WorldWideScience

Sample records for current mining activities

  1. Data Mining Activities for Bone Discipline - Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Johnston, S. L.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The disciplinary goals of the Human Research Program are broadly discussed. There is a critical need to identify gaps in the evidence that would substantiate a skeletal health risk during and after spaceflight missions. As a result, data mining activities will be engaged to gather reviews of medical data and flight analog data and to propose additional measures and specific analyses. Several studies are briefly reviewed which have topics that partially address these gaps in knowledge, including bone strength recovery with recovery of bone mass density, current renal stone formation knowledge, herniated discs, and a review of bed rest studies conducted at Ames Human Research Facility.

  2. The Current State of Global Activities Related to Deep-sea Mineral Exploration and Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Sven; Krätschell, Anna; Hannington, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea mining is seen as a potential way to provide future secure metal supply to global markets. The current rush to the seafloor in areas beyond national jurisdiction indicates that sound knowledge of the geological characteritics of the various commodities, a realistic resource assessment, and a social and political discussion about the cons and pros of their exploitation that is based on facts, not myths, is required. This contribution provides the most recent information on...

  3. Current Activities of the Ministry of Mines, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in late 2001, the Afghanistan government started developing plans for the revitalization of the Natural Resources sector. This revitalization included the rebuilding and reorganization of the capabilities of the Ministry of Mines and Industries (now the Ministry of Mines) and the Afghan Geological Survey and several other Afghan ministries. The initial focus was on the development of new mining and hydrocarbon laws, which were supported by the World Bank. Concurrent with these activities was the recognized need to identify, organize and compile existing data and information on the natural resources of the country. This has been followed by the use of these data and information to provide preliminary assessments of the oil and gas resources, mineral resources, water resources, coal resources, and earthquake hazards, all based on existing data. A large part of these assessment efforts required the development of a geospatial infrastructure through the use of satellite imagery and other remote sensing technologies. Institutional and capacity building were integral parts of all efforts. With the assessment and law activities ongoing, the Ministry of Mine has now turned to the development of a leasing framework, which address the critical need of transparency of leasing, lease management, and royalty collection. This new leasing system was implemented in spring 2008 with the leasing of the Aynak Copper Deposit, which is located about 25 miles south of Kabul. At the moment, a second world class mineral deposit is being considered for leasing within the next year. Oil and gas lease tracts are also under development in the northern oil and gas basins of Afghanistan. With the support of the Afghan government, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently completed the gathering of new data and information in support of the Natural Resources Sector. These data gathering missions include gravity, magnetics, radar, and hyperspectral data, which were gathered through

  4. The Necessity of Public Relations for Sustainable Mining Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunbock; Ji, Sangwoo

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports research about the necessity of image making for sustainable mine developments in the Republic of Korea. One of the big risks in mining activities is mining area residents opposing mine developments and operations. Analysis of the media reports on disputes between mining companies and residents can determine causes of opposing mine developments, dispute process, and influences of disputes on processes of mining projects. To do this, civil complaints from 2009 to 2012 and 24 media reports since 2000 on opposing mining activities are analyzed. And, to analyze difficulties of mining companies, the survey is conducted to target to mining companies. 57 representatives of mining companies are participated in the survey. The result of analysis cited that the major reasons of anti-mining activities are environmental degradation and reduced agricultural productivity. And specifically because of water pollution (50%), crop damages (33%), and mining dust pollution (21%), communities of mining area are against mine developments and operations. However, 25% of residents have experience of the damage caused by mining activities and the remaining 75% of residents opposing mining activities simply have anxiety about mining pollution. In the past, construction-oriented, environment-unfriendly mining projects had lasted. And while mine reclamation had been postponed in abandoned mines, mining area residents had suffered from mining pollution. So, mining area residents are highly influenced by the prejudice that mining activities are harmful to mining area communities. Current mining projects in South Korea, unlike the past mining activity, focus on minimizing environmental damage and contributing to mining area communities financially. But, in many case of disputes between mining companies and mining area residents, the both cannot reach an agreements because of the negative prejudice. Moreover, some communities categorically refuse any mining activity. On the

  5. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  6. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  7. Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimizing the Impact of Mining Activities for Sustainable Mined-Out Area ... and processing through mining activities especially, of the solid minerals are going ... approach to evaluating hazards represented by different kinds of mine waste be ...

  8. Uranium from Africa - An overview on past and current mining activities: Re-appraising associated risks and chances in a global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Frank; Brugge, Doug; Nidecker, Andreas; Ruegg, Urs

    2017-05-01

    In 2003, nuclear power received renewed interest as a perceived climate-neutral way to meet high energy demands of large industrialized countries, such as China, India, Russia and the USA. It triggered a growing demand for uranium (U) as nuclear fuel. Dubbed the 'nuclear renaissance', the U-price rose over tenfold before the global credit crisis dampend the rush. Many efforts to capitalise on the renewed demand focused on Africa. This paper provides an overview on the type and extent of uranium mining, production and exploration on the African continent and discusses the economic benefits as well as the potential environmental and health risks and the long-term needs for remediation of legacy sites. The actual historical results of uranium mining activities in more than thirty African countries provide data against which to assess the existing risks of uranium development. The already existing uraniferous waste in several African countries threatens scarce water resources and the health of adjacent residents. Responsibility should rest with the governments and the companies to ensure that these threats are not realized.

  9. Rise of Data Mining: Current and Future Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharminder Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has played a significant role on human activities since his development. Data mining is the process of knowledge discovery where knowledge is gained by analyzing the data store in very large repositories, which are analyzed from various perspectives and the result is summarized it into useful information. Due to the importance of extracting knowledge/information from the large data repositories, data mining has become a very important and guaranteed branch of engineering affecting human life in various spheres directly or indirectly. Advancements in Statistics, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Pattern recognition and Computation capabilities have given present days data mining functionality a new height. Data mining have various applications and these applications have enriched the various fields of human life including business, education, medical, scientific etc. Objective of this paper is to discuss various improvements and breakthroughs in the field of data mining from past to the present and also to explores the future trends.

  10. A Review on Software Mining: Current Trends and Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurtej Singh Ubhi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution of Software Mining, it has enabled to play a crucial role in the day to day activities .By empowering the software with the data mining methods it aids to all the software developers and the managers at all the managerial levels to use it as a tool so that the relative software engineering data (in the form of code, design documents, bug reports to visualize the project‟s status of evolution and progress. To add on, further all the mining methods and algorithms help to device the models to develop any fault prone real time system for the real world more prior to the testing phase or the evolution phase. Also , in this review paper it will highlight the different methodologies for software mining along with its extension as a tool for fault tolerance and as well as a bibliography with the special prominence on mining the software engineering information

  11. Problems of making and supplementing of mine-surveying documentation concerning mining activity and some activities made by mining way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MikolᚠMilan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The last amendment of the mine surveying decree for mining activity and some activities made by a mining way, Decree of the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic No. 1/1993, has been valid in Slovak Republic since 1993. According practical experience and by applying the mentioned decree in practice, I submit a proposal that could be taken into account in case of any amendment for the mentioned legal regulation. I have arrived at this proposal in virtue of development in the area of mine-surveying instrumentation and in connection with the use of computer art for creation of mine-surveying documentation

  12. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  13. Applying geochemical signatures of atmospheric dust to distinguish current mine emissions from legacy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chenyin; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Resolving the source of environmental contamination is the critical first step in remediation and exposure prevention. Australia's oldest silver-zinc-lead mine at Broken Hill (>130 years old) has generated a legacy of contamination and is associated with persistent elevated childhood blood lead (Pb) levels. However, the source of environmental Pb remains in dispute: current mine emissions; remobilized mine-legacy lead in soils and dusts; and natural lead from geological weathering of the gossan ore body. Multiple lines of evidence used to resolve this conundrum at Broken Hill include spatial and temporal variations in dust Pb concentrations and bioaccessibility, Pb isotopic compositions, particle morphology and mineralogy. Total dust Pb loading (mean 255 μg/m2/day) and its bioaccessibility (mean 75% of total Pb) is greatest adjacent to the active mining operations. Unweathered galena (PbS) found in contemporary dust deposits contrast markedly to Pb-bearing particles from mine-tailings and weathered gossan samples. Contemporary dust particles were more angular, had higher sulfur content and had little or no iron and manganese. Dust adjacent to the mine has Pb isotopic compositions (208Pb/207Pb: 2.3197; 206Pb/207Pb: 1.0406) that are a close match (99%) to the ore body with values slightly lower (94%) at the edge of the city. The weight of evidence supports the conclusion that contemporary dust Pb contamination in Broken Hill is sourced primarily from current mining activities and not from weathering or legacy sources.

  14. Current Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    Biological oceanography, marine food chain dynamics, carbon cycling in the ocean. Martin, Seelye,Ph.D., Johns Hopkins. Geophysical fluid dynamics...currently under investigation, (Ahmed, Packard) 8. Amylase studies An assay for amylase activity has been adapted to measure zooplankton grazing. This...as a function of available food and of the biomass of copepods, was prescribed by sixteen equations: five, corresponding to copepodite stages (I to V

  15. Mining activities and arsenic in a Baja California Sur watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Naranjo-Pulido; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Baudillo Acost-Vargas; Lia Rodriguez-Mendez; Marcos Acevedo-Beltran; Cerafina Arguelles-Mendez

    2000-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important sources of income for the Baja California Sur state. This state is the second most important area for mineral (gold, silver, copper) and non-mineral (salt) mining activities in the Mexican Republic. In the San Antonio-El Triunfo region, mineral-mining activities flourished during the 19th century. Tons of debris containing a high...

  16. A Survey on Terrorist Network Mining: Current Trends and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Tiwari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the modernization and widespread usage of Internet, the security of the mankind has become one of the major issues today. The threat of human society from the terrorists is the challenge faced dominantly. Advancement in the technology has not only helped the common people for the growth but also these inhuman people to adversely affect the society with sophisticated techniques. In this regard, the law-enforcement agencies are aiming to prevent future attacks. To do so, the terrorist networks are being analyzed and detected. To achieve this, the law enforcement agencies are using data mining techniques as one of the effective solution. One such technique of data mining is Social network analysis which studies terrorist networks for the identification of relationships and associations that may exist between terrorist nodes. Terrorist activities can also be detected by means of analyzing Web traffic content. This paper studies social network analysis, web traffic content and explores various ways foridentifying terrorist activities.

  17. A spatial evaluation of historic iron mining impacts on current impaired waters in Lake Superior's Mesabi Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, John; Langston, Nancy; Lafreniere, Don

    2017-10-05

    This paper examines the water quality legacies of historic and current iron mining in the Mesabi Range, the most productive iron range in the history of North America, producing more than 42% of the world's iron ore in the 1950s. Between 1893 and 2016, 3.5 × 10(9) t of iron ore were shipped from the Mesabi Range to steel plants throughout the world. We map historic sites and quantities of iron mining, ore processing, water use, and tailings deposition within subwatershed boundaries. We then map the locations of impaired lakes within HUC-12 subwatershed boundaries within the Mesabi Range, using government datasets created for US federal Clean Water Act reporting. Comparing watersheds with and without historic mining activity, watersheds with historic mining activity currently contain a greater percentage of impaired lakes than control watersheds within the same range. These results suggest that historic iron ore mining and processing in the Mesabi Range affected water quality on a landscape scale, and these legacies persist long after the mines have closed. This paper outlines a novel spatial approach that land managers and policy makers can apply to other landscapes to assess the effects of past mining activity on watershed health.

  18. Effects of mining activities on selected aquatic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ph.D. Except for agriculture, the mining industry is considered as not only the oldest but also the most important industry. Mining involves the removal of minerals from the earth's crust for usage by mankind. The disturbance during mining activities such as mining effluent has an effect on the natural aquatic environment. In any freshwater environment, the macroinvertebrates form a vital link between the abiotic envinronment and the organisms in higher trophic levels. It is thus true that...

  19. Mining Concurrent Topical Activity in Microblog Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Panisson, A; Quaggiotto, M; Cattuto, C

    2014-01-01

    Streams of user-generated content in social media exhibit patterns of collective attention across diverse topics, with temporal structures determined both by exogenous factors and endogenous factors. Teasing apart different topics and resolving their individual, concurrent, activity timelines is a key challenge in extracting knowledge from microblog streams. Facing this challenge requires the use of methods that expose latent signals by using term correlations across posts and over time. Here we focus on content posted to Twitter during the London 2012 Olympics, for which a detailed schedule of events is independently available and can be used for reference. We mine the temporal structure of topical activity by using two methods based on non-negative matrix factorization. We show that for events in the Olympics schedule that can be semantically matched to Twitter topics, the extracted Twitter activity timeline closely matches the known timeline from the schedule. Our results show that, given appropriate techn...

  20. Building structure-activity insights through patent mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meihua; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Filipski, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    One gap in current patent-mining practice is the lack of tools to build SAR knowledge. Here, we report a novel technique that enabled us to derive useful SAR information from the exemplified structures of a series of patents. In our approach, exemplified chemical structures were extracted from patent documents. They were grouped into structural series based on similarity and binding mode, after which the R-group table was generated. By analyzing R-group usages over time, we were able to build insights into SAR of a structural series, even though the biological activities were not available.

  1. Deep-sea mining: Current status and future considerations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    with exclusive rights for exploration from just eight in the first four decades (1970-2010) to 25 in the next 4 years (2011-2015) as well as consistent research and development of technology for prospecting, mining, and processing of these resources, coupled...

  2. Interaction of mining activities and aquatic environment: A review from Greek mine sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Greece a significant amount of mineral and ore deposits have been recorded accompanied by large industrial interest and a long mining history. Today many active and/or abandoned mine sites are scattered within the country; while mining activities take place in different sites for exploiting various deposits (clay, limestone, slate, gypsum, kaolin, mixed sulphide ores (lead, zinc, olivine, pozzolan, quartz lignite, nickel, magnesite, aluminum, bauxite, gold, marbles etc). The most prominent recent ones are: (i) the lignite exploitation that is extended in the area of Ptolemais (Western Macedonia) and Megalopolis (Central Peloponnese); and (ii) the major bauxite deposits located in central Greece within the Parnassos-Ghiona geotectonic zone and on Euboea Island. In the latter area, significant ores of magnesite were exploited and mixed sulphide ores. Centuries of intensive mining exploitation and metallurgical treatment of lead-silver deposits in Greece, have also resulted in significant abandoned sites, such as the one in Lavrion. Mining activities in Lavrio, were initiated in ancient times and continued until the 1980s, resulting in the production of significant waste stockpiles deposited in the area, crucial for the local water resources. Ιn many mining sites, environmental pressures are also recorded after the mine closure to the aquatic environment, as the surface waters flow through waste dump areas and contaminated soils. This paper aims to the geospatial visualization of the mining activities in Greece, in connection to their negative (surface- and/or ground-water pollution; overpumping due to extensive dewatering practices) or positive (enhanced groundwater recharge; pit lakes, improvement of water budget in the catchment scale) impacts on local water resources.

  3. The impact of mining activities on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelyan, A.; Sahakyan, L.

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess environmental status of the territory of the city of Kapan and neighboring agricultural farms with an emphasis on the impact of the tailing repository and operation of the Kapan copper plant on soil, water and plant pollution. The region has long been known for its abundant copper and polymetallic deposits with vein- and stockwork-type mineralization. Moreover, historically Kapan was the miners' city and a powerful copper mining and dressing plant has been operating there since 1846. The performed geochemical survey and a sanitary-hygienic assessment of pollution of the Kapan's soils have indicated high contents of Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and As vs. the background and Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC). The assessment of pollution levels of surface water, including natural and industrial streams, has indicated that unlike natural stream waters, mining waters from the adit and industrial stream waters were high in a number of toxic (Cd, As, Hg) and ore (Cu, Zn) elements. Activation of most chemical elements and particularly of heavy metals in water environment rapidly brings to pollution of environmental components (soils, plants, etc.), and as a result heavy metals enter the human organism via trophic chains. So, in the frame of the research eco-toxicological studies were performed on accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Sn, Mo), including high toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd) in agricultural soils and in the basic assortment of agricultural crops. The research covered agricultural lands within the bounds of the city and private plots in neighboring villages. Wholly, 24 vegetable, melon field, cereal (corn), oil-bearing (sunflower) species adding spicy herbs and fruits were studied. It should be stressed that agricultural crops growing on the study sites are used provide food products not only by the population of this particular city and neighboring villages, but of other cities, too. It means that the average number of

  4. State Mines Inspectorate of Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz, Mines Inspectorate Saarbruecken / Mines Inspectorate Rheinland-Pfalz. Annual report 2001. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Bergamt Saarbruecken / Bergamt Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 2001. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, R.; Hugo, K.H.; Kuhn, M.; Strauch, T. (comps.)

    2002-07-01

    The annual report of the Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz State Mines Inspectorate and the Mines Inspectorates of the two states provide an insight into the many activities of mines inspectorates and of the current trends in mining engineering. The importance of mining and regional raw materials management is stressed. [German] Der vorliegende Jahresbericht des Oberbergamtes fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz sowie der Bergaemter in beiden Bundeslaendern gibt einen Einblick in das vielfaeltige Arbeitsgebiet der Bergbehoerden. Gleichzeitig vermittelt er einen Ueberblick ueber die bergtechnische Entwicklung und unterstreicht die volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Bergbaus und der standortgebundenen Rohstoffwirtschaft.

  5. Data Analysis and Data Mining: Current Issues in Biomedical Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Diomidous, Marianna; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Takabayashi, Katsuhiko; Ziegler, Andreas; McCray, Alexa T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Medicine and biomedical sciences have become data-intensive fields, which, at the same time, enable the application of data-driven approaches and require sophisticated data analysis and data mining methods. Biomedical informatics provides a proper interdisciplinary context to integrate data and knowledge when processing available information, with the aim of giving effective decision-making support in clinics and translational research. Objectives To reflect on different perspectives related to the role of data analysis and data mining in biomedical informatics. Methods On the occasion of the 50th year of Methods of Information in Medicine a symposium was organized, that reflected on opportunities, challenges and priorities of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care. The contributions of experts with a variety of backgrounds in the area of biomedical data analysis have been collected as one outcome of this symposium, in order to provide a broad, though coherent, overview of some of the most interesting aspects of the field. Results The paper presents sections on data accumulation and data-driven approaches in medical informatics, data and knowledge integration, statistical issues for the evaluation of data mining models, translational bioinformatics and bioinformatics aspects of genetic epidemiology. Conclusions Biomedical informatics represents a natural framework to properly and effectively apply data analysis and data mining methods in a decision-making context. In the future, it will be necessary to preserve the inclusive nature of the field and to foster an increasing sharing of data and methods between researchers. PMID:22146916

  6. Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mine plants and operations for commodities monitored by the Minerals Information Team of the USGS. Operations included are those considered active in 2003 and...

  7. Stress monitoring versus microseismic ruptures in an active deep mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Bouffier, Christian; Bigarré, Pascal; Nyström, Anders; Österberg, Anders; Fjellström, Peter

    2015-04-01

    monitoring data coming from the mine in quasi-real time and facilitates information exchanges and decision making for experts and stakeholders. On the basis of these data acquisition and sharing, preliminary analysis has been started to highlight whether stress variations and seismic sources behaviour might be directly bound with mine working evolution and could improve the knowledge on the equilibrium states inside the mine. Knowing such parameters indeed will be a potential solution to understand better the response of deep mining activities to the exploitation solicitations and to develop, if possible, methods to prevent from major hazards such as rock bursts and other ground failure phenomena.

  8. Active Learning in Context-Driven Stream Mining With an Application to Image Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Cem; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-11-01

    We propose an image stream mining method in which images arrive with contexts (metadata) and need to be processed in real time by the image mining system (IMS), which needs to make predictions and derive actionable intelligence from these streams. After extracting the features of the image by preprocessing, IMS determines online the classifier to use on the extracted features to make a prediction using the context of the image. A key challenge associated with stream mining is that the prediction accuracy of the classifiers is unknown, since the image source is unknown; thus, these accuracies need to be learned online. Another key challenge of stream mining is that learning can only be done by observing the true label, but this is costly to obtain. To address these challenges, we model the image stream mining problem as an active, online contextual experts problem, where the context of the image is used to guide the classifier selection decision. We develop an active learning algorithm and show that it achieves regret sublinear in the number of images that have been observed so far. To further illustrate and assess the performance of our proposed methods, we apply them to diagnose breast cancer from the images of cellular samples obtained from the fine needle aspirate of breast mass. Our findings show that very high diagnosis accuracy can be achieved by actively obtaining only a small fraction of true labels through surgical biopsies. Other applications include video surveillance and video traffic monitoring.

  9. The current situation of impact of coal mine developing on environment in China and government proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Ministry of Land and Resources

    2005-07-01

    Current environmental problems caused by coal mining in China, the importance of management of the environment, impact of coal mining on land and water resources, and upcoming coal development are discussed. It is suggested that the government should act in two ways: take responsibility for management of reclamation of mines existing before 1986, and set up mechanisms to protect the environment, starting with the publishing of relevant laws and regulations. Methods for solving environmental issues include: prepare a practical plan, establish an environmental control fund, establish a special fund to protect the environment, and develop new ways to combine protection of the biological environment and land reclamation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Incremental Web Usage Mining Based on Active Ant Colony Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jie; LIN Ying; CHEN Zhimin

    2006-01-01

    To alleviate the scalability problem caused by the increasing Web using and changing users' interests, this paper presents a novel Web Usage Mining algorithm-Incremental Web Usage Mining algorithm based on Active Ant Colony Clustering. Firstly, an active movement strategy about direction selection and speed, different with the positive strategy employed by other Ant Colony Clustering algorithms, is proposed to construct an Active Ant Colony Clustering algorithm, which avoid the idle and "flying over the plane" moving phenomenon, effectively improve the quality and speed of clustering on large dataset. Then a mechanism of decomposing clusters based on above methods is introduced to form new clusters when users' interests change. Empirical studies on a real Web dataset show the active ant colony clustering algorithm has better performance than the previous algorithms, and the incremental approach based on the proposed mechanism can efficiently implement incremental Web usage mining.

  11. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khaled M; Murphy, Michael M; Lawson, Heather E; Klemetti, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are: (1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting; (2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load-external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing; (3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration; (4) potential rib instability occurred when certain geological features prevailed-these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata; (5) 47% of the studied rib spall was classified as blocky-this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards; and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.

  12. Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Khaled M.; Murphy Michael M.; Lawson Heather E.; Klemetti Ted

    2016-01-01

    Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are:(1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting;(2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load—external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing;(3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration;(4) potential rib insta-bility occurred when certain geological features prevailed—these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata;(5) 47%of the stud-ied rib spall was classified as blocky—this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards;and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.

  13. The landscape degradation in the mining sites with suspended activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IONCE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The extracting industry, through its extraction activities, of shipping the ores, of breaking the ores, of preparing the practical substances, of stowing the useless rock, of transporting the practical substances, etc. might modify the area’s relief and the quality of ground, of thesurface waters and of the air. Suceava County has an old tradition of mining, where the results of this activity are visible, especially the visual point of view, and where not taking certain measures of ecological remediation will emphasize the disappointing image of the landscape within the areas of mining activity performing.The predominant mountainous landscape, in which mining activities have been held, is being affected also by the abandoned industrial and administrative buildings, in an advanced degradation state.The hydrographic system, very rich in mining areas, has its water quality affected by the acid rock drainage- phenomenon which appeared in many mining waste deposits.

  14. The influence of the scale of mining activity and mine site remediation on the contamination legacy of historical metal mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Graham

    2016-12-01

    Globally, thousands of kilometres of rivers are degraded due to the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) sourced from historical metal mining activity. In many countries, the presence of contaminated water and river sediment creates a legal requirement to address such problems. Remediation of mining-associated point sources has often been focused upon improving river water quality; however, this study evaluates the contaminant legacy present within river sediments and attempts to assess the influence of the scale of mining activity and post-mining remediation upon the magnitude of PHE contamination found within contemporary river sediments. Data collected from four exemplar catchments indicates a strong relationship between the scale of historical mining, as measured by ore output, and maximum PHE enrichment factors, calculated versus environmental quality guidelines. The use of channel slope as a proxy measure for the degree of channel-floodplain coupling indicates that enrichment factors for PHEs in contemporary river sediments may also be the highest where channel-floodplain coupling is the greatest. Calculation of a metric score for mine remediation activity indicates no clear influence of the scale of remediation activity and PHE enrichment factors for river sediments. It is suggested that whilst exemplars of significant successes at improving post-remediation river water quality can be identified; river sediment quality is a much more long-lasting environmental problem. In addition, it is suggested that improvements to river sediment quality do not occur quickly or easily as a result of remediation actions focused a specific mining point sources. Data indicate that PHEs continue to be episodically dispersed through river catchments hundreds of years after the cessation of mining activity, especially during flood flows. The high PHE loads of flood sediments in mining-affected river catchments and the predicted changes to

  15. Use of SAR interferometry for monitoring illegal mining activities: A case study at Xishimen Iron Ore Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Maowei; Li Xiaojing; Wu Shunchuan; Gao Yongtao; Ge Linlin

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of the “digital mine” concept in China depends heavily upon the use of remote sensing data as well as domestic expertise and awareness.Illegal mining of mineral resources has been a serious long term problem frustrating the Xishimen Iron Ore Mine management.This mine is located in Wu'an county in Hebei province,China.Illegal activities have led to enormous economic losses by interfering with the normal operation of the Xishimen mine and have ruined the surrounding environment and the stability of the Mahe riverbed the crosses the mined area.This paper is based on field reconnaissance taken over many years around the mine area.The ground survey data are integrated with Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR) results from ALOS/PALSAR data to pinpoint mining locations.By investigating the relationship between the resulting interferometric deformation pattern and the mining schedule,which is known a priori,areas affected by illegal mining activities are identified.To some extent these areas indicate the location of the illegal site.The results clearly demonstrate D-InSAR's ability to cost-effectively monitor illegal mining activities.

  16. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  17. Mining the active proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier A. L. Van Der Hoorn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning functions to the >30.000 proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome is a challenging task of the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Network. Although genome-wide technologies like proteomics and transcriptomics have generated a wealth of information that significantly accelerated gene annotation, protein activities are poorly predicted by transcript or protein levels as protein activities are post-translationally regulated. To directly display protein activities in Arabidopsis proteomes, we developed and applied Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP. ABPP is based on the use of small molecule probes that react with the catalytic residues of distinct protein classes in an activity-dependent manner. Labeled proteins are separated and detected from proteins gels and purified and identified by mass spectrometry. Using probes of six different chemotypes we have displayed of activities of 76 Arabidopsis proteins. These proteins represent over ten different protein classes that contain over 250 Arabidopsis proteins, including cysteine- serine- and metallo-proteases, lipases, acyltransferases, and the proteasome. We have developed methods for identification of in vivo labeled proteins using click-chemistry and for in vivo imaging with fluorescent probes. In vivo labeling has revealed novel protein activities and unexpected subcellular activities of the proteasome. Labeling of extracts displayed several differential activities e.g. of the proteasome during immune response and methylesterases during infection. These studies illustrate the power of ABPP to display the functional proteome and testify to a successful interdisciplinary collaboration involving chemical biology, organic chemistry and proteomics.

  18. Active inrush-current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichak, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    By stretching turn-on time from approximately 1 to 200 ms, effects of inrush current (and of associated large current spikes) and current rate of rise (dl/dt) are made potentially less severe. Limiter arrangement consists of time-variable impedance connected in series between input dc power source return and power circuit of converter.

  19. 78 FR 37404 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... for Coal Mining $7.0 $19.0 213114 Support Activities for Metal Mining $7.0 $19.0 SBA is retaining the...). NAICS Subsector 213 has one industry, namely NAICS 213111 (Drilling Oil and Gas Wells), that has an... Activities for Metal Mining $19.0 * * * * * * * Dated: June 13, 2013. Karen G. Mills, Administrator....

  20. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  1. Recovery and reuse of sludge from active and passive treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonimaro, Tsiverihasina V; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Zagury, Gérald J

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters generates considerable amounts of sludge, which raises several concerns, such as storage and disposal, stability, and potential social and environmental impacts. To alleviate the storage and management costs, as well as to give the mine sludge a second life, recovery and reuse have recently become interesting options. In this review, different recovery and reuse options of sludge originating from active and passive treatment of mine drainage are identified and thoroughly discussed, based on available laboratory and field studies. The most valuable products presently recovered from the mine sludge are the iron oxy-hydroxides (ochre). Other by-products include metals, elemental sulfur, and calcium carbonate. Mine sludge reuse includes the removal of contaminants, such as As, P, dye, and rare earth elements. Mine sludge can also be reused as stabilizer for contaminated soil, as fertilizer in agriculture/horticulture, as substitute material in construction, as cover over tailings for acid mine drainage prevention and control, as material to sequester carbon dioxide, and in cement and pigment industries. The review also stresses out some of the current challenges and research needs. Finally, in order to move forward, studies are needed to better estimate the contribution of sludge recovery/reuse to the overall costs of mine water treatment.

  2. Mines, Non-Coal (Active), mines, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mines, Non-Coal (Active) dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  3. Mining and representing recommendations in actively evolving recommender systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2010-01-01

    ) recommender connections. In this work, we propose mining such active systems to generate easily understandable representations of the recommender network. Users may review these representations to provide active feedback. This approach further enhances the quality of recommendations, especially as topics......Recommender systems provide an automatic means of filtering out interesting items, usually based on past similarity of user ratings. In previous work, we have suggested a model that allows users to actively build a recommender network. Users express trust, obtain transparency, and grow (anonymous...... of interest change over time. Most notably, it extends the amount of control users have over the model that the recommender network builds of their interests....

  4. Activity based costing: Challenging the way we cost underground coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, G.H. [University of Witwatersrand, Witwatersrand (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses the traditional costing approach currently used in the underground coal mining industry. Activity Based Costing (ABC) is identified as being a potentially more effective manner in which to cost underground coal mining systems. With the use of a costing framework developed by the author incorporating new thinking to eliminate the shortcomings identified in the traditional costing approach, a comparison of two types of underground coal mining systems, viz. continuous miner and longwall, is conducted. It is found that under certain criteria, in all cases, irrespective of the way in which the systems are costed, the continuous miner system is currently the better investment It is also observed that when a system is costed using ABC that better investment decisions result when compared to costing the same system using traditional costing techniques. it is further seen that traditional costing techniques tend to overestimate the total costs of a mining system. This paper shows one application of ABC that can be incorporated as a management tool.

  5. Deep coal mining and meningococcal meningitis in England and Wales, 1931-38: Ecological study, with implications for deep shaft mining activities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Cliff, Andrew D

    2017-09-01

    The hypothesized role of deep coal mining in the development of community-based outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis has gone largely unexplored. Taking the coalfields of Britain as a historical testbed, techniques of linear and binomial logistic regression were used to assess the association between meningococcal meningitis rates and male occupation rates for coal mining in England and Wales during the national epidemic of 1931-32 and in its aftermath. Adjusting for the epidemiological effects of age, residential density, recent changes in the number of families, housing stock and low social class, the analysis yielded evidence of a significant and positive association between coal mining occupation rates and notified levels of meningitis activity in the epidemic period. Communities in areas of the world that currently maintain substantial deep coal extraction industries may be at increased risk for the epidemic transmission of meningococcal meningitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mining-Related Selenium Contamination in Alaska, and the State of Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibyek Khamkhash

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium pollution has been a topic of extensive research dating back further than the last decade and has attracted significant attention from several environmental and regulatory agencies in order to monitor and control its discharge from myriad industrial sources. The mining industry is a prime contributor of hazardous selenium release in the aquatic systems and is responsible for both acute and chronic impacts on living organisms. Herein we provide an overview of selenium contamination issues, with a specific focus on selenium release from mining industries, including a discussion of various technologies commonly employed to treat selenium-impacted waters from mining discharge. Different cases pertaining to selenium release from Alaskan mines (during years 2000–2015 are also presented, along with measures taken to mitigate high concentration releases. For continued resource exploration and economic development activities, as well as environmental preservation, it is important to fundamentally understand such emerging and pressing issues as selenium contamination and investigate efficient technological approaches to counter these challenges.

  7. Mine-Hoist Active Fault Tolerant Control System and Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-jie; WANG Yao-cai; MENG Jiang; ZHAO Peng-cheng; CHANG Yan-wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant technologies, the mine-hoist active fault-tolerant control system (MAFCS) is presented with corresponding strategies,, which includes the fault diagnosis module (FDM), the dynamic library (DL) and the fault-tolerant control module (FCM). When a fault is judged from some sensor by FDM, FCM reconfigure the state of MAFCS by calling the parameters from all sub libraries in DL, in order to ensure the reliability and safety of mine hoist. The simulating result shows that, MAFCS is of certain intelligence, which can adopt the corresponding control strategies according to different fault modes, even when there are quite difference between the real data and the prior fault modes.

  8. Programmable Current-Mode Universal Active Filters Employing Current Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    1998-01-01

    Novel current-mode active filter circuits using current-conveyors are presented. The proposed circuits can realize all standard second-order filter functions. The circuits enjoy high output impedances and can, therefore, be easily cascaded to produce higher order filters. Moreover, the realized filter function can be easily programmed using at most a 13-bit digital number without changing the circuit topology.

  9. Life cycle Greenhouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies: surface mining and in situ applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule A; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Charpentier, Alex D; Sleep, Sylvia; Maclean, Heather L

    2012-07-17

    Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with two major recovery and extraction processes currently utilized in Alberta's oil sands, surface mining and in situ, are quantified. Process modules are developed and integrated into a life cycle model-GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies) developed in prior work. Recovery and extraction of bitumen through surface mining and in situ processes result in 3-9 and 9-16 g CO(2)eq/MJ bitumen, respectively; upgrading emissions are an additional 6-17 g CO(2)eq/MJ synthetic crude oil (SCO) (all results are on a HHV basis). Although a high degree of variability exists in well-to-wheel emissions due to differences in technologies employed, operating conditions, and product characteristics, the surface mining dilbit and the in situ SCO pathways have the lowest and highest emissions, 88 and 120 g CO(2)eq/MJ reformulated gasoline. Through the use of improved data obtained from operating oil sands projects, we present ranges of emissions that overlap with emissions in literature for conventional crude oil. An increased focus is recommended in policy discussions on understanding interproject variability of emissions of both oil sands and conventional crudes, as this has not been adequately represented in previous studies.

  10. Application of fractal theory in detecting low current faults of power distribution system in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; LIANG Rui; WANG Chong-lin; FAN Di-peng

    2009-01-01

    Single-phase low current grounding faults areoften seen in power distribution system of coal mines. These faults are difficult to reliably identify. We propose a new method of single-phase ground fault protection based upon a discernible matrix of the fractal dimension associated with line currents. The method builds on existing selective protection methods. Faulted feeders are distinguished using differences in the zero-sequence transient current fractal dimension. The current signals were first processed through a fast Fourier transform and then the characteristics of a faulted line were identified using a discernible matrix. The method of calculation is illustrated. The results show that the method involves simple calculations, is easy to do and is highly accurate. It is, therefore, suitable for distribution networks having different neutral grounding modes.

  11. Exploring the Current Trends and Future Prospects in Terrorist Network Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Chaurasia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s era of hi-tech technologies, criminals are easily fulfilling their inhuman goals against the mankind. Thus, the security of civilians has significantly become important. In this regard, the law-enforcement agencies are aiming to prevent future attacks. To do so, the terrorist networks are being analyzed using data mining techniques. One such technique is Social network analysis which studies terrorist networks for the identification of relationships and associations that may exist between terrorist nodes. Terrorist activities can also be detected by means of analyzing Web traffic content. This paper studies social network analysis, web traffic content and explores various ways for identifying terrorist activities.

  12. Legal Policy Of Peoples Rights In Around Mining Corporate Post-Mining Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Berlianty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to gain an understanding of the essence of the rights of communities around post-mining corporate responsibility towards the fulfillment of the rights of communities around post-mining as well as government policies to protect the sustainability of the post-mining communities around the mining business. This type of research is a normative legal research methods using primary legal materials secondary and tertiary. With the approach of sociolegal through down the field in Gebe to get data concrete. Data were analyzed with qualitative analysis. The results showed that the essence of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of the right to a decent life welfare the right to social security in the form of employment the guarantee of free education and healthcare for the local population as well as the right to a good environment and healthy as a guarantee of the continuity of human existence and future generations. These rights have not been fully realized post-mining. Corporate responsibility in accordance with Article 74 of Law No. 40 of 2007 on the fulfillment of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of welfare responsibilities clothing food and shelter especially electricity and water have not been met then the social responsibility to empower communities around the mine as stakeholders as well as environmental responsibility. Legal policy such as the empowerment of communities around the mine in order to be self-sufficient after the post-mining public service policies in education and health as a form of existence of government using existing programs nationally and subordinate to the PT. Antam. as well as environmental protection policies in the form of post-mining reclamation formulated in the companys liabilities.

  13. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  14. Light Stable Isotopes in Aquifers Affected by Mining Activities in a Brazilian Mining Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R. M.; de Carvalho, J. B.

    2013-05-01

    Iron ore is presently a main item in the Brazilian commercial agenda. Large reserves have converted this utility into an important source of export earnings and, secondarily, of raw materials for the domestic industry. Parallel to a boom in mining activities in the last years environmental impacts and a stress on natural resources have soared. A region exhibiting pronouncedly intensive mining activities lies in the central part of the State of Minas Gerais, the third economy of the federation. Mines are sited right beside the capital and neighbor towns amounting to nearly five million inhabitants and a pronounced dependence on groundwater resources. Besides, this region is a water divide enclosing the sources of main contributors to the most strategic fluvial basins in the country. Iron ore is by large the main mineral but other metals (including gold and uranium), as well as non-metals such as limestone, quartz and granite, also occur. Given the significance of this commodity in the country's trade balance and the demand of water resources with acceptable quality for human consumption, the scale of ensuing water use conflicts caused by its exploration is wide ranging and has to be coped with well grounded environmental assessment approaches. Tracer hydrology techniques might be a valuable tool in this context. The characteristics of the area being impacted have been surveyed, including climate and pluviometry, stratigraphic litology, geological structure, use of soil, mineral resources and their exploration, surface and ground water hydrology and their sundry uses. Data to be processed have been procured at local public agencies but as regard local hydrological features, particularly isotopic compositions, ad hoc surveys and methodologies were required. One instance concerns pluviometric isotopy due to the alpine character of the surveyed region altitude and temperature effects might take place. Hence different sites were monitored; cumulative pluviometer samples

  15. Dynamics of Sandwaves under Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and RIVET I and Mine Burial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    the mine burial project has been documented in previous annual reports. Preparation of new side-looking multibeam bedform imaging sonars and mine...Instrumentation for Plume, Sediment and Bed Dynamics in Energetic Coastal Environments: A Multibeam Sidescan Sonar and Portable Turbulance Profiler”) is a...support of optical measurements of particle dynamics (Environmental Optics ), and integrating the pcADPs on Geyer’s MAST (Physical Oceanography). The

  16. Effect of Mining Activities in Biotic Communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrat...

  17. NASA Lunar Mining and Construction Activities and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    the need to implement efforts that are sustainable and affordable. One area NASA is developing that can significantly change how systems required for sustained human presence are designed and integrated, as well as potentially break our reliance on Earth supplied logistics, is In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU, also known living off the land, involves the extraction and processing of local resources into useful products. In particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, fuel cell reagents, and radiation shielding can significantly reduce the cost, mass, and risk of sustained human activities beyond Earth. Also, the ability to modify the lunar landscape for safer landing, transfer of payloads from the lander an outpost, dust generation mitigation, and infrastructure placement and buildup are also extremely important for long-term lunar operations. While extra-terrestrial excavation, material handling and processing, and site preparation and construction may be new to NASA and other space agencies, there is extensive terrestrial hardware and commercial experience that can be leveraged. This paper will provide an overview of current NASA activities in lunar ISRU mining and construction and how terrestrial experience in these areas are important to achieving the goal of affordable and sustainable human exploration.

  18. Channel Response to Gravel Mining Activities in Mountain Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Luis López S.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of bed material from active river channels usually affects the bed profile of the streambed, causing progressive degradation upstream and downstream of the extraction site. These effects can extend for kilometers affecting hydraulic structures located in the vicinity of the river reach. In this paper, the geomorphic effects of gravel mining are reviewed and summarized. Some cases in Venezuelan streams are presented to illustrate the problem. To describe the processes of erosion and sedimentation in a gravel extraction pit, a recent developed mathematical model for the simulation of flow and sediment transport in gravel-cobble bed streams is applied to a hypothetical case of gravel mining in a river channel. A simple rectangular dredge pit is imposed as initial condition in the channel bed, and changes in bed elevations and grain size distribution of bed material are calculated by using the numerical model. The process of deposition within the pit, and the downstream and upstream migration of the erosion wave are well simulated by the model and closely resemble the phenomena observed in laboratory experiments. The response of the friction coefficient to the changes in flow and bed elevations shows the importance in modeling adequately flow resistance and sediment transport in gravel-cobble bed streams.

  19. Resilience of benthic deep-sea fauna to mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollner, Sabine; Kaiser, Stefanie; Menzel, Lena; Jones, Daniel O B; Brown, Alastair; Mestre, Nelia C; van Oevelen, Dick; Menot, Lenaick; Colaço, Ana; Canals, Miquel; Cuvelier, Daphne; Durden, Jennifer M; Gebruk, Andrey; Egho, Great A; Haeckel, Matthias; Marcon, Yann; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Morato, Telmo; Pham, Christopher K; Purser, Autun; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Vanreusel, Ann; Vink, Annemiek; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    With increasing demand for mineral resources, extraction of polymetallic sulphides at hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts at seamounts, and polymetallic nodules on abyssal plains may be imminent. Here, we shortly introduce ecosystem characteristics of mining areas, report on recent mining developments, and identify potential stress and disturbances created by mining. We analyze species' potential resistance to future mining and perform meta-analyses on population density and diversity recovery after disturbances most similar to mining: volcanic eruptions at vents, fisheries on seamounts, and experiments that mimic nodule mining on abyssal plains. We report wide variation in recovery rates among taxa, size, and mobility of fauna. While densities and diversities of some taxa can recover to or even exceed pre-disturbance levels, community composition remains affected after decades. The loss of hard substrata or alteration of substrata composition may cause substantial community shifts that persist over geological timescales at mined sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Mining Activities on the Air Quality in The Village Nearby a Coal Strip Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, Petra; Hovorka, Jan; Brejcha, Jan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the presented study was to estimate a share of atmospheric aerosol emitted by coal strip mine on PM10 or PM1-10, mass concentration of aerosol particles values by a nephelometer in the mine. Also, 24 hour aerosol samples for five size fractions were sampled by a personal cascade impactor sampler and viewed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM. Meteorological parameters were also recorded. Average contribution of coarse aerosol, PM1-10, to PM10 was 70% (119 +59 μgm-3) in the mine and 20% (12 + 10 μgm-3) in the village. The SEM revealed solely soil particles in the mine samples but bioaerosol, ash and aggregates of ultrafine particles in the village samples. Databases of hourly elemental and mass concentrations from the two localities were analysed by EPA PMF 5.0. There were revealed following sources/average contribution to local PM10: wood burning/34%, resuspended dust/30%, coal combustion/22%, industry/11% and gypsum/3% in the village while resuspended dust/43%, coal combustion/37%, gypsum/16% and mining technologies/4% in the mine. Based on factor chemical profiles, the mine was found to contribute to PM1-10 and PM10 in the village by 6% and 20%, respectively.

  1. Abandoned Smolník mine (Slovakia – a catchment area affected by mining activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintnerová, Otília

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of waters, stream sediments, and soils by metals and other toxic elements. Major goals of this complex study were to document creek water transport of the main pollutants (Fe, sulphates, Cu, Al, As, etc. in the form of suspended solids, to investigate elements mobility in common mine waste (rock and processing waste heaps and tailing impoundment and in the soil on the basis of neutralization and leach experiments. Different methodologies and techniques for sampling and chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples were used and checked to evaluate environmental risk of this abandoned mine area.

  2. THE DASHBOARD - STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT TOOL OF ACTIVITIES IN THE COAL MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the objectives at all levels and categories of functions in the unit, use multiple information systems, including the dashboard which is one of the management tools that responds very well to the rationale and supporting data of management decisions complementary to those provided by other media. In this respect, we try to calculate indicators organization currently working compartments of the coal mining units and will propose a series of indicators whose calculation we consider would be necessary for a detailed presentation as activity carried out and the improvement of management.

  3. On active current selection for Lagrangian profilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Zhou, Qiuyang; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to actively select and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach a desired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler and possible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introduce simple mathematical...... models for the profiler and the currents it will use. We then present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of the currents and taking into account the configuration of the environment (coastal or deep-sea), is able to steer the profiler to any desired horizontal location. To illustrate...... the approach, a few results are presented using both simulated currents and real current velocities from the North Sea....

  4. Online Nonparametric Bayesian Activity Mining and Analysis From Surveillance Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Vahid; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S

    2016-05-01

    A method for online incremental mining of activity patterns from the surveillance video stream is presented in this paper. The framework consists of a learning block in which Dirichlet process mixture model is employed for the incremental clustering of trajectories. Stochastic trajectory pattern models are formed using the Gaussian process regression of the corresponding flow functions. Moreover, a sequential Monte Carlo method based on Rao-Blackwellized particle filter is proposed for tracking and online classification as well as the detection of abnormality during the observation of an object. Experimental results on real surveillance video data are provided to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in different tasks of trajectory clustering, classification, and abnormality detection.

  5. Salt mine Asse II. Status of the retrieval activities; Schachtanlage Asse II. Stand der Arbeiten und Rueckholung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-02-15

    The booklet on the status of retrieval activities in the salt mine Asse II includes information on the background of medium-level radioactive waste disposal during 1967 to 1978 on behalf of the Federal government. Since 2009 the former mine is operated by the BfS with the assignment of decommissioning. The potential risk for stability and safety due to problems of water ingress were known before beginning of the disposals. The retrieval of the radioactive waste will require many decades; the costs are financed by tax money. The planning of the retrieval is currently on the way, details of the concept are described.

  6. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonturbel, Francisco E., E-mail: fonturbel@ug.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Barbieri, Enio [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Herbas, Cristian [Universidad Mayor de San Andres, IGEMA Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones Geologicas y del Medio Ambiente), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L.; Gardon, Jacques [IRD-HSM (Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andres, SELADIS Institute (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnostico e Investigacion en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2011-10-15

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children. - Highlights: > We measured polymetallic pollution in household indoor dust from a mining town. > Toxic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb) in dust are correlated, suggesting a common origin. > The most polluted houses are within a 1 km radius around the mining center. > Carrying mining workwear home increases indoor pollution. > Lead concentrations in dust represent a serious concern for Public Health (600 {mu}g/g). - In a typical Andean mining city, the urban indoor pollution with toxic metallic elements is directly related to the closeness of the mining activities.

  7. Current Performance of an Aerobic Passive Wetlands Treating Acid Mine Drainage Flow From Underground Mine Seals at Moraine State Park, Butler County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. A.; Fredrick, K.

    2008-12-01

    Coal mining was conducted in the area of Moraine State Park prior to the establishing the park and associated Lake Arthur. A total of 69 underground mine entries were sealed during the 1960's to the early 1970's along the proposed northern shore of Lake Arthur. Seals were constructed using a flyash/cement mixture that was pumped into boreholes to place bulkheads in the mine entries, then filling between the bulkheads, and injecting grout into the adjacent strata to form a grout curtain. During 1979 and 1980, a study was performed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, to determine the long term effectiveness of the underground mine sealing and reclamation work. Not all seals were successful. One of these mine entry seals was leaking and depositing iron hydroxides on the shoreline. During 1995-96, a passive wetlands treatment system was designed and constructed to treat an acid mine drainage (amd) discharge emanating from one of these sealed mines. The system consists of a primary settling pond, a cattail vegetated pond, and a final polishing pond prior to discharge to Lake Arthur. The design life of the system was estimated at twelve years. After twelve years it was believed the precipitate in the ponds would need to be removed and the system rehabilitated to continue treating the amd discharge. A maintenance plan was considered, however only minimal maintaining of the area was implemented. Six sets of water quality samples were collected and analyzed for standard amd parameters of alkalinity, acidity, pH, iron, manganese, aluminum, sulfate, and total suspended solids. Precipitation data and flow rates were collected and an analysis was done to determine if flow varied seasonally. The water quality data was compared to flow and precipitation amounts. Sludge precipitate samples were collected from the first settling pond to estimate the deposition rate and to determine how long the ponds can continue to function before they would require

  8. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets...

  9. Adverse Impact of the Historic Mining Activities on the Enviroment in Malé Karpaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jozef

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1999 – 2001 the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic has financed the geological work „Evaluation of the Adverse Impact of Mining Activities on the Environment in the Region of Malé Karpaty“. Results and recommendations of the work in this contribution are discussed.Mineral resources, such as pyrit – pyrhotite deposits, hydrothermal metal ore deposits (Au – Ag, pyrit – Cu, Pb – Ag, Zn, Sb, hydrothermal deposits of barytes and manganesian ore deposits are situated in mining districts of Malé Karpaty. The exploitation of these deposits has been already finished. The deposits of limestone, building stones, earth and clay were or are quarried. The underground mined deposits were divided into 6 mining districts: Kuchyòa, Pernek, Pezinok, Modra, Èastá, and Borinka – Jabloòové. The impact of surface and underground mining on the environment was examined on 353 underground mining object and 117 quarries.The most important processes were studied: pollution of surface and groundwaters, soils and sediments, normal radioactivity of land, degradation of lands, ecological stability, disturbance of the ground, contemporary land-use influence, adverse effects on rocks, flora and fauna, and atmosphere. The mining waste disposals, underground mining works and mining objects, and quarries were investigated.According to the intensity of adverse impact on the environment, the mining objects in the region of Malé Karpaty were divided into 4 groups. Fifty seven mining objects and 87 quarries were recommended to the remedial treatment.The implementation of nature protection measures will eliminate or considerably reduce the damage done to the environment.Proposal of methodics for evaluation of the adverse impact of mining activities on the environment was elaborated as a part of the geological work.

  10. 75 FR 3753 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the USGS Mine, Development, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... U.S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the USGS Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION... paperwork requirements for the USGS Mine, Development, and Mineral Exploration Supplement. This collection...

  11. 30 CFR 905.817 - Peformance standards-Underground mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Hazardous Substances Law, Cal. Health & Safety Code section 25280 et seq.; the Solid Waste... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peformance standards-Underground mining activities. 905.817 Section 905.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  12. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Hazardous Substances Law, Cal. Health & Safety Code section 25280 et seq.; the Solid Waste... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  13. 30 CFR 910.817 - Performance standards-underground mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Division; the Solid Waste Management Rules of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-underground mining activities. 910.817 Section 910.817 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  14. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Environmental Protection Division; the Solid Waste Management Rules of the Georgia Department of Natural... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  15. Evaluation of the current practices of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the current practices in relation to best practice criteria and make recommendations for improvements to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry. A survey tool based...

  16. Spatial analysis on impacts of mining activities leading to flood disaster in the Erai watershed, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katpatal, Y.B.; Patil, S.A. [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-05-15

    Decisions related to mine management, especially pertaining to dumped material, might lead to several environmental hazards including flood risks in mining areas. Excavation and mine dumps are dominant factors of land use/land cover change in the Erai River watershed of Chandrapur district in Maharashtra, India. Identification and quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this change in land use/land cover affects ecosystem components such as aesthetics, biodiversity and mitigation of floods in the Erai watershed. The present study utilizes satellite data of Landsat TM (1989), IRS LISS-3 (1999, 2007) and CARTOSAT (2007) to study the extent of surface mines and management of mine overburden (OB) dumps of Hindustan Lalpeth coal mines, Chandrapur, India. Image processing techniques in conjunction with GIS have been used to visualize the flood scenario, the reasons for floods and area under impact. The study indicates that the development of the mine OB dump within the river channel on both the sides has been responsible for the 2006 flood within the region. Further increase in OB dump heights may result in the risk of floods of greater potential during heavy rainfall in the future. The study presents a spatial analysis to assess the impacts of OB dumps in the recent flood in the area. The study also spatially represents the area under impact leading to a disastrous situation due to floods. The study also suggests the probable measures that must be adopted to avoid such situations in future in the mining areas.

  17. Spatial analysis on impacts of mining activities leading to flood disaster in the Erai watershed, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.B. Katpatal; S.A. Patil [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India). Civil Engineering Department

    2010-03-15

    Decisions related to mine management, especially pertaining to dumped material, might lead to several environmental hazards including flood risks in mining areas. Excavation and mine dumps are dominant factors of land use/land cover change in the Erai River watershed of Chandrapur district in Maharashtra, India. Identification and quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this change in land use/land cover affects ecosystem components such as aesthetics, biodiversity and mitigation of floods in the Erai watershed. The present study utilizes satellite data of Landsat TM (1989), IRS LISS-3 (1999, 2007) and CARTOSAT (2007) to study the extent of surface mines and management of mine over burden (OB) dumps of Hindustan Lalpeth coal mines, Chandrapur, India. Image processing techniques in conjunction with GIS have been used to visualize the flood scenario, the reasons for floods and area under impact. The study indicates that the development of the mine OB dump within the river channel on both the sides has been responsible for the 2006 flood within the region. Further increase in OB dump heights may result in the risk of floods of greater potential during heavy rainfall in the future. The study presents a spatial analysis to assess the impacts of OB dumps in the recent flood in the area. The study also spatially represents the area under impact leading to a disastrous situation due to floods. The study also suggests the probable measures that must be adopted to avoid such situations in future in the mining areas.

  18. Mining claim activity on Federal Land in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Public Land spatial data sets (shapefile) contains Public Land Survey section polygons that had mining claims recorded in the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's...

  19. Increased mining activities in the eastern Democratic Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-20

    Oct 20, 2009 ... Keywords: malnutrition; children under-five-years-old; mining; DRC; corporate social responsibility ... underdeveloped parts of the world, there are a multitude of factors ..... Determinants of infant growth in eastern Uganda: A.

  20. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  1. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  2. Awareness training and hearing protection devices: Current practices in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Edwards4_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 12573 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Edwards4_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 1 Mine Health... SIM11-05-01 Conducted during 2011 2 Acknowledgements Lindiwe Zungu UNISA Norman Khoza CSIR Lesedi Milanzi CSIR Sophi Letsoalo CSIR ? Mine Health and Safety Council for funding ? Mr. Navin Singh Chief Research Operations Manager ? Mines...

  3. Indoor metallic pollution related to mining activity in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Barbieri, Enio; Herbas, Cristian; Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-10-01

    The environmental pollution associated with mining and metallurgical activities reaches its greatest extent in several Andean cities and villages. Many locations in this area have accumulated through centuries a large amount of mining wastes, often disregarding the magnitude of this situation. However, in these naturally mineralized regions, there is little information available stating the exact role of mining and metallurgical industries in urban pollution. In this study, we demonstrated that the various metallic elements present in indoor dust (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn, Zn) had a common origin and this contamination was increased by the proximity to the mines. Lead dust concentration was found at concerning levels for public health. In addition, wrong behaviors such as carrying mining workwear home contributed to this indoor dust pollution. Consequently, the constant exposure of the population could represent a potential health hazard for vulnerable groups, especially children.

  4. Mining activities abroad, a subject of teaching and research; Auslandsbergbau in Lehre und Forschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau

    2008-04-15

    As globalisation extends in all fields of life, university teaching must cope by integrating internationalisation in its teaching subjects. In the case of raw materials resources and mining, the case is quite clear: Industrialized countries like Germany are big consumers of raw materials, most of which must be imported. Mining companies, including German mining companies, have extended their activities world-wide, and German producers of mining machinery and sytems, consultants and mining specialists are exporting technology and know-how into raw materials producing countries. Universities must take account of these trends if they are to train students for tomorrow's international market. The TU Bergakademie Freiberg is presented as an example. (orig.)

  5. Impact of Mining Activities upon Environment in Panzhihua Region, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Mining activities have left huge uncovered slopes, large areas of gangue ground and extensive railings dams. In this paper, we studied some impacts of mining activities upon environment in Panzhihua region, southwestern China. The environmental impacts include ecological destruction, geological disasters, environmental pollution, land damage, solid waste and occupational health effect in study area. The author suggested that local government should take some measure to reduce environmental impact in Pan...

  6. Current Activities of the ASME Subgroup NUPACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald M. Foster; D. Keith Morton; Paul McConnell

    2007-10-01

    Current activities of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Section III Subgroup on Containment Systems for Spent Fuel High-Level Waste Transport Packagings (also known as Subgroup NUPACK) are reviewed with emphasis on the recent revision of Subsection WB. Also, brief insightson new proposals for the development of rules for internal support structures and for a strain-based acceptance criteria are provided.

  7. Survey of active and inactive mines for possible use as in situ test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    A survey of active and inactive mines which might be useful for radioactive waste storage in situ test experiments was conducted. It was performed for Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Office of Waste Isolation. The report covers available information gathered from literature, U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Mining Enforcement and Safety Agency, and a limited number of personal contacts with constructors or operators of facilities. This survey is preliminary in nature and the objective is to develop potential candidate facilities for in situ experiments which warrant further investigation. Included are descriptions of 244 facilities, with all the data about each one which was available within the time restraint of the study. These facility descriptions are additionally indexed by depth of mine, nature of the country rock, mineral mined, and type of entry. A total of 14 inactive mines and 34 active mines has been selected as those most worthy of further investigation for possible service as nuclear waste isolation test facilities. This investigation, being preliminary and having been performed in a very short time period, must be qualified, and the description of the qualification is presented in the body of this report. Qualifications deal primarily with the hazard of having omitted facilities and having incomplete data in some instances. Results indicate sedimentary rock mines of minerals of evaporite origin as a first ranking of preference for in situ testing, followed by other sedimentary rocks and then by mines producing minerals from any type rock where the mine is above the local water table. These are general rules and of course there can be exceptions to them.

  8. An examination of methods whereby noise levels in current and new mining equipment may be reduced

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maneylaws, A

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available An extensive literature review of international work of mining equipment noise control has been carried out. The sources of noise on percussion rock drills, continuous miners, dust scrubbers and fans, long wall machinery and trackless vehicles...

  9. Impact of sand mining activities on the environmental condition of the Komering river, South Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiagustin, V.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2017-07-01

    Sand mining activities in the Komering river, South Sumatera, has been existed around a long time and continues to grow along with the increase of development that occurred in the district of East Ogan Komering Ulu (East OKU). The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of sand mining activities to environmental conditions of the Komering river. Field studies have been conducted during the period of April-June 2016 for observing the condition of the river channel, water quality measurement and mining activities. Analysis of the results of field studies combined with GIS and Remote sensing analysis was conducted to measure the impact of mining activities both spatially and temporally. The results showed that the sand mining activities on the Komering river have led not only to the degradation of water quality but also damage of the river channel. In this paper, we also discussed the relationship between the distribution of water quality and channel damage with the mining activities in the spatial perspective.

  10. Hydrochemical evaluation of the influences of mining activities on river water chemistry in central northern Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsaikhan, Bayartungalag; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Badarch, Mendbayar; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2017-01-01

    Although metallic mineral resources are most important in the economy of Mongolia, mining activities with improper management may result in the pollution of stream waters, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems and humans. In this study, aiming to evaluate potential impacts of metallic mining activities on the quality of a transboundary river (Selenge) in central northern Mongolia, we performed hydrochemical investigations of rivers (Tuul, Khangal, Orkhon, Haraa, and Selenge). Hydrochemical analysis of river waters indicates that, while major dissolved ions originate from natural weathering (especially, dissolution of carbonate minerals) within watersheds, they are also influenced by mining activities. The water quality problem arising from very high turbidity is one of the major environmental concerns and is caused by suspended particles (mainly, sediment and soil particles) from diverse erosion processes, including erosion of river banks along the meandering river system, erosion of soils owing to overgrazing by livestock, and erosion by human activities, such as mining and agriculture. In particular, after passing through the Zaamar gold mining area, due to the disturbance of sediments and soils by placer gold mining, the Tuul River water becomes very turbid (up to 742 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU)). The Zaamar area is also the contamination source of the Tuul and Orkhon rivers by Al, Fe, and Mn, especially during the mining season. The hydrochemistry of the Khangal River is influenced by heavy metal (especially, Mn, Al, Cd, and As)-loaded mine drainage that originates from a huge tailing dam of the Erdenet porphyry Cu-Mo mine, as evidenced by δ(34)S values of dissolved sulfate (0.2 to 3.8 ‰). These two contaminated rivers (Tuul and Khangal) merge into the Orkhon River that flows to the Selenge River near the boundary between Mongolia and Russia and then eventually flows into Lake Baikal. Because water quality problems due to mining can be critical

  11. Deep Submarine Tailings Disposal (DSTP) the Proposed Use of Submarine Canyons and Artificial Turbidity Currents for the Disposal of Mine Waste: Current Practice, Future Plans, and Cumulative Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Moran, R.

    2015-12-01

    The wastes from mining operations ( tailings) have been disposed of in the fluvial environment (riverine disposal) and in nearshore marine environments for much of the last century. The scale of modern mining operations has led to increasing use of steep slopes and submarine canyons for deposition of these wastes at depths of 2000m - 4000m. Current mine disposal operations in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea which use Deep Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) release volumes between 5000 tpd and 160,000 tpd. Planning is underway by the"Consortium," an industry and government group in Chile which would deposit mine waste of 1M tpd into the Humbolt Current Large Marine Ecosystem (HCLME) which provides nearly 20% of the fish biomass harvested on a sustainable basis worldwide. Underwater pipelines discharge tailings as a slurry to create a continuous artificial turbidity current with particle size distribtions (PSD's) ranging from sand to clay sized fractions. Potential problems arise from benthic smothering, angular particulate uptake by benthic organisms, and from the bioaccumulation of a complex of heavy metals by both benthic and pelagic species. While much is known about the binding of copper and other toxic heavy metals in a reducing environment, little has been done to consider the implications of ocean dumping where 1% of tailings discharged may consist of unrecovered heavy metals. Synergistic cumulative impacts to just the HCLME from the dumping of the more than 3M tpy of reactive metals in these tailings sediments remains unknown and poses substantial risks. DSTP assumes a stable deep sea depositional environment but upwelling currents and plume shear may make this hard to accomplish.

  12. Gold King Mine Release New Mexico Response Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (August 8, 2015) EPA Region 6 deployed a federal on-scene coordinator from its emergency response team and scientific technicians under contract to EPA to assist the state in preparations for the potential impacts from the Gold King Mine re

  13. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions from Mine Wastewater by Activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... tailings disposal, illegal mining, domestic waste disposal and many .... Waste water sample for the test work was collected ..... “Heavy Metal Contamination of Ground. Water”. ... metallurgy, waste management, pyrolysis-gasification of wastes ... of waste polymers in metal extraction processes and recycling.

  14. Mining anaerobic digester consortia metagenomes for secreted carbohydrate active enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Busk, Peter Kamp; Pilgaard, Bo

    was done with the Peptide Pattern Recognition (PPR) program (Busk and Lange, 2013), which is a novel non-alignment based approach that can predict function of e.g. CAZymes. PPR identifies a set of short conserved sequences, which can be used as a finger print when mining genomes for novel enzymes. In both...

  15. Engineering-geological conditions of the effect of a landslide from mining activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschalko, M.; Hofrichterová, L.; Lahuta, H.

    2010-12-01

    The paper deals with a slope deformation in Řepiště (Paskov), which is located between the towns of Ostrava and Frýdek Místek; Řepiště is situated in the Ostrava-Karviná District within the reach of the effects of mining activity. The deformation involves the Paskov Mine, which is the only active mine in the Ostrava section of the district. The study included mapping complemented with a geophysical survey using resistance tomography; along with the information obtained from the inspection, it provided an overview of the engineering-geological conditions of the slope deformation. The interpretation of the data obtained identified a very complicated structure, including several levels of slip surfaces. The landslide is thus a textbook example of slope movements with a very complicated geological structure occupying an extensive spatial area in the mining landscape and affecting the stability of a road running directly through its body.

  16. Text mining of cancer-related information: review of current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasić, Irena; Livsey, Jacqueline; Keane, John A; Nenadić, Goran

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the research literature on text mining (TM) with the aim to find out (1) which cancer domains have been the subject of TM efforts, (2) which knowledge resources can support TM of cancer-related information and (3) to what extent systems that rely on knowledge and computational methods can convert text data into useful clinical information. These questions were used to determine the current state of the art in this particular strand of TM and suggest future directions in TM development to support cancer research. A review of the research on TM of cancer-related information was carried out. A literature search was conducted on the Medline database as well as IEEE Xplore and ACM digital libraries to address the interdisciplinary nature of such research. The search results were supplemented with the literature identified through Google Scholar. A range of studies have proven the feasibility of TM for extracting structured information from clinical narratives such as those found in pathology or radiology reports. In this article, we provide a critical overview of the current state of the art for TM related to cancer. The review highlighted a strong bias towards symbolic methods, e.g. named entity recognition (NER) based on dictionary lookup and information extraction (IE) relying on pattern matching. The F-measure of NER ranges between 80% and 90%, while that of IE for simple tasks is in the high 90s. To further improve the performance, TM approaches need to deal effectively with idiosyncrasies of the clinical sublanguage such as non-standard abbreviations as well as a high degree of spelling and grammatical errors. This requires a shift from rule-based methods to machine learning following the success of similar trends in biological applications of TM. Machine learning approaches require large training datasets, but clinical narratives are not readily available for TM research due to privacy and confidentiality concerns. This issue remains the main

  17. Characterization of Black Sand Mining Activities and Their Environmental Impacts in the Philippines Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Chaussard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite is a type of iron ore and a valuable commodity that occurs naturally in black sand beaches in the Philippines. However, black sand mining often takes place illegally and increases the likelihood and magnitude of geohazards, such as land subsidence, which augments the exposure of local communities to sea level rise and to typhoon-related threats. Detection of black sand mining activities traditionally relies on word of mouth, while measurement of their environmental effects requires on-the-ground geological surveys, which are precise, but costly and limited in scope. Here we show that systematic analysis of remote sensing data provides an objective, reliable, safe, and cost-effective way to monitor black sand mining activities and their impacts. First, we show that optical satellite data can be used to identify legal and illegal mining sites and characterize the direct effect of mining on the landscape. Second, we demonstrate that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR can be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of black sand mining despite the small spatial extent of the activities. We detected a total of twenty black sand mining sites on Luzon Island and InSAR ALOS data reveal that out of the thirteen sites with coherence, nine experienced land subsidence at rates ranging from 1.5 to 5.7 cm/year during 2007–2011. The mean ground velocity map also highlights that the spatial extent of the subsiding areas is 10 to 100 times larger than the mining sites, likely associated with groundwater use or sediment redistribution. As a result of this subsidence, several coastal areas will be lowered to sea level elevation in a few decades and exposed to permanent flooding. This work demonstrates that remote sensing data are critical in monitoring the development of such activities and their environmental and societal impacts.

  18. The Necessity of Data Mining in Clinical Emergency Medicine; A Narrative Review of the Current Literatrue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parva, Elahe; Boostani, Reza; Ghahramani, Zahra; Paydar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Clinical databases can be categorized as big data, include large quantities of information about patients and their medical conditions. Analyzing the quantitative and qualitative clinical data in addition with discovering relationships among huge number of samples using data mining techniques could unveil hidden medical knowledge in terms of correlation and association of apparently independent variables. The aim of this research is using predictive algorithm for prediction of trauma patients on admission to hospital to be able to predict the necessary treatment for patients and provided the necessary measures for the trauma patients who are before entering the critical situation. This study provides a review on data mining in clinical medicine. The relevant, recently-published studies of data mining on medical data with a focus on emergency medicine were investigated to tackle pros and cons of such approaches. The results of this study can be used in prediction of trauma patient’s status at six hours after admission to hospital. PMID:28507995

  19. A REIA Study of Marble Mining Activities in District- Nagaur (Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and unscientific mining poses severe threat to life, public property and continuation of mining in the area. Incompatible land uses, huge waste dumps and large scale land transformation have resulted in land degradation, ponding, flooding, water contamination and health hazards in Makrana mining area. Segregation of dumps, compatible land use, research and development activity for use of marble slurry are suggested measures for reclamation and restoration of the degraded land. While for the purpose of development and economic upliftment of people, there is a need for establishment of industrial project, but these have to be environmentally friendly. Therefore it is essential to assess the impacts of mining on different environmental parameters, before starting the mining operations, so that abatement measures could be planned in advance for eco-friendly mining in the area. Environmental impact assessment (EIA is a systematic process that examines the environmental consequences of development action like mining, cement, transport, river valley. EIA systematically examines booth beneficial and adverse consequences of the proposed project and ensures that these impacts are taken into account during the project design.

  20. Alternating Current Influences Anaerobic Electroactive Biofilm Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Lean; Lu, Lu; Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Li, Nan; Wang, Heming; Park, Jaedo; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-06

    Alternating current (AC) is known to inactivate microbial growth in suspension, but how AC influences anaerobic biofilm activities has not been systematically investigated. Using a Geobacter dominated anaerobic biofilm growing on the electrodes of microbial electrochemical reactors, we found that high frequency AC ranging from 1 MHz to 1 kHz (amplitude of 5 V, 30 min) showed only temporary inhibition to the biofilm activity. However, lower frequency (100 Hz, 1.2 or 5 V) treatment led to 47 ± 19% permanent decrease in limiting current on the same biofilm, which is attributed to the action of electrohydrodynamic force that caused biofilm damage and loss of intercellular electron transfer network. Confocal microscopy images show such inactivation mainly occurred at the interface between the biofilm and the electrode. Reducing the frequency further to 1 Hz led to water electrolysis, which generated gas bubbles that flushed all attached cells out of the electrode. These findings provide new references on understanding and regulating biofilm growth, which has broader implications in biofouling control, anaerobic waste treatment, energy and product recovery, and general understanding of microbial ecology and physiology.

  1. Mines, Non-Coal (Active), Non_metalic_mines_open, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Mines, Non-Coal (Active) dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  2. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues.

  3. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2015-12-14

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  4. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Soufan

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening (HTS experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  5. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  6. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  7. Effect of Mining Activities in Biotic Communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Espinosa-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites.

  8. Effect of mining activities in biotic communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; González-Mille, Donaji J; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César A; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Cilia-López, V Gabriela; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites.

  9. Effect of Mining Activities in Biotic Communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; González-Mille, Donaji J.; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César A.; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Cilia-López, V. Gabriela; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites. PMID:24592381

  10. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity.

  11. Risk: For Whom? Representations of Mining Activity by Different Social Actors in the Molango Manganese District of Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown high levels of manganese exposure and neurocognitive damage in the population living in the mining zone in Molango, Mexico. One of the objectives of the Intersectoral Group on Environmental Management for the mining district has been to provide public participation in the risk management plan. To achieve this, it is important to know how the different social actors represent the mining activity. The objectives of this study were to characterize the social representations of the mining activity by different social actors. A qualitative design was used based on in-depth interviews of residents, public officials, and a mining company representative. The analysis was conducted according to themes for each group of actors. Essentially, distinct social representations of the different mining activities were identified. Residents viewed mining activities as synonymous with contamination and, therefore, as having affected all areas of their environment, health, and daily life. These activities were seen as a collective risk. The public officials and the mining company held that there was no evidence of harm and saw mining activities as a generator of regional development. Harm to health and the environment were seen as a stance taken by the communities in order to obtain economic benefits from the company. These images of the "other" are shaped by social, political, and cultural factors. They make it difficult for the actors to reach cooperative agreements and thereby affect progress on the risk management plan. Decisionmakers need to take these differences into account when promoting social participation.

  12. Chemical properties and toxicity of soils contaminated by mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnieszka, Baran; Tomasz, Czech; Jerzy, Wieczorek

    2014-09-01

    This research is aimed at assessing the total content and soluble forms of metals (zinc, lead and cadmium) and toxicity of soils subjected to strong human pressure associated with mining of zinc and lead ores. The research area lay in the neighbourhood of the Bolesław Mine and Metallurgical Plant in Bukowno (Poland). The study obtained total cadmium concentration between 0.29 and 51.91 mg, zinc between 7.90 and 3,614 mg, and that of lead between 28.4 and 6844 mg kg(-1) of soil d.m. The solubility of the heavy metals in 1 mol dm(-3) NH4NO3 was 1-49% for zinc, 5-45% for cadmium, and Toxicity assessment of the soil samples was performed using two tests, Phytotoxkit and Microtox(®). Germination index values were between 22 and 75% for Sinapis alba, between 28 and 100% for Lepidium sativum, and between 10 and 28% for Sorghum saccharatum. Depending on the studied soil sample, Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition was 20-96%. The sensitivity of the test organisms formed the following series: S. saccharatum > S. alba = V. fischeri > L. sativum. Significant positive correlations (p ≤ 0.05) of the total and soluble contents of the metals with luminescence inhibition in V. fischeri and root growth inhibition in S. saccharatum were found. The general trend observed was an increase in metal toxicity measured by the biotest with increasing available metal contents in soils. All the soil samples were classified into toxicity class III, which means that they are toxic and present severe danger. Biotest are a good complement to chemical analyses in the assessment of quality of soils as well as in properly managing them.

  13. Glomalin Production and Microbial Activity in Soils Impacted by Gypsum Mining in a Brazilian Semiarid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalia C.E.S. Mergulhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mining activities involve the removal of the vegetal cover and the soil organic layer, causing a severe environmental impact. In Northeast Brazil, 40% of the worlds crude gypsum is found in a semiarid area, making this region responsible for 95% of the gypsum demand in the national market. Although economically important, this activity is harmful to the environment. Studies of soil microbiological and biochemical attributes can help in the identification of the limitations of impacted ecosystems, providing data to define strategies for sustainability of such environments. Approach: To evaluate and compare the biological state of preserved and mining degraded semiarid soils, a native preserved area and areas impacted by gypsum mining were selected at the Araripina Experimental Station, located in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. The four sampling areas included: (1 A native, preserved �caatinga� area with spine bearing trees and shrubs and some characteristic xerophytic plants (AN; (2 An area surrounding the mine, presenting the same type of vegetation although already degraded (AM; (3 A waste deposit area (AR; (4 Interface area between the waste deposit and a mining degraded area (AI. Samples were taken in each area (1000 m2 during two periods: wet (December/2003, Rainfall = 28.7 mm and dry (September/2004, Rainfall = 1.3 mm. Results: Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis values, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were higher in the preserved caatinga than in the impacted areas. The gypsum mining activity reduced the concentration of easily extractable glomalin in relation to the native caatinga area in both sampling periods. Higher deposits of total glomalin also occurred in the native area, however, mainly during the wet period. Conclusion: The mining activity produced a negative impact on the soil microbiota, reducing the total enzymatic activity. The microbial

  14. Effects of AMF on soil enzyme activity and carbon sequestration capacity in reclaimed mine soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Kuimei; Wang Liping; Yin Ningning

    2012-01-01

    A series of pot experiments and field trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on activities of soil enzymes and carbon sequestration capacity in reclaimed mine soil.A complex substrate of coal gangue,fly ash and sludge was used as reclaimed mine soil,and ryegrass was planted with AMF inoculation to construct a plant-complex substrate-microbe ecological restoration system.The changes to the soil organic carbon (SOC),activities of soil enzymes and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) were measured and the effects of AMF on activities of soil enzymes and carbon sequestration capacity in reclaimed mine soil were analyzed.The results show that the contents of GRSP (total glomalin (TG) and easily extractable glomalin (EEG)),SOC and activities of enzymes increased,and the increments were higher in the AMF inoculation treated plant-complex substrate-microbe ecological restoration systems than those with no AMF inoculated treatments after 12 months of ryegrass growth.TG,EEG and soil enzyme activity have a significant positive correlation,and the correlative coefficient was 0.427-0.573; SOC and TG,EEG have a significant positive correlation (p < 0.01 ),indicating that AMF plays an important role in carbon sequestration of reclaimed mine soils.

  15. Assessment of Water Quality Index and Heavy Metal Contamination in Active and Abandoned Iron Ore Mining Sites in Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madzin Zafira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of heavy metals in water and surface soils of iron ore mining sites were investigated to evaluate on the potential occurrence of heavy metal contamination. Physico-chemical characteristics of the waters were also investigated to determine the current status of water quality index (WQI of the sites. Samples of water and surface soils of active mine (Kuala Lipis and abandoned mine (Bukit Ibam in Pahang were collected at four locations, respectively. The physico-chemical parameters measured for WQI were pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and ammoniacal nitrogen (AN. The water quality parameters were classified according to the Department of Environment (DOE water quality classification. The study revealed that most of the sites in Bukit Ibam and Kuala Lipis were categorized as clean to slightly polluted. On the other hand, heavy metal analysis in water showed that aluminium and manganese level in both sites have exceeded the allowable limits for raw and treated water standards by the Ministry of Health. For heavy metal compositions in soils showed most of the heavy metal concentrations were below the recommended guideline values except for lead, arsenic, zinc and copper.

  16. Detecting areas disturbed by mining activities through Landsat images, San Luis Potosi City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vera, M.-A.

    2009-04-01

    Mining history in San Luis Potosí (Mexico) goes back to more than four centuries, and the accumulation of mining waste poses an important problem to ecological risk prevention. Epithermal deposits are the most common in this region and the impact of mining exploitation must be evaluated to propose sustainable development of the natural resources, which have a strong contribution of the national economy. The state San Luis Potosi is situated in the central part of Mexico between parallels 21°11' and 24°34' of north latitude and 98°23' and 102°14' of west longitude, 424 km northeast from Mexico City. Today is a sprawling city with more than half a million residents. The aim of this study was to analyse land cover and vegetation changes between 1972 and 2000 in San Luis Potosi Valley, using satellite image data. Since large changes in land cover and vegetation are taking place in the Valley and there is a lack of good data, such as maps, statistics and aerial photographs, it was appropriate to use satellite data for assessment of land cover and vegetation to estimate the environmental impact of the mining industry. Field data samples were used to evaluate the change results obtained with the multispectral satellite images. The results show that land cover change in the San Luis Potosi Valley has occurred in the past decade as a result of both natural forces and human activities, which have in turn impacted on the regional sustainable development of the mining resources.

  17. Active velocity tomography for assessing rock burst hazards in a kilometer deep mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Hu; Dou Linming; Li Xuwei; Qiao Qiuqiu; Chen Tongjun; Gong Siyuan

    2011-01-01

    Active velocity tomography was used to determine the stress state and rock burst hazards in a deep coal mine.The deepest longwall face,number 3207 in the Xingcun colliery,was the location of the field trials.The positive correlation between stress and seismic velocity was used to link the velocity data with stratum stresses.A GeoPen SE2404NT data acquisition system was used to collect seismic data from 300g explosive charges fired by instantaneous electric detonator and located in the tail entry.The geophones were installed on the rock bolts in the head entry of LW3207.Velocity inversion shows an inhomogeneous distribution of stress in the longwall face that could not be obtained from theory or numerical simulations.Three abnormally high P-wave velocity regions were identified that were located on the comers of the two roadways and at the face end near the rail entry side.The maximum velocity gradient is located at the open cut off near the rail entry and is the area most dangerous for rock burst.Mining-induced tremors recorded by a micro-seismic monitoring system demonstrated that the position of energy release during mining coincides with the high velocity gradient area.This technology aids technicians in the coal mine as they design measures to weaken or eliminate potential danger during subsequent mining.

  18. Heavy metals contamination characteristics in soil of different mining activity zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Guo-li; LIAO Da-xue; LI Quan-ming

    2008-01-01

    Depending upon the polluted features of various mining activities in a typical nonferrous metal mine, the contaminated soil area was divided into four zones which were polluted by tailings, mine drainage, dust deposition in wind and spreading minerals during vehicle transportation, respectively. In each zone, soil samples were collected. Total 28 soil samples were dug and analyzed by ICP-AES and other relevant methods. The results indicate that the average contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As in soils are 508.6, 384.8, 7.53, 356 and 44.6 mg/kg, respectively. But the contents of heavy metals in different zone have distinct differences. The proportion of oxidizing association with organic substance is small. Difference of the association of heavy metals is small in different polluted zones.

  19. On Active Current Selection for Lagrangian Profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jouffroy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Lagrangian profilers are now widely used as measurement and monitoring platforms, notably in observation programs as Argo. In a typical mode of operation, the profilers drift passively at their parking depthbefore making a vertical profile to go back to the surface. This paperpresents simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to activelyselect and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach adesired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler andpossible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introducesimple mathematical models for the profiler and the currents it will use. Wethen present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of thecurrents and taking into account the configuration of the environment(coastal or deep-sea, is able to steer the profiler to any desiredhorizontal location. To illustrate the approach, a few results are presentedusing both simulated currents and real current velocity profiles from theNorth Sea.

  20. Planning the Mine and Mining the Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, D. S.; Chen, N.

    2016-11-01

    Overview of best practices used in the terrestrial mining industry when developing a mine site towards production. The intent is to guide planners towards an effective and well constructed roadmap for the development of ISRU mining activities. A strawman scenario is presented as an illustration for lunar mining of water ice.

  1. Overview of Current Activities in Combustion Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    9/23/2015 14. ABSTRACT Briefing Charts/Viewgraph 15. SUBJECT TERMS N/A 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...CSTD Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 14 ALREST phase II Multifidelity Tools and Methodologies Phase I VISP SPACE Current gen  HF ...Current gen  HF ,  productional Next gen  HF F i d e l i t y High fidelity Cost  ALREST phase II Experiments  Approved for public release

  2. Geodetic monitoring (TLS of a steel transport trestle bridge located in an active mining exploitation site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining exploitation causes, in general, irregular vertical and horizontal shifts in the superficial layer of the rock mass. In the case of construction objects seated on this layer, a deformation of the object’s foundation can be observed. This leads to additional loads and deformations. Identification of surface geometry changes in construction objects located within the premises of underground mining exploitation areas is an important task as far as safety of mining sites is concerned. Surveys targeting shifts and deformations in engineering objects preformed with the use of classic methods are of a selective nature and do not provide the full image of the phenomenon being the subject of the observation. This paper presents possibilities of terrestrial laser scanning technology application in the monitoring of engineering objects that allows for a complete spatial documentation of an object subjected to the influence of an active mining exploitation. This paper describes an observation of a 100 m section of a steel transport trestle bridge located on the premises of hard coal mine Lubelski Węgiel “Bogdanka” S.A. carried out in 2015. Measurements were carried out using a Z+F Imager 5010C scanner at an interval of 3.5 months. Changes in the structure’s geometry were determined by comparing the point clouds recorded during the two measurement periods. The results of the analyses showed shifts in the trestle bridge towards the exploited coal wall accompanied by object deformation. The obtained results indicate the possibility of of terrestrial laser scanning application in studying the aftereffects of underground mining exploitation on surface engineering objects.

  3. Mercury speciation in the Mt. Amiata mining district (Italy): interplay between urban activities and mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, Valentina; Bardelli, Fabrizio; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Gray, John E.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental step to evaluate the biogeochemical and eco-toxicological significance of Hg dispersion in the environment is to determine speciation of Hg in solid matrices. In this study, several analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), sequential chemical extractions (SCEs), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) were used to identify Hg compounds and Hg speciation in samples collected from the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district, southern Tuscany, Italy. Different geological materials, such as mine waste calcine (retorted ore), soil, stream sediment, and stream water suspended particulate matter were analyzed. Results show that the samples were generally composed of highly insoluble Hg compounds such as sulphides (HgS, cinnabar and metacinnabar), and more soluble Hg halides such as those associated with the mosesite group. Other moderately soluble Hg compounds, HgCl2, HgO and Hg0, were also identified in stream sediments draining the mining area. The presence of these minerals suggests active and continuous runoff of soluble Hg compounds from calcines, where such Hg compounds form during retorting, or later in secondary processes. Specifically, we suggest that, due to the proximity of Hg mines to the urban center of Abbadia San Salvatore, the influence of other anthropogenic activities was a key factor for Hg speciation, resulting in the formation of unusual Hg-minerals such as mosesite.

  4. Palaeo-pollution from mining activities in the Vosges Mountains: 1000 years and still bioavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariet, Anne-Lise; de Vaufleury, Annette; Bégeot, Carole; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Gimbert, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Mining and smelting activities have contaminated the environment with trace metals (TMs) at a worldwide scale for at least two millennia. A combination of chemical approaches and active biomonitoring was performed to analyse the environmental availability and bioavailability of TM palaeo-pollution in a former PbAg mining district in the Vosges Mountains, France. Along a soil TM contamination gradient that covered eight stations, including two archaeological mining sites, the toxicokinetics of six TMs (Pb, Cd, As, Ag, Co, Sb) in the snail Cantareus aspersus revealed that palaeo-pollution from the studied sites remains bioavailable. This study provides the first data on the accumulation kinetics of Ag and Co for C. aspersus. The environmental availability of the TMs was estimated with three chemical extraction methods (aqua regia, EDTA 50 mM, CaCl2 10 mM). Univariate regression analyses showed that EDTA extraction is the best method for estimating the bioavailability of Pb, As, Ag, Co and Sb to snails. None of the three extractants was efficient for Cd. A multivariate analysis of bioaccumulation data revealed that TM bioavailability and transfer were modulated by exposure sources (soil, humus and vegetation) rather than by soil physico-chemical characteristics. Hence, although the deposition of mining wastes dates back several centuries, these wastes still represent a source of contamination that must be considered to develop relevant site management and environmental risk assessment.

  5. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yongtao [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, 510642 Guangzhou (China); Laboratoire de Geochimie des Eaux, Universite Paris-Diderot - IPGP, Case 7052, Batiment Lamarck, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becquer, Thierry [UMR 137 Biodiversite et Fonctionnement des Sols, IRD/Universites Paris VI and XII, SupAgro - Bat. 12, 2 Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 2 (France); Dai Jun [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, 510642 Guangzhou (China); Quantin, Cecile [UMR 8148 IDES, Universite Paris Sud XI - CNRS, Bat. 504, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Benedetti, Marc F. [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Eaux, Universite Paris-Diderot - IPGP, Case 7052, Batiment Lamarck, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)], E-mail: benedetti@ipgp.fr

    2009-04-15

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils. - First evidence of the real free metal ion concentrations in acid mine drainage context in tropical systems.

  6. Strong ground movement induced by mining activities and its effect on power transmission structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Kao-shan; CHEN Shen-en

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining activities may introduce damages to nearby infrastructure. Concerns are put forward by the power company about structural integrity of electric power transmission structures in areas where coal mining activities cause strong ground vibrations. Common practice in the power industry is to limit ground motion by specifying maximum Peak Particle Velocity. So far, there is a lack of industry-wide recognized guidelines on how ground vibration limits should be set for the transmission structures. In order to develop a defense strategy to protect power transmission lines against strong ground motions in mining areas, a systematic research work was conducted to establish strong ground vibration characteristics and to study impacts of ground excitations on transmission pole structures. Ground movements were recorded using geophones and wireless tri-axial sensing units. The process of generating ground motion response spectra via analyzing actual ground motion measurements is described in the paper. These spectra developed based on peak particle velocities were used as a basis for spectral analysis performed using validated Finite Element models to obtain structural displacements, reactions and stress states of the transmission pole structures in the mining sites. A quantitative ground motion limit was established by comparing structural responses with the corresponding design requirements.

  7. Object Relevance Weight Pattern Mining for Activity Recognition and Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmes, Paulito Pedregosa; Pung, Hung Keng; Gu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring daily activities of a person has many potential benefits in pervasive computing. These include providing proactive support for the elderly and monitoring anomalous behaviors. A typical approach in existing research on activity detection is to construct sequence-based models of low-leve...

  8. Biochar application to hardrock mine tailings: Soil quality, microbial activity, and toxic element sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Charlene N.; Peltz, Christopher D.; Stanton, Mark R.; Rutherford, David W.; Rostad, Colleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Waste rock piles from historic mining activities remain unvegetated as a result of metal toxicity and high acidity. Biochar has been proposed as a low-cost remediation strategy to increase soil pH and reduce leaching of toxic elements, and improve plant establishment. In this laboratory column study, biochar made from beetle-killed pine wood was assessed for utility as a soil amendment by mixing soil material from two mine sites collected near Silverton, Colorado, USA with four application rates of biochar (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% vol:vol). Columns were leached seven times over 65 days and leachate pH and concentration of toxic elements and base cations were measured at each leaching. Nutrient availability and soil physical and biological parameters were determined following the incubation period. We investigated the hypotheses that biochar incorporation into acidic mine materials will (1) reduce toxic element concentrations in leaching solution, (2) improve soil parameters (i.e. increase nutrient and water holding capacity and pH, and decrease compaction), and (3) increase microbial populations and activity. Biochar directly increased soil pH (from 3.33 to 3.63 and from 4.07 to 4.77 in the two materials) and organic matter content, and decreased bulk density and extractable salt content in both mine materials, and increased nitrate availability in one material. No changes in microbial population or activity were detected in either mine material upon biochar application. In leachate solution, biochar increased base cations from both materials and reduced the concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in leachate solution from one material. However, in the material with greater toxic element content, biochar did not reduce concentrations of any measured dissolved toxic elements in leachate and resulted in a potentially detrimental release of Cd and Zn into solution at concentrations above that of the pure mine material. The length of time of effectiveness and specific

  9. Sleep in a live-in mining operation: the influence of start times and restricted non-work activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Baker, Angela A; Lamond, Nicole; Kennaway, David J; Dawson, Drew

    2010-12-01

    The amount of sleep obtained between shifts is influenced by numerous factors including the length of work and rest periods, the timing of the rest period relative to the endogenous circadian cycle and personal choices about the use of non-work time. The current study utilised a real-world live-in mining environment to examine the amount of sleep obtained when access to normal domestic, family and social activities was restricted. Participants were 29 mining operators (26 male, average age 37.4 ± 6.8 years) who recorded sleep, work and fatigue information and wore an activity monitor for a cycle of seven day shifts and seven night shifts (both 12h) followed by either seven or fourteen days off. During the two weeks of work participants lived on-site. Total sleep time was significantly less (pvalue than sleep associated with day shifts (p<0.01). While on-site, participants obtained only 6h of sleep indicating that the absence of competing domestic, family and social activities did not convert to more sleep. Factors including shift start times and circadian influences appear to have been more important. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Fuzzy Spatiotemporal Data Mining to Activity Recognition in Smart Homes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A primary goal to design smart homes is to provide automatic assistance for the residents to make them able to live independently at home. Activity recognition is...

  11. Assessment of Trace Metals in Soil, Vegetation and Rodents in Relation to Metal Mining Activities in an Arid Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Alvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul

    2016-07-01

    Areas where abandoned metal-extraction mines are located contain large quantities of mineral wastes derived from environmentally unsafe mining practices. These wastes contain many pollutants, such as heavy metals, which could be released to the environment through weathering and leaching, hence becoming an important source of environmental metal pollution. This study evaluates differences in the levels of lead, iron, nickel, manganese, copper and cadmium in rodents sharing the same type of diet under different microhabitat use in arid areas with past mining activities. Samples of soil, roots, branches and seeds of Palo Adán (Fouquieria diguetii) and specimens of two rodent species (Chaetodipus arenarius and C. spinatus) were collected in areas with impact from past metal mining activities as well as from areas with no mining impact. Both rodent species mirrored nickel and iron levels in soil and seeds, as well as lead levels in soil; however, C. arenarius accumulated higher levels of manganese, copper and cadmium.

  12. Transient sodium current at subthreshold voltages: activation by EPSP waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brett C; Giessel, Andrew J; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Bean, Bruce P

    2012-09-20

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels carry large transient currents during action potentials and also "persistent" sodium current, a noninactivating TTX-sensitive current present at subthreshold voltages. We examined gating of subthreshold sodium current in dissociated cerebellar Purkinje neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons, studied at 37°C with near-physiological ionic conditions. Unexpectedly, in both cell types small voltage steps at subthreshold voltages activated a substantial component of transient sodium current as well as persistent current. Subthreshold EPSP-like waveforms also activated a large component of transient sodium current, but IPSP-like waveforms engaged primarily persistent sodium current with only a small additional transient component. Activation of transient as well as persistent sodium current at subthreshold voltages produces amplification of EPSPs that is sensitive to the rate of depolarization and can help account for the dependence of spike threshold on depolarization rate, as previously observed in vivo.

  13. Analysis of a Large Rock Slope Failure on the East Wall of the LAB Chrysotile Mine in Canada: Back Analysis, Impact of Water Infilling and Mining Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Martin; Caudal, Philippe; Amoushahi, Sina; Turmel, Dominique; Locat, Jacques

    2017-02-01

    A major mining slope failure occurred in July 2012 on the East wall of the LAB Chrysotile mine in Canada. The major consequence of this failure was the loss of the local highway (Road 112), the main commercial link between the region and the Northeast USA. LiDAR scanning and subsequent analyses were performed and enabled quantifying the geometry and kinematics of the failure area. Using this information, this paper presents the back analysis of the July 2012 failure. The analyses are performed using deterministic and probabilistic limit equilibrium analysis and finite-element shear strength reduction analysis modelling. The impact of pit water infilling on the slope stability is investigated. The impact of the mining activity in 2011 in the lower part of the slope is also investigated through a parametric analysis.

  14. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states.

  15. Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.

  16. Cd pollution and ecological risk assessment for mining activity zone in Karst Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; He, J. L.; Wen, X. M.; Tan, H.

    2017-08-01

    The monitored soil samples were collected from farmland in the area with mining activity in Karst area in Liupanshui. In this article, moss bag technology and TSP were used simultaneously for Cd transportation and deposition in the study area. Geostatistics and GIS were then used for the spatial distribution of Cd in the soil. Afterwards, Cd pollution to the soil environment and human health was studied by using the geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index methods. The results indicated that atmospheric deposition is the major route of Cd pollution. A moderate to strong pollution of Cd in the area and the degree of potential ecological risk was in a high level in the study area. Furthermore, Cd pollution in Liupanshui may originate from mining activity and atmospheric deposition.

  17. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; KONG Ling-Li; LI Ying; JIANG Shan; ZHANG Liang; SHI Jin-Hua; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993,the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang,Hubei,Hunan,Jiangxi and Anhui Province,respectively,where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve.The average of γ radiation doserate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC)and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h,400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields,roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300nGy/h respectively.It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots.

  18. Active and legacy mining in an arid urban environment: challenges and perspectives for Copiapó, Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkovic, Athena B; Calcagni, Magdalena S; Vega, Alejandra S; Coquery, Marina; Moya, Pablo M; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pastén, Pablo A

    2016-08-01

    Urban expansion in areas of active and legacy mining imposes a sustainability challenge, especially in arid environments where cities compete for resources with agriculture and industry. The city of Copiapó, with 150,000 inhabitants in the Atacama Desert, reflects this challenge. More than 30 abandoned tailings from legacy mining are scattered throughout its urban and peri-urban area, which include an active copper smelter. Despite the public concern generated by the mining-related pollution, no geochemical information is currently available for Copiapó, particularly for metal concentration in environmental solid phases. A geochemical screening of soils (n = 42), street dusts (n = 71) and tailings (n = 68) was conducted in November 2014 and April 2015. Organic matter, pH and elemental composition measurements were taken. Notably, copper in soils (60-2120 mg/kg) and street dusts (110-10,200 mg/kg) consistently exceeded international guidelines for residential and industrial use, while a lower proportion of samples exceeded international guidelines for arsenic, zinc and lead. Metal enrichment occurred in residential, industrial and agricultural areas near tailings and the copper smelter. This first screening of metal contamination sets the basis for future risk assessments toward defining knowledge-based policies and urban planning. Challenges include developing: (1) adequate intervention guideline values; (2) appropriate geochemical background levels for key metals; (3) urban planning that considers contaminated areas; (4) cost-effective control strategies for abandoned tailings in water-scarce areas; and (5) scenarios and technologies for tailings reprocessing. Assessing urban geochemical risks is a critical endeavor for areas where extreme events triggered by climate change are likely, as the mud flooding that impacted Copiapó in late March 2015.

  19. Cardiac allograft immune activation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available David Chang, Jon Kobashigawa Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Heart transplant remains the most durable option for end-stage heart disease. Cardiac allograft immune activation and heart transplant rejection remain among the main complications limiting graft and recipient survival. Mediators of the immune system can cause different forms of rejection post-heart transplant. Types of heart transplant rejection include hyperacute rejection, cellular rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and chronic rejection. In this review, we will summarize the innate and adaptive immune responses which influence the post-heart transplant recipient. Different forms of rejection and their clinical presentation, detection, and immune monitoring will be discussed. Treatment of heart transplant rejection will be examined. We will discuss potential treatment strategies for preventing rejection post-transplant in immunologically high-risk patients with antibody sensitization. Keywords: heart transplant, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, rejection, immunosuppression

  20. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  1. Biomonitoring of cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic in general population living near mining and active industrial areas in Southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifi, Rim; Olmedo, Pablo; Gil, Fernando; Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Hammami, Bouthaina; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2014-02-01

    The human health impact of the historic and current mining and industrial activities in Tunisia is not known. This study assessed the exposure to metals in the population of Southern Tunisia, using biomonitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metal exposure on 350 participants living near mining and active industrial areas in the South of Tunisia. Blood specimens were analyzed for metals (Cd, Cr, As, and Ni) by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer equipped with Zeeman background correction and AS-800 auto sampler by graphite furnace and graphite tubes with integrated L'vov platform. The sample population was classified according to different age groups, sex, smoking habit, sea food and water drinking consumption, occupational exposure, amalgam fillings and place of residence. The blood As, Cd, Cr and Ni values expressed as mean ± SD were 1.56 ± 2.49, 0.74 ± 1.15, 35.04 ± 26.02 and 30.56 ± 29.96 μg/l, respectively. Blood Cd and Ni levels in smokers were 2 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in non-smokers. Blood Cd levels increase significantly with age (p = 0.002). As, Cd and Ni were significantly correlated with gender and age (p Tunisia reveals a substantial exposure to several metals. The pathways of exposure and health significance of these findings need to be further investigated.

  2. Mining activity impact on air quality in the Jiu Valley, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traista, E.; Matei, A.; Madear, G.; Hodor, P.; Mitran, I.; Radu, S.; Herman, I. [University of Petrosani, Petrosani (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    In Romania, in Meridional Carpathian Mountain, in the upper basin of river Jiu there is the most important coal field that produces a coke coal named Jiu Valley. The oblong form of this field, surrounded by mountains, has a great importance for a climatic feature, because air circulation is made more easily along the Jiu Cerna corridor, following the longitudinal splitting of Meridional Carphatian Mountain and less from north to south through the transversal break of mountain, Banita-Merisor and Surduc Lainici. The mountains acts as a wait against air circulation, hampering its movement. The mountain protection hampers the air refreshment in the depression. Air is polluted by a power station by and by mining and coal processing activity with dust. Other pollutants are between legal limits. Air quality is monitored at some point in the most sensitive area. The main issue is to identify the pollutant sources correctly. Mining activity has a strongly negative air impact due to dust emissions. Mining activity air impacts cannot be assessed due to other superimposed pollution source. 7 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. What's Yours Is Mine: An Investigation of Current Copyright Policies of Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the current copyright policies of 21 education journals published by academic societies, universities and university presses, and commercial publishers. For the sample I chose only journals with a copyright policy on the journal or publisher web site, and I then analyzed the content of the policies in order to answer…

  4. Mining bipartite graphs to improve semantic pedophile activity detection

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, Raphaël; Danisch, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are popular to exchange large volumes of data through the Internet. Paedophile activity is a very important topic for our society and some works have recently attempted to gauge the extent of paedophile exchanges on P2P networks. A key issue is to obtain an efficient detection tool, which may decide if a sequence of keywords is related to the topic or not. We propose to use social network analysis in a large dataset from a P2P network to imp...

  5. A Pattern Mining Approach to Sensor-based Human Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhanqing

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing human activities from sensor readings has recently attracted much research interest in pervasive computing due to its potential in many applications such as assistive living and healthcare. This task is particularly challenging because human activities are often performed in not only...... in real life because activities can be interleaved and performed concurrently in many different ways. In this paper, we propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize sequential, interleaved and concurrent activities in a unified framework. We exploit Emerging Pattern—a discriminative pattern...... that describes significant changes between classes of data—to identify sensor features for classifying activities. Different from existing learning-based approaches which require different training datasets for building activity models, our activity models are built upon the sequential activity trace only...

  6. The Impact of Mining Activity upon the Aquatic Environment in the Southern Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIGISMUND DUMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Apuseni Mountains, mining activities have taken place since Antiquity, leaving their marks upon the natural environment, the aquatic one inclusively. If the traditional technologies had a low impact upon the aquatic environment, the ones in the modern period have affected it up to the “dead water” level. It is about the disorganization of the hydrographical basins and especially about aggressive pollution of surface waters with some of the most toxic chemical substances such as cyanides, as well as by an increase in the contents of metallic ions, chlorides, sulphides, sulphates, suspensions and fixed residuum. The decrease in pH, and implicitly the acidification of waters, is also remarkable. It must be mentioned that no systematic studies of the impact of mining activities upon the aquatic environment have been conducted in the area in the last years. In these conditions, the data about water quality have been taken over from the studies conducted by author between 1996 and 1998. The cause of the lack of concern in the field is no other but the cease in ore valorization activities in the majority of the mining objectives in the area. As none of the tailings settling ponds has guard canals, the direct pluvial waters and the ones drained from the slopes transport tailings with noxes which they subsequently discharge in the local pluvial network. In these conditions, both the quality of the mine waters which run freely into the emissary and of the ones that flow from the waste dumps remain mainly in the qualitative parameters analyzed and presented in the study.

  7. Transient-spatial pattern mining of eddy current pulsed thermography using wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailong; Gao, Bin; Tian, Guiyun; Ren, Wenwei; Woo, Wai Lok

    2014-07-01

    Eddy current pulsed thermography(ECPT) is an emerging Non-destructive testing and evaluation(NDT & E) technique, which uses hybrid eddy current and thermography NDT & E techniques that enhances the detectability from their compensation. Currently, this technique is limited by the manual selection of proper contrast frames and the issue of improving the efficiency of defect detection of complex structure samples remains a challenge. In order to select a specific frame from transient thermal image sequences to maximize the contrast of thermal variation and defect pattern from complex structure samples, an energy driven approach to compute the coefficient energy of wavelet transform is proposed which has the potential of automatically selecting both optimal transient frame and spatial scale for defect detection using ECPT. According to analysis of the variation of different frequency component and the comparison study of the detection performance of different scale and wavelets, the frame at the end of heating phase is automatically selected as an optimal transient frame for defect detection. In addition, the detection capabilities of the complex structure samples can be enhanced through proper spatial scale and wavelet selection. The proposed method has successfully been applied to low speed impact damage detection of carbon fibre reinforced polymer(CFRP) composite as well as providing the guidance to improve the detectability of ECPT technique.

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Török, T.; Titov, V. S.; Mikić, Z. [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Leake, J. E. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Archontis, V. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Linton, M. G. [U.S. Naval Research Lab, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Dalmasse, K.; Aulanier, G. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Univ. Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Kliem, B. [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    There has been a long-standing debate on the question of whether or not electric currents in solar active regions are neutralized. That is, whether or not the main (or direct) coronal currents connecting the active region polarities are surrounded by shielding (or return) currents of equal total value and opposite direction. Both theory and observations are not yet fully conclusive regarding this question, and numerical simulations have, surprisingly, barely been used to address it. Here we quantify the evolution of electric currents during the formation of a bipolar active region by considering a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the emergence of a sub-photospheric, current-neutralized magnetic flux rope into the solar atmosphere. We find that a strong deviation from current neutralization develops simultaneously with the onset of significant flux emergence into the corona, accompanied by the development of substantial magnetic shear along the active region's polarity inversion line. After the region has formed and flux emergence has ceased, the strong magnetic fields in the region's center are connected solely by direct currents, and the total direct current is several times larger than the total return current. These results suggest that active regions, the main sources of coronal mass ejections and flares, are born with substantial net currents, in agreement with recent observations. Furthermore, they support eruption models that employ pre-eruption magnetic fields containing such currents.

  9. Comparative economics, of advanced fine-coal cleaning in refuse pond recovery and active mine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, A.; Chugh, Y.P; Mohanty, M.K.; Sevim, H. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining & Mineral Resources

    2003-08-01

    The economics of 'conventional' and 'advanced fine-coal cleaning' (AFCC) circuits for refuse pond reclamation as well as active mine applications were evaluated. The benefit of an innovative tailings-management scheme on the profitability of mining enterprises was also evaluated. Analyses were conducted for two scenarios involving the generation of 5.81% product ash, a quality obtained during AFCC circuit operation at SIU, and a more typical 8% product ash. The inability of the conventional circuits to achieve profitability while producing the lower-ash product is revealed from this approach. On the other hand, the AFCC circuits achieve a return on investment in excess of 50% in the water-only mode as well as the dense-medium mode, both with and without tailings management. The comparison of water-only and dense-medium applications of the AFCC circuit indicates a better suitability for the dense-medium circuit for producing premium-quality products. As a result of reduced overhead costs and the use of existing material-handling facilities, the application of AFCC circuits in active mines provides for better economics when compared to applications in refuse pond recovery operations. Sensitivity analysis reveals the significance of capacity utilization on project economics.

  10. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Tao; Becquer, Thierry; Dai, Jun; Quantin, Cécile; Benedetti, Marc F

    2009-04-01

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils.

  11. Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Exhalation Zones of Thermally Active Mine Waste Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Kuna-Gwoździewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research carried out on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in gases of exhalation zones, created on the surface of a thermally active coal mine waste dump. The oxidation and self-heating of mine waste are accompanied with the intensive emission of flue gases, including PAH group compounds. Taking into consideration the fact the hydrocarbons show strong genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, research was conducted to establish their content in the examined gases. The research object was a gangue dump located in Rybnik. The research was performed in 2012. In total, 24 samples of gas were collected with PUF (polyurethane foam sampling cartridges with a quartz fibre filter and an aspirator. The collected samples were analysed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and a fluorescence detector (FLD to evaluate the amount of PAH present.

  12. Efficacy Evaluation of Current and Future Naval Mine Warfare Neutralization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Depth 0 400 800 Bottom Type and Composition Sandy Mix Sand and Rock Rock Current 0kts 2kts 4kts Sea State Flat 3ft @ 10 sec 6ft @ 8 sec Water...or shore . At sea, the large size of the aircraft makes it ideal to park it aboard the larger Naval vessels such as aircraft carriers (CVNs...being shore -based for the purposes of executing the mission or will be forced to be deployed aboard one of the larger vessels. However, those larger

  13. Immobilization of toxic elements in mine residues derived from mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain): Laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; de Almodovar, G.R. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology

    2007-09-15

    In the mining environments of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), the oxidation of sulphide wastes generates acid drainage with high concentrations of SO{sub 4}, metals and metalloids (Acid Mine Drainage, AMD). These acid and extremely contaminated discharges are drained by the fluvial courses of the Huelva province (SW Spain) which deliver high concentrations of potentially toxic elements into the Gulf of Cadiz. In this work, the oxidation process of mine tailings in the IPB, the generation of AMD and the potential use of coal combustion fly ash as a possible alkaline treatment for neutralization of and metal removal from AMD, was studied in non-saturated column experiments. The laboratory column tests were conducted on a mine residue (71.6 wt% pyrite) with artificial rainfall or irrigation. A non-saturated column filled solely with the pyrite residue leached solutions with an acid pH (approx. 2) and high concentrations of SO{sub 4} and metals. These leachates have the same composition as typical AMD, and the oxidation process can be compared with the natural oxidation of mine tailings in the IPB. However, the application of fly ash to the same amount of mine residue in another two non-saturated columns significantly increased the pH and decreased the SO{sub 4} and metal concentrations in the leaching solutions. The improvement in the quality of leachates by fly ash addition in the laboratory was so effective that the leachate reached the pre-potability requirements of water for human consumption under EU regulations. The extrapolation of these experiments to the field is a promising solution for the decontamination of the fluvial courses of the IPB, and therefore, the decrease of pollutant loads discharging to the Gulf of Cadiz.

  14. Evaluation of the current practices of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness training in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available on findings of a literature review on best practice for NIHL awareness training was developed for use in interviews, with managers responsible for NIHL awareness training at the mines. Thirty managers were interviewed in the survey at mines representative...

  15. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our......Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... live in such an environment. Recognizing activities of not only a single user, but also multiple users is essential to the development of practical context-aware applications in pervasive computing. In this paper, we investigate the fundamental problem of recognizing activities for multiple users from...

  16. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  17. Integrated approach to assess the environmental impact of mining activities: estimation of the spatial distribution of soil contamination (Panasqueira mining area, Central Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, Carla; Ávila, Paula F; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2015-03-01

    Through the years, mining and beneficiation processes in Panasqueira Sn-W mine (Central Portugal) produced large amounts of As-rich mine wastes laid up in huge tailings and open-air impoundments (Barroca Grande and Rio tailings) that are the main source of pollution in the surrounding area once they are exposed to the weathering conditions leading to the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) and consequently to the contamination of the surrounding environments, particularly soils. The active mine started the exploration during the nineteenth century. This study aims to look at the extension of the soil pollution due to mining activities and tailing erosion by combining data on the degree of soil contamination that allows a better understanding of the dynamics inherent to leaching, transport, and accumulation of some potential toxic elements in soil and their environmental relevance. Soil samples were collected in the surrounding soils of the mine, were digested in aqua regia, and were analyzed for 36 elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Selected results are that (a) an association of elements like Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, W, and Zn strongly correlated and controlled by the local sulfide mineralization geochemical signature was revealed; (b) the global area discloses significant concentrations of As, Bi, Cd, and W linked to the exchangeable and acid-soluble bearing phases; and (c) wind promotes the mechanical dispersion of the rejected materials, from the milled waste rocks and the mineral processing plant, with subsequent deposition on soils and waters. Arsenic- and sulfide-related heavy metals (such as Cu and Cd) are associated to the fine materials that are transported in suspension by surface waters or associated to the acidic waters, draining these sites and contaminating the local soils. Part of this fraction, especially for As, Cd, and Cu, is temporally retained in solid phases by precipitation of soluble secondary minerals (through

  18. Impact of Mercury Mine Activities on Water Resources at Azzaba-North-East of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Alligui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mercury mineralization occurred in Azzaba (north-eastern Algeria as a part of mercurial Numidian belt, consists of numerous of Hg deposits (Koudiat Sma, Mrasma, Guenicha, Fendek, Ismail and Ras Elma. These deposits are hosted in a variety of lithologies including sandstone, limestone, breccias and conglomerate. The ores occur as cinnabar deposits in Ypresian-Lutetian formations. Although the quantity and type of information relating to mining operations within Azzaba remains insufficient and sparse an assessment of the impacts that mining and processing activities, have had or are likely to have, on water resources is required to describe the evidence of the origin and the extent Approach: 17 ground water samples were collected at different locations within the Hg mineralized area and analyzed to assess the source, degree and extent of the contamination. Results: The primary effect of mining is degradation of tens of kilometers of disturbed streams, thousands hectares of disturbed land including valuable ecosystems. chemical analysis showed that ground waters were also adversely affected by pollutants loading, the alluvial aquifer (composed primarily of silty sand and gravel that serves as the primary source of drinking water for Menzel Ben Dishe, Es-sebt and Zaouia communities surrounding Ismail mercury complex shows high concentrations of Hg and other heavy metals. Conclusion: These high values were associated and controlled by mixed origin with similar contribution from anthropogenic and geoginic sources.

  19. Metal dispersion resulting from mining activities in coastal environments: A pathways approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.

    2012-01-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) and disposal of tailings that result from mining activities impact coastal areas in many countries. The dispersion of metals from mine sites that are both proximal and distal to the shoreline can be examined using a pathways approach in which physical and chemical processes guide metal transport in the continuum from sources (sulfide minerals) to bioreceptors (marine biota). Large amounts of metals can be physically transported to the coastal environment by intentional or accidental release of sulfide-bearing mine tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals results in elevated dissolved metal concentrations in surface waters on land (producing ARD) and in pore waters of submarine tailings. Changes in pH, adsorption by insoluble secondary minerals (e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides), and precipitation of soluble salts (e.g., sulfates) affect dissolved metal fluxes. Evidence for bioaccumulation includes anomalous metal concentrations in bivalves and reef corals, and overlapping Pb isotope ratios for sulfides, shellfish, and seaweed in contaminated environments. Although bioavailability and potential toxicity are, to a large extent, functions of metal speciation, specific uptake pathways, such as adsorption from solution and ingestion of particles, also play important roles. Recent emphasis on broader ecological impacts has led to complementary methodologies involving laboratory toxicity tests and field studies of species richness and diversity.

  20. Impact of uranium mining activity on cave deposit (stalagmite) and pine trees (S-Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siklosy, Z.; Kern, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Szeles, E.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems are well known paleoclimate archives but their potential for monitoring environmental pollution has not been fully explored. This study deals with an actively growing stalagmite whose trace-element concentration suggests anthropogenic contamination, rather then natural forcing. Paralell, as a potential independent chemo-enviromental archive, living pine (Pinus sylvestis) trees were also involved into investigation. U production in S-Hungary started in 1957 and was expanded closer to the cave site in 1965, covering a mining plot area of ca. 65 km2. The deep-level ore production ended in 1997 and remediation of the mine site has since been completed. Our objective was to determine the possible effect of the four-decade-long uranium (U) ore mining activity on the environment, as recorded by a cave deposit and the pine trees. The Trio Cave is located in the Mecsek Mts (S-Hungary), ca. 1.5-3 km east from the nearest air-shaft and entrance of the uranium mine. A stalagmite located about 150 m away from the cave entrance was drilled and the core investigated for stable isotope and trace element compositions. Pine trees were sampled by increment borer. Continuous flow mass spectrometry was applied on carbonate samples and laser ablation ICP-MS was applied for trace element analysis of both stalagmite (Siklosy et al., 2009) and pine samples. The youngest 1 cm of the drill core was selected for this study that may represent the last cca. 100 years (based on MC-ICP-MS age dating of older parts of the core) that covers the uranium mining period. The pre-mining period is characterized by systematic co-variations of trace elements (U, P, Si, Al, Ba, Mg, etc.) that can be related to soil activity and precipitation amount. The youngest 1.3 mm, however, records a sudden change in U content uncorrelated with any other variables. Starting from a background value of 0.2-0.3 ppm, the concentration gradually increases to about 2 ppm (within about 1 mm), remains constant for

  1. Metal dispersion resulting from mining activities in coastal environments: a pathways approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.

    2012-01-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) and disposal of tailings that result from mining activities impact coastal areas in many countries. The dispersion of metals from mine sites that are both proximal and distal to the shoreline can be examined using a pathways approach in which physical and chemical processes guide metal transport in the continuum from sources (sulfide minerals) to bioreceptors (marine biota). Large amounts of metals can be physically transported to the coastal environment by intentional or accidental release of sulfide-bearing mine tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals results in elevated dissolved metal concentrations in surface waters on land (producing ARD) and in pore waters of submarine tailings. Changes in pH, adsorption by insoluble secondary minerals (e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides), and precipitation of soluble salts (e.g., sulfates) affect dissolved metal fluxes. Evidence for bioaccumulation includes anomalous metal concentrations in bivalves and reef corals, and overlapping Pb isotope ratios for sulfides, shellfish, and seaweed in contaminated environments. Although bioavailability and potential toxicity are, to a large extent, functions of metal speciation, specific uptake pathways, such as adsorption from solution and ingestion of particles, also play important roles. Recent emphasis on broader ecological impacts has led to complementary methodologies involving laboratory toxicity tests and field studies of species richness and diversity.

  2. Mercury speciation and dispersion from an active gold mine at the West Wits area, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusilao-Makiese, J G; Tessier, E; Amouroux, D; Tutu, H; Chimuka, L; Weiersbye, I; Cukrowska, E M

    2016-01-01

    Total mercury (HgTOT), inorganic mercury (IHg), and methylmercury (MHg) were determined in dry season waters, sediments, and tailings from an active mine which has long history of gold exploitation. Although HgTOT in waters was generally low (0.03 to 19.60 ng L(-1)), the majority of the samples had proportions of MHg of at least 90 % of HgTOT which denotes a substantial methylation potential of the mine watersheds. Mercury was relatively high in tailing materials (up to 867 μg kg(-1)) and also in the mine sediments (up to 837 μg kg(-1)) especially in samples collected near tailing storage facilities and within a receiving water dam. Sediment profiles revealed mercury enrichment and enhanced methylation rate at deeper layers. The presence of IHg and decaying plants (organic matter) in the watersheds as well as the anoxic conditions of bulk sediments are believed to be some of the key factors favoring the mercury methylation at the site.

  3. MINING ACTIVITIES.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    highest concentrations of cadmium, lead and copper (4.67ili87 ng g'1 ww, 0.13i0. 04 pg g'I ww, ... fiom Mara Bay. Concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fish from areas within and ... tailings are easily leached by runoff. Information ...

  4. Mining and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisgyorgy, S.

    1986-01-01

    The realization of new mining projects should be preceded by detailed studies on the impact of mining activities on the environment. For defining the conditions of environmental protection and for making proper financial plans the preparation of an information system is needed. The possible social effects of the mining investments have to be estimated, first of all from the points of view of waste disposal, mining hydrology, subsidence due to underground mining etc.

  5. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  6. Systematic mining of analog series with related core structures in multi-target activity space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    We have aimed to systematically extract analog series with related core structures from multi-target activity space to explore target promiscuity of closely related analogous. Therefore, a previously introduced SAR matrix structure was adapted and further extended for large-scale data mining. These matrices organize analog series with related yet distinct core structures in a consistent manner. High-confidence compound activity data yielded more than 2,300 non-redundant matrices capturing 5,821 analog series that included 4,288 series with multi-target and 735 series with multi-family activities. Many matrices captured more than three analog series with activity against more than five targets. The matrices revealed a variety of promiscuity patterns. Compound series matrices also contain virtual compounds, which provide suggestions for compound design focusing on desired activity profiles.

  7. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  8. Mining the metagenome of activated biomass of an industrial wastewater treatment plant by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nandita; Tanksale, Himgouri; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2012-12-01

    Metagenomic libraries herald the era of magnifying the microbial world, tapping into the vast metabolic potential of uncultivated microbes, and enhancing the rate of discovery of novel genes and pathways. In this paper, we describe a method that facilitates the extraction of metagenomic DNA from activated sludge of an industrial wastewater treatment plant and its use in mining the metagenome via library construction. The efficiency of this method was demonstrated by the large representation of the bacterial genome in the constructed metagenomic libraries and by the functional clones obtained. The BAC library represented 95.6 times the bacterial genome, while, the pUC library represented 41.7 times the bacterial genome. Twelve clones in the BAC library demonstrated lipolytic activity, while four clones demonstrated dioxygenase activity. Four clones in pUC library tested positive for cellulase activity. This method, using FTA cards, not only can be used for library construction, but can also store the metagenome at room temperature.

  9. NOS CO-OPS Active Currents Data, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has surface Active Currents data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These raw data have not...

  10. Both barium and calcium activate neuronal potassium currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribera, A.B.; Spitzer, N.C.

    1987-09-01

    Amphibian spinal neurons in culture possess both rapidly inactivating and sustained calcium-dependent potassium current components, similar to those described for other cells. Divalent cation-dependent whole-cell outward currents were isolated by subtracting the voltage-dependent potassium currents recorded from Xenopus laevis neurons in the presence of impermeant cadmium from the currents produced without cadmium but in the presence of permeant divalent cations. These concentrations of permeant ions were low enough to avoid contamination by macroscopic inward currents through calcium channels. Calcium-dependent potassium currents were reduced by 1 ..mu..M tetraethylammonium. These currents can also be activated by barium or strontium. Barium as well as calcium activated outward currents in young neurons (6-8 hr) and in relatively mature neurons (19-26 hr in vitro). However, barium influx appeared to suppress the sustained voltage-dependent potassium current in most cells. Barium also activated at least one class of potassium channels observed in excised membrane patches, whole blocking others. The blocking action may have masked and hindered detection of the stimulatory action of barium in other systems.

  11. Analysis of microseismic activity in rock mass controlled by fault in deep metal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianpo; Liu Zhaosheng; Wang Shaoquan; Shi Changyan; Li Yuanhui

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at evaluating the stability of a rock mass near a fault, a microseismic (MS) monitoring system was established in Hongtoushan copper mine. The distribution of displacement and log(EI), the relationship between MS activity and the exploitation process, and the stability of the rock mass controlled by a fault were studied. The results obtained from microseismic data showed that MS events were mainly concentrated at the footwall of the fault. When the distance to the fault exceeded 20 m, the rock mass reached a relatively stable state. MS activity is closely related to the mining process. Under the strong disturbance from blasting, the initiation and propagation of cracks is much faster. MS activity belongs in the category of aftershocks after large scale excavation. The displacement and log(EI) obtained from MS events can reflect the difference in physical and mechanical behavior of different areas within the rock mass, which is useful in judging the integrity and degradation of the rock mass.

  12. Spanish mining at the entrance of 2010 and its relation to the current environment; La mineria espanola en la entrada del ano 2010 y su relacion con el entorno actual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espi, J. A.; Sanz Contreras, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    Spanish mining, due to the actual crisis in the global economy, is in a change situation, highlighting the important defeat of minerals associated with the construction activity and the metal mining revival. It is essential to revise its figures, actors and factors for its development and to locate it in the new international framework and about the European Union position. We conclude about improving the knowledge of our mining activity and the true potential of our resources. (Author)

  13. Biogeochemical cyclic activity of bacterial arsB in arsenic-contaminated mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jin-Soo; PEN Xianghao; KIM Kyoung-Woong

    2008-01-01

    Biogeochemical cyclic activity of the ars (arsenic resistance system) operon is arsB influx/efflux encoded by the ecological of Pseudomonas putida. This suggests that studying arsenite-oxidizing bacteria may lead to a better understanding of molecular geomicrobiology, which can be applied to the bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated mines. This is the first report in which multiple arsB-binding mechanisms have been used on indigenous bacteria. In ArsB (swains OS-5; ABB83931; OS-19; ABB04282 and RW-28;ABB88574), there are ten putative enzyme, Histidine (His) 131, His 133, His 137, Arginine (Arg) 135, Arg 137, Arg 161, Trptohan (Trp) 142, Trp 164, Trp 166, and Trp 171, which are each located in different regions of the partial sequence. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transports, binding affinities and associating ratable constants show that As-binding is comparatively insensitive to the location of the residues within the moderately stable a-helical structure. The α-helical structures in ArsB-permease and anion permease arsB have been shown to import/export arsenic in P. putida. We proposed that arsB residues, His 131, His 133, His 137, Arg 135, Arg 137, Arg 161, Trp 142, Trp 164, Trp 166, and Trp 171 are required for arsenic binding and activation ofarsA/arsB or arsAB.This arsB influx/efflux pum-ping is important, and the effect in arsenic species change and mobility in mine soil has got a significantly ecological role because it allows arsenic oxidizing/reducing bacteria to control biogeochemical cycle of abandoned mines.

  14. Noise-based body-wave seismic tomography in an active underground mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, G.; Brenguier, F.; Campillo, M.; Lynch, R.; Roux, P.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, ambient noise tomography has become increasingly popular to image the earth's upper crust. The seismic noise recorded in the earth's crust is dominated by surface waves emanating from the interaction of the ocean with the solid earth. These surface waves are low frequency in nature ( noise recorded at higher frequencies are typically from anthropogenic sources, which are short lived, spatially unstable and not well suited for constructing seismic Green's functions between sensors with conventional cross-correlation methods. To examine the use of ambient noise tomography for smaller scale applications, continuous data were recorded for 5 months in an active underground mine in Sweden located more than 1km below surface with 18 high frequency seismic sensors. A wide variety of broadband (10 - 3000 Hz) seismic noise sources are present in an active underground mine ranging from drilling, scraping, trucks, ore crushers and ventilation fans. Some of these sources generate favorable seismic noise, while others are peaked in frequency and not usable. In this presentation, I will show that the noise generated by mining activity can be useful if periods of seismic noise are carefully selected. Although noise sources are not temporally stable and not evenly distributed around the sensor array, good estimates of the seismic Green's functions between sensors can be retrieved for a broad frequency range (20 - 400 Hz) when a selective stacking scheme is used. For frequencies below 100 Hz, the reconstructed Green's functions show clear body-wave arrivals for almost all of the 153 sensor pairs. The arrival times of these body-waves are picked and used to image the local velocity structure. The resulting 3-dimensional image shows a high velocity structure that overlaps with a known ore-body. The material properties of the ore-body differ from the host rock and is likely the cause of the observed high velocity structure. For frequencies above 200 Hz, the

  15. Detecting and monitoring of water inrush in tunnels and coal mines using direct current resistivity method:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shucai Li; Bin Liu; Lichao Nie; Zhengyu Liu; Mingzhen Tian; Shirui Wang; Maoxin Su; Qian Guo

    2015-01-01

    Detecting, real-time monitoring and early warning of underground water-bearing structures are critically important issues in prevention and mitigation of water inrush hazards in underground engineering. Direct current (DC) resistivity method is a widely used method for routine detection, advanced detection and real-time monitoring of water-bearing structures, due to its high sensitivity to groundwater. In this study, the DC resistivity method applied to underground engineering is reviewed and discussed, including the observation mode, multiple inversions, and real-time monitoring. It is shown that a priori information constrained inversion is desirable to reduce the non-uniqueness of inversion, with which the accuracy of detection can be significantly improved. The focused resistivity method is prospective for advanced detection;with this method, the flanking interference can be reduced and the detection dis-tance is increased subsequently. The time-lapse resistivity inversion method is suitable for the regions with continuous conductivity changes, and it can be used to monitor water inrush in those regions. Based on above-mentioned features of various methods in terms of benefits and limitations, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) induced polarization method characterized with multi-electrode array, and introduce it into tunnels and mines combining with real-time monitoring with time-lapse inversion and cross-hole resistivity method. At last, the prospective applications of DC resistivity method are discussed as follows: (1) available advanced detection technology and instrument in tunnel excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM), (2) high-resolution detection method in holes, (3) four-dimensional (4D) monitoring technology for water inrush sources, and (4) estimation of water volume in water-bearing structures.

  16. Detecting and monitoring of water inrush in tunnels and coal mines using direct current resistivity method: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Detecting, real-time monitoring and early warning of underground water-bearing structures are critically important issues in prevention and mitigation of water inrush hazards in underground engineering. Direct current (DC resistivity method is a widely used method for routine detection, advanced detection and real-time monitoring of water-bearing structures, due to its high sensitivity to groundwater. In this study, the DC resistivity method applied to underground engineering is reviewed and discussed, including the observation mode, multiple inversions, and real-time monitoring. It is shown that a priori information constrained inversion is desirable to reduce the non-uniqueness of inversion, with which the accuracy of detection can be significantly improved. The focused resistivity method is prospective for advanced detection; with this method, the flanking interference can be reduced and the detection distance is increased subsequently. The time-lapse resistivity inversion method is suitable for the regions with continuous conductivity changes, and it can be used to monitor water inrush in those regions. Based on above-mentioned features of various methods in terms of benefits and limitations, we propose a three-dimensional (3D induced polarization method characterized with multi-electrode array, and introduce it into tunnels and mines combining with real-time monitoring with time-lapse inversion and cross-hole resistivity method. At last, the prospective applications of DC resistivity method are discussed as follows: (1 available advanced detection technology and instrument in tunnel excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM, (2 high-resolution detection method in holes, (3 four-dimensional (4D monitoring technology for water inrush sources, and (4 estimation of water volume in water-bearing structures.

  17. Data-mining of potential antitubercular activities from molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jamal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets.Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization.Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato

  18. Electrochemically active microorganisms from an acid mine drainage-affected site promote cathode oxidation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Claudia

    2017-08-03

    The limited database of acidophilic or acidotolerant electrochemically active microorganisms prevents advancements on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operated under low pH. In this study, three MFCs were used to enrich cathodic biofilms using acid mine drainage (AMD) sediments as inoculum. Linear sweep voltammetry showed cathodic current plateaus of 5.5 (± 0.7) mA at about − 170 mV vs Ag/AgCl and 8.5 (± 0.9) mA between − 500 mV to − 450 mV vs Ag/AgCl for biofilms developed on small graphite fiber brushes. After gamma irradiation, biocathodes exhibited a decrease in current density approaching that of abiotic controls. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed six-fold lower charge transfer resistance with viable biofilm. Pyrosequencing data showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the biofilms. Acidithiobacillus representatives were enriched in some biocathodes, supporting the potential importance of these known iron and sulfur oxidizers as cathodic biocatalysts. Other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs identified included Sulfobacillus and Leptospirillum species. The presence of chemoautotrophs was consistent with functional capabilities predicted by PICRUSt related to carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotic microorganisms. Acidophilic or acidotolerant heterotrophs were also abundant; however, their contribution to cathodic performance is unknown. This study directs subsequent research efforts to particular groups of AMD-associated bacteria that are electrochemically active on cathodes.

  19. Suppression of spontaneous epileptiform activity with applied currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M; Durand, D

    1991-12-20

    It has been well established that both applied and endogenous electric fields can modulate neuronal activity in various preparations. In this paper, we present the effects of applied currents on spontaneous epileptiform activity in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. A computer-controlled system was designed to detect the spontaneous abnormal activity and then apply current pulses of programmable amplitude with monopolar electrodes in the stratum pyramidale. The epileptiform activity was generated by subperfusion of the neural tissue with an elevated potassium artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) solution. Extracellular recordings showed that the interictal bursts could be fully suppressed in 90% of the slices by subthreshold currents with an average amplitude of 12.5 microA. Intracellular recordings showed that the anodic currents generated hyperpolarization of the somatic membrane thereby suppressing neuronal firing. This inhibitory effect of applied current pulses is important for the understanding of electric field effects on abnormal neuronal activity and could be an effective means of preventing the spread of epileptiform activity.

  20. Social responsibility of public accountant in carrying out his work in mining activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rocío Acevedo-Pérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting professional in recent times, as a major player, has been questioned in the performance of his work and even frequently involved with corporate financial scandals, putting into question the social responsibility of his profession. However, here, the analysis of the accounting profession is directed specifically to watch the behavior of the accountant in a particular sector such as mining, mainly in relation to the advise in the exploitation of coal. This paper presents the results of the investigation on public accountants who provide advisory services to entrepreneurs in the mining sector. It inquires also on issues related to the level and quality of the advice that they provide in different topics such as economic, administrative , tax, labor , social and environmental issues in relation to the development of the activity.  Similarly the accountant has an ethical commitment to both organizations and the different groups that are linked directly or indirectly to maintain balance in organizations through the provision of information to related parties on their rights that correspond to them in the development of the activity, and as an administrator and manager of information in decision-making contributes to the generation of the common welfare.  Finally, the social responsibility of the public accountant goes beyond the commitment to the State and the organizations in which they work, because there is a commitment to other stakeholders including the environment and society.

  1. Activities of the Committee for Surface Protection against Mining Damage in the second quarter of 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Reviews problems analyzed by the Committee, which is the highest state body approving development programs of coal mines from the point of view of environmental protection. The following programs are analyzed: longwall mining with caving in the safety pillar of the Szombierki power plant in Bytom, coordination of underground mining of the Marklowice coalfield (20.5 km/sup 2/ large) by the Marcel, Jankowice and 1 Maja coal mines, mining with caving or stowing in the safety pillar of Siemianowice city (coal seam 1.6 m thick at 250-320 m depth), program of underground mining in the safety pillar of Bytom for 1987-2010 with a special emphasis on 1987-1990, mining conditions in the area of the Reta housing estate, research programs on tremors caused by underground coal and copper ore mining in Poland, underground mining in the safety pillar of Katowice for 1987-1995, coordination of underground mining in the areas of Miechowice and Karb town districts of Bytom, program for underground mining in the safety pillar of the Orzel Bialy steelworks and Brzeziny town district by the Andaluzja, Rozbark and Barbara-Chorzow mines.

  2. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Karin; Scheepstra, Adriana; Gille, Johan; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The European Arctic has been recently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities. This is reflected in an on-going interest from the industry, regulators and the public. However, current and future prospects are highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importe

  3. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  4. Electric currents and coronal heating in NOAA active region 6952

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, T. R.; Canfield, R. C.; Hudson, H. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Wulser, J. -P.; Martens, P. C. H.; Tsuneta, S.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the spatial and temporal relationship between coronal structures observed with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on board the Yohkoh spacecraft and the vertical electric current density derived from photospheric vector magnetograms obtained using the Stokes Polarimeter at the Mees Solar Observatory. We focus on a single active region: AR 6952 which we observed on 7 days during 1991 December. For 11 independent maps of the vertical electric current density co-aligned with non-flaring X-ray images, we search for a morphological relationship between sites of high vertical current density in the photosphere and enhanced X-ray emission in the overlying corona. We find no compelling spatial or temporal correlation between the sites of vertical current and the bright X-ray structures in this active region.

  5. Effect of coal mine dust and clay extracts on the biological activity of the quartz surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, V; Jones, R; Rollo, K; Duffin, R; Donaldson, K; Brown, D M

    2004-04-01

    Modification of the quartz surface by aluminium salts and metallic iron have been shown to reduce the biological activity of quartz. This study aimed to investigate the ability of water soluble extracts of coal mine dust (CMD), low aluminium clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) and high aluminium clays (attapulgite and kaolin) to inhibit the reactivity of the quartz surface. DQ12 induced significant haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in vitro and inflammation in vivo as indicated by increases in the total cell numbers, neutrophil cell numbers, MIP-2 protein and albumin content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Treatment of DQ12 with CMD extract prevented both haemolysis and inflammation. Extracts of the high aluminium clays (kaolin and attapulgite) prevented inhibition of DQ12 induced haemolysis, and the kaolin extract inhibited quartz driven inflammation. DQ12 induced haemolysis by coal mine dust and kaolin extract could be prevented by pre-treatment of the extracts with a cation chellator. Extracts of the low aluminium clays (montmorillonite and hectorite) did not prevent DQ12 induced haemolysis, although the hectorite extract did prevent inflammation. These results suggest that CMD, and clays both low and rich in aluminium, all contain soluble components (possibly cations) capable of masking the reactivity of the quartz surface.

  6. A Framework for Detecting Fraudulent Activities in EDO State Tax Collection System Using Investigative Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro F. M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Edo State Inland Revenue Services is overwhelmed with gigabyte of disk capacity containing data about tax payers’ in the state. The data stored on the database increases in size at an alarming rate. This has resulted in a data rich but information poor situation where there is a widening gap between the explosive growth of data and its types, and the ability to analyze and interpret it effectively; hence the need for a new generation of automated and intelligent tools and techniques known as investigative data mining, to look for patterns in data. These patterns can lead to new insights, competitive advantages for business, and tangible benefits for the State Revenue services. This research work focuses on designing effective fraud detection and deterring architecture using investigative data mining technique. The proposed system architecture is designed to reason using Artificial Neural Network and Machine learning algorithm in order to detect and deter fraudulent activities. We recommend that the architectural framework be developed using Object Oriented Programming and Agent Oriented Programming Languages.

  7. Modeling of Erosion on Jelateng Watershed Using USLE Method, Associated with an Illegal Mining Activities (PETI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, I. N.; Aswari, F. V.; Narmaningrum, D. A.; Nugraha, A. S. A.; Asidiqi, M. A. A.; Setiawan, Y.

    2016-11-01

    The Indonesian archipelago has abundant mineral resources, and it causes many mining activities. Mineral resource is natural based resource which cannot be renewable. An abandon mining pit makes a hole in land surface and it increase the erosion severity level on the rainy season. This erosion would brought sediment to the sea, and it causes damage the ecosystem of the coastal. Erosion modeling in Jelateng watershed performed temporally using remote sensing image data, which consist of LANDSAT-5 (1995), and LANDsAt-8 (2015), and supported by field data as well. The parameters for modeling of erosion through rasterization process as input from erosion USLE models to IDRISI software. The results shown that in 1995, the majority of the area has a low level of erosion. The low erosion rate is less than 183.67 tons/hectare/year and high erosion rate is 408.34 up to 633 tons/hectare/year. Compare with in 2015, erosion models shown that erosion is most prevalent on the upstream area of Jelateng watershed, with low erosion rate is less than 432.2 tons/hectare/year and high erosion rate is 615.64 up to 1448.31 tons/hectare/year.

  8. Decoding Metal Associations in an Arid Urban Environment with Active and Legacy Mining: the Case of Copiapó, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, P.; Moya, P.; Coquery, M.; Bonilla, C. A.; Vega, A.; Carkovic, A.; Calcagni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The urban and periurban area of Copiapó in the arid Atacama desert has more than 30 abandoned mine tailings, one active copper smelter, and 150,000 inhabitants. Fast development of the mining industry during the 19th century and unplanned growth has led to public concern about the presence of metals in soils and street dust. Recent floods and mud currents in the Copiapó watershed have introduced new solid material in about 40% of the urban area. We conducted a geochemical screening before and after the disaster in March 2015. We found concentrations as high as 1000 mg/kg of copper and 180 mg/kg of arsenic in urban soils. Since effective control measures require connecting sites of metal enrichment with the possible sources, we have performed a statistical analysis of metal association and complemented it with other analyses like x-ray diffraction. Cluster analyses of elemental compositions suggest that mud and tailing have different origins from the rest of the matrices, while soils and street dust have a similar one. Some clusters have a mix of matrices that suggest anthropogenic enrichment of some areas of Copiapó. Our initial results indicate that a correlation between observed enrichment and the copper smelter can be hypothesized for Cu, Pb, and Zn. Further spatial, statistical, and chemical analyses are needed to further confirm such findings, complemented with a thorough analysis of the baseline values that could be considered representative of the area. Future work include Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) to test the link contaminant sources and metal occurrence, while scanning electron microscopy can be used to identify the presence of smelter-related particles. The information generated by this research will be a necessary input for defining urban planning strategies and land use guidelines, defining health risk assessment studies, and for future evaluation of intervention priorities. Acknowledgements: Proyecto

  9. Applied Geochemistry Special Issue on Environmental geochemistry of modern mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Environmental geochemistry is an integral part of the mine-life cycle, particularly for modern mining. The critical importance of environmental geochemistry begins with pre-mining baseline characterization and the assessment of environmental risks related to mining, continues through active mining especially in water and waste management practices, and culminates in mine closure. The enhanced significance of environmental geochemistry to modern mining has arisen from an increased knowledge of the impacts that historical and active mining can have on the environment, and from new regulations meant to guard against these impacts. New regulations are commonly motivated by advances in the scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of past mining. The impacts can be physical, chemical, and biological in nature. The physical challenges typically fall within the purview of engineers, whereas the chemical and biological challenges typically require a multidisciplinary array of expertise including geologists, geochemists, hydrologists, microbiologists, and biologists. The modern mine-permitting process throughout most of the world now requires that potential risks be assessed prior to the start of mining. The strategies for this risk assessment include a thorough characterization of pre-mining baseline conditions and the identification of risks specifically related to the manner in which the ore will be mined and processed, how water and waste products will be managed, and what the final configuration of the post-mining landscape will be.In the Fall 2010, the Society of Economic Geologists held a short course in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Denver, Colorado (USA) to examine the environmental geochemistry of modern mining. The intent was to focus on issues that are pertinent to current and future mines, as opposed to abandoned mines, which have been the focus of numerous previous short courses. The geochemical

  10. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  11. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  12. External validity of sentiment mining reports: Can current methods identify demographic biases, event biases, and manipulation of reviews?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Bloemen, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Many publications in sentiment mining provide new techniques for improved accuracy in extracting features and corresponding sentiments in texts. For the external validity of these sentiment reports, i.e., the applicability of the results to target audiences, it is important to well analyze data of t

  13. Submarine and deep-sea mine tailing placements: A review of current practices, environmental issues, natural analogs and knowledge gaps in Norway and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Trannum, Hilde C; Evenset, Anita; Levin, Lisa A; Andersson, Malin; Finne, Tor Erik; Hilario, Ana; Flem, Belinda; Christensen, Guttorm; Schaanning, Morten; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-08-15

    The mining sector is growing in parallel with societal demands for minerals. One of the most important environmental issues and economic burdens of industrial mining on land is the safe storage of the vast amounts of waste produced. Traditionally, tailings have been stored in land dams, but the lack of land availability, potential risk of dam failure and topography in coastal areas in certain countries results in increasing disposal of tailings into marine systems. This review describes the different submarine tailing disposal methods used in the world in general and in Norway in particular, their impact on the environment (e.g. hyper-sedimentation, toxicity, processes related to changes in grain shape and size, turbidity), current legislation and need for future research. Understanding these impacts on the habitat and biota is essential to assess potential ecosystem changes and to develop best available techniques and robust management plans.

  14. Improving soil enzyme activities and related quality properties of reclaimed soil by applying weathered coal in opencast-mining areas of the Chinese loess plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Shao, Hongbo [CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China); Li, Weixiang; Bi, Rutian [Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu (China); Bai, Zhongke [Department of Land Science Technology, University of Geosciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-15

    There are many problems for the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China such as poor soil structure and extreme poverty in soil nutrients and so on. For the sake of finding a better way to improve soil quality, the current study was to apply the weathered coal for repairing soil media and investigate the physicochemical properties of the reclaimed soil and the changes in enzyme activities after planting Robinia pseucdoacacia. The results showed that the application of the weathered coal significantly improved the quality of soil aggregates, increased the content of water stable aggregates, and the organic matter, humus, and the cation exchange capacity of topsoil were significantly improved, but it did not have a significant effect on soil pH. Planting R. pseucdoacacia significantly enhanced the activities of soil catalase, urease, and invertase, but the application of the weathered coal inhibited the activity of catalase. Although the application of appropriate weathered coal was able to significantly increase urease activity, the activities of catalase, urease, or invertase had a close link with the soil profile levels and time. This study suggests that applying weathered coals could improve the physicochemical properties and soil enzyme activities of the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China and the optimum applied amount of the weathered coal for reclaimed soil remediation is about 27 000 kg hm{sup -2}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Activities of the Committee for Surface Protection from Mining Damage in the second quarter of 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroszcz, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper evaluates programs for protection of buildings from effects of underground mining in the Marklowice coal field and protecting the Karb section of Bytom. The Marklowice field is divided between the Marcel and Jankowice mines. Ground subsidence caused by mining ranged from 1.7 to 4.5 m from 1980 to 1983. From 1983 to 1985 from 2 to 9 coal seams will be mined (1 with hydraulic stowing). The maximum ground subsidence should not exceed 6.0 m. From 1985 to 1990 from 6 to 11 coal seams will be mined, 3 with hydraulic stowing. The maximum ground subsidence should not exceed 9.0 m. The forecast damage to residential buildings above the Marklowice coal field is evaluated. Measures for reducing damage to the minimum are analyzed. A comprehensive program is described for protecting the Karb section of Bytom and a railway line in the area from the effects of underground mining in the Bobrek, Miechowice, Powstancow Slaskich and Dymitrow mines. Coordination of planning by the mines is analyzed. Recommendations are made for minimizing mining damage and hazards associated with ground subsidence and quakes caused by underground mining.

  16. The Current State of Marketing Activity among Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Cynthia M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the current state of marketing, marketing research, and planning practices at four-year higher education institutions. Builds upon previous studies by Blackburn (1979) and Goldgehn (1982 and 1989). Determined whether the use and apparent understanding of marketing and its attendant activities by admissions and enrollment management…

  17. 矿用锂电池组并联均流电路的设计%Parallel current-sharing circuit design for mine lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹鹏; 李良光; 陈兆权

    2013-01-01

    The parallel current-sharing circuit design for the mine lithium batteries was introduced. Through the current circulation phenomenon and the electric current imbalance phenomenon researching, in order to achieve the goal of balancing current, the parallel current-sharing circuit controlled by the SCM was designed. The experiment results show that the balancing circuit is stable, reliable, and able to better put into locomotive use under the mine.%介绍了矿用锂电池组并联均流电路的设计.通过对环流现象和电流的不均衡现象的研究,设计了并联均流电路,并用单片机对其进行控制,以达到均衡电流的目的.实验结果表明该均流电路工作稳定可靠,能够很好地投入煤矿井下电机车使用.

  18. Characterizing Ground-Water Flow Paths in High-Altitude Fractured Rock Settings Impacted by Mining Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wireman, M.; Williams, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Rocky Mountains of the western USA have tens of thousands of abandoned, inactive and active precious-metal(gold,silver,copper)mine sites. Most of these sites occur in fractured rock hydrogeologic settings. Mining activities often resulted in mobilization and transport of associated heavy metals (zinc,cadmium,lead) which pose a significant threat to aquatic communities in mountain streams.Transport of heavy metals from mine related sources (waste rock piles,tailings impoudments,underground workings, mine pits)can occur along numerous hydrological pathways including complex fracture controlled ground-water pathways. Since 1991, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology and the University of Colorado (INSTAAR)have been conducting applied hydrologic research at the Mary Murphy underground mine. The mine is in the Chalk Creek mining district which is located on the southwestern flanks of the Mount Princeton Batholith, a Tertiary age intrusive comprised primarily of quartz monzonite.The Mount Princeton batholith comprises a large portion of the southern part of the Collegiate Range west of Buena Vista in Chaffee County, CO. Chalk Creek and its 14 tributaries drain about 24,900 hectares of the eastern slopes of the Range including the mining district. Within the mining district, ground-water flow is controlled by the distribution, orientation and permeability of discontinuities within the bedrock. Important discontinuities include faults, joints and weathered zones. Local and intermediate flow systems are perturbed by extensive underground excavations associated with mining (adits, shafts, stopes, drifts,, etc.). During the past 12 years numerous hydrological investigations have been completed. The investigations have been focused on developing tools for characterizing ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the vicinity of hard-rock mines in fractured-rock settings. In addition, the results from these

  19. Data Mining for CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  20. Mining User Comment Activity for Detecting Forum Spammers in YouTube

    CERN Document Server

    Sureka, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that comment spamming (comments which are unsolicited, unrelated, abusive, hateful, commercial advertisements etc) in online discussion forums has become a common phenomenon in Web 2.0 applications and there is a strong need to counter or combat comment spamming. We present a method to automatically detect comment spammer in YouTube (largest and a popular video sharing website) forums. The proposed technique is based on mining comment activity log of a user and extracting patterns (such as time interval between subsequent comments, presence of exactly same comment across multiple unrelated videos) indicating spam behavior. We perform empirical analysis on data crawled from YouTube and demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for the task of comment spammer detection.

  1. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  2. On the Data Mining Technology Applied to Active Marketing Model of International Luxury Marketing Strategy in China— An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Qishen Zhou; Shanhui Wang; Zuowei Yin

    2013-01-01

     This paper emphasizes the importance of active marketing in the customer relationship management. Especially, the data mining technology is applied to establish an active marketing model to empirically analyze the condition of the AH Jewelry Company. Michael Porter's Five Forces Model is employed to assess and calculate the similarity in the active marketing model. Then, the questionnaire analysis on the customer relationship management model is carried out to explain the target market and t...

  3. Concept Design and Operation of an Asteroid Mining Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, M.; Kumanan, D.

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this extended abstract is to provide an outline of the space activities undertaken within the astronautics group at Kingston University, before moving on to the current asteroid mining research.

  4. Current concepts of active vasodilation in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brett J.; Hollowed, Casey G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In humans, an increase in internal core temperature elicits large increases in skin blood flow and sweating. The increase in skin blood flow serves to transfer heat via convection from the body core to the skin surface while sweating results in evaporative cooling of the skin. Cutaneous vasodilation and sudomotor activity are controlled by a sympathetic cholinergic active vasodilator system that is hypothesized to operate through a co-transmission mechanism. To date, mechanisms of cutaneous active vasodilation remain equivocal despite many years of research by several productive laboratory groups. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advancements in the field of cutaneous active vasodilation framed in the context of some of the historical findings that laid the groundwork for our current understanding of cutaneous active vasodilation.

  5. Comparison of excitatory currents activated by different transmitters on crustacean muscle. II. Glutamate-activated currents and comparison with acetylcholine currents present on the same muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, C; Auerbach, A

    1983-04-01

    The properties of glutamate-activated excitatory currents on the gm6 muscle from the foregut of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and interruptus and the crab Cancer borealis were examined using either noise analysis, analysis of synaptic current decays, or slow iontophoretic currents. The properties of acetylcholine currents activated in nonjunctional regions of the gm6 muscle were also examined. At 12 degrees C and -80 mV, the predominant time constant of power spectra from glutamate-activated current noise was approximately 7 ms and the elementary conductance was approximately 34 pS. At 12 degrees C and -80 mV, the predominant time constant of acetylcholine-activated channels was approximately 11 ms with a conductance of approximately 12 pS. Focally recorded glutamatergic extracellular synaptic currents on the gm6 muscle decayed with time constants of approximately 7-8 ms at 12 degrees C and -80 mV. The decay time constant was prolonged e-fold about every 225-mV hyperpolarization in membrane potential. The Q10 of the time constant of the synaptic current decay was approximately 2.6. The voltage dependence of the steady-state conductance increase activated by iontophoretic application of glutamate has the opposite direction of the steady-state conductance activated by cholinergic agonists when compared on the gm6 muscles. The glutamate-activated conductance increase is diminished with hyperpolarization. The properties of the marine crustacean glutamate channels are discussed in relation to glutamate channels in other organisms and to the acetylcholine channels found on the gm6 muscle and the gm1 muscle of the decapod foregut (Lingle and Auerbach, 1983).

  6. Impacts of coal dust from an active mine on the spectral reflectance of Arctic surface snow in Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alia L.; Dierssen, Heidi; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Schmitt, Carl; Chlus, Adam; Hermanson, Mark; Painter, Thomas H.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2017-02-01

    Light-absorbing particles (LAPs) in snow such as dust and black carbon influence the radiative forcing at the Earth's surface, which has major implications for global climate models. LAPs also significantly influence the melting of glaciers, sea ice, and seasonal snow. Here we present an in situ study of surface snow near an active coal mine in the Norwegian Arctic. We couple measurements of spectral hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) with measurements of LAPs characterized in two ways, as refractory black carbon using a Single Particle Soot Photometer and the total light absorption of LAPs measured with the Light Absorption Heating Method. The Snow Ice and Aerosol Radiation model was constrained by LAP measurements. Results were compared to observed spectral albedo measurements. Modeled and observed albedos were similar at the cleaner and more remote sites. However, the modeled spectral albedos do not fully account for the low spectral albedo measured next to the mine. LAP measurements also showed a large variation in particle sizes (tenths to tens of microns) related to transport distance of the particles from the mine. Here we find that LAPs from coal dust reduce the spectral HDRF by up to 84% next to the mine and 55% 0.5 km downwind of the mine. The coupling of extreme LAP observations (1 ng g-1 to 4863 ng g-1) with HDRF measurements from 350 to 2500 nm has facilitated the development of spectral band pairs, which could be used in the future to remotely assess LAPs in Arctic snow.

  7. Occurrence and activity of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in alkaline coal strip mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G J; McFeters, G A; Temple, K L

    1981-03-01

    Spoils samples collected from a coal strip mine in southeastern Montana were examined for populations and activities of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Spoils examined were of three types: (a) acidic pyrite-rich waste coal, (b) oxidation halo material, and (c) alkaline material, which was the most widespread type. Bacterial numbers, sulfur oxidation, and(14)CO2 uptake activity declined to low levels in the summer when spoils were dry. Even in wetter spring months pyritic spoils contained relatively low numbers of acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, probably indicative of water stress since the same spoils incubated with excess water or dilute mineral salts showed considerably greater bacterial numbers and activity. Certain wells in coal and spoils aquifers contained substantial populations of iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. However, these wells were always of alkaline or neutral pH, indicating that bacterial pyrite oxidation occurred where groundwaters contacted either replaced spoils or coal that contained pyrite or other metal sulfides. Bacterial activity may contribute to trace metal and sulfate leaching in the area.

  8. Computational Approaches for Mining GRO-Seq Data to Identify and Characterize Active Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagari, Anusha; Murakami, Shino; Malladi, Venkat S; Kraus, W Lee

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are DNA regulatory elements that are bound by transcription factors and act to positively regulate the expression of nearby or distally located target genes. Enhancers have many features that have been discovered using genomic analyses. Recent studies have shown that active enhancers recruit RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and are transcribed, producing enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). GRO-seq, a method for identifying the location and orientation of all actively transcribing RNA polymerases across the genome, is a powerful approach for monitoring nascent enhancer transcription. Furthermore, the unique pattern of enhancer transcription can be used to identify enhancers in the absence of any information about the underlying transcription factors. Here, we describe the computational approaches required to identify and analyze active enhancers using GRO-seq data, including data pre-processing, alignment, and transcript calling. In addition, we describe protocols and computational pipelines for mining GRO-seq data to identify active enhancers, as well as known transcription factor binding sites that are transcribed. Furthermore, we discuss approaches for integrating GRO-seq-based enhancer data with other genomic data, including target gene expression and function. Finally, we describe molecular biology assays that can be used to confirm and explore further the function of enhancers that have been identified using genomic assays. Together, these approaches should allow the user to identify and explore the features and biological functions of new cell type-specific enhancers.

  9. Reduction of uncontrollable mine gas emission in the Czech part of Upper Silesian hard coal basin devastated by past mining activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, R.; Platenik, M.; Takla, G.; Kral, V. [OKD, DPB PASKOV, a.s. Paskov (Czech Republic)

    2001-07-01

    The paper draws attention to danger of uncontrollable mine gas emissions from wound-up underground mines. It elucidates methods of defining territories according to danger of potential uncontrollable mine gas emissions, principle of operative measurement of content of mine gases in soil air by means of modified gasometric method called atmogeochemistry and application of this method for searching abandoned old mine workings (shafts, drifts). It deals with problems of reduction of real danger of emission and propagation of mine gases in built-up surface areas. Organisation of mine gas emission monitoring in abandoned surface ending mine workings and in gas drainage boreholes is described as well as organisation of continuous methane concentration measurement in premises and subsequent operative application of hereby obtained data for protection of inhabitants. 3 figs.

  10. Active current control in wind power plants during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Phillip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    , wind turbines usually have solutions that enable the turbines to control the generation of reactive power during faults. This paper addresses the importance of using an optimal injection of active current during faults in order to fulfil these grid codes. This is of relevant importance for severe......Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in electrical networks, subject to fault clearing. Wind turbine fault current contribution is required from most countries with a high amount of wind power penetration. In order to comply with such grid code requirements...

  11. PM2: A Partitioning-Mining-Measuring Method for Identifying Progressive Changes in Older Adults’ Sleeping Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As people age, their health typically declines, resulting in difficulty in performing daily activities. Sleep-related problems are common issues with older adults, including shifts in circadian rhythms. A detection method is proposed to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity using a three-step process: partitioning, mining, and measuring. Specifically, the original spatiotemporal representation of each sleeping activity instance was first transformed into a sequence of equal-sized segments, or symbols, via a partitioning process. A data-mining-based algorithm was proposed to find symbols that are not present in all instances of a sleeping activity. Finally, a measuring process was responsible for evaluating the changes in these symbols. Experimental evaluation conducted on a group of datasets of older adults showed that the proposed method is able to identify progressive changes in sleeping activity.

  12. Geochemical study of stream waters affected by mining activities in the SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Bech, Jaime

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. According to transport process, three types of pollution could be established: a) Primary contamination, formed by residues placed close to the contamination sources; b) Secondary contamination, produced as a result of transport out of its production areas; c) Tertiary contamination. The aim of this work was to study trace element in water samples affected by mining activities and to apply the MINTEQ model for calculating aqueous geochemical equilibria. The studied area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. As a result, a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues are present. For this study, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode in 4 different areas. In these samples, the trace element content was determined by by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Fe and Zn), electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Pb and Cd), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (As) and ICP-MS for Al. MINTEQA2 is a geochemical equilibrium speciation model capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting and was applied to collected waters. Zone A: A5 is strongly influenced by tailing dumps and showed high trace element content. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH. The MINTEQ model application suggested that Zn and Cd could precipitate as carbonate (hidrocincite, smithsonite and otavite). A9 also showed acid pH and high trace element content; is

  13. CURRENT STATUS AND RECLAMATION PLAN OF FORMER URANIUM MINING AND MILLING FACILITIES AT NINGYO-TOGE IN JAPAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) conducted research and development projects on uranium exploration in Japan from 1956 to 1987. Several mine facilities, such as waste rock yards and a mill tailing pond, were retained around Ningyo-toge after the projects ended. Although there is no legal issue in the mine in accordance with related law and agreements at present, JNC has a notion that it is important to reduce the burden of waste management on future generations. Thus, the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center of JNC proposed a reclamation plan for these facilities with fundamental policy, an example of safety analysis and timetables. The plan has mainly three phases: Phase I is the planning stage, and this paper corresponds to this: Phase II is the stage to perform various tests for safety analysis and site designing: Phase III is the stage to accomplish measures. Preliminarily safety analyses suggested that our supposed cover designs for both waste rock and m ill tailing are enough to keep dose limit of 1mSv/y at site boundaries. The plan is primarily based on the Japanese Mine Safety Law, also refers to ICRP recommendations, IAEA reports, measures implemented overseas, etc. because this is the first case in Japan. For the accomplishment of this plan, it is important to establish a close relationship with local communities and governments, and to maintain a policy of open-to-public.

  14. Natural radionuclides in plants, soils and sediments affected by U-rich coal mining activities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Díaz Francés, Inmaculada; Motta, João Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    Mining activities can increase the mobility of metals by accelerating the dissolution and leaching of minerals from the rocks and tailing piles to the environment and, consequently, their availability for plants and subsequent transfer to the food chain. The weathering of minerals and the disposal of coal waste in tailing piles can accelerate the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD), which is responsible for the higher dissolution of metals in mining areas. In this context, the behavior of U, Th and K in soils and sediment, and the transfer factor (TF) of (238)U, (234)U and (210)Po for soybean, wheat, pine and eucalyptus cultivated around a coal mine in southern Brazil was evaluated. Alpha and gamma spectrometry were used for the measurements of the activity concentration of the radioelements. (210)Po was the radionuclide that is most accumulated in the plants, especially in the leaves. When comparing the plant species, pine showed the highest TF values for (234)U (0.311 ± 0.420) for leaves, while eucalyptus showed the highest TF for (238)U (0.344 ± 0.414) for leaves. In general, TF were higher for the leaves of soybean and wheat when compared to the grains, and grains of wheat showed higher TF for (210)Po and (238)U than grains of soybean. Deviations from the natural U isotopic ratio were recorded at all investigated areas, indicating possible industrial and mining sources of U for the vegetables. A safety assessment of transport routes and accumulation of radionuclides in soils with a potential for cultivation is important, mainly in tropical areas contaminated with solid waste and effluents from mines and industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal pollution risks in Yonki Reservoir environmental matrices affected by gold mining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapia, Samuel; Rao, B K Rajashekhar; Sakulas, Harry

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the heavy metal (Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) contamination risks to and safety of two species of fresh water fish (tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and carp, Cyprinus carpio) that are farmed in the Yonki Reservoir in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The upper reaches of the reservoir are affected by alluvial and large-scale gold mining activities. We also assessed heavy metal levels in the surface waters and sediments and in selected aquatic plant species from the reservoir and streams that intersect the gold mining areas. The water quality was acceptable, except for the Cr concentration, which exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for water contamination. The sediments were contaminated with Cd and Cu in most of the sampling stations along the upstream waters and the reservoir. The Cd concentration in the sediments exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) values, and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values indicated heavy to extreme pollution. In addition, the Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations in aquatic plants exceeded the WHO guidelines for these contaminants. Between the fish species, tilapia accumulated significantly higher (P < 0.05) Cu in their organ tissues than carp, confirming the bioaccumulation of some metals in the aquatic fauna. The edible muscles of the fish specimens had metal concentrations below the maximum permissible levels established by statutory guidelines. In addition, a human health risk assessment, performed using the estimated weekly intake (EWI) values, indicated that farmed fish from the Yonki Reservoir are safe for human consumption.

  16. Plant material as bioaccumulator of arsenic in soils affected by mining activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Salvadora; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; García-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination is an important environmental problem, since the metals are harmful to humans, animals and tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine the total concentration of As, As (III) and As(V) in soil samples, leaves and roots of plant material, growing in a mining area in Spain (Murcia). Ditichia viscosa was used as the plant of reference. The concentrations of bioavailable As in plant samples were calculated by different soil chemical extraction methods; deionized water, 0.5N NaHCO3 (Olsen extraction), oxidizable medium, 0.5 HCl, 0.05M (NH4)2SO4, 0.005M DTPA and Mehra-Jackson extraction. For this study, fourteen samples were collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera and Portman Bay (Murcia, SE Spain). Samples were air dried and sieved to plants do not absorb arsenic in the same proportion, the results suggest that a good relationship exists between the total content of As in soil and the total content in plant. The results showed that the arsenic content in roots was positively correlated with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction (oxidaizable medium extraction procedure). Arsenic concentration in leaves was positively correlated with the arsenic extracted by HCl, with the oxidizable-organic matter and sulfides fraction and with the arsenic extracted by Mehra-Jackson extraction. According to our results, As is accumulated in the leaves of the plants and is linked with iron oxides of these soils affected by mining activities.

  17. Levels of toxic arsenic species in native terrestrial plants from soils polluted by former mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salgado, Sara; Quijano, M Ángeles

    2014-03-01

    Ten native terrestrial plants from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica mine, NW Madrid, Spain), with high total arsenic concentration levels (up to 3500 μg g(-1)), have been studied to determine the fraction of arsenic present as toxic forms (inorganic and methylated species), which present a higher mobility and therefore the potential risk associated with their reintegration into the environment is high. Roots and aboveground parts were analyzed separately to assess possible transformations from translocation processes. Extractions were carried out with deionized water by microwave-assisted extraction at a temperature of 90 °C and three extraction steps of 7.5 min each. Total extracted arsenic concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, showing extraction percentages from 9 to 39% (calculated as the ratio between total extracted arsenic (Asext) and total arsenic (AsT) concentrations in plants). Speciation studies, performed by high performance liquid chromatography-photo-oxidation-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry, showed the main presence of arsenate (As(v)) (up to 350 μg g(-1)), followed by arsenite (As(iii)), in both plant parts. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were also found only in some plants. On the other hand, the use of 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid as an extractant led to higher extraction percentages (33-87%), but lower column recoveries, probably due to the extraction of arsenic compounds different to the toxic free ions studied, which may come from biotransformation mechanisms carried out by plants to reduce arsenic toxicity. However, As(v) concentrations increased up to 800 μg g(-1) in acid medium, indicating the probable release of As(v) from organoarsenic compounds and therefore a higher potential risk for the environment.

  18. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... behavior. This generalization is often driven by the representation language and very crude assumptions about completeness. As a result, parts of the model are “overfitting” (allow only for what has actually been observed) while other parts may be “underfitting” (allowfor much more behavior without strong...

  19. Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (pcontrol, but it is remarkable that the mulch type "forest chopped residue" had a negative effect on vegetation growth. The addition of organic amendments, especially compost from the organic fraction of domestic wastes, is beneficial to restore degraded or man-made soils from quarrying areas because they stimulate microbial growth and activity

  20. Fast inhibition of glutamate-activated currents by caffeine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P Vyleta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caffeine stimulates calcium-induced calcium release (CICR in many cell types. In neurons, caffeine stimulates CICR presynaptically and thus modulates neurotransmitter release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique we found that caffeine (20 mM reversibly increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs in neocortical neurons. The increase in mEPSC frequency is consistent with a presynaptic mechanism. Caffeine also reduced exogenously applied glutamate-activated currents, confirming a separate postsynaptic action. This inhibition developed in tens of milliseconds, consistent with block of channel currents. Caffeine (20 mM did not reduce currents activated by exogenous NMDA, indicating that caffeine block is specific to non-NMDA type glutamate receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Caffeine-induced inhibition of mEPSC amplitude occurs through postsynaptic block of non-NMDA type ionotropic glutamate receptors. Caffeine thus has both pre and postsynaptic sites of action at excitatory synapses.

  1. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources in Texas and Other Mining Activities: the Water Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, J.

    2011-12-01

    A recent study, sponsored by the Texas Water Development Board, considered current and projected water use in the mining industry. It looked at the upstream segment of the oil and gas industry (that is, water used to extract the commodity until it leaves the wellhead), the aggregate, and coal industry, and other substances (industrial sand, lime, etc.). We obtained data through state databases, data collection from private vendors, and direct surveys of the various sectors of the industry. Overall, in 2008, we estimated that the state consumed ~160 thousand acre-feet (AF) in the mining industry, including 35.8 thousand AF for fracing wells (mostly in the Barnett Shale/Fort Worth area) and ~21.0 thousand AF for other purposes in the oil and gas industry, although more spread out across the state, with a higher demand in the Permian Basin area in West Texas. The coal industry used 20.0 thousand AF along the lignite belt from Central to East Texas. The 71.6 thousand AF used by the aggregate industry is distributed over most of the state, but with a clear concentration around major metropolitan areas. The remainder amounts to 11.0 thousand AF and is dominated by industrial sand production (~80% of total). Water is used mostly for drilling wells, stimulating/fracing wells, and secondary and tertiary recovery processes (oil and gas industry); for dewatering and depressurizing pits, with a small amount used for dust control (coal industry); and for dust control and washing (aggregate industry and industrial sand). Reuse/recycling has already been accounted for in water-use values, as well as opportunity usages, such as stormwater collection (aggregates). The split between surface water and groundwater is difficult to assess but it is estimated at ~56% groundwater in 2008. Projections for future use were done by extrapolating current trends, mainly for coal (same energy mix) and aggregates (following population growth). Projections for the oil and gas industry (Barnett

  2. Gaseous Mercury Monitoring at a Complex Source: The Las Cuevas Decommissioned Mining Complex and Current Hg Storage Facility (Almadén District, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, P. L.; Esbri, J. M.; Llanos, W. R.; Oyarzun, R.; Martinez-Coronado, A.; Grupo de Estudios En Minería Y Medioambiente-Gemm

    2010-12-01

    The Las Cuevas decommissioned mining complex was the third in importance in the world’s largest mercury mining district: Almadén (south-central Spain). Mining took place during two well differentiated periods: 1. Roman time; and 2. From 1982 to 2000. In 2004 the mine was transformed into a mercury storage and handling facility, away from urban areas. Furthermore, the area served as a test site for the design and implementation of a mercury safe storage vessel, a study funded by European LIFE-Env programme (Project MERSADE, LIFE06 ENV/ES/PREP/03) (Llanos et al., 2010). On this basis, Las Cuevas site can be regarded as a complex source of atmospheric mercury for the local environmental compartments, including emissions from the plant activity, partly reclamated old mineral dumps, contaminated soils, and other minor sources, such as cavities produced by mine collapse. We studied the emissions with two LUMEX RA-915+ Hg analyzers, one LUMEX RA-915Light device and a complete TEKRAN equipment, including Mercury Speciation Unit (model 1130) and Particulate Mercury Unit (Model 1135). Data has been treated with ISC-AERMOD program, in order to obtain models for contamination plumes derived from Las Cuevas whole area. The results confirm the mercury storage facility as the main local source for mercury, releasing some 3,15 kg Hg y-1, whereas contaminated soils and reclamated dumps represent local minor sources. Over 99,9% of local atmospheric mercury is Gaseous Elemental Mercury, with Reactive Gaseous Mercury representing 0,25 per mil, and particulate bound mercury, 1,8 per mil. Citation: Llanos, W.; Higueras, P.; Oyarzun, R.; Esbrí, J.M.; López-Berdonces, M.A.; García-Noguero, E.M.; Martínez-Coronado, A. (2010) A preliminary environmental assessment at the site of the European prototype installation of a safe deposit for surplus mercury from industry: The Las Cuevas mining complex, Almadén District, Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 408: 4901-4905.

  3. NRMRL EVALUATES ACTIVE AND SEMI-PASSIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two-page article describing three SITE demonstration projects underway on the Leviathan mine site in California. BiPhasic lime treatment, lime treatment lagoons and compost free BioReactors are being evaluated as innovative technologies for treating acid mine drainage.

  4. Modification of matrix metalloproteinase activities from alveolar macrophages during chronic coal mine dust exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberson, D.; Wastiaux, A.; Lefevre, J.P.; Sebastien, P.; Lafuma, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (UA-CNRS), Creteil (France). Lab. de Biochimie du Tissu Conjunctif

    1994-12-31

    Macrophage derived products have been implicated in pneumoconiosis induced by chronic coal dust inhalation. To assess the role of macrophages during chronic inflammatory processes in relation to pneumoconiosis, their capacity to secrete matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities was studied. Two groups of rats were exposed to 100 or 200 mg m{sup -3}, 6 h per day, 5 days per week and sacrified at 9, 28 and 78 days of exposure, and 6 months following the end of exposure. A total of 92 kDa proform and 88 kDa active form collagenase type IV (gelatinase) were investigated in macrophage culture medium (MEM), macrophage extracts (MACs) and bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL). In parallel, net gelatinase and interstitial collagenase activities were evaluated by degradation of radiolabelled specific substrates. Pneumoconiotic lessons developed during the late dust exposure and the recovery phase and were associated with macrophage alveolitis. Results showed that chronic coal dust inhalation induced the increase of total gelatinase activities secreted into the MEM and the BAL. The net gelatinase and collagenase activities were increased in parallel in MEM whereas they appeared inhibited when secreted in the BAL whatever the dust exposure time. These results suggest that chronic coal mine dust exposure is capable of inducing chronic alveolar MACs activation in regard to their persistent highly increased capacity to degrade in situ extracelluar matrix components, namely collagen types IV or V. Such a deregulation associated with the acute inhibition process towards MMPs in the alveolar space, allowed the authors to propose a role of MMPs during pneumoconiosis. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife

  6. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not extend closer than 500 feet (measured horizontally) to any abandoned or active underground mine workings, except...

  7. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.27 Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. For surface mining activities within the proposed permit area to be conducted within 500 feet of an underground mine...

  8. Trace elements and activity of antioxidative enzymes in Cistus ladanifer L. growing on an abandoned mine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Nabais, Cristina; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2009-10-01

    The Mediterranean shrub Cistus ladanifer grows naturally in São Domingos (Portugal), an abandoned copper mine. High levels of trace elements in plants can generate oxidative stress increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare As, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and the activity of the soluble and cell wall ionically bounded forms of the enzymes catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in leaves of C. ladanifer, collected in spring and summer, growing on São Domingos mine and on a non-contaminated area (Pomarão). São Domingos soils showed high total concentrations of As (2.6 g kg(-1)) and Pb (7.3 g kg(-1)) however the available fraction represented less than 1.5% of the total. C. ladanifer population from mine showed tolerance to Pb and Zn, which attain in leaves concentrations considered toxic for plants. The enzymatic activity of catalase, peroxidise and superoxide dismutase varied with plant populations and seasons, although with no particular trend, being specific to each trace element and enzyme cell localization. Catalase activity was evenly distributed between the soluble and ionically bounded forms, whereas the ionically bounded form of peroxidase predominated relatively to total activity, and the opposite was observed for superoxide dismutase. Spring and summer leaves from the two areas presented enzymatic activities in both fractions except to peroxidase soluble activities in leaves collected in summer. C. ladanifer enzymatic activity seems to be related with the co-existence of different stress factors (trace elements concentration, temperature, UV radiation and drought). The survival and growth of this species on contaminated mining soils is due to the presence of effective antioxidant enzyme-based defence systems.

  9. International symposium on mine rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    To celebrate the 80th anniversary of creation of organized mine rescue activities in Poland, a symposium organized by the Central Mine Rescue Station in Bytom and the Association of Mining Engineers and Technicians in Katowice took place on 28-30 September 1987 in Szczyrk and was attended by 53 representatives of mine rescue services from 15 countries. Nineteen papers by Polish participants and 21 papers by foreign participants were presented on three main topics: modern methods of fighting mining hazards; lines of improvement for mine rescue services; modern mine rescue equipment. Polish-made equipment for mine rescue, hazard detection and combating hazards was exhibited. The Central Mine Rescue Station in Bytom presented a tender for such services as technical consulting, expertise, development of technology and direct participation in rescue operations. Participants to the symposium addressed the Organizing Committee of the World Mining Congress to include mine rescue issues in the program of the next Congress.

  10. Arsenic mobility in the amended mine tailings and its impact on soil enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Namin; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the effects of soil amendments [Ferrous sulfate (Fe(II)), red mud, Fe(II) with calcium carbonate (Fe(II)/L) or red mud (RM/F), zero-valent iron (ZVI), furnace slag, spent mushroom waste and by-product fertilizer] on arsenic (As) stabilization and to establish relationships between soil properties, As fractions and soil enzyme activities in amended As-rich gold mine tailings (Kangwon and Keumkey). Following the application of amendments, a sequential extraction test and evaluation of the soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase and β-glucosidase) were conducted. Weak and negative relationships were observed between water-soluble As fractions (As(WS)) and oxalate extractable iron, while As(WS) was mainly affected by dissolved organic carbon in alkaline tailings sample (Kangwon) and by soil pH in acidic tailings sample (Keumkey). The soil enzyme activities in both tailings were mainly associated with As(WS). Principal component and multiple regression analyses confirmed that As(WS) was the most important factor to soil enzyme activities. However, with some of the treatments in Keumkey, contrary results were observed due to increased water-soluble heavy metals and carbon sources. In conclusion, our results suggest that to simultaneously achieve decreased As(WS) and increased soil enzyme activities, Kangwon tailings should be amended with Fe(II), Fe(II)/L or ZVI, while only ZVI or RM/F would be suitable for Keumkey tailings. Despite the limitations of specific soil samples, this result can be expected to provide useful information on developing a successful remediation strategy of As-contaminated soils.

  11. Effect of combined pollution by heavy metals on soil enzymatic activities in areas polluted by tailings from Pb-Zn-Ag mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Cheng-li; LIAO Min; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Some enzymatic activities were determined in the areas polluted by tailings from Tiantai Pb-Zn-Ag Mine in Zhejiang Province of China. The results indicated the soil enzymatic activities decreased significantly with increase of concentrations of heavy metals or the distance away from mining tailing center, especially dehydrogenase and urease activities. Multivariate regression analysis between heavy metal contents and soil enzymatic activities indicated that single dehydrogenase activity was very significantly correlated to combined effect of soil heavy metals in mine area. Moreover, single urease, protease and acid phosphatase activities were significantly related to the combined effect of heavy metals. The results suggest it is feasible to use soil enzymatic activities to indicate the pollution situation by combined heavy metals in the soil of mine area.

  12. Adapting active noise control headsets for the mining industry: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vipac Engineers and Scientists Ltd., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Noise induced hearing loss and its consequences with regard to occupational health and safety remain a major problem in the coal industry, especially underground. Australian Standards for exposure to noise in the occupational environment are being lowered from 8-hour equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level of 90 dBA to 85 dBA. The most desirable solution is to treat the noise problem at source. Where noise control strategies are not feasible, the use of hearing protection devices remains the most widely used strategy for limiting the exposure to noise in the work place. This project aimed to demonstrate design specifications for ANC (Active Noise Control) Headsets for use in the coal mining industry, especially underground. Tests showed some devices benefit from a significantly improved noise attenuation performance at low frequencies due the ANC system. Using measured noise from continuous miner and the measured noise attenuation performance of one of the ANC headsets under evaluation as an example, it was demonstrated that with Active Noise Control, the overall Leq noise level was reduced from 90 dBA (with passive hearing protection only) to 77 dBA. The final part of the project was to establish a set of specifications for the manufacturers to use in developing ANC headsets for use underground. (author). 8 tabs., 7 figs., 20 refs.

  13. International mining forum 2004, new technologies in underground mining, safety in mines proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzy Kicki; Eugeniusz Sobczyk (eds.)

    2004-01-15

    The book comprises technical papers that were presented at the International Mining Forum 2004. This event aims to bring together scientists and engineers in mining, rock mechanics, and computer engineering, with a view to explore and discuss international developments in the field. Topics discussed in this book are: trends in the mining industry; new solutions and tendencies in underground mines; rock engineering problems in underground mines; utilization and exploitation of methane; prevention measures for the control of rock bursts in Polish mines; and current problems in Ukrainian coal mines.

  14. Cardiac activation mapping using ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Ragnar; Witte, Russell S; Jia, Congxian; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Kim, Kang; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    We describe the first mapping of biological current in a live heart using ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI). Ablation procedures that treat severe heart arrhythmias require detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave. The conventional procedure is time-consuming and limited by its poor spatial resolution (5-10 mm). UCSDI can potentially improve on existing mapping procedures. It is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acousto-electric (AE) effect, which is spatially confined to the ultrasound focus. Data from 2 experiments are presented. A 540 kHz ultrasonic transducer (f/# = 1, focal length = 90 mm, pulse repetition frequency = 1600 Hz) was scanned over an isolated rabbit heart perfused with an excitation-contraction decoupler to reduce motion significantly while retaining electric function. Tungsten electrodes inserted in the left ventricle recorded simultaneously the AE signal and the low-frequency electrocardiogram (ECG). UCSDI displayed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with the spreading activation wave. The propagation velocity estimated from UCSDI was 0.25 +/- 0.05 mm/ms, comparable to the values obtained with the ECG signals. The maximum AE signal-to-noise ratio after filtering was 18 dB, with an equivalent detection threshold of 0.1 mA/ cm(2). This study demonstrates that UCSDI is a potentially powerful technique for mapping current flow and biopotentials in the heart.

  15. Improved Active Harmonic Current Elimination Based on Voltage Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyuan Tan

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of power electronic equipment in modern residential distribution systems, harmonics mitigation through the distributed generation (DG interfacing converters has received significant attention. Among recently proposed methods, the so-called active resonance damper (ARD and harmonic voltage compensator (HVC based on voltage detection can effectively reduce the harmonic distortions in selected areas of distribution systems. However, it is found out that when traditional ARD algorithm is used to eliminate harmonic current injected by non-linear loads, its performance is constrained by stability problems and can at most eliminate half of the load harmonic currents. Thus, inspired by the duality between ARD and HVC, this paper presents a novel improved resistive active power filter (R-APF algorithm based on integral-decoupling control. The design guideline for its parameters is then investigated through carefully analyzing the closed-loop poles' trajectory. Computer studies demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively mitigate the load harmonic currents and its performance is much better than traditional ARD based on proportional control.

  16. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  17. Current Situation and Prospects of Mine Auxiliary Transportation%矿井辅助运输现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永

    2013-01-01

      在我国经济飞速发展的时代,煤矿业也越加的加大了产量。矿井辅助运输可以分为两种:轨道辅助运输和无轨辅助运输。我国煤矿辅助运输起步的比较晚,到了七十年代的后期才有了关于这个方面的研究工作。在目前,我国先后研究成功了一些高效的辅助运输装备。比如柴油机胶套,无轨胶轮车等方式。在我们国家很多地方已经使用了这些新型研究出来的辅助运输设备。也在实践中产生了巨大的经济效益。但是从总体来看,设备的种类不多,并没有形成有效的系列产品,而辅助运输的设备质量不是很稳定。尤其是一些可靠性有待进一步加强研究。当代现状下,除了少数一些矿井,很多煤矿是没有实现矿井从地底到水平面的直接运输,都是分许多阶段完成的运输。每次从井下材料都是需要经过多次转载的。而且运输效率是特别低的,容易造成事故。不仅如此,而且使用的工作人员也比较多,占用的资源也是非常巨大。特别是在运输过程中,尤其一些关键性设备很容易出问题,维修费用也是比较高。%In the era of rapid development of China's economy, the mining industry production has been increasingly stepped up. Mine auxiliary transportation can be divided into two categories: track and trackless auxiliary transport. Auxiliary transportation of coal mine started relatively late, and the research work on this aspect began from late 1970s. At present, China has a number of successful researches on efficient auxiliary transport equipment, such as, diesel pouches, trackless vehicles and other means. Many places in our country have used these new auxiliary transport equipments, and they also have produced a huge economic benefits in practice. But on the whole, there are not enough equipment categories, and they did not form an effective series of products, and auxiliary transport

  18. Hydrochemistry and coal mining activity induced karst water quality degradation in the Niangziguan karst water system, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Xue; Gao, Xubo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical analysis, statistical analysis, and geochemical modeling were employed to evaluate the impacts of coal mining activities on karst water chemistry in Niangziguan spring catchment, one of the largest karst springs in Northern China. Significant water quality deterioration was observed along the flow path, evidenced from the increasing sulfate, nitrate, and TDS content in karst water. Karst water samples are Ca-Mg-HCO3 type in the recharge areas, Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 type in the coal mining areas, and Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3/HCO3-SO4 type in the rural areas and discharge areas. A four-factor principal component analysis (PCA) model is conducted which explains over 82.9% of the total variation. Factor 1, which explained the largest portion (45.33%) of the total variance, reveals that coal mining activities and natural water-rock interaction as the primary factors controlling karst water quality. Anthropogenic effects were recognized as the secondary factor with high positive loadings for NO3 (-) and Cl(-) in the model. The other two factors are co-precipitation removal of trace elements and silicate mineral dissolution, which explained 20.96% of the total variance. A two-end mixing modeling was proposed to estimate the percentage of coal wastewater giving on karst water chemistry, based on the groundwater sulfate chemistry constrains rather than sulfur isotopes. Uncertainty of sulfur isotope sources led to an overestimation of coal mining water contribution. According to the results of the modeling, the contribution of coal mining waste on karst water chemistry was quantified to be from 27.05 to 1.11% which is ca. three times lower than the values suggested using a sulfur isotope method.

  19. The effect of Peltier heat during current activated densification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Angst, S.; Schmitz, A.; Engenhorst, M.; Stoetzel, J.; Gautam, D.; Wiggers, H.; Wolf, D. E.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

    2012-07-01

    It is shown that current-activated pressure-assisted densification (CAPAD) is sensitive to the Peltier effect. Under CAPAD, the Peltier effect leads to a significant redistribution of heat within the sample during the densification. The densification of highly p-doped silicon nanoparticles during CAPAD and the properties of the obtained samples are investigated experimentally and by computer simulation. Both, simulation and experiments, indicate clearly a higher temperature on the cathode side and a decreasing temperature from the center to the outer shell. Furthermore, computer simulations provide additional insights into the temperature profile which explain the anisotropic properties of the measured sample.

  20. Dust control at active working places in the Stara Jama coal mine in Zenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, B.; Kisic, S.

    1984-01-01

    The measures undertaken at a fully mechanized longwall face in the Stara Jama coal mine to reduce the coal dust concentration are described. Dust concentration varies from 16.4 mg/m/sup 3/ ahead of the cutter loader, to 824 mg/m/sup 3/ behind the cutter loader. The cutter loader produced 32,280 mg of coal dust per minute. Since the built-in cutter loader spraying system (80 l/min) was inadequate for dust control, an additional water spraying system with an output of 72 l/min was installed on the cutter loader. In addition, on the bars of the self-advancing powered supports water spraying nozzles with a total capacity of 1.7 l/min each were installed in 4 groups of 20 nozzles each. The angle of water spraying was 120 degrees. These water spraying nozzles are activated by magnetic valves attached to the coal cutter loader when the cutter loader passes the nozzles.

  1. How hard do mineworkers work? An assessment of workplace stress associated with routine mining activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining operations are frequently associated with difficult working conditions and high levels of workplace stress. Workplace stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that oc-cur when the psychological and...

  2. Effect of mining activities on the clam fisheries and bottom fauna of Goa estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.

    variability induced by increasing environmental stress has caused irreversible ecosystem instability. Reduced dissolved oxygen concentration; high suspended solids and blanketing of bottom deposits by mining rejects, has resulted in more than 70% reduction...

  3. [Study of hydrogen cyanide activity in various working environment in gold-mining industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedkova, L A; Dorogova, V B; Petrov, V F

    2008-01-01

    The study concerned an influence of saline content of liquid phase of crushed ore and presence or absence of solution blending on the process of cyanic hydrogen release in air of working area gold-mining industry.

  4. Research of the Activity of Earthquakes Induced by Water Injection of Salt Mining in Changning County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Xiang; Cheng Wanzheng; Zhang Yongjiu; Li Jun; Chen Yin

    2009-01-01

    According to information from on-the-spot investigations, the tectonics of salt mining areas and digital seismic records, we studied the activity of earthquakes induced by water pumping in and out of the salt mines in Shuanghe town, Changning county, Sichuan Province. The study found that the rates of water injection and extraction in the Shuanghe salt mining region were evenly matched before April 2006 and earthquake activity was stable. On the other hand, shallow small and moderate earthquake numbers increased sharply after the water injection rate became much larger than the water extraction rate. Large injection over a long time may causes the permeation of water through pre-existing small fractures and micro-cracks in the Changning anticlinal and accelerate the rupture of micro tectonic formations in nearby regions, inducing small earthquake swarm activity. The Q value calculated by using digital earthquake records indicates a relatively inhomogeneous medium in this area. The results of the accurate location of small earthquakes show that sources are relatively shallow and are concentrated at a depth of 2km to 3km. Focal mechanism solutions reveal a normal dip-slip character of shallow earthquakes. All of these show certain characteristics of earthquake activity induced by water injection.

  5. The activities and perspectives of improvement the polluted waste in surrounding rivers in Bucim mine area

    OpenAIRE

    Danevski, Tome; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar; Gocev, Zivko

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of the influence that the tailing dump or waste as well as the flotation hydro-tailing dump over the environment around the region of copper mine Bucim, surrounding rivers, places, villages, appearance of dust, pollution of ambient air and mine tailing pond. Generally speaking, the monitoring will be done for two periods. The first analysis relating to the period from the year 2005, and the second analysis relating to the period from the year 2010/2012. The monitoring ...

  6. Aspects of calcium-activated chloride currents: a neuronal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R H; Sutton, K G; Griffin, A; Stapleton, S R; Currie, K P

    1995-06-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels are expressed in a variety of cell types, including central and peripheral neurones. These channels are activated by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ close to the cell membrane. This can be evoked by cellular events such as Ca2+ entry through voltage- and ligandgated channels or release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Additionally, these Ca(2+)-activated Cl currents (ICl(Ca)) can be activated by raising intracellular Ca2+ through artificial experimental procedures such as intracellular photorelease of Ca2+ from "caged" photolabile compounds (e.g. DM-nitrophen) or by treating cells with Ca2+ ionophores. The potential changes that result from activation of Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels are dependent on resting membrane potential and the equilibrium potential for Cl-. Ca2+ entry during a single action potential is sufficient to produce substantial after potentials, suggesting that the activity of these Cl- channels can have profound effects on cell excitability. The whole cell ICl(Ca) can be identified by sensitivity to increased Ca2+ buffering capacity of the cell, anion substitution studies and reversal potential measurements, as well as by the actions of Cl- channel blockers. In cultured sensory neurones, there is evidence that the ICl(Ca) deactivates as Ca2+ is buffered or removed from the intracellular environment. To date, there is no evidence in mammalian neurones to suggest these Ca(2+)-sensitive Cl- channels undergo a process of inactivation. Therefore, ICl(Ca) can be used as a physiological index of intracellular Ca2+ close to the cell membrane. The ICl(Ca) has been shown to be activated or prolonged as a result of metabolic stress, as well as by drugs that disturb intracellular Ca2+ homeostatic mechanisms or release Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In addition to sensitivity to classic Cl- channel blockers such as niflumic acid, derivatives of stilbene (4,4'diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 4-acetamido-4

  7. Location of high seismic activity zones and seismic hazard assessment in Zabrze Bielszowice coal mine using passive tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURKA A

    2008-01-01

    In the paper results of passive tomography calculations have been presented to assess rockburst hazard and locate high seismic activity zones in the vicinity of longwall 306 in Zabrze Bielszowice coal mine. The area of study was 1000 m in X direction by 900 m in Y direction. The zones of high values of P-wave propagation velocity have been found to correlate with the distribution of large seismic tremors.

  8. Amendment application in a multi-contaminated mine soil: Effects on soil enzymatic activities and ecotoxicological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Rebeca; Esteban, Elvira; Peñalosa, Jesús Manuel; Alvarenga, Paula M L F

    2014-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2412-4 Several amendments were tested on soils obtained from an arsenopyrite mine, further planted with Arrhenatherum elatius and Festuca curvifolia, in order to assess their ability to improve soil's ecotoxicological characteristics. The properties used to assess the effects were: soil enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, urease, protease and cellulase), terrestrial bio...

  9. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... full width of an entry. A commenter on the RFI stated that current proximity detection system designs... coal or rock. Some current proximity detection systems on continuous mining machines are installed to stop machine tram movement and the conveyor swing function when the system is activated while...

  10. Histopathology investigation on the Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) populations captured from the rivers impacted by mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Valić, Damir; Krasnići, Nesrete; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir

    2016-07-01

    Many natural freshwater ecosystems, especially in the north eastern Macedonia, are polluted with heavy metals, which are released by active mines. Long-term exposure to high levels of dissolved metals might result in increased metal bioaccumulation in organs of aquatic organisms, and consequently might cause various sub-toxic and toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the health of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) inhabiting mining impacted rivers Zletovska and Kriva, in comparison with chub from the reference Bregalnica River. It was done by use of indicators of tissue damage (histopathology of liver and gonads) and general indicators of exposure to environmental stressors (condition factor, organo-somatic indices and external/internal macroscopic lesions). Histological assessment of gonads revealed good reproductive health in all three rivers, indicating high tolerance of gonads to contaminant exposure. Contrary, several external/internal lesions were more pronounced in chub from severely metal contaminated Zletovska River. Prevalence of hepatic lesions was also higher in mining impacted rivers (in Kriva, 70%; in Zletovska, 59%) compared to Bregalnica River (38%). The spectrum of histological lesions observed in chub liver varied from non-specific minor degenerative conditions, such as lymphocyte infiltration, fibrosis, parasites, granulomas and lipidosis, to extensive and/or more severe changes such as bile duct proliferation, necrosis, megalocytosis, light-dark hepatocytes and hepatocytes regeneration. The results of histopathological investigation for all three rivers showed clear signs of water contamination, especially prominent in mining influenced rivers. More research efforts should be devoted to study of environmental conditions and metal contamination in the mining impacted rivers worldwide, especially of their effects on health of local ichthyofauna.

  11. On the Data Mining Technology Applied to Active Marketing Model of International Luxury Marketing Strategy in China— An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishen Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  This paper emphasizes the importance of active marketing in the customer relationship management. Especially, the data mining technology is applied to establish an active marketing model to empirically analyze the condition of the AH Jewelry Company. Michael Porter's Five Forces Model is employed to assess and calculate the similarity in the active marketing model. Then, the questionnaire analysis on the customer relationship management model is carried out to explain the target market and target customer groups of AH Jewelry Company. The cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA are applied as data mining tool to investigate factors and problems that influence marketing effect of the AH Jewelry Company. The analysis results show that it becomes a key problem to enhance the customer loyalty and retain the customers under the changeable consumption environment. Data mining technology can help to analyze the historical data to produce the clients set which is most closed to the customer behaviors, and regards the most interesting information as the recommendation to the customers. Hence, marketing optimization strategy could be proposed as reference to manage the luxury marketing.

  12. Long-term remote sensing monitoring coal mining activity in resource-based cities: a case study of Qitaihe City, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Zhou, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Mining activity has strongly impacted the sustainable socioeconomic development of resource-based cities. The systematic monitoring of the change in mining activity can provide evidence for the transition and future development of resource-based cities. This paper chose Qitaihe, one of the four coal mining cities in northeastern China as the study area. Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technique, as well as methods on landscape pattern analysis were used to study the evolution of mining activity from 4 different periods over 58 years’ time. Results showed that the area of land used in mining increased by about six times during the study period with cultivated land the main type that contributed to this increase. Mining activity showed an eastward trend, developing from one concentration circle to four circles, from a disordered system to a relatively integrated system. It was also suggested that differentiated policies should be adopted in different mining circles. This study also provides a framework for future city planning and sustainable development.

  13. Small-scale and large-scale testing of photo-electrochemically activated leaching technology in Aprelkovo and Delmachik Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekisov, AG; Lavrov, AYu; Rubtsov, YuI

    2017-02-01

    The paper gives a description of tests and trials of the technology of heap gold leaching from rebellious ore in Aprelkovo and Delmachik Mines. Efficiency of leaching flowsheets with the stage-wise use of activated solutions of different reagents, including active forms of oxygen, is evaluated. Carbonate-peroxide solutions are used at the first stage of leaching to oxidize sulfide and sulfide-arsenide ore minerals to recover iron and copper from them. The second stage leaching uses active cyanide solutions to leach encapsulated and disperse gold and silver.

  14. Sediment and epilithon metabolism and hydrolytic activity in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Despite regulations requiring that potential mpacts to stream function be considered in determining compensatory mitigation associated with permitted fill activities, asse...

  15. Resource requirements and economics of the coal-mining process: a comparative analysis of mines in selected countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astakhov, A.; Gruebler, A.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the natural resource requirements and economics of the resource extraction process, taking coal-mining activities as an example. Coal was chosen for the study because it is receiving growing attention as the fossile energy resource with the largest potential to contribute to the world's long-term energy supply. The computerized description of the extraction process is stored in the Coal Mines Data Base (CMDB) which was developed within the framework of this study. The data base currently holds information on 70 mines located in different countries. The analytic approach used is the first of its kind to compare resource requirements and economics of coal mines under such a broad range of geological and socioeconomic conditions. A general model of the factors influencing resource inputs and impacts of the coal-mining process is presented. Then for each of the main mining methods (opencast, conventional underground, and hydraulic underground) the principal geological and technological factors influencing the resource requirements, economics, and environmental impacts, as well as the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each mining method, are discussed. For the three main mining methods the resource requirements (including manpower, energy, materials, and land) and the economics (including construction investments and operating costs) are then quantified and their cost structures (i.e. requirements for the different operations at a mine) are examined in detail using data from coal mines in the USA, the USSR, and other selected coal-producing countries (Australia, Austria, and France).

  16. Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz Mines Inspectorate. Annual report 1996. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 1996. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The annual report of the Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz Mines Inspectorate outlines the economic and technical developments in mining in these two German states as well as the activities of the mining authorities in all fields of mining. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Jahresbericht des Oberbergamtes fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz gibt einen Ueberblick zur bergwirtschaftlichen und bergtechnischen Entwicklung in beiden Bundeslaendern und vermittelt einen umfassenden Einblick in die Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden in den vielfaeltigen Bergbauzweigen. (orig.)

  17. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified.

  18. Current Reactor Physics Benchmark Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; Mackenzie L. Gorham; Joseph Christensen; James C. Turnbull; Kim Clark

    2011-11-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [1] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) [2] were established to preserve integral reactor physics and criticality experiment data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, developing, and validating our integral nuclear data, and experimental and computational methods. These projects are managed through the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA). Staff and students at the Department of Energy - Idaho (DOE-ID) and INL are engaged in the development of benchmarks to support ongoing research activities. These benchmarks include reactors or assemblies that support Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) research, space nuclear Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) design validation, and currently operational facilities in Southeastern Idaho.

  19. Environmental impact of active and abandoned mines and metal smelters in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Budkovič

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia has long been known for its numerous mines and ore processing. From the times of the Roman Empire to now, 49 mines and open pits were opened, four of them were large (Idrija, Mežica – Topla, Litija and Žirovski vrh. There were also 25 oreprocessing plants and smelters, which were operating mostly in the vicinity of larger mines (Idrija, Žerjav, Celje. Due to the lack of written sources, we probably haven succeeded in making a complete list of them. There were 33 iron works operating in the vicinity ofmines and open pits, three large ones have further developed and are still operating (Jesenice, Ravne na Koroškem and Štore. As the ore processing capacities have far exceeded the capacities of the Slovenian mining, ore has long been imported and only processed in Slovenia. On the basis of the results of our investigations in the vicinity of larger mines and smelters we estimated that in Slovenia the areas in which critical limit for heavy metal content is exceeded sums up to about 80 km2.

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine...... electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4......, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2V/cm.The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20V using approximately 1.8kg mine tailing on dry basis...

  1. Impact of Mining Activity upon Environment in Roşia Montană

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIGISMUND DUMA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Roşia Montană is the greatest gold ore in Romania and one of the greatest in Europe, and its exploitation has been carried out since Antiquity up to nowadays. If the traditional extraction and processing technologies had a minimal impact upon environment, the ones adopted in modern times have affected all the components of the natural environment. In the perspective of capitalizing the gold ore through the programme elaborated by the Canadian company, Gold Corporation, the zonal geographical space will be degraded up to the level of industrial dessert over an area of 100 km2 and in case of damage, the affected area can extend enormously. The environmental problems are related both to the specific nature of such an industrial activity and, especially, to the use of enormous quantities of sodium cyanide directly on the preparation flux from the industrial plant. Few such cases are known worldwide, in several economically less developed countries. Usually, cyanides are used for treating the gold concentrations, operation done in conditions of maximum security, in closed spaces, situated in isolated zones and the neutralization (detoxification of cyanides is done in situ. The treatment of cyanides in open spaces has always generated environmental problems. Moreover, none of the cyanide treatment technologies eliminates entirely their toxic effect (less toxic chemical products are obtained. In order to avoid the production of an environmental disaster and to preserve the local patrimony values (in this place there lies the richest mining archeological site in Europe, we elaborated several recommendations we consider feasible as they allow both the capitalization of ore, which is a socio-economic necessity of the area, and the ecological reconstruction of the affected geographical space.

  2. Activities of the Commission for Ground Surface Protection against Mining Damage in the first quarter of 1985. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroszcz, A.

    1985-01-01

    Five meetings of the Commission held from January to March 1985 are reported. Underground coal mining in the safety pillar of Bytom was discussed in the light of rock bursts and fatal accidents in the Dymitrow mine. Three coal mines remove the safety pillar: Dymitrow, Szombierki and Rozbark. The Commission discussed: replacing longwall mining with caving by longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, using packings with reduced settling, reducing concentration of mining operations in the area of Bytom center, coordination of underground mining by 3 mines (coordination of mining order, thickness of coal slices or coal seams, concentration of longwall mining in seams with reduced hazards of rock bursts, methods for protection of buildings and industrial plants at the ground surface against ground deformation. The Commission also discussed program of coal mining with hydraulic stowing in the safety pillar of the Batory Steelworks, the Hajduki chemical plant and Chorzow (order of mining, schemes for slice mining, forecasting ground subsidence, methods for protection against mining damage), underground mining with caving or stowing in safety pillars of the Miechowice and Karb mines under Bytom, new regulations on geodetic surveys in underground coal mines.

  3. Ultra-fine grinding and mechanical activation of mine waste rock using a high-speed stirred mill for mineral carbonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jie Li; Michael Hitch

    2015-01-01

    CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation can permanently store CO2 and mitigate climate change. However, the cost and reaction rate of mineral carbonation must be balanced to be viable for industrial applications. In this study, it was attempted to reduce the carbonation costs by using mine waste rock as a feed stock and to enhance the reaction rate using wet mechanical activation as a pre-treatment method. Slurry rheological properties, particle size distribution, specific surface area, crystallinity, and CO2 sequestration reaction efficiency of the initial and mechanically activated mine waste rock and olivine were characterized. The results show that serpentine acts as a catalyst, in-creasing the slurry yield stress, assisting new surface formation, and hindering the size reduction and structure amorphization. Mechanically activated mine waste rock exhibits a higher carbonation conversion than olivine with equal specific milling energy input. The use of a high-speed stirred mill may render the mineral carbonation suitable for mining industrial practice.

  4. A Study on regeneration cases with industrial Heritage in mining areas of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungyeoun; Ji, Sangwoo; Yim, Giljae

    2017-04-01

    build vibrant cities. The recent urban regeneration projects in abandoned mine areas, such as Pocheon, Kwangmyong and Anyang, are utilizing mining facilities as industrial heritage more actively. They introduced eco-friendly restoration method and made environmental parks or experience centers on mining areas themselves. In conclusion, urban regenerations of abandoned mine areas has been changed from tourist development in neighbouring areas to eco-friendly regeneration in abandoned mine areas. However, there are still some constraints for eco-friendly regeneration. The mine operators have to restore abandoned mine areas to the original state after closing under the current law, "Mining damage prevention and restoration act". Thus lots of abandoned mine areas were left undeveloped or changed to forest. For promoting utilization of mine facilities as industrial heritage, the law have to allow reuse its infrastructure such as loads and subsidiary facilities for urban regeneration.

  5. Electric-current Neutralization, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong; Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Leake, James E.

    2017-09-01

    The physical conditions that determine whether or not solar active regions (ARs) produce strong flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are not yet well understood. Here, we investigate the association between electric-current neutralization, magnetic shear along polarity inversion lines (PILs), and eruptive activity in four ARs: two emerging and two well-developed ones. We find that the CME-producing ARs are characterized by a strongly non-neutralized total current, while the total current in the ARs that did not produce CMEs is almost perfectly neutralized. The difference in the PIL shear between these two groups is much less pronounced, which suggests that the degree of current neutralization may serve as a better proxy for assessing the ability of ARs to produce CMEs.

  6. Investigation and characterization of mining subsidence in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jian; BIAN Li

    2007-01-01

    In Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine, serious environmental and safety problems are caused by large scale mining activities in the past 40 years. These problems include mining subsidence, low recovery ratio, too much dead ore in pillars, and pollution of phosphorus gypsum. Mining subsidence falls into four categories: curved ground and mesa, ground cracks and collapse hole, spalling and eboulement, slope slide and creeping. Measures to treat the mining subsidence were put forward: finding out and managing abandoned stopes, optimizing mining method (cut and fill mining method), selecting proper backfilling materials (phosphogypsum mixtures), avoiding disorder mining operation, and treating highway slopes. These investigations and engineering treatment methods are believed to be able to contribute to the safety extraction of ore and sustainable development in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine.

  7. The Movement, the Mine and the Lake: New Forms of Maya Activism in Neoliberal Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Way

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the social, economic, cultural and political issues bound up in two matters relating to the environment in the Sololá and Lake Atitlán region of the Guatemalan Mayan highlands in 2004–2005: the violent breakup of an anti-mine protest and the various reactions to a tropical storm that threatened the lake ecosystem. It views these events as part of a historical conjuncture and centers them in a larger discussion of Maya political activism, environmentalism and neoliberal development in Guatemala from the 1990s–mid-2010s. It begins with the transition from war to peace in the 1990s, charting how Maya participation in municipal politics soared even as the official Mayan movement waned as the state turned to neoliberalism. Zooming in on municipal development and politics in Sololá in the early 2000s, it then traces at the ground level how a decentralizing, “multicultural” state promoted political participation while at the same time undermining the possibility for that participation to bring about substantive change. The center of the article delves deeper into the conjuncture of the first decade of the new millennium. By mapping events in Sololá against development, agrarian transformation and rural urbanization, it argues that resilient Maya community structures, although unable to stop the exploitative tide, continued to provide local cohesion and advocacy. Activists and everyday citizens became more globally attuned in the 2000s. The article’s final section analyzes municipal plans made between 2007 and 2012, arguing that creating and controlling community structures became increasingly important to the state in a time when Guatemala’s “outward” global turn was accompanied by an “inward” turn as people confronted spiraling violence in their communities. Critics called young people apolitical, but in 2015, massive demonstrations led to the imprisonment of the nation’s president and vice

  8. DRABAL: novel method to mine large high-throughput screening assays using Bayesian active learning

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2016-11-10

    Background Mining high-throughput screening (HTS) assays is key for enhancing decisions in the area of drug repositioning and drug discovery. However, many challenges are encountered in the process of developing suitable and accurate methods for extracting useful information from these assays. Virtual screening and a wide variety of databases, methods and solutions proposed to-date, did not completely overcome these challenges. This study is based on a multi-label classification (MLC) technique for modeling correlations between several HTS assays, meaning that a single prediction represents a subset of assigned correlated labels instead of one label. Thus, the devised method provides an increased probability for more accurate predictions of compounds that were not tested in particular assays. Results Here we present DRABAL, a novel MLC solution that incorporates structure learning of a Bayesian network as a step to model dependency between the HTS assays. In this study, DRABAL was used to process more than 1.4 million interactions of over 400,000 compounds and analyze the existing relationships between five large HTS assays from the PubChem BioAssay Database. Compared to different MLC methods, DRABAL significantly improves the F1Score by about 22%, on average. We further illustrated usefulness and utility of DRABAL through screening FDA approved drugs and reported ones that have a high probability to interact with several targets, thus enabling drug-multi-target repositioning. Specifically DRABAL suggests the Thiabendazole drug as a common activator of the NCP1 and Rab-9A proteins, both of which are designed to identify treatment modalities for the Niemann–Pick type C disease. Conclusion We developed a novel MLC solution based on a Bayesian active learning framework to overcome the challenge of lacking fully labeled training data and exploit actual dependencies between the HTS assays. The solution is motivated by the need to model dependencies between existing

  9. Effects of mining activity and climatic change on ecological losses in coal mining areas%采矿活动和气候变化对煤矿区生态环境损失的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐占军; 侯湖平; 张绍良; 丁忠义; 马昌忠; 公云龙; 刘严军

    2012-01-01

    系统评价煤矿区生态环境损失驱动因素的相对作用力,对矿区土地资源配置和生态环境治理具有重要指导作用.该文从生态学的角度,以徐州矿区为例,选择植被净初级生产力作为统一气候变化和采矿活动对矿区生态环境损失的衡量指标,通过该指标实现气候变化和采矿活动对矿区生态环境损失的可比性.研究结果表明:1)矿区植被净初级生产力NPP变化是气候因素和采矿因素综合作用的结果,气候变化对NPP的影响范围为0.111~3.333 g/(m2·月)(以每月每平方米植被生产的C计)之间,采矿活动对NPP影响的范围为90.525~107.892 g/(m2·月),采矿活动对NPP的影响大于气候变化对NPP的影响,NPP变化对采矿活动具有敏感性.2)气候变化推动NPP是向正向发展,采矿活动推动NPP向负向发展.1987-1998年采矿活动是推动NPP变化的主导因素,1998-2005年气候变化是推动NPP变化的主导因素,2005-2008年采矿活动成为推动NPP变化的主导因素,同时,随着采矿活动的加剧,采矿活动对NPP推动变成主导因素,并且推动NPP向负向发展的比例在增大.3)在采矿活动破坏区内,采矿活动对矿区生态环境的影响具有主导作用,主要表现为耕地NPP的大幅下降,通过土地复垦措施增加林地的NPP,可改变矿区生态环境的发展方向;在采矿活动的影响区内,气候变化对生态环境的影响具有主导作用.%It is of an important guiding meaning for making the planning of the exploitation of mineral resource and ecological environment improvement to evaluate the relative effect of ecological environmental loss in mine regions. From view of ecological point, the study selected NPP as the measuring indicator to unify the impacts of climate change and mining activities on the losses of ecological environment in mining areas. Through the indicator it achieved the comparability of the impacts of climate change and mining activities

  10. Building local competences to meet mining activities – strategies based on experiences from Greenland and Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Gjedssø Bertelsen, Rasmus; Hendriksen, Kåre

    . However many mining companies envisage potentials for a fast extraction of the resources using immigrant and migrant laborers that work intensively over a period of time while living in shantytowns. Past Greenland experiences with this type of work organization is not particularly positive. Experiences...

  11. Steady activity of microfractures on geological faults loaded by mining stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naoi, M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic Emissions (AE) down to MW ~ –4 were recorded at a site 1 km beneath the surface in the Cooke 4 Mine, South Africa. Several planar AE clusters with lateral extent of 10–100 m were identified. Most of them were located several tens of meters...

  12. Mining for associations between text and brain activation in a functional neuroimaging database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Balslev, D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a method for mining a neuroimaging database for associations between text and brain locations. The objective is to discover association rules between words indicative of cognitive function as described in abstracts of neuroscience papers and sets of reported stereotactic Talairach...

  13. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  14. Mining activities in a coastal zone: Effects and remedial measures in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D' Angremond, K.; Van de Water, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In July, 1959, the presence of gas in the subsoil of the Province of Groningen in the extreme NE part of the Netherlands was confirmed. Subsequently, it became clear that the mining of the gas would result in considerable subsidence and a disruption of the drainage system of an area adjacent to the

  15. "Sticking Together!" Policy Activism from within a UK Coal-Mining Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, N. Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some aspects of a doctoral ethnographic study of young people disaffected from schooling in a post-industrial space of ruin in a former coal-mining community in England. It considers how their experiences of resistance and refusal of schooling can, in the relational ethos of non-school support settings, come to speak back…

  16. Mining for associations between text and brain activation in a functional neuroimaging database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Arup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Balslev, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    We describe a method for mining a neuroimaging database for associations between text and brain locations. The objective is to discover association rules between words indicative of cognitive function as described in abstracts of neuroscience papers and sets of reported stereotactic Talairach...... that the statistically motivated associations are well aligned with general neuroscientific knowledge...

  17. Both barium and calcium activate neuronal potassium currents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ribera, A B; Spitzer, N C

    1987-01-01

    Amphibian spinal neurons in culture possess both rapidly inactivating and sustained calcium-dependent potassium current components, similar to those described for other cells. Divalent cation-dependent whole-cell outward currents were isolated by subtracting the voltage-dependent potassium currents recorded from Xenopus laevis neurons in the presence of impermeant cadmium (100-500 microM) from the currents produced without cadmium but in the presence of permeant divalent cations (50-100 micro...

  18. Heavy metal bioavailability and effects: I. Bioaccumulation caused by mining activities in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, I; Blasco, J; Jiménez-Tenorio, N; Delvalls, T Angel

    2005-02-01

    The bioaccumulation of six metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) was studied as part of the monitoring of the Aznalcóllar mining spill (April 1998) on the Guadalquivir estuary and in other estuaries located in the Gulf of Cádiz. Fish, clams and oysters were collected during different seasonal periods along the years 2000 and 2001 in the Guadalquivir estuary to determine the bioaccumulation of the metals originated by the mining spill. Results were compared to the bioaccumulation of the same metals in fish and clams exposed in the laboratory to sediments collected in the same areas during autumn 2001. The bioaccumulation of these metals was compared to the concentration of metals measured in tissues of same taxas collected in the areas of the ria of Huelva and the Bay of Cádiz. Results show that the bioaccumulation of Zn and Cd in the organisms sampled in the Guadalquivir estuary was associated with the enrichment of these metals in the estuary from the mining spill and decreased along the time reaching the lowest values in autumn 2001. The metal Cu show different trends that are associated with other sources of contamination than the spill and related to the transport of this metal from Huelva to Guadalquivir estuary and/or to the use of this metal as plaguicide in the rice fields located in the area. The comparison between bioaccumulation results under field and laboratory conditions obtained in the different areas of study shows that these data can be used to discriminate between acute and chronic impacts associated with mining activities.

  19. Proton activity of the Sun in current solar cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chuan; Fang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of 7 large solar proton events (SPEs) of current solar cycle 24 (from 2009 January up to date). They were recorded by GOES spacecraft with highest proton fluxes over 200 pfu for energies $>$10 MeV. In situ particle measurements show that: (1) The profiles of the proton fluxes are highly dependent of the locations of their solar sources, namely flares or coronal mass ejections (CMEs); (2) The solar particle release (SPR) times fall in the decay phase of the flare emission, and are in accordance with the times when the CMEs travel to an average height of 7.9 solar radii; (3) The time differences between the SPR and the flare peak are also dependent of the locations of the solar active regions (ARs). The results tend to support the concept of proton acceleration by the CME-driven shock, even though there exists a possibility of particle acceleration at flare site with subsequent perpendicular diffusion of accelerated particles in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We derive the integral ...

  20. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS) techniques--exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping--to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and "other" age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  1. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  2. Surface water contamination by uranium Mining/Milling activities in Northern guangdong province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Song, Gang; Chen, Yongheng; Zhu, Li [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Juan [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Li, Hongchun [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Xiao, Tangfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-12-15

    The northern region of Guangdong Province, China, has suffered from the extensive mining/milling of uranium for several decades. In this study, surface waters in the region were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the concentrations of uranium (U), thorium (Th), and non-radioactive metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Li, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). Results showed highly elevated concentrations of the studied radionuclides and metals in the discharged effluents and the tailing seepage of the U mining/milling sites. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations were also observed to be overall enhanced in the recipient stream that collected the discharged effluents from the industrial site, compared to the control streams, and rivers with no impacts from the U mining/milling sites. They displayed significant spatial variations and a general decrease downstream away from upper point-source discharges of the industrial site. In addition, obvious positive correlations were found between U and Th, Fe, Zn, Li, and Co (R{sup 2} > 0.93, n = 28) in the studied water samples, which suggest for an identical source and transport pathway of these elements. In combination with present surface water chemistry and chemical compositions of uraniferous minerals, the elevation of the analyzed elements in the recipient stream most likely arose from the liquid effluents, processing water, and acid drainage from the U mining/milling facilities. The dispersion of radionuclides and hazardous metals is actually limited to a small area at present, but some potential risk should not be negligible for local ecosystem. The results indicate that environmental remediation work is required to implement and future cleaner production technology should be oriented to avoid wide dispersion of radioactivity and non-radioactive hazards in U mining/milling sites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  4. Data mining in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Ştefania PETRE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how data mining is used in cloud computing. Data Mining is used for extracting potentially useful information from raw data. The integration of data mining techniques into normal day-to-day activities has become common place. Every day people are confronted with targeted advertising, and data mining techniques help businesses to become more efficient by reducing costs.Data mining techniques and applications are very much needed in the cloud computing paradigm. The implementation of data mining techniques through Cloud computing will allow the users to retrieve meaningful information from virtually integrated data warehouse that reduces the costs of infrastructure and storage.

  5. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  6. Establishing joint research activities in the subject area of prospecting an mining. Entwicklung der Gemeinschaftsforschung im Fachbereich 'Aufsuchung und Gewinnung'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertsen, M. (Wintershall AG, Kassel (Germany)); Zuncke, G. (Wintershall AG, Kassel (Germany))

    The Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle (DGMK) is to promote research, science and technology. The article presents the concept and status of research activities in the fields of exploration and mining. Research focused on the exploration, production, transport and storage of hydrocarbons from the view of geology, mining, and engineering. The high level of energy consumption necessitates national and international research on exploration, productivity, and improvement of technical processes for deposit exploitation. (orig./HS)

  7. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  8. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  9. Monofractal or multifractal: a case study of spatial distribution of mining-induced seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eneva

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Using finite data sets and limited size of study volumes may result in significant spurious effects when estimating the scaling properties of various physical processes. These effects are examined with an example featuring the spatial distribution of induced seismic activity in Creighton Mine (northern Ontario, Canada. The events studied in the present work occurred during a three-month period, March-May 1992, within a volume of approximate size 400 x 400 x 180 m3. Two sets of microearthquake locations are studied: Data Set 1 (14,338 events and Data Set 2 (1654 events. Data Set 1 includes the more accurately located events and amounts to about 30 per cent of all recorded data. Data Set 2 represents a portion of the first data set that is formed by the most accurately located and the strongest microearthquakes. The spatial distribution of events in the two data sets is examined for scaling behaviour using the method of generalized correlation integrals featuring various moments q. From these, generalized correlation dimensions are estimated using the slope method. Similar estimates are made for randomly generated point sets using the same numbers of events and the same study volumes as for the real data. Uniform and monofractal random distributions are used for these simulations. In addition, samples from the real data are randomly extracted and the dimension spectra for these are examined as well. The spectra for the uniform and monofractal random generations show spurious multifractality due only to the use of finite numbers of data points and limited size of study volume. Comparing these with the spectra of dimensions for Data Set 1 and Data Set 2 allows us to estimate the bias likely to be present in the estimates for the real data. The strong multifractality suggested by the spectrum for Data Set 2 appears to be largely spurious; the spatial distribution, while different from uniform, could originate from a monofractal process. The spatial

  10. Community rights and corporate responsibility : Canadian mining and oil companies in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, L.; Clark, T.D.; Patroni, V. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    This book presented papers given at a conference on Canadian mining companies in Latin America which was held at York University in 2002. The conference raised awareness about the impact of mining on the ecosystems and communities of Latin America. The conference provided a forum for non governmental organizations (NGOs), social activists, and academics to debate the growth of the mining industry in various Latin American countries. Issues related to international mining and community relations were discussed, and strategies for resolving conflicts between mining companies and communities were examined. The current regulatory environment surrounding mining was reviewed. Issues related to oppression and social resistance were also discussed. The activities of various Canadian mining companies were also discussed, as well as Canadian oil investment in Colombia. Issues related to corporate responsibility were also examined. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. The difficulties in the development of mining tourism projects: the case of La Unión Mining District (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor M.Conesa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mine sites are atypical industrial sites because they encompass not only economic but also landscape and anthropologic components. The need of developing new economic opportunities in areas, where a “mining monoculture” was the economic backbone, has resulted in the re-interpretation of mining activity from a cultural viewpoint. Some traditional mining towns from both, recent and ancient times, have forgone mining activity and have become new tourist attractions sites. However, the process of developing tourism in these zones is not easy and necessarily incorporates social, economic and environmental requirements. This paper describes the constraints, possibilities and efforts that meet in the former mining town of La Unión, Southeast Spain. It will be investigated in a critic point of view the current projects that, though in low number, try to preserve the identity and history of the town while generating relatively significant economic incomes.

  12. Fundamental Active Current Adaptive Linear Neural Networks for Photovoltaic Shunt Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ammirrul Atiqi Mohd Zainuri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents improvement of a harmonics extraction algorithm, known as the fundamental active current (FAC adaptive linear element (ADALINE neural network with the integration of photovoltaic (PV to shunt active power filters (SAPFs as active current source. Active PV injection in SAPFs should reduce dependency on grid supply current to supply the system. In addition, with a better and faster harmonics extraction algorithm, the SAPF should perform well, especially under dynamic PV and load conditions. The role of the actual injection current from SAPF after connecting PVs will be evaluated, and the better effect of using FAC ADALINE will be confirmed. The proposed SAPF was simulated and evaluated in MATLAB/Simulink first. Then, an experimental laboratory prototype was also developed to be tested with a PV simulator (CHROMA 62100H-600S, and the algorithm was implemented using a TMS320F28335 Digital Signal Processor (DSP. From simulation and experimental results, significant improvements in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD, time response and reduction of source power from grid have successfully been verified and achieved.

  13. Noise and dust emissions from mining activities : a software for a first approach to the measurement management and selection of suitable reduction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigna, C.; Lovera, E.; Patrucco, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Mining activities are often a matter of concern to local communities due to the potential impacts on the environment and landscape. As such, an effective balance is needed between socio-economic development and environmental protection. Mining activities in populated areas must be carefully planned and managed in order to avoid annoying local populations and to minimize health risks. This study was based on the criteria of the European Communities Commission to promote resource extraction and production methods that encourage eco-efficiency by developing best practice programs. In particular, this study defined and evaluated measurement, analysis and control criteria for the emission of chemical and physical pollutants from non-metal mining industries with particular reference to the reduction of noise and airborne particulates to the surrounding environment. The main focus of the study included on-site measuring campaigns in Italy's Lombardia mining region to collect data on mining techniques and technologies as well as pollutant emissions and propagation. The objective was to test the applicability of a newly proposed simplified monitoring systems and to evaluate the effective results of adopted pollution reduction strategies. A software-based database was also developed to manage detailed information on mining activities and to store the measured emissions data for future evaluation. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Detecting and monitoring of water inrush in tunnels and coal mines using direct current resistivity method: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Shucai Li; Bin Liu; Lichao Nie; Zhengyu Liu; Mingzhen Tian; Shirui Wang; Maoxin Su; Qian Guo

    2015-01-01

    Detecting, real-time monitoring and early warning of underground water-bearing structures are critically important issues in prevention and mitigation of water inrush hazards in underground engineering. Direct current (DC) resistivity method is a widely used method for routine detection, advanced detection and real-time monitoring of water-bearing structures, due to its high sensitivity to groundwater. In this study, the DC resistivity method applied to underground engineering is reviewed and...

  15. 3D Modelling of Seismically Active Parts of Underground Faults via Seismic Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzeskakis, Theofanis; Konstantaras, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    During the last few years rapid steps have been taken towards drilling for oil in the western Mediterranean sea. Since most of the countries in the region benefit mainly from tourism and considering that the Mediterranean is a closed sea only replenishing its water once every ninety years careful measures are being taken to ensure safe drilling. In that concept this research work attempts to derive a three dimensional model of the seismically active parts of the underlying underground faults in areas of petroleum interest. For that purpose seismic spatio-temporal clustering has been applied to seismic data to identify potential distinct seismic regions in the area of interest. Results have been coalesced with two dimensional maps of underground faults from past surveys and seismic epicentres, having followed careful reallocation processing, have been used to provide information regarding the vertical extent of multiple underground faults in the region of interest. The end product is a three dimensional map of the possible underground location and extent of the seismically active parts of underground faults. Indexing terms: underground faults modelling, seismic data mining, 3D visualisation, active seismic source mapping, seismic hazard evaluation, dangerous phenomena modelling Acknowledgment This research work is supported by the ESPA Operational Programme, Education and Life Long Learning, Students Practical Placement Initiative. References [1] Alves, T.M., Kokinou, E. and Zodiatis, G.: 'A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: The South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins', Marine Pollution Bulletin, In Press, 2014 [2] Ciappa, A., Costabile, S.: 'Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea)', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 84 (1-2), pp. 44-55, 2014 [3] Ganas, A., Karastathis, V., Moshou, A., Valkaniotis, S., Mouzakiotis

  16. Activities of the Committee for Surface Protection from Mining Damage in the fourth quarter of 1983. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroszcz, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Committee for Surface Protection from Mining Damage analyzed mining of coal seams in the protective pillar of Bytom and the program of coal mining in the protective pillar of Jastrzebie from 1984 to 1985. The Bobrek coal mine proposed mining a thick coal seam under Bytom (Karb and Miechowice area) by slicing with caving (2 slices, each 2.5 m thick). Due to forecast intensive ground subsidence the proposal was not accepted. The Committee recommended use of mining with hydraulic stowing. The Bobrek mine developed a modified plan. The seam would be mined with hydraulic stowing; only one slice, 2.5 m thick, would be removed to reduce ground subsidence. The Committee also analyzed coal mining under Jastrzebie city by 3 coal mines: Jastrzebie, Moszczenica and Manifest Lipcowy. Mining with caving would be used. The Committee critically evaluated mining the protective coal pillar from 1976 to 1982. It also made recommendations on reducing mining damage caused by mining in the protective pillar of Jastrzebie.

  17. Impact of Mercury Mine Activities on Water Resources at Azzaba-North-East of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fadila Alligui; Abdelhak Boutaleb

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Mercury mineralization occurred in Azzaba (north-eastern Algeria) as a part of mercurial Numidian belt, consists of numerous of Hg deposits (Koudiat Sma, Mrasma, Guenicha, Fendek, Ismail and Ras Elma). These deposits are hosted in a variety of lithologies including sandstone, limestone, breccias and conglomerate. The ores occur as cinnabar deposits in Ypresian-Lutetian formations. Although the quantity and type of information relating to mining oper...

  18. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  19. Metaproteomics: extracting and mining proteome information to characterize metabolic activities in microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Paul E; Giannone, Richard J; Xiong, Weili; Hettich, Robert L

    2014-06-17

    Contemporary microbial ecology studies usually employ one or more "omics" approaches to investigate the structure and function of microbial communities. Among these, metaproteomics aims to characterize the metabolic activities of the microbial membership, providing a direct link between the genetic potential and functional metabolism. The successful deployment of metaproteomics research depends on the integration of high-quality experimental and bioinformatic techniques for uncovering the metabolic activities of a microbial community in a way that is complementary to other "meta-omic" approaches. The essential, quality-defining informatics steps in metaproteomics investigations are: (1) construction of the metagenome, (2) functional annotation of predicted protein-coding genes, (3) protein database searching, (4) protein inference, and (5) extraction of metabolic information. In this article, we provide an overview of current bioinformatic approaches and software implementations in metaproteome studies in order to highlight the key considerations needed for successful implementation of this powerful community-biology tool.

  20. Metaproteomics: extracting and mining proteome information to characterize metabolic activities in microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Paul E [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Xiong, Weili [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary microbial ecology studies usually employ one or more omics approaches to investigate the structure and function of microbial communities. Among these, metaproteomics aims to characterize the metabolic activities of the microbial membership, providing a direct link between the genetic potential and functional metabolism. The successful deployment of metaproteomics research depends on the integration of high-quality experimental and bioinformatic techniques for uncovering the metabolic activities of a microbial community in a way that is complementary to other meta-omic approaches. The essential, quality-defining informatics steps in metaproteomics investigations are: (1) construction of the metagenome, (2) functional annotation of predicted protein-coding genes, (3) protein database searching, (4) protein inference, and (5) extraction of metabolic information. In this article, we provide an overview of current bioinformatic approaches and software implementations in metaproteome studies in order to highlight the key considerations needed for successful implementation of this powerful community-biology tool.

  1. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system.

  2. Dehydrogenase activity and quality of leachates in Technosols with gossan and sulfide materials from the São Domingos mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarílis

    2014-05-01

    Wastes produced by mining activity in São Domingos (Portuguese Iberian Pyrite Belt) were disposed over a large area. To speed up the ecological rehabilitation in this mine, an integrative strategy using different amendments+mine wastes was used to produce Technosols with enhanced soil functions. To evaluate the efficiency of these Technosols the dehydrogenase activity and chemical quality of leachates were monitored. Technosols were composed of different mine wastes (gossan and sulfide materials), collected at the São Domingos mine, and mixtures of amendments applied at 30 and 75 Mg/ha (rockwool+agriculture wastes+wastes from liquors distillation of strawberry tree fruits (Arbutus unedo L.) and/or carobs (Ceratonia siliqua L. fruits)). Three assays, under controlled conditions, were carried out: (1 and 2) Sulfide or gossan materials with/without amendments; (3) Sulfide wastes, with/without amendments, incubated during four months and then with application of an overlayer of gossan (~3 cm thick) with/without the same amendments. Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and chemical characteristics of leachates (multielemental concentration, pH, and electric conductivity) were determined after four/seven/thirteen months of incubation. Sulfide wastes had more hazardous characteristics (pH~2 and total concentrations (g/kg) of Al (58.1), As (1.1), Cu (2.1), Fe (107.3), Pb (11.7), S (65.3) and Zn (1.1) than the gossan materials (pH=4.3; g/kg, Al: 24.8, As: 3.0, Cu: 0.2, Fe: 129, Pb: 9.2, S: 13.7, Zn: 0.04). Amendments application to gossan (assay 2) enhanced DHA in both sampling periods (µg TPF g dry weight 16 h-1, Control: 0,72-1,78; Amended treatments: 2.49-16.36 depending on mixture/application rate/sampling period). Greater application rates stimulated DHA (more than 1.5-fold with 75 Mg/ha). No differences were observed in DHA in the gossan layer with/without amendments (assay 3) suggesting a negative impact on gossan microrganisms from sulfide materials located below. In

  3. Advances In Mining Engineering Education: A Case For Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hitch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mining engineering involves the design, planning and management of operations for the development, production and eventual rehabilitation of resource extraction. These activities draw on a diverse set of skills. University of British Columbia mining engineers have traditionally been highly regarded for their strengths in the technical aspects of mining and mineral process but also for their understanding of the application of principles of sustainability and social responsibility. The current view of the UBC Mining curriculum demands the integration of aspects of environmental and social sciences shaping the future of tertiary engineering education. The solution is developing a curriculum that is focused on key learning objectives that are a reflection of all these external pressures. This paper examines the challenge of curriculum reform and the emergence of learning communities at the Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering at the University of British Columbia, Canada.

  4. Use of web mining in studying innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gök, Abdullah; Waterworth, Alec; Shapira, Philip

    As enterprises expand and post increasing information about their business activities on their websites, website data promises to be a valuable source for investigating innovation. This article examines the practicalities and effectiveness of web mining as a research method for innovation studies. We use web mining to explore the R&D activities of 296 UK-based green goods small and mid-size enterprises. We find that website data offers additional insights when compared with other traditional unobtrusive research methods, such as patent and publication analysis. We examine the strengths and limitations of enterprise innovation web mining in terms of a wide range of data quality dimensions, including accuracy, completeness, currency, quantity, flexibility and accessibility. We observe that far more companies in our sample report undertaking R&D activities on their web sites than would be suggested by looking only at conventional data sources. While traditional methods offer information about the early phases of R&D and invention through publications and patents, web mining offers insights that are more downstream in the innovation process. Handling website data is not as easy as alternative data sources, and care needs to be taken in executing search strategies. Website information is also self-reported and companies may vary in their motivations for posting (or not posting) information about their activities on websites. Nonetheless, we find that web mining is a significant and useful complement to current methods, as well as offering novel insights not easily obtained from other unobtrusive sources.

  5. Cortical hyperpolarization-activated depolarizing current takes part in the generation of focal paroxysmal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence; Steriade, Mircea

    2002-01-01

    During paroxysmal neocortical oscillations, sudden depolarization leading to the next cycle occurs when the majority of cortical neurons are hyperpolarized. Both the Ca2+-dependent K+ currents (IK(Ca)) and disfacilitation play critical roles in the generation of hyperpolarizing potentials. In vivo experiments and computational models are used here to investigate whether the hyperpolarization-activated depolarizing current (Ih) in cortical neurons also contributes to the generation of paroxysmal onsets. Hyperpolarizing current pulses revealed a depolarizing sag in ≈20% of cortical neurons. Intracellular recordings from glial cells indirectly indicated an increase in extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) during paroxysmal activities, leading to a positive shift in the reversal potential of K+-mediated currents, including Ih. In the paroxysmal neocortex, ≈20% of neurons show repolarizing potentials originating from hyperpolarizations associated with depth-electroencephalogram positive waves of spike-wave complexes. The onset of these repolarizing potentials corresponds to maximal [K+]o as estimated from dual simultaneous impalements from neurons and glial cells. Computational models showed how, after the increased [K+]o, the interplay between Ih, IK(Ca), and a persistent Na+ current, INa(P), could organize paroxysmal oscillations at a frequency of 2–3 Hz. PMID:12089324

  6. Remote sub-wavelength focusing of ultrasonically activated Lorentz current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Angad S.; Arbabian, Amin

    2017-04-01

    We propose the use of a combination of ultrasonic and magnetic fields in conductive media for the creation of RF electrical current via the Lorentz force, in order to achieve current generation with extreme sub-wavelength resolution at large depth. We demonstrate the modeling, generation, and measurement of Lorentz current in a conductive solution and show that this current can be localized at a distance of 13 cm from the ultrasonic source to a region about three orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding wavelength of electromagnetic waves at the same operation frequency. Our results exhibit greater depth, tighter localization, and closer agreement with prediction than previous work on the measurement of Lorentz current in a solution of homogeneous conductivity. The proposed method of RF current excitation overcomes the trade-off between focusing and propagation that is fundamental in the use of RF electromagnetic excitation alone and has the potential to improve localization and depth of operation for RF current-based biomedical applications.

  7. Mining Deployment Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    The deployment problem, researched primarily in the military sector, is emerging in some other industries, mining included. The principal decision is how to deploy some activities in space and time to achieve desired outcome while complying with certain requirements or limits. Requirements and limits are on the side constraints, while minimizing costs or maximizing some benefits are on the side of objectives. A model with application to mining of polymetallic deposit is presented. To obtain quick and immediate decision solutions for a mining engineer with experimental possibilities is the main intention of a computer-based tool. The task is to determine strategic deployment of mining activities on a deposit, meeting planned output from the mine and at the same time complying with limited reserves and haulage capacities. Priorities and benefits can be formulated by the planner.

  8. Anthropoghenic soil contamination connected with active mines, smelting and plants in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Serafimovski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A few anthropogenic pollutants at the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, were studied, three Pb-Zn mines with three mi­lls, one copper mine with mill and copper leaching facility, one Pb-Zn smelting and several mines and factories for raw minerals such is the Usje in our capital Skopje. At the Usje factory were measured values in ranges of 1.46÷2.23% Fe, 440÷940 mg kg-1Mn, 93.4÷104.71mg kg-1Ni, 58.57÷83.1 mg kg-1Zn, 23.1÷34.9 mgkg-1 Pb, 42.30÷60.3 mg kg-1 Cu and 0.59÷1.61 mgkg-1Cd. The concentrations of heavy metals at Veles former smelting Pb-Zn plant were in the range: 20÷1823 mg kg-1Pb, 29÷2395 mg kg-1Zn, 28÷65 mgkg-1Cd, 27÷81 mg kg-1 Cu, 39÷164 mg kg-1Ni, 508÷938 mgkg-1Mn and 1.6÷3.8% Fe, all of them above reference values. Around the Feni smelting plant concentrations of particular pollution elements were in the range: 16÷31 mg kg-1Pb, 117÷286 mgkg-1Zn, 13÷30 mg kg-1Co, 43÷119 mg kg-1 Cu, 158÷292 mg kg-1Ni, 519÷903 mgkg-1Mn, 119÷236 mg kg-1 Cr and 2.24÷3.79% Fe. At the ToranicaPb-Zn mine all the measured values multiplexed above the standard values. Enri­ch­me­nt factors ranged from, low 3.75 for nickel up to 362.5 for zinc and extreme 1587.5 for lead. The Zletovo Pb-Zn mine has been characterized by all the measured values multiplexed above the standard values with an exception of nickel. Enrichment factors ranged from mediate ones such were those for copper of 20.8, cadmium of 28.7, arsenic of 32.5 up to high ones for zinc with 341.7 and lead 925. In regards to SasaPb-Zn mine all the measured values multiplexed above the standard values with an exception of nickel. Enrichment factors ranged from low for manganese of 12.14 and arsenic of 15.72, median for copper of 59.15, high for cadmium of 126 and extremely high for zinc with 892.7 and lead 1201.9. In regards to the Bucim copper mine the median values for Cu in samples were 396 mg kg-1 and the ranges from 94.8 to 1171 mg kg-1, for the Topolnica village the

  9. 当前矿业权出让若干问题的探讨%The discussions of some problems about the current remising price of mining right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚兴祥

    2011-01-01

    矿业权出让是国家对矿业权处置的一种方式,是矿业权市场建设中的一个重要方面。针对当前矿业权出让实际操作中存在的矿业权价款数额的确定、矿业权价款的决定程序等问题进行了探讨,以实现矿业权出让市场的公平、公正,对矿业权市场建设有所借鉴。%The remising of mining right is a way of selling out mining rights on behalf of a country.And it is an important aspect of the mining right's market construction.Presently there were some problems in its operation such as how to decide the payment amount of the mining right cost,and what is the decision procedure for the mining right's price? Which have an immediate effect on the the essence of mining right cost and the fairness of mining right market.This article attempts to be helpful to the operation of the mining right market construction.

  10. Current Management Strategy for Active Surveillance in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jamil S; Javier-Desloges, Juan; Tatzel, Stephanie; Bhagat, Ansh; Nguyen, Kevin A; Hwang, Kevin; Kim, Sarah; Sprenkle, Preston C

    2017-02-01

    Active surveillance has been increasingly utilized as a strategy for the management of favorable-risk, localized prostate cancer. In this review, we describe contemporary management strategies of active surveillance, with a focus on traditional stratification schemes, new prognostic tools, and patient outcomes. Patient selection, follow-up strategy, and indication for delayed intervention for active surveillance remain centered around PSA, digital rectal exam, and biopsy findings. Novel tools which include imaging, biomarkers, and genetic assays have been investigated as potential prognostic adjuncts; however, their role in active surveillance remains institutionally dependent. Although 30-50% of patients on active surveillance ultimately undergo delayed treatment, the vast majority will remain free of metastasis with a low risk of dying from prostate cancer. The optimal method for patient selection into active surveillance is unknown; however, cancer-specific mortality rates remain excellent. New prognostication tools are promising, and long-term prospective, randomized data regarding their use in active surveillance will be beneficial.

  11. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  12. The importance of observation of structural changes of lead acid battery active mass in special applications in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zimáková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To be able to use lead acid batteries in particularly difficult conditions in the mining industry, it is very important to understand the events that occur during traction operation of mining carts, or auxiliary lighting. Failure of lead accumulators in the hazardous environments, where it is desired non-explosive embodiment, may have fatal consequences. The paper describes the possibility of observing changes in active materials at the microscopic level. The process of charging and discharging lead-acid accumulator has been described in many publications. The aim of this article is to supplement known information about a series of images and analysis that will accurately show progressive changes in the structure of the negative electrode. Negative electrodes are, at each cycle, charged and discharged under the same conditions, scanned with a scanning electron microscope, the elemental analysis (EDS is performed, and the size of the individual sulfate crystals is measured. Previously measured results indicate that during the charging the conversion of PbSO4 crystals into a charged form of the active mass is not complete, and there is a rapid increase in the size of lead sulfate crystals on the negative electrode. This article compares changes in electrode surface composition after two cycles. There is a clear loss of lead and, on the other hand, the visible growth of sulfur. This indicates progressive surface sulfation.

  13. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-12-31

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U{sub 3}O{sub 8} per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author).

  14. Analysis of the Current Situation for Digit Mining and Mining Informatization and Development Countermeasures%浅谈数字矿山和矿山信息化建设的现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耿

    2014-01-01

    The construction of Mining informatization has been one of most important subjects in the 21st century . The digit mining is based on digitalise , informatization , virtualization , intelligentize ,intergra-tion and controlled by computer network administration .There are four main features in mining informati-zation:intelligentize,electronics ,globalization,nonpopularity.Thedigitmininghasbeenthemostimpor-tant weapon that can improve mining ability and level in the 21st century . The final target for construction of digit mining is remote control and mining automation that means work in the office for mining .%矿山信息化建设(数字矿山建设)已成为21世纪矿业发展的重要内容之一;数字矿山是建立在数字化、信息化、虚拟化、智能化、集成化基础上的,由计算机网络管理的管控一体化体系;矿山数字信息化有四大特点,即智能化、电子化、全球化和非群体化,数字化矿山已成为21世纪提升矿山能力和水平的有利武器;矿山信息化(数字矿山)建设的终极目标是:实现远程遥控和自动化采矿,即采矿办公室化。

  15. Novel Data Mining Methods for Virtual Screening of Biological Active Chemical Compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman M.

    2016-11-23

    Drug discovery is a process that takes many years and hundreds of millions of dollars to reveal a confident conclusion about a specific treatment. Part of this sophisticated process is based on preliminary investigations to suggest a set of chemical compounds as candidate drugs for the treatment. Computational resources have been playing a significant role in this part through a step known as virtual screening. From a data mining perspective, availability of rich data resources is key in training prediction models. Yet, the difficulties imposed by big expansion in data and its dimensionality are inevitable. In this thesis, I address the main challenges that come when data mining techniques are used for virtual screening. In order to achieve an efficient virtual screening using data mining, I start by addressing the problem of feature selection and provide analysis of best ways to describe a chemical compound for an enhanced screening performance. High-throughput screening (HTS) assays data used for virtual screening are characterized by a great class imbalance. To handle this problem of class imbalance, I suggest using a novel algorithm called DRAMOTE to narrow down promising candidate chemicals aimed at interaction with specific molecular targets before they are experimentally evaluated. Existing works are mostly proposed for small-scale virtual screening based on making use of few thousands of interactions. Thus, I propose enabling large-scale (or big) virtual screening through learning millions of interaction while exploiting any relevant dependency for a better accuracy. A novel solution called DRABAL that incorporates structure learning of a Bayesian Network as a step to model dependency between the HTS assays, is showed to achieve significant improvements over existing state-of-the-art approaches.

  16. Radioecological challenges for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, mining became popular in the mid-1990's when the mining amendments to the law made the mining activities easier for foreign companies. Also the price of the minerals rose and mining in Finland became economically profitable. Expanding mining industry brought new challenges to radiation safety aspect since radioactive substances occur in nearly all minerals. In Finnish soil and bedrock the average crystal abundance of uranium and thorium are 2.8 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. It cannot be predicted beforehand how radionuclides behave in the mining processes which why they need to be taken into account in mining activities. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has given a national guide ST 12.1 based on the Finnish Radiation Act. The guide sets the limits for radiation doses to the public also from mining activities. In general, no measures to limit the radiation exposure are needed, if the dose from the operation liable to cause exposure to natural radiation is no greater than 0.1 mSv per year above the natural background radiation dose. If the exposure of the public may be higher than 0.1 mSv per year, the responsible party must provide STUK a plan describing the measures by which the radiation exposure is to be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. In that case the mining company responsible company has to make a radiological baseline study. The baseline study must focus on the environment that the mining activities may impact. The study describes the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the environment before any mining activities are started. The baseline study lasts usually for two to three years in natural circumstances. Based on the baseline study measurements, detailed information of the existing levels of radioactivity in the environment can be attained. Once the mining activities begin, it is important that the limits are set for the wastewater discharges to the environment and environmental surveillance in the vicinity of

  17. Development of environmental management plan for deep-sea mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Deep-sea mining is currently at a stage when several mine sites have been identified, mining technologies are under development, processing technologies are being tested, studies for assessing potential environmental impacts have been conducted...

  18. A Laboratory Activity on the Eddy Current Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolivar, J. A.; Abella-Palacios, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles. We present a set of quantitative experiments performed to study the influence of the geometrical and…

  19. 30 CFR 282.24 - Mining Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining Plan. 282.24 Section 282.24 Mineral... § 282.24 Mining Plan. All OCS mineral development and production activities shall be conducted in accordance with a Mining Plan submitted by the lessee and approved by the Director. A Mining Plan...

  20. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM: A SUCCESS STORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining Waste generated by active and inactive mining operations is a growing problem for the mining industry, local governments, and Native American communities because of its impact on human health and the environment. In the US, the reported volume of mine waste is immense: 2 b...

  1. Wikipedia Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kotaro; Ito, Masahiro; Erdmann, Maike; Shirakawa, Masumi; Michishita, Tomoyuki; Hara, Takahiro; Nishio, Shojiro

    Wikipedia, a collaborative Wiki-based encyclopedia, has become a huge phenomenon among Internet users. It covers a huge number of concepts of various fields such as arts, geography, history, science, sports and games. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, Wikipedia's impressive characteristics are not limited to the scale, but also include the dense link structure, URL based word sense disambiguation, and brief anchor texts. Because of these characteristics, Wikipedia has become a promising corpus and a new frontier for research. In the past few years, a considerable number of researches have been conducted in various areas such as semantic relatedness measurement, bilingual dictionary construction, and ontology construction. Extracting machine understandable knowledge from Wikipedia to enhance the intelligence on computational systems is the main goal of "Wikipedia Mining," a project on CREP (Challenge for Realizing Early Profits) in JSAI. In this paper, we take a comprehensive, panoramic view of Wikipedia Mining research and the current status of our challenge. After that, we will discuss about the future vision of this challenge.

  2. Regional assessment of cadmium pollution in agricultural lands and the potential health risk related to intensive mining activities:A case study in Chenzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Limei; LIAO Xiaoyong; CHEN Tongbin; YAN Xiulan; XIE Hua; WU Bin; WANG Lixia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural soil and its potential risk for people.Soils,rice,and vegetables from Chenzhou City,Southern China were sampled and analyzed.In the surface soils.the 95% confidence interval for the mean concentration of Cd varied between 2.72 and 4.83 mg/kg (P<0.05) in the survey, with a geometric mean concentration of 1.45 mg/kg.Based on the GIS map,two hot spot areas of Cd in agricultural soils with high Cd concentrations were identified to be located around the Shizhuyuan,Jinshiling,and Yaogangxian mines,and the Baoshan and Huangshaping mines,in the center of the city.About 60% of the total investigated area, where the agricultural soil Cd concentration iS above 1 mg/kg, is distributed in a central belt across the region.The critical distances, at which the soil Cd concentration were increased by the mining activities, from the mines of the soils were 23 km for the Baoshan mine,46 km for the Huangshaping mine,and 63 km for the Shizhuyuan mine,respectively.These are distances calculated from models.The Cd concentrations in rice samples ranged from 0.01 to 4.43 mg/kg and the mean dietary Cd intake from rice for an adult was 191 μg/d.Results of risk indexes showed that soil Cd concentrations possessed risks to local residents whose intake of Cd from rice and vegetables grown in soils in the vicinity of the mine was 596 μg/d.

  3. Realizatinon of “zero emission” of mining water effluents from Sasa mine

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakovski, Dejan; Doneva, Nikolinka; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Gocevski, Borce

    2015-01-01

    Sasa mine continuously takes actions to minimize the environmental impact of mining activities, in order to fulfill the national legislation in the field of environmental protection which comply with European legislation. This paper shows the drainage system of the horizon 830, which is performed in order to prevent free leakage of mining groundwater, as a part of these actions. This system provides a zero emission of mining water in the environment from Sasa mine. Key words: mining water...

  4. [Gender inequity in health in contexts of environmental risk from mining and industrial activity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio

    2015-06-01

    Analyze how gender inequity manifests in contexts of poverty in different environmental risk scenarios in Mexico. Qualitative design based on six discussion groups and 54 in-depth interviews with women from six exposed communities: two to environmental manganese in a mining district, two in an industrial corridor, and two bordering a sanitary landfill. A document review of environmental and health studies in each area was done to relate them to the women's perspective on the problem. In the three case studies, by gender roles, women stay at home and do housework and, therefore, are subject to intense environmental exposure when carrying out their daily tasks, such as house cleaning. Interview and discussion group results were found to be related to epidemiological study results. In the case of the mining district, women's perceptions are consistent with study comments on adverse cognitive effects of manganese exposure. In all three cases, there are serious limitations on women's political participation in environmental risk management. Due to conditions of inequity, women are highly exposed to environmental health risks and their social participation in solving environmental problems is quite limited. These results have social and environmental policy implications in the areas studied, especially with regard to risk assessment, management, and communication.

  5. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  6. An assessment of the impact of different land use activities on water quality in the upper Olifants River catchment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available use activities in the catchment. In addition, once-off sampling was conducted at a number of sites located downstream of current mining, abandoned mining, agriculture, wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) and industry. Nutrient concentrations were...

  7. New RC-Active Networks Using Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zeman

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Two novel autonomous networks containing current conveyors are presented. The design of second-order oscillators and frequency filters based on the above general networks is described. The Q-factor of the circuits designed is controllable through a grounded single resistor. Some examples illustrate the procedure described. Two new one-port elements for high-order immittance realization are shown.

  8. THE IMPACT OF MINING ACTIVITIES ON THE WEST OF PETROŞANI DEPRESSION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AFFECTED GEOMORPHOLOGICAL RESOURCES. CASE STUDY: ANINOASA-VULCAN-LUPENI SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. NIMARĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Impact of Mining Activities on the West of Petroşani Depression and Identification of Affected Geomorphological Resources. Case Study: Aninoasa- Vulcan-Lupeni Sector. The west region of Petroşani Depression, like the whole depression, suffered some changes in the geomorphologic environment as a result of coal mining activities. Following displacement processes of mass materials and relocation of it, changes in shape are brought to the original territory that contrast with the natural landscape. The human impact on the West of Petroşani Depression and hence to the analyzed sector is especially highlighted as it materializes into waste dumps and coal pits.

  9. Long-term effects of aided phytostabilisation of trace elements on microbial biomass and activity, enzyme activities, and composition of microbial community in the Jales contaminated mine spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renella, Giancarlo; Landi, Loretta; Ascher, Judith; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Pietramellara, Giacomo; Mench, Michel; Nannipieri, Paolo

    2008-04-01

    We studied the effectiveness of remediation on microbial endpoints, namely microbial biomass and activity, microbial and plant species richness, of an As-contaminated mine spoil, amended with compost (C) alone and in combination with beringite (B) or zerovalent iron grit (Z), to increase organic matter content and reduce trace elements mobility, and to allow Holcus lanatus and Pinus pinaster growth. Untreated spoil showed the lowest microbial biomass and activity and hydrolase activities, and H. lanatus as sole plant species, whereas the presented aided phytostabilisation option, especially CBZ treatment, significantly increased microbial biomass and activity and allowed colonisation by several plant species, comparable to those of an uncontaminated sandy soil. Microbial species richness was only increased in spoils amended with C alone. No clear correlation occurred between trace element mobility and microbial parameters and plant species richness. Our results indicate that the choice of indicators of soil remediation practices is a bottleneck.

  10. Icing Branch Current Research Activities in Icing Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Current development: A grid block transformation scheme which allows the input of grids in arbitrary reference frames, the use of mirror planes, and grids with relative velocities has been developed. A simple ice crystal and sand particle bouncing scheme has been included. Added an SLD splashing model based on that developed by William Wright for the LEWICE 3.2.2 software. A new area based collection efficiency algorithm will be incorporated which calculates trajectories from inflow block boundaries to outflow block boundaries. This method will be used for calculating and passing collection efficiency data between blade rows for turbo-machinery calculations.

  11. Power-Integrated Circuit Active Leakage Current Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Bulacio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the failures of induction motors become insulation faults, causing a permanent damage. Using differential current transformers, a system capable of insulation fault detection was developed, based on the differential relay protection scheme. Both signal injection and fault detection circuitry were integrated in a single chip. The proposed scheme is faster than other existing protection and not restricted to protect induction motors, but several other devices (such as IGBTs and systems. This paper explains the principle of operation of fault protection scheme and analyzes an integrated implementation through simulations and experimental results. A power-integrated circuit (PIC implementation is presented.

  12. Adsorptive removal of sulfate from acid mine drainage by polypyrrole modified activated carbons: Effects of polypyrrole deposition protocols and activated carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Siqi; Cannon, Fred S; Hou, Pin; Byrne, Tim; Nieto-Delgado, Cesar

    2017-10-01

    Polypyrrole modified activated carbon was used to remove sulfate from acid mine drainage water. The polypyrrole modified activated carbon created positively charged functionality that offered elevated sorption capacity for sulfate. The effects of the activated carbon type, approach of polymerization, preparation temperature, solvent, and concentration of oxidant solution over the sulfate adsorption capacity were studied at an array of initial sulfate concentrations. A hardwood based activated carbon was the more favorable activated carbon template, and this offered better sulfate removal than when using bituminous based activated carbon or oak wood activated carbon as the template. The hardwood-based activated carbon modified with polypyrrole removed 44.7 mg/g sulfate, and this was five times higher than for the pristine hardwood-based activated carbon. Various protocols for depositing the polypyrrole onto the activated carbon were investigated. When ferric chloride was used as an oxidant, the deposition protocol that achieved the most N(+) atomic percent (3.35%) while also maintaining the least oxygen atomic percent (6.22%) offered the most favorable sulfate removal. For the rapid small scale column tests, when processing the AMD water, hardwood-based activated carbon modified with poly pyrrole exhibited 33 bed volume compared to the 5 bed volume of pristine activated carbons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Groundwater quality in a mining activity area (The Bierzo Basin-Leon); Calidad quimica de las aguas subterraneas en una zona de actividad minera (Cuenca del Bierzo- Leon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losa, A. de la; Moreno, L.; Nunez, I.

    2010-07-01

    The Bierzo Basin presents large coal mining structures without restore where the air exposition of metallic sulphurs could become a source of heavy metal pollution and acification of waters. This paper presents the results of a research focused on groundwater quality affected by the mining activity. A sampling campaign of both ground and surface waters was carried out. Altogether, 37 sampling points has been selected including 26 springs, 7 shallow wells for agricultural use and 4 river water samples, all of them directly or indirectly connected to groundwater. The interpretation of results is based on the multivariate analysis application. Sulphate is the dominant anion in both water types, and it is related, in most cases, to oxidation of sulphurs, widely represented in the study area. However, the main conclusion is that surface water and groundwater samples have no high abnormal contents of heavy metals due to the induced alteration by mining activity. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. Wall conditioning for ITER: Current experimental and modeling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douai, D., E-mail: david.douai@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Kogut, D. [CEA, IRFM, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Wauters, T. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Brezinsek, S. [FZJ, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung Plasmaphysik, 52441 Jülich (Germany); Hagelaar, G.J.M. [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’Energie, UMR5213, Toulouse (France); Hong, S.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Lomas, P.J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Lyssoivan, A. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Nunes, I. [Associação EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pitts, R.A. [ITER International Organization, F-13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vries, P.C. de [ITER International Organization, F-13067 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    Wall conditioning will be required in ITER to control fuel and impurity recycling, as well as tritium (T) inventory. Analysis of conditioning cycle on the JET, with its ITER-Like Wall is presented, evidencing reduced need for wall cleaning in ITER compared to JET–CFC. Using a novel 2D multi-fluid model, current density during Glow Discharge Conditioning (GDC) on the in-vessel plasma-facing components (PFC) of ITER is predicted to approach the simple expectation of total anode current divided by wall surface area. Baking of the divertor to 350 °C should desorb the majority of the co-deposited T. ITER foresees the use of low temperature plasma based techniques compatible with the permanent toroidal magnetic field, such as Ion (ICWC) or Electron Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ECWC), for tritium removal between ITER plasma pulses. Extrapolation of JET ICWC results to ITER indicates removal comparable to estimated T-retention in nominal ITER D:T shots, whereas GDC may be unattractive for that purpose.

  15. Polypharmacology directed compound data mining: identification of promiscuous chemotypes with different activity profiles and comparison to approved drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2010-12-27

    Increasing evidence that many pharmaceutically relevant compounds elicit their effects through binding to multiple targets, so-called polypharmacology, is beginning to change conventional drug discovery and design strategies. In light of this paradigm shift, we have mined publicly available compound and bioactivity data for promiscuous chemotypes. For this purpose, a hierarchy of active compounds, atomic property based scaffolds, and unique molecular topologies were generated, and activity annotations were analyzed using this framework. Starting from ∼35 000 compounds active against human targets with at least 1 μM potency, 33 chemotypes with distinct topology were identified that represented molecules active against at least 3 different target families. Network representations were utilized to study scaffold-target family relationships and activity profiles of scaffolds corresponding to promiscuous chemotypes. A subset of promiscuous chemotypes displayed a significant enrichment in drugs over bioactive compounds. A total of 190 drugs were identified that had on average only 2 known target annotations but belonged to the 7 most promiscuous chemotypes that were active against 8-15 target families. These drugs should be attractive candidates for polypharmacological profiling.

  16. Reduction of spatial distribution of risk factors for transportation of contaminants released by coal mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2016-09-15

    It is reported that water-energy nexus composes two of the biggest development and human health challenges. In the present study we presented a Risk Potential Index (RPI) model which encapsulates Source, Vector (Transport), and Target risks for forecasting surface water contamination. The main aim of the model is to identify critical surface water risk zones for an open cast mining environment, taking Jharia Coalfield, India as the study area. The model also helps in feasible sampling design. Based on spatial analysis various risk zones were successfully delineated. Monthly RPI distribution revealed that the risk of surface water contamination was highest during the monsoon months. Surface water samples were analysed to validate the model. A GIS based alternative management option was proposed to reduce surface water contamination risk and observed 96% and 86% decrease in the spatial distribution of very high risk areas for the months June and July respectively.

  17. Women in mining still exploited and sexually harassed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doret Botha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, women have become an essential part of the mining workforce. Among other jobs, they fulfil management positions, operate heavy machinery and are involved in artisanal mining processes. In South Africa, new mining legislation not only prohibits the exclusion of women but requires from companies to actively change the demographic profile of their workforce. Mining companies are obliged to also employ women in core mining activities. Although well intended, women appointed in core positions work side by side with men, often in isolation, and are frequently at risk of sexual abuse and/or harassment.Research purpose: This research determined perceptions regarding the occurrence of sexual harassment among women working in core mining positions.Motivation for the study: Currently, there is a paucity of published data on the occurrence of sexual harassment in the mining industry.Method: A mixed-method research design was used including quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Quantitative data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected by means of individual and group interviews.Main findings: From the literature review and the empirical findings, it is evident that women are still exploited and sexually harassed in the mining industry. Incidents taking place on a daily basis vary from whistling; name calling; use of vulgar or derogatory language; display of body parts; physical contact, ranging from touching to sexual assault and rape; to the exchange of sexual favours for promotion.Practical/managerial implications: It is evident from the research that a holistic approach is required to effectively eradicate sexual harassment in the mining industry, involving the commitment of relevant state departments, human resource managers and labour experts.Contribution: Practical recommendations are made to effectively address sexual harassment in the mining industry.

  18. Current status of pyrazole and its biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, Mohd Javed; Alam, Ozair; Nawaz, Farah; Alam, Md Jahangir; Alam, Perwaiz

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and exhibit a full spectrum of biological activities. This review throws light on the detailed synthetic approaches which have been applied for the synthesis of pyrazole. This has been followed by an in depth analysis of the pyrazole with respect to their medical significance. This follow-up may help the medicinal chemists to generate new leads possessing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy.

  19. Proton currents constrain structural models of voltage sensor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Aaron L; Mokrab, Younes; Bennett, Ashley L; Sansom, Mark SP; Ramsey, Ian Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Hv1 proton channel is evidently unique among voltage sensor domain proteins in mediating an intrinsic ‘aqueous’ H+ conductance (GAQ). Mutation of a highly conserved ‘gating charge’ residue in the S4 helix (R1H) confers a resting-state H+ ‘shuttle’ conductance (GSH) in VGCs and Ci VSP, and we now report that R1H is sufficient to reconstitute GSH in Hv1 without abrogating GAQ. Second-site mutations in S3 (D185A/H) and S4 (N4R) experimentally separate GSH and GAQ gating, which report thermodynamically distinct initial and final steps, respectively, in the Hv1 activation pathway. The effects of Hv1 mutations on GSH and GAQ are used to constrain the positions of key side chains in resting- and activated-state VS model structures, providing new insights into the structural basis of VS activation and H+ transfer mechanisms in Hv1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18017.001 PMID:27572256

  20. Current activities of the Yersinia effector protein YopM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, Sabrina; Grabowski, Benjamin; Norkowski, Stefanie; Schmidt, M Alexander; Rüter, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Yersinia outer protein M (YopM) belongs to the group of Yop effector proteins, which are highly conserved among pathogenic Yersinia species. During infection, the effectors are delivered into the host cell cytoplasm via the type 3 secretion system to subvert the host immune response and support the survival of Yersinia. In contrast to the other Yop effectors, YopM does not possess a known enzymatic activity and its molecular mechanism(s) of action remain(s) poorly understood. However, YopM was shown to promote colonization and dissemination of Yersinia, thus being crucial for the pathogen's virulence in vivo. Moreover, YopM interacts with several host cell proteins and might utilize them to execute its anti-inflammatory activities. The results obtained so far indicate that YopM is a multifunctional protein that counteracts the host immune defense by multiple activities, which are at least partially independent of each other. Finally, its functions seem to be also influenced by differences between the specific YopM isoforms expressed by Yersinia subspecies. In this review, we focus on the global as well as more specific contribution of YopM to virulence of Yersinia during infection and point out the various extra- and intracellular molecular functions of YopM. In addition, the novel cell-penetrating ability of recombinant YopM and its potential applications as a self-delivering immunomodulatory therapeutic will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Innovative management techniques to deal with mine water issues in the Sydney coal field, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, J. [Enterprise Cape Breton Corp., Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    There are currently 20 mine pools that have flooded to an equilibrium point and are discharging water at the Sydney Coalfield in Nova Scotia (NS). This paper discussed a new mine water technique that is being used at 3 of the mine's mine pools. An emergency active treatment plant was constructed at one of the mine shafts to prevent uncontrolled discharges. A drilling program was also conducted in the inflooded zones of the mine to test the quality of the rising mine water. Pump tests were conducted to allow for the discharge of better quality mine water into a receiving stream without treatment. An automated and remote-controlled pumping system was installed. A passive treatment system consisting of aeration cascades and a 1.2 hectare settling pond and a 1.1 hectare reed bed wetland was constructed. The mine water flow through the pond was designed using a simple piston flow theory that provided a 50 hour retention time for the mine water. Floating pond curtains were also installed. Boreholes were drilled to combine mine waters from other pools into the passive treatment plant. It is expected that mine water issues at the site will be resolved within the next 5 years. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Index of current water-resources activities in Ohio, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the U. S. Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division 's program in Ohio in 1985. The work of the Ohio District is carried out through the District office in Columbus and a field office in New Philadelphia. Collection of basic data needed for continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of Ohio 's water resources is the responsibility of the District 's Hydrologic Surveillance Section. The Hydrologic Investigations Section conducts analytical and interpretive water-resource appraisals describing the occurrence, availability, and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and groundwater. In addition to introductory material describing the structure of the Ohio District, information is presented on current projects, sites at which basic surface- and groundwater data are collected , and reports of Ohio 's water resources published by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies. (USGS)

  3. A laboratory activity on the eddy current brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Abella-Palacios, A. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles. We present a set of quantitative experiments performed to study the influence of the geometrical and electromagnetic properties of the magnet on the magnetic drag force. This video-based experiment is ideal for the study of kinematic graphs and the application of Newton's laws. Video motion analysis software enables students to make precise measurements of the magnet's position at incremental times during its motion, thus allowing them to quantify electromagnetic induction phenomena. The equipment needed for this experiment and data collection software are present in most physics teaching laboratories or are inexpensive and available.

  4. Data mining techniques for e -learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONIȚĂ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining (DM, sometimes called Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD, is a powerful new technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most important information in the data they have collected via transactions. In the education field, the prediction of students learning performance, detection of inappropriate learning behaviours, and development of student profile may be considered e-learning problems where data mining can successfully solve them. In this paper, the authoress analyses the possibilities to apply data mining techniques in e-learning context, to predict the students’ status referring to their activities and the interest in using advanced tutoring tools. The experiments were performed on the basis of data provided by an e-learning platform (Moodle regarding the logging parameters of students enrolled on Interactive Tutoring Systems discipline during the second semester of current year.

  5. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...... value maximization forces the manager of high type to extract the gold.The implications are three-fold. First, all managers (except the lowest type) extract the gold too soon compared to the first-best policy of leaving the gold in the mine forever. Second, a manager of high type extracts the gold...... sooner than a manager of lower type. Third, a non-operating gold mine is valued as being of the lowest type in the pool and all else equal, high-asymmetri mines are valued lower than low-asymmetri mines. In a qualitative sense these results are robust with respect to different assumptions (re cost...

  6. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

    2003-03-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10{sup 13} - 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  7. [Active teaching-learning methodologies in health education: current debates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Sandra Minardi; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Girardi-de-Mendonça, José Márcio; de Morais-Pinto, Neila Maria; Meirelles, Cynthia de Almeida Brandão; Pinto-Porto, Cláudia; Moreira, Tânia; Hoffmann, Leandro Marcial Amaral

    2008-12-01

    The vertiginous transformations of the contemporary societies have been raising questions concerning aspects of professional education. Such questions have been raised in a more and more incisive way. This debate gains a new shape when applied to health work, where theory and practice cannot be dissociated, and where the development of an integral vision of the human being and the amplification of the concept care are essential for a proper performance. Based on these considerations, this article aims to discuss the main methodological transformations in the education process of health professionals, with emphasis to active teaching-learning methodologies.

  8. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  9. Elemental characterization of superficial waters contaminated by an abandoned sulfide-mining area, through neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canha, N.; Freitas, M.C.; Dionisio, I.; Anawar, H.M. [URSN-ITN, Sacavem (Portugal). Technological and Nuclear Inst.; Pacheco, A.M.G. [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). CERENA-IST

    2011-07-01

    In this work, superficial waters of two small rivers flowing in the Sao Domingos' abandoned mining area were analyzed in order to infer on soil-water transfer of the elements determined. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for elemental concentration assessment. The following elements were found at the mg L{sup -1} level: As, Ba, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Na and Zn. The dry-mass residues varied between 70 mg and 1 g in 20-mL volumes. High enrichment relative to soil was found for most elements. Good statistical associations between Br and Na, between Cr and Sc, and between Ce, Co, Fe, Yb, and Zn, were found, suggesting a similar mechanism of soil-water, elemental transfer. Both the superficial waters' composition and their elemental levels indicate a potential risk of contamination of the underground waters and an actual health risk for the resident populations. (orig.)

  10. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol: current progress and future prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nostro, Antonia; Papalia, Teresa

    2012-04-01

    During the last few years the scientific community has shown a considerable interest in the study of plant materials as sources of new compounds to be processed into antimicrobial agents. In this context, carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol, has emerged for its wide spectrum activity extended to food spoilage or pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria as well as human, animal and plant pathogenic microorganisms including drug-resistant and biofilm forming microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of carvacrol has been attributed to its considerable effects on the structural and functional properties of cytoplasmatic membrane. The data reported in this review provide an overview of the published literature regarding the antimicrobial properties of carvacrol and the recent patents claimed in order to highlight its future applications as a new antimicrobial agent. These could concern either the natural preservation in the cosmetic and food industries or an alternative which supports the conventional antimicrobial protocols. Interestingly, carvacrol alone or associated with one or more synergistic products could be incorporated in different formulations for biomedical and food packaging applications. However, more detailed safety investigations and in vivo studies should be carried out so that this molecule could be used in the future.

  12. Application and interpretation of current autophagy inhibitors and activators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping YANG; Li-fang HU; Hui-fen ZHENG; Cheng-jie MAO; Wei-dong HU; Kang-ping XIONG; Fen WANG

    2013-01-01

    Aut ophagy is the major intracellular degradation system,by which cytoplasmic materials are delivered to and degraded in the lysosome.As a quality control mechanism for cytoplasmic proteins and organelles,autophagy plays important roles in a variety of human diseases,including neurodegenerative diseases,cancer,cardiovascular disease,diabetes and infectious and inflammatory diseases.The discovery of ATG genes and the dissection of the signaling pathways involved in regulating autophagy have greatly enriched our knowledge on the occurrence and development of this lysosomal degradation pathway.In addition to its role in degradation,autophagy may also promote a type of programmed cell death that is different from apoptosis,termed type II programmed cell death.Owing to the dual roles of autophagy in cell death and the specificity of diseases,the exact mechanisms of autophagy in various diseases require more investigation.The application of autophagy inhibitors and activators will help us understand the regulation of autophagy in human diseases,and provide insight into the use of autophagy-targeted drugs.In this review,we summarize the latest research on autophagy inhibitors and activators and discuss the possibility of their application in human disease therapy.

  13. Effects of mining activities on heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment, and macroinvertebrates in different reaches of the Pilcomayo River, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, A J P; Lock, R A C; Van der Velde, G; Medina Hoyos, R I; Roelofs, J G M

    2003-04-01

    From 1997 until 1999 the extent and the ecological effects of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium pollution were studied in different reaches of the South American Pilcomayo River. A comparison of metal concentrations in water, sediment, and chironomid larvae, as well as the diversity of macroinvertebrate species, was made between sites near the origin of the Pilcomayo River, with hardly any mining activities, sites in the Potosí region, with intensive mining, and sites located 500 km or further downstream of Potosí, in the Chaco plain. Samples were also collected in an unpolluted river (Cachi Mayu River) and in the Tarapaya River, which is strongly contaminated by mine tailings (1000 tons a day). The upper parts of the Pilcomayo River are strongly affected by the release of mine tailings from the Potosí mines where mean concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in water, filtered water, sediment, and chironomid larvae were up to a thousand times higher than the local background levels. The diversity of the benthic macroinvertebrate community was strongly reduced in the contaminated parts; 97% of the benthic macroinvertebrates consisted of chironomid larvae. The degree of contamination in the lower reaches of the river, however, was fairly low because of sedimentation processes and the strong dilution of mine tailings with enormous amounts of clean sediment from erosion processes. Analysis of sediment cores from the Ibibobo floodplain, however, reveal an increase of the heavy metal concentrations in the lower reaches since the introduction of the contaminating flotation process in the mine industry in 1985.

  14. Thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, José; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sauvé, Sébastien; Salgado, Eduardo; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued that the identification of the phytotoxic metal thresholds in soil should be based on field-collected soil rather than on artificially-contaminated soils. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation because of mixed contamination and unavoidable covariance of metal contamination with other soil properties that affect plant growth. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in topsoils of 27 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed emergence and early growth (21 days) tests (OECD 208 and ISO 11269-2) with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The total Cu content in soils was the best predictor of plant growth and shoot Cu concentrations, while soluble Cu and pCu(2+) did not well correlate with these biological responses. The effects of Pb, Zn, and As on plant responses were not significant, suggesting that Cu is a metal of prime concern for plant growth in soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile. The effects of soil nutrient availability and shoot nutrient concentrations on ryegrass response were not significant. It was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 of total Cu in the soil of 327 mg kg(-1), 735 mg kg(-1) and 1144 mg kg(-1), respectively, using the shoot length as a response variable. However, the derived 95% confidence intervals for EC10, EC25 and EC50 values of total soil Cu were wide, and thus not allowing a robust assessment of metal toxicity for agricultural crops, based on total soil Cu concentrations. Thus, plant tests might need to be performed for metal toxicity assessment. This study suggests shoot length of ryegrass as a robust response variable for metal toxicity assessment in contaminated soils with different nutrient availability.

  15. 3D-visualization in mine planning. Development, current status and prospects; 3D-Visualisierung in der Bergbauplanung. Entwicklung, Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C.; Grafe, R. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau

    2001-06-01

    The visualization of spatial information is of particular significance in mining. The more realistically geological and mining models can be visualized, the more convincingly they can be conveyed. This, in turn, results in improvements as regards the speed, the reliability and the quality of the planning. Errors can thus be avoided during the planning preparations and safety aspects can be taken into account much better, so that an overall positive economic effect is achieved. Moreover, the idea of a certain mining project can be introduced much more realistically to others who are normally not involved in mining so much, which leads to better understanding, confidence and eventually acceptance. An auto-stereoscopic display (developed by the Technical University Dresden) for a genuine 3D visualization of mine planning processes was introduced at the Freiberg Mining University on March 29, 2000 for the first time in the world. This innovative technology opens up completely new opportunities for using graphic software in the field of mine planning. (orig.) [German] Der Visualisierung von raeumlichen Informationen kommt im Bergbau eine besondere Bedeutung zu. Je realistischer geologische und bergbauliche Modelle veranschaulicht werden koennen, desto ueberzeugender lassen sie sich vermitteln, Verbesserungen in Schnelligkeit, Zuverlaessigkeit und Qualitaet der Planung sind die Folge. Dies traegt dazu bei, Fehler in der planerischen Vorbereitung zu vermeiden, Sicherheitsaspekten im Bergbau staerker Rechnung zu tragen und insgesamt positive wirtschaftliche Effekte zu erzielen. Darueber hinaus kann Aussenstehenden ein realitaetsnahes Bild eines bergbaulichen Vorhabens vermittelt werden, was zu mehr Verstaendnis, Vertrauen und Akzeptanz fuehrt. Als weltweite Premiere wurde am 29. Maerz 2000 an der TU Bergakademie Freiberg der Einsatz eines autostereoskopischen Displays (Entwicklung der TU Dresden) fuer echte 3D-Visualisierung in der Bergbauplanung vorgestellt. Diese

  16. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  17. Profiles for voltage-activated currents are multiphasic, not curvilinear

    CERN Document Server

    Nissen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Data for voltage-activation of a potassium channel (Matulef et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110: 17886-17891. 2013) were, as conventionally done, fitted by the authors by a Boltzmann function, i.e. by a curvilinear profile. Reanalysis of the data reveals however that this interpretation must be rejected in favor of a multiphasic profile, a series of straight lines separated by discontinuous transitions, quite often in the form of noncontiguities (jumps). In contrast to the generally very poor fits to the Boltzmann profiles, the fits to multiphasic profiles are very good. (For the four replicates, the average deviations from the Boltzmann curves were 10- to 100-fold larger than the deviations from the multiphasic profiles.) The difference in the median values was statistically highly significant, P<0.001 in most cases. For the mean values the deviations from the Boltzmann curve were 20-fold larger than the deviations from the multiphasic profile, and the difference in the median values was also highly signifi...

  18. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Naeem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites—the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1 mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV of quinolones; (2 plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3 chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV. In the case of

  19. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Abdul; Badshah, Syed Lal; Muska, Mairman; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Khalid

    2016-03-28

    Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites--the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1) mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV) of quinolones; (2) plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3) chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV). In the case of chromosome

  20. 矿井浪涌脉冲辐射电磁场研究%Radiated Electromagnetic Fields of Surge Current in Coal Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继平; 陈辉; 李琼琼

    2011-01-01

    研究煤矿井下浪涌脉冲电流激励下电缆的辐射电磁场,运用推迟矢量位和行波天线理论推导了浪涌脉冲电流激励下电缆的辐射电磁场时域数学模型,给出了辐射场强的解析表达式,并进行了仿真计算.时域结果表明,浪涌脉冲电流在电缆附近会产生很高的瞬态辐射场强,但随着距离电缆的径向距离的增加,辐射场强迅速衰减;辐射场强的大小与浪涌电流峰值成正比;在巷道径向距离内,同一横截面辐射场强与距离成反比;在浪涌电流峰值为1 kA时,距离电缆径向距离4m处瞬态辐射电场强度峰值达到15 kV/m,磁场强度峰值达到40 A/m.因此在不采取屏蔽措施的情况下,瞬态浪涌辐射会对井下巷道内监控及通信系统的正常工作造成影响.%The radiated electromagnetic fields from the cable excited by surge current in mine environment were studied. The mathematical models for the radiated electromagnetic fields in time domain were deduced by using the theories of retarded vector potential and traveling wave antenna. The analytical expressions and simulation results of the radiated electromagnetic fields were given. The results show that surge current can cause high transient radiated electromagnetic fields nearby a cable, but the strength of radiated field attenuates quickly with increasing radial distance from a cable; the radiated field strength is proportional to the peak value of surge current and, within the radial distance of the same transverse section in a tunnel, the radiated field strength is inversely proportional to the distance from a cable. It has been obtained from simulation that, when the surge peak current reaches 1 kA, the transient peak radiated electric field strength is about 15 kV/m and the peak magnetic field strength is about 40 A/m at the field point 4 m away from the cable. That indicates, if there is no shielding measures to be taken, the radiated electromagnetic fields of

  1. Hysteresis Current Control technique based on Space Vector Modulation for Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yun-liang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the hysteresis current control (HCC technique based on space vector modulation (SVM for shunt active power filter (APF is proposed. The switching control algorithms of the HCC based SVM manage to generate compensated current according to the reference current. Harmonics extraction is based on the instantaneous active and reactive power theorem in time domain by calculating the power compensation. A closed loop control system is carried out and the error current is the difference between the reference current which is obtained from the power compensation and the actual current needs to be injected back into the power grid. By implementing this control strategy, the APF manages to generate better compensated harmonics currents to the power grid. Keywords: active power filter, hysteresis current control, space vector modulation ,matlab/simulink

  2. Dysfunctional amygdala activation and connectivity with the prefrontal cortex in current cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, C.L.; Kaag, A.M.; Munkhof, H.E. van den; Reneman, L.; Homberg, J.R.; Sabbe, B.; Brink, W. van den; Wingen, G. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Stimulant use is associated with increased anxiety and a single administration of dexamphetamine increases amygdala activation to biologically salient stimuli in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate how current cocaine use affects amygdala activity and amygdala connectivity with the

  3. Effects of antimony and arsenic on antioxidant enzyme activities of two steppic plant species in an old antimony mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamdi, Asma; Bentellis, Alima; Rached, Oualida; Du Laing, Gijs; Mechakra, Aicha

    2014-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to determine strategies and antioxidant enzyme activities involved in the adaptation of two wild steppic plants (Hedysarum pallidum Desf. and Lygeum spartum L.) to the toxic environment of the abandoned antimony mining area of Djebel Hamimat (Algeria). For this purpose, soils and plants were collected in different zones coinciding with a Sb and As concentrations gradient in the soil. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) were analyzed by ICP-OES in the soils and the aboveground parts and roots of the plants. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured by spectrometry. Results show levels of Sb and As exceptionally high in most soil and plant samples. The two species accumulate differently Sb and As in their above and belowground parts. MDA levels, in the two parts of both species, increase significantly with increasing soil Sb and As concentrations, but they are significantly higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum. The activities of antioxidant enzymes differ significantly according to the soil metalloid concentrations, the plant species considered and the plant part. Apart from superoxide dismutase (SOD) whose activity is, overall, higher in H. pallidum than in L. spartum, the activities of all the other enzymes studied (glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) are generally higher in L. spartum than in H. pallidum. For both species, APX and GST are overall more active in the upper parts than in the roots, while it is the reverse for SOD and CAT. POD is more active in the upper parts than in the roots of L. spartum and the reverse applies to H. pallidum. It appears that the two studied plant species use different tolerance strategies to protect themselves against elevated As and Sb concentrations.

  4. Geochemical anomalies of toxic elements and arsenic speciation in airborne particles from Cu mining and smelting activities: influence on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; González Castanedo, Yolanda; de la Rosa, Jesús D

    2015-06-30

    A characterization of chemical composition and source contribution of PM10 in three representative environments of southwest Spain related to mining activities (mineral extraction, mining waste and Cu-smelting) has been performed. A study of geochemical anomalies was conducted in the samples collected at the three stations between July 2012 and October 2013. The influence of Cu-smelting processes was compared to other mining activities, where common tracers were identified. The Cu and As concentrations in the study area are higher than in other rural and urban stations of Spain, in which geochemical anomalies of As, Se, Bi, Cd, and Pb have been reported. The results of source contribution showed similar geochemical signatures in the industrial and mining factors. However, the contribution to PM10 is different according to the type of industrial activity. These results have been confirmed performing an arsenic speciation analysis of the PM10 samples, in which the mean extraction efficiency of arsenic depended on the origin of the samples. These finding indicate that the atmospheric particulate matter emitted from Cu-smelting has a high residence time in the atmosphere. This indicates that the Cu-smelter can impact areas of high ecological interest and considered as clean air.

  5. Exposure and toxic effects of elemental mercury in gold-mining activities in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raúl; Harari, Florencia; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Skerfving, Staffan; Strömberg, Ulf; Broberg, Karin

    2012-08-13

    Traditional gold mining, using metallic mercury (Hg(0)) to form gold amalgam, followed by burning to remove the Hg(0), is widely used in South America, Africa and Asia. The gold is sold to merchants who burn it again to eliminate remaining Hg(0). In Ecuador, 200 gold miners, 37 gold merchants and 72 referents were studied. The median Hg concentrations in urine (U-Hg) were 3.3 (range 0.23-170), 37 (3.2-420), and 1.6 (0.2-13)μg/g creatinine, respectively, and in whole blood (B-Hg) were 5.2, 30, and 5.0 μg/L, respectively. Biomarker concentrations among merchants were statistically significantly higher than among miners and referents; also the miners differed from the referents. Burning of gold amalgam among miners was intermittent; U-Hg decreased in the burning-free period. In computerized neuromotor examinations, B-Hg and U-Hg concentrations were associated with increases in the centre frequency of the tremor, as well as in reaction time and postural stability.Retention of Hg (B-Hg), and the elimination rate (U-Hg) appears to be modified by polymorphism in a gene of an enzyme in the glutathione synthesis (GCLM), but there were no significant genetic modifications for the associations between exposure and neurotoxicity.Thus, the gold merchants have a much higher exposure and risk than the miners, in whom the exposure varies over time. The metabolism of Hg is modified by genetic traits. The present exposure to Hg had limited neurotoxic effects.

  6. Measuring total mercury due to small-scale gold mining activities to determine community vulnerability in Cihonje, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mega M; Inoue, Takanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yokota, Kuriko

    2016-01-01

    This research is comparative study of gold mining and non-gold mining areas, using four community vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability indicators are exposure degree, contamination rate, chronic, and acute toxicity. Each indicator used different samples, such as wastewater from gold mining process, river water from Tajum river, human hair samples, and health questionnaire. This research used cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry to determine total mercury concentration. The result showed that concentration of total mercury was 2,420 times than the maximum content of mercury permitted in wastewater based on the Indonesian regulation. Moreover, the mercury concentration in river water reached 685 ng/l, exceeding the quality threshold standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mercury concentration in hair samples obtained from the people living in the research location was considered to identify the health quality level of the people or as a chronic toxicity indicator. The highest mercury concentration--i.e. 17 ng/mg, was found in the gold mining respondents. Therefore, based on the total mercury concentration in the four indicators, the community in the gold mining area were more vulnerable to mercury than communities in non-gold mining areas. It was concluded that the community in gold mining area was more vulnerable to mercury contamination than the community in non-gold mining area.

  7. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features.

  8. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79... ACTIVITIES § 816.79 Protection of underground mining. No surface mining activities shall be conducted closer than 500 feet to any point of either an active or abandoned underground mine, except to the extent that...

  9. 2nd International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Durga

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in the Second International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Data Mining (ICCIDM 2015) held at Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India during 5 – 6 December 2015. The two-volume Proceedings address the difficulties and challenges for the seamless integration of two core disciplines of computer science, i.e., computational intelligence and data mining. The book addresses different methods and techniques of integration for enhancing the overall goal of data mining. The book helps to disseminate the knowledge about some innovative, active research directions in the field of data mining, machine and computational intelligence, along with some current issues and applications of related topics.

  10. An assessment of mine legacies and how to prevent them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    of AMD is felt well beyond the mining district and the costs of prevention and remediation were found to be significant. Apart from environmental legacies, the mine also left a number of socio-economic legacies including: limited access to non-polluted water that results in San Sebastian residents...... devoting a high proportion of their income in obtaining water, lost opportunities due to the cessation of mining, uncertain land tenure situation and increasing growth of ASGM activities that exacerbate already existing environmental pollution due to use of mercury. The study also found that the state......’s capacity to ensure compliance with the law is very weak and that in many important respects the country’s current legal framework does not meet world’s best practice when it comes to mine closure requirements. The findings are important because they demonstrate that the lack of closure planning can lead...

  11. 1st International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, Himansu; Mandal, Jyotsna; Mohapatra, Durga

    2015-01-01

    The contributed volume aims to explicate and address the difficulties and challenges for the seamless integration of two core disciplines of computer science, i.e., computational intelligence and data mining. Data Mining aims at the automatic discovery of underlying non-trivial knowledge from datasets by applying intelligent analysis techniques. The interest in this research area has experienced a considerable growth in the last years due to two key factors: (a) knowledge hidden in organizations’ databases can be exploited to improve strategic and managerial decision-making; (b) the large volume of data managed by organizations makes it impossible to carry out a manual analysis. The book addresses different methods and techniques of integration for enhancing the overall goal of data mining. The book helps to disseminate the knowledge about some innovative, active research directions in the field of data mining, machine and computational intelligence, along with some current issues and applications of relate...

  12. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruben Recabarren; Bogdan Carbunar

    2017-01-01

    .... In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners...

  13. 煤矿井下移动救生舱的发展现状及趋势%Current situation and development of coal mine mobile refuge chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安元; 曲效成

    2011-01-01

    救生舱可为矿工在灾变环境下提供稳定可靠、保障齐全的维生空间,把灾害的损失降到较低水平.对比分析国外矿业发达国家和中国在救生舱领域发展状况,提出适合我国煤矿生产特点的救生舱研发思路.对煤矿井下移动救生舱进行了分类,并从实用性、人机可靠性、经济性等角度探讨了救生舱的外形和功能指标.结合美国凯特、斯塔特和澳大利亚迈安科美国分公司生产的救生舱产品及国内20余家单位研究的产品分析,对煤矿井下移动救生舱的结构与功能参数进行了研究.%Refuge chamber can provide stable, reliable and completely guaranteed life space for miners in disaster circumstance as well as reduce the loss to a lower point. Mining developed countries such as the USA, Canada and South Africa have made lots of research on emergency shelter and refuge chamber as an important part of mine emergency rescue work and they have made many successful rescue experiences. However, mine refuge chamber is never used in China as a safety guaranteed facility. The paper brought forward refuge chamber design frame suitable for China' s coal mine working environment through making analysis and comparison on products offered by ChemBio Shelter, Inc, Strata Products WordWild, LLC, MineARC Systems United States and other over 20 China enterprises' analogous products and combining China' s coal mining features. It made an optimized analysis on coal mine refuge chamber' s classification, structure and function design and ancillary equipments from the aspects of refuge chamber facility' s practicability, human-machine reliability and economy.

  14. Web Mining: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. G. S. Mudiraj B. Jabber K. David raju

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is a main research area in Web mining focused on learning about Web users and their interactions with Web sites. The motive of mining is to find users’ access models automatically and quickly from the vast Web log data, such as frequent access paths, frequent access page groups and user clustering. Through web usage mining, the server log, registration information and other relative information left by user provide foundation for decision making of organizations. This article provides a survey and analysis of current Web usage mining systems and technologies. There are generally three tasks in Web Usage Mining: Preprocessing, Pattern analysis and Knowledge discovery. Preprocessing cleans log file of server by removing log entries such as error or failure and repeated request for the same URL from the same host etc... The main task of Pattern analysis is to filter uninteresting information and to visualize and interpret the interesting pattern to users. The statistics collected from the log file can help to discover the knowledge. This knowledge collected can be used to take decision on various factors like Excellent, Medium, Weak users and Excellent, Medium and Weak web pages based on hit counts of the web page in the web site. The design of the website is restructured based on user’s behavior or hit counts which provides quick response to the web users, saves memory space of servers and thus reducing HTTP requests and bandwidth utilization. This paper addresses challenges in three phases of Web Usage mining along with Web Structure Mining.This paper also discusses an application of WUM, an online Recommender System that dynamically generates links to pages that have not yet been visited by a user and might be of his potential interest. Differently from the recommender systems proposed so far, ONLINE MINER does not make use of any off-line component, and is able to manage Web sites made up of pages dynamically generated.

  15. 78 FR 4165 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Arturo Mine Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...: Barrick-Dee Mining Venture Inc., proposes to develop the Arturo Mine Project by expansion of the existing open-pit Dee Gold Mine which is currently in closure and reclamation. The Dee Gold Mine is 45...

  16. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers...... signicant class dierences|to recognize both simple (i.e., sequential) and complex (i.e., interleaved and concurrent) activities. Based on ESPs, we build our complex activity models directly upon the sequential model to recognize both activity types. We conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate...

  17. How does the mining industry contribute to sexual and reproductive health in developing countries? A narrative synthesis of current evidence to inform practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angela J; Homer, Caroline S

    2013-12-01

    To explore client and provider experiences and related health outcomes of sexual and reproductive health interventions that have been led by or that have involved mining companies. Miners, and those living in communities surrounding mines in developing countries, are a vulnerable population with a high sexual and reproductive health burden. People in these communities require specific healthcare services although the exact delivery needs are unclear. There are no systematic reviews of evidence to guide delivery of sexual and reproductive health interventions to best address the needs of men and women in mining communities. A narrative synthesis. A search of peer-reviewed literature from 2000-2012 was undertaken with retrieved documents assessed using an inclusion/exclusion criterion and quality appraisal guided by critical assessment tools. Concepts were analysed thematically. A desire for HIV testing and treatment was associated with the recognition of personal vulnerability, but this was affected by fear of stigma. Regular on-site services facilitated access to voluntary counselling and testing and HIV care, but concerns for confidentiality were a serious barrier. The provision of HIV and sexually transmitted infection clinical and promotive services revealed mixed health outcomes. Recommended service improvements included rapid HIV testing, the integration of sexual and reproductive health into regular health services also available to family members and culturally competent, ethical, providers who are better supported to involve consumers in health promotion. There is a need for research to better inform health interventions so that they build on local cultural norms and values and address social needs. A holistic approach to sexual and reproductive health beyond a focus on HIV may better engage community members, mining companies and governments in healthcare delivery. Nurses may require appropriate workplace support and incentives to deliver sexual and

  18. Proceedings of the 2010 International Mine Water Association symposium : mine water and innovative thinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkersdorfer, C. [Cape Breton Univ., Sydney, NS (Canada); Freund, A. [CBU Press, Sydney, NS (Canada)] (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is causing pollution in many waterways and ground water tables throughout the world. Hosted by the International Mine Water Association, this symposium examined issues related to acid mine drainage and explored various water treatment and water removal technologies and mine water chemistry analysis methods. Issues concerning the remediation and monitoring of abandoned mines were explored and recent innovations in geochemistry and geological engineering were presented. Water management issues in various types of geologic formations were included. The conference themes were: mine water issues and innovative mining methods; mine water engineering; mine water treatment, active systems; mine water treatment, passive systems; mine water geothermal, geochemistry and biochemistry uses; analysis of mine water and its chemistry; underground and surface coal mining; mine closures; legal and social aspects of mine water; mine tailings; the Cape Breton Development Corporation legacy; and the concept of a zero waste mine. The symposium featured 155 presentations, of which 32 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  19. Preliminary Study of the Pozzolanic Activity of Dumped Mine Wastes Obtained from the North Bohemian Basin in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos SOTIRIADIS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three dumped raw materials, a tuff and two bentonites, obtained from two mining sites at the North Bohemian basin in the Czech Republic, have been studied in order to evaluate them as pozzolanic admixtures in lime mortars for employment in restoration of cultural heritage objects. After thermal activation (800 °C; 5 h, their pozzolanic properties were compared with those of commercial metakaolin. Quantitative phase analysis with the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction patterns, morphological observations, as well as the Frattini and the modified Chapelle tests were performed. In addition, lime mortars, incorporating the fired materials, were prepared and subjected to simultaneous thermal analysis after a 28-day initial curing (20 ± 1 °C; 60 ± 5 % RH. The results showed that all three materials possess pozzolanic activity. However, when employed in lime mortars they did not result in formation of pozzolanic reaction products. Two methods were proposed to improve their reactivity; grinding to obtain finer particle size and removal of quartz content where necessary.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14864

  20. Biodiversity, abundance, and activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria during primary succession on a copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Nan; Tang, Feng-Zao; Song, Yong-Sheng; Wan, Cai-Yun; Wang, Sheng-Long; Liu, Wei-Qiu; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms are important in soil development, inputs and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and organic matter during early stages of ecosystem development, but little is known about their diversity, distribution, and function in relation to the chemical and physical changes associated with the progress of succession. In this study, we characterized the community structure and activity of nitrogen-fixing microbes during primary succession on a copper tailings. Terminal fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone sequencing of nifH genes indicated that different N(2) -fixing communities developed under primary succession. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a diversity of nifH sequences that were mostly novel, and many of these could be assigned to the taxonomic divisions Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Firmicutes. Members of the Cyanobacteria, mostly affiliated with Nostocales or not closely related to any known organisms, were detected exclusively in the biological soil crusts and represented a substantial fraction of the respective diazotrophic communities. Quantitative PCR (and statistical analyses) revealed that, overall, copy number of nifH sequences increased with progressing succession and correlated with changes in physiochemical properties (including elementary elements such as carbon and nitrogen) and the recorded nitrogenase activities of the tailings. Our study provides an initial insight into the biodiversity and community structure evolution of N(2) -fixing microorganisms in ecological succession of mine tailings. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Profiling microbial community in a watershed heavily contaminated by an active antimony (Sb) mine in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Dong, Yiran; Tang, Song; Krumins, Valdis; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-04-15

    Located in Southwest China, the Chahe watershed has been severely contaminated by upstream active antimony (Sb) mines. The extremely high concentrations of Sb make the Chahe watershed an excellent model to elucidate the response of indigenous microbial activities within a severe Sb-contaminated environment. In this study, water and surface sediments from six locations in the Chahe watershed with different levels of Sb contamination were analyzed. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed more than 40 phyla from the domain Bacteria and 2 phyla from the domain Archaea. Sequences assigned to the genera Flavobacterium, Sulfuricurvum, Halomonas, Shewanella, Lactobacillus, Acinetobacter, and Geobacter demonstrated high relative abundances in all sequencing libraries. Spearman's rank correlations indicated that a number of microbial phylotypes were positively correlated with different speciation of Sb, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in microbial Sb cycling. Canonical correspondence analysis further demonstrated that geochemical parameters, including water temperature, pH, total Fe, sulfate, aqueous Sb, and Eh, significantly structured the overall microbial community in Chahe watershed samples. Our findings offer a direct and reliable reference to the diversity of microbial communities in the presence of extremely high Sb concentrations, and may have potential implications for in situ bioremediation strategies of Sb contaminated sites.

  2. Preliminary Study of the Pozzolanic Activity of Dumped Mine Wastes Obtained from the North Bohemian Basin in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos SOTIRIADIS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three dumped raw materials, a tuff and two bentonites, obtained from two mining sites at the North Bohemian basin in the Czech Republic, have been studied in order to evaluate them as pozzolanic admixtures in lime mortars for employment in restoration of cultural heritage objects. After thermal activation (800 °C; 5 h, their pozzolanic properties were compared with those of commercial metakaolin. Quantitative phase analysis with the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction patterns, morphological observations, as well as the Frattini and the modified Chapelle tests were performed. In addition, lime mortars, incorporating the fired materials, were prepared and subjected to simultaneous thermal analysis after a 28-day initial curing (20 ± 1 °C; 60 ± 5 % RH. The results showed that all three materials possess pozzolanic activity. However, when employed in lime mortars they did not result in formation of pozzolanic reaction products. Two methods were proposed to improve their reactivity; grinding to obtain finer particle size and removal of quartz content where necessary.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14864

  3. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  4. Activation processes on GaAs photocathode by different currents of oxygen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhuang; Shi, Feng; Cheng, Hongchang; Wang, Shufei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Chang

    2015-04-01

    In order to know the influence of activation processes on GaAs photocathodes, three GaAs samples were activated by a fixed current of cesium source and different currents of oxygen source. The current of caesium source is same during activation to ensure initial adsorption of caesium quantum is similar, which is the base to show the difference during alternation activation of caesium and oxygen. Analysed with the activation data, it is indicated that Cs-to-O current ratio of 1.07 is the optimum ratio to obtain higher sensitivity and better stability. According to double dipole model, stable and uniform double dipole layers of GaAs-O-Cs:Cs-O-Cs are formed and negative electron affinity is achieved on GaAs surface by activation with cesium and oxygen. The analytical result is just coincident with the model. Thus there is an efficient technological method to improve sensitivity and stability of GaAs photocathode.

  5. Quantitative-spatial assessment of soil contamination in S. Francisco de Assis due to mining activity of the Panasqueira mine (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Freire Ávila, Paula; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Candeias, Carla; Garcia Pereira, Henrique

    2013-11-01

    Through the years, mining and beneficiation processes produces large amounts of As-rich mine wastes laid up in huge tailings and open-air impoundments (Barroca Grande and Rio tailings) that are the main source of pollution in the surrounding area once they are exposed to the weathering conditions leading to the formation of AMD and consequently to the contamination of the surrounding environments, in particularly soils. In order to investigate the environmental contamination impact on S. Francisco de Assis (village located between the two major impoundments and tailings) agricultural soils, a geochemical survey was undertaken to assess toxic metals associations, related levels and their spatial distribution, and to identify the possible contamination sources. According to the calculated contamination factor, As and Zn have a very high contamination factor giving rise to 65.4% of samples with a moderate to high pollution degree; 34.6% have been classified as nil to very low pollution degree. The contamination factor spatial distribution put in evidence the fact that As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn soils contents, downstream Barroca Grande tailing, are increased when compared with the local Bk soils. The mechanical dispersion, due to erosion, is the main contamination source. The chemical extraction demonstrates that the trace metals distribution and accumulation in S. Francisco de Assis soils is related to sulfides, but also to amorphous or poorly crystalline iron oxide phases. The partitioning study allowed understanding the local chemical elements mobility and precipitation processes, giving rise to the contamination dispersion model of the study area. The wind and hydrological factors are responsible for the chemical elements transport mechanisms, the water being the main transporter medium and soils as one of the possible retention media.

  6. 77 FR 72766 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... business assistance, SBA establishes small business size definitions (referred to as size standards) for... inflation on its size standards and makes necessary adjustments to its monetary based size standards. SBA's... conditions, its mission and program objectives, the Administration's current policies, suggestions from...

  7. Looking for mine of the petroleum in China, especially, looking for mine activities in the foreign enterprise; Chukajinminkyowokoku ni okeru sekiyu no tanko. Tokuni gaikokukigyo ni okeru tanko katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    Modern petroleum industry after the Chinese establishment (1950) rose mainly by the Russian cooperation, and main discovery such as oil field 1959 was made as to the discovery in 1955 oil field. After that, that activities range was limited to middle Kunisaki department land stage by a master though looking for mine which is characteristic of China, development were made by Russian withdrawal and there was discovery such as a task hill oil field in the victory oil field and 1964 big port oil field for 1962 and for 1976. (NEDO)

  8. A fragment of the LG3 peptide of endorepellin is present in the urine of physically active mining workers: a potential marker of physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J Parker

    Full Text Available Biomarker analysis has been implemented in sports research in an attempt to monitor the effects of exertion and fatigue in athletes. This study proposed that while such biomarkers may be useful for monitoring injury risk in workers, proteomic approaches might also be utilised to identify novel exertion or injury markers. We found that urinary urea and cortisol levels were significantly elevated in mining workers following a 12 hour overnight shift. These levels failed to return to baseline over 24 h in the more active maintenance crew compared to truck drivers (operators suggesting a lack of recovery between shifts. Use of a SELDI-TOF MS approach to detect novel exertion or injury markers revealed a spectral feature which was associated with workers in both work categories who were engaged in higher levels of physical activity. This feature was identified as the LG3 peptide, a C-terminal fragment of the anti-angiogenic/anti-tumourigenic protein endorepellin. This finding suggests that urinary LG3 peptide may be a biomarker of physical activity. It is also possible that the activity mediated release of LG3/endorepellin into the circulation may represent a biological mechanism for the known inverse association between physical activity and cancer risk/survival.

  9. Modulatory effect of substance P on GABA-activated currents from rat dorsal root ganglion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-qiang SI; Zhi-qin ZHANG; Chun-xia LI; Li-feng WANG; Yun-lei YANG; Zhi-wang LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated current of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rat. METHODS: The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record SP- and GABAactivated currents in neurons freshly dissociated from rat DRG neurons. Drugs were applied by rapid solution exchange. RESULTS: Application of SP (28/41, 68.5 %) and GABA (36/41, 88.2 %) could induce concentrationdependent inward current in some cells. SP-(10 μmol/L) and GABA (100 μmol/L)-activated inward currents were (244±83) pA (n=9) and (1.8±0.5) nA (n=13), respectively. The majority of GABA-activated current had obvious three processes, the peak value (Ip), the steady state (Iss) and the desensitization (Ia). The desensitization of GABAactivated current was a biphasic process, including fast and slow desensitization. However, pre-application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) could inhibit the GABA-activated inward current which was identified to be GABAA receptormediated current. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent. The inhibitory effect of SP on the peak value of GABA-activated current was more than the steady state of GABA-activated current. The inhibition of GABA-activated current by SP (0.1 μmol/L) was related to the time after application of SP, the inhibition of GABAactivated currents by SP reached the peak at about 4 min (49.8 %±7.2 %, n=7, P<0.01) and took about 12 min to get a full recovery. The inhibition of GABA-activated currents by SP was almost completely removed after blockade of PKC by H-7 with the re-patch clamp. CONCLUSION: Pre-application of SP exerts a more strong inhibitory effect on the peak value of GABA-activated current than the steady state of GABA-activated current.

  10. Photonic Network R&D Activities in Japan-Current Activities and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Ken-Ichi; Miki, Tetsuya; Morioka, Toshio; Tsushima, Hideaki; Koga, Masafumi; Mori, Kazuyuki; Araki, Soichiro; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Onaka, Hiroshi; Namiki, Shu; Aoyama, Tomonori

    2005-10-01

    R&D activities on photonic networks in Japan are presented. First, milestones in current ongoing R&D programs supported by Japanese government agencies are introduced, including long-distance and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) fiber transmission, wavelength routing, optical burst switching (OBS), and control-plane technology for IP backbone networks. Their goal was set to evolve a legacy telecommunications network to IP-over-WDM networks by introducing technologies for WDM and wavelength routing. We then discuss the perspectives of so-called PHASE II R&D programs for photonic networks over the next 5 years until 2010, by focusing on the report that has been recently issued by the Photonic Internet Forum (PIF), a consortium that has major carriers, telecom vendors, and Japanese academics as members. The PHASE II R&D programs should serve to establish a photonic platform to provide abundant bandwidth on demand, at any time on a real-time basis, through the customer's initiative to promote bandwidth-rich applications, such as grid computing, real-time digital-cinema streaming, medical and educational applications, and network storage in e-commerce.

  11. Introduction to Space Resource Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    There are vast amounts of resources in the solar system that will be useful to humans in space and possibly on Earth. None of these resources can be exploited without the first necessary step of extra-terrestrial mining. The necessary technologies for tele-robotic and autonomous mining have not matured sufficiently yet. The current state of technology was assessed for terrestrial and extraterrestrial mining and a taxonomy of robotic space mining mechanisms was presented which was based on current existing prototypes. Terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining methods and technologies are on the cusp of massive changes towards automation and autonomy for economic and safety reasons. It is highly likely that these industries will benefit from mutual cooperation and technology transfer.

  12. Principal component analysis of Birkeland currents determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Principal component analysis is performed on Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The regions 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns.

  13. Principle Component Analysis of Birkeland Currents Determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Principle Component Analysis is performed on northern and southern hemisphere Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). PCA identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The region 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly-reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns. Other interhemispheric differences are discussed.

  14. Principal component analysis of Birkeland currents determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Milan, S E; Korth, H; Anderson, B J

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis is performed on Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The regions 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns.

  15. Data mining and visualization from planetary missions: the VESPA-Europlanet2020 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardo, Andrea; Capria, Maria Teresa; Zinzi, Angelo; Ivanovski, Stavro; Giardino, Marco; di Persio, Giuseppe; Fonte, Sergio; Palomba, Ernesto; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Fonte, Sergio; Giommi, Paolo; Europlanet VESPA 2020 Team

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) activity, developed in the context of the Europlanet 2020 Horizon project, aimed at providing tools for analysis and visualization of planetary data provided by space missions. In particular, the activity is focused on minor bodies of the Solar System.The structure of the computation node, the algorithms developed for analysis of planetary surfaces and cometary comae and the tools for data visualization are presented.

  16. Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Sentiment analysis and opinion mining is the field of study that analyzes people's opinions, sentiments, evaluations, attitudes, and emotions from written language. It is one of the most active research areas in natural language processing and is also widely studied in data mining, Web mining, and text mining. In fact, this research has spread outside of computer science to the management sciences and social sciences due to its importance to business and society as a whole. The growing importance of sentiment analysis coincides with the growth of social media such as reviews, forum discussions

  17. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  18. A NEW METHOD TO CALCULATE COMPENSATION CURRENT IN PARALLEL ACTIVE POWER FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ALTINTAŞ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, active power filter plays an important role in reducing harmonic current and reactive power in power lines. The reliability and effectiveness of an active power filter depends basically on three characteristics. These are the modulation method, the design characteristics of the PWM modulator and the method implemented to generate compensation current. For the last one, there are many proposed methods. Most of them complicated and hence difficult to implement and adjust. In this study, a new method to calculate compensation current is improved and tested in single-phase parallel active power filter controlled by microcontroller. Experimental and simulation results are presented in the paper.

  19. A preliminary survey of marine contamination from mining-related activities on Marinduque Island, Philippines: porewater toxicity and chemistry results from a field trip, October 14-19, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R. Scott; Nipper, Marion; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2001-01-01

    As a follow-up of an initial overview of environmental problems caused by mining activities on Marinduque Island, Philippines, USGS and TAMU-CC scientists went to Marinduque in October 2000 to do a preliminary assessment of potential impacts of mining-related activities on the marine environment. Like the previous visit in May 2000, the marine assessment was conducted at the invitation of Philippine Congressman Edmund O. Reyes. In this report we present the results of sediment porewater toxicity tests and chemical analyses. Toxicity tests consist of laboratory analyses for the assessment of adverse effects caused by environmental contaminants to animals or plants. Sediments (sand or mud) are known to accumulate contaminants (e.g., copper and other heavy metals). Therefore, it is common to perform toxicity tests using different phases of the sedimentary environment in order to analyze adverse effects of contaminants accumulated in the sediment. Sediment pore water (or interstitial water, i.e., the water distributed among the sediment grains) is a sedimentary phase which controls the bioavailability of contaminants to bottom dwelling aquatic organisms (both plants and animals). There are several different kinds of organisms with which toxicity tests can be performed. Among those, tests with sea urchin early life stages (gametes and embryos) are very common due to their high sensitivity to contaminants, ease of maintenance under laboratory conditions, and ecological importance, particularly in coral reefs. The basis of these tests is the exposure of gametes or embryos to the pore water to be analyzed for toxicity. If the pore water contains contaminants in levels that can adversely affect a number of marine species, fertilization and/or embryological development of sea urchins is inhibited. Chemical analyses provide additional information and aid in the interpretation of the toxicity test results. For the current study, chemical analyses were performed for the

  20. Identification and activation of novel biosynthetic gene clusters by genome mining in the kirromycin producer Streptomyces collinus Tü 365.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftime, Dumitrita; Kulik, Andreas; Härtner, Thomas; Rohrer, Sabrina; Niedermeyer, Timo Horst Johannes; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann; Wohlleben, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Streptomycetes are prolific sources of novel biologically active secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential. S. collinus Tü 365 is a Streptomyces strain, isolated 1972 from Kouroussa (Guinea). It is best known as producer of the antibiotic kirromycin, an inhibitor of the protein biosynthesis interacting with elongation factor EF-Tu. Genome Mining revealed 32 gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites in the genome of Streptomyces collinus Tü 365, indicating an enormous biosynthetic potential of this strain. The structural diversity of secondary metabolisms predicted for S. collinus Tü 365 includes PKS, NRPS, PKS-NRPS hybrids, a lanthipeptide, terpenes and siderophores. While some of these gene clusters were found to contain genes related to known secondary metabolites, which also could be detected in HPLC-MS analyses, most of the uncharacterized gene clusters are not expressed under standard laboratory conditions. With this study we aimed to characterize the genome information of S. collinus Tü 365 to make use of gene clusters, which previously have not been described for this strain. We were able to connect the gene clusters of a lanthipeptide, a carotenoid, five terpenoid compounds, an ectoine, a siderophore and a spore pigment-associated gene cluster to their respective biosynthesis products.

  1. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.

  2. Assessment of asbestos exposure during a simulated agricultural activity in the proximity of the former asbestos mine of Balangero, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turci, Francesco; Favero-Longo, Sergio Enrico; Gazzano, Claudia; Tomatis, Maura; Gentile-Garofalo, Laura; Bergamini, Massimo

    2016-05-05

    The natural occurrence of asbestos (NOA) in rural areas is a serious concern for human health and the dispersion route of asbestos in the proximity of natural asbestos-rich settings has been marginally evaluated so far. NOA may affect air, but also water and soil quality. In rural areas population may be exposed to asbestos with a largely unknown impact on human health. This work investigates the potential exposure of a farmer cultivating a field nearby the largest former asbestos mine of Western Europe (Balangero, Italy). The concentration of waterborne asbestos in the stream used to water the field was measured (ca. 2×10(5) fibers per liter, ff/L) and the cultivated ultramafic topsoil characterized, evidencing a remarkable occurrence of chrysotile. The worker's personal exposure and the environmental fiber dispersion during a simulated agricultural activity (tillage) were quantified in two independent trials. During the trials, the worker was exposed to average concentrations of 16 and 26 ff/L, with a peak of 40 ff/L. These data inform about the possible exposure of an agricultural worker to asbestos concentration higher than the accepted threshold of 2 ff/L. The release of asbestos fibers into the environment was negligible (0-2 ff/L).

  3. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  4. Selective regulation of current densities underlies spontaneous changes in the activity of cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrigiano, G; LeMasson, G; Marder, E

    1995-05-01

    We study the electrical activity patterns and the expression of conductances in adult stomatogastric ganglion (STG) neurons as a function of time in primary cell culture. When first plated in culture, these neurons had few active properties. After 1 d in culture they produced small action potentials that rapidly inactivated during maintained depolarization. After 2 d in culture they fired large action potentials tonically when depolarized, and their properties resembled very closely the properties of STG neurons pharmacologically isolated in the ganglion. After 3-4 d in culture, however, their electrical properties changed and they fired in bursts when depolarized. We characterized the currents expressed by these neurons in culture. They included two TTX-sensitive sodium currents, a calcium current, a delayed-rectifier-like current, a calcium-dependent potassium current, and two A-type currents. The changes in firing properties with time in culture were accompanied by an increase in inward and decrease in outward current densities. A single-compartment conductance-based model of an STG neuron was constructed by fitting the currents measured in the biological neurons. When the current densities in the model neuron were matched to those measured for the biological neurons in each activity state, the model neuron closely reproduced each state, indicating that the changes in current densities are sufficient to account for the changes in intrinsic properties. These data indicate that STG neurons isolated in culture change their intrinsic electrical properties by selectively adjusting the magnitudes of their ionic conductances.

  5. Environmental risk increase due to heavy metal contamination caused by a copper mining activity in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDISON D. BIDONE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Camaquã Copper Mines (CCM were the main sulphide deposit in Southern Brazil and have been in operation from last century to 1996. To evaluate water contamination and environmental risk increase by heavy metals from mining operations, two points on the João Dias Creek were sampled (Station 1, background area and Station 2, contaminated area. Mining activity increased the natural weakly heavy metal fluxes by approximately 5424 kg. ( ~ 60% of the total metal flux, 1542 kg. ( ~ 49% of dissolved and 3881 kg ( ~ 66% of particulate metal flux. Total metal flux of anthropic origin was mostly due to Fe followed by Cu > Zn > Mn whereas Cd, As and Pb fluxes were negligible. The potential human health hazards and risk assessment related to daily intake of water from João Dias Creek are mostly due to Mn and should be of concern for the contaminated area. The ingestion of water from station 2 represents incremental risks of 130% and 59% respectively, considering the non-carcinogenic and the carcinogenic effects. The real increase of human health hazards may be greater than those related to the total concentrations since Mn and As dissolved concentrations were 5.5 and 2.0 higher than acceptable, respectively.As Minas do Camaquã foram a principal jazida de cobre sulfetado do sul do Brasil. Sua explotação foi realizada desde o século passado até 1996. Para avaliar a contaminação da água e o incremento do risco ambiental por metais pesados, relacionados à atividade de mineração, foram amostrados dois diferentes pontos do Arroio João Dias (estação 1, nível de base natural da área e, estação 2, área contaminada. A atividade de mineração aumentou os fluxos semanais naturais de metais pesados em aproximadamente 5424 kg ( ~ 60% de fluxo total, 1542 kg ( ~ 49% de fluxo da fração dissolvida e 3881 kg ( ~ 66% de fluxo da fração particulada. O fluxo total de metais de origem antropogênica deve-se principalmente ao Fe, seguido por Cu > Zn

  6. A Social Movements' Perspective on Human Rights Impact of Mining Liberalization in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytin, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    When it comes to minerals like gold, copper, or nickel, the Philippines ranks among the world's richest countries, but it has continued to perform poorly in terms of human and economic development. In the belief that foreign investments will bring development, the government in 1995 liberalized its mining industry allowing full foreign ownership and control of the mining activities. After almost two decades of mining liberalization, the country has never achieved its goal of development but is now reeling from the adverse impacts of large-scale corporate mining on the environment and lives of mining-affected communities. Moreover, human rights violations against anti-mining activists and environmental advocates have escalated at an alarming rate making the country one of the most dangerous places for land and environmental defenders. But social movements are now taking big steps to empower the people, especially the mining-affected communities, to confront the adverse impacts of corporate mining and to reverse the current path of the mining industry to one that aims to achieve national industrialization where national development is prioritized over transnational corporations' interests.

  7. In Silico Mining for Antimalarial Structure-Activity Knowledge and Discovery of Novel Antimalarial Curcuminoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Viira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasitic tropical disease that kills around 600,000 patients every year. The emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs represents a significant public health threat, indicating the urgent need for new effective compounds to reverse ACT resistance and cure the disease. For this, extensive curation and homogenization of experimental anti-Plasmodium screening data from both in-house and ChEMBL sources were conducted. As a result, a coherent strategy was established that allowed compiling coherent training sets that associate compound structures to the respective antimalarial activity measurements. Seventeen of these training sets led to the successful generation of classification models discriminating whether a compound has a significant probability to be active under the specific conditions of the antimalarial test associated with each set. These models were used in consensus prediction of the most likely active from a series of curcuminoids available in-house. Positive predictions together with a few predicted as inactive were then submitted to experimental in vitro antimalarial testing. A large majority from predicted compounds showed antimalarial activity, but not those predicted as inactive, thus experimentally validating the in silico screening approach. The herein proposed consensus machine learning approach showed its potential to reduce the cost and duration of antimalarial drug discovery.

  8. Automated Structure-Activity Relationship Mining: Connecting Chemical Structure to Biological Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Mathias J; Jaramillo, David E; Dančík, Vlado; Fass, Daniel M; Haggarty, Stephen J; Shamji, Alykhan F; Wagner, Bridget K; Schreiber, Stuart L; Clemons, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of small molecules is important for developing probes and novel therapeutic agents in chemical biology and drug discovery. Increasingly, multiplexed small-molecule profiling assays allow simultaneous measurement of many biological response parameters for the same compound (e.g., expression levels for many genes or binding constants against many proteins). Although such methods promise to capture SARs with high granularity, few computational methods are available to support SAR analyses of high-dimensional compound activity profiles. Many of these methods are not generally applicable or reduce the activity space to scalar summary statistics before establishing SARs. In this article, we present a versatile computational method that automatically extracts interpretable SAR rules from high-dimensional profiling data. The rules connect chemical structural features of compounds to patterns in their biological activity profiles. We applied our method to data from novel cell-based gene-expression and imaging assays collected on more than 30,000 small molecules. Based on the rules identified for this data set, we prioritized groups of compounds for further study, including a novel set of putative histone deacetylase inhibitors.

  9. In Silico Mining for Antimalarial Structure-Activity Knowledge and Discovery of Novel Antimalarial Curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viira, Birgit; Gendron, Thibault; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Cojean, Sandrine; Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre; Maes, Louis; Maran, Uko; Loiseau, Philippe M; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2016-06-29

    Malaria is a parasitic tropical disease that kills around 600,000 patients every year. The emergence of resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) represents a significant public health threat, indicating the urgent need for new effective compounds to reverse ACT resistance and cure the disease. For this, extensive curation and homogenization of experimental anti-Plasmodium screening data from both in-house and ChEMBL sources were conducted. As a result, a coherent strategy was established that allowed compiling coherent training sets that associate compound structures to the respective antimalarial activity measurements. Seventeen of these training sets led to the successful generation of classification models discriminating whether a compound has a significant probability to be active under the specific conditions of the antimalarial test associated with each set. These models were used in consensus prediction of the most likely active from a series of curcuminoids available in-house. Positive predictions together with a few predicted as inactive were then submitted to experimental in vitro antimalarial testing. A large majority from predicted compounds showed antimalarial activity, but not those predicted as inactive, thus experimentally validating the in silico screening approach. The herein proposed consensus machine learning approach showed its potential to reduce the cost and duration of antimalarial drug discovery.

  10. The internationalization of Chinese industries : Overseas acquisition activity in Chinese mining and manufacturing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, C.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how industrial characteristics at home affect Chinese overseas acquisition activities from an industry-level resource-based view. Analyzing data on 512 Chinese overseas acquisition deals across 36 industries in 60 countries over 2003–2008, we find that: (1) firms in industries wi

  11. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  12. Muscarinic modulation of sodium current by activation of protein kinase C in rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, A R; Ma, J Y; Scheuer, T; Catterall, W A

    1996-05-01

    Phosphorylation of brain Na+ channels by protein kinase C (PKC) decreases peak Na+ current and slows macroscopic inactivation, but receptor-activated modulation of Na+ currents via the PKC pathway has not been demonstrated. We have examined modulation of Na+ channels by activation of muscarinic receptors in acutely-isolated hippocampal neurons using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording. Application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol reduced peak Na+ current and slowed macroscopic inactivation at all potentials, without changing the voltage-dependent properties of the channel. These effects were mediated by PKC, since they were eliminated when the specific PKC inhibitor (PKCI19-36) was included in the pipette solution and mimicked by the extracellular application of the PKC activator, OAG. Thus, activation of endogenous muscarinic receptors on hippocampal neurons strongly modulates Na+ channel activity by activation of PKC. Cholinergic input from basal forebrain neurons may have this effect in the hippocampus in vivo.

  13. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mine Density Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the mine density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on mine plants and operations...

  14. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mine Density Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the mine density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on mine plants and operations...

  15. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-01-01

    evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect...... apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine...... methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen and thyroid signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. 75 FR 4612 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... construction time and traffic congestion; C. The development of engineering design criteria for innovative... Federal Highway Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),...

  17. Consequences arising from the activities of the Mining and Chemical Enterprise, a defense production association, and influence of the public opinion on decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarev, L.N.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V. [Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zhidkov, V.V. [Mining and Chemical Enterprise, Zheleznogorsk (Russian Federation); Mel`nikov, G.Y. [Central Medical Office 51, Zheleznogorsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Mining and Chemical Enterprise was created during the Cold War in Russia to produce plutonium for defense purposes. Now, when these activities are stopped, prime attention is given to the evaluation of impacts caused by the execution of the defense program and to the conversion possibilities of the enterprise for provisions of the nuclear fuel cycle. The role of public opinion in solving these problems is considered.

  18. Encapsulation in alginate enhanced the plant growth promoting activities of two phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa

    OpenAIRE

    Mounira Ben Farhat; Salma Taktek; Hichem Chouayekh

    2014-01-01

    To develop a maize inoculant allowing the use of sparingly soluble inorganic phosphates, the potential of two phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from the Gafsa rock phosphate mine, namely Serratia marcescens CTM 50650 and Enterobacter sp. US468 was assessed. At first, these phosphate solubilizing bacteria were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities like acid and alkaline phosphatase, and indole acetic acid production. Both isolates produced alkaline and acid phosphatase at 35.73...

  19. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment.

  20. Genetic activation of BK currents in vivo generates bidirectional effects on neuronal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jenna R; Meredith, Andrea L

    2012-11-13

    Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are potent negative regulators of excitability in neurons and muscle, and increasing BK current is a novel therapeutic strategy for neuro- and cardioprotection, disorders of smooth muscle hyperactivity, and several psychiatric diseases. However, in some neurons, enhanced BK current is linked with seizures and paradoxical increases in excitability, potentially complicating the clinical use of agonists. The mechanisms that switch BK influence from inhibitory to excitatory are not well defined. Here we investigate this dichotomy using a gain-of-function subunit (BK(R207Q)) to enhance BK currents. Heterologous expression of BK(R207Q) generated currents that activated at physiologically relevant voltages in lower intracellular Ca(2+), activated faster, and deactivated slower than wild-type currents. We then used BK(R207Q) expression to broadly augment endogenous BK currents in vivo, generating a transgenic mouse from a circadian clock-controlled Period1 gene fragment (Tg-BK(R207Q)). The specific impact on excitability was assessed in neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus, a cell type where BK currents regulate spontaneous firing under distinct day and night conditions that are defined by different complements of ionic currents. In the SCN, Tg-BK(R207Q) expression converted the endogenous BK current to fast-activating, while maintaining similar current-voltage properties between day and night. Alteration of BK currents in Tg-BK(R207Q) SCN neurons increased firing at night but decreased firing during the day, demonstrating that BK currents generate bidirectional effects on neuronal firing under distinct conditions.

  1. Active-Only Current Controlled Summing/Difference Amplifiers Using CCCIIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Maheshwari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel active-only summing/difference amplifiers employing only current controlled conveyors (CCCIIs are presented. The circuits possess high input impedance, current controllable gain, good linearity and dynamic range, low THD and are suited for IC implementation. SPICE simulation results are included to verify the circuits.

  2. Effect of Calcium-Activated Chloride Current Blockade on the Delayed Afterdepolarizations. Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    dog and rabbit ventricular cells [4, 6]. The ionic nature of Iti is still subject to debate. Several authors propose two ionic currents to contribute to...activated Cl currents in the heart: a computer model. Computers in Cardiology 1999; 26: 109-112. Julio Gomis-Tena Dolz U.P.V. Departamento de Ingeniería

  3. Active Damping of LLCL-Filter Resonance Based on LC-Trap Voltage or Current Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2016-01-01

    . Active damping is presently more efficient, and can easily be realized by feeding back a state variable. For the LCL-filter, the variable is usually its middle capacitor current. However, with computational delays considered, a simple proportional damper cannot be used with the capacitor current. Instead...

  4. Environmental impact of mining activities in the Lousal area (Portugal): chemical and diatom characterization of metal-contaminated stream sediments and surface water of Corona stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ana Teresa; Teixeira, Paula; Almeida, Salomé Fernandes Pinheiro; Matos, João Xavier; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira

    2011-09-15

    Lousal mine is a typical "abandoned mine" with all sorts of problems as consequence of the cessation of the mining activity and lack of infrastructure maintenance. The mine is closed at present, but the heavy metal enriched tailings remain at the surface in oxidizing conditions. Surface water and stream sediments revealed much higher concentrations than the local geochemical background values, which the "Contaminated Sediment Standing Team" classifies as very toxic. High concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Cd and Hg occurred within the stream sediments downstream of the tailings sites (up to: 817 mg kg(-1) As, 6.7 mg kg(-1) Cd, 1568 mg kg(-1) Cu, 1059 mg kg(-1) Pb, 82.4 mg kg(-1) Sb, 4373 mg kg(-1) Zn). The AMD waters showed values of pH ranging from 1.9 to 2.9 and concentrations of 9249 to 20,700 mg L(-1) SO(4)(-2), 959 to 4830 mg L(-1) Fe and 136 to 624 mg L(-1) Al. Meanwhile, the acid effluents and mixed stream waters also carried high contents of SO(4)(2-,) Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As, generally exceeding the Fresh Water Aquatic Life Acute Criteria. Negative impacts in the diatom communities growing at different sites along a strong metal pollution gradient were shown through Canonical Correspondence Analysis: in the sites influenced by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), the dominant taxon was Achnanthidium minutissimum. However, Pinnularia acoricola was the dominant species when the environmental conditions were extremely adverse: very low pH and high metal concentrations (sites 2 and 3). Teratological forms of Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki, Brachysira vitrea (Grunow) Ross in Hartley, Fragilaria rumpens (Kützing) G. W. F. Carlson and Nitzschia hantzschiana Rabenhorst were found. A morphometric study of B. vitrea showed that a decrease in size was evident at the most contaminated sites. These results are evidence of metal and acidic pollution.

  5. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  6. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  7. Association Rule Mining from an Intelligent Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Buket; Camurcu, A. Yilmaz

    2008-01-01

    Educational data mining is a very novel research area, offering fertile ground for many interesting data mining applications. Educational data mining can extract useful information from educational activities for better understanding and assessment of the student learning process. In this way, it is possible to explore how students learn topics in…

  8. Data Mining and Discovery of Chemical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wencong, Lu

    In this chapter, the Data mining methods adopted are briefly introduced. The main focuses are on the successful applications of data mining methods in chemistry and chemical engineering. The discoveries of chemical knowledge cover the formation of ternary Intermetallic compounds, structure activity relationships of drugs, and industrial optimization based on chemical data mining methods, especially by using statistical pattern recognition and support vector machine.

  9. Program of mining research, 1998--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The paper contains: Reflections on 1998; Project summaries; Noise; Injury prevention, ergonomics, and human factors; Surface, sand and gravel, and stone mines; Hazard detection and warning devices; Ground control -- metal/nonmetal mines; Ground control -- coal mines; Explosion and fire detection and suppression; Methane detection; Electrical hazards; Emerging technologies; Surveillance; Construction; Training and education; and Communication activity.

  10. Study on Assessment of Mine Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiang; LI Wei; LI Ruijun

    2008-01-01

    Mine environmental evaluation is the key to mine environmental study. On the basis of the characteristics of the mine environmental problems, they are classified into (1) three wastes problem, (2) ground distortion, (3) contradiction among mine drainage, water supply, ecological environment,(4) desertification, and (5) soil erosion. The evaluation is the basis of mine environmental problem classification and investigation, mine environmental rehabilitation, and the information system constructed can be used for subsequent research of evaluation techniques. A synthetic assessment of the 5 kinds of mine environmental problems can be divided into single-factor or multi-factor synthetic assessments; while by the viewpoint of time, the mine environmental assessment can be classified as the historical assessment, the current status assessment and the forecasting assessment.

  11. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogunjo, A M; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Leopold, K; Gerstmann, U; Veronese, I; Oeh, U

    2009-03-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). High resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICP-MS) was used to determine uranium and thorium in liquids and foodstuffs consumed locally in the mining area. The activities of uranium and thorium measured in the soils and mineral sands from Bisichi ranged from 8.7 kBq kg(-1) to 51 kBq kg(-1) for (238)U and from 16.8 kBq kg(-1) to 98 kBq kg(-1) for (232)Th, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control areas of Jos City and Akure and than the reference values reported in the literature. They even exceeded the concentrations reported for areas of high natural radioactive background. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of the local foodstuffs and in water samples collected in Bisichi were found to be higher than UNSCEAR reference values. The results reveal the pollution potential of the mining activities on the surrounding areas.

  12. Sensory deprivation regulates the development of the hyperpolarization-activated current in auditory brainstem neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfurth, Benjamin; Magnusson, Anna K; Grothe, Benedikt; Koch, Ursula

    2009-10-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are highly expressed in the superior olivary complex, the primary locus for binaural information processing. This hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) regulates the excitability of neurons and enhances the temporally precise analysis of the binaural acoustic cues. By using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we examined the properties of I(h) current in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) before and after hearing onset. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that I(h) currents are actively regulated by sensory input activity by performing bilateral and unilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, resulting in a chronic auditory deprivation. The results show that after hearing onset, I(h) currents are rapidly upregulated in LSO neurons, but change only marginally in neurons of the MNTB. We also found a striking difference in maximal current density, voltage dependence and activation time constant between the LSO and the MNTB in mature-like animals. Following bilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, the I(h) currents were scaled up in the LSO and scaled down in the MNTB. Consequently, in the LSO this resulted in a depolarized resting membrane potential and a lower input resistance of these neurons. This type of activity-dependent homeostatic change could thus result in an augmented response to the remaining inputs.

  13. Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of impacts by mining activities-a case study in the Certej River catchment, Western Carpathians, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Jürg; Sima, Mihaela; Dogaru, Diana; Senila, Marin; Yang, Hong; Popescu, Claudia; Roman, Cecilia; Bela, Abraham; Frei, Linda; Dold, Bernhard; Balteanu, Dan

    2009-08-01

    In the region of the Apuseni Mountains, part of the Western Carpathians in Romania, metal mining activities have a long-standing tradition. These mining industries created a clearly beneficial economic development in the region. But their activities also caused impairments to the environment, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting in long-lasting heavy metal pollution of waters and sediments. The study, established in the context of the ESTROM programme, investigated the impact of metal mining activities both from environmental and socioeconomic perspectives and tried to incorporate the results of the two approaches into an integrated proposition for mitigation of mining-related issues. The small Certej catchment, situated in the Southern Apuseni Mountains, covers an area of 78 km(2). About 4,500 inhabitants are living in the basin, in which metal mining was the main economic sector. An open pit and several abandoned underground mines are producing heavy metal-loaded acidic water that is discharged untreated into the main river. The solid wastes of mineral processing plants were deposited in several dumps and tailings impoundment embodying the acidic water-producing mineral pyrite. The natural science team collected samples from surface waters, drinking water from dug wells and from groundwater. Filtered and total heavy metals, both after enrichment, and major cations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major anions in waters, measured by ion chromatography, alkalinity and acidity were determined by titration. Solid samples were taken from river sediments and from the largest tailings dam. The latter were characterised by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Heavy metals in sediments were analysed after digestion. Simultaneously, the socioeconomic team performed a household survey to evaluate the perception of people related to the river and drinking water pollution by way of a logistic regression analysis

  14. Cell cycle-dependent activity of the volume- and Ca2+-activated anion currents in Ehrlich lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Bergdahl, Andreas; Christophersen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) and other anion currents in control or modulation of cell cycle progression; however, the precise involvement of anion channels in this process is unclear. Here, Cl- currents in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites (ELA) cells were monitored...... during cell cycle progression, under three conditions: (i) after osmotic swelling (i.e., VRAC), (ii) after an increase in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration (i.e., the Ca2+-activated Cl- current, CaCC), and (iii) under steady-state isotonic conditions. The maximal swelling-activated VRAC current......+ in the pipette), was unaltered from G0 to G1, but decreased in early S phase. A novel high-affinity anion channel inhibitor, the acidic di-aryl-urea NS3728, which inhibited both VRAC and CaCC, attenuated ELA cell growth, suggesting a possible mechanistic link between cell cycle progression and cell cycle...

  15. Negative-shift activation, current reduction and resurgent currents induced by β-toxins from Centruroides scorpions in sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Emanuele; Pedraza-Escalona, Martha; Gurrola, Georgina B; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Corzo, Gerardo; Wanke, Enzo; Possani, Lourival D

    2012-02-01

    The β-toxins purified from the New World scorpion venoms of the Centruroides species affect several voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and thus are essential tools not only for the discrimination of different channel sub-types but also for studying the structure-function relationship between channels and toxins. This communication reports the results obtained with four different peptides purified from three species of Centruroides scorpions and assayed on seven distinct isoforms of VGSC (Na(v)1.1-Na(v)1.7) by specific functional analysis conducted through single cell electrophysiology. The toxins studied were CssII from Centruroides suffusus suffusus, Cll1 and Cll2 from Centruroides limpidus limpidus and a novel toxin from Centruroides noxius, which was characterized for the first time here. It has 67 amino acid residues and four disulfide bridges with a molecular mass of 7626 Da. Three different functional features were identified: current reduction of macroscopic conductance, left shift of the voltage-dependent activation and induction of resurgent currents at negative voltages following brief, strong depolarizations. The isoforms which revealed to be more affected resulted to be Na(v)1.6 > 1.1 > 1.2 and, for the first time, a β-toxin is here shown to induce resurgent current also in isoforms different from Na(v)1.6. Additionally, these results were analyzed with molecular modelling. In conclusion, although the four toxins have a high degree of identity, they display tri-modal function, each of which shows selectivity among the different sub-types of Na+ -channels. Thus, they are invaluable as tools for structure-function studies of β-toxins and offer a basis for the design of novel ion channel-specific drugs.

  16. THE EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT DURING THE FORMATION AND ERUPTION OF ACTIVE-REGION FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jincheng; Yan, Xiaoli; Qu, Zhongquan; Xue, Zhike; Xiang, Yongyuan; Li, Hao, E-mail: egnever@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the electric current related to the formation and eruption of active region filaments in NOAA AR 11884. The vertical current on the solar surface was investigated by using vector magnetograms (VMs) observed by HMI on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. To obtain the electric current along the filament's axis, we reconstructed the magnetic fields above the photosphere by using nonlinear force-free field extrapolation based on photospheric VMs. Spatio-temporal evolutions of the vertical current on the photospheric surface and the horizontal current along the filament's axis were studied during the long-term evolution and eruption-related period, respectively. The results show that the vertical currents of the entire active region behaved with a decreasing trend and the magnetic fields also kept decreasing during the long-term evolution. For the eruption-related evolution, the mean transverse field strengths decreased before two eruptions and increased sharply after two eruptions in the vicinity of the polarity inversion lines underneath the filament. The related vertical current showed different behaviors in two of the eruptions. On the other hand, a very interesting feature was found: opposite horizontal currents with respect to the current of the filament's axis appeared and increased under the filament before the eruptions and disappeared after the eruptions. We suggest that these opposite currents were carried by the new flux emerging from the photosphere bottom and might be the trigger mechanism for these filament eruptions.

  17. The Evolution of the Electric Current during the Formation and Eruption of Active-region Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincheng; Yan, Xiaoli; Qu, Zhongquan; Xue, Zhike; Xiang, Yongyuan; Li, Hao

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the electric current related to the formation and eruption of active region filaments in NOAA AR 11884. The vertical current on the solar surface was investigated by using vector magnetograms (VMs) observed by HMI on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. To obtain the electric current along the filament's axis, we reconstructed the magnetic fields above the photosphere by using nonlinear force-free field extrapolation based on photospheric VMs. Spatio-temporal evolutions of the vertical current on the photospheric surface and the horizontal current along the filament's axis were studied during the long-term evolution and eruption-related period, respectively. The results show that the vertical currents of the entire active region behaved with a decreasing trend and the magnetic fields also kept decreasing during the long-term evolution. For the eruption-related evolution, the mean transverse field strengths decreased before two eruptions and increased sharply after two eruptions in the vicinity of the polarity inversion lines underneath the filament. The related vertical current showed different behaviors in two of the eruptions. On the other hand, a very interesting feature was found: opposite horizontal currents with respect to the current of the filament's axis appeared and increased under the filament before the eruptions and disappeared after the eruptions. We suggest that these opposite currents were carried by the new flux emerging from the photosphere bottom and might be the trigger mechanism for these filament eruptions.

  18. 全球矿产品定价机制下的利益分配格局分析%Analysis on the pattern of distribution of interests under the current pricing pattern of global mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭颖; 陈其慎

    2014-01-01

    This essay ,firstly introducing the 3 pricing patterns of global mines theoretically ,takes 3 multinational resource corporations and 2 Mines Futures Exchanges as research target .The nationality of the shareholders from these institutions above brings to light ,by consulting the relevant annual reports or financial data bank ,so as to analyze the pattern of distribution of interests under the current pricing pattern of global mines .The shareholders ,either multinational resource corporations or Mines Futures Exchanges above ,consist of financial institutions from Western countries .These shareholders ,by investing on the mineral resources overseas ,became the ultimate controllers of global mines ,which grabbed the super‐profit by several vehicles such as raising the price of frame‐work contract ,manipulating the price of mines futures by the unilateral information or capital superiority ,etc .It is concluded that Western countries are not only the framer for the pricing pattern of global mines ,but also the final beneficiaries through the price surge or fluctuation of mines .%本文首先在理论上介绍了当前国际矿产品市场上的三种定价模式,并选取了必和必拓、埃克森美孚、自由港3家跨国资源公司和美国洲际交易所、伦敦金属交易所为研究对象,通过查阅公司年报、财经数据库等资料归类分析了上述机构股东的背景情况,以期达到分析当前矿产品定价机制下利益分配格局的目的。研究表明,无论是跨国资源公司,还是商品期货交易所,其股东均为西方发达国家的金融机构。这些股东通过早期对海外矿产资源的权益性投资,已经成为国际大宗矿产的实际控制者,他们或通过提高长期协议价格,或利用资金、信息等优势操纵矿产品期货价格,攫取超额利润。从而得出结论:西方发达国家不仅是当前国际矿产品定价规则的制定者,还是国际矿产品价

  19. Inhibition of volume-activated chloride currents in endothelial cells by chromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, S.; Szücs, G.; Norris, A.; Droogmans, G.; Nilius, B.

    1995-01-01

    1. We have studied the effects of the reported chloride channel blocker, sodium cromoglycate, on volume-activated Cl- currents in endothelial cells from bovine pulmonary artery by means of the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cl- currents were activated by challenging the cells with a hypotonic extracellular solution of 60% of the normal osmolarity. 2. Half maximal activation of the current at +95 mV occurred after exposure of the cells for 148 +/- 10 s (n = 6) to hypotonic solution (HTS). At the same membrane potential but in the presence of 100 microM sodium cromoglycate (disodium-1,3-bis (2'-carboxylate-chromone-5'-yloxy)-2-hydroxy-propane) activation was delayed (253 +/- 25 s, n = 6) and the maximal current amplitude was reduced to 63 +/- 7% of the control (n = 13). 3. In comparison, an equimolar concentration of NPPB (5-nitro-2(3-phenyl) propylamino-benzoic acid), another Cl- channel blocker, completely blocked the volume-activated current in less than 20 s. 4. Sodium cromoglycate, applied at the time when the HTS-induced current was completely activated, dose-dependently inhibited this current with a concentration for half maximal inhibition of 310 +/- 70 microM. Data for nedocromil sodium were not significantly different from those for sodium cromoglycate. 5. Sodium cromoglycate, loaded into the endothelial cells via the patch pipette in ruptured patches, resulted in a decline of the HTS activated current with a time course that was compatible with diffusion of the compound from the pipette into the cell.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564197

  20. The steady-state performance of a controlled current active filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, R.M. (Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering); Round, S.D. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    An active filter that uses a high-frequency D-class asynchronous switching inverter for power system current distortion compensation is described. The distortion compensation technique involves deriving a signal corresponding to the distortion component of load current, and inverting and amplifying this signal for addition back to the supply current to cancel the load current distortion. A synthetic sinusoid is used to determine the distortion component in the time domain. Extensive computed and experimental results, illustrating the system's steady-state performance and ability to reduce the current harmonic distortion components, are presented. An intelligent controller is proposed to maintain the active filter's performance at the optimal operating point under varying load conditions.

  1. Low-level electrical currents and brain indicators of behavioral activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lolas

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between slow brain potential correlates of arousal and activation on the basis of their functional role and temporal involvement during a reaction-time task, data are presented which suggest that weak electrical polarizing currents applied to the head in human subjects modify predominantly activation indicators rather than arousal ones.

  2. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  3. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time.

  4. 国内E-learning数据挖掘研究现状与应用综述%Review of the current research and application of E-learning data-mining in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰

    2015-01-01

    随着数据挖掘技术在教育领域越来越多的应用,E-learning数据挖掘逐渐成为当前的研究热点。梳理国内近十年来E-learning研究领域的217篇核心期刊文献,从研究现状、数据挖掘方法、数据挖掘任务等方面对我国E-learning数据挖掘研究领域进行分析,结果表明:国内的研究才刚起步,有许多工作需要研究者来完成,如建设系统数据可以实现无障碍迁移和共享的E-learning平台;加强E-learning数据挖掘领域实证研究的深度和广度;开发简单易用的E-learning数据挖掘专用工具等。%With the increasing application of the technology of data-mining in educational field, E-learning has gradually become a hot topic in current research. This paper studied the 217 key papers in the field of E-learning in the past 10 years in China, carried out a detailed study of China's E-learning data-mining in terms of research situation, research methods, and data-mining task. The result showed the research in China had just begun and needed more efforts. The problems to be dealt with are as followed:constructing of systematic data for barrier-free transfer and shared E-learning platform; strengthening of empirical study of E-learning data-mining in depth and width; and developing of particular tools which are easy to use for E-learning data-mining.

  5. Mining wastewater management and its effects on groundwater and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, A; Ozdemir, S

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale mining activities have a huge impact on the environment. Determination of the size of the effect and monitoring it is vital. In this study, risk assessment studies in mining areas and the effect of mining on groundwater and ecosystems were investigated. Best management practices and risk assessment steps were determined, especially in areas with huge amounts of mining wastewater. The pollution of groundwater and its reaching humans is a risk of major importance. Our study showed, using many cases with different parameters and countries, that the management of mining wastewater is vital. Environmental impact assessments and monitoring studies must be carried out before operation and at the closure of the mine. Policies must be in place and ready to apply. Factors of climate, geology, ecology and human health must be considered over a long period. Currently, only the developed countries are applying policies and paying attention to the risk. International assessments and health risk assessments should be carried out according to international standards.

  6. Characterization of the mineral phosphate solubilizing activity of Serratia marcescens CTM 50650 isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Farhat, Mounira; Farhat, Ameny; Bejar, Wacim; Kammoun, Radhouan; Bouchaala, Kameleddine; Fourati, Amin; Antoun, Hani; Bejar, Samir; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2009-11-01

    The mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability of a Serratia marcescens strain, namely CTM 50650, isolated from the phosphate mine of Gafsa, was characterized on a chemically defined medium (NBRIP broth). Various insoluble inorganic phosphates, including rock phosphate (RP), calcium phosphate (CaHPO(4)), tri-calcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)) and hydroxyapatite were tested as sole sources of phosphate for bacterial growth. Solubilization of these phosphates by S. marcescens CTM 50650 was very efficient. Indeed, under optimal conditions, the soluble phosphorus (P) concentration it produced reached 967, 500, 595 and 326 mg/l from CaHPO(4), Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), hydroxyapatite and RP, respectively. Study of the mechanisms involved in the MPS activity of CTM 50650, showed that phosphate solubilization was concomitant with significant drop in pH. HPLC-analysis of culture supernatants revealed the secretion of gluconic acid (GA) resulting from direct oxidation pathway of glucose when the CTM 50650 cells were grown on NBRIP containing glucose as unique carbon source. This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR for the first time in a S. marcescens strain producing GA, of a gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase responsible for GA production, as well as the genes pqqA, B, C and E involved in biosynthesis of its PQQ cofactor. This study is expected to lead to the development of an environmental-friendly process for fertilizer production considering the capacity of S. marcescens CTM 50650 to achieve yields of P extraction up to 75% from the Gafsa RP.

  7. "I used to be as fit as a linnet" - beliefs, attitudes, and environmental supportiveness for physical activity in former mining areas in the North-East of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Studies of geographical variations in physical activity behaviours have suggested that activity levels are particularly low in areas that have undergone employment loss associated with the decline of industry. This is of concern given that affected populations are already at risk of poor health. Applying focus group methodology amongst 19 participants in four groups, this study aims to unpack how broader societal and environmental changes associated with industrial decline affect beliefs and attitudes towards physical activity in ex-mining communities in the North-East of England. Identified core themes comprise the direct impact of deindustrialisation on social and physical environments. Based on our findings, we provide evidence for mechanisms that operate via loss of occupational physical activity as well as the progressive development of environments that are not fit to support population activity levels. Particularly important was the loss of recreational facilities, public green spaces and sports facilities that were owned and organised by the miners themselves with support from the mining companies. Attitudes and beliefs directly related to the areas' industrial past were also seen to be key. We suggest that the development of interventions considering the socio-cultural history and socio-economic reality of communities could be a promising route to encourage more active lifestyles in deprived areas with particularly low levels of physical activity.

  8. Hyperpolarization-Activated Current, , in Mathematical Models of Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie O. Verkerk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical feature of sinoatrial (SA node pacemaker cells is the presence of an ionic current that activates upon hyperpolarization. The role of this hyperpolarization-activated current, , which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” in the spontaneous pacemaker activity of SA nodal cells remains a matter of intense debate. Whereas some conclude that plays a fundamental role in the generation of pacemaker activity and its rate control, others conclude that the role of is limited to a modest contribution to rate control. The ongoing debate is often accompanied with arguments from computer simulations, either to support one's personal view or to invalidate that of the antagonist. In the present paper, we review the various mathematical descriptions of that have been used in computer simulations and compare their strikingly different characteristics with our experimental data. We identify caveats and propose a novel model for based on our experimental data.

  9. Grants Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grants Mineral Belt was the focus of uranium extraction and production activities from the 1950s until the late 1990s. EPA is working with state, local, and federal partners to assess and address health risks and environmental effects of the mines

  10. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel C. S. Lima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. Objective: To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. Method: The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women. Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile. Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200, which was used for a period of seven days. Results: Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31, while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42, total cholesterol (rho=-0.28, very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44, and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50. In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b=-16.1; -1.47] and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]. Conclusion: Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity.

  11. Early and current physical activity: relationship with intima-media thickness and metabolic variables in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Manoel C S; Barbosa, Maurício F; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Freitas Júnior, Ismael F; Fernandes, Rômulo A

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether early physical activity has a greater influence on intima-media thickness and metabolic variables than current physical activity. To analyze the relationship between current and early physical activity, metabolic variables, and intima-media thickness measures in adults. The sample was composed of 55 healthy subjects of both sexes (33 men and 22 women). Total body fat and trunk fat were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were measured using a Doppler ultrasound device. A 12-hour fasting blood sample collection was taken (fasting glucose and lipid profile). Early physical activity was assessed through face-to-face interview, and the current physical activity was assessed by pedometer (Digi-Walker Yamax, SW200), which was used for a period of seven days. Current physical activity was negatively related to total cholesterol (rho=-0.31), while early physical activity was negatively related to triglycerides (rho=-0.42), total cholesterol (rho=-0.28), very low density lipoprotein (rho=-0.44), and carotid intima-media thickness (rho=-0.50). In the multivariate model, subjects engaged in sports activities during early life had lower values of very low density lipoprotein (b=-8.74 [b95%CI=-16.1; -1.47]) and carotid intima-media thickness (b=-0.17 [95%CI: -0.28; -0.05]). Early 95%CI physical activity has a significant influence on carotid intima-media thickness, regardless of the current physical activity.

  12. Surface Mines, Other - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  13. Mining the Blazar Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Padovani, Paolo; Giommi, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of our methods to "mine" the blazar sky, i.e., select blazar candidates with very high efficiency. These are based on the cross-correlation between public radio and X-ray catalogs and have resulted in two surveys, the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS) and the "Sedentary" BL Lac survey. We show that data mining is vital to select sizeable, deep samples of these rare active galactic nuclei and we touch upon the identification problems which deeper surveys will face.

  14. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial activity and diversity in a reclaimed mining wasteland of red soil area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; CHEN Cheng-li; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    The microbial biomass, basal respiration and substrate utilization pattern in copper mining wasteland of red soil area, southern China, were investigated. The results indicated that soil microflora were obviously different compared with that of the non-mine soil.Microbial biomass and basal respiration were negatively affected by the elevated heavy metal levels. Two important microbial ecophysiological parameters, namely, the ratio of microbial biomass C( Cmic )/organic C( Corg ) and metabolic quotient(qCO2 ) were closely correlated to heavy metal stress. There was a significant decrease in the Cmic/Corg ratio and an increase in the metabolic quotient with increasing metal concentration. Multivariate analysis of Biolog data for sole carbon source utilization pattern demonstrated that heavy metal pollution had a significant impact on microbial community structure and functional diversity. All the results showed that soil microbiological parameters had great potential to become the early sensitive, effective and liable indicators of the stresses or perturbations in soils of mining ecosystems.

  15. Assessment of annual balances of mining enterprises by ratio analysis. Part I: Discussion of basic ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurdziak, L.

    1992-08-01

    Discusses the basic financial ratios used to assess the financial standing of a mining enterprise: liquidity, leverage/gearing, activity and profitability ratios, cash flow to the current portion of long-term-debt ratio, etc. It is recommended that for mining enterprises, being high risk firms, the latter ratio be over 0.33:1 (the produced cash flow should cover the total debts in less than three years). The method described makes use of the ratio of various items of an annual balance in order to assess the value and credit worthiness of a mining enterprise. The possibility of a take-over, and investment risk are also evaluated. 11 refs.

  16. The assessment of mine rebound and decanting in deeper coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, P.D.; Dennis, I. [Inst. for Groundwater Studies, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2010-07-01

    This groundwater and monitoring study of 7 interlinked deep coal collieries in South Africa was conducted to develop analytical and numerical decant models of individual collieries suitable for integration into a single large model. The model will be used to prevent acid mine drainage after mining activities have stopped. The models considered interconnectivity between the mines, the geology of the overburden, the type of mining conducted at each mine, the topography and depth of the mining activities, and the piezometric levels of the mines and involved aquifers. The overburden formations in the studied region consisted of sandstone, shale, interbedded siltstone, mudstone and coal seams. Removal of the coal seams has resulted in the caving of the overlying strata into mined voids. The mining disruptions have resulted in subsidence and recharges of between 5 and 7 percent. The conceptual decant model predicted that piezometric levels of the mine will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. The flux from the overlying aquifers will decrease as water levels even out. Any polluted water will need to overcome 4 bar of pressure to to decant. Excess water above the weathered zone in the mines will seep out as normal unpolluted springs at lower points. Results of the numerical modelling study showed that it is unlikely that the collieries will decant, as the piezometric level of the mines will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  17. International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Durga

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high quality papers presented at the International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Data Mining (ICCIDM 2016) organized by School of Computer Engineering, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India during December 10 – 11, 2016. The book disseminates the knowledge about innovative, active research directions in the field of data mining, machine and computational intelligence, along with current issues and applications of related topics. The volume aims to explicate and address the difficulties and challenges that of seamless integration of the two core disciplines of computer science. .

  18. Niflumic acid reduces the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in rod photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T O; Yamada, M

    2001-08-01

    We examined the effects of niflumic acid (NFA), a chloride channel blocker, on the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in newt rod photoreceptors. At 100 microM, NFA delayed the activation of I(h) induced by hyperpolarizing voltage pulses to -83 mV from a holding potential of -43 mV, and reduced the steady-state current. However, reduction by NFA was weakened when I(h) was activated by hyperpolarizing steps to -123 mV, suggesting that these effects were voltage-dependent. The suppressive effects of NFA on I(h) were accompanied by a negative shift in activation voltage. NFA also delayed the relaxation of I(h) tail currents, showing that this drug also inhibited deactivation of the current. The reversal potential and the fully activated conductance were not affected. These observations suggest that NFA reduces I(h) by modifying the gating kinetics of the underlying channels. The suppressive actions of NFA remained when intracellular Ca2+ was strongly chelated, and the failure of suppression by NFA in inside-out patches suggests that the agent may act on the I(h) channel from the extracellular side. These results, obtained in rod photoreceptors, are consistent with similar effects of NFA on I(f) in cardiac myocytes, suggesting that both currents share similar pharmacological properties.

  19. The mining industry of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The mining industry has been a significant contributor to the South African economy for over 100 years and it currently contributes 18% to the economy. The richest city in Africa, the City of Johannesburg was built on the backbone of the mining industry. If the mining industry was to collapse, the South African economy will trail behind Nigeria. One distinguishing factor about the Mining Industry in South Africa is that it relies quite extensively on labour. In this regard, the mining industr...

  20. Asteroid mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  1. WHAT INNOVATIVE APPROACHES CAN BE DEVELOPED FOR MINING SITES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining is essential to maintain our way of life. However, based upon industry's reporting in the most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), the primary sources of heavy metal releases to the environment are mining and mining related activities. The hard rock mining industry rel...

  2. FCCP depolarizes plasma membrane potential by activating proton and Na+ currents in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Sang; Jo, Inho; Pak, Kim; Bae, Sung-Won; Rhim, Hyewhon; Suh, Suk-Hyo; Park, Jin; Zhu, Hong; So, Insuk; Kim, Ki Whan

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effects of carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), a protonophore and uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, on plasma membrane potential and ionic currents in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). The membrane potential and ionic currents of BAECs were recorded using the patch-clamp technique in current-clamp and voltage-clamp modes, respectively. FCCP activated ionic currents and depolarized the plasma membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Neither the removal of extracellular Ca2+ nor pretreatment with BAPTA/AM affected the FCCP-induced currents, implying that the currents are not associated with the FCCP-induced intracellular [Ca2+]i increase. FCCP-induced currents were significantly influenced by the changes in extracellular or intracellular pH; the increased proton gradient produced by lowering the extracellular pH or intracellular alkalinization augmented the changes in membrane potential and ionic currents caused by FCCP. FCCP-induced currents were significantly reduced under extracellular Na+-free conditions. The reversal potentials of FCCP-induced currents under Na+-free conditions were well fitted to the calculated equilibrium potential for protons. Interestingly, FCCP-induced Na+ transport (subtracted currents, I(control)- I(Na+-free) was closely dependent on extracellular pH, whereas FCCP-induced H+transport was not significantly affected by the absence of Na+. These results suggest that the FCCP-induced ionic currents and depolarization, which are strongly dependent on the plasmalemmal proton gradient, are likely to be mediated by both H+ and Na+ currents across the plasma membrane. The relationship between H+ and Na+ transport still needs to be determined.

  3. Adaptive Current Control with PI-Fuzzy Compound Controller for Shunt Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Fei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive control technology and PI-fuzzy compound control technology are proposed to control an active power filter (APF. AC side current compensation and DC capacitor voltage tracking control strategy are discussed and analyzed. Model reference adaptive controller for the AC side current compensation is derived and established based on Lyapunov stability theory; proportional and integral (PI fuzzy compound controller is designed for the DC side capacitor voltage control. The adaptive current controller based on PI-fuzzy compound system is compared with the conventional PI controller for active power filter. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and satisfactory performance of the proposed control strategies. It is shown that the proposed control method has an excellent dynamic performance such as small current tracking error, reduced total harmonic distortion (THD, and strong robustness in the presence of parameters variation and nonlinear load.

  4. Paralleling power MOSFETs in their active region: Extended range of passively forced current sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1989-01-01

    A simple passive circuit that improves current balance in parallelled power MOSFETs that are not precisely matched and that are operated in their active region from a common gate drive are exhibited. A nonlinear circuit consisting of diodes and resistors generates the differential gate potential required to correct for unbalance while maintaining low losses over a range of current. Also application of a thin tape wound magnetic core to effect dynamic current balance is reviewed, and a simple theory is presented showing that for operation in the active region the branch currents tend to revert to their normal unbalanced values even if the core is not driven into saturation. Results of several comparative experiments are given.

  5. Three-dimensional ventricular activation imaging by means of equivalent current source modeling and estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Liu, C; He, B

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel electrocardiographic inverse approach for imaging the 3-D ventricular activation sequence based on the modeling and estimation of the equivalent current density throughout the entire myocardial volume. The spatio-temporal coherence of the ventricular excitation process is utilized to derive the activation time from the estimated time course of the equivalent current density. At each time instant during the period of ventricular activation, the distributed equivalent current density is noninvasively estimated from body surface potential maps (BSPM) using a weighted minimum norm approach with a spatio-temporal regularization strategy based on the singular value decomposition of the BSPMs. The activation time at any given location within the ventricular myocardium is determined as the time point with the maximum local current density estimate. Computer simulation has been performed to evaluate the capability of this approach to image the 3-D ventricular activation sequence initiated from a single pacing site in a physiologically realistic cellular automaton heart model. The simulation results demonstrate that the simulated "true" activation sequence can be accurately reconstructed with an average correlation coefficient of 0.90, relative error of 0.19, and the origin of ventricular excitation can be localized with an average localization error of 5.5 mm for 12 different pacing sites distributed throughout the ventricles.

  6. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  7. Mining Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the estimated value of mineral production increased in the United States for the third consecutive year. Production and prices increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the United States. While production for most metals remained relatively unchanged, with the notable exception of gold, the prices for most metals declined. Minerals remained fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product (GDP) at several levels, including mining, processing and manufacturing finished products. Minerals’ contribution to the GDP increased for the second consecutive year.

  8. Supplementary Material for: DRABAL: novel method to mine large high-throughput screening assays using Bayesian active learning

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Mining high-throughput screening (HTS) assays is key for enhancing decisions in the area of drug repositioning and drug discovery. However, many challenges are encountered in the process of developing suitable and accurate methods for extracting useful information from these assays. Virtual screening and a wide variety of databases, methods and solutions proposed to-date, did not completely overcome these challenges. This study is based on a multi-label classification (MLC) technique for modeling correlations between several HTS assays, meaning that a single prediction represents a subset of assigned correlated labels instead of one label. Thus, the devised method provides an increased probability for more accurate predictions of compounds that were not tested in particular assays. Results Here we present DRABAL, a novel MLC solution that incorporates structure learning of a Bayesian network as a step to model dependency between the HTS assays. In this study, DRABAL was used to process more than 1.4 million interactions of over 400,000 compounds and analyze the existing relationships between five large HTS assays from the PubChem BioAssay Database. Compared to different MLC methods, DRABAL significantly improves the F1Score by about 22%, on average. We further illustrated usefulness and utility of DRABAL through screening FDA approved drugs and reported ones that have a high probability to interact with several targets, thus enabling drug-multi-target repositioning. Specifically DRABAL suggests the Thiabendazole drug as a common activator of the NCP1 and Rab-9A proteins, both of which are designed to identify treatment modalities for the Niemannâ Pick type C disease. Conclusion We developed a novel MLC solution based on a Bayesian active learning framework to overcome the challenge of lacking fully labeled training data and exploit actual dependencies between the HTS assays. The solution is motivated by the need to model dependencies between

  9. Signatures of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Metabolic Activity in Enrichment Cultures from a Sulphur Oxidizing Acid Mine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, G. F.; Bernier, L.; Cowie, B. R.; Warren, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    Delineating the role of microorganisms in geochemical processes of interest in natural environments requires the development of tools that provide the ability to distinguish amongst microbial activity associated with different metabolic guilds. The gap between phylogenetic characterization and phenotypic understanding remains, underscoring the need to consider alternative methods. Compound specific analysis of cellular components has the potential to differentiate between active metabolic processes supporting microbial communities and may be especially useful in extreme environments. The goal of this study was to determine whether the phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) distribution and isotopic signatures associated with autotrophs and heterotrophs enriched from an acid mine drainage (AMD) system differed, and further whether natural consortial autotrophic isolates showed similar signatures to autotrophic pure strains of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans. Two distinct initial enrichments with tetrathionate and CO2 yielded primarily autotrophic (95%) Acidithiobaccillus spp. sulphur oxidizing communities. The remaining microbial members of theses enrichments (subculture of the consortial isolates in a medium amended with glucose but without tetrathionate selectively resulted in their visible growth. PLFA profiles and δ13C signatures from autotrophic (1) natural enrichments, pure cultures of (2) A. ferrooxidans and (3) A. thiooxidans were similar, but collectively differed from those of the natural heterotrophic enrichment cultures. The PLFA profiles for the heterotrophic communities were made up of primarily (88-99%) C16:0 and two isomers of C18:1. In contrast, the autotrophic communities had high proportions of C16:1 (up to 18%) as well as cyclo C17 and cyclo C19 PLFA that combined comprised 18 to 58% of the observed PLFA. The δ13C signatures of the PLFA also differed strongly between the two trophic levels. The δ13C of the autotrophic PLFA, - 24 to

  10. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  11. β-pompilidotoxin modulates spontaneous activity and persistent sodium currents in spinal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magloire, V; Czarnecki, A; Anwander, H; Streit, J

    2011-01-13

    The origin of rhythm generation in mammalian spinal cord networks is still poorly understood. In a previous study, we showed that spontaneous activity in spinal networks takes its origin in the properties of certain intrinsically spiking interneurons based on the persistent sodium current (INaP). We also showed that depolarization block caused by a fast inactivation of the transient sodium current (INaT) contributes to the generation of oscillatory activity in spinal cord cultures. Recently, a toxin called beta-pompilidotoxin (β-PMTX) that slows the inactivation process of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels has been extracted from the solitary wasp venom. In the present study, we therefore investigated the effect of β-PMTX on rhythm generation and on sodium currents in spinal networks. Using intracellular recordings and multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in dissociated spinal cord cultures from embryonic (E14) rats, we found that β-PMTX reduces the number of population bursts and increases the background asynchronous activity. We then uncoupled the network by blocking all synaptic transmission (APV, CNQX, bicuculline and strychnine) and observed that β-PMTX increases both the intrinsic activity at individual channels and the number of intrinsically activated channels. At the cellular level, we found that β-PMTX has two effects: it switches 58% of the silent interneurons into spontaneously active interneurons and increases the firing rate of intrinsically spiking cells. Finally, we investigated the effect of β-PMTX on sodium currents. We found that this toxin not only affects the inactivation of INaT but also increases the peak amplitude of the persistent sodium current (INaP). Altogether, theses findings suggest that β-PMTX acting on INaP and INaT enhances intrinsic activity leading to a profound modulation of spontaneous rhythmic activity in spinal networks.

  12. Real world data mining applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abou-Nasr, Mahmoud; Stahlbock, Robert; Weiss, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Data mining applications range from commercial to social domains, with novel applications appearing swiftly; for example, within the context of social networks. The expanding application sphere and social reach of advanced data mining raise pertinent issues of privacy and security. Present-day data mining is a progressive multidisciplinary endeavor. This inter- and multidisciplinary approach is well reflected within the field of information systems. The information systems research addresses software and hardware requirements for supporting computationally and data-intensive applications. Furthermore, it encompasses analyzing system and data aspects, and all manual or automated activities. In that respect, research at the interface of information systems and data mining has significant potential to produce actionable knowledge vital for corporate decision-making. The aim of the proposed volume is to provide a balanced treatment of the latest advances and developments in data mining; in particular, exploring s...

  13. Carrier phase shifted SPWM based on current sourced multi-modular converter for active power filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立乔; 李建林; 张仲超

    2004-01-01

    A novel current-source active power filter(APF)based on multi-modular converter with carrier phase-shifted SPWM(CPS-SPWM)technique is proposed.With this technique,the effect of equivalent high switching frequency converter is obtained with low switching frequency converter.It is very promising in current-source APF that adopt superconducting magnetic energy storage component.

  14. A Palladium-Binding Deltarhodopsin for Light-Activated Conversion of Protonic to Electronic Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Jessica; Hemmatian, Zahra; Josberger, Erik E; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of a palladium-binding peptide to an archaeal rhodopsin promotes intimate integration of the lipid-embedded membrane protein with a palladium hydride protonic contact. Devices fabricated with the palladium-binding deltarhodopsin enable light-activated conversion of protonic currents to electronic currents with on/off responses complete in seconds and a nearly tenfold increase in electrical signal relative to those made with the wild-type protein.

  15. 井下杂散电流及接缝电阻集成测试仪的设计%Design of measuring instrument of stray current and seaming resistance of underground traction network of coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克军; 程辉; 付立华

    2012-01-01

    井下杂散电流是指在井下架线电机车的运输系统中任何不按指定通路流动的电流,它是随机事件,而且是连续变化的量,是影响煤矿安全的主要因素之一.对井下杂散电流的测试是指导井下架线、防治杂散电流的前提,详细介绍了集成杂散电流及接缝电阻测试仪的设计原理和实现方法,并给出了主要的硬件电路和软件主流程图.%Stray current flow is defined as the flows in route in designated the wiring of electric locomotive transportation system. Stray current is a random event and changes continuously. Stray current is one of the elements that affect the safety of coal mines. To measure stray current is the prerequisite to direct wiring of traction network and prevention of stray current. The design principles and realization methods of measuring meter of stray current and seaming resistance between two rails in detail is introduced, and the main hardware schematic circuit diagram and software main flow chart are given.

  16. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3

  17. A multitrophic approach to monitoring the effects of metal mining in otherwise pristine and ecologically sensitive rivers in northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Paula; Bowman, Michelle F; Dubé, Monique G

    2008-07-01

    It is not known if current chemical and biological monitoring methods are appropriate for assessing the impacts of growing industrial development on ecologically sensitive northern waters. We used a multitrophic level approach to evaluate current monitoring methods and to determine whether metal-mining activities had affected 2 otherwise pristine rivers that flow into the South Nahanni River, Northwest Territories, a World Heritage Site. We compared upstream reference conditions in the rivers to sites downstream and further downstream of mines. The endpoints we evaluated included concentrations of metals in river water, sediments, and liver and flesh of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus); benthic algal and macroinvertebrate abundance, richness, diversity, and community composition; and various slimy sculpin measures, our sentinel forage fish species. Elevated concentrations of copper and iron in liver tissue of sculpin from the Flat River were associated with high concentrations of mine-derived iron in river water and copper in sediments that were above national guidelines. In addition, sites downstream of the mine on the Flat River had increased algal abundances and altered benthic macroinvertebrate communities, whereas the sites downstream of the mine on Prairie Creek had increased benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness and improved sculpin condition. Biological differences in both rivers were consistent with mild enrichment of the rivers downstream of current and historical mining activity. We recommend that monitoring in these northern rivers focus on indicators in epilithon and benthic macroinvertebrate communities due to their responsiveness and as alternatives to lethal fish sampling in habitats with low fish abundance. We also recommend monitoring of metal burdens in periphyton and benthic invertebrates for assessment of exposure to mine effluent and causal association. Although the effects of mining activities on riverine biota currently are limited, our

  18. Current-induced strength degradation of activated carbon spheres in carbon supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Chen, Rong; Lipka, Stephen M.; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-05-01

    Activated carbon microspheres (ACSs), which are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis and ammonia activation, are used as the active materials in the anode and cathode of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The ACS-based EDLCs of symmetrical electrodes exhibit good stability and a high degree of reversibility over 2000 charge-discharge cycles for electric current up to 10 A g-1. The ACSs maintain a nongraphitized carbon structure after over 2000 charge-discharge cycles. Nanoindentation experiments are performed on the ACSs, which are electrochemically cycled in a voltage window of 0-1 V at three electric currents of 0.5, 5, and 10 A g-1. For the same indentation load, both the contact modulus and indentation hardness of the ACSs decrease with the increase of the electric current used in the electrical charging and discharging. These results suggest that there exists strength degradation introduced by the electric current. A larger electric current will cause more strength degradation than a smaller electric current.

  19. Effects of SDPNFLRF-amide (PF1) on voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Robertson, A P; Martin, R J

    2009-02-01

    Helminth infections are of significant concern in veterinary and human medicine. The drugs available for chemotherapy are limited in number and the extensive use of these drugs has led to the development of resistance in parasites of animals and humans (Geerts and Gryseels, 2000; Kaplan, 2004; Osei-Atweneboana et al., 2007). The cyclooctadepsipeptide, emodepside, belongs to a new class of anthelmintic that has been released for animal use in recent years. Emodepside has been proposed to mimic the effects of the neuropeptide PF1 on membrane hyperpolarization and membrane conductance (Willson et al., 2003). We investigated the effects of PF1 on voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum muscle cells. The whole cell voltage-clamp technique was employed to study these currents. Here we report two types of voltage-activated inward calcium currents: transient peak (I(peak)) and a steady-state (I(ss)). We found that 1microM PF1 inhibited the two calcium currents. The I(peak) decreased from -146nA to -99nA (P=0.0007) and the I(ss) decreased from -45nA to -12nA (P=0.002). We also found that PF1 in the presence of calcium increased the voltage-activated outward potassium current (from 521nA to 628nA (P=0.004)). The effect on the potassium current was abolished when calcium was removed and replaced with cobalt; it was also reduced at a higher concentration of PF1 (10microM). These studies demonstrate a mechanism by which PF1 decreases the excitability of the neuromuscular system by modulating calcium currents in nematodes. PF1 inhibits voltage-activated calcium currents and potentiates the voltage-activated calcium-dependent potassium current. The effect on a calcium-activated-potassium channel appears to be common to both PF1 and emodepside (Guest et al., 2007). It will be of interest to investigate the actions of emodepside on calcium currents to further elucidate the mechanism of action.

  20. Evaluation of reference current extraction methods for DSP implementation in active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardar, K.; Akpinar, E.; Suergevil, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kaynaklar Kampusu, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    Generation of current references constitutes an important part in the control of active power filters (APFs) used in power system, since any inaccuracy in reference currents yields to incorrect compensation. In this paper, harmonic detection methods for generating reference currents have been evaluated on the basis of three-phase balanced and unbalanced load currents processed in the digital signal processor (DSP). The advantages and disadvantages of several methods found in the literature have been discussed on the basis of simulation results. Three of these methods have been programmed in the TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (DSP) unit and their performances are evaluated from the viewpoint of practical considerations. Finally, instantaneous reactive power method to estimate the APF reference currents is implemented and its practical results obtained under balanced and unbalanced loads are given. (author)

  1. Detection of TRPV4 channel current-like activity in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH) rat cerebral arterial muscle cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Debebe Gebremedhin; David X Zhang; Dorothee Weihrauch; Nnamdi N Uche; David R Harder

    2017-01-01

    ...) rat, known to display exaggerated KCa channel current activity and impaired myogenic tone, express TRPV4 channels at the transcript and protein level and exhibit TRPV4-like single-channel cationic current activity...

  2. Sustainable Land Management in Mining Areas in Serbia and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Popović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impacts of mining activities on sustainable land management in mining areas in the Republic of Serbia and Romania and discusses the main challenges related to the management of these issues in legislation and practice. Particular attention is paid to land disturbance, mine waste management and land reclamation, as well as access to land for mining purposes, the transfer of mining royalties and the partnerships of the mining industry, governments, communities and civil society for sustainable mining. Both governments are willing to provide the adequate role to mining in strengthening the national economies, but they face numerous constraints in this matter. Sustainable mining practices and consistent implementation of the mining for the closure planning approach, within an improved legislative framework and in cooperation with stakeholders at all levels, create conditions for the development of creative, profitable, environmentally-sound and socially-responsible management and reuse of mine lands.

  3. Effects of long-term radionuclide and heavy metal contamination on the activity of microbial communities, inhabiting uranium mining impacted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boteva, Silvena; Radeva, Galina; Traykov, Ivan; Kenarova, Anelia

    2016-03-01

    Ore mining and processing have greatly altered ecosystems, often limiting their capacity to provide ecosystem services critical to our survival. The soil environments of two abandoned uranium mines were chosen to analyze the effects of long-term uranium and heavy metal contamination on soil microbial communities using dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities as indicators of metal stress. The levels of soil contamination were low, ranging from 'precaution' to 'moderate', calculated as Nemerow index. Multivariate analyses of enzyme activities revealed the following: (i) spatial pattern of microbial endpoints where the more contaminated soils had higher dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, (ii) biological grouping of soils depended on both the level of soil contamination and management practice, (iii) significant correlations between both dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities and soil organic matter and metals (Cd, Co, Cr, and Zn, but not U), and (iv) multiple relationships between the alkaline than the acid phosphatase and the environmental factors. The results showed an evidence of microbial tolerance and adaptation to the soil contamination established during the long-term metal exposure and the key role of soil organic matter in maintaining high microbial enzyme activities and mitigating the metal toxicity. Additionally, the results suggested that the soil microbial communities are able to reduce the metal stress by intensive phosphatase synthesis, benefiting a passive environmental remediation and provision of vital ecosystem services.

  4. Active power filter for medium voltage networks with predictive current control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verne, Santiago A.; Valla, Maria I. [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion (LEICI), Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-12-15

    A transformer less Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for medium voltage distribution networks based on Multilevel Diode Clamped Inverter is presented in this paper. Converter current control is based on a Model Predictive strategy, which gives very fast current response. Also, the algorithm includes voltage balancing capability which is essential for proper converter operation. The presented current control algorithm is naturally applicable to converters with an arbitrary number of levels with reduced computational effort by virtue of the incorporation of switching restrictions which are necessary for reliable converter operation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by means of computer simulations. (author)

  5. Effects of compost, pig slurry and lime on trace element solubility and toxicity in two soils differently affected by mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2011-07-01

    The use of organic wastes as amendments in heavy metal-polluted soils is an ecological integrated option for their recycling. The potential use of alperujo (solid olive-mill waste) compost and pig slurry in phytoremediation strategies has been studied, evaluating their short-term effects on soil health. An aerobic incubation experiment was carried out using an acid mine spoil based soil and a low OM soil from the mining area of La Unión (Murcia, Spain). Arsenic and heavy metal solubility in amended and non-amended soils, and microbial parameters were evaluated and related to a phytotoxicity test. The organic amendments provoked an enlargement of the microbial community (compost increased biomass-C from non detected values to 35 μg g(-1) in the mine spoil soil, and doubled control values in the low OM soil) and an intensification of its activity (including a twofold increase in nitrification), and significantly enhanced seed germination (increased cress germination by 25% in the mine spoil soil). Organic amendments increased Zn and Pb EDTA-extractable concentrations, and raised As solubility due to the influence of factors such as pH changes, phosphate concentration, and the nature of the organic matter of the amendments. Compost, thanks to the greater persistence of its organic matter in soil, could be recommended for its use in (phyto)stabilisation strategies. However, pig slurry boosted inorganic N content and did not significantly enhance As extractability in soil, so its use could be specifically recommended in As polluted soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Bergamt Saarbruecken/Bergamt Rheinland-Pfalz. Annual report 1999. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Bergamt Saarbruecken/Bergamt Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 1999.. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, R.; Hugo, K.H.; Kuhn, M.; Strauch, T. (comps.)

    1999-07-01

    The developments in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate mining are presented. Structure and responsibilities of the regional mines inspectorate are described, and their activities in the following fields are reported: industrial safety, health, mining and safety, mining and environmental protection. (orig.) [German] Nach Darstellung der bergwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung im Saarland und im Land Rheinland-Pfalz wird ueber den Aufbau und die Zustaendigkeit der Bergbehoerden sowie ueber deren Taetigkeiten auf folgenden Gebieten berichtet: Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz, Bergtechnik und Sicherheit, Bergbau und Umwelt. (orig.)

  7. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  8. Current Research Activities in Drive System Technology in Support of the NASA Rotorcraft Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Drive system technology is a key area for improving rotorcraft performance, noise/vibration reduction, and reducing operational and manufacturing costs. An overview of current research areas that support the NASA Rotorcraft Program will be provided. Work in drive system technology is mainly focused within three research areas: advanced components, thermal behavior/emergency lubrication system operation, and diagnostics/prognostics (also known as Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS)). Current research activities in each of these activities will be presented. Also, an overview of the conceptual drive system requirements and possible arrangements for the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft program will be reviewed.

  9. Active to sterile neutrino mixing limits from neutral-current interactions in MINOS

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Ilic, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Nowak, J A; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Petyt, D A; Phan-Budd, S; Pittam, R; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Sanchez, H A Rubin M C; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Shanahan, P; Sousa, A; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Walding, J J; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R

    2011-01-01

    Results are reported from a search for active to sterile neutrino oscillations in the MINOS long-baseline experiment, based on the observation of neutral-current neutrino interactions, from an exposure to the NuMI neutrino beam of $7.07\\times10^{20}$ protons on target. A total of 802 neutral-current event candidates is observed in the Far Detector, compared to an expected number of $754\\pm28\\rm{(stat.)}\\pm{37}\\rm{(syst.)}$ for oscillations among three active flavors. The fraction $f_s$ of disappearing \

  10. Single channel currents of different amplitude activated by glutamate in a tonic (slow) crayfish muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W; Pareto, A

    1987-09-11

    Single channel currents were recorded by means of the patch-clamp technique from a tonic (slow) crayfish muscle in the presence of 5 mM glutamate. The experiments were carried out with 'Gigaohm-seals' in the 'cell-attached' mode at 15-17 degrees C. Five classes of single channel currents with different mean amplitudes were resolved: i1 = -0.75 +/- 0.43 (S.D.) pA, i2 = -1.4 +/- 0.4 pA, i3 = -3.5 +/- 0.63 pA, i4 = -8.5 +/- 0.92 pA and i5 approximately equal to 2 X i4, i2, i3 and i4 were recorded at resting membrane potential, Eo approximately equal to -80 mV (pipette potential Vp = 0), while i1 and i5 were recorded at 40 mV hyperpolarized to Eo (Vp = +40 mV). The current most frequently seen was i4 which is the excitatory glutamate-activated single channel current recorded previously by Franke et al. The membrane reversal potentials and channel conductances for i2 and i4 were estimated to be +60 mV (Eo + 140 mV), 13 pS for i2 and +40 mV (Eo + 120 mV), 80 pS for i4. It was assumed that up to 40 i1 currents could superpose in a single patch to generate a DC current of up to -30 pA with current fluctuations the intensity of which increased with the DC current amplitude. Often variable combinations of i1 to i4 currents could be recorded simultaneously in a single patch. In particular, simultaneous activity of i1, i4; i2, i4 and i3, i4 currents was observed in different single patches.

  11. Ionic current correlations underlie the global tuning of large numbers of neuronal activity attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shunbing; Golowasch, Jorge

    2012-09-26

    Ionic conductances in identified neurons are highly variable. This poses the crucial question of how such neurons can produce stable activity. Coexpression of ionic currents has been observed in an increasing number of neurons in different systems, suggesting that the coregulation of ionic channel expression, by thus linking their variability, may enable neurons to maintain relatively constant neuronal activity as suggested by a number of recent theoretical studies. We examine this hypothesis experimentally using the voltage- and dynamic-clamp techniques to first measure and then modify the ionic conductance levels of three currents in identified neurons of the crab pyloric network. We quantify activity by measuring 10 different attributes (oscillation period, spiking frequency, etc.), and find linear, positive and negative relationships between conductance pairs and triplets that can enable pyloric neurons to maintain activity attributes invariant. Consistent with experimental observations, some of the features most tightly regulated appear to be phase relationships of bursting activity. We conclude that covariation (and probably a tightly controlled coregulation) of ionic conductances can help neurons maintain certain attributes of neuronal activity invariant while at the same time allowing conductances to change over wide ranges in response to internal or environmental inputs and perturbations. Our results also show that neurons can tune neuronal activity globally via coordinate expression of ion currents.

  12. The risks to miners, mines, and the public posed by large seismic events in the gold mining districts of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available with respect to mine planning and blasting schedules. The national and local monitoring networks, operated by the Council for Geoscience and mining companies, respectively, are on a par with those installed in seismically active mining districts elsewhere...

  13. Applied data mining for business and industry

    CERN Document Server

    Giudici, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The increasing availability of data in our current, information overloaded society has led to the need for valid tools for its modelling and analysis. Data mining and applied statistical methods are the appropriate tools to extract knowledge from such data. This book provides an accessible introduction to data mining methods in a consistent and application oriented statistical framework, using case studies drawn from real industry projects and highlighting the use of data mining methods in a variety of business applications. Introduces data mining methods and applications.Covers classical and Bayesian multivariate statistical methodology as well as machine learning and computational data mining methods.Includes many recent developments such as association and sequence rules, graphical Markov models, lifetime value modelling, credit risk, operational risk and web mining.Features detailed case studies based on applied projects within industry.Incorporates discussion of data mining software, with case studies a...

  14. Pharmacological activation of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current suppresses bradycardia-induced triggered activity in the isolated guinea pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    arrhythmias. We present here data that support that NS3623 affects native I(Kr) and report the effects that activating this potassium current have in the intact guinea pig heart. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, the compound showed a concentration-dependent shortening of action potential duration, which...

  15. Induction of self awareness in dreams through frontal low current stimulation of gamma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Hobson, Allan; Paulus, Walter; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Klimke, Ansgar; Nitsche, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Recent findings link fronto-temporal gamma electroencephalographic (EEG) activity to conscious awareness in dreams, but a causal relationship has not yet been established. We found that current stimulation in the lower gamma band during REM sleep influences ongoing brain activity and induces self-reflective awareness in dreams. Other stimulation frequencies were not effective, suggesting that higher order consciousness is indeed related to synchronous oscillations around 25 and 40 Hz.

  16. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  17. URL Mining Using Agglomerative Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay R. Deshmukh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The tremendous growth of the web world incorporates application of data mining techniques to the web logs. Data Mining and World Wide Web encompasses an important and active area of research. Web log mining is analysis of web log files with web pages sequences. Web mining is broadly classified as web content mining web usage mining and web structure mining. Web usage mining is a technique to discover usage patterns from Web data in order to understand and better serve the needs of Web-based applications. URL mining refers to a subclass of Web mining that helps us to investigate the details of a Uniform Resource Locator. URL mining can be advantageous in the fields of security and protection. The paper introduces a technique for mining a collection of user transactions with an Internet search engine to discover clusters of similar queries and similar URLs. The information we exploit is a clickthrough data each record consist of a users query to a search engine along with the URL which the user selected from among the candidates offered by search engine. By viewing this dataset as a bipartite graph with the vertices on one side corresponding to queries and on the other side to URLs one can apply an agglomerative clustering algorithm to the graphs vertices to identify related queries and URLs.

  18. Using Data Mining Techniques in Customer Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ziafat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Data mining plays important role in marketing and is quite new. Although this field expands rapidly, data mining is still foreign issue for many marketers who trust only their experiences. Data mining techniques cannot substitute the significant role of domain experts and their business knowledge. In the other words, data mining algorithms are powerful but cannot effectively work without the active support of business experts. We can gain useful results by combining these techniques and business expertise. For instance ability of a data mining technique can be substantially increased by combining person experience in the field or information of business can be integrated into a data mining model to build a more successful result. Moreover, these results should always be evaluated by business experts. Thus, business knowledge can help and enrich the data mining results. On the other hand, data mining techniques can extract patterns that even the most experienced business people may have missed. In conclusion, the combination of business domain expertise with the power of data mining techniques can help organizations gain a competitive advantage in their efforts to optimize customer management. Clustering algorithms, a group of data mining technique, is one of most common used way to segment data set according to their similarities. This paper focuses on the topic of customer segmentation using data mining techniques. In the other words, we theoretically discuss about customer relationship management and then utilize couple of data mining algorithm specially clustering techniques for customer segmentation. We concentrated on behavioral segmentation.

  19. Mine Cost Can Hardly Be Lowered Due To High Percentage Of Inflexible Costs For Lead & Zinc Mine Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    At the 2016(11th)Shanghai Lead&Zinc Summit,Lian Chuanshuang from Tibet Huayu Mining explained the current operation condition of domestic mine enterprises.At the Summit,he pointed out that currently mine cost could hardly be reduced,the main reason is too high percentage of inflexible cost.

  20. Microbial Sulfur Geochemistry in Mine Systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. A.; Norlund, K. L.; Hitchcock, A.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), metal laden, acidic water, is the most pressing mining environmental issue on a global scale. While it is well recognized that the activity of autotrophic Fe and S bacteria amplify the oxidation of the sulfidic wastes, thereby generating acidity and leaching metals; the underlying microbial geochemistry is not well described. This talk will highlight results revealing the importance of microbial cooperation associated with a novel sulfur-metabolizing consortium enriched from mine waters. Results generated by an integrated approach, combining field characterization, geochemical experimentation, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) [1]describing the underlying ecological drivers, the functionally relevant biogeochemical architecture of the consortial macrostructure as well as the identities of this environmental sulphur redox cycling consortium will be presented. The two common mine bacterial strains involved in this consortium, Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans and Acidiphilium sp., are specifically spatially segregated within a macrostructure (pod) of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that enables coupled sulphur oxidation and reduction reactions despite bulk, oxygenated conditions. Identical pod formation by type culture strains was induced and linked to ecological conditions. The proposed sulphur geochemistry associated with this bacterial consortium produces 40-90% less acid than expected based on abiotic AMD models, with implications for both AMD mitigation and AMD carbon flux modeling. We are currently investigating the implications of these sulphur-processing pods for metal dynamics in mine systems. These results demonstrate how microbes can orchestrate their geochemical environment to facilitate metabolism, and underscore the need to consider microbial interactions and ecology in constraining their geochemical impacts. [1] Norlund, Southam, Tyliszcczak, Hu, Karunakaran, Obst