on LPE grown compositionally graded p-HgCdTe epilayers are presented. High dynamic resistance times active area (R0A product 2 × 106 Ω-cm2, low dark current density 4 nA/cm2 and high gain 5500 at -8 V were achieved in the n+-υ-p+ HgCdTe e-APD at 80 K. LPE based HgCdTe e-APD development makes this technology amenable for adoption in the foundries established for the conventional HgCdTe photovoltaic detector arrays without any additional investment.

  10. Modern gas-avalanche radiation detectors: from innovations to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) technologies allow for the conception of advanced large area radiation detectors with unprecedented spatial resolutions and sensitivities, capable of operating under very high radiation flux. After more than two decades of extensive R and D carried by large number of groups worldwide, these detector technologies have reached high level of maturity. Nowadays, they are adapted as leading instruments for a growing number of applications in particle physics and in many other fields on basic and applied research. The growing interest in MPGD technologies and their mass-production capabilities naturally motivates further developments in the field. The state-of-the-art detector concepts and technologies have been introduced and their evolution, properties and current leading applications have been reviewed. Future potential applications as well as new technology challenges have been discussed

  11. Seismo-acoustic evidence for an avalanche driven phreatic eruption through a beheaded hydrothermal system: An example from the 2012 Tongariro eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, A.D.; Jousset, P.; Lyons, J.J.; Carniel, R.; Fournier, R.; Fry, B.; Miller, C.

    2016-01-01

    The 6 August 2012 Te Maari eruption comprises a complex eruption sequence including multiple eruption pulses, a debris avalanche that propagated ~ 2 km from the vent, and the formation of a 500 m long, arcuate chasm, located ~ 300 m from the main eruption vent. The eruption included 6 distinct impulses that were coherent across a local infrasound network marking the eruption onset at 11:52:18 (all times UTC). An eruption energy release of ~ 3 × 1012 J was calculated using a body wave equation for radiated seismic energy. A similar calculation based on the infrasound record, shows that ~ 90% of the acoustic energy was released from three impulses at onset times 11:52:20 (~ 20% of total eruption energy), 11:52:27 (~ 50%), and 11:52:31 (~ 20%). These energy impulses may coincide with eyewitness accounts describing an initial eastward directed blast, followed by a westward directed blast, and a final vertical blast. Pre-eruption seismic activity includes numerous small unlocatable micro-earthquakes that began at 11:46:50. Two larger high frequency earthquakes were recorded at 11:49:06 and 11:49:21 followed directly by a third earthquake at 11:50:17. The first event was located within the scarp based on an arrival time location from good first P arrival times and probably represents the onset of the debris avalanche. The third event was a tornillo, characterised by a 0.8 Hz single frequency resonance, and has a resonator attenuation factor of Q ~ 40, consistent with a bubbly fluid filled resonator. This contrasts with a similar tornillo event occurring 2.5 weeks earlier having Q ~ 250–1000, consistent with a dusty gas charged resonator. We surmise from pre-eruption seismicity, and the observed attenuation change, that the debris avalanche resulted from the influx of fluids into the hydrothermal system, causing destabilisation and failure. The beheaded hydrothermal system may have then caused depressurisation frothing of the remaining gas charged system leading to the

  12. The electromagnetic radiation fields of a relativistic electron avalanche with special attention to the origin of narrow bipolar pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, G. V.; Cooray, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Gurevich et al. [1] postulated that the source of narrow bipolar pulses, a class of high energy pulses that occur during thunderstorms, could be a runaway electron avalanche driven by the intense electric fields of a thunderstorm. Recently, Watson and Marshall [2] used the modified transmission line model to test the mechanism of the source of narrow bipolar pulses. In a recent paper, Cooray and Cooray [3] demonstrated that the electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges could be used to evaluate the electromagnetic fields from electrical discharges if the temporal and spatial variation of the charges in the discharge is known. In the present study, those equations were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This makes it possible to extract directly the spatial variation of the e-folding length of the avalanche from the measured radiation fields. In the study this model avalanche was used to investigate whether it can be used to describe the measured electromagnetic fields of narrow bipolar pulses. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the two station data of Eack [4] for speeds of propagation around (2 - 2.5) x 10^8 m/s and when the propagation effects on the electric fields measured at the distant station is taken into account. [1] Gurevich et al. (2004), Phys. Lett. A., 329, pp. 348 -361. [2] Watson, S. S. and T. C. Marshall (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L04816, doi: 10

  13. On the vulnerability of basic quantum key distribution protocols and three protocols stable to attack with 'blinding' of avalanche photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Russian Federation Academy of Cryptography (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    The fundamental quantum mechanics prohibitions on the measurability of quantum states allow secure key distribution between spatially remote users to be performed. Experimental and commercial implementations of quantum cryptography systems, however, use components that exist at the current technology level, in particular, one-photon avalanche photodetectors. These detectors are subject to the blinding effect. It was shown that all the known basic quantum key distribution protocols and systems based on them are vulnerable to attacks with blinding of photodetectors. In such attacks, an eavesdropper knows all the key transferred, does not produce errors at the reception side, and remains undetected. Three protocols of quantum key distribution stable toward such attacks are suggested. The security of keys and detection of eavesdropping attempts are guaranteed by the internal structure of protocols themselves rather than additional technical improvements.

  14. Detection of the scintillation light emitted from direct-bandgap compound semiconductors by a Si avalanche photodiode at 150 mK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumune, Takashi; Takayama, Nobuyasu; Maehata, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kenji; Umeno, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the direct-bandgap compound semiconductor materials are irradiated by α particles emitted from 241 Am for the detection of scintillation light at the temperature of 150 mK. For the irradiation experiment, two disk shaped samples were fabricated from an epoxy resin mixed with the powder of PbI 2 and CuI, respectively. Each disk-samples was cooled down to 150 mK by a compact liquid helium-free dilution refrigerator. A Si avalanche photodiode (APD) was employed for detecting the scintillation light emitted from the disk-sample inside the refrigerator. The detection signal current of Si APD was converted into the voltage pulses by a charge sensitive preamplifier. The voltage pulses of the scintillation light emitted from the direct-bandgap semiconductors were observed at the temperature of 150 mK. (author)

  15. Compact lidar system using laser diode, binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode-based receiver controlled by a digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Antoni; Comerón, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the practical limits of a lidar system based on the use of a laser diode, random binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode (APD)-based photereceiver, combined with the control and computing power of the digital signal processors (DSP) currently available. The target is to design a compact portable lidar system made all in semiconductor technology, with a low-power demand and an easy configuration of the system, allowing change in some of its features through software. Unlike many prior works, we emphasize the use of APDs instead of photomultiplier tubes to detect the return signal and the application of the system to measure not only hard targets, but also medium-range aerosols and clouds. We have developed an experimental prototype to evaluate the behavior of the system under different environmental conditions. Experimental results provided by the prototype are presented and discussed.

  16. 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD) for charged particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Pittet, P.; Pares, G.; Cellier, R.; Quiquerez, L.; Chaves de Albuquerque, T.; Bechetoille, E.; Testa, E.; Lopez, J.-P.; Dauvergne, D.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2018-02-01

    Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are p-n junctions operated in Geiger Mode by applying a reverse bias above the breakdown voltage. SPADs have the advantage of featuring single photon sensitivity with timing resolution in the picoseconds range. Nevertheless, their relatively high Dark Count Rate (DCR) is a major issue for charged particle detection, especially when it is much higher than the incoming particle rate. To tackle this issue, we have developed a 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD). This novel device implements two vertically aligned SPADs featuring on-chip electronics for the detection of coincident avalanche events occurring on both SPADs. Such a coincidence detection mode allows an efficient discrimination of events related to an incoming charged particle (producing a quasi-simultaneous activation of both SPADs) from dark counts occurring independently on each SPAD. A 3D-SiCAD detector prototype has been fabricated in CMOS technology adopting a 3D flip-chip integration technique, and the main results of its characterization are reported in this work. The particle detection efficiency and noise rejection capability for this novel device have been evaluated by means of a β- strontium-90 radioactive source. Moreover the impact of the main operating parameters (i.e. the hold-off time, the coincidence window duration, the SPAD excess bias voltage) over the particle detection efficiency has been studied. Measurements have been performed with different β- particles rates and show that a 3D-SiCAD device outperforms single SPAD detectors: the former is indeed capable to detect particle rates much lower than the individual DCR observed in a single SPAD-based detectors (i.e. 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower).

  17. The Chimborazo sector collapse and debris avalanche: Deposit characteristics as evidence of emplacement mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Barba, Diego; Leyrit, Hervé; Robin, Claude; Alcaraz, Samantha; Samaniego, Pablo

    2008-09-01

    Chimborazo is a Late Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcano located at the southwest end of the main Ecuadorian volcanic arc. It experienced a large sector collapse and debris avalanche (DA) of the initial edifice (CH-I). This left a 4 km wide scar, removing 8.0 ± 0.5 km 3 of the edifice. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) is abundantly exposed throughout the Riobamba Basin to the Río Chambo, more than 35 km southeast of the volcano. The DAD averages a thickness of 40 m, covers about 280 km 2, and has a volume of > 11 km 3. Two main DAD facies are recognized: block and mixed facies. The block facies is derived predominantly from edifice lava and forms > 80 vol.% of the DAD, with a probable volume increase of 15-25 vol.%. The mixed facies was essentially created by mixing brecciated edifice rock with substratum and is found mainly in distal and marginal areas. The DAD has clear surface ridges and hummocks, and internal structures such as jigsaw cracks, injections, and shear-zone features are widespread. Structures such as stretched blocks along the base contact indicate high basal shear. Substratum incorporation is directly observed at the base and is inferred from the presence of substratum-derived material in the DAD body. Based on the facies and structural interpretation, we propose an emplacement model of a lava-rich avalanche strongly cataclased before and/or during failure initiation. The flow mobilises and incorporates significant substrata (10-14 vol.%) while developing a fine lubricating basal layer. The substrata-dominated mixed facies is transported to the DAD interior and top in dykes invading previously-formed fractures.

  18. Correlation Immunity, Avalanche Features, and Other Cryptographic Properties of Generalized Boolean Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    satisfying the strict avalanche criterion,” Discrete Math ., vol. 185, pp. 29–39, 1998. [2] R.C. Bose, “On some connections between the design of... Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 149, pp. 73–86, 2005. [11] T.W. Cusick and P. Stănică, Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications, 2nd ed., San Diego...Stănică, “Bisecting binomial coefficients,” Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 227, pp. 70–83, 2017. [28] T. Martinsen, W. Meidl, and P. Stănică, “Generalized

  19. Space-charge limitation of avalanche growth in narrow-gap resistive plate chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M C S

    2004-01-01

    A big advance in resistive plate chamber technology happened in 1996 with the advent of the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The MRPC allows us to easily construct detectors with many small gas gaps and thus we obtain good timing together with high detection efficiency. Using this technology, it is now common to build detectors with gas gaps of 200-300 mum in width. This paper examines space-charge limited avalanche growth; this becomes a dominant effect for narrow gap resistive plate chambers. This effect controls gas gain and explains the reason for the excellent behaviour of MRPCs built with this gas gap.

  20. An ion beam tracking system based on a parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, I. P.; Ramachandran, K.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Rafiei, R.; Luong, D. H.; Williams, E.; Cook, K. J.; McNeil, S.; Rafferty, D. C.; Harding, A. B.; Muirhead, A. G.; Tunningley, T.

    2013-01-01

    A pair of twin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counters have been developed at the Australian National University as a tracking system to aid in the further rejection of unwanted beam particles from a 6.5 T super conducting solenoid separator named SOLEROO. Their function is to track and identify each beam particle passing through the detectors on an event-by-event basis. In-beam studies have been completed and the detectors are in successful operation, demonstrating the tracking capability. A high efficiency 512-pixel wide-angle silicon detector array will then be integrated with the tracking system for nuclear reactions studies of radioactive ions. (authors)