WorldWideScience

Sample records for current medical education

  1. Current trends in medical ethics education in Japanese medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Mitsuyasu

    2012-09-01

    The Japanese medical education program has radically improved during the last 10 years. In 1999, the Task Force Committee on Innovation of Medical Education for the 21st Century proposed a tutorial education system, a core curriculum, and a medical student evaluation system for clinical clerkship. In 2001, the Model Core Curriculum of medical education was instituted, in which medical ethics became part of the core material. Since 2005, a nationwide medical student evaluation system has been applied for entrance to clinical clerkship. Within the Japan Society for Medical Education, the Working Group of Medical Ethics proposed a medical ethics education curriculum in 2001. In line with this, the Japanese Association for Philosophical and Ethical Research in Medicine has begun to address the standardization of the curriculum of medical ethics. A medical philosophy curriculum should also be included in considering illness, health, life, death, the body, and human welfare.

  2. Current challenges in medical education in Nigeria | Ezeanolue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical education may be classified into 3 sectors viz, (a) basic medical education; (b) postgraduate medical education/Residency Training and (c) continuing professional development (CPD). There are challenges in establishing an ideal medical educational system that educates, develops and enhances the skills and ...

  3. The current medical education system in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Nobuo; Suzuki, Toshiya; Tohda, Shuji

    2011-07-04

    To contribute to the innovation of the medical education system in Japan, we visited 35 medical schools and 5 institutes in 12 countries of North America, Europe, Australia and Asia in 2008-2010 and observed the education system. We met the deans, medical education committee and administration affairs and discussed about the desirable education system. We also observed the facilities of medical schools.Medical education system shows marked diversity in the world. There are three types of education course; non-graduate-entry program(non-GEP), graduate-entry program(GEP) and mixed program of non-GEP and GEP. Even in the same country, several types of medical schools coexist. Although the education methods are also various among medical schools, most of the medical schools have introduced tutorial system based on PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning to create excellent medical physicians. The medical education system is variable among countries depending on the social environment. Although the change in education program may not be necessary in Japan, we have to innovate education methods; clinical training by clinical clerkship must be made more developed to foster the training of the excellent clinical physicians, and tutorial education by PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning should be introduced more actively.

  4. Current issues in medical education | Al Shehri | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This includes, development in computer assisted learning, virtual reality, the use of simulated subjects, e learning, and the new concept of Reusable Learning Objects (RLO's). Finally, it was realized, with the rapid development in medical education that medical education requires professional training. The assumption that ...

  5. Current thinking in medical education research: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, R

    2018-04-28

    Medical education is fast becoming a separate focus, and together with their clinical commitments, many clinicians now seek higher qualifications and professional accreditation in the field. Research is also developing, and there is a need for evidence-based practice in education, just as in clinical work. This review gives an overview of research into medical education, and explains the fundamentals of educational theory and the specific considerations for the quantitative and qualitative research methods that pertain to it. It also explains the application of these methods to two growing areas of research: technology-enhanced learning (TEL) and normative ethics in training. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomics education for medical professionals - the current UK landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary

    2016-08-01

    Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  7. Current issues regarding radiation risk education in Medical Universities of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Teruhisa; Hosoi, Yoshio; Matsuda, Naoki; Kanda, Reiko; Hosoya, Noriko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Awai, Kazuo; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of radiation research is to understand the biological effects of radiation exposure to humans, the molecular mechanisms of biological response m organisms, and its sale application for medical and industrial use. In order to know the current state or education on fundamentals of radiology including radiation biology, a nation-wide questionnaire survey had been performed at medical schools and different co-medical courses in Japanese universities, during the period of 2004 and 2005. The survey results showed: (1) Difference in teaching hours for education on radiation between medical schools with and without department or division of radiation biology or radiation-related field. (2) Teaching hours for education on radiation in nursing course were very limited among the co-medical courses. Although, some improvement have been found about the state of education on radiation risk at medical schools, after the disaster of nuclear accident at Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Plant of TEPCO in March 2011. However, still much more effort t is needed to improve basic education on radiation. Science Council of Japan issued the recommendation on September 4, 2014 'Making radiation health risk education compulsory in medical education'. The working group for this purpose was set up under the Council of Head of National Medical Schools of Japan, on January 28, 2015. Here, we describe the details and current issues regarding radiation risk education in medical schools of Japan, as well as the efforts required for its betterment. (author)

  8. The current format and ongoing advances of medical education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishen, Kriya; Ovadia, Steven; Arzillo, Samantha; Avashia, Yash; Thaller, Seth R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the current system of medical education along with the advances that are being made to support the demands of a changing health care system. American medical education must reform to anticipate the future needs of a changing health care system. Since the dramatic transformations to medical education that followed the publication of the Flexner report in 1910, medical education in the United States has largely remained unaltered. Today, the education of future physicians is undergoing modifications at all levels: premedical education, medical school, and residency training. Advances are being made with respect to curriculum design and content, standardized testing, and accreditation milestones. Fields such as plastic surgery are taking strides toward improving resident training as the next accreditation system is established. To promote more efficacious medical education, the American Medical Association has provided grants for innovations in education. Likewise, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlined 6 core competencies to standardize the educational goals of residency training. Such efforts are likely to improve the education of future physicians so that they are able to meet the future needs of American health care.

  9. Current trends in medical English education and the Japan College of Rheumatology International School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jego, Eric Hajime; Amengual, Olga

    2017-11-01

    In light of the present revolution happening in medical education in Japan as medical schools implement new curricula to conform to global standards, there is a growing demand for more internationalization and higher quality practical medical English education. In response, many institutions including governmental organizations, universities and academic associations are moving ahead with new initiatives to adapt to these changing demands. This paper reviews the current trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan. This paper also describes one initiative by the Japan College of Rheumatology (JCR) known as the JCR International School held yearly in Karuizawa. By examining recent trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan, the most relevant and applicable can be elucidated to illuminate a path forward for improved medical English education within the JCR.

  10. International Medical Graduates in the US Physician Workforce and Graduate Medical Education: Current and Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad A; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Thomas, Charles R; Deville, Curtiland

    2018-04-01

    Data show that international medical graduates (IMGs), both US and foreign born, are more likely to enter primary care specialties and practice in underserved areas. Comprehensive assessments of representation trends for IMGs in the US physician workforce are limited. We reported current and historical representation trends for IMGs in the graduate medical education (GME) training pool and US practicing physician workforce. We compared representation for the total GME and active practicing physician pools with the 20 largest residency specialties. A 2-sided test was used for comparison, with P  < .001 considered significant. To assess significant increases in IMG GME trainee representation for the total pool and each of the specialties from 1990-2015, the slope was estimated using simple linear regression. IMGs showed significantly greater representation among active practicing physicians in 4 specialties: internal medicine (39%), neurology (31%), psychiatry (30%), and pediatrics (25%). IMGs in GME showed significantly greater representation in 5 specialties: pathology (39%), internal medicine (39%), neurology (36%), family medicine (32%), and psychiatry (31%; all P  < .001). Over the past quarter century, IMG representation in GME has increased by 0.2% per year in the total GME pool, and 1.1% per year for family medicine, 0.5% for obstetrics and gynecology and general surgery, and 0.3% for internal medicine. IMGs make up nearly a quarter of the total GME pool and practicing physician workforce, with a disproportionate share, and larger increases over our study period in certain specialties.

  11. The current state of basic medical education in Israel: implications for a new medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Shmuel; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Weingarten, Michael

    2009-11-01

    The recent government decision to establish a new medical school, the fifth in Israel, is an opportune moment to reflect on the state of Basic Medical Education (BME) in the country and globally. It provides a rare opportunity for planning an educational agenda tailored to local needs. This article moves from a description of the context of Israeli health care and the medical education system to a short overview of two existing Israeli medical schools where reforms have recently taken place. This is followed by an assessment of Israeli BME and an effort to use the insights from this assessment to inform the fifth medical school blueprint. The fifth medical school presents an opportunity for further curricular reforms and educational innovations. Reforms and innovations include: fostering self-directed professional development methods; emphasis on teaching in the community; use of appropriate educational technology; an emphasis on patient safety and simulation training; promoting the humanities in medicine; and finally the accountability to the community that the graduates will serve.

  12. Current issues in medical education | Al Shehri | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 4 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Current status on educational program for radiation emergency medical preparedness in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. S.; Kong, H. J.; Noh, J. H.; Kim, C. S.

    2002-01-01

    There are several educational programs in worldwide for the user of radiation, radioisotopes, and nuclear power plant. REAC/TS is one of the most famous centers for radiation emergency personnel. REMPAN, one of the World Health Organization is also to promote the medical preparedness for radiation accident and provide advice and assistance in the case of radiation accident and radiological emergency. There are a variety of educational programs of radiation emergency, but not many programs of medical preparedness in Korea. Therefore, it is introduced here Korean current environment and future direction of educational programs for the radiation emergency medical preparedness

  14. Sexuality education in North American medical schools: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindel, Alan W; Parish, Sharon J

    2013-01-01

    Both the general public and individual patients expect healthcare providers to be knowledgeable and approachable regarding sexual health. Despite this expectation there are no universal standards or expectations regarding the sexuality education of medical students. To review the current state of the art in sexuality education for North American medical students and to articulate future directions for improvement. Evaluation of: (i) peer-reviewed literature on sexuality education (focusing on undergraduate medical students); and (ii) recommendations for sexuality education from national and international public health organizations. Current status and future innovations for sexual health education in North American medical schools. Although the importance of sexuality to patients is recognized, there is wide variation in both the quantity and quality of education on this topic in North American medical schools. Many sexual health education programs in medical schools are focused on prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection. Educational material on sexual function and dysfunction, female sexuality, abortion, and sexual minority groups is generally scant or absent. A number of novel interventions, many student initiated, have been implemented at various medical schools to improve the student's training in sexual health matters. There is a tremendous opportunity to mold the next generation of healthcare providers to view healthy sexuality as a relevant patient concern. A comprehensive and uniform curriculum on human sexuality at the medical school level may substantially enhance the capacity of tomorrow's physicians to provide optimal care for their patients irrespective of gender, sexual orientation, and individual sexual mores/beliefs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. The use of elearning in medical education: a review of the current situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, A P

    2007-01-01

    Computers are increasingly used in medical education. Electronic learning (elearning) is moving from textbooks in electronic format (that are increasingly enhanced by the use of multimedia adjuncts) to a truly interactive medium that can be delivered to meet the educational needs of students and postgraduate learners. Computer technology can present reliable, reusable content in a format that is convenient to the learner. It can be used to transcend geographical boundaries and time zones. It is a valuable tool to add to the medical teacher's toolkit, but like all tools it must be used appropriately. This article endeavours to review the current “state of the art2 in use of elearning and its role in medical education alongside non‐electronic methods—a combination that is currently referred to as “blended” learning. PMID:17403945

  16. The use of elearning in medical education: a review of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, A P

    2007-04-01

    Computers are increasingly used in medical education. Electronic learning (elearning) is moving from textbooks in electronic format (that are increasingly enhanced by the use of multimedia adjuncts) to a truly interactive medium that can be delivered to meet the educational needs of students and postgraduate learners. Computer technology can present reliable, reusable content in a format that is convenient to the learner. It can be used to transcend geographical boundaries and time zones. It is a valuable tool to add to the medical teacher's toolkit, but like all tools it must be used appropriately. This article endeavours to review the current "state of the art2 in use of elearning and its role in medical education alongside non-electronic methods-a combination that is currently referred to as "blended" learning.

  17. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alexander; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada's CanMEDS competency framework. A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  18. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Poulton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method: A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results:  The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions: Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada.

  19. Current status of education and training in medical physics in developing and developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, N.S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant resources are allocated for applying Medical Physics to health care. State-of-the-art technological developments have made this discipline valuable in early diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, particularly cancer. The current challenge is the dire need of harmonizing the standards of practice, including equipment, quality assurance, safety, education and training in Medical Physics across various countries. With experiences gained from the successes and failures in this field, standards of practice have evolved in the developed as well as the developing countries, but at different rates. Considerations of cost-benefit and priorities have led to increased gap in these standards of practice. In this presentation, the status of the education and training component of selected countries representing the two domains will be discussed. Possible causes, as well as the means adopted by the national and international organisations to bridge the gaps, will also be a part of the discussion. Suggestions for future improvements will be offered for consideration

  20. [Medical technology and medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mallek, D; Biersack, H-J; Mull, R; Wilhelm, K; Heinz, B; Mellert, F

    2010-08-01

    The education of medical professionals is divided into medical studies, postgraduate training leading to the qualification as a specialist, and continuing professional development. During education, all scientific knowledge and practical skills are to be acquired, which enable the physician to practice responsibly in a specialized medical area. In the present article, relevant curricula are analyzed regarding the consideration of medical device-related topics, as the clinical application of medical technology has reached a central position in modern patient care. Due to the enormous scientific and technical progress, this area has become as important as pharmacotherapy. Our evaluation shows that medical device-related topics are currently underrepresented in the course of medical education and training and should be given greater consideration in all areas of medical education. Possible solutions are presented.

  1. Furthering Medical Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Surendra K; Jennings, John

    2016-02-01

    Medical education in Texas is moving in the right direction. The Texas Medical Association has been a major partner in advancing medical education initiatives. This special symposium issue on medical education examines residency training costs, the Next Accreditation System, graduate medical education in rural Texas, Texas' physician workforce needs, the current state of education reform, and efforts to retain medical graduates in Texas.

  2. Quality management of eLearning for medical education: current situation and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusch, Jasmin; Marienhagen, Jörg; Böckers, Anja; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the German Council of Science had advised universities to establish a quality management system (QMS) that conforms to international standards. The system was to be implemented within 5 years, i.e., until 2014 at the latest. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a QMS suitable for electronic learning (eLearning) domain of medical education to be used across Germany has meanwhile been identified. We approached all medical universities in Germany (n=35), using an anonymous questionnaire (8 domains, 50 items). Our results (response rate 46.3%) indicated very reluctant application of QMS in eLearning and a major information deficit at the various institutions. Authors conclude that under the limitations of this study there seems to be a considerable need to improve the current knowledge on QMS for eLearning, and that clear guidelines and standards for their implementation should be further defined.

  3. Social media as an open-learning resource in medical education: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, S; Jalali, A

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies evaluate the use of social media as an open-learning resource in education, but there is a little published knowledge of empirical evidence that such open-learning resources produce educative outcomes, particularly with regard to student performance. This study undertook a systematic review of the published literature in medical education to determine the state of the evidence as to empirical studies that conduct an evaluation or research regarding social media and open-learning resources. The authors searched MEDLINE, ERIC, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 2012 to 2017. This search included using keywords related to social media, medical education, research, and evaluation, while restricting the search to peer reviewed, English language articles only. To meet inclusion criteria, manuscripts had to employ evaluative methods and undertake empirical research. Empirical work designed to evaluate the impact of social media as an open-learning resource in medical education is limited as only 13 studies met inclusion criteria. The majority of these studies used undergraduate medical education as the backdrop to investigate open-learning resources, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. YouTube appears to have little educational value due to the unsupervised nature of content added on a daily basis. Overall, extant reviews have demonstrated that we know a considerable amount about social media use, although to date, its impacts remain unclear. There is a paucity of outcome-based, empirical studies assessing the impact of social media in medical education. The few empirical studies identified tend to focus on evaluating the affective outcomes of social media and medical education as opposed to understanding any linkages between social media and performance outcomes. Given the potential for social media use in medical education, more empirical evaluative studies are required to determine educational value.

  4. Reprioritizing current research trends in medical education: a reflection on research activities in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Akef S; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous national efforts to determine and develop research priorities of medical education in Saudi Arabia. These priorities were first proposed in 2010 by "Dr Al-Khuli's Chair for Developing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia". The proposed priority domains were: curriculum, students, faculty, and quality assurance and accreditation. To investigate publications in medical education at the national and international levels in areas relating to these proposed priorities. Electronic search within PubMed database for papers relating to each domain of priority was conducted at national and international levels in the last three years, using the same keywords as the priority domains, but only confined to undergraduate medical education. Out of 3145 articles retrieved when searching with keyword as broad as "undergraduate medical curriculum" only 81 articles worldwide and 3 articles from Saudi Arabia were dealing with curriculum related issues as a whole. Further search on the sub-domains "effective strategies to manage undergraduate curriculum" and "undergraduate medical education models", resulted in the retrieval of few articles worldwide and none from Saudi Arabia. At the national level, there were 63 publications from Saudi Arabia that were either course (topic)-specific or could not be classified under the four domains specified by Dr Al-Khuli's Chair. Research activities in medical education in Saudi Arabia in the last 3 years showed diversity and lack of focus in the research priorities. Efforts of academic and research centers should continue to monitor and encourage these activities toward achieving the recommended priorities.

  5. The Future of e-Learning in Medical Education: Current Trend and Future Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of e-learning modalities are widely integrated in medical education. However, some of the key questions related to the role of e-learning remain unanswered, such as (1 what is an effective approach to integrating technology into pre-clinical vs. clinical training?; (2 what evidence exists regarding the type and format of e-learning technology suitable for medical specialties and clinical settings?; (3 which design features are known to be effective in designing on-line patient simulation cases, tutorials, or clinical exams?; and (4 what guidelines exist for determining an appropriate blend of instructional strategies, including online learning, face-to-face instruction, and performance-based skill practices? Based on the existing literature and a variety of e-learning examples of synchronous learning tools and simulation technology, this paper addresses the following three questions: (1 what is the current trend of e-learning in medical education?; (2 what do we know about the effective use of e-learning?; and (3 what is the role of e-learning in facilitating newly emerging competency-based training? As e-learning continues to be widely integrated in training future physicians, it is critical that our efforts in conducting evaluative studies should target specific e-learning features that can best mediate intended learning goals and objectives. Without an evolving knowledge base on how best to design e-learning applications, the gap between what we know about technology use and how we deploy e-learning in training settings will continue to widen.

  6. Medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  7. Social media as an open-learning resource in medical education: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available S Sutherland,1 A Jalali2 1Department of Critical Care, The Ottawa Hospital, ²Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: Numerous studies evaluate the use of social media as an open-learning resource in education, but there is a little published knowledge of empirical evidence that such open-learning resources produce educative outcomes, particularly with regard to student performance. This study undertook a systematic review of the published literature in medical education to determine the state of the evidence as to empirical studies that conduct an evaluation or research regarding social media and open-learning resources.Methods: The authors searched MEDLINE, ERIC, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 2012 to 2017. This search included using keywords related to social media, medical education, research, and evaluation, while restricting the search to peer reviewed, English language articles only. To meet inclusion criteria, manuscripts had to employ evaluative methods and undertake empirical research.Results: Empirical work designed to evaluate the impact of social media as an open-learning resource in medical education is limited as only 13 studies met inclusion criteria. The majority of these studies used undergraduate medical education as the backdrop to investigate open-learning resources, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. YouTube appears to have little educational value due to the unsupervised nature of content added on a daily basis. Overall, extant reviews have demonstrated that we know a considerable amount about social media use, although to date, its impacts remain unclear.Conclusion: There is a paucity of outcome-based, empirical studies assessing the impact of social media in medical education. The few empirical studies identified tend to focus on evaluating the affective outcomes of social media and medical education as opposed to

  8. Current Status of Simulation-Based Training in Graduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Ross E; Van Sickle, Kent R

    2015-08-01

    The use of simulation in Graduate Medical Education has evolved significantly over time, particularly during the past decade. The applications of simulation include introductory and basic technical skills, more advanced technical skills, and nontechnical skills, and simulation is gaining acceptance in high-stakes assessments. Simulation-based training has also brought about paradigm shifts in the medical and surgical education arenas and has borne new and exciting national and local consortia that will ensure that the scope and impact of simulation will continue to broaden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 88 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 88 of 88 ...

  10. Integrating Radiology and Anatomy Teaching in Medical Education in the UK--The Evidence, Current Trends, and Future Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptonstall, N B; Ali, T; Mankad, K

    2016-04-01

    This review article presents the current evidence of the importance of integrating radiology and anatomy in medical education in the UK, a recommendation by a number of key anatomy, education, and radiology organizations. Current evidence highlights that on average only 5% of total teaching time in medical education is dedicated to radiology. Often, radiology teaching does not adequately fulfill students' learning needs and potentially leaves them underprepared for medical practice. Benefits of integrating radiology and anatomy include improved clinical application of anatomy, an increase in student's interest in anatomy, and ultimately improved radiological interpretation. Various modalities exist for the integration of radiology and anatomy, facilitated by the vast portability of radiological images. It appears that combining radiological resources with traditional anatomy teaching methodology in a blended approach is most beneficial. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incorporation of web-based applications and online resources in undergraduate medical education in the Irish Republic. Can new changes be incorporated in the current medical curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatt, Karanvir Singh; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2014-07-01

    Significant change has been happening in the introduction of technology in medical teaching all over the world. We aim to determine if the undergraduate medical students and teachers are open to incorporating changes in the current medical curriculum or if there is a need for the same in the Republic of Ireland. A cross-sectional study involving 202 participants of whom 152 were medical students and 50 medical professionals (teachers and hospital doctors) were carried out involving three different medical universities namely; University College Cork (UCC), University College Dublin (UCD), and National University of Ireland in Galway (NUIG). Participants were requested to answer a series of 15 questions designed incorporating various fields of technology necessary for the study. The data was collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to determine statistical significance. The participants overall had a positive attitude toward the utility of modern technology and web-based applications in current medical curriculum. Ninety-one percent of the participants preferred the introduction of modern technology into medical education and 7% were against the idea and a further 2% of them remained undecided. There seems to be a "technology gap" in the current undergraduate medical curriculum in Ireland. A large-scale study involving more participants from all the medical schools in Ireland is recommended. We believe, changes can be brought into the current medical teaching and learning to make the process more fruitful and successful.

  12. The current status of education and career paths of students after completion of medical physicist programs in Japan: a survey by the Japanese Board for Medical Physicist Qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Noriyuki; Karasawa, Kumiko; Sumida, Iori; Arimura, Hidetaka; Yamada, Syogo

    2015-07-01

    To standardize educational programs and clinical training for medical physics students, the Japanese Board for Medical Physicist Qualification (JBMP) began to accredit master's, doctorate, and residency programs for medical physicists in 2012. At present, 16 universities accredited by the JBMP offer 22 courses. In this study, we aimed to survey the current status of educational programs and career paths of students after completion of the medical physicist program in Japan. A questionnaire was sent in August 2014 to 32 universities offering medical physicist programs. The questionnaire was created and organized by the educational course certification committee of the JBMP and comprised two sections: the first collected information about the university attended, and the second collected information about characteristics and career paths of students after completion of medical physicist programs from 2008 to 2014. Thirty universities (16 accredited and 14 non-accredited) completed the survey (response rate 94 %). A total of 209, 40, and 3 students graduated from the master's, doctorate, and residency programs, respectively. Undergraduates entered the medical physicist program constantly, indicating an interest in medical physics among undergraduates. A large percentage of the students held a bachelor's degree in radiological technology (master's program 94 %; doctorate program 70 %); graduates obtained a national radiological technologist license. Regarding career paths, although the number of the graduates who work as medical physicist remains low, 7 % with a master's degree and 50 % with a doctorate degree worked as medical physicists. Our results could be helpful for improving the medical physicist program in Japan.

  13. Library instruction in medical education: a survey of current practices in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Nevius

    2018-01-01

    Results: Most of the seventy-three responding libraries provided instruction, both asynchronously and synchronously. Library instruction was most likely to be offered in two years of medical school, with year one seeing the most activity. Database use was the most frequently taught topic, and libraries reported a median of five librarians providing instruction, with larger staffs offering slightly more education sessions per year. Libraries associated with highly ranked schools were slightly more likely to offer sessions that were integrated into the medical school curriculum in year four and to offer sessions in more years overall. Conclusions: In US and Canadian libraries, regardless of the rank of the affiliated medical school, librarians’ provision of instruction in multiple formats on multiple topics is increasingly common.  This article has been approved for the Medical Library Association’s Independent Reading Program.

  14. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 9 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Current pain education within undergraduate medical studies across Europe: Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Emma V; Battelli, Daniele; Gordon, David; Kopf, Andreas; Ribeiro, Sofia; Puig, Margarita M; Kress, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved pain is a substantial public health concern necessitating improvements in medical education. The Advancing the Provision of Pain Education and Learning (APPEAL) study aimed to determine current levels and methods of undergraduate pain medicine education in Europe. Design and methods Using a cross-sectional design, publicly available curriculum information was sought from all medical schools in 15 representative European countries in 2012–2013. Descriptive analyses were performed on: the provision of pain teaching in dedicated pain modules, other modules or within the broader curriculum; whether pain teaching was compulsory or elective; the number of hours/credits spent teaching pain; pain topics; and teaching and assessment methods. Results Curriculum elements were publicly available from 242 of 249 identified schools (97%). In 55% (133/242) of schools, pain was taught only within compulsory non-pain-specific modules. The next most common approaches were for pain teaching to be provided wholly or in part via a dedicated pain module (74/242; 31%) or via a vertical or integrated approach to teaching through the broader curriculum, rather than within any specific module (17/242; 7%). The curricula of 17/242 schools (7%) showed no evidence of any pain teaching. Dedicated pain modules were most common in France (27/31 schools; 87%). Excluding France, only 22% (47/211 schools) provided a dedicated pain module and in only 9% (18/211) was this compulsory. Overall, the median number of hours spent teaching pain was 12.0 (range 4–56.0 h; IQR: 12.0) for compulsory dedicated pain modules and 9.0 (range 1.0–60.0 h; IQR: 10.5) for other compulsory (non-pain specific) modules. Pain medicine was principally taught in classrooms and assessed by conventional examinations. There was substantial international variation throughout. Conclusions Documented pain teaching in many European medical schools falls far short of what might be expected given the

  16. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi

    2016-04-15

    To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Systematic literature review. 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing literature and supports the need for primary research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  17. [Current teaching, learning and examination methods in medical education and potential applications in rehabilitative issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, S R; Morfeld, M; Gülich, M; Lay, W; Horn, K; Mau, W

    2007-04-01

    With introduction of the new Federal Medical Licensing Regulations (Approbationsordnung) in Germany, integrated teaching in "Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine, Naturopathic Treatment" (Querschnittsbereich Q12) has become obligatory for the first time. Furthermore, the new Regulations require the medical faculties in Germany to realize an innovative didactic orientation in teaching. This paper provides an overview of recent applications of teaching techniques and examination methods in medical education with special consideration of the new integrated course Q12 and further teaching methods related to rehabilitative issues. Problem-oriented learning (POL), problem-based learning (PBL), bedside teaching, eLearning, and the examination methods Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and Triple Jump are in the focus. This overview is intended as the basis for subsequent publications of the Commission for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Training of the German Society of Rehabilitation Science (DGRW), which will present examples of innovative teaching material.

  18. Library instruction in medical education: a survey of current practices in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevius, Amanda M; Ettien, A'Llyn; Link, Alissa P; Sobel, Laura Y

    2018-01-01

    The most recent survey on instruction practices in libraries affiliated with accredited medical institutions in the United States was conducted in 1996. The present study sought to update these data, while expanding to include Canadian libraries. Additional analysis was undertaken to test for statistically significant differences between library instruction in the United States and Canada and between libraries affiliated with highly ranked and unranked institutions. A twenty-eight-question survey was distributed to libraries affiliated with accredited US and Canadian medical schools to assess what and how often librarians teach, as well as how librarians are involved in the curriculum committee and if they are satisfied with their contact with students and faculty. Quantitative data were analyzed with SAS, R, and MedCalc. Most of the seventy-three responding libraries provided instruction, both asynchronously and synchronously. Library instruction was most likely to be offered in two years of medical school, with year one seeing the most activity. Database use was the most frequently taught topic, and libraries reported a median of five librarians providing instruction, with larger staffs offering slightly more education sessions per year. Libraries associated with highly ranked schools were slightly more likely to offer sessions that were integrated into the medical school curriculum in year four and to offer sessions in more years overall. In US and Canadian libraries, regardless of the rank of the affiliated medical school, librarians' provision of instruction in multiple formats on multiple topics is increasingly common.

  19. Medical education: Changes and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Gruppen, Larry D.; Ba, Denian

    2013-01-01

    As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international trends, Chinese medical education has seen unique transformations that reflect its particular culture and history. PMID:23631405

  20. Current Status of Nutrition Training in Graduate Medical Education From a Survey of Residency Program Directors: A Formal Nutrition Education Course Is Necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Brian J; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill; Van Way, Charles W; Collier, Bryan; Gramlich, Leah; McMahon, M Molly; McClave, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition leaders surmised graduate medical nutrition education was not well addressed because most medical and surgical specialties have insufficient resources to teach current nutrition practice. A needs assessment survey was constructed to determine resources and commitment for nutrition education from U.S. graduate medical educators to address this problem. An online survey of 36 questions was sent to 495 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Program Directors in anesthesia, family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, and general surgery. Demographics, resources, and open-ended questions were included. There was a 14% response rate (72 programs), consistent with similar studies on the topic. Most (80%) of the program directors responding were from primary care programs, the rest surgical (17%) or anesthesia (3%). Program directors themselves lacked knowledge of nutrition. While some form of nutrition education was provided at 78% of programs, only 26% had a formal curriculum and physicians served as faculty at only 53%. Sixteen programs had no identifiable expert in nutrition and 10 programs stated that no nutrition training was provided. Training was variable, ranging from an hour of lecture to a month-long rotation. Seventy-seven percent of program directors stated that the required educational goals in nutrition were not met. The majority felt an advanced course in clinical nutrition should be required of residents now or in the future. Nutrition education in current graduate medical education is poor. Most programs lack the expertise or time commitment to teach a formal course but recognize the need to meet educational requirements. A broad-based, diverse universal program is needed for training in nutrition during residency. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Educating Medical Laboratory Technologists: Revisiting Our Assumptions in the Current Economic and Health-Care Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Linder

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Health care occupies a distinct niche in an economy struggling to recover from recession. Professions related to the care of patients are thought to be relatively resistant to downturns, and thus become attractive to students typically drawn to more lucrative pursuits. Currently, a higher profile for clinical laboratory technology among college students and those considering career change results in larger and better prepared applicant pools. However, after decades of contraction marked by closing of programs, prospective students encounter an educational system without the capacity or vigor to meet their needs. Here discussed are some principles and proposals to allow universities, partnering with health-care providers, government agencies, and other stakeholders to develop new programs, or reenergize existing ones to serve our students and patients. Principles include academic rigor in biomedical and clinical science, multiple points of entry for students, flexibility in format, cost effectiveness, career ladders and robust partnerships.

  2. Status of medical mycology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, William J; Mitchell, Thomas G; Schell, Wiley A; Espinel-Ingroff, Ana; Coico, Richard F; Walsh, Thomas J; Perfect, John R

    2003-12-01

    The number of immunocompromised patients and subsequent invasive fungal infections continues to rise. However, the education of future medical mycologists to engage this growing problem is diminishing. While there are an increasing number of publications and grants awarded in mycology, the time and detail devoted to teaching medical mycology in United States medical schools are inadequate. Here we review the history in medical mycology education and the current educational opportunities. To accurately gauge contemporary teaching we also conducted a prospective survey of microbiology and immunology departmental chairpersons in United States medical schools to determine the amount and content of contemporary education in medical mycology.

  3. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at .... Walsh K. Online educational tools to improve the.

  4. Sexual Health Curricula in U.S. Medical Schools: Current Educational Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Carol; Lechuga, Julia; Layde, Joseph B.; Pinkerton, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors identify the explicit and implicit objectives that shape decisions about what medical schools teach regarding human sexuality. Methods: The authors reviewed relevant articles in journals, physician licensing examinations, and publications by professional organizations to identify learning objectives for human sexuality in…

  5. 'E-learning' modalities in the current era of Medical Education in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Masood; Aly, Syed Moyn

    2014-09-01

    There are a number of e-Learning modalities, some or all of which may be used throughout a medical, dental, nursing or any other health related undergraduate curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe what e-learning is along with some of the modalities, their common advantages and limitations. This publication ends with practical implications of these modalities for Pakistan.

  6. ‘E-learning’ modalities in the current era of Medical Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Masood; Aly, Syed Moyn

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of e-Learning modalities, some or all of which may be used throughout a medical, dental, nursing or any other health related undergraduate curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe what e-learning is along with some of the modalities, their common advantages and limitations. This publication ends with practical implications of these modalities for Pakistan. PMID:25225547

  7. Medical Education in Japan and Introduction of Medical Education at Tokyo Women’s Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumiko Okubo

    2014-01-01

    Medical education in Japan changed rapidly in the last decade of the 20th century with the introduction of new education methods and implementation of the core curriculum and common achievement testing such as CBT and OSCE.Recently, there have been other movements in medical education in Japan that have introduced 'outcome(competency) based education(OBE)' and created a system for accreditation of medical education programs. This report provides an overview of current medical education in Japan. Moreover, it introduces medical education at Tokyo Women’s Medical University.

  8. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...... of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework...

  9. Medical education... meet Michel Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Brian D; Martimianakis, Maria A; McNaughton, Nancy; Whitehead, Cynthia

    2014-06-01

    There have been repeated calls for the greater use of conceptual frameworks and of theory in medical education. Although it is familiar to few medical educators, Michel Foucault's work is a helpful theoretical and methodological source. This article explores what it means to use a 'Foucauldian approach', presents a sample of Foucault's historical-genealogical studies that are relevant to medical education, and introduces the work of four researchers currently undertaking Foucauldian-inspired medical education research. Although they are not without controversy, Foucauldian approaches are employed by an increasing number of scholars and are helpful in shedding light on what it is possible to think, say and be in medical education. Our hope in sharing this Foucauldian work and perspective is that we might stimulate a dialogue that is forward-looking and optimistic about the possibilities for change in medical education. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Current status of personnel exposure at nuclear power plants and other medical, industrial and educational facilities in JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumiaki

    1991-01-01

    The state of radiation exposure of the workers engaging in radiation works in Japanese nuclear power stations, the factors of the radiation exposure of the workers engaging in radiation works, the countermeasures for reducing exposure in nuclear power stations, the state of radiation exposure of doctors, the workers engaging in radiation works, researchers and others in medical, industrial, research and educational and other facilities in Japan, the factors of their radiation exposure and the countermeasures for reducing the exposure, and the comparison of the exposure in nuclear power stations with that in medical, industrial, research and educational facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different ... Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. ... state-of-the-art resources, technology and tutors con-.

  12. [Virtual reality in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, O; Steensrud, T

    1998-02-28

    Virtual reality technology has found new applications in industry over the last few years. Medical literature has for several years predicted a break-through in this technology for medical education. Although there is a great potential for this technology in medical education, there seems to be a wide gap between expectations and actual possibilities at present. State of the technology was explored by participation at the conference "Medicine meets virtual reality V" (San Diego Jan. 22-25 1997) and a visit to one of the leading laboratories on virtual reality in medical education. In this paper we introduce some of the basic terminology and technology, review some of the topics covered by the conference, and describe projects running in one of the leading laboratories on virtual reality technology for medical education. With this information in mind, we discuss potential applications of the current technology in medical education. Current virtual reality systems are judged to be too costly and their usefulness in education too limited for routine use in medical education.

  13. Undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, L; Wass, J

    1993-01-23

    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives for teaching students in general practice are currently low, organising such teaching is difficult and needs resources, and resistance within traditional medical school hierarchies needs to be overcome. Likewise, students value learning within local communities, but the effort demanded of public health departments and community organisations is great at a time when they are under greater pressure than ever before. The arguments over research that favour concentration in four multifaculty schools are less clear cut for undergraduate education, where personal support for students is important. An immediate concern is that the effort demanded for reorganising along the lines suggested by Tomlinson will not leave medical schools much energy for innovating.

  14. Managed medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafferty, F W

    1999-09-01

    The forces of rationality and commodification, hallmarks of the managed care revolution, may soon breach the walls of organized medical education. Whispers are beginning to circulate that the cost of educating future physicians is too high. Simultaneously, managed care companies are accusing medical education of turning out trainees unprepared to practice in a managed care environment. Changes evident in other occupational and service delivery sectors of U.S. society as diverse as pre-college education and prisons provide telling insights into what may be in store for medical educators. Returning to academic medicine, the author reflects that because corporate managed care is already established in teaching hospitals, and because managed research (e.g., corporate-sponsored and -run drug trials, for-profit drug-study centers, and contract research organizations) is increasing, managed medical education could become a reality as well. Medical education has made itself vulnerable to the intrusion of corporate rationalizers because it has failed to professionalism at core of its curricula-something only it is able to do--and instead has focused unduly on the transmission of esoteric knowledge and core clinical skills, a process that can be carried out more efficiently, more effectively, and less expensively by other players in the medical education marketplace such as Kaplan, Compass, or the Princeton Review. The author explains why reorganizing medical education around professional values is crucial, why the AAMC's Medical School Objectives Project offers guidance in this area, why making this change will be difficult, and why medical education must lead in establishing how to document the presence and absence of such qualities as altruism and dutifulness and the ways that appropriate medical education can foster these and similar core competencies. "Anything less and organized medicine will acknowledged... that it has abandoned its social contract and entered the

  15. Medical education teaching resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Michael D; Seyfried, Lisa S; Gay, Tamara L

    2014-02-01

    Numerous monographs on psychiatry education have appeared without a review specifically intended to assist psychiatry faculty and trainees in the selection of appropriate volumes for study and reference. The authors prepared this annotated bibliography to fill that gap. The authors identified titles from web-based searches of the topics "academic psychiatry," "psychiatry education," and "medical education," followed by additional searches of the same topics on the websites of major publishers. Forty-nine titles referring to psychiatry education specifically and medical education generally were identified. The authors selected works that were published within the last 10 years and remain in print and that met at least one of the following criteria: (1) written specifically about psychiatry or for psychiatric educators; (2) of especially high quality in scholarship, writing, topic selection and coverage, and pertinence to academic psychiatry; (3) covering a learning modality deemed by the authors to be of particular interest for psychiatry education. The authors reviewed 19 books pertinent to the processes of medical student and residency education, faculty career development, and education administration. These included 11 books on medical education in general, 4 books that focus more narrowly on the field of psychiatry, and 4 books addressing specific learning modalities of potential utility in the mental health professions. Most of the selected works proved to be outstanding contributions to the medical education literature.

  16. Educational technology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Resch, David S; Kovach, Regina A

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review the past practices of educational technology and envision future directions for medical education. The discussion starts with a historical review of definitions and perspectives of educational technology, in which the authors propose that educators adopt a broader process-oriented understanding of educational technology. Future directions of e-learning, simulation, and health information technology are discussed based on a systems view of the technological process. As new technologies continue to arise, this process-oriented understanding and outcome-based expectations of educational technology should be embraced. With this view, educational technology should be valued in terms of how well the technological process informs and facilitates learning, and the acquisition and maintenance of clinical expertise.

  17. Gender matters in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Women are in the majority in terms of entry to medical schools worldwide and will soon represent the majority of working doctors. This has been termed the 'feminising' of medicine. In medical education, such gender issues tend to be restricted to discussions of demographic changes and structural inequalities based on a biological reading of gender. However, in contemporary social sciences, gender theory has moved beyond both biology and demography to include cultural issues of gendered ways of thinking. Can contemporary feminist thought drawn from the social sciences help medical educators to widen their appreciation and understanding of the feminising of medicine? Post-structuralist feminist critique, drawn from the social sciences, focuses on cultural practices, such as language use, that support a dominant patriarchy. Such a critique is not exclusive to women, but may be described as supporting a tender-minded approach to practice that is shared by both women and men. The demographic feminising of medicine may have limited effect in terms of changing both medical culture and medical education practices without causing radical change to entrenched cultural habits that are best described as patriarchal. Medical education currently suffers from male biases, such as those imposed by 'andragogy', or adult learning theory, and these can be positively challenged through post-structuralist feminist critique. Women doctors entering the medical workforce can resist and reformulate the current dominant patriarchy rather than reproducing it, supported by male feminists. Such a feminising of medicine can extend to medical education, but will require an appropriate theoretical framework to make sense of the new territory. The feminising of medical education informed by post-structuralist frameworks may provide a platform for the democratisation of medical culture and practices, further informing authentic patient-centred practices of care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  18. Medical education in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffre, Carrillo P; Delgado, Belgica; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Xudong; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Ecuador, the smallest of the Andean countries, is located in the northwest portion of South America. The nation's 14.5 million people have a tremendous need for high quality primary care. To describe the profound advances as well as the persistent needs in medical education in Ecuador that have occurred with globalization and with the modernization of the country. Through an extensive search of the literature; medical school data; reports from the Ecuador Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Education; and information from the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Innovation (SENESCYT), the medical education system in Ecuador has been thoroughly examined. The National System of Higher Education in Ecuador has experienced significant growth over the last 20 years. As of 2009 the system boasts 19 medical schools, all of which offer the required education needed to obtain the title of Physician, but only 12 of which offer postgraduate clinical training. Of these 19 universities, nine are public, five are private and self-financed, and five are private and co-financed. Post-graduate options for medical students include: (1) Clinical specialization, (2) Higher diploma, (3) Course specialization, (4) Master's degree, and (5) PhD degree. The rapid growth of Ecuador's system of medical education has led to inevitable gaps that threaten its ability to sustain itself. Chief among these is the lack of well-trained faculty to supply its medical schools. To ensure an adequate supply of faculty exists, the creation of sufficient postgraduate, sub-specialization, and PhD training positions must be created and maintained.

  19. Curriculum Trends in Medical Education in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita Panwar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Medical education began in Mauritius with the establishment of Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (SSR Medical college in 1999 followed by a breakthrough in field of medicine with opening of Anna Medical College and Research Center (AMCRC in 2010 and Padhamshree DY PatilMedical College in 2013.Though it was an appreciable beginning of medical education in Mauritius, medical schools are currently experiencing hardships in delivering right medical exposure to health care professionals.Mauritian medical schools now need to review their current teaching methodology and present curriculum to keep pace with global standards. Integrated curriculum which is now gaining popularity world-wide is to be introduced and strongly implemented in medical schools in Mauritius. This curriculum would breach barriers and improve integration between pre-clinical and clinical sciences thus facilitating long-term retention of knowledge in medical schools and develop a professionally soundapproach towards management of health care. Horizontal curriculum can be replaced by vertical and spiral integration. For this major change, faculty engaged in medical profession are to be acquainted about innovative strategies and emerging trends in medical education. Thus this article aims to highlight the current scenario of medical education in Mauritius and also offer suggestions about possible future strategies to be implemented in medical colleges.Keywords: MEDICAL EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, CHALLENGES

  20. Rationing medical education.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    when the consumerist and individualist perspective is affecting all walks of life including medical education, voices such as these may become louder.10,11. There is also the more fundamental question – whose needs should be catered for? Is it the needs of individ- ual learners or the needs of patients and populations.

  1. A student's perspective on medical ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terndrup, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Despite many efforts to increase ethics education in US medical schools, barriers continue to arise that impede the production of morally driven physicians who practice medicine with ideal empathy. Research has shown that, particularly during the clinical years, medical students lose the ability both to recognize ethical dilemmas and to approach such situations with compassionate reasoning. This article summarizes the current status of ethics education in US medical schools, described through the eyes of and alongside the story of a graduating medical student.

  2. Pediatric hospitalists and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolini, Mary C

    2014-07-01

    Pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) is moving toward becoming an American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) subspecialty, roughly a decade after its formal inception in 2003. Education has played a central role as the field has evolved. Hospitalists are needed to educate trainees, medical students, residents, fellows, and nurse practitioner and physician assistant students in inpatient pediatric practice. Continuous professional development is needed for hospitalists currently in practice to augment clinical skills, such as providing sedation and placing peripherally inserted central catheter lines, and nonclinical skills in areas such as quality improvement methodology, hospital administration, and health service research. To address the educational needs of the current and future state of PHM, additional training is now needed beyond residency training. Fellowship training will be essential to continue to advance the field of PHM as well as to petition the ABP for specialty accreditation. Training in using adult educational theory, curriculum, and assessment design are critical for pediatric hospitalists choosing to advance their careers as clinician-educators. Several venues are available for gaining advanced knowledge and skill as an educator. PHM clinician-educators are advancing the field of pediatric education as well as their own academic careers by virtue of the scholarly approach they have taken to designing and implementing curricula for unique PHM teaching situations. PHM educators are changing the educational paradigm to address challenges to traditional education strategies posed by duty hour restrictions and the increasing drive to shorten the duration of the hospitalization. By embracing learning with technology, such as simulation and e-learning with mobile devices, PHM educators can address these challenges as well as respond to learning preferences of millennial learners. The future for PHM education is bright. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland

    2017-02-01

    Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.

  4. Current Medical Journalism Needs Major Revisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical journalism commenced during early nineteenth century as an impressive adjunct for medical education. It is considered as a platform to share the results of the research studies and to disseminate medical information that could impact the present concept and practice of the medicine field. Medical journalism gained immense attention over the years; however, the present scenario revealed certain limitations. A rise in the number of researchers, by interest or forcefully, has led to an increase in the journal count, resulting in several fake research articles being published in the journals. This leads to inappropriate research and low quality of journals, where the data appearing in the research articles is not authentic; thus, the journals publishing such articles face several issues while verifying the authenticity of the data provided. All journals, in particular, the recent ones strive to achieve immense importance in regards to the impact factor, h-index, and similar quality assessments; however, attaining similar scores as that of the well-known journals is impossible. Hence, as a futile effort, the editorial team of the new or latest journals consider adding more references in their articles in order to achieve a higher score; however, certain references from the previously published papers, may decode as a conflict of interest. Based on an unwritten and unavailable rule, all new journals try to publish papers in same format as publishing in famous journals, and do not dare to deconstruct it. It seems that deconstruction should also be performed by the old journals founded the current style! In order to avoid the aforementioned issues, the Advanced Journal of Emergency Medicine emerged with the concept of being different, deconstructive, and without any futile competition with the other journals. Accordingly, we consider a large audience with several degrees of medical education to participate in the field of research, make the

  5. Evaluation of the current status of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy education 10 years after the reform of the Medical Licensure Act – a nationwide survey of German Medical Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock-Schröer, Beate

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the reform of the German Medical Licensure Act of 2003, Rehabilitation, Naturopathy and Physical Medicine were integrated into one discipline to be taught in Medical University. The aim of this survey is to determine the outcome of this change by evaluating the current status of education of these three disciplines based on the experience and satisfaction reported by lecturers responsible for teaching these subjects to medical students. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey. A paper version of the questionnaire for each discipline was posted to each Medical University in Germany. The first part asked about the current status of teaching; the second part asked about facilities and requirements; the third part asked respondents to give information on their career and teaching experience in this subjectResults: The response rate was 51.5% for Rehabilitation, 48.5% for Physical Medicine and 60.6% for Naturopathy. A vast range of people and faculties were involved in the curricula. The percentage of each discipline taught was unevenly distributed: the major proportion being rehabilitation (38%, then naturopathy 34% lastly physical medicine with less than a third (28%. The main delivery of these disciplines was through lectures in plenary sessions. Modern teaching methods were not in evidence. Lecturers were generally pleased to be working with the combination of the three disciplines. Conclusion: Future medical education should improve upon teaching coordination and aim towards a common curriculum for these three disciplines. Expected future changes to medical curricula will provide opportunities to improve the implementation of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Naturopathy in teaching and research.

  6. Emergency medical technician education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Joseph; Sullivan, Francis; Williams, Kenneth A

    2013-12-03

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) training and education are vital and vibrant aspects of a young and evolving profession. This article provides a perspective on this effort in the United States and reviews current activity in Rhode Island.

  7. 3D printing materials and their use in medical education: a review of current technology and trends for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justine; Yang, ZhiLin; Mongrain, Rosaire; Leask, Richard L; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    3D printing is a new technology in constant evolution. It has rapidly expanded and is now being used in health education. Patient-specific models with anatomical fidelity created from imaging dataset have the potential to significantly improve the knowledge and skills of a new generation of surgeons. This review outlines five technical steps required to complete a printed model: They include (1) selecting the anatomical area of interest, (2) the creation of the 3D geometry, (3) the optimisation of the file for the printing and the appropriate selection of (4) the 3D printer and (5) materials. All of these steps require time, expertise and money. A thorough understanding of educational needs is therefore essential in order to optimise educational value. At present, most of the available printing materials are rigid and therefore not optimum for flexibility and elasticity unlike biological tissue. We believe that the manipuation and tuning of material properties through the creation of composites and/or blending materials will eventually allow for the creation of patient-specific models which have both anatomical and tissue fidelity.

  8. 3D printing materials and their use in medical education: a review of current technology and trends for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justine; Yang, ZhiLin; Mongrain, Rosaire; Leask, Richard L; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    3D printing is a new technology in constant evolution. It has rapidly expanded and is now being used in health education. Patient-specific models with anatomical fidelity created from imaging dataset have the potential to significantly improve the knowledge and skills of a new generation of surgeons. This review outlines five technical steps required to complete a printed model: They include (1) selecting the anatomical area of interest, (2) the creation of the 3D geometry, (3) the optimisation of the file for the printing and the appropriate selection of (4) the 3D printer and (5) materials. All of these steps require time, expertise and money. A thorough understanding of educational needs is therefore essential in order to optimise educational value. At present, most of the available printing materials are rigid and therefore not optimum for flexibility and elasticity unlike biological tissue. We believe that the manipuation and tuning of material properties through the creation of composites and/or blending materials will eventually allow for the creation of patient-specific models which have both anatomical and tissue fidelity. PMID:29354281

  9. [Information technology in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramić, A

    1999-01-01

    The role of information technology in educational models of under-graduate and post-graduate medical education is growing in 1980's influenced by PC's break-in in medical practice and creating relevant data basis, and, particularly, in 1990's by integration of information technology on international level, development of international network, Internet, Telemedicin, etc. The development of new educational information technology is evident, proving that information in transfer of medical knowledge, medical informatics and communication systems represent the base of medical practice, medical education and research in medical sciences. In relation to the traditional approaches in concept, contents and techniques of medical education, new models of education in training of health professionals, using new information technology, offer a number of benefits, such as: decentralization and access to relevant data sources, collecting and updating of data, multidisciplinary approach in solving problems and effective decision-making, and affirmation of team work within medical and non-medical disciplines. Without regard to the dynamics of change and progressive reform orientation within health sector, the development of modern medical education is inevitable for all systems a in which information technology and available data basis, as a base of effective and scientifically based medical education of health care providers, give guarantees for efficient health care and improvement of health of population.

  10. From the coliseum to the convention centre: a reflection on the current state of medical education conferences and conference-goers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rebecca D; Engle, Deborah L; Howley, Lisa D; Whicker, Shari A; Nagler, Alisa

    2016-12-01

    The advancement of knowledge and development of policy in the field of medical education require critical academic discourse among the most intelligent medical educators; and critical academic discourse requires coffee. In this essay, we reflect on the state of professional development conferences in the field of medical education and the rituals that surround their success. Having begun in ancient Greece, symposia were ripe with debauchery. Today, sedated by the light brown walls of hotel conference centres, symposia are more serious endeavours, engaging men and women in the sometimes turbulent waters of epistemological debate. The abstract submission process (summed up by: 'Yay! It was accepted for presentation' [Deep breath] 'Oh no…it was accepted for presentation'), the 'juggling act' of parent attendees, the acting prowess of abstract presenters and the unapologetic approach to buffet eating are all by-products of the collision of true intellects among medical education scholars. We hold these rituals in high regard and argue that they are required to advance the field of medical education. These rituals bind the walls supporting true progressive thought and innovative research, all fuelled by the glass of wine purchased with that one coveted drink ticket. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  11. Depression in medical students: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moir F

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fiona Moir,1 Jill Yielder,2 Jasmine Sanson,3 Yan Chen4 1Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Medical Programme Directorate, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Centre for Medical and Health Sciences Education, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Medical students are exposed to multiple factors during their academic and clinical study that have been shown to contribute to high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. The purpose of this article was to explore the issue of depression in the medical student population, including prevalence, causes, and key issues, along with suggestions for early identification and support from one medical school in New Zealand. After establishing that the prevalence of depression is higher for medical students than the general population, the key issues explored include assessment used in the program, characteristics of the student population (such as Type A personality and perfectionism, resilience, selection procedures, students’ motivation, and the nature of the clinical environment. This review includes several recommendations to improve students’ psychological health such as positioning well-being within an overarching comprehensive workplace wellness model and integrating peer and faculty-led support into the day-to-day running of the institution. It also highlights the advantages of the addition of a well-being curriculum, as skills to prevent and manage distress and depression are relevant in supporting the competencies required by medical practitioners. It concludes that medical schools need wide-ranging strategies to address the complexities associated with the particular student

  12. Medical Robots: Current Systems and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Beasley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First used medically in 1985, robots now make an impact in laparoscopy, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, emergency response, and various other medical disciplines. This paper provides a review of medical robot history and surveys the capabilities of current medical robot systems, primarily focusing on commercially available systems while covering a few prominent research projects. By examining robotic systems across time and disciplines, trends are discernible that imply future capabilities of medical robots, for example, increased usage of intraoperative images, improved robot arm design, and haptic feedback to guide the surgeon.

  13. “Exporting” medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A commentary on four reports of the pre-conference on medical education in low and middle income countries and efforts by mainly North American physicians to provide assistance held November, 2015. The authors address issues of participatory learning and developing critical thinking; mutual learning and leadership; and professionalism and ethics in medical education.

  14. Social accountability of medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    accountability of medical education must be included in all accreditation processes at all levels. The global standards programme by World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) provides tools for national or regional accreditation but also guidance for reforms and quality improvement. The standards are used......Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems...... both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its...

  15. Medical decision making and medical education: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Flexner Report highlighted the importance of teaching medical students to reason about uncertainty. The science of medical decision making seeks to explain how medical judgments and decisions ought ideally to be made, how they are actually made in practice, and how they can be improved, given the constraints of medical practice. The field considers both clinical decisions by or for individual patients and societal decisions designed to benefit the public. Despite the relevance of decision making to medical practice, it currently receives little formal attention in the U.S. medical school curriculum. This article suggests three roles for medical decision making in medical education. First, basic decision science would be a valuable prerequisite to medical training. Second, several decision-related competencies would be important outcomes of medical education; these include the physician's own decision skills, the ability to guide patients in shared decisions, and knowledge of health policy decisions at the societal level. Finally, decision making could serve as a unifying principle in the design of the medical curriculum, integrating other curricular content around the need to create physicians who are competent and caring decision makers.

  16. Gerontology and geriatrics in Dutch medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersmette, W; van Bodegom, D; van Heemst, D; Stott, D; Westendorp, R

    2013-01-01

    The world population is ageing and healthcare services require trained staff who can address the needs of older patients. In this study we determined how current medical education prepares Dutch students of medicine in the field of Gerontology and Geriatrics (G&G). Using a checklist of the essentials of G&G, we assessed Dutch medical education on three levels. On the national level we analysed the latest National Blueprint for higher medical education (Raamplan artsopleiding 2009). On the faculty level we reviewed medical curricula on the basis of interviews with program directors and inspection of course materials. On the student level we assessed the topics addressed in the questions of the cross-institutional progress test (CIPT). The National Bluepr int contains few specific G&G objectives. Obligatory G&G courses in medical schools on average amount to 2.2% of the total curriculum measured as European Credit Transfer System units (ECTS). Only two out of eight medical schools have practical training during the Master phase in the form of a clerkship in G&G. In the CIPT, on average 1.5% of questions cover G&G. Geriatric education in the Netherlands does not seem to be in line with current demographic trends. The National Blueprint falls short of providing sufficiently detailed objectives for education on the care of older people. The geriatric content offered by medical schools is varied and incomplete, and students are only marginally tested on their knowledge of G&G in the CIPT.

  17. Medical Education in Nigeria: Status and travails of medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plagiarism, duplicate publication, salami slicing and others. Editor / reviewer/ author training programs should be instituted. The use of current technology like etBLAST, Cross-Ref, Plagiarism checker, Google scholar and others to check widespread author sharp practices are recommended. Keyword: medical education ...

  18. [The globalization of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J

    2013-01-01

    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives.

  19. Undergraduate medical students’ empathy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quince, Thelma; Thiemann, Pia; Benson, John; Hyde, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow’s health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students’ empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students’ empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients’ experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have utility across large populations but are limited. Finally, there is a need for greater methodological rigor in investigating the possible determinants of clinical empathy in medical education. Greater

  20. Musculoskeletal pareidolia in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, Patrick; Abdelshahed, Dena; Patel, Shounuck

    2014-07-01

    Medical educators use a variety of strategies to help medical students and resident doctors understand and remember complex topics. One teaching tool is matching up radiographic appearances with unrelated, common, non-medical images, in order to help students easily recognise clinical patterns. However, even among medical educators who use this approach, many are not aware of the neuropsychiatric phenomenon they are using, known as pareidolia. We will describe pareidolia (a form of patternicity) and give two examples of its use in the clinical teaching of musculoskeletal imaging abnormalities: the winking owl and the Scottie dog. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  2. Teaching teamwork in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Susan; Magrane, Diane; Friedman, Erica

    2009-08-01

    Teamwork has become a major focus in healthcare. In part, this is the result of the Institute of Medicine report entitled To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which details the high rate of preventable medical errors, many of which are the result of dysfunctional or nonexistent teamwork. It has been proposed that a healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professionals. Few clear guidelines exist to help guide the implementation of all these recommendations in healthcare settings. In general, training programs designed to improve team skills are a new concept for medicine, particularly for physicians who are trained largely to be self-sufficient and individually responsible for their actions. Outside of healthcare, research has shown that teams working together in high-risk and high-intensity work environments make fewer mistakes than individuals. This evidence originates from commercial aviation, the military, firefighting, and rapid-response police activities. Commercial aviation, an industry in which mistakes can result in unacceptable loss, has been at the forefront of risk reduction through teamwork training. The importance of teamwork has been recognized by some in the healthcare industry who have begun to develop their own specialty-driven programs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature on teaching about teamwork in undergraduate medical education. We describe the science of teams, analyze the work in team training that has been done in other fields, and assess what work has been done in other fields about the importance of team training (ie, aviation, nonmedical education, and business). Additionally, it is vital to assess what work has already been done in medicine to advance the skills required for effective teamwork. Much of this work has been done in fields in which medical professionals deal with crisis

  3. Practical trials in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    participants across several settings and (iii) multiple outcome measures with long-term follow-up to evaluate both benefits and risks. Questions posed by practical trials may be proactive in applying theory in the development of educational innovations or reactive to educational reforms and innovations. Non......CONTEXT: Concerns have been raised over the gap between education theory and practice and how research can contribute to inform decision makers on their choices and priorities. Little is known about how educational theories and research outcomes produced under optimal conditions in highly...... controlled settings generalise to the real-life education context. One way of bridging this gap is applying the concept of practical trials in medical education. In this paper we elaborate on characteristics of practical trials and based on examples from medical education we discuss the challenges...

  4. Library school education for medical librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, F W

    1979-10-01

    This paper reviews the current situation in library school education for medical librarianship in the United States and Canada based on information from a questionnaire sent to teachers of courses in medical librarianship in accredited library schools. Since 1939, when the first course devoted entirely to medical librarianship was offered at Columbia University, courses have been introduced into the curricula of at least forty-seven of the ALA-accredited library schools. In 1978 there were seventy courses available through forty-seven library schools. Possibilities for specialization in medical librarianship are examined. Course content is reviewed. Implications of the MLA certification examination for library school courses are explored.

  5. Library School Education for Medical Librarianship *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Fred W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation in library school education for medical librarianship in the United States and Canada based on information from a questionnaire sent to teachers of courses in medical librarianship in accredited library schools. Since 1939, when the first course devoted entirely to medical librarianship was offered at Columbia University, courses have been introduced into the curricula of at least forty-seven of the ALA-accredited library schools. In 1978 there were seventy courses available through forty-seven library schools. Possibilities for specialization in medical librarianship are examined. Course content is reviewed. Implications of the MLA certification examination for library school courses are explored. PMID:385086

  6. Undergraduate medical education.

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, L; Wass, J

    1993-01-01

    Pressures from students and teachers, from professional bodies, and from changes in the way health care is delivered are all forcing a rethink of how medical students should be taught. These pressures may be more intense in London but are not confined to it. The recommendation the Tomlinson report advocates that has been generally welcomed is for more investment in primary care in London. General practitioners have much to teach medical schools about effective ways of learning, but incentives...

  7. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  8. Pathology Competencies for Medical Education and Educational Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. C. Knollmann-Ritschel MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Current medical school curricula predominantly facilitate early integration of basic science principles into clinical practice to strengthen diagnostic skills and the ability to make treatment decisions. In addition, they promote life-long learning and understanding of the principles of medical practice. The Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME were developed in response to a call to action by pathology course directors nationwide to teach medical students pathology principles necessary for the practice of medicine. The PCME are divided into three competencies: 1 Disease Mechanisms and Processes, 2 Organ System Pathology, and 3 Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. Each of these competencies is broad and contains multiple learning goals with more specific learning objectives. The original competencies were designed to be a living document, meaning that they will be revised and updated periodically, and have undergone their first revision with this publication. The development of teaching cases, which have a classic case-based design, for the learning objectives is the next step in providing educational content that is peer-reviewed and readily accessible for pathology course directors, medical educators, and medical students. Application of the PCME and cases promotes a minimum standard of exposure of the undifferentiated medical student to pathophysiologic principles. The publication of the PCME and the educational cases will create a current educational resource and repository published through Academic Pathology .

  9. Undergraduate medical students' empathy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quince T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thelma Quince, Pia Thiemann, John Benson, Sarah Hyde Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Empathy is important to patient care. It enhances patients’ satisfaction, comfort, self-efficacy, and trust which in turn may facilitate better diagnosis, shared decision making, and therapy adherence. Empathetic doctors experience greater job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Understanding the development of empathy of tomorrow's health care professionals is important. However, clinical empathy is poorly defined and difficult to measure, while ways to enhance it remain unclear. This review examines empathy among undergraduate medical students, focusing upon three main questions: How is empathy measured? This section discusses the problems of assessing empathy and outlines the utility of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Student Version and Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Both have been used widely to assess medical students' empathy. Does empathy change during undergraduate medical education? The trajectory of empathy during undergraduate medical education has been and continues to be debated. Potential reasons for contrasting results of studies are outlined. What factors may influence the development of empathy? Although the influence of sex is widely recognized, the impact of culture, psychological well-being, and aspects of undergraduate curricula are less well understood. This review identifies three interrelated issues for future research into undergraduate medical students' empathy. First, the need for greater clarity of definition, recognizing that empathy is multidimensional. Second, the need to develop meaningful ways of measuring empathy which include its component dimensions and which are relevant to patients' experiences. Medical education research has generally relied upon single, self-report instruments, which have

  10. Cultural competence in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    the survey, and 199 responded. The response rate is 14%. Data were analysed through descriptive calculations, and answers to open-ended questions were coded using content analysis. Results: Results showed that 82.4% of the informants agreed or strongly agreed that the medical education programme should...... in receiving training on cultural competence. Conclusions: Generally, there is interest in and acknowledgement of the importance of cultural competence in Danish medical education among teachers at the University of Copenhagen. This creates an opportunity to implement cultural competence in the medical...

  11. Current trends in use of intracanal medications in dental care facilities: questionnaire-based survey on training dental hygienists at educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Hosokawa, Souhei; Ariizumi, Yuugo

    2013-01-01

    The success of root canal therapy is dependent not only on removal of infected pulp (pulpectomy) followed by root canal enlargement, but also on the pharmacological effects of intracanal medications. Various intracanal medications are used. Formaldehyde preparations such as formocresol were common in the past, but these are no longer used in Europe or the US due to the biological toxicity of formaldehyde. In this study, a questionnaire was used to determine current trends in the use of intracanal medications at dental care facilities where dental hygiene students undergo practical training. The questionnaire comprised questions regarding the types of frequently used intracanal medications and their methods of application at dental care facilities in Saitama and Shizuoka prefectures. The results indicated that calcium hydroxide preparations were more commonly used in Europe or the US. However, these results also revealed that formaldehyde preparations were frequently used, which slightly differs from the scenario in Europe and the US. This study revealed that multiple intracanal medications were used for root canal therapy. Furthermore, it was also observed that cotton plugs were generally used as applicator tips for intracanal medications, whereas the use of absorbent paper points was relatively uncommon. The results suggest that the cost of absorbent paper points needs to be reduced.

  12. More about ... Immunology | Singh | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 8 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  13. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review article willintroduce readers to the educational subject matter, along with one-page summarises (in print) of additional articles that may be accessed in full online. We will continue to offer topical and up-to-date CME material. Readers are encouraged to register with samj.org.za to receive future notifications of new ...

  14. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  15. Current Situation of Medication Adherence in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, Bernard; Antoniou, Sotiris; Burnier, Michel; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Volpe, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased awareness, poor adherence to treatments for chronic diseases remains a global problem. Adherence issues are common in patients taking antihypertensive therapy and associated with increased risks of coronary and cerebrovascular events. Whilst there has been a gradual trend toward improved control of hypertension, the number of patients with blood pressure values above goal has remained constant. This has both personal and economic consequences. Medication adherence is a multifaceted issue and consists of three components: initiation, implementation, and persistence. A combination of methods is recommended to measure adherence, with electronic monitoring and drug measurement being the most accurate. Pill burden, resulting from free combinations of blood pressure lowering treatments, makes the daily routine of medication taking complex, which can be a barrier to optimal adherence. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations simplify the habit of medication taking and improve medication adherence. Re-packing of medication is also being utilized as a method of improving adherence. This paper presents the outcomes of discussions by a European group of experts on the current situation of medication adherence in hypertension.

  16. [Simulation in medical education: a synopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvetto, Marcia; Bravo, María Pía; Montaña, Rodrigo; Utili, Franco; Escudero, Eliana; Boza, Camilo; Varas, Julián; Dagnino, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Clinical simulation is defined as a technique (not a technology) to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive fashion. Over the past few years, there has been a significant growth in its use, both as a learning tool and as an assessment for accreditation. Example of this is the fact that simulation is an integral part of medical education curricula abroad. Some authors have cited it as an unavoidable necessity or as an ethical imperative. In Chile, its formal inclusion in Medical Schools' curricula has just begun. This review is an overview of this important educational tool, presenting the evidence about its usefulness in medical education and describing its current situation in Chile.

  17. [Professional medical education in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, I Iu; Romantsov, M G; Shul'diakov, A A

    2013-09-01

    There is a tendency to increase the role of education process in the life of the individual, caused by necessity of new knowledge, experience and skills, which is the effective measure to adapt human being to the current social and economic conditions. The idea of education as a relatively short period of life is gone. It becomes obvious, that use of forms and types of adult education becomes limited and inefficient. The development of the modern education system involves training with a high level of independence and leadership of the individual student; provision by vocational education institutions a wide range of educational services; adequate to the needs of the labor market; variability of methods and forms of education; active use of the modern educational technology as one of the most convenient ways of training.

  18. Transitioning From Medical Educator to Scholarship in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Alix G; DeLeon, Stephanie D

    2017-02-01

    Clinician educators spend most of their time in clinical practice, educating trainees in all types of care settings. Many are involved in formal teaching, curriculum development and learner assessment while holding educational leadership roles as well. Finding time to engage in scholarly work that can be presented and published is an academic expectation, but also a test of efficiency. Just as clinical research originates from problems related to patients, so should educational research originate from issues related to educating the next generation of doctors. Accrediting bodies challenge medical educators to be innovative while faculty already make the best use of the limited time available. One obvious solution is to turn the already existing education work into scholarly work. With forethought, planning, explicit expectations and use of the framework laid out in this article, clinical educators should be able to turn their everyday work and education challenges into scholarly work. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The current practice of mentoring across Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education – International accredited programs in Qatar from faculty and trainees perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Shireen; Al-Mohammed, Ahmed; Al Mohanadi, Dabia; Allen, Margaret; Bylund, Carma L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Mentoring plays a vital role in academic productivity, personal development, and career guidance for students, residents, fellows, and junior faculty. A culture of mentoring is spreading across residency and fellowship training programs in Hamad Medical Corporation, the main teaching tertiary care facility in Qatar. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the current practice of mentoring in these programs. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study by surveying all faculty and trainees in all residency and fellowship training programs in Qatar. Each completed a web-based questionnaire that asked about the current experience, self-efficacy and measures of improvement of the current practice of mentoring across training programs. Results A total of 393/650 faculty members (61%), 187/250 fellows (74%), and 405/650 residents (62%) responded to the two surveys. Most (74% of faculty members) reported being current mentors, while 67% of residents and fellows reported that they currently have mentors. Faculty who received training in mentoring and those who had an established formal mentoring program in their departments were more likely to enroll in mentoring than others (86%, Pmentoring initiative in their departments were to develop a structured mentoring program and to train the mentors. Content analysis revealed participants’ confusion differentiating between the terms mentoring and supervision. Conclusion Based on the current study, many existing mentoring relationships have an evident confusion between supervision and mentoring roles. Developing structured mentoring program and training both faculty and trainees in mentoring is recommended to improve the current practice of mentoring within the training programs. PMID:29416385

  20. MEDICAL ETHICS EDUCATION IN TURKEY; STATE OF PLAY AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif

    Medical ethics can be traced back to Hippocratic Oath in antiquity. Last decade witnessed improvements in science and technology which attracted attention to the ethical impacts of the innovations in medicine. The need to combine medical innovations with a preservation of human values and to cultivate ethical competencies required by professionalism conceived medical ethics education in various levels in medical schools. Despite the diversities regarding teaching hours, methodology and content of the courses, medical ethics became a fundamental part of medical education around the world. In Turkey medical ethics education is given both in undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The high increase in the number of medical schools and shortfall of instructors who have medical ethics as their primary academic focus creates a big challenge in medical ethics education in both levels. Currently there are 89 medical schools in Turkey and only six medical schools are giving postgraduate medical ethics education. In 2010 only 33 of all medical schools could establish a separate department dedicated to medical ethics. There are no medical ethics courses embedded in residency programs. The quality and standardization of undergraduate medical ethics education has started but there are no initiatives to do so in postgraduate level.

  1. CURRENT LEVELS OF MEDICAL EXPOSURE IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered conditions of patients’ medical radiation exposure in Russian diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine basing on the data of our own research, of the Unified system of individual dose control and of some relevant literature. We analyzed the data on the number of diagnostic examinations, patients’ individual and collective doses and their distribution by examination types. Time trends of the studied parameters are presented for the period between 1999 and 2013. Current level of Russian patients’ medical exposure is the lowest over the whole observation period and one of the lowest among the developed countries. The annual number of X-ray diagnostic examinations is 1.8 per capita. In 2013 median effective dose of medical exposure per capita in Russia was 0.45 mSv and median dose per procedure was 0.25 mSv. The major contribution to collective dose of medical exposure was from computed tomography and radiography; the largest individual doses were caused by interventional radiology, computed X-Ray and nuclear medicine tomographic examinations. The range of median doses comprises about four orders of magnitude, i.e. from several microSv in dental X-ray examinations up to several tens of milliSv in interventional and multistage tomographic examinations. The median effective dose of adult patients increases by about an order of magnitude with each transition from dental X-ray examinations to conventional radiology and further to computed tomography and interventional radiology examinations. During interventional X-Ray examinations, absorbed skin doses at radiation beam entrance site may reach several Gray, which may lead to deterministic radiation effects in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Due to replacement of low-dose ‘functional’ nuclear medicine examinations with more informative modern scintigraphy and tomography examination, patient doses substantially increased over the last decade. With current trend for re-equipment of

  2. Appreciative inquiry in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    The practice of medicine, and also medical education, typically adopts a problem-solving approach to identify "what is going wrong" with a situation. However, an alternative is Appreciative Inquiry (AI), which adopts a positive and strengths-based approach to identify "what is going well" with a situation. The AI approach can be used for the development and enhancement of the potential of both individuals and organizations. An essential aspect of the AI approach is the generative process, in which a new situation is envisioned and both individual and collective strengths are mobilized to make changes to achieve the valued future situation. The AI approach has been widely used in the world of business and general education, but is has an exciting potential for medical education, including curriculum development, faculty development, supporting learners through academic advising and mentoring, but also for enhancing the teaching and learning of both individuals and groups. This AMEE Guide describes the core principles of AI and their practical application in medical education.

  3. Innovations in higher medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the innovations in the higher medical education. Particular attention in this sphere is paid to the detailed analysis of the subject as a mechanism of cognition and psycho-emotional aspect. It should be noticed that the development of the university education demands the integration of functional systems to study the general medicine and the art of healing. In conclusion it has been found out that the new methodological approach is necessary to bring the teacher closer to the subject particularly to integrate the relation of the opposites.

  4. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  5. Promissory Concept of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Voronenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing medical education (CME is a dynamic system, where distance learning is an important component. In this article, we posit the Promissory Concept of distance learning. The central principle upon which this methodology is based is that the doctor can be located in any place where the information needed for his or her practice is easily available to the patient and where the doctor is able to monitor the development of his or her knowledge and practical skills, and is able to build his or her educational record of accomplishment. The Promissory Concept combines the availability of existing online opportunities with professional self-development which can be put to the test by an external supervisor (a professor or curator, who in turn will be able to identify existing advantages in knowledge, as well as those requiring further improvement, thus helping the learner's professional development. This approach was introduced to general practitioners and nephrologists practising in Ukraine in 2013. From 2014, the Promissory Concept has been associated with the Renal Eastern Europe Nephrology Academy's (REENA annual CME course, which has been accredited by ERA-EDTA (European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association for the past 8 years. REENA is controlled by the state organisation of postgraduate education – Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education. The Promissory Concept is supported by printed educational material in the scientific medical Ukrainian journal Kidneys, which is registered in scientific databases (as a Google scholar, etc.. An important characteristic of the Promissory Concept is the active involvement of doctors, who give constructive feedback on the programme. This feedback contributes to the content of the CME learning activity, as well as enhancing compliance in participation. As a result, it helps create motivated adherence and improved professional development.

  6. Current Trends In Educational Technology: Implication On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the current trends in educational technology and the implication on educational managers in Nigeria. The current trends in the field of educational technology are centred on the influence of information and communication technology on the development of educational management. Various challenges ...

  7. Simulation in Medical School Education: Review for Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Lotfipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical education is rapidly evolving. With the paradigm shift to small-group didactic sessions and focus on clinically oriented case-based scenarios, simulation training has provided educators a novel way to deliver medical education in the 21st century. The field continues to expand in scope and practice and is being incorporated into medical school clerkship education, and specifically in emergency medicine (EM. The use of medical simulation in graduate medical education is well documented. Our aim in this article is to perform a retrospective review of the current literature, studying simulation use in EM medical student clerkships. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of simulation in teaching basic science, clinical knowledge, procedural skills, teamwork, and communication skills. As simulation becomes increasingly prevalent in medical school curricula, more studies are needed to assess whether simulation training improves patient-related outcomes.

  8. Technology-assisted education in graduate medical education: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jwayyed, Sharhabeel; Stiffler, Kirk A; Wilber, Scott T; Southern, Alison; Weigand, John; Bare, Rudd; Gerson, Lowell W

    2011-01-01

    Studies on computer-aided instruction and web-based learning have left many questions unanswered about the most effective use of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Objective We conducted a review of the current medical literature to report the techniques, methods, frequency and effectiveness of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Methods A structured review of MEDLINE articles dealing with "Computer-Assisted Instruction," "Internet or World W...

  9. The future of graduate medical education in Germany - position paper of the Committee on Graduate Medical Education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Dagmar M; Euteneier, Alexander; Fischer, Martin R; Hahn, Eckhart G; Johannink, Jonas; Kulike, Katharina; Lauch, Robert; Lindhorst, Elmar; Noll-Hussong, Michael; Pinilla, Severin; Weih, Markus; Wennekes, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The German graduate medical education system is going through an important phase of changes. Besides the ongoing reform of the national guidelines for graduate medical education (Musterweiterbildungsordnung), other factors like societal and demographic changes, health and research policy reforms also play a central role for the future and competitiveness of graduate medical education. With this position paper, the committee on graduate medical education of the Society for Medical Education (GMA) would like to point out some central questions for this process and support the current discourse. As an interprofessional and interdisciplinary scientific society, the GMA has the resources to contribute in a meaningful way to an evidence-based and future-oriented graduate medical education strategy. In this position paper, we use four key questions with regards to educational goals, quality assurance, teaching competence and policy requirements to address the core issues for the future of graduate medical education in Germany. The GMA sees its task in contributing to the necessary reform processes as the only German speaking scientific society in the field of medical education.

  10. Profile of graduates of Israeli medical schools in 1981--2000: educational background, demography and evaluation of medical education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi; Shalev, Ilana

    2005-05-01

    In light of changes in the medical profession, the different requirements placed on physicians and the evolving needs of the healthcare system, the need arose to examine the medical education curriculum in Israel. This survey, conducted by the Samuel Neaman Institute for Science and Technology, summarizes 20 years of medical education in Israel's four medical schools, as the first stage in mapping the existing state of medical education in Israel and providing a basis for decision-making on future medical education programs. To characterize the academic background of graduates, evaluate their attitudes towards current and alternative medical education programs, and examine subgroups among graduates according to gender, medical school, high school education, etc. The survey included graduates from all four Israeli medical schools who graduated between the years 1981 and 2000 in a sample of 1:3. A questionnaire and stamped return envelope were sent to every third graduate; the questionnaire included open and quantitative questions graded on a scale of 1 to 5. The data were processed for the entire graduate population and further analyzed according to subgroups such as medical schools, gender, high school education, etc. The response rate was 41.3%. The survey provided a demographic profile of graduates over a 20 year period, their previous educational and academic background, additional academic degrees achieved, satisfaction, and suggestions for future medical education programs. The profile of the medical graduates in Israel is mostly homogenous in terms of demographics, with small differences among the four medical schools. In line with recommendations of the graduates, and as an expression of the changing requirements in the healthcare system and the medical profession, the medical schools should consider alternative medical education programs such as a bachelor's degree in life sciences followed by MD studies, or education programs that combine medicine with

  11. The impact of subspecialization on postgraduate medical education in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Brian D

    2005-11-01

    Medical subspecialization is a response to rapidly expanding technology and knowledge. Although beneficial to patient care, it poses a challenge to the current infrastructure of resident education. This article analyzes the advent of subspecialization, the current template of postgraduate neurosurgical education, the impact of subspecialization on postgraduate neurosurgical education, and, finally, suggests strategies to optimize professional education in the face of an increasingly subspecialized field.

  12. Humanities in undergraduate medical education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousager, Jakob; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-06-01

    Humanities form an integral part of undergraduate medical curricula at numerous medical schools all over the world, and medical journals publish a considerable quantity of articles in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the literature on humanities in undergraduate medical education seeks to provide evidence of a long-term impact of this integration of humanities in undergraduate medical education. Medline was searched for publications concerning the humanities in undergraduate medical education appearing from January 2000 to December 2008. All articles were manually sorted by the authors. Two hundred forty-five articles were included in the study. Following a qualitative analysis, the references included were categorized as "pleading the case," "course descriptions and evaluations," "seeking evidence of long-term impact," or "holding the horses." Two hundred twenty-four articles out of 245 either praised the (potential) effects of humanities on medical education or described existing or planned courses without offering substantial evidence of any long-term impact of these curricular activities on medical proficiency. Only 9 articles provided evidence of attempts to document long-term impacts using diverse test tools, and 10 articles presented relatively reserved attitudes toward humanities in undergraduate medical education. Evidence on the positive long-term impacts of integrating humanities into undergraduate medical education is sparse. This may pose a threat to the continued development of humanities-related activities in undergraduate medical education in the context of current demands for evidence to demonstrate educational effectiveness.

  13. Sexuality education in Japanese medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, M; Tsujimura, A; Abdelhamed, A; Horie, S

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate current sexuality education in Japanese medical schools and the impact of position title in the Japanese Society for Sexual Medicine (JSSM). Questionnaires were mailed to urology departments in all Japanese medical schools. The responses were evaluated according to four factors: the number of lecture components, curriculum hours, degree of satisfaction with the components and degree of satisfaction with the curriculum hours. We also investigated differences in these four factors among three groups: Directors, Council members and non-members of the JSSM. The medians of curriculum hours and the number of the lecture components were 90.0 min and 7.0, respectively. The curriculum hours of the Directors (140.0 min) were significantly longer than those of the non-members (90.0 min; P<0.05). The number of lecture components taught by Directors (9.5) was significantly higher than that of the Council (4.0; P<0.01) and non-members (7.0; P<0.05). More than half of the faculties were not satisfied with the lecture components and curriculum hours. This is the first study on sexuality education in Japanese medical schools. It showed the inadequacy of both curriculum hours and lecture components, and that the position title of department chair affects sexuality education in medical schools.

  14. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century.

  15. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: a nationwide survey at German medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix

    2009-05-12

    Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.

  16. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  17. Current Crises in Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that the organizational crisis and the crisis in legitimacy that face public education stem from a fundamental violation of the moral precepts that underlie our experiment in self-government. Citizens and parents have become limited partners in educational decision making. (JOW)

  18. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  19. Troubling Muddy Waters: Problematizing Reflective Practice in Global Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Thirusha; Kumagai, Arno K

    2016-03-01

    The idea of exporting the concept of reflective practice for a global medical education audience is growing. However, the uncritical export and adoption of Western concepts of reflection may be inappropriate in non-Western societies. The emphasis in Western medical education on the use of reflection for a specific end--that is, the improvement of individual clinical practice--tends to ignore the range of reflective practice, concentrating on reflection alone while overlooking critical reflection and reflexivity. This Perspective places the concept of reflective practice under a critical lens to explore a broader view for its application in medical education outside the West. The authors suggest that ideas about reflection in medicine and medical education may not be as easily transferable from Western to non-Western contexts as concepts from biomedical science are. The authors pose the question, When "exporting" Western medical education strategies and principles, how often do Western-trained educators authentically open up to the possibility that there are alternative ways of seeing and knowing that may be valuable in educating Western physicians? One answer lies in the assertion that educators should aspire to turn exportation of educational theory into a truly bidirectional, collaborative exchange in which culturally conscious views of reflective practice contribute to humanistic, equitable patient care. This discussion engages in troubling the already-muddy waters of reflective practice by exploring the global applicability of reflective practice as it is currently applied in medical education. The globalization of medical education demands critical reflection on reflection itself.

  20. Professional identity in medical students: pedagogical challenges to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian; Cowin, Leanne S; Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Professional identity, or how a doctor thinks of himself or herself as a doctor, is considered to be as critical to medical education as the acquisition of skills and knowledge relevant to patient care. This article examines contemporary literature on the development of professional identity within medicine. Relevant theories of identity construction are explored and their application to medical education and pedagogical approaches to enhancing students' professional identity are proposed. The influence of communities of practice, role models, and narrative reflection within curricula are examined. Medical education needs to be responsive to changes in professional identity being generated from factors within medical student experiences and within contemporary society.

  1. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  3. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  4. Medical education and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Ahsan; Qayum, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Farooq, Umer; Shah, Awais Ali; Waqas, Muhammad; Rasool, Maleeha; Hameed, Sania; Kanwal, Rana; Azmat, Muneeba; Marwat, Saleem; Afridit, Faheem

    2014-01-01

    A positive learning environment and quality of course content have an imperative role in academic achievement of students. This study aims to assess students' point of view about the quality of education and social environment of a public sector medical college in Pakistan. Relative scarcity of data from students' perspective merited this study. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, Pakistan, including 300 medical students from all five years of the MBBS course. Systematic random sampling was used with a kth interval of 4 for each class. Self-administered questionnaire was used and contained items related to academics, learning environment, learning resources, teaching methodologies and student-friendly activities. The data were analysed using SPSS-16. There were 265 respondents (88.3%) to the questionnaire with males accounting for 58.9% (n=156). In general students showed satisfaction with quality of content being taught; however there was discontent towards various academic and non- academic facilities provided to the students. Only 44.10% and 31.50% students reported provision of academic related facilities and interactive sessions as up to mark respectively; 83% students reported that undergraduate medical research was in need of improvement; 55.5% and 60.2% reported that facilities in hostel and recreational facilities needed improvement respectively; and 52.8% students stated presence of a healthy, student friendly, encouraging environment was not up to mark. Although course content and teaching methodologies are generally satisfactory, a healthy, student friendly, encouraging environment is vet to be created to help students foster their abilities completely.

  5. A Historical Perspective of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…

  6. Rationing medical education | Walsh | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may ...

  7. Current Issues and the Veterinary Medical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Andre J.

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…

  8. Review of online educational resources for medical physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, Joann I

    2013-11-04

    Medical physicists are often involved in the didactic training of graduate students, residents (both physics and physicians), and technologists. As part of continuing medical education, we are also involved in maintenance of certification projects to assist in the education of our peers. As such, it is imperative that we remain current concerning available educational resources. Medical physics journals offer book reviews, allowing us an opportunity to learn about newly published books in the field. A similar means of communication is not currently available for online educational resources. This information is conveyed through informal means. This review presents a summary of online resources available to the medical physics community that may be useful for educational purposes.

  9. Virtual reality in medical education and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Laurie A.; Bell, Brad; Sullivan, Tim; Voss, Mark; Payer, Andrew F.; Goza, Stewart Michael

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)/LinCom Corporation, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB), and the Galveston Independent School District (GISD) have teamed up to develop a virtual visual environment display (VIVED) that provides a unique educational experience using virtual reality (VR) technologies. The VIVED end product will be a self-contained educational experience allowing students a new method of learning as they interact with the subject matter through VR. This type of interface is intuitive and utilizes spatial and psychomotor abilities which are now constrained or reduced by the current two dimensional terminals and keyboards. The perpetual challenge to educators remains the identification and development of methodologies which conform the learners abilities and preferences. The unique aspects of VR provide an opportunity to explore a new educational experience. Endowing medical students with an understanding of the human body poses some difficulty challenges. One of the most difficult is to convey the three dimensional nature of anatomical structures. The ideal environment for addressing this problem would be one that allows students to become small enough to enter the body and travel through it - much like a person walks through a building. By using VR technology, this effect can be achieved; when VR is combined with multimedia technologies, the effect can be spectacular.

  10. Assessing Children with Traumatic Brain Injuries: Integrating Educational and Medical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Steven R.; Yingst, Christine A.

    1992-01-01

    This overview of traumatic brain injuries discusses (1) incidence and prevalence; (2) characteristics; (3) the recovery process; and (4) educational/medical assessment, including premorbid functioning, current functioning, educationally relevant medical issues, and amount and type of family support. (JDD)

  11. Radiation education in medical and Co-medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Sukehiko

    2005-01-01

    In the medical field, ionizing radiation is very widely in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, Around 60% of environmental radiation, including natural background and man-made sources of radiation, is caused from medical exposure in Japan. Education of radiation in medical ad co-medical schools are mainly aimed to how effectively use the radiation, and the time shared to fundamental physics, biology and safety or protection of radiation is not so much. (author)

  12. Pain education in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Lina; Murinson, Beth B

    2011-12-01

    Knowledgeable and compassionate care regarding pain is a core responsibility of health professionals associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and lower healthcare costs. Education is an essential part of training healthcare providers to deliver conscientious pain care but little is known about whether medical school curricula meet educational needs. Using a novel systematic approach to assess educational content, we examined the curricula of Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools between August 2009 and February 2010. Our intent was to establish important benchmark values regarding pain education of future physicians during primary professional training. External validation was performed. Inclusion criteria required evidence of substantive participation in the curriculum management database of the Association of American Medical Colleges. A total of 117 U.S. and Canadian medical schools were included in the study. Approximately 80% of U.S. medical schools require 1 or more pain sessions. Among Canadian medical schools, 92% require pain sessions. Pain sessions are typically presented as part of general required courses. Median hours of instruction on pain topics for Canadian schools was twice the U.S. median. Many topics included in the International Association for the Study of Pain core curriculum received little or no coverage. There were no correlations between the types of pain education offered and school characteristics (eg, private versus public). We conclude that pain education for North American medical students is limited, variable, and often fragmentary. There is a need for innovative approaches and better integration of pain topics into medical school curricula. This study assessed the scope and scale of pain education programs in U.S. and Canadian medical schools. Significant gaps between recommended pain curricula and documented educational content were identified. In short, pain education was

  13. Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine.

  14. Point of View: Online assessment in medical education– current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time-consuming burden for medical education institutions1,2. Online assessment is ... online assessment and discusses the impact these will have on the future of this ... in medical education is a move away from the artificial distinction between ... increasingly intelligent text recognition software will enable the delivery and ...

  15. [Internet-based continuing medical education: as effective as live continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Hervé; Chabot, Olivier

    2009-10-01

    E-learning consists in using new multimedia and Internet technologies to improve the quality of learning activities by facilitating access to resources and services, as well as exchanges and remote collaboration. The Internet is used for adult education in most professional domains, but its use for continuing medical education is less developed. Advantages are observed for teachers (e.g., permanent updating, interactive links, illustrations, archiving, and collective intelligence) and for the learners (e.g., accessibility, autonomy, flexibility, and adaptable pace). Research and meta-analyses have shown that e-CME is as effective as live events for immediate and retained learning. English-language educational medical websites that grant CME credits are numerous; few such French-language sites can currently grant credits. Accreditation of websites for CME, in its infancy in Europe, is common in North America.

  16. Accreditation of undergraduate and graduate medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Deborah J; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation organizations such as the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME), the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are charged with the difficult task of evaluating the educational quality...... of medical education programs in North America. Traditionally accreditation includes a more quantitative rather than qualitative judgment of the educational facilities, resources and teaching provided by the programs. The focus is on the educational process but the contributions of these to the outcomes...... are not at all clear. As medical education moves toward outcome-based education related to a broad and context-based concept of competence, the accreditation paradigm should change accordingly. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Aug...

  17. Educating Exceptional Children: Current Issue for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    The Oxford dictionary defines exceptionality as "forming an exception; very unusual; outstandingly good." A thesaurus provides the following synonyms: outstanding, excellent, brilliant, antonym of ordinary. In education and psychology textbooks and journals, however, it is often defined in ways that focus on limitations, with synonyms…

  18. Current trend of robotics application in medical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olanrewaju, O A; Faieza, A A; Syakirah, K

    2013-01-01

    The applications of robotics in recent years has emerged beyond the field of manufacturing or industrial robots itself. Robotics applications are now widely used in medical, transport, underwater, entertainment and military sector. In medical field, these applications should be emphasized in view of the increasing challenges due to the variety of findings in the field of medicine which requires new inventions to ease work process. The objective of this review paper is to study and presents the past and on-going research in medical robotics with emphasis on rehabilitation (assistive care) and surgery robotics which are certainly the two main practical fields where robots application are commonly used presently. The study found that, rehabilitation and surgery robotics applications grow extensively with the finding of new invention, as well as research that is being undertaken and to be undertaken. The importance of medical robot in medical industry is intended to offer positive outcomes to assist human business through a complicated task that involves a long period, accuracy, focus and other routines that cannot be accomplished by human ability alone.

  19. Vertical integration of medical education: Riverland experience, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D R; Worley, P S; Mugford, B; Stagg, P

    2004-01-01

    Vertical integration of medical education is currently a prominent international topic, resulting from recent strategic initiatives to improve medical education and service delivery in areas of poorly met medical need. In this article, vertical integration of medical education is defined as 'a grouping of curricular content and delivery mechanisms, traversing the traditional boundaries of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, with the intent of enhancing the transfer of knowledge and skills between those involved in the learning-teaching process'. Educators closely involved with vertically integrated teaching in the Riverland of South Australia present an analytical description of the educational dynamics of this system. From this analysis, five elements are identified which underpin the process of successful vertical integration: (1) raised educational stakes; (2) local ownership; (3) broad university role; (4) longer attachments; and (5) shared workforce vision. Given the benefits to the Riverland medical education programs described in this paper, it is not surprising that vertical integration of medical education is a popular goal in many rural regions throughout the world. Although different contexts will result in different functional arrangements, it could be argued that the five principles outlined in this article can be applied in any region.

  20. Effectiveness of continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulos, Spyridon S; Dorman, Todd; Ratanawongsa, Neda; Wilson, Lisa M; Ashar, Bimal H; Magaziner, Jeffrey L; Miller, Redonda G; Thomas, Patricia A; Prokopowicz, Gregory P; Qayyum, Rehan; Bass, Eric B

    2007-01-01

    Despite the broad range of continuing medical education (CME) offerings aimed at educating practicing physicians through the provision of up-to-date clinical information, physicians commonly overuse, under-use, and misuse therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. It has been suggested that the ineffective nature of CME either accounts for the discrepancy between evidence and practice or at a minimum contributes to this gap. Understanding what CME tools and techniques are most effective in disseminating and retaining medical knowledge is critical to improving CME and thus diminishing the gap between evidence and practice. The purpose of this review was to comprehensively and systematically synthesize evidence regarding the effectiveness of CME and differing instructional designs in terms of knowledge, attitudes, skills, practice behavior, and clinical practice outcomes. We formulated specific questions with input from external experts and representatives of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) which nominated this topic. We systematically searched the literature using specific eligibility criteria, hand searching of selected journals, and electronic databases including: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), PsycINFO, and the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC). Two independent reviewers conducted title scans, abstract reviews, and then full article reviews to identify eligible articles. Each eligible article underwent double review for data abstraction and assessment of study quality. Of the 68,000 citations identified by literature searching, 136 articles and 9 systematic reviews ultimately met our eligibility criteria. The overall quality of the literature was low and consequently firm conclusions were not possible. Despite this, the

  1. Educational Technology: Effective Leadership and Current Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Keith

    2011-01-01

    (Purpose) This article describes the basis for effective educational technology leadership and a few of the current initiatives and impacts that are a result of the aforementioned effective leadership. (Findings) Topics addressed in this paper include: (1) the role of the educational technology leader in an educational setting; (2) an examination…

  2. The medical-industrial complex, professional medical associations, and continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofferman, Jerome

    2011-12-01

    Financial relationships among the biomedical industries, physicians, and professional medical associations (PMAs) can be professional, ethical, mutually beneficial, and, most importantly, can lead to improved medical care. However, such relationships, by their very nature, present conflicts of interest (COIs). One of the greatest concerns regarding COI is continuing medical education (CME), especially because currently industry funds 40-60% of CME. COIs have the potential to bias physicians in practice, educators, and those in leadership positions of PMAs and well as the staff of a PMA. These conflicts lead to the potential to bias the content and type of CME presentations and thereby influence physicians' practice patterns and patient care. Physicians are generally aware of the potential for bias when industry contributes funding for CME, but they are most often unable to detect the bias. This may because it is very subtle and/or the educators themselves may not realize that they have been influenced by their relationships with industry. Following Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines and mandating disclosure that is transparent and complete have become the fallback positions to manage COIs, but such disclosure does not really mitigate the conflict. The eventual and best solutions to ensure evidence-based education are complete divestment by educators and leaders of PMAs, minimal and highly controlled industry funding of PMAs, blind pooling of any industry contributions to PMAs and CME, strict verification of disclosures, clear separation of marketing from education at CME events, and strict oversight of presentations for the presence of bias. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Educational technology infrastructure and services in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Carol; Souza, Kevin H; Heestand, Diane; Moses, Anna; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2006-07-01

    To describe the current educational technology infrastructure and services provided by North American allopathic medical schools that are members of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to present information needed for institutional benchmarking. A Web-based survey instrument was developed and administered in the fall of 2004 by the authors, sent to representatives of 137 medical schools and completed by representatives of 88, a response rate of 64%. Schools were given scores for infrastructure and services provided. Data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance, chi-square, and correlation coefficients. There was no difference in the number of infrastructure features or services offered based on region of the country, public versus private schools, or size of graduating class. Schools implemented 3.0 (SD = 1.5) of 6 infrastructure items and offered 11.6 (SD = 4.1) of 22 services. Over 90% of schools had wireless access (97%), used online course materials for undergraduate medical education (97%), course management system for graduate medical education (95%) and online teaching evaluations (90%). Use of services differed across the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education continuum. Outside of e-portfolios for undergraduates, the least-offered services were for services to graduate and continuing medical education. The results of this survey provide a benchmark for the level of services and infrastructure currently supporting educational technology by AAMC-member allopathic medical schools.

  4. Current State of Dental Education: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J

    2017-08-01

    This executive summary for Section 1 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides a composite picture of information from 12 background articles on the current state of dental education in the United States. The summary includes the following topics: the current status of the dental curriculum, the implications of student debt and dental school finances, the expansion of enrollment, student diversity, pre- and postdoctoral education, safety net status of dental school clinics, and trends in faculty.

  5. Is medical students' moral orientation changeable after preclinical medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chaou-Shune; Tsou, Kuo-Inn; Cho, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Ming-Shium; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Lin, Chyi-Her

    2012-03-01

    Moral orientation can affect ethical decision-making. Very few studies have focused on whether medical education can change the moral orientation of the students. The purpose of the present study was to document the types of moral orientation exhibited by medical students, and to study if their moral orientation was changed after preclinical education. From 2007 to 2009, the Mojac scale was used to measure the moral orientation of Taiwan medical students. The students included 271 first-year and 109 third-year students. They were rated as a communitarian, dual, or libertarian group and followed for 2 years to monitor the changes in their Mojac scores. In both first and third-year students, the dual group after 2 years of preclinical medical education did not show any significant change. In the libertarian group, first and third-year students showed a statistically significant increase from a score of 99.4 and 101.3 to 103.0 and 105.7, respectively. In the communitarian group, first and third-year students showed a significant decline from 122.8 and 126.1 to 116.0 and 121.5, respectively. During the preclinical medical education years, students with communitarian orientation and libertarian orientation had changed in their moral orientation to become closer to dual orientation. These findings provide valuable hints to medical educators regarding bioethics education and the selection criteria of medical students for admission.

  6. Improving Learner Handovers in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm, Eric J; Englander, Robert; Pereira, Anne; Barach, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that the information included in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation fails to reliably predict medical students' future performance. This faulty transfer of information can lead to harm when poorly prepared students fail out of residency or, worse, are shuttled through the medical education system without an honest accounting of their performance. Such poor learner handovers likely arise from two root causes: (1) the absence of agreed-on outcomes of training and/or accepted assessments of those outcomes, and (2) the lack of standardized ways to communicate the results of those assessments. To improve the current learner handover situation, an authentic, shared mental model of competency is needed; high-quality tools to assess that competency must be developed and tested; and transparent, reliable, and safe ways to communicate this information must be created.To achieve these goals, the authors propose using a learner handover process modeled after a patient handover process. The CLASS model includes a description of the learner's Competency attainment, a summary of the Learner's performance, an Action list and statement of Situational awareness, and Synthesis by the receiving program. This model also includes coaching oriented towards improvement along the continuum of education and care. Just as studies have evaluated patient handover models using metrics that matter most to patients, studies must evaluate this learner handover model using metrics that matter most to providers, patients, and learners.

  7. Medical devices for the anesthetist: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrande J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jerry Ingrande, Hendrikus JM LemmensDepartment of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USAAbstract: Anesthesiologists are unique among most physicians in that they routinely use technology and medical devices to carry out their daily activities. Recently, there have been significant advances in medical technology. These advances have increased the number and utility of medical devices available to the anesthesiologist. There is little doubt that these new tools have improved the practice of anesthesia. Monitoring has become more comprehensive and less invasive, airway management has become easier, and placement of central venous catheters and regional nerve blockade has become faster and safer. This review focuses on key medical devices such as cardiovascular monitors, airway equipment, neuromonitoring tools, ultrasound, and target controlled drug delivery software and hardware. This review demonstrates how advances in these areas have improved the safety and efficacy of anesthesia and facilitate its administration. When applicable, indications and contraindications to the use of these novel devices will be explored as well as the controversies surrounding their use.Keywords: catheters, echocardiography, ultrasound, fiberoptic bronchoscope, laryngeal mask airway, closed-loop anesthesia

  8. Medical ethics education: thoughts on a South African medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Higher Education ... emphasised the place of bioethics within the emerging integrated medical curricula in southern Africa. ... There has been little development of African syllabi in bioethics that reflect the plasticity of ...

  9. The current status of medical malpractice countersuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, D J

    1985-01-01

    The dramatic growth of medical malpractice litigation in recent decades has contributed significantly to an overall increase in health care costs in this country. Although lawmakers, physicians, and other responsible citizens have proposed numerous solutions in an effort to curb the crisis, these proposals have generally been ineffective. In this Article the Author endorses countersuits as the most appropriate response to frivolous medical malpractice actions. The Author also suggests that contingent fee systems, coupled with the economic motivation of private insurers to settle claims quickly, provide incentive for plaintiffs to initiate frivolous claims. This Article analyzes the general legal approaches available for countersuits, emphasizing recent successful actions based on malicious prosecution and abuse of process, and proposes more widespread use of these approaches.

  10. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years,

  11. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  12. Perception of medical students for utility of mobile technology use in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Sushama Subhash Thakre; Subhash Bapurao Thakre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile technology is changing the way we live, and it is beginning to change the way we learn. Current literature reviews have shown that research on mobile technology in medical education primarily focused on efficacy, of mobile devices as an educational tool and resource, infrastructure to support m-learning, benefits, challenges, and appropriate use. Objectives: To assess the perception of medical student for the utility of mobile technology in their learning experience and t...

  13. Ethics Education in New Zealand Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Malpas, Phillipa; Walker, Simon; Jonas, Monique

    2018-07-01

    This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand's medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the "professionalism" and "professional development" in medical curricula.

  14. Medical Students' Affirmation of Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…

  15. Top Medical Education Studies of 2016: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H Barrett; Ryan, Michael S; Darden, Alix; D'Alessandro, Donna M; Mogilner, Leora; Paik, Steve; Turner, Teri L

    2018-02-06

    Education, like clinical medicine, should be based on the most current evidence in the field. Unfortunately, medical educators can be overwhelmed by the sheer volume and range of resources for this literature. This article provides an overview of 15 articles from 2016 that the authors consider the top articles in the field of pediatric medical education. The 7 authors, all medical educators with combined leadership and expertise across the continuum of pediatric medical education, used an iterative 3-stage process to review more than 6339 abstracts published in 2016. This process was designed to identify a small subset of articles that were most relevant to educational practices and most applicable to pediatric medical education. In the first 2 stages, pairs of authors independently reviewed and scored abstracts in 13 medical education-related journals and reached consensus to identify the articles that best met these criteria. In the final stage, all articles were discussed using a group consensus model to select the final articles included in this review. This article presents summaries of the 15 articles that were selected. The results revealed a cluster of studies related to observed standardized clinical encounters, self-assessment, professionalism, clinical teaching, competencies/milestones, and graduate medical education management strategies. We provide suggestions on how medical educators can apply the findings to their own practice and educational settings. This narrative review offers a useful tool for educators interested in keeping informed about the most relevant and valuable information in the field. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The introverted medical school - time to rethink medical education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is renewed interest in medical education worldwide, reflected in recent ... speaking about innovative educational methods and influencing ... Some faculties have responded by appointing staff specifically to deal ... greater diversity in methods of evaluation. ... each graduate has acquired knowledge, attitudes and skills.

  17. Medical education research in GCC countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim; Aqil, Mansoor; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood

    2015-02-01

    Medical education is an essential domain to produce physicians with high standards of medical knowledge, skills and professionalism in medical practice. This study aimed to investigate the research progress and prospects of GCC countries in medical education during the period 1996-2013. In this study, the research papers published in various global scientific journals during the period 1996-2013 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an affiliation with GCC Countries including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman. The main source for information was Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters. In ISI-Web of Science, Saudi Arabia contributed 40797 research papers, Kuwait 1666, United Arab Emirates 3045, Qatar 4265, Bahrain 1666 and Oman 4848 research papers. However, in Medical Education only Saudi Arabia contributed 323 (0.79%) research papers, Kuwait 52 (0.03%), United Arab Emirates 41(0.01%), Qatar 37(0.008%), Bahrain 28 (0.06%) and Oman 22 (0.45%) research papers in in ISI indexed journals. In medical education the Hirsch index (h-index) of Saudi Arabia is 14, United Arab Emirates 14, Kuwait 11, Qatar 8, Bahrain 8 and Oman 5. GCC countries produced very little research in medical education during the period 1996-2013. They must improve their research outcomes in medical education to produce better physicians to enhance the standards in medical practice in the region.

  18. Crowdsourced Curriculum Development for Online Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappell, Eric; Chan, Teresa M; Thoma, Brent; Trueger, N Seth; Stuntz, Bob; Cooney, Robert; Ahn, James

    2017-12-08

    In recent years online educational content, efforts at quality appraisal, and integration of online material into institutional teaching initiatives have increased. However, medical education has yet to develop large-scale online learning centers. Crowd-sourced curriculum development may expedite the realization of this potential while providing opportunities for innovation and scholarship. This article describes the current landscape, best practices, and future directions for crowdsourced curriculum development using Kern's framework for curriculum development and the example topic of core content in emergency medicine. A scoping review of online educational content was performed by a panel of subject area experts for each step in Kern's framework. Best practices and recommendations for future development for each step were established by the same panel using a modified nominal group consensus process. The most prevalent curriculum design steps were (1) educational content and (2) needs assessments. Identified areas of potential innovation within these steps included targeting gaps in specific content areas and developing underrepresented instructional methods. Steps in curriculum development without significant representation included (1) articulation of goals and objectives and (2) tools for curricular evaluation. By leveraging the power of the community, crowd-sourced curriculum development offers a mechanism to diffuse the burden associated with creating comprehensive online learning centers. There is fertile ground for innovation and scholarship in each step along the continuum of curriculum development. Realization of this paradigm's full potential will require individual developers to strongly consider how their contributions will align with the work of others.

  19. A history of medical student debt: observations and implications for the future of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greysen, S Ryan; Chen, Candice; Mullan, Fitzhugh

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 50 years, medical student debt has become a problem of national importance, and obtaining medical education in the United States has become a loan-dependent, individual investment. Although this phenomenon must be understood in the general context of U.S. higher education as well as economic and social trends in late-20th-century America, the historical problem of medical student debt requires specific attention for several reasons. First, current mechanisms for students' educational financing may not withstand debt levels above a certain ceiling which is rapidly approaching. Second, there are no standards for costs of medical school attendance, and these can vary dramatically between different schools even within a single city. Third, there is no consensus on the true cost of educating a medical student, which limits accountability to students and society for these costs. Fourth, policy efforts to improve physician workforce diversity and mitigate shortages in the primary care workforce are inhibited by rising levels of medical student indebtedness. Fortunately, the current effort to expand the U.S. physician workforce presents a unique opportunity to confront the unsustainable growth of medical student debt and explore new approaches to the financing of medical students' education.

  20. Medical Management of Uveitis ? Current Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Kalpana; Mahendradas, Padmamalini

    2013-01-01

    Uveitis is a challenging disease to treat. Corticosteroids have been used in the treatment of uveitis for many years. Immunosuppressives are gaining momentum in recent years in the treatment of uveitis. In this article we present an overview of current treatment of uveitis and the major breakthroughs and advances in drugs and ocular drug delivery systems in the treatment of uveitis.

  1. Current educational issues in the clinical neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, R; Elleker, M G; Goldsand, G; Hugenholtz, H; Puddester, D; Toyota, B; Findlay, J M

    2001-11-01

    Canadian training in the clinical neurosciences, neurology and neurosurgery, faces significant challenges. New balances are being set by residents, their associations and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada between clinical service, education and personal time. The nature of hospital-provided medical service has changed significantly over the past decade, impacting importantly on resident training. Finally, future manpower needs are of concern, especially in the field of neurosurgery, where it appears that soon more specialists will be trained than can be absorbed into the Canadian health care system. A special symposium on current challenges in clinical neuroscience training was held at the Canadian Congress of Neurological Sciences in June 2000. Representatives from the Canadian Association of Interns and Residents, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and English and French neurology and neurosurgery training programs made presentations, which are summarized in this report. Residency training has become less service-oriented, and this trend will continue. In order to manage the increasingly sophisticated hospital services of neurology and neurosurgery, resident-alternatives in the form of physician "moonlighters" or more permanent hospital-based clinicians or "hospitalists" will be necessary in order to operate major neuroclinical units. Health authorities and hospitals will need to recognize and assume this responsibility. As clinical experience diminishes during residency training, inevitably so will the concept of the fully competent "generalist" at the end of specialty training. Additional subspecialty training is being increasingly sought by graduates, particularly in neurosurgery. Training in neurology and neurosurgery, as in all medical specialties, has changed significantly in recent years and continues to change. Programs and hospitals need to adapt to these changes in order to ensure the production of fully

  2. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Education in Medical Biochemistry in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic-Sing, Nada

    2010-06-01

    Medical biochemistry is the usual name for clinical biochemistry or clinical chemistry in Serbia. Medical biochemistry laboratories and medical biochemists as a profession are part of Health Care System and are regulated through: the Health Care Law and rules issued by the Chamber of Medical Biochemists of Serbia. The first continuous and organized education for Medical Biochemists in Serbia dates from 1945, when Department of Medical Biochemistry was established at Pharmaceutical Faculty in Belgrade. In 1987 at the same Faculty a five years undergraduate branch was established, educating Medical Biochemists under a special program. Since 2006 the new five year undergraduate (according to Bologna Declaration) and postgraduate program of four-year specialization according to EC4 European Syllabus for Post-Graduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has been established. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health accredits the programs. There are four requirements for practicing medical biochemistry in the Health Care System: University Diploma of the Faculty of Pharmacy (Medical Biochemistry), successful completion of the profession exam at the Ministry of Health after completion of one additional year of obligatory practical training in medical laboratories, membership in the Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists and licence for skilled work issued by Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists.

  4. Changing the culture of medical training: An important step toward the implementation of competency-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Peter C; Caverzagie, Kelly J; Nousiainen, Markku T; Snell, Linda

    2017-06-01

    The current medical education system is steeped in tradition and has been shaped by many long-held beliefs and convictions about the essential components of training. The objective of this article is to propose initiatives to overcome biases against competency-based medical education (CBME) in the culture of medical education. At a retreat of the International Competency Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators group, an intensive brainstorming session was held to determine potential barriers to adoption of CBME in the culture of medical education. This was supplemented with a review of the literature on the topic. There continues to exist significant key barriers to the widespread adoption of CBME. Change in educational culture must be embraced by all components of the medical education hierarchy. Research is essential to provide convincing evidence of the benefit of CBME. The widespread adoption of CBME will require a change in the professional, institutional, and organizational culture surrounding the training of medical professionals.

  5. Palaeopathology: Current challenges and medical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, Frank J; Galassi, Francesco M; Haeusler, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Palaeopathology is the science which studies ancient human diseases. Throughout its relatively young history it underwent tremendous technological and methodological improvements (from pure morphology and histology to CT scanning) that have constantly reshaped its scientific rationale. Among other achievements, the study of mummies and fossilized hominids has allowed to effectively extract ancient DNA, prove the existence of atherosclerosis in ancient times, demonstrate the presence of disease vectors, better clarify the etiology of infectious diseases otherwise only postulated on the basis of ancient accounts as well as to show the presence of spine pathology in our hominid ancestors. The research levels in this discipline are three: basic research, individual cases, population. The first and the third levels contribute most to the discipline, while the second is the one more appealing to the general public on account of its description of important cases reports. In addition, a recently introduced sub-specialty of palaeopathology, pathography is aiming to use an interdisciplinary approach to find traces of diseases in ancient literary sources and artistic representations. In spite of its discoveries, palaeopathology is not always viewed positively by clinicians because certain old-fashioned techniques are still due to technical restrictions. The authors provide a set of suggestions on how to strengthen the scientific recognition of this subject and explain at length how it could contribute to the progress of medical research. Clin. Anat. 29:816-822, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Teleconferencing in medical education: a useful tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Education and healthcare are basic needs for human development. Technological innovation has broadened the access to higher quality healthcare and education without regard to time, distance or geopolitical boundaries. Distance learning has gained popularity as a means of learning in recent years due to widely distributed learners, busy schedules and rising travel costs. Teleconferencing is also a very useful tool as a distance learning method.Teleconferencing is a real-time and live interactive programme in which one set of participants are at one or more locations and the other set of participants are at another. The teleconference allows for interaction, including audio and/or video, and possibly other modalities, between at least two sites. Various methods are available for setting up a teleconferencing unit. A detailed review of the trend in the use of teleconferencing in medical education was conducted using Medline and a literature search.Teleconferencing was found to be a very useful tool in continuing medical education (CME), postgraduate medical education, undergraduate medical education, telementoring and many other situations. The use of teleconferencing in medical education has many advantages including savings in terms of travel costs and time. It gives access to the best educational resources and experience without any limitations of boundaries of distance and time. It encourages two-way interactions and facilitates learning in adults. Despite having some pitfalls in its implementation it is now being seen as an important tool in facilitating learning in medicine and many medical schools and institutions are adapting this novel tool.

  7. Medical Students' Perspective on Current and Future Training in Anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, C.P.R.; Koppes, D.M.; Kuijk, S.M.J. Van; Popeijus, H.E.; Lamers, W.H.; Gorp, T. Van; Futterer, J.J.; Kruitwagen, R.; Notten, K.J.B.

    2018-01-01

    Gaining sufficient knowledge of anatomy is an important part of medical education. Factors that influence how well students learn anatomical structures include available sources, learning time and study assistance. This study explores the attitude of medical students with regard to studying anatomy

  8. Does medical education erode medical trainees' ethical attitude and behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Neda

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg’s and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard. PMID:28050246

  9. An overview of medical informatics education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehua; Sun, Zhenling; Li, Houqing

    2013-05-01

    To outline the history of medical informatics education in the People's Republic of China, systematically analyze the current status of medical informatics education at different academic levels (bachelor's, master's, and doctoral), and suggest reasonable strategies for the further development of the field in China. The development of medical informatics education was divided into three stages, defined by changes in the specialty's name. Systematic searches of websites for material related to the specialty of medical informatics were then conducted. For undergraduate education, the websites surveyed included the website of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China (MOE) and those of universities or colleges identified using the baidu.com search engine. For postgraduate education, the websites included China's Graduate Admissions Information Network (CGAIN) and the websites of the universities or their schools or faculties. Specialties were selected on the basis of three criteria: (1) for undergraduate education, the name of specialty or program was medical informatics or medical information or information management and information system; for postgraduate education, medical informatics or medical information; (2) the specialty was approved and listed by the MOE; (3) the specialty was set up by a medical college or medical university, or a school of medicine of a comprehensive university. The information abstracted from the websites included the year of program approval and listing, the university/college, discipline catalog, discipline, specialty, specialty code, objectives, and main courses. A total of 55 program offerings for undergraduate education, 27 for master's-level education, and 5 for PhD-level education in medical informatics were identified and assessed in China. The results indicate that medical informatics education, a specialty rooted in medical library and information science education in China, has grown significantly in that

  10. Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. Method: The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Results: Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. Conclusions: More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education. PMID:24282452

  11. Training of leadership skills in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R

    2013-01-01

    Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians' everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education.

  12. Community-based dental education: history, current status, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.

  13. Medical Student Education in State Psychiatric Hospitals: A Survey of US State Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurenberg, Jeffry R; Schleifer, Steven J; Kennedy, Cheryl; Walker, Mary O; Mayerhoff, David

    2016-04-01

    State hospitals may be underutilized in medical education. US state psychiatric hospitals were surveyed on current and potential psychiatry medical student education. A 10-item questionnaire, with multiple response formats, was sent to identified hospitals in late 2012. Ninety-seven of 221 hospitals contacted responded. Fifty-three (55%) reported current medical student education programs, including 27 clinical clerkship rotations. Education and training in other disciplines was prevalent in hospitals both with and without medical students. The large majority of responders expressed enthusiasm about medical education. The most frequent reported barrier to new programs was geographic distance from the school. Limited resources were limiting factors for hospitals with and without current programs. Only a minority of US state hospitals may be involved in medical student education. While barriers such as geographic distance may be difficult to overcome, responses suggest opportunities for expanding medical education in the state psychiatric hospitals.

  14. Tele-education as method of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Kulasin, Igor; Masic, Zlatan; Valjevac, Salih

    2009-01-01

    Development of computer networks and introduction and application of new technologies in all aspects of human activity needs to be followed by universities in their transformation on how to approach scientific, research, and education teaching curricula. Development and increased use of distance learning (DL) over the past decade have clearly shown the potential and efficiency of information technology applied in education. Use of information technology in medical education is where medical informatics takes its place as important scientific discipline which ensures benefit from IT in teaching and learning process involved. Definition of telemedicine as "use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance" covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (eHealth), telematics, but also tele-education. Web based medical education today is offered in different forms--from online lectures, online exams, web based continuous education programs, use of electronic libraries, online medical and scientific databases etc. Department of Medical Informatics of Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo has taken many steps to introduce distance learning in medical curricula--from organising professional--scientific events (congresses, workshop etc), organizing first tele-exam at the faculty and among first at the university, to offering online lectures and online education material at the Department's website (www.unsa-medinfo.org). Distance learning in medical education, as well as telemedicine, significantly influence health care in general and are shaping the future model of medical practice. Basic computer and networks skills must be a part of all future medical curricula. The impact of technical equipment on patient-doctor relationship must be taken into account, and doctors have to be trained and prepared for diagnosing or consulting patients by use of IT. Telemedicine requires special approach in certain medical fields--tele-consultation, tele

  15. Acute IPPS - Direct Graduate Medical Education (DGME)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 1886(h) of the Act, establish a methodology for determining payments to hospitals for the costs of approved graduate medical education (GME) programs.

  16. Learning Styles in Continuing Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Nancy L.; Fox, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Synthesizes literature on cognitive style and considers issues about its role in continuing medical education research, including whether it should be used as a dependent or independent variable and how it may be used in causal models. (SK)

  17. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tenants of qualitative research paradigm with specific reference to ground theory. The paper aims to encourage readers to think how they might possibly use the grounded theory method in medical education research and to apply such a method to their own areas of interest. The important features of a grounded theory as well as its implications for medical education research are explored. Data collection and analysis are also discussed. It seems to be reasonable to incorporate knowledge of this kind in medical education research.

  18. Medical students call for national standards in anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farey, John E; Sandeford, Jonathan C; Evans-McKendry, Greg D

    2014-11-01

    The diminishing number of hours dedicated to formal instruction in anatomy has led to a debate within medical education as to the level required for safe clinical practice. We provide a review of the current state of anatomical education in Australian medical schools and state the case for national standards. In light of the review presented, council members of the Australian Medical Students' Association voted to affirm that consideration should be given to developing undergraduate learning goals for anatomy, providing a codified medical student position on the teaching of anatomy in Australian medical schools. Crucially, the position states that time-intensive methods of instruction such as dissection should be a rite of passage for medical students in the absence of evidence demonstrating the superiority of modern teaching methods. We believe the bodies with a vested interest in the quality of medical graduates, namely the Australian Medical Council, Medical Deans Australia & New Zealand, and the postgraduate colleges should collaborate and develop clear guidelines that make explicit the core knowledge of anatomy expected of medical graduates at each stage of their career with a view to safe clinical practice. In addition, Australian universities have a role to play in conducting further research into contemporary learning styles and the most efficacious methods of delivering anatomical education. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. The transformation of osteopathic medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevitz, Norman

    2009-06-01

    Osteopathic medical schools and hospital-based postgraduate programs have long constituted small but important sources of physicians and surgeons, particularly for traditionally underserved areas of the United States. Though frequently marginalized in or even left out of standard histories and studies of U.S. medical education, these institutions have become much more difficult to ignore, given the rapid expansion of the number of osteopathic medical students in new and existing colleges and the size of their classes. By 2019, upwards of 25% of all U.S. medical school graduates produced annually will be doctors of osteopathic medicine. The author examines the process through which osteopathy was transformed into osteopathic medicine, how osteopathic medical schools achieved their present status as a significant source of U.S. graduates for residency training, and what challenges osteopathic medical education now faces.

  20. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDOLMALEKI, MOHAMMADREZA; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM; MOMENI, SEDIGHEH; MOMTAZMANESH, NADER

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. Methods: In this study, the modified version of McKenna’s approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. Results: By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. Conclusion: According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system. PMID:28761884

  1. Globalization and the modernization of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J; Simmonds Goulbourne, Jacqueline D

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, there are essential differences underpinning what educators and students perceive to be effective medical education. Yet, the world looks on for a recipe or easy formula for the globalization of medical education. This article examines the assumptions, main beliefs, and impact of globalization on medical education as a carrier of modernity. The article explores the cultural and social structures for the successful utilization of learning approaches within medical education. Empirical examples are problem-based learning (PBL) at two medical schools in Jamaica and the Netherlands, respectively. Our analysis shows that people do not just naturally work well together. Deliberate efforts to build group culture for effective and efficient collaborative practice are required. Successful PBL is predicated on effective communication skills, which are culturally defined in that they require common points of understanding of reality. Commonality in cultural practices and expectations do not exist beforehand but must be clearly and deliberately created. The globalization of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs. It includes Western models of social organization requiring deep reflection and adaptation to ensure its success in different environments and among different groups.

  2. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Mohammadreza; Yazdani, Shahram; Momeni, Sedigheh; Momtazmanesh, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. In this study, the modified version of McKenna's approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system.

  3. Becoming an Educational Leader--Exploring Leadership in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander Laksov, Klara; Tomson, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Research on educational leadership emphasizes the importance of having institutional leaders heavily involved with advanced instructional programming. Best practices for developing educational leadership in higher education health care and medical faculties have to be better understood. Within the framework of a seminar series, researchers and…

  4. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.

  5. Highlights in emergency medicine medical education research: 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Susan E; Coates, Wendy C; Khun, Gloria J; Fisher, Jonathan; Shayne, Philip; Lin, Michelle

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight medical education research studies published in 2008 that were methodologically superior and whose outcomes were pertinent to teaching and education in emergency medicine. Through a PubMed search of the English language literature in 2008, 30 medical education research studies were independently identified as hypothesis-testing investigations and measurements of educational interventions. Six reviewers independently rated and scored all articles based on eight anchors, four of which related to methodologic criteria. Articles were ranked according to their total rating score. A ranking agreement among the reviewers of 83% was established a priori as a minimum for highlighting articles in this review. Five medical education research studies met the a priori criteria for inclusion and are reviewed and summarized here. Four of these employed experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Although technology was not a component of the structured literature search employed to identify the candidate articles for this review, 14 of the articles identified, including four of the five highlighted articles, employed or studied technology as a focus of the educational research. Overall, 36% of the reviewed studies were supported by funding; three of the highlighted articles were funded studies. This review highlights quality medical education research studies published in 2008, with outcomes of relevance to teaching and education in emergency medicine. It focuses on research methodology, notes current trends in the use of technology for learning in emergency medicine, and suggests future avenues for continued rigorous study in education.

  6. Applying adult learning practices in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead

  7. Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; Lyman, Michelle; Bohnert, Carrie; Mittel, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical presentations in an interactive format that maximizes learning and ultimately patient-centered outcomes. In 2014, University of Louisville School of Medicine created a simulation-based medical education (SBME) curriculum to prepare students to recognize victims and intervene on their behalf. The authors share the factors that influenced the session's development and incorporation into an already full third year medical curriculum and outline the development process. The process included a needs assessment for the education intervention, development of objectives and corresponding assessment, implementation of the curriculum, and finally the next steps of the module as it develops further. Additional alternatives are provided for other medical educators seeking to implement similar modules at their home institution. It is our hope that the description of this process will help others to create similar interactive educational programs and ultimately help trafficking survivors receive the care they need. HCP: Healthcare professional; M-SIGHT: Medical student instruction in global human trafficking; SBME: Simulation-based medical education; SP: Standardized patient; TIC: Trauma-informed care.

  8. Medical education and human trafficking: using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoklosa, Hanni; Lyman, Michelle; Bohnert, Carrie; Mittel, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Healthcare providers have the potential to play a crucial role in human trafficking prevention, identification, and intervention. However, trafficked patients are often unidentified due to lack of education and preparation available to healthcare professionals at all levels of training and practice. To increase victim identification in healthcare settings, providers need to be educated about the issue of trafficking and its clinical presentations in an interactive format that maximizes learning and ultimately patient-centered outcomes. In 2014, University of Louisville School of Medicine created a simulation-based medical education (SBME) curriculum to prepare students to recognize victims and intervene on their behalf. The authors share the factors that influenced the session’s development and incorporation into an already full third year medical curriculum and outline the development process. The process included a needs assessment for the education intervention, development of objectives and corresponding assessment, implementation of the curriculum, and finally the next steps of the module as it develops further. Additional alternatives are provided for other medical educators seeking to implement similar modules at their home institution. It is our hope that the description of this process will help others to create similar interactive educational programs and ultimately help trafficking survivors receive the care they need. Abbreviations: HCP: Healthcare professional; M-SIGHT: Medical student instruction in global human trafficking; SBME: Simulation-based medical education; SP: Standardized patient; TIC: Trauma-informed care PMID:29228882

  9. [Medical Humanities--the Historical Significance and Mission in Medical Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we consider the significance and mission of medical humanities in medical education from the following six viewpoints: (1) misunderstanding of the medical humanities; (2) its historical development; (3) the criteria for the ideal physician; (4) the contents of current Medical Humanities education; (5) the basic philosophy; and (6) its relation to medical professionalism. Medical humanities consists of the three academic components of bioethics, clinical ethics and medical anthropology, and it is a philosophy and an art which penetrate to the fundamental essence of medicine. The purpose of medical humanities is to develop one's own humanity and spirituality through medical practice and contemplation by empathizing with patients' illness narratives through spiritual self-awakening and by understanding the mutual healing powers of human relations by way of the realization of primordial life. The basic philosophy is "the coincidence of contraries". The ultimate mission of medical humanities is to cultivate physicians to educate themselves and have a life-long philosophy of devotion to understanding, through experience, the coincidence of contraries.

  10. The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    McKenna, Gerald J

    2014-01-01

    Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy.

  11. Diagnostic imaging in undergraduate medical education: an expanding role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiologists have been involved in anatomy instruction for medical students for decades. However, recent technical advances in radiology, such as multiplanar imaging, 'virtual endoscopy', functional and molecular imaging, and spectroscopy, offer new ways in which to use imaging for teaching basic sciences to medical students. The broad dissemination of picture archiving and communications systems is making such images readily available to medical schools, providing new opportunities for the incorporation of diagnostic imaging into the undergraduate medical curriculum. Current reforms in the medical curriculum and the establishment of new medical schools in the UK further underline the prospects for an expanding role for imaging in medical education. This article reviews the methods by which diagnostic imaging can be used to support the learning of anatomy and other basic sciences

  12. A Viewpoint on Medical Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique characteristics of medical universities compared to other higher education centers in Iran is existence of medical education development centers. These centers have made an attempt to enhance the quality of medical education by regular and constant activity in various domains of educational planning and policymaking, and empowerment of the faculty members, students and personnel. Numerous studies published in Persian and English journals are one of the achievements of these centers. Also, several Persian and English scientific journals are being published by these centers among which the role of the few English languages journals of these centers is remarkably significant. Since these journals attract more audience, especially from abroad, it is necessary to pay special heed to the quality of their published articles. Avoiding the publication of such articles as “analysis of awareness and attitude” and turning to innovative intervention studies in medical education (1 have been highlighted by the authorities of medical education. During the past 30 years, the planners and medical sciences teachers have made to keep up with global developments in medicine. However, medical education in Iran has encountered numerous challenges, some of which have been referred to in the literature such as incompatibility of education with the real needs of the society, necessity of revising the syllabi and scientific resources, and weakness of clinical education (2, 3. One of the challenges highlighted in the recent years is the decreasing trend in medical students’ motivation and their academic failure. Various studies have investigated the factors affecting the students’ academic failure (4, 5, but few studies have analyzed the practical and scientific solutions to decrease and prevent it. Accepting undergraduate students in Iranian universities is state-based and the fact that universities have no role in the selection and acceptance

  13. Trust and risk: a model for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Arvin; Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Health care delivery, and therefore medical education, is an inherently risky business. Although control mechanisms, such as external audit and accreditation, are designed to manage risk in clinical settings, another approach is 'trust'. The use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) represents a deliberate way in which this is operationalised as a workplace-based assessment. Once engaged with the concept, clinical teachers and medical educators may have further questions about trust. This narrative overview of the trust literature explores how risk, trust and control intersect with current thinking in medical education, and makes suggestions for potential directions of enquiry. Beyond EPAs, the importance of trust in health care and medical education is reviewed, followed by a brief history of trust research in the wider literature. Interpersonal and organisational levels of trust and a model of trust from the management literature are used to provide the framework with which to decipher trust decisions in health care and medical education, in which risk and vulnerability are inherent. In workplace learning and assessment, the language of 'trust' may offer a more authentic and practical vocabulary than that of 'competency' because clinical and professional risks are explicitly considered. There are many other trust relationships in health care and medical education. At the most basic level, it is helpful to clearly delineate who is the trustor, the trustee, and for what task. Each relationship has interpersonal and organisational elements. Understanding and considered utilisation of trust and control mechanisms in health care and medical education may lead to systems that maturely manage risk while actively encouraging trust and empowerment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  14. Medical education: the case for investment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparative spends are simply not available. The average spend on undergraduate education per graduate doctor is $122 000. Yet the spend per graduate doctor in China, India, and Africa is considerably less than this average. So one caveat to the answer that we spend less than we should on medical education is that it.

  15. Information Technologies (ITs) in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Toromanovic, Selim; Masic, Fedja; Sivic, Suad; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Zlatan

    2011-09-01

    Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies (IT) have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, "learning at bedside," aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching, create weak or almost no self education, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment. In this paper authors describe application of modern IT in medical education - their advantages and disadvantages comparing with traditional ways of education.

  16. Midwives in medical student and resident education and the development of the medical education caucus toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoff, Kari; Nacht, Amy; Natch, Amy; McConaughey, Edie; Salstrom, Jan; Schelling, Karen; Seger, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives have been involved formally and informally in the training of medical students and residents for many years. Recent reductions in resident work hours, emphasis on collaborative practice, and a focus on midwives as key members of the maternity care model have increased the involvement of midwives in medical education. Midwives work in academic settings as educators to teach the midwifery model of care, collaboration, teamwork, and professionalism to medical students and residents. In 2009, members of the American College of Nurse-Midwives formed the Medical Education Caucus (MECA) to discuss the needs of midwives teaching medical students and residents; the group has held a workshop annually over the last 4 years. In 2014, MECA workshop facilitators developed a toolkit to support and formalize the role of midwives involved in medical student and resident education. The MECA toolkit provides a roadmap for midwives beginning involvement and continuing or expanding the role of midwives in medical education. This article describes the history of midwives in medical education, the development and growth of MECA, and the resulting toolkit created to support and formalize the role of midwives as educators in medical student and resident education, as well as common challenges for the midwife in academic medicine. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  17. Modeling manipulation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Jason I

    2010-05-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and professional development. Yet manipulation need not be a skill necessary to practice medicine, and steps should be taken by both individuals and institutions to combat the view that the way medicine must be practiced "in the real world" is somehow different from what one's affective moral sense implores.

  18. Paradigm shifts in medical education: implications for medical/health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary health and medical education in the present information dispensation must actively engage healthcare providers in opportunities for knowledge seeking, learning to learn, and motivation to continue learning. The favored pedagogical design to achieve this is Problem-Based Learning (PBL) enhanced with the ...

  19. Students' medical ethics rounds: a combinatorial program for medical ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigy, Maani; Pishgahi, Ghasem; Moghaddas, Fateme; Maghbouli, Nastaran; Shirbache, Kamran; Asghari, Fariba; Abolfat-H Zadeh, Navid

    2016-01-01

    It has long been a common goal for both medical educators and ethicists to develop effective methods or programs for medical ethics education. The current lecture-based courses of medical ethics programs in medical schools are demonstrated as insufficient models for training "good doctors''. In this study, we introduce an innovative program for medical ethics education in an extra-curricular student-based design named Students' Medical Ethics Rounds (SMER). In SMER, a combination of educational methods, including theater-based case presentation, large group discussion, expert opinions, role playing and role modeling were employed. The pretest-posttest experimental design was used to assess the impact of interventions on the participants' knowledge and attitude regarding selected ethical topics. A total of 335 students participated in this study and 86.57% of them filled the pretest and posttest forms. We observed significant improvements in the knowledge (P educational methods were reported as helpful. We found that SMER might be an effective method of teaching medical ethics. We highly recommend the investigation of the advantages of SMER in larger studies and interdisciplinary settings.

  20. [Continuing medical education in gastroenterology and recertification in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Contreras, Ofelia; Soriano Álvarez, César

    2017-01-01

    The field of action of gastroenterology has been expanded due to technological development and the advent of new sub-specialties, such as gastroenterology oncology. Currently, there is no standardization of medical training programs in gastroenterology in our country. The health system and education are changing, so medical practice and competency assessment for medical certification and recertification should reflect these changes. On the other hand, the quality of a specialized unit, service or medical department is directly related to the quality of human resources. Lifelong learning is reflected in continuing medical education (CME). The goal of CME should be to achieve changes in staff conduct, through continuous improvement in daily practice. This requires knowing the social, institutional and individual needs and developing new, more flexible and individualized CME programs. Recertification at fixed intervals should be abandoned in favor of a model that promotes continuous professional development based on health needs and with curricular materials that support competency assessments.

  1. Enhancing cultural competence in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Janne; Norredam, Marie; Dogra, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    the project Culturally Competent in Medical Education involving 13 partners from 11 countries.4 The project aimed to support the implementation of CC in medical curricula. First, a Delphi Study involving 34 experts was conducted to develop a framework of core cultural competencies for medical school teachers...... stage of the project was a survey conducted to identify the strengths, gaps, and limitations of CC in the programmes of the 13 medical school project partners. Based on the Delphi study and survey findings, we created guidelines for the development and delivery of CC training at medical schools.4...... The proposed guidelines were presented in September 2015 in Amsterdam at a workshop entitled: “How to integrate cultural competence in medical education”. A range of participants attended the workshop, including the project partners, deans and faculty members of Dutch medical schools, physicians, and students...

  2. What is the Best Evidence Medical Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Masoomi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME is defined as: “The implementation by teachers and educational bodies in their practice, of methods and approaches to education based on the best evidence available.” Five steps have been recognized in the practice of BEME. These are: framing the question, developing a search strategy, evaluating the evidence, implementing change and evaluating that change. In this paper, I described the concept of BEME, its steps, and challenges.

  3. Hungarian medical physics MSc education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrady, D.; Czifrus, Z.; Zarand, P.; Aszodi, A.; Pesznyak, C.; Major, T.

    2012-01-01

    The medical physics specialisation aims at providing high level interdisciplinary theoretical and practical knowledge and readily applicable skills, which can put into action in both the clinical and the R and D field. The first competence based gradual medical physics course in the B.Sc./M.Sc. system in Hungary was launched two years ago at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of Budapest University of Technology and Economics managed by the Institute of Nuclear Techniques. The MSc programme was compiled on the base of EFOMP, IPEM, AAPM and IAEA recommendations. The course curriculum comprises fundamental physical subjects (atomic and molecular physics, nuclear physics and particle physics) as well as fundamental medical knowledge (anatomy, physiology and radiobiology) required for subjects of diagnostic and therapy. Students of this MSc branch may chose further subjects from a 'compulsory optional' set of subjects, which contains medical imaging, X-ray diagnostics, radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging, radiation protection, Monte Carlo calculation and its clinical applications, ultrasound diagnostics and nuclear medicine. (authors)

  4. Augmented reality in medical education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-01-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics,

  5. Medical Education: Should Undergraduate Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1960 the first 13 medical students fully trained in Nigeria to internationally accepted standard graduated from the then University College Ibadan, earning the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) London degree. Since then thousands of doctors trained to international standard have been produced from ...

  6. Radiation sterilization of medical products- current trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.

    1997-01-01

    In medical practice use of sterile pharmaceuticals and single use disposable medical devices is steadily increasing. Sterile pharmaceuticals like injections and ophthalmic ointments are required for therapy. Medical devices are employed for diagnostic, drug administration or corrective purposes, and as implants for temporary, short term or long term residence in the human system. All these products are made available in sterile form by treating them to a suitable process of sterilization i.e. dry/wet heat, ethylene oxide (EtO) gas or ionizing radiation. In this paper current trends and future prospects of radiation sterilization of medical products are given in detail. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  7. E-learning as new method of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2008-01-01

    NONE DECLARED Distance learning refers to use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance and covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (e-health), telematics, telemedicine, tele-education, etc. For the need of e-health, telemedicine, tele-education and distance learning there are various technologies and communication systems from standard telephone lines to the system of transmission digitalized signals with modem, optical fiber, satellite links, wireless technologies, etc. Tele-education represents health education on distance, using Information Communication Technologies (ICT), as well as continuous education of a health system beneficiaries and use of electronic libraries, data bases or electronic data with data bases of knowledge. Distance learning (E-learning) as a part of tele-education has gained popularity in the past decade; however, its use is highly variable among medical schools and appears to be more common in basic medical science courses than in clinical education. Distance learning does not preclude traditional learning processes; frequently it is used in conjunction with in-person classroom or professional training procedures and practices. Tele-education has mostly been used in biomedical education as a blended learning method, which combines tele-education technology with traditional instructor-led training, where, for example, a lecture or demonstration is supplemented by an online tutorial. Distance learning is used for self-education, tests, services and for examinations in medicine i.e. in terms of self-education and individual examination services. The possibility of working in the exercise mode with image files and questions is an attractive way of self education. Automated tracking and reporting of learners' activities lessen faculty administrative burden. Moreover, e-learning can be designed to include outcomes assessment to determine whether learning has occurred. This review article evaluates the current

  8. Medical physiology education in South Africa: what are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context. Most South African medical schools have, in the past decade, introduced changes in their curricula. In our experience we have found that such changes can affect students' knowledge and understanding of physiology. Aim. The current study was undertaken to determine the perceptions of educators regarding the ...

  9. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  10. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  11. Opioid use in palliative care | Hosking | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 5 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Opioid use in palliative care. M Hosking. Abstract.

  12. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  13. Current Trends in Higher Education Technology: Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damewood, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on how technology in use changes over time, and the current trend of simulation technology as a supported classroom technology. Simulation-based training as a learning tool is discussed within the context of adult learning theories, as is the technology used and how today's higher education technology administrators support…

  14. Continuing Medical Education: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  15. Practice transition in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Robyn; Piro, Nancy; Katznelson, Laurence; Gephart, Melanie Hayden

    2017-10-01

    Debt repayment, professional negotiation and practice management skills are vital to a successful medical practice, yet are undervalued and seldom taught in graduate medical education. Medical residents need additional training to confidently transition to independent practice, requiring the development of novel curricula. Medical residents need additional training to confidently transition to independent practice METHODS: We developed a trial practice management curriculum to educate senior residents and fellows through voluntary workshops. Topics discussed in the workshops included debt repayment, billing compliance, medical malpractice, contract negotiations, and lifestyle and financial management. Resident self-confidence was assessed, and feedback was obtained through voluntary survey responses before and after attendance at a workshop, scored using a Likert scale. Twenty-five residents from 20 specialties attended a 1-day session incorporating all lectures; 53 residents from 17 specialties attended a re-designed quarterly session with one or two topics per session. Survey evaluations completed before and after the workshop demonstrated an improvement in residents' self-assessment of confidence in contract negotiations (p practice (p practice. One hundred per cent of respondents agreed that the presentation objectives were relevant to their needs as residents. Participant responses indicated a need for structured education in practice management for senior trainees. Senior residents and fellows will benefit most from curricula, but have high familial and professional demands on their schedules. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  16. Medical education in Maharashtra: The student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is hardly any structured study reporting the perspective of medical students, with regard to the medical education system in Maharashtra, which is facing challenges. Aim: A perception study of students was conducted to explore the situation, challenges, and consequent solutions of medical education in Maharashtra. Settings and Design: A descriptive perception study. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was e-mailed to 92 students, and interviews with seven key-informants comprising of faculty, administrators, and policy makers were conducted, to gather qualitative insights. Results: Thirty-seven student replies were received and analyzed. The satisfaction level of student respondents for various factors was as follows: infrastructure 18/37 (48.6%, quality of teaching 14/37 (37.8%, patient population 22/37 (59.5%, and administration 8/37 (21.6%. Ninety-two percent (34/37 of the students stated that the fundamental problem was the inability of the system to attract good, quality teachers. The reasons stated were low salaries, low level of job satisfaction, high level of bureaucracy, and high work load. Conclusions: The medical education system in Maharashtra is viewed as being stagnant. The respondents emphasized an urgent need for educational reforms, which should include better compensation for teachers, sharing of facilities between government and private medical colleges, and improved efficiency of the Medical Council of India. In the long run a public-private mix with sharing of resources may be a plausible solution.

  17. Current Challenges to Teacher Education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen; Rasmussen, Palle

    and other subjects. But the university colleges are not part of the regular university sector, so teacher education is still generally separated from the research-based university tradition. Currently this fact is much debated. Two main types of arguments are being put forward for relocating teacher...... education to universities. One is that it will improve the subject knowledge of teacher and thus enable them to raise the skill levels of Danish students in core subjects. This is deemed necessary in the wake of international comparative surveys of achievement (like the PISA). Another argument is that many......Until recently, teacher education in Denmark for primary and lower secondary school (the Folkeskole) was organised in separate teacher training colleges. During the last ten years two comprehensive reforms of the system of medium cycle higher education have been implemented, first the act...

  18. Current Status of Engineering Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald E.

    Many faculty believe that engineering education in America is at a crossroads and much change is needed. International competition in engineering and the global economy have major potential impact on the engineering workforce of the future. We must find ways to educate U.S. engineers to be competitive and creative contributors in the worldwide arena. Recent national reports are sounding the alarm that the U.S. is losing it leadership in technology and innovation, with consequences for economic prosperity and national security. The report Rising Above the Gathering Storm discusses this dilemma in detail and offers four recommendations to U.S. policymakers. The report Educating the Engineer of 2020 discusses new ways to prepare American engineers for the 21st Century. Furthermore, changes in ABET accreditation, along with new paradigms of teaching and new technology in the classroom, are changing the scholarship of engineering education. We must find ways to promote change in engineering faculty for this new opportunity in engineering educational scholarship. Future engineering students are now in K-12, which is becoming an increasingly diverse population that in the past has not been fully represented in engineering education. Current trends show disaffection for pursuing studies in science and engineering in the youth of our U.S. society. We must find new ways to portray engineering as an exciting and rewarding career, and certainly as an educational platform for professional careers beyond the baccalaureate degree.

  19. Teleconferencing in Medical Education: A Useful Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba Pankaj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Education and healthcare are basic needs for humandevelopment. Technological innovation has broadened theaccess to higher quality healthcare and education withoutregard to time, distance or geopolitical boundaries. Distancelearning has gained popularity as a means of learning inrecent years due to widely distributed learners, busyschedules and rising travel costs. Teleconferencing is also avery useful tool as a distance learning method.Teleconferencing is a real-time and live interactiveprogramme in which one set of participants are at one ormore locations and the other set of participants are atanother. The teleconference allows for interaction,including audio and/or video, and possibly other modalities,between at least two sites. Various methods are availablefor setting up a teleconferencing unit. A detailed review ofthe trend in the use of teleconferencing in medicaleducation was conducted using Medline and a literaturesearch.Teleconferencing was found to be a very useful tool incontinuing medical education (CME, postgraduate medicaleducation, undergraduate medical education,telementoring and many other situations. The use ofteleconferencing in medical education has many advantagesincluding savings in terms of travel costs and time. It givesaccess to the best educational resources and experiencewithout any limitations of boundaries of distance and time.It encourages two-way interactions and facilitates learningin adults. Despite having some pitfalls in its implementationit is now being seen as an important tool in facilitatinglearning in medicine and many medical schools andinstitutions are adapting this novel tool.

  20. Radiation education required for medical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugida, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the present state and problems of radiation education in the training course for health professionals. Firstly, the following are introduced: Revised version of 'Medical education model and core curriculum ? Guidelines for educational contents (FY2010),' and the contents of pre-graduation education of education curriculum at the Department of Radiation Biology and Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health (UOEH). Next, the author describes his educational experience at the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Nursing) of UOEH, and stresses the need for radiation education in order to eliminate the anxiety of nurses against radiation. In addition, he also describes the present state and problems with respect to exposure and radiation risk due to the Fukushima nuclear accident. (A.O.)

  1. Profesional medical library education in the United States in relation to the qualifications of medical library manpower in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A M; Rothenberg, L; Denison, B

    1968-10-01

    THE PRESENT SYSTEM OF EDUCATION FOR MEDICAL LIBRARY PRACTICE IN THE UNITED STATES CONSISTS OF FOUR MAJOR COMPONENTS: graduate degree programs in library science with specialization in medical librarianship; graduate degree programs in library science with no such specialization; postgraduate internships in medical libraries; continuing education programs. Data are presented illustrating the flow of graduates along these several educational pathways into medical library practice.The relevance of these educational components to the current medical library work force is discussed with reference to manpower data compiled for Ohio. The total number of medical library personnel in Ohio in 1968 is 316. Of this total, only forty-two (approximately 14 percent) have received any formal library training. Seventy persons have only a high school education. From these figures, it is concluded that there is no standard or essential qualification which is universally accepted as educational preparation for work in medical libraries; that the comparative sophistication of the educational programs in medical librarianship has yet to be reflected widely in general medical library practice; that an increasingly large number of non-professional or ancillary personnel are being, and will continue to be, utilized in medical libraries; that large numbers of untrained persons have sole responsibility for medical libraries; and that appropriate educational programs will have to be designed specifically for this type of personnel.

  2. Bedside ultrasound education in Canadian medical schools: A national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmetz

    2016-04-01

    Results:  Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1-5 hours/year in 50% of schools, format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools, and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools. The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%, and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. Conclusions: This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada.

  3. Migration of doctors for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, James A; McKinley, Danette W; Boulet, John R

    2007-03-01

    Global shortages of healthcare workers in both developed and developing countries are of great concern. Research on physician migration typically focuses on medical school graduates, most often those seeking postgraduate training opportunities elsewhere. An overview of medical school migration patterns is presented in this paper. To put this phenomenon into the broader context of global physician migration, data is also presented on the distribution of medical schools, physician density, the flow of international medical graduates to the US, and the present composition of the US physician workforce. Results of the study indicate that many individuals leave their home country for undergraduate medical education. Given the movement of students and physicians, both for medical school and for advanced training opportunities, it is evident that some medical schools in the world are training doctors for their home country as well as for the international labor market. Overall, given the internationalization of medical education, collaborative efforts will be needed to develop an adequate, balanced, and well-trained global physician workforce.

  4. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT FOR CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of communication and information technologies lead to the changes in continuing medical education by offering the possibility to move up-to-date medical information through Internet to the physicians. The main goal of this study was to create a virtual space for continuing medical education. In this context, a number of computer-assisted tools for instruction, evaluation and utilization in daily activity have been developed and integrated into a unitary system. The main imposed specifications of the system were accessibility, integrity, availability, and security.This report describes the characteristics of tables design and organization, and of system integration. The security level was imposed for assuring the accessibility of each physician to medical information useful in his or her activity and the knowledge database development.

  5. Teaching Conflict: Professionalism and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, K J

    2015-12-01

    Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma.

  6. Five suggestions for future medical education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Meng, Kwang Ho

    2014-09-01

    This study is to investigate the historical characteristics of medical education and healthcare environment in Korea and to suggest the desirable direction for future medical education. We draw a consensus through the literature analysis and several debates from the eight experts of medical education. There are several historical characteristics of medical education: medical education as vocational education and training, as a higher education, rapid growth of new medical schools, change to the medical education system, curriculum development, reinforcement of medical humanities, improvement of teaching and evaluation methods, validation of the national health personnel licensing examination, accreditation system for quality assurance, and establishment of specialized medical education division. The changes of health care environment in medical education are development of medical technologies, changes in the structures of the population and diseases, growth of information and communication technology, consumer-centered society, and increased intervention by the third party stakeholder. We propose five suggestions to be made to improve future medical education. They are plan for outcome and competency-based medical education, connection between the undergraduate and graduate medical education, reinforcement of continuous quality improvement of medical education, reorganization of the medical education system and construction of leadership of "academic medicine."

  7. Time-variable medical education innovation in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamy CD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Christopher D Stamy,1 Christine C Schwartz,1 Danielle A Phillips,2 Aparna S Ajjarapu,3 Kristi J Ferguson,4,5 Debra A Schwinn6–8 1University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, 2Des Moines University Osteopathic Medical Center, Des Moines, 3University of Iowa, 4Office of Consultation & Research in Medical Education, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 5Department of Internal Medicine, 6Department of Anesthesia, 7Department of Biochemistry, 8Department of Pharmacology, University of Iowa Health Care, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Medical education is undergoing robust curricular reform with several innovative models emerging. In this study, we examined current trends in 3-year Doctor of Medicine (MD education and place these programs in context. Methods: A survey was conducted among Deans of U.S. allopathic medical schools using structured phone interview regarding current availability of a 3-year MD pathway, and/or other variations in curricular innovation, within their institution. Those with 3-year programs answered additional questions. Results: Data from 107 institutions were obtained (75% survey response rate. The most common variation in length of medical education today is the accelerated 3-year pathway. Since 2010, 9 medical schools have introduced parallel 3-year MD programs and another 4 are actively developing such programs. However, the total number of students in 3-year MD tracks remains small (n=199 students, or 0.2% total medical students. Family medicine and general internal medicine are the most common residency programs selected. Benefits of 3-year MD programs generally include reduction in student debt, stability of guaranteed residency positions, and potential for increasing physician numbers in rural/underserved areas. Drawbacks include concern about fatigue/burnout, difficulty in providing guaranteed residency positions, and additional expense in teaching 2 parallel curricula. Four vignettes of

  8. Attrition during graduate medical education: medical school perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B; Hageman, Heather L; Klingensmith, Mary E; McAlister, Rebecca P; Whelan, Alison J

    2008-12-01

    To identify predictors of attrition during graduate medical education (GME) in a single medical school cohort of contemporary US medical school graduates. Retrospective cohort study. Single medical institution. Recent US allopathic medical school graduates. Attrition from initial GME program. Forty-seven of 795 graduates (6%) did not complete the GME in their initial specialty of choice. At bivariate analysis, attrition was associated with election to the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society, being an MD-PhD degree holder, and specialty choice (all P PhD degree holder (odds ratio, 3.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.26; P = .02), election to Alpha Omega Alpha (2.19; 1.04-4.66; P = .04), choice of general surgery for GME (5.32; 1.98-14.27; P < .001), and choice of 5-year surgical specialty including those surgical specialties with a GME training requirement of 5 years or longer (2.74; 1.16-6.44; P = .02) each independently predicted greater likelihood of attrition. Academically highly qualified graduates and graduates who chose training in general surgery or in a 5-year surgical specialty were at increased risk of attrition during GME.

  9. Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate medical programs: a survey of educators and learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, V.C.; Berry, S.; Hsu, T.; North, S.; Neville, A.; Chan, K.; Verma, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The oncology education framework currently in use in Canadian medical training programs is unknown, and the needs of learners have not been fully assessed to determine whether they are adequately prepared to manage patients with cancer. Methods To assess the oncology education framework currently in use at Canadian medical schools and residency training programs for family (fm) and internal medicine (im), and to evaluate opinions about the content and utility of standard oncology education objectives, a Web survey was designed and sent to educators and learners. The survey recipients included undergraduate medical education curriculum committee members (umeccms), directors of fm and im programs, oncologists, medical students, and fm and im residents. Results Survey responses were received from 677 educators and learners. Oncology education was felt to be inadequate in their respective programs by 58% of umeccms, 57% of fm program directors, and 50% of im program directors. For learners, oncology education was thought to be inadequate by 67% of medical students, 86% of fm residents, and 63% of im residents. When comparing teaching of medical subspecialty–related diseases, all groups agreed that their trainees were least prepared to manage patients with cancer. A standard set of oncology objectives was thought to be possibly or definitely useful for undergraduate learners by 59% of respondents overall and by 61% of postgraduate learners. Conclusions Oncology education in Canadian undergraduate and postgraduate fm and im training programs are currently thought to be inadequate by a majority of educators and learners. Developing a standard set of oncology objectives might address the needs of learners. PMID:24523624

  10. Medical education and information and communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshyari, Asefeh Badiey; Bahadorani, Mahnaz; Tootoonchi, Mina; Gardiner, John Jacob Zucker; Peña, Roberto A; Adibi, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has brought many changes in medical education and practice in the last couple of decades. Teaching and learning medicine particularly has gone under profound changes due to computer technologies, and medical schools around the world have invested heavily either in new computer technologies or in the process of adapting to this technological revolution. In order to catch up with the rest of the world, developing countries need to research their options in adapting to new computer technologies. This descriptive survey study was designed to assess medical students' computer and Internet skills and their attitude toward ICT. Research findings showed that the mean score of self-perceived computer knowledge for male students in general was greater than for female students. Also, students who had participated in various prior computer workshops, had access to computer, Internet, and e-mail, and frequently checked their e-mail had higher mean of self-perceived knowledge and skill score. Finally, students with positive attitude toward ICT scored their computer knowledge higher than those who had no opinion. The results have confirmed that the medical schools, particularly in developing countries, need to bring fundamental changes such as curriculum modification in order to integrate ICT into medical education, creating essential infrastructure for ICT use in medical education and practice, and structured computer training for faculty and students.

  11. Beyond accreditation: excellence in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eusang; Ahn, Ducksun

    2014-01-01

    Medical school accreditation is a relatively new phenomenon in Korea. The development of an accreditation body and standards for a two-tiered "Must" and "Should" system in 1997 eventually led to the implementation of a third "Excellence" level of attainment. These standards were conceived out of a desire to be able to first recognize and promote outstanding performance of medical schools, second to provide role models in medical education, and furthermore to preview the third level as potential components of the pre-existing second level for the next accreditation cycle. It is a quality-assurance mechanism that, while not required for accreditation itself, pushes medical schools to go beyond the traditional requirements of mere pass-or-fail accreditation adequacy, and encourages schools to deliver an unprecedented level of medical education. The Association for Medical Education in Europe developed its own third-tier system of evaluation under the ASPIRE project, with many similar goals. Due to its advanced nature and global scope, the Korean accreditation body has decided to implement the ASPIRE system in Korea as well.

  12. Changing Medical School IT to Support Medical Education Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickard, Anderson; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Lomis, Kimberly; Johnson, Kevin; Miller, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many medical schools are modifying curricula to reflect the rapidly evolving health care environment, but schools struggle to provide the educational informatics technology (IT) support to make the necessary changes. Often a medical school's IT support for the education mission derives from isolated work units employing separate technologies that are not interoperable. We launched a redesigned, tightly integrated, and novel IT infrastructure to support a completely revamped curriculum at the Vanderbilt School of Medicine. This system uses coordinated and interoperable technologies to support new instructional methods, capture students' effort, and manage feedback, allowing the monitoring of students' progress toward specific competency goals across settings and programs. The new undergraduate medical education program at Vanderbilt, entitled Curriculum 2.0, is a competency-based curriculum in which the ultimate goal is medical student advancement based on performance outcomes and personal goals rather than a time-based sequence of courses. IT support was essential in the creation of Curriculum 2.0. In addition to typical learning and curriculum management functions, IT was needed to capture data in the learning workflow for analysis, as well as for informing individual and programmatic success. We aligned people, processes, and technology to provide the IT infrastructure for the organizational transformation. Educational IT personnel were successfully realigned to create the new IT system. The IT infrastructure enabled monitoring of student performance within each competency domain across settings and time via personal student electronic portfolios. Students use aggregated performance data, derived in real time from the portfolio, for mentor-guided performance assessment, and for creation of individual learning goals and plans. Poorly performing students were identified earlier through online communication systems that alert the appropriate instructor or coach of

  13. Educational Scholarship and Technology: Resources for a Changing Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Brandon N; Corral, Irma; John, Nadyah Janine; Shelton, P G

    2017-06-01

    Returning to the original emphasis of higher education, universities have increasingly recognized the value and scholarship of teaching, and medical schools have been part of this educational scholarship movement. At the same time, the preferred learning styles of a new generation of medical students and advancements in technology have driven a need to incorporate technology into psychiatry undergraduate medical education (UGME). Educators need to understand how to find, access, and utilize such educational technology. This article provides a brief historical context for the return to education as scholarship, along with a discussion of some of the advantages to this approach, as well as several recent examples. Next, the educational needs of the current generation of medical students, particularly their preference to have technology incorporated into their education, will be discussed. Following this, we briefly review the educational scholarship of two newer approaches to psychiatry UGME that incorporate technology. We also offer the reader some resources for accessing up-to-date educational scholarship for psychiatry UGME, many of which take advantage of technology themselves. We conclude by discussing the need for promotion of educational scholarship.

  14. Medical Education: Entrusting Faith in Bedside Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, patient safety and quality of health care services are the predominant challenges faced by the health care industry. To produce competent doctors it is essential to inculcate skills such as clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning among the medical students. Bedside teaching is a common teaching format in medical education where students are taught in an interactive manner with real patients in hospital wards which help them in acquiring the medical skills and interpersonal behavior necessary for their daily practice as doctors.

  15. Medical ethics and education for social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, M I

    1980-01-01

    The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improve the supply and distribution of doctors. Medical practice in America and throughout the world has become seriously commercialized. In response, governments have applied various strategies to constrain physicians and induce more socially responsible behavior. But such external pressures should not be necessary if a broad socially oriented code of medical ethics were followed. Health care system changes would be most effective, but medical education could be thoroughly recast to clarify community health problems and policies required to meet them. Sigerist proposed such a new medical curriculum in 1941; if it had been introduced, a social code of medical ethics would not now seem utopian. An international conference might well be convened to consider how physicians should be educated to reach the inspiring goals of the World Health Organization.

  16. How to improve medical education website design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Stephen D; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Levine, David

    2010-04-21

    The Internet provides a means of disseminating medical education curricula, allowing institutions to share educational resources. Much of what is published online is poorly planned, does not meet learners' needs, or is out of date. Applying principles of curriculum development, adult learning theory and educational website design may result in improved online educational resources. Key steps in developing and implementing an education website include: 1) Follow established principles of curriculum development; 2) Perform a needs assessment and repeat the needs assessment regularly after curriculum implementation; 3) Include in the needs assessment targeted learners, educators, institutions, and society; 4) Use principles of adult learning and behavioral theory when developing content and website function; 5) Design the website and curriculum to demonstrate educational effectiveness at an individual and programmatic level; 6) Include a mechanism for sustaining website operations and updating content over a long period of time. Interactive, online education programs are effective for medical training, but require planning, implementation, and maintenance that follow established principles of curriculum development, adult learning, and behavioral theory.

  17. Are medical educators following General Medical Council guidelines on obesity education: if not why not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the United Kingdom’s (UK’s) General Medical Council (GMC) recommends that graduating medical students are competent to discuss obesity and behaviour change with patients, it is difficult to integrate this education into existing curricula, and clinicians report being unprepared to support patients needing obesity management in practice. We therefore aimed to identify factors influencing the integration of obesity management education within medical schools. Methods Twenty-seven UK and Irish medical school educators participated in semi-structured interviews. Grounded theory principles informed data collection and analysis. Themes emerging directly from the dataset illustrated key challenges for educators and informed several suggested solutions. Results Factors influencing obesity management education included: 1) Diverse and opportunistic learning and teaching, 2) Variable support for including obesity education within undergraduate medical programmes, and 3) Student engagement in obesity management education. Findings suggest several practical solutions to identified challenges including clarifying recommended educational agendas; improving access to content-specific guidelines; and implementing student engagement strategies. Conclusions Students’ educational experiences differ due to diverse interpretations of GMC guidelines, educators’ perceptions of available support for, and student interest in obesity management education. Findings inform the development of potential solutions to these challenges which may be tested further empirically. PMID:23578257

  18. Medical Education and Leadership in Breastfeeding Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Scott; Bell, Esther

    2017-10-01

    Physicians' experience with high quality training in breastfeeding during their medical education is historically varied. The process of becoming a board-certified physician entails more than 20 years of education, and although medical school and residency training timelines and courses are relatively standardized across the United States and even internationally, breastfeeding education varies greatly across schools and programs. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM) exists, in part, because historically, physicians have received too little clinical training in breastfeeding and infant nutrition. An overarching goal of ABM, which is a multispecialty organization of doctors around the world, is to educate all maternal-child healthcare professionals, not just physicians, about breastfeeding. Within the field of medicine, family doctors, pediatricians, and obstetrician/gynecologists are considered the most logical source of breastfeeding expertise. However, the need for breastfeeding education goes beyond those providers who have obvious interactions with mothers and babies. We must educate anesthesiologists, surgeons, internists, and psychiatrists, among others. Building pipelines of physicians who are well educated in breastfeeding medicine allows more effective collaboration and care of mothers and infants among providers in various medical and surgical specialties as well as between doctors and other healthcare providers. This evidence-based education needs to be multifaceted, with didactic curricula for a strong knowledge base complemented by clinical experiences for skill development and application. Clinical knowledge and skills can also be reinforced during nonclinical opportunities in teaching, research, advocacy, and professional development. In this article, we describe a foundational framework for physician education in breastfeeding medicine as well as several creative noncurricular opportunities to develop breastfeeding expertise in future

  19. Teaching Critical Thinking in Graduate Medical Education: Lessons Learned in Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Benjamin; Heilbrun, Marta E

    2017-01-01

    The 2014 Institute of Medicine report, Graduate Medical Education that Meets the Nation's Health Needs , challenged the current graduate medical training process and encouraged new opportunities to redefine the fundamental skills and abilities of the physician workforce. This workforce should be skilled in critically evaluating the current systems to improve care delivery and health. To meet these goals, current challenges, motivations, and educational models at the medical school and graduate medical education levels related to formal training in nonclinical aspects of medicine, especially critical thinking, are reviewed. Our diagnostic radiology training program is presented as a "case study" to frame the review.

  20. The essential role of medical ethics education in achieving professionalism: the Romanell Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrese, Joseph A; Malek, Janet; Watson, Katie; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Green, Michael J; McCullough, Laurence B; Geller, Gail; Braddock, Clarence H; Doukas, David J

    2015-06-01

    This article-the Romanell Report-offers an analysis of the current state of medical ethics education in the United States, focusing in particular on its essential role in cultivating professionalism among medical learners. Education in ethics has become an integral part of medical education and training over the past three decades and has received particular attention in recent years because of the increasing emphasis placed on professional formation by accrediting bodies such as the Liaison Committee on Medical Education and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Yet, despite the development of standards, milestones, and competencies related to professionalism, there is no consensus about the specific goals of medical ethics education, the essential knowledge and skills expected of learners, the best pedagogical methods and processes for implementation, and optimal strategies for assessment. Moreover, the quality, extent, and focus of medical ethics instruction vary, particularly at the graduate medical education level. Although variation in methods of instruction and assessment may be appropriate, ultimately medical ethics education must address the overarching articulated expectations of the major accrediting organizations. With the aim of aiding medical ethics educators in meeting these expectations, the Romanell Report describes current practices in ethics education and offers guidance in several areas: educational goals and objectives, teaching methods, assessment strategies, and other challenges and opportunities (including course structure and faculty development). The report concludes by proposing an agenda for future research.

  1. Big data in medical informatics: improving education through visual analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitsis, Christos; Nilsson, Gunnar; Zary, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    A continuous effort to improve healthcare education today is currently driven from the need to create competent health professionals able to meet healthcare demands. Limited research reporting how educational data manipulation can help in healthcare education improvement. The emerging research field of visual analytics has the advantage to combine big data analysis and manipulation techniques, information and knowledge representation, and human cognitive strength to perceive and recognise visual patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to explore novel ways of representing curriculum and educational data using visual analytics. Three approaches of visualization and representation of educational data were presented. Five competencies at undergraduate medical program level addressed in courses were identified to inaccurately correspond to higher education board competencies. Different visual representations seem to have a potential in impacting on the ability to perceive entities and connections in the curriculum data.

  2. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari A. Whicker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods: We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results: MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion: The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape.

  3. Leadership lessons from military education for postgraduate medical curricular improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, Alice; Adamshick, Mark; Fanning, Ruth; Piro, Nancy

    2010-03-01

    quality medical education includes both teaching and learning of data-driven knowledge, and appropriate technical skills and tacit behaviours, such as effective communication and professional leadership. But these implicit behaviours are not readily adaptable to traditional medical curriculum models. This manuscript explores a medical leadership curriculum informed by military education. our paediatric anaesthesia residents expressed a strong desire for more leadership opportunity within the training programme. Upon exploration, current health care models for leadership training were limited to short didactic presentations or lengthy certificate programmes. We could not find an appropriate model for our 1-year fellowship. in collaboration with the US Naval Academy, we modified the 'Leadership Education and Development Program' curriculum to introduce daily and graduated leadership opportunities: starting with low-risk decision-making tasks and progressing to independent professional decision making and leadership. Each resident who opted into the programme had a 3-month role as team leader and spent 9 months as a team member. At the end of the first year of this curriculum both quantitative assessment and qualitative reflection from residents and faculty members noted significantly improved clinical and administrative decision making. The second-year residents' performance showed further improvement. medical education has long emphasised subject-matter knowledge as a prime focus. However, in competency-based medical education, new curriculum models are needed. Many helpful models can be found in other professional fields. Collaborations between professional educators benefit the students, who are learning these new skills, the medical educators, who work jointly with other professionals, and the original curriculum designer, who has an opportunity to reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of his or her model. Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  4. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2015-08-13

    This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated.

  5. Medical Terminology: Prefixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (prefixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to prefixes, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. Each learning experience contains an…

  6. Medical Terminology: Suffixes. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (suffixes) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and three learning experiences. The first two learning…

  7. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  8. CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION: CLOSING THE GAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    ABSTRACT. Continuing medical education (CME) has long been recognized as the key to updating and maintaining the knowledge and skill of health professionals.CME activities are well advocated, accepted and regulated in the developed world with sanctions for non-participation. In developing countries, including West ...

  9. Learning Styles and Continuing Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Curtis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Gregorc Style Delineator--Word Matrix was administered to 2,060 physicians in order to gain a better understanding of their participation in continuing medical education. The study showed that 63 percent preferred the concrete sequential learning style. Different style preferences may account for some of the apparent disparity between…

  10. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  11. Preclinical Medical Student Hematology/Oncology Education Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberg, Marc S; Broudy, Virginia C; Bengtson, Elizabeth M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2015-12-01

    To better prepare medical students to care for patients in today's changing health-care environment as they transition to continuing their education as residents, many US medical schools have been reviewing and modifying their curricula and are considering integration of newer adult learning techniques, including team-based learning, flipped classrooms, and other active learning approaches (Assoc Am Med Coll. 2014). Directors of hematology/oncology (H/O) courses requested an assessment of today's H/O education environment to help them respond to the ongoing changes in the education content and environment that will be necessary to meet this goal. Several recommendations for the improvement of cancer education resulted from American Association for Cancer Education's (ACCE's) "Cancer Education Survey II" including a call for medical schools to evaluate the effectiveness of current teaching methods in achieving cancer education objectives (Chamberlain et al. J Cancer Educ 7(2):105-114.2014). To understand the current environment and resources used in medical student preclinical H/O courses, an Internet-based, Survey Monkey®-formatted, questionnaire focusing on nine topic areas was distributed to 130 United States Hematology/Oncology Course Directors (HOCDs). HOCDs represent a diverse group of individuals who work in variably supportive environments and who are variably satisfied with their position. Several aspects of these courses remain relatively unchanged from previous assessments, including a predominance of traditional lectures, small group sessions, and examinations that are either written or computer-based. Newer technology, including web-based reproduction of lectures, virtual microscopes, and availability of additional web-based content has been introduced into these courses. A variety of learner evaluation and course assessment approaches are used. The ultimate effectiveness and impact of these changes needs to be determined.

  12. Sociology in American medical education since the 1960s: the rhetoric or reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegar, K

    1992-10-01

    Despite recommendations by medical reformers that medical sociology be included in the curriculum, there is currently little evidence of a far-reaching integration of sociological perspectives in American medical education. Yet, support for the relevance of sociological knowledge has since the late 1960s helped to diffuse external pressures for change in health care and medical education. As a symbol of the communitarian commitment of the medical profession, claims in favor of the incorporation of sociological perspectives have thus occasionally, and largely unintentionally, served the public relations interests of biomedicine. However, the more recent interest in medical ethics has to some degree transformed medicine's educational agenda and the definition of medical 'human values'. Whereas the rhetorical expropriation of medical sociology primarily has concerned medicine's responsibility vis-à-vis society as a whole, the new medical ethics education signifies a return to a more individualistically oriented medical morality.

  13. [The beginning of western medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C D

    1992-01-01

    Our country had quite an advanced system of medical education during the era of the Koryo Kingdom, and during the Choson Dynasty, the Kyong Guk Dae Jon, in which a systematized medical education was clearly described, was compiled in the era of King Sejong. However, the educational system was not for Western medicine. Western medicine was first introduced to our country in the 9th year of King Injo (1631) when Chong Du Won, Yi Yong Jun, etc. returned from Yon Gyong (Beiuin) with Chik Bang Oe Gi. Knowledge of Western medicine was disseminated by Shil Hak (practical learning) scholars who read a translation in Chinese characters, of Chik Bang Oe Gi. Yi Ik (Song Ho), Yi Gyu Gyong (O ju), Choe Han Gi (Hye Gang), Chong Yak Yong (Ta San), etc., read books of Western medicine and introduced in writing the excellent theory of Western medicine. In addition, Yu Hyong Won (Pan Gye), Pak Ji Won (Yon Am), Pak Je Ga (Cho Jong), etc., showed much interest in Western medicine, but no writings by them about western medicine can be found. With the establishment of a treaty of amity with Japan in the 13th year of King Kojong (1876), followed by the succession of amity treaties with Western powers, foreigners including medical doctors were permitted to flow into this country. At that time, doctors Horace N. Allen, W. B. Scranton, John W. Heron, Rosetta Sherwood (Rosetta S. Hall), etc., came to Korea and inaugurated hospitals, where they taught Western medicine to Korean students. Dr. Horace N. Allen, with the permission of king Kojong, established Che Jung Won in April 1885, and in March 1886, he began at the hospital to provide education of Western medicine to Korean students who were recrutied by the Korean Government. However, the education was not conduted on a regular basis, only training them for work as assistants. This is considered to be the pioneer case of Western medical education in this country. Before that time, Japanese medical doctors came to Korea, but there are no

  14. PRESENT STATUS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION IN POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELZER, A

    1965-04-01

    In the past few years medical education in Poland has undergone considerable change, particularly at the graduate and postgraduate levels, and has shown increasing Western influences. On the negative side, a physician who was trained in pre-war Poland and is now in the United States, noted mass production of physicians with modest clinical facilities and the preponderance of didactic lecturing over semi-individual instruction-conditions rather characteristic of most European medical schools. On the positive side were well-informed, up-to-date faculties and the thoughtful planning and organization of graduate and postgraduate medical education. The overall impression was a favorable one, but the system of schooling and of evaluation of students' work made it possible for indifferent students to progress to licensure.

  15. Mobile technology use in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luanrattana, Rattiporn; Win, Khin Than; Fulcher, John; Iverson, Don

    2012-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the PDA functionalities for a problem-based learning (PBL) medical curriculum at the Graduate School of Medicine (GSM), the University of Wollongong (UOW). The study determines the factors/aspects of incorporating PDAs, and the attitudes of stakeholders regarding the use of PDAs in such a PBL-based medical curriculum. In-depth interviews were designed and conducted with medical faculty, the medical education technology team and honorary medical academics. Four major PDA functionalities were identified, these being: clinical-log, reference, communication, and general functions. Two major aspects for the incorporation of PDAs into the PBL-medical curriculum at the UOW were determined from the interviews, these being technical and practical aspects. There is a potential for PDAs to be incorporated into the PBL-medical curricula at the UOW. However, a clear strategy needs to be defined as to how best to incorporate PDAs into PBL-medical curricula with minimal impact on students, as well as financial and resource implications for the GSM.

  16. Current and future medical treatments for patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffezzoni, Filippo; Formenti, Anna Maria; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Frara, Stefano; Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Acromegaly is a relatively rare condition of growth hormone (GH) excess associated with significant morbidity and, when left untreated, high mortality. Therapy for acromegaly is targeted at decreasing GH and insulin-like growth hormone 1 levels, ameliorating patients' symptoms and decreasing any local compressive effects of the pituitary adenoma. The therapeutic options for acromegaly include surgery, medical therapies (such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor ligands and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant) and radiotherapy. However, despite all these treatments option, approximately 50% of patients are not adequately controlled. In this paper, the authors discuss: 1) efficacy and safety of current medical therapy 2) the efficacy and safety of the new multireceptor-targeted somatostatin ligand pasireotide 3) medical treatments currently under clinical investigation (oral octreotide, ITF2984, ATL1103), and 4) preliminary data on the use of new injectable and transdermal/transmucosal formulations of octreotide. This expert opinion supports the need for new therapeutic agents and modalities for patients with acromegaly.

  17. How to Use Current Medical Literature and APA Format Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Robin

    Directives and guidance in obtaining current medical literature are provided in this publication with special emphasis given to locating material in the Portland, Oregon area. The uses and types of periodical indexes are identified and periodical index citation examples are indicated. Explanations are offered on: (1) how to conduct an effective…

  18. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  19. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, J Azorin

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting

  20. Research in medical education: balancing service and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education.

  1. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolyniak MJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Wolyniak,1 Lynne T Bemis,2 Amy J Prunuske2 1Department of Biology, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney, VA, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. Keywords: genetics education, medical genetics, pedagogical practice, active learning, problem-based learning

  2. Creating a medical education enterprise: leveling the playing fields of medical education vs. medical science research within core missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Ligon, B Lee; Singhal, Geeta; Schutze, Gordon E; Turner, Teri L

    2017-01-01

    Unlike publications of medical science research that are more readily rewarded, clinician-educators' scholarly achievements are more nebulous and under-recognized. Create an education enterprise that empowers clinician-educators to engage in a broad range of scholarly activities and produce educational scholarship using strategic approaches to level the playing fields within an organization. The authors analyzed the advantages and disadvantages experienced by medical science researchers vs. clinician educators using Bolman and Deal's (B&D) four frames of organization (structural, human resource, political, symbolic). The authors then identified organizational approaches and activities that align with each B&D frame and proposed practical strategies to empower clinician-educators in their scholarly endeavors. Our medical education enterprise enhanced the structural frame by creating a decentralized medical education unit, incorporated the human resource component with an endowed chair to support faculty development, leveraged the political model by providing grant supports and expanding venues for scholarship, and enhanced the symbolic frame by endorsing the value of education and public recognition from leaderships. In five years, we saw an increased number of faculty interested in becoming clinician-educators, had an increased number of faculty winning Educational Awards for Excellence and delivering conference presentations, and received 12 of the 15 college-wide awards for educational scholarship. These satisfactory trends reflect early success of our educational enterprise. B&D's organizational frames can be used to identify strategies for addressing the pressing need to promote and recognize clinician-educators' scholarship. We realize that our situation is unique in several respects, but this approach is flexible within an institution and transferable to any other institution and its medical education program. B&D: Bolman and Deal; CRIS: Center for Research

  3. Interprofessional education in the integrated medical education and health care system: A content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHBOOBEH KHABAZ MAFINEJAD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current literature supports the inclusion of inter-professional education in healthcare education. Changes in the structure and nature of the integrated medical education and healthcare system provide some opportunities for interprofessional education among various professions. This study is an attempt to determine the perceptions of students and faculty members about interprofessional education in the context of the medical education and healthcare system. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was conducted using purposeful sampling in 2012. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 faculty members and 7 students at Tehran and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. Results: Data analysis revealed four categories and nine subcategories. The categories emerging from individual interviews were “educational structure”, “mediating factors”, “conceptual understanding”, and “professional identity”. These categories are explained using quotes derived from the data. Conclusion: Matching the existing educational context and structure with IPE through removing barriers and planning to prepare the required resources and facilities can solve numerous problems associated with implementation and design of interprofessional training programs in Iran. In this way, promoting the development of a cooperative rather than a competitive learning and working atmosphere should be taken into account. The present findings will assist the managers and policy makers to consider IPE as a useful strategy in the integrated medical education and healthcare system.

  4. Restructuring education and its impact on medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos, L F

    1990-04-01

    The United States has an education deficit that in the long term may be more harmful to the country than the serious budget and trade deficits. U.S. students are far less prepared in mathematics, chemistry, and physics than are their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan. The dropout rate among high school students, and the high and increasing rate of functional illiteracy, blight lives and represent an enormous economic loss to the nation. American education must be restructured at all levels so that local and federal funds can be used flexibly to pursue revised educational goals. Students and their families should be allowed to choose their elementary and secondary schools, and school management should be decentralized and more rooted in the community. The medical profession must become involved in elementary and secondary education, and medical faculty must be involved in their communities. Further, medical faculty must encourage minority students at all educational levels, must recruit minority medical students, and must increase the number of minority faculty members.

  5. Mental health among currently enrolled medical students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wege, N; Muth, T; Li, J; Angerer, P

    2016-03-01

    The study identifies the prevalence of common mental disorders according to the patient health questionnaire (PHQ) and the use of psychotropic substances in a sample of currently enrolled medical students. A cross-sectional survey with a self-administrated questionnaire. All newly enrolled medical students at the University of Dusseldorf, with study beginning either in 2012 or 2013, respectively, were invited to participate. The evaluation was based on 590 completed questionnaires. Mental health outcomes were measured by the PHQ, including major depression, other depressive symptoms (subthreshold depression), anxiety, panic disorders and psychosomatic complaints. Moreover, information about psychotropic substances use (including medication) was obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between sociodemographic and socio-economic factors and mental health outcomes. The prevalence rates, measured by the PHQ, were 4.7% for major depression, 5.8% for other depressive symptoms, 4.4% for anxiety, 1.9% for panic disorders, and 15.7% for psychosomatic complaints. These prevalence rates were higher than those reported in the general population, but lower than in medical students in the course of medical training. In all, 10.7% of the students reported regular psychotropic substance use: 5.1% of students used medication 'to calm down,' 4.6% 'to improve their sleep,' 4.4% 'to elevate mood,' and 3.1% 'to improve cognitive performance.' In the fully adjusted model, expected financial difficulties were significantly associated with poor mental health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-3.48), psychosomatic symptoms (OR:1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.09) and psychotropic substances use (OR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.51-4.75). The high rates of mental disorders among currently enrolled medical students call for the promotion of mental health, with a special emphasis on vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public

  6. Ethics of cost analyses in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2013-11-01

    Cost analyses in medical education are rarely straightforward, and rarely lead to clear-cut conclusions. Occasionally they do lead to clear conclusions but even when that happens, some stakeholders will ask difficult but valid questions about what to do following cost analyses-specifically about distributive justice in the allocation of resources. At present there are few or no debates about these issues and rationing decisions that are taken in medical education are largely made subconsciously. Distributive justice 'concerns the nature of a socially just allocation of goods in a society'. Inevitably there is a large degree of subjectivity in the judgment as to whether an allocation is seen as socially just or ethical. There are different principles by which we can view distributive justice and which therefore affect the prism of subjectivity through which we see certain problems. For example, we might say that distributive justice at a certain institution or in a certain medical education system operates according to the principle that resources must be divided equally amongst learners. Another system may say that resources should be distributed according to the needs of learners or even of patients. No ethical system or model is inherently right or wrong, they depend on the context in which the educator is working.

  7. Sexuality education in Brazilian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Andrea Cronemberger; Madeiro, Alberto; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello

    2014-05-01

    Sexuality education has been valued since the 1960s in medical schools worldwide. Although recent studies reaffirm the importance of incorporating sexuality into medical education, there are data gaps concerning how this happens in Brazil. To understand how Brazilian medical school professors teach sexuality in undergraduate courses. An exploratory, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. A total of 207 professors from 110 Brazilian medical schools responded to an online semistructured questionnaire about the characteristics of the sexuality-related topics offered. The main variables assessed were contact hours devoted to sexuality, disciplines in which sexuality topics were taught, sexuality-related course titles, and sexuality-related topics addressed. Questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics for frequency distribution. The response rate to the questionnaire was 77.2%. Almost all professors (96.3%) addressed sexuality-related topics mainly in the third and fourth years as clinical disciplines, with a 6-hour load per discipline. Gynecology was the discipline in which sexuality-related topics were most often taught (51.5%), followed by urology (18%) and psychiatry (15%). Sexuality-related topics were addressed mainly in classes on sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS (62.4%) and on the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system (55.4%). About 25% of the professors reported teaching courses with a sexuality-related title. There was emphasis on the impact of diseases and sexual habits (87.9%) and sexual dysfunction (75.9%). Less than 50% of professors addressed nonnormative sexuality or social aspects of sexuality. The teaching of sexuality in Brazilian medical schools occurred in a nonstandardized and fragmented fashion across several disciplines. The topic was incorporated with an organic and pathological bias, with a weak emphasis on the social aspects of sexuality and the variety of human sexual behaviors. The

  8. Educational theory and medical education practice: a cautionary note for medical school faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A

    2002-12-01

    Educational theory is routinely cited as justification for practice in medical education, even though the justification for the theory itself is unclear. Problem-based learning (PBL), for example, is said to be based on powerful educational principles that should result in strong effects on learning and performance. But research over the past 20 years has produced little convincing evidence for the educational effectiveness of PBL, which naturally raises doubts about the underlying theory. This essay reflects on educational theory, in particular cognitive theory, and concludes that the theory is little more than metaphor, not rigorous, tested, confirmed scientific theory. This metaphor/theory may lead to ideas for basic and applied research, which in turn may facilitate the development of theory. In the meantime, however, the theory cannot be trusted to determine practice in medical education. Despite the intuitive appeal of educational theory, medical educators have a responsibility to set aside their enthusiasm and make it clear to medical school faculty and administrators that educational innovations and practice claims are, at best, founded on conjecture, not on evidence-based science.

  9. Research-oriented medical education for graduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Madhav G

    2013-01-01

    In most parts of the world, medical education is predominantly geared to create service personnel for medical and health services. Training in research is ignored, which is a major handicap for students who are motivated to do research. The main objective of this study was to develop, for such students, a cost-effective 'in-study' research training module that could be adopted even by medical colleges, which have a modest research infrastructure, in different regions of India. Short-duration workshops on the clinical and laboratory medicine research methods including clinical protocol development were held in different parts of India to facilitate participation of students from various regions. Nine workshops covering the entire country were conducted between July 2010 and December 2011. Participation was voluntary and by invitation only to the recipients of the Indian Council of Medical Research-Short-term Studentship programme (ICMR- STS), which was taken as an index of students' research motivation. Faculty was drawn from the medical institutions in the region. All expenses on students, including their travel, and that of the faculty were borne by the academy. Impact of the workshop was judged by the performance of the participants in pre- and post-workshop tests with multiple-choice questions (MCQs) containing the same set of questions. There was no negative marking. Anonymous student feedback was obtained using a questionnaire. Forty-one per cent of the 1009 invited students attended the workshops. These workshops had a positive impact on the participants. Only 20% students could pass and just 2.3% scored >80% marks in the pre-workshop test. There was a three-fold increase in the pass percentage and over 20% of the participants scored >80% marks (A grade) in the post-workshop test. The difference between the pre- and post- workshop performance was statistically significant at all the centres. In the feedback from participants, the workshop received an average

  10. Leveraging e-learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Cidon, Michal J; Seto, Teresa L; Chen, Haiqin; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    e-Learning has become a popular medium for delivering instruction in medical education. This innovative method of teaching offers unique learning opportunities for medical trainees. The purpose of this article is to define the present state of e-learning in pediatrics and how to best leverage e-learning for educational effectiveness and change in medical education. Through addressing under-examined and neglected areas in implementation strategies for e-learning, its usefulness in medical education can be expanded. This study used a systematic database review of published studies in the field of e-learning in pediatric training between 2003 and 2013. The search was conducted using educational and health databases: Scopus, ERIC, PubMed, and search engines Google and Hakia. A total of 72 reference articles were suitable for analysis. This review is supplemented by the use of "e-Learning Design Screening Questions" to define e-learning design and development in 10 randomly selected articles. Data analysis used template-based coding themes and counting of the categories using descriptive statistics.Our search for pediatric e-learning (using Google and Hakia) resulted in six well-defined resources designed to support the professional development of doctors, residents, and medical students. The majority of studies focused on instructional effectiveness and satisfaction. There were few studies about e-learning development, implementation, and needs assessments used to identify the institutional and learners' needs. Reviewed studies used various study designs, measurement tools, instructional time, and materials for e-learning interventions. e-Learning is a viable solution for medical educators faced with many challenges, including (1) promoting self-directed learning, (2) providing flexible learning opportunities that would offer continuous (24h/day/7 days a week) availability for learners, and (3) engaging learners through collaborative learning communities to gain

  11. Medical Students’ and Interns’ Attitudes toward Medical Ethics Education in a Thai Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakda Sathirareuangchai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical ethics has been accepted as part of every accredited medical curriculum for the past 40 years. Medical students’ attitudes have an important role for development and improvement of the curriculum. Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital is the oldest and largest medical school in Thailand, and has been teaching medical ethics since 1907. Objective: To determine attitudes among medical students and interns toward medical ethics education and understand the factors influencing their attitudes. Methods: Mixed quantitative and qualitative research was conducted with early 6th year medical students and interns. A questionnaire was adapted from previous studies and included some original items. Results: Of the 550 questionnaires distributed, 386 were returned (70.2% response rate. Males (n=180 made up 46.63 % of the sample. Interns (n=219, 56.74 % tended to have more positive attitudes toward ethics learning than did medical students (n = 167, 43.26 %. Male participants tended to agree more with negative statements about ethics learning than did females. There was no statistically significant effect of hometown (Bangkok versus elsewhere or grade point average on attitudes. The main problem cited with medical ethics education was lack of engaging methods. Conclusion: Because clinical experience has an effect on learners’ attitudes towards ethics education, medical ethics should be taught at the appropriate time and with proper techniques, such as drawing explicit ties between ethical principles and real-life situations. Attention to the more detailed aspects of these data should also facilitate improvements to curriculum content, thereby ensuring better educational outcomes.

  12. German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groeters, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    "German General Staff Officer Education and Current Challenges" examines the institutional education of German General Staff Officers, as experienced by the author, and offers a "Conceptual Competency...

  13. Continuing medical education in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, B.; Barillot, I.; Denis, F.; Cailleux, P.E.; Ardiet, J.M.; Mornex, F.

    2012-01-01

    In France, continuing medical education (CME) and professional practice evaluation (PPE) became mandatory by law in July 2009 for all health professionals. Recently published decrees led to the creation of national specialty councils to implement this organizational device. For radiation oncology, this council includes the French Society for Radiation Oncology (SFRO), the National Radiation Oncology Syndicate (SNRO) and the Association for Continuing Medical Education in Radiation Oncology (AFCOR). The Radiation Oncology National Council will propose a set of programs including CME and PPE, professional thesaurus, labels for CME actions consistent with national requirements, and will organize expertise for public instances. AFCOR remains the primary for CME, but each practitioner can freely choose an organisation for CME, provided that it is certified by the independent scientific commission. The National Order for physicians is the control authority. Radiation oncology has already a strong tradition of independent CME that will continue through this major reform. (authors)

  14. Public health has no place in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A

    1994-12-01

    It is time to review the reasons for including public health in medical education. Undergraduate medical students are interested above all in the diagnosis and treatment of individual cases of disease; population-based health care means little to most students, and is seldom regarded as important. Should public health teachers concentrate their efforts in other areas, where students are more receptive? This paper presents arguments for and against the proposition that public health has no place in the undergraduate medical course. In favour of the proposition, it is argued that the clinical imperative is so firmly entrenched in the minds of students and in the cultures of medical schools that public health will always be diminished and elbowed to one side in medical curricula. Moreover, the major gains in the health of populations will be won in other arenas. Therefore public health should rupture the links with medical schools that were formed in another age and, in any event, are now weakening as public health strikes a new identity. The effort that currently goes into teaching unwilling medical students would have better returns if it was invested elsewhere. Against the proposition, it is argued that the health of populations will not be improved without participation of all groups with an interest in and an influence on health care. No group is more influential in the organization and delivery of health services than the medical profession, so it would be foolish for public health to withdraw from medical education. Moreover, effective medical practice requires an ability to think in terms of populations as well as individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Group processes in medical education: learning from social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Bryan

    2012-02-01

    The clinical workplace in which doctors learn involves many social groups, including representatives of different professions, clinical specialties and workplace teams. This paper suggests that medical education research does not currently take full account of the effects of group membership, and describes a theoretical approach from social psychology, the social identity approach, which allows those effects to be explored. The social identity approach has a long history in social psychology and provides an integrated account of group processes, from the adoption of group identity through a process of self-categorisation, to the biases and conflicts between groups. This paper outlines key elements of this theoretical approach and illustrates their relevance to medical education. The relevance of the social identity approach is illustrated with reference to a number of areas of medical education. The paper shows how research questions in medical education may be usefully reframed in terms of social identity in ways that allow a deeper exploration of the psychological processes involved. Professional identity and professionalism may be viewed in terms of self-categorisation rather than simply attainment; the salience of different identities may be considered as influences on teamwork and interprofessional learning, and issues in communication and assessment may be considered in terms of intergroup biases. Social identity theory provides a powerful framework with which to consider many areas of medical education. It allows disparate influences on, and consequences of, group membership to be considered as part of an integrated system, and allows assumptions, such as about the nature of professional identity and interprofessional tensions, to be made explicit in the design of research studies. This power to question assumptions and develop deeper and more meaningful research questions may be increasingly relevant as the nature and role of the medical profession change

  16. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar expe­rience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of pub­lished research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tena...

  17. [Significance of the doctorate in scientific medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    According to European and German law, the medical education of physicians must take place in a scientific degree program at a university or under the supervision of a university. To keep up the ideal of a scientific degree program, various organizations and associations, such as the German Research Foundation, the German Council of Science and Humanities and the German Medical Faculty Association, see the need for an even stronger anchoring of academic learning content in the course of study. Traditionally, a scientific project, which is carried out during the studies, provides the basis for the Doctor of Medicine (Dr. med.) after graduation, although the research projects as a basis for medical degrees are currently not obligatory parts of the curricula. The number of medical students performing such research projects is significantly decreasing, thus they are missing major skills for working in science. To counteract these developments, faculties of medicine are currently developing model curricula including deepened scientific education. Despite these efforts, the German Association of Faculties of Medicine argues that the performance of research projects leading to the doctoral degree is most suitable for obtaining expertise in scientific work. According to recommendations by the German Council of Science on the requirements for quality assurance of graduation doctoral degree programs have been introduced. This and further measures, like MD/PhD programs or research-based additional study programs serving the scientific qualification of medical students, are the subject of this article.

  18. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, W M; Zanting, A; van Beukelen, P; de Grave, W; Baane, J A; Bustraan, J A; Engbers, R; Fick, Th E; Jacobs, J C G; Vervoorn, J M

    2009-05-01

    The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Because medical education takes a special position in higher education the Council of Deans of Medical Schools in The Netherlands installed a national task force to explore a method to weigh criteria for teacher qualifications of medical teachers. A framework was developed covering competencies of teachers throughout the medical education continuum and including medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine. The framework distinguishes 3 dimensions: (a) six domains of teaching (development - organization - execution - coaching - assessment - evaluation); (b) three levels in the organization at which teachers perform (micro, meso and macro level) and (c) competencies as integration of knowledge, skills and attitude and described as behaviour in specific context. The current framework is the result of several cycles of descriptions, feedback from the field and adaptations. It is meant as a guideline, leaving room for local detailing. The framework provides a common language that may be used not only by teachers and teacher trainers, but also by quality assurance committees, human resource managers and institutional boards.

  19. Key Aspects of Current Educational Reforms in Islamic Educational Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hashim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the premise that Islamic education plays a significant role in producing an integrated personality of young generation in order to fulfil the needs of present society. This study is important to address the key educational changes in pedagogy, curricular and teaching approach that relate directly to the effectiveness of the implementation of Islamic Education in Islamic schools. Questions raised in this writing is whether and how Muslim schools have transformed to meet the changes and challenges of the globalizing world and what should be done to ensure Islamic schools meet current needs. Thus, it argues that there is a need for reform in contemporary Islamic schools with particular reference to the changes in the curriculum, teaching style, role of Islamic schools and gender participation. The paper considers the possibility of integrating new perspectives across the curriculum and outlines the integrated approach to ensure the quality and excellence of their graduates.

  20. Global Trend In The Qualifications Of Medical Educators | Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NPMCN) or its equivalents is the highest educational and professional qualification of clinical Medical Educators in Nigeria while PhD is the acceptable highest qualification for their basic medical sciences counterparts. This had been the status ...

  1. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Computer science education for medical informaticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Judith R; Price, Susan L

    2004-03-18

    The core curriculum in the education of medical informaticians remains a topic of concern and discussion. This paper reports on a survey of medical informaticians with Master's level credentials that asked about computer science (CS) topics or skills that they need in their employment. All subjects were graduates or "near-graduates" of a single medical informatics Master's program that they entered with widely varying educational backgrounds. The survey instrument was validated for face and content validity prior to use. All survey items were rated as having some degree of importance in the work of these professionals, with retrieval and analysis of data from databases, database design and web technologies deemed most important. Least important were networking skills and object-oriented design and concepts. These results are consistent with other work done in the field and suggest that strong emphasis on technical skills, particularly databases, data analysis, web technologies, computer programming and general computer science are part of the core curriculum for medical informatics.

  3. Metaphysics and medical education: taking holism seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Medical education is now suffused with concepts that have their source outside the traditional scientific and medical disciplines: concepts such as holism, connectedness and reflective practice. Teaching of these, and other problematic concepts such as medical uncertainty and error, has been defined more by the challenge they pose to the standard model rather than being informed by a strong positive understanding. This challenge typically involves a critical engagement with the idea of objectivity, which is rarely acknowledged as an inherently metaphysical critique. Consequently, these ideas prove to be difficult to teach well. I suggest that the lack of an integrating, positive narrative is the reason for teaching difficulty, and propose that what is needed is an explicit commitment to teach the metaphysics of medicine, with the concept of holism being the fulcrum on which the remaining concepts turn. An acknowledged metaphysical narrative will encompass the scientific realism that medical students typically bring to their tertiary education, and at the same time enable a bigger picture to be drawn that puts the newer and more problematic concepts into context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Medical education in India: time to make some changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, T; Honhar, M; Jolly, G P; Abraham, J; T, Jayakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    India is in need of well-trained doctors. We highlight and analyse some of the problems affecting medical education in India and their possible solutions. The medical education system can be reviewed under four heads: selection of students, medical training, evaluation, and the development and accreditation of faculty. In India, students enter medical colleges without receiving sufficient orientation about the profession. If students were given some exposure to various professions in the final years of school, it would help address this issue. Medical students are selected on the basis of pre-medical tests consisting of multiple-choice questions, the validity of which is being questioned increasingly. There is no coordination between the scheduling of lectures on various diseases and their management and the clinical exposure of the students. Active involvement in treatment is limited to the final year, called internship, which is hampered by preparation for postgraduate entrance examinations. Efforts should be made to provide hands-on experience at an earlier time in the course. A systematic and reliable programme for evaluation is a must. There is a need for a shift in the focus of evaluation, which should assess the application of knowledge rather than the ability to recall facts. The replacement of the traditional long-/short-case examinations with more valid and reliable instruments for the assessment of clinical skills should be considered. 'Vision 2015', a document developed by the Medical Council of India, contains many notable recommendations for the improvement of the current system. If these are implemented effectively, the impact of improvement in Indian medical education will be felt globally. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  5. Quality assurance of medical education: a case study from Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirlo, Christian; Heusser, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In the light of ongoing changes and challenges in the European health systems which also have significant implications for undergraduate medical education, the present paper describes the accreditation of medical education programmes in Switzerland focussing on undergraduate medical education. A summary of the methodology used is provided and first experiences as well as future perspectives are discussed in the light of the aim to achieve continuous quality assurance and improvement in medical education. PMID:21818193

  6. Science of health care delivery milestones for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havyer, Rachel D; Norby, Suzanne M; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Starr, Stephanie R; Lang, Tara R; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Reed, Darcy A

    2017-08-25

    The changing healthcare landscape requires physicians to develop new knowledge and skills such as high-value care, systems improvement, population health, and team-based care, which together may be referred to as the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD). To engender public trust and confidence, educators must be able to meaningfully assess physicians' abilities in SHCD. We aimed to develop a novel set of SHCD milestones based on published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones that can be used by medical schools to assess medical students' competence in SHCD. We reviewed all ACGME milestones for 25 specialties available in September 2013. We used an iterative, qualitative process to group the ACGME milestones into SHCD content domains, from which SHCD milestones were derived. The SHCD milestones were categorized within the current ACGME core competencies and were also mapped to Association of American Medical Colleges' Entrustable Professional Activities (AAMC EPAs). Fifteen SHCD sub-competencies and corresponding milestones are provided, grouped within ACGME core competencies and mapped to multiple AAMC EPAs. This novel set of milestones, grounded within the existing ACGME competencies, defines fundamental expectations within SHCD that can be used and adapted by medical schools in the assessment of medical students in this emerging curricular area. These milestones provide a blueprint for SHCD content and assessment as ongoing revisions to milestones and curricula occur.

  7. Simulation-based medical education in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sawyer, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The use of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in pediatrics has grown rapidly over the past 2 decades and is expected to continue to grow. Similar to other instructional formats used in medical education, SBME is an instructional methodology that facilitates learning. Successful use of SBME in pediatrics requires attention to basic educational principles, including the incorporation of clear learning objectives. To facilitate learning during simulation the psychological safety of the participants must be ensured, and when done correctly, SBME is a powerful tool to enhance patient safety in pediatrics. Here we provide an overview of SBME in pediatrics and review key topics in the field. We first review the tools of the trade and examine various types of simulators used in pediatric SBME, including human patient simulators, task trainers, standardized patients, and virtual reality simulation. Then we explore several uses of simulation that have been shown to lead to effective learning, including curriculum integration, feedback and debriefing, deliberate practice, mastery learning, and range of difficulty and clinical variation. Examples of how these practices have been successfully used in pediatrics are provided. Finally, we discuss the future of pediatric SBME. As a community, pediatric simulation educators and researchers have been a leading force in the advancement of simulation in medicine. As the use of SBME in pediatrics expands, we hope this perspective will serve as a guide for those interested in improving the state of pediatric SBME. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Using Simulation-Based Medical Education to Meet the Competency Requirements for the Single Accreditation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Bernadette

    2015-08-01

    Simulation-based medical education can provide medical training in a nonjudgmental, patient-safe, and effective environment. Although simulation has been a relatively new addition to medical education, the aeronautical, judicial, and military fields have used simulation training for hundreds of years, with positive outcomes. Simulation-based medical education can be used in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, outpatient clinics, medical schools, and simulation training centers. As the author describes in the present article, residencies currently accredited by the American Osteopathic Association can use a simulation-based medical education curriculum to meet training requirements of the 6 competencies identified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. The author also provides specific guidance on providing training and assessment in the professionalism competency.

  9. Education and Training of Medical Physicists in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kaplanis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical Physicist, as a professional who works in a hospital environment, is a member of a wide clinical team which is responsible for the correct diagnosis and the therapeutic methods applied using radiation. The role of a Medical Physicist is multifold and consists of the estimation of the dose received by patients and personnel, the quality control of radiological equipment, the studies for shielding requirements and the training of several health professionals (doctors, medical physicists, radiologists, technicians, nurses. All the above are prerequisites in order to receive the professional license to act as Medical Physicist.Aim-Research Inquires: The aim of European Union (EU via European Federation of Medical Physics (EFOMP is to apply a common policy among the EU countries in the area of Education and Training in Medical Physics within the context of the current developments in the European Higher Education Area arising from “The Bologna Declaration”. A short-term perspective is the free movement of professionals within EU, via the assurance of knowledge and skills uniformity. A necessary preliminary stage is the collection, classification and further process of relevant information at the European level.Methods-Techniques: To achieve the above in an efficient way EFOMP prepared a questionnaire and sent it to the National Organisation for Medical Physics of each country member of EFOMP (NMO. 23 out of 34 country members responded. The main parts (3 in total of this questionnaire and some typical questions were:Part A: Medical Physics Education•Which degree is required? Is this a university degree? How many years of studies does it represent?•Is there a nationally approved education programme and, if yes, then by whom?•Where do the education and training take place (University, Hospital, or both of them? Are these centers accredited and who gives the accreditation?Part B: Qualified / Specialist Medical Physicist

  10. Important characteristics of a director of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, V D; George, R J

    1993-11-01

    In osteopathic graduate medical education programs, the Director of Medical Education (DME) plays the key leadership role. This article outlines critical characteristics and skills that the DME should possess to successfully perform in this role. Central to this success is a passionate commitment to osteopathic medical education and a commitment to justice and fairness.

  11. Judicious Use of Simulation Technology in Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael T.; DiazGranados, Deborah; Feldman, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Use of simulation-based training is fast becoming a vital source of experiential learning in medical education. Although simulation is a common tool for undergraduate and graduate medical education curricula, the utilization of simulation in continuing medical education (CME) is still an area of growth. As more CME programs turn to simulation to…

  12. Chemical Engineering Education - Current and Future Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    topics (transport phenomena, separations, reaction engineering, etc.) must remain strong, should the applications that currently emphasize commodity chemicals also include new topics such as sustainability, and product design? In Europe, the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) has taken...... has a product focus. With this shift of the chemical industry, what should be the curriculum of the chemical engineering degrees at the BSc- and MSc-levels, and, are the skill set of chemical engineers appropriate for this altered chemical industry? While the basic skill set, defined by the core...... a leading role to define the chemical engineering curriculum. The result has been a set of recommendations for the first (BSc), second (MSc) and third (PhD) cycle chemical engineering education aligned to the Bologna Process. They recommend that students studying towards bachelor and masters qualifications...

  13. Prevalence of alcohol-interactive prescription medication use among current drinkers: United States, 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Rosalind A; Dong, Chuanhui; White, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    The majority of Americans consume alcoholic beverages. Alcohol interacts negatively with numerous commonly prescribed medications. Yet, on a population level, little is known about use of alcohol-interactive (AI) prescription medications among drinkers. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of AI prescription medication use among current drinkers in the U.S. population. Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999 to 2010); 26,657 adults aged ≥20 years had data on past year alcohol consumption and past month prescription medication use. Analyses were adjusted for covariates: age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Statistical procedures accounted for survey stratification, clustering, and nonresponse. Analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. The unadjusted total prevalence of AI medication use was 42.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.5 to 44.0). Among current drinkers, adjusted prevalence was 41.5% (CI 40.3 to 42.7). Among participants aged ≥65 total prevalence of AI medication use was 78.6% (CI 77.3 to 79.9) and adjusted prevalence among current drinkers was 77.8% (CI 75.7 to 79.7). The AI medications most commonly used by current drinkers were cardiovascular agents, central nervous system agents, and metabolic agents. Our results suggest that there could be substantial simultaneous exposure to alcohol and AI prescription medications in the U.S. population. Given the adverse health risks of combining alcohol with AI prescription medications, future efforts are needed to collect data to determine actual simultaneous prevalence. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Canadian medical students' perceptions of public health education in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Ingrid V; Hau, Monica; Buxton, Jane A; Elliott, Lawrence J; Harvey, Bart J; Hockin, James C; Mowat, David L

    2009-09-01

    To understand the perceptions and attitudes of Canadian medical students toward their undergraduate medical public health curriculum and to identify student suggestions and priorities for curriculum change. Five focus groups of 11 or 12 medical students from all years of medical school were recruited at McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba Faculty of Medicine, and University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine between February and April 2006. A professional facilitator was hired to conduct the focus groups using a unique, computer-based facilitation system. Questions in both the focus group and an accompanying survey sought to determine medical students' understanding and exposure to public health and how this impacted their attitudes and choices toward careers in the public health medical specialty of community medicine. The transcripts were independently reviewed and analyzed by each of the authors to identify themes. Four major themes related to students' desired curriculum change were identified: (1) poor educational experiences in public health courses, (2) lack of positive role models, especially exposure to community medicine specialists, (3) emphasis on statistics and epidemiology, and (4) negative attitudes toward public health topics. Students are disillusioned, disengaged, and disappointed with the public health curriculum currently being provided at the Canadian medical schools studied. Many medical students would prefer a public health curriculum that is more challenging and has more applied field experience and exposure to public health physician role models.

  15. Introducing information technologies into medical education: activities of the AAMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, A A; Anderson, M B

    1997-03-01

    Previous articles in this column have discussed how new information technologies are revolutionizing medical education. In this article, two staff members from the Association of American Medical College's Division of Medical Education discuss how the Association (the AAMC) is working both to support the introduction of new technologies into medical education and to facilitate dialogue on information technology and curriculum issues among AAMC constituents and staff. The authors describe six AAMC initiatives related to computing in medical education: the Medical School Objectives Project, the National Curriculum Database Project, the Information Technology and Medical Education Project, a professional development program for chief information officers, the AAMC ACCESS Data Collection and Dissemination System, and the internal Staff Interest Group on Medical Informatics and Medical Education.

  16. Impedimetric biosensors for medical applications current progress and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Rushworth, Jo V; Goode, Jack A; Pike, Douglas J; Ahmed, Asif; Millner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors discuss the current progress in the medical application of impedimetric biosensors, along with the key challenges in the field. First, a general overview of biosensor development, structure and function is presented, followed by a detailed discussion of impedimetric biosensors and the principles of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Next, the current state-of-the art in terms of the science and technology underpinning impedance-based biosensors is reviewed in detail. The layer-by-layer construction of impedimetric sensors is described, including the design of electrodes, their nano-modification, transducer surface functionalization and the attachment of different bioreceptors. The current challenges of translating lab-based biosensor platforms into commercially-available devices that function with real patient samples at the POC are presented; this includes a consideration of systems integration, microfluidics and biosensor regeneration. The final section of this monograph ...

  17. Situating Remediation: Accommodating Success and Failure in Medical Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Chou, Calvin L; Kalet, Adina L

    2018-03-01

    There has been a widespread shift to competency-based medical education (CBME) in the United States and Canada. Much of the CBME discourse has focused on the successful learner, with relatively little attention paid to what happens in CBME systems when learners stumble or fail. Emerging issues, such as the well-documented problem of "failure to fail" and concerns about litigious learners, have highlighted a need for well-defined and integrated frameworks to support and guide strategic approaches to the remediation of struggling medical learners.This Perspective sets out a conceptual review of current practices and an argument for a holistic approach to remediation in the context of their parent medical education systems. The authors propose parameters for integrating remediation into CBME and describe a model based on five zones of practice along with the rules of engagement associated with each zone. The zones are "normal" curriculum, corrective action, remediation, probation, and exclusion.The authors argue that, by linking and integrating theory and practice in remediation with CBME, a more integrated systems-level response to differing degrees of learner difficulty and failure can be developed. The proposed model demonstrates how educational practice in different zones is based on different rules, roles, responsibilities, and thresholds for moving between zones. A model such as this can help medical educators and medical education leaders take a more integrated approach to learners' failures as well as their successes by being more explicit about the rules of engagement that apply in different circumstances across the competency continuum.

  18. PRIME Partnerships in International Medical Education - Restoring a Christian ethos to medical education worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine has developed from an essentially Christian world-view and in Western countries has been greatly influenced by the Christian tradition of hospitality and caring for the sick. However, during the 20th century, medical education became increasingly secularised and focussed on the bio-physical model of disease, losing sight of a holistic view of the person that includes awareness of a spiritual dimension. Former Communist countries in particular have little recent tradition of caring, and medical education there tends to be characterised by poor role-models and out-dated didactic teaching. In the resource poor countries of the global South there are many Christian hospitals and clinics but often a lack of experienced medical teachers. Partnerships in International Medical Education (PRIME’s vision and mission is to support health-care education worldwide to restore a Christian-based holistic approach to patients, and act as a resource where needed, tailoring medical educational programmes to meet the needs of overseas partners (or colleagues in the NHS. Using interactive leaner-centred and problem-based educational methods, PRIME tutors (all experienced and qualified Christian medical educators seek to model patient-centred care by using learner-centred teaching, valuing each person as a bearer of the image of God. Most of PRIME’s teaching involves the doctor-patient relationship, communication skills, compassion, ethics and professionalism, often based around particular clinical scenarios to suit the learners. Small teams of voluntary tutors visiting partner institutions and colleagues for a few weeks a year can have a surprisingly large impact, as those grasping the vision become advocates for positive change in their own situations. Training of trainers and teachers in learner-centred, androgogic methodology to build capacity and sustainability is also a major part of the work.

  19. Medical treatment of radiation injuries-Current US status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, D.G. [OSA - CBD and CDP, 3050 Defense Pentagon, Room 3C257, Washington, DC 20301-3050 (United States)], E-mail: david.jarrett@us.army.mil; Sedlak, R.G.; Dickerson, W.E. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Reeves, G.I. [Northrop Grumman IT, 8211 Terminal Road, Lorton, VA 22079-1421 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A nuclear incident or major release of radioactive materials likely would result in vast numbers of patients, many of whom would require novel therapy. Fortunately, the numbers of radiation victims in the United States (USA) have been limited to date. If a mass-casualty situation occurs, there will be a need to perform rapid, accurate dose estimates and to provide appropriate medications and other treatment to ameliorate radiation injury. The medical management of radiation injury is complex. Radiation injury may include acute radiation sickness (ARS) from external and/or internal radiation exposure, internal organ damage from incorporated radioactive isotopes, and cutaneous injury. Human and animal data have shown that optimal medical care may nearly double the survivable dose of ionizing radiation. Current treatment strategies for radiation injuries are discussed with concentration on the medical management of the hematopoietic syndrome. In addition, priority areas for continuing and future research into both acute deterministic injuries and also long-term stochastic sequelae of radiation exposure have been identified. There are several near-term novel therapies that appear to offer excellent prognosis for radiation casualties, and these are also described.

  20. [A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji

    2010-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.

  1. A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: educational environment in medical information education, content of a lecture in medical information, problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: motivation of the students is low, the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists. (author)

  2. Power and Resistance: Leading Change in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A key role for educational leaders within undergraduate medical education is to continually improve the quality of education; global quality health care is the goal. This paper reports the findings from a study employing a power model to highlight how educational leaders influence the development of undergraduate medical curricula and the…

  3. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  4. Medical physics education and training activities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish; Gomathi, K.; Sharma, S.D.; Chourasiya, G.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sahani, G.; Sharma Dash, P.K.; Agarwal, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity, ionising radiations are finding extensive applications in human health care programmes worldwide. X-rays are being used in India for various applications since 1898. Further the establishment of Tata Memorial Hospital in 1941, as a centre for the treatment of cancer was the stepping-stone for medical physics in India with Dr. Ramaiah Naidu as the first medical physicist. Since then, the field of medical physics has made a tremendous progress. At cancer treatment centre, medical physicist cum RSO is required not only to ensure and maintain quality of radiation treatment by ensuring quality assurance, treatment planning and resonance with radiation oncologist but also acts as a bridge between the cancer treatment centre and regulatory authority (AERB) and also ensures radiation safety. Currently there are around 399 teletherapy units (280 telecobalt and 119 medical linear accelerator) in our country and the number is further likely to increase in future due to i) More awareness about cancer and prevalence of around 1 million new cancer cases per year and ii) The indigenous production of telecobalt and linear accelerator units has brought down the cost. In fact in India, there is a need of more than 1000 teletherapy units. In view of above, well-trained and qualified medical physicists are required. In this paper, various educational and training activities in India are described. The paper also casts light on growing demands for starting M.Phil and Ph.D. degrees in medical physics in India

  5. Advancing resident assessment in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swing, Susan R; Clyman, Stephen G; Holmboe, Eric S; Williams, Reed G

    2009-12-01

    The Outcome Project requires high-quality assessment approaches to provide reliable and valid judgments of the attainment of competencies deemed important for physician practice. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) convened the Advisory Committee on Educational Outcome Assessment in 2007-2008 to identify high-quality assessment methods. The assessments selected by this body would form a core set that could be used by all programs in a specialty to assess resident performance and enable initial steps toward establishing national specialty databases of program performance. The committee identified a small set of methods for provisional use and further evaluation. It also developed frameworks and processes to support the ongoing evaluation of methods and the longer-term enhancement of assessment in graduate medical education. The committee constructed a set of standards, a methodology for applying the standards, and grading rules for their review of assessment method quality. It developed a simple report card for displaying grades on each standard and an overall grade for each method reviewed. It also described an assessment system of factors that influence assessment quality. The committee proposed a coordinated, national-level infrastructure to support enhancements to assessment, including method development and assessor training. It recommended the establishment of a new assessment review group to continue its work of evaluating assessment methods. The committee delivered a report summarizing its activities and 5 related recommendations for implementation to the ACGME Board in September 2008.

  6. Role of State Medical Boards in Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David A.; Austin, Dale L.; Thompson, James N.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of physician competency prior to issuing an initial medical license has been a fundamental responsibility of medical boards. Growing public expectation holds that medical boards will ensure competency throughout a physician's career. The Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) strongly supports the right of state medical boards to…

  7. Can We Pay for Current Education Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the United States has been engaged in education reform efforts designed to dramatically boost student performance and close achievement gaps linked to poverty and ethnicity. Can schools afford those education ambitions? Most educators have their doubts. The author believes educators can improve student learning even when…

  8. Quality assessment of medical education and use of information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Ciric, Damir; Pulja, Artan; Kulasin, Igor; Pandza, Haris

    2009-01-01

    Extensive and fast advancements in biomedical sciences created a significant delay in receiving relevant and updated information in medical practice - physicians use old techniques and treat patients incorrectly. Bosnia and Herzegovina signed the Bologna Declaration on 18 September 2003, and in the light of this new approach to university education, and the process of joining The European Union, the authors set the following aims: to determine the current level of knowledge among medical students at the Medical Faculty of the University of Sarajevo, to determine the level of knowledge among medical students before their enrolment at the faculty, and to find out students opinion on their needs for further education. Students also left their suggestions on what should be changed in the curriculum. 203 students were included in the survey and results show that they demand more practical work, direct contact with patients and presentation of interesting clinical cases. Many of them use the internet as professional education means. Professional papers are rarely used. At present, the availability of learning material is insufficient at the faculty library.

  9. Undergraduate radiology education in the era of dynamism in medical curriculum: An educational perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, Thomas N.B., E-mail: T.Pascual@iaea.org [Section of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Chhem, Rethy, E-mail: R.Chhem@iaea.org [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Wang, Shih-Chang, E-mail: shih-chang.wang@sydney.edu.au [University of Sydney Discipline of Imaging, University of Sydney, Department of Radiology, Westmead Hospital, Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Vujnovic, Sasa, E-mail: svujnovic@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Clinical Center Banja Luka, Zdrave Korda 1, 51000 Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2011-06-15

    Radiology undergraduate curriculum has undergone a tremendous transformation in the decades reflecting a change in the structure, content and delivery of instruction. These changes are not unique to the discipline, but rather a response in the cycle of the re-engineering process in the medical curriculum in order to ensure its proper role into the ever-changing context. Radiology education is now more integrated across the curriculum than ever. The diversity of how radiology is being taught within the medical undergraduate curriculum is extensive and promising with the expanding role of the radiologist in the spectrum within the medical curriculum. A strong interface between the medical student and the clinicians must always be integrated in the learning process in order to convey the essential and practical use of the different aspects of radiology essential to the student's career as a future clinician. With the recent advancement in educational and technological innovations, radiology education is mobilized in the most pioneering ways, stimulating a rekindled interest in the field of medical imaging. This paper describes the increasing interest in current role of undergraduate radiology education in the context of constant medical curriculum innovations and in the digital age.

  10. Undergraduate radiology education in the era of dynamism in medical curriculum: An educational perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, Thomas N.B.; Chhem, Rethy; Wang, Shih-Chang; Vujnovic, Sasa

    2011-01-01

    Radiology undergraduate curriculum has undergone a tremendous transformation in the decades reflecting a change in the structure, content and delivery of instruction. These changes are not unique to the discipline, but rather a response in the cycle of the re-engineering process in the medical curriculum in order to ensure its proper role into the ever-changing context. Radiology education is now more integrated across the curriculum than ever. The diversity of how radiology is being taught within the medical undergraduate curriculum is extensive and promising with the expanding role of the radiologist in the spectrum within the medical curriculum. A strong interface between the medical student and the clinicians must always be integrated in the learning process in order to convey the essential and practical use of the different aspects of radiology essential to the student's career as a future clinician. With the recent advancement in educational and technological innovations, radiology education is mobilized in the most pioneering ways, stimulating a rekindled interest in the field of medical imaging. This paper describes the increasing interest in current role of undergraduate radiology education in the context of constant medical curriculum innovations and in the digital age.

  11. Avoiding pitfalls in overseas medical educational experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Sessions

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, there are a growing number of medical students participating in international health electives. These experiences have the potential to be mutually beneficial to both the host country and the student. However, there is a significant risk of unethical and damaging practices during these trips, including concerns for sending trainees without appropriate pre-travel preparation with inadequate accountability to local health care providers at a stage in their education that imposes an undue burden on the local health facilities. This article describes one first year medical student’s experience in navigating common challenges faced in international health electives and offers practical advice enlightened by the literature on how to overcome them. We emphasize the need for students to ensure adequate pre-trip preparation, communicate their level of training clearly, practice cultural humility, ensure personal safety, and engage in projects needed by the host community.

  12. Twelve tips for using applied improvisation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista; Rossing, Jonathan P; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Future physicians will practice medicine in a more complex environment than ever, where skills of interpersonal communication, collaboration and adaptability to change are critical. Applied improvisation (or AI) is an instructional strategy which adapts the concepts of improvisational theater to teach these types of complex skills in other contexts. Unique to AI is its very active teaching approach, adapting theater games to help learners meet curricular objectives. In medical education, AI is particularly helpful when attempting to build students' comfort with and skills in complex, interpersonal behaviors such as effective listening, person-centeredness, teamwork and communication. This article draws on current evidence and the authors' experiences to present best practices for incorporating AI into teaching medicine. These practical tips help faculty new to AI get started by establishing goals, choosing appropriate games, understanding effective debriefing, considering evaluation strategies and managing resistance within the context of medical education.

  13. The application of wiki technology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Lewis, Melanie; White, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND, AIMS AND METHODS: Recent years have seen the introduction of web-based technologies such as the 'wiki', which is a webpage whose content can be edited in real time using a web browser. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the use of wikis in education, and considers whether wiki technology has features that might prove useful in medical education. Advantages and challenges of the technology are discussed, and recommendations for use are provided. We believe that wiki technology offers a number of potential benefits for administrators, students and instructors, including the ability to share information online, to construct knowledge together, to facilitate collaboration and to enable social learning and peer feedback. We believe that with proper planning and instructional design, wiki technology can be usefully employed in medical education. We intend to continue to study the impact of wiki technology in our own programme, and we encourage others to evaluate the application of wiki technology in other areas of medical education.

  14. Efficacy of burnout interventions in the medical education pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel; Tricomi, Gian; Gupta, Jay; Janise, Annie

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the efficacy of current interventions to mitigate burnout among medical students and residents, despite its association with mood disorders, absenteeism, low job satisfaction, and medical errors. This review summarizes the efficacy data of burnout interventions and how each modality is used. OVID-SP Medline, Google Scholar and PsychINFO were searched for combinations of medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: premedical students, medical students, internships, intern, medical graduate, clinical clerkship, and residents in combination with a keyword group of burnout, professional burnout, suicide, attempted suicide, and prevention. Studies with data on the efficacy from burnout prevention programs were included for review. Nineteen studies were selected for inclusion in this review. Eleven different types of interventions and combinations of interventions were used. There were six studies on the impact of the 2003 duty-hour restrictions by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education on burnout. Other approaches included self-development groups, conversion to a pass-fail grading system and training in mindfulness, communication, and stress management. Half of the intervention approaches had at least one study demonstrating benefit in reducing burnout. Self-development groups, the Respiratory One Method for relaxation, and conversion to a pass-fail grading system appear to reduce burnout. The burnout data on mindfulness training and the 2003 resident duty-hour restrictions are mixed. There were no studies available on burnout among premedical students or suicide prevention among medical students or residents. There is a growing body of evidence-based interventions to mitigate burnout which can be used in the development of future programs. More research is needed to identify and intervene against burnout earlier in the medical education pipeline, including at the undergraduate level.

  15. Accelerating medical education: a survey of deans and program directors

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    Joan Cangiarella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A handful of medical schools in the U.S. are awarding medical degrees after three years. While the number of three-year pathway programs is slowly increasing there is little data on the opinions of medical education leaders on the need for shortening training. Purpose: To survey deans and program directors (PDs to understand the current status of 3-year medical degree programs and to elicit perceptions of the need for shortening medical school and the benefits and liabilities of 3-year pathway programs (3YPP. Methods: Online surveys were emailed to the academic deans of all U.S. medical schools and to a convenience sample of residency and fellowship PDs. Frequency distributions are reported for key survey items and content analysis was used to describe open-ended responses. Results: Of the respondents, 7% have a 3YPP, 4% were developing one, and 35% were considering development. In 2014, 47% of educational deans and 32% of PDs agreed that there may be a need to shorten medical school. From a list of benefits, both deans and PDs agreed that the greatest benefit to a 3YPP was debt reduction (68%. PDs and deans felt reduced readiness for independence, reduced exposure to complementary curricula regarding safety and quality improvement, premature commitment to a specialty, and burnout were all potential liabilities. From a list of concerns, PDs were concerned about depth of clinical exposure, direct patient care experience, ability to assume increased responsibility, level of maturity, and certainty regarding career choice. Conclusions: Over one-third of medical schools are considering the development of a 3YPP. While there may be benefits for a select group of students, concerns regarding maturity, depth of clinical exposure, and competency must be addressed for these programs to be well received.

  16. Simulation of leakage current measurement on medical devices using helmholtz coil configuration with different current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, E.; Chandra, F.; Dinata, R.

    2017-05-01

    Leakage current measurement which can follow IEC standard for medical device is one of many challenges to be answered. The IEC 60601-1 has defined that the limit for a leakage current for Medical Device can be as low as 10 µA and as high as 500 µA, depending on which type of contact (applied part) connected to the patient. Most people are using ELCB (Earth-leakage circuit breaker) for safety purpose as this is the most common and available safety device in market. One type of ELCB devices is RCD (Residual Current Device) and this RCD type can measure the leakage current directly. This work will show the possibility on how Helmholtz Coil Configuration can be made to be like the RCD. The possibility is explored by comparing the magnetic field formula from each device, then it proceeds with a simulation using software EJS (Easy Java Simulation). The simulation will make sure the concept of magnetic field current cancellation follows the RCD concept. Finally, the possibility of increasing the measurement’s sensitivity is also analyzed. The sensitivity is needed to see the possibility on reaching the minimum leakage current limit defined by IEC, 0.01mA.

  17. Simulation of leakage current measurement on medical devices using helmholtz coil configuration with different current flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto, E; Chandra, F; Dinata, R

    2017-01-01

    Leakage current measurement which can follow IEC standard for medical device is one of many challenges to be answered. The IEC 60601-1 has defined that the limit for a leakage current for Medical Device can be as low as 10 µA and as high as 500 µA, depending on which type of contact (applied part) connected to the patient. Most people are using ELCB (Earth-leakage circuit breaker) for safety purpose as this is the most common and available safety device in market. One type of ELCB devices is RCD (Residual Current Device) and this RCD type can measure the leakage current directly. This work will show the possibility on how Helmholtz Coil Configuration can be made to be like the RCD. The possibility is explored by comparing the magnetic field formula from each device, then it proceeds with a simulation using software EJS (Easy Java Simulation). The simulation will make sure the concept of magnetic field current cancellation follows the RCD concept. Finally, the possibility of increasing the measurement’s sensitivity is also analyzed. The sensitivity is needed to see the possibility on reaching the minimum leakage current limit defined by IEC, 0.01mA. (paper)

  18. Current Trends in Developing Medical Students' Critical Thinking Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Harasym

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Health care is fallible and prone to diagnostic and management errors. The major categories of diagnostic errors include: (1 no-fault errors—the disease is present but not detected; (2 system errors—a diagnosis is delayed or missed because of the imperfection in the health care system; and (3 cognitive errors—a misdiagnosis from faulty data collection or interpretation, flawed reasoning, or incomplete knowledge. Approximately one third of patient problems are mismanaged because of diagnostic errors. Part of the solution lies in improving the diagnostic skills and critical thinking abilities of physicians as they progress through medical school and residency training. However, this task is challenging since both medical problem-solving and the learning environments are complex and not easily understood. There are many interacting variables including the motivation of the medical student (e.g. deep versus surface learning, the acquisition and evolution of declarative and conditional knowledge (e.g. reduced, dispersed, elaborated, scheme, and scripted, problem-solving strategies (e.g. procedural knowledge—guessing, hypothetical deductive, scheme inductive, and pattern recognition, curricular models (e.g. apprenticeship, discipline-based, body system-based, case-based, clinical presentation-based, teaching strategies (e.g. teaching general to specific or specific to general, the presented learning opportunities (PBL versus scheme inductive PBL, and the nature of the learning environment (e.g. modeling critical thinking and expert problem-solving. This paper elaborates on how novices differ from experts and how novices can be educated in a manner that enhances their level of expertise and diagnostic abilities as they progress through several years of medical training.

  19. [Medical education for laity: Plutarch's contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In his treatise De tuenda sanitate praecepta (Ygieina paraggelmata: Prescriptions for Health), the Greek philosopher Plutarch of Chaeronea (b. about 45 A.D., d. about 125 A.D.) pursues two aims, which have a deep pedagogical character and are closely connected. To begin with, he would like to provide both his colleagues, the "philosophers" (the equivalent of today's "intellectuals") and politicians with some sanitary/medical suggestions, so that they may adopt a healthy life-style, and consequently avoid disease to the best of their ability. Plutarch thus proposes that "philosophers" be made aware of the opportunity, or better yet, of the necessity of learning some medical notions: in their general education (paideia), his colleagues should allow medicine its adequate space, at least in regard to the practical side which relates to a "life-regimen". At the same time, Plutarch wishes to impart a moral teaching: in order to remain in good health we must distance ourselves from irrational impulses and social conventions which induce us to practice detrimental behaviours. In this context, the author stresses the need to respect the principles of moderation--both medical and ethical: those of frugality, self-control, and naturalness. His advice is still valid and effective today. Within the background of Plutarch's treatise there is yet a third, implicit aim: to urge the physicians not to imprison themselves in their professional specialization, but rather to also acquire a philosophical education. Such education would indeed allow them to achieve a whole, "holistic" picture of man, who is at the same time soul and body.

  20. Weighing the cost of educational inflation in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ronald; Busche, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Woloschuk, Wayne; Chadbolt, Karen; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Despite the fact that the length of medical school training has remained stable for many years, the expectations of graduating medical students (and the schools that train them) continue to increase. In this Reflection, the authors discuss motives for educational inflation and suggest that these are likely innocent, well-intentioned, and subconscious-and include both a propensity to increase expectations of ourselves and others over time, and a reluctance to reduce training content and expectations. They then discuss potential risks of educational inflation, including reduced emphasis on core knowledge and clinical skills, and adverse effects on the emotional, psychological, and financial wellbeing of students. While acknowledging the need to change curricula to improve learning and clinical outcomes, the authors proffer that it is naïve to assume that we can inflate educational expectations at no additional cost. They suggest that before implementing and/or mandating change, we should consider of all the costs that medical schools and students might incur, including opportunity costs and the impact on the emotional and financial wellbeing of students. They propose a cost-effectiveness framework for medical education and advocate prioritization of interventions that improve learning outcomes with no additional costs or are cost-saving without adversely impacting learning outcomes. When there is an additional cost for improved learning outcomes or a decline in learning outcomes as a result of cost saving interventions, they suggest careful consideration and justification of this trade-off. And when there are neither improved learning outcomes nor cost savings they recommend resisting the urge to change.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATIONAL HOSPITALS OF TEHRAN UNIVERSITY MEDICAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Dehghani, K. Azam, F. Changani, E. Dehghani Fard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of medical waste is of great importance due to its potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In the past, medical waste was often mixed with municipal solid waste and disposed in residential waste landfills or improper treatment facilities in Iran. In recent years, many efforts have been made by environmental regulatory agencies and waste generators to better managing the wastes from healthcare facilities. This study was carried in 12 educational hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The goals of this study were to characterize solid wastes generated in healthcare hospitals, to report the current status of medical waste management and to provide a framework for the safe management of these wastes at the considered hospitals. The methodology was descriptive, cross-sectional and consisted of the use of surveys and interviews with the authorities of the healthcare facilities and with personnel involved in the management of the wastes. The results showed that medical wastes generated in hospitals were extremely heterogeneous in composition. 42% of wastes were collected in containers and plastic bags. In 75% of hospitals, the stay-time in storage sites was about 12-24h. 92% of medical wastes of hospitals were collected by covered-trucks. In 46% of hospitals, transferring of medical wastes to temporary stations was done manually. The average of waste generation rates in the hospitals was estimated to be 4.42kg/bed/day.

  2. Medical education--addressing the needs of the dying child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, R

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the formulation of attitudes, the acquisition of knowledge and the development of skills which together enable medical practitioners to provide comprehensive palliative care for terminally ill children. Ideally, these should be developed to such an extent that a 'good death' can be achieved. Current medical education does not address these areas and the associated issues, including the breaking of bad news, understanding the grief reaction to serious illness and children's perceptions of death. Neither does training include how to take management decisions concerning informed consent, the transition from active treatment to palliative care, symptom control and choosing the place for care. These, and the unintentional attitude that regards the dying child as a 'medical failure', are discussed, together with the need to meet the needs of the parents and siblings, and the effects of bereavement. Finally, recommendations are made for undergraduate curricula and the need to emphasize the relationship of caring for the family unit, and not just the patient.

  3. Introducing Handheld Computing for Interactive Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Finkelstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this project were: (1 development of an interactive multimedia medical education tool (CO-ED utilizing modern features of handheld computing (PDA and major constructs of adult learning theories, and (2 pilot testing of the computer-assisted education in residents and clinicians. Comparison of the knowledge scores using paired t-test demonstrated statistically significant increase in subject knowledge (p<0.01 after using CO-ED. Attitudinal surveys were analyzed by total score (TS calculation represented as a percentage of a maximal possible score. The mean TS was 74.5±7.1%. None of the subjects (N=10 had TS less than 65% and in half of the subjects (N=5 TS was higher than 75%. Analysis of the semi-structured in-depth interviews showed strong support of the study subjects in using PDA as an educational tool, and high acceptance of CO-ED user interface. We concluded that PDA have a significant potential as a tool for clinician education.

  4. Education In Medical Physics. Chapter 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, A.; Van Der Merwe, D.

    2017-01-01

    Medical physics is a specialty which applies physics principles to medicine. It covers a wide range of subspecialties, including ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Medical physicists work in clinical settings, academic and research institutes and the commercial sector. They fulfil an essential role in modern medicine, most commonly in the fields of diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Those working in the field of radiation oncology are generally called ‘clinically qualified medical physicists (CQMPs) in radiotherapy’, or ‘radiation oncology medical physicists’, depending on the country in which they work. They are part of an interdisciplinary team in a radiation oncology department dedicated to providing safe and effective treatment of cancer. Other members of the team include radiation oncologists, radiographers, dosimetrists, maintenance engineers and nurses. In radiation oncology, CQMPs contribute to the safe and effective treatment of patients. Their knowledge of radiation physics and how radiation interacts with human tissue and of the complex technology involved in modern treatment of cancer are essential to the successful application of radiotherapy. The primary responsibility of the CQMP within this team is to optimize the use of radiation to ensure the quality and safety of a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. This is achieved predominantly through the use of physical and technical aspects of appropriate quality assurance (QA) programmes and control of dosimetry and calibration of beams. CQMPs working in radiation oncology are expected to have a core competency in medical physics, acquired through a postgraduate academic education programme. In addition, clinical competence, acquired through a structured clinical training programme or residency within a clinical department, is also required. It has been well documented that accidents can occur in the practice of radiation oncology when proper QA is not performed [16.1, 16.2]. Appropriate QA can

  5. Faculty Wellness: Educator Burnout among Otolaryngology Graduate Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine R; Spiro, Jeffrey

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Burnout is a well-described psychological construct with 3 aspects: exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment. The objective of this study was to assess whether faculty members of an otolaryngology residency program exhibit measurable signs and symptoms of burnout with respect to their roles as medical educators. Study Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency program. Subjects and Methods Faculty members from an otolaryngology residency program, all of whom are involved in resident education, completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES). The surveys were completed anonymously and scored with the MBI-ES scoring key. Results Twenty-three faculty members completed the MBI-ES, and 16 (69.6%) showed symptoms of burnout, as evidenced by unfavorable scores on at least 1 of the 3 indices (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, or low personal accomplishment). The faculty consistently reported moderate to high personal accomplishment and low depersonalization. There were variable responses in the emotional exhaustion subset, which is typically the first manifestation of the development of burnout. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first application of the MBI-ES to investigate burnout among otolaryngology faculty members as related to their role as medical educators. Discovering symptoms of burnout at an early stage affords a unique and valuable opportunity to intervene. Future investigation is underway into potential causes and solutions.

  6. Nursing education: current themes, puzzles and paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Christine A

    2007-01-01

    It would be tempting to declare that transformation of nursing education in the current context of faculty shortages and other scarce resources as Mission Impossible. But I believe that the opposite is true. It is my sense that the rapid changes in healthcare, the shifting population needs and the acute nursing shortage have catalyzed fundamental change, perhaps the most profound in the 50 year history of WIN. The first steps of that transformation are becoming increasingly apparent as nursing faculty begin to challenge their long-standing, taken-for-granted assumptions; as they set aside differences and their internecine warfare of the entry-into-practice debates; as they begin stronger and deeper collaborations with their clinical partners. We won't see the evidence of these changes in the literature for a while, because they are just getting started. There's not a lot to report yet. Here are some examples of the changes afoot: The Oregon Consortium for Nursing Education has resulted from unprecedented collaboration between community college and university faculty, with an eye to develop a standard, competency-based curriculum to prepare the "new" nurse, and to improve access to a seamless baccalaureate curriculum. The first students were enrolled in nursing courses in fall, 2006 on 8 campuses--the four campuses of OHSU and 4 community colleges, with additional community college campuses admitting students in '07 and '08. In this curriculum, fundamentals of nursing have been redefined as evidence-based practice, culturally sensitive and relationship-centered care, leadership and clinical judgment, with these concepts and others introduced early and spiraled throughout the curriculum. Through a 2-year faculty development program, faculty leaders in the OCNE partner programs have taken to heart the many lessons about learning, intentionally attending to content selection that will help reduce the volume while focusing on the most prevalent. Instructional approaches

  7. Provision of undergraduate otorhinolaryngology teaching within General Medical Council approved UK medical schools: what is current practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Saeed, S R

    2012-04-01

    Despite longstanding concern, provision of undergraduate ENT teaching has not improved in response to the aims of the UK General Medical Council's initiative Tomorrow's Doctors. Previous studies have demonstrated poor representation of ENT within the undergraduate curriculum. We aimed to identify current practice in order to establish undergraduate ENT experience across UK medical schools, a timely endeavour in light of the General Medical Council's new 2011-2013 education strategy. Questionnaires were sent to ENT consultants, medical school deans and students. All schools with a clinical curriculum were anonymously represented. Our outcome measures were the provision of mandatory or optional ENT placements, and their duration and content. A compulsory ENT placement was available to over half (53 per cent) of the students. Ten of the 26 participating schools did not offer an ENT attachment. The mean mandatory placement was 8 days. Overall, 38 per cent of students reported a satisfactory compulsory ENT placement. Most ENT consultants questioned considered that newly qualified doctors were not proficient in managing common ENT problems that did not require specialist referral. Little improvement in the provision of undergraduate ENT teaching was demonstrated. An increase in the proportion of students undertaking ENT training is necessary. Time and curriculum constraints on medical schools mean that optimisation of available resources is required.

  8. Pharmacological Treatments of Alzheimer’s Disease: Current Medication,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mowla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD that is identified by progressive cognitive deficit and behavioral disturbances (BD are the most common form of dementia. As the population is aging, patients with AD are becoming a serious burden for societies. In this study, current medication for cognitive deficit and behavioral disturbances are reviewed. Also the new treatment strategies for cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbances are surveyed. Methods: The method employed in this researh was a systematic bibliographic review, in which only the double-blind placebo-controlled studies or the clinically detailed enough open-labeled studies using validated scales were retained. Results: The efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors (Tacrine, Rivastigmine, Donapezil and Galantamine has been demonstrated in several double blind placebo controlled clinical trials. They have shown a mild efficacy in mild to moderate AD. Memantine, a NMDA antagonist is the only drug that has demonstrated mild efficacy in moderate to severe AD in controlled clinical trial. Clinical trials surveying the efficacy of active and passive immunization against B amyloid protoin has halted due to serious adverse events. Studies of inducing neurogenesis in brain of AD patients are preliminary. Antipsychotics have shown efficacy for controlling BD of AD patients but they are associated with adverse events. Except for carbamazepine, there is not enough evidence for other anticanvulsants to be effective for behavioral disturbances of AD patients. A controlled clinical trial and some open studies have shown the efficacy of citalopram for BD. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of other medications like trazadon, buspiron and beta blockers for BD. Conclusion: Cholinesterase inhibitors have demonstrated disappointing results. Memantine is only mildly effective for cognitive deficit. To date, no amyloid-modifying therapy has yet been successful in phase 3 clinical trials

  9. Mobile Learning in Medical Education: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    In the past several years, mobile learning made rapid inroads into the provision of medical education. There are significant advantages associated with mobile learning. These include high access, low cost, more situated and contextual learning, convenience for the learner, continuous communication and interaction between learner and tutor and between learner and other learners, and the ability to self-assess themselves while learning. Like any other form of medical pedagogy, mobile learning has its downsides. Disadvantages of mobile learning include: inadequate technology, a risk of distraction from learning by using a device that can be used for multiple purposes, and the potential for breakdown in barriers between personal usage of the mobile device and professional or educational use. Despite these caveats, there is no question but that mobile learning offers much potential. In the future, it is likely that the strategy of mobile first, whereby providers of e-learning think of the user experience on a mobile first, will result in learners who increasingly expect that all e-learning provision will work seamlessly on a mobile device.

  10. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours.

  11. Lean education an overview of current issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flumerfelt, Shannon; Kahlen, Franz-Josef

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents a structured approach to a new lean education curriculum, implemented for the education of engineers, managers, administrators as well as human resources developers. The authorship comprises professors and lecturers, trainers and practitioners who educate future professionals in Lean Thinking principles and tools. This edited book provides a platform for authors to share their efforts in building a Body of Knowledge (BoK) for Lean Education. The topical spectrum is state-of-the-art in this field, but the book also includes a glimpse into future developments. This is a highly informative and carefully presented book, providing valuable insight for scholars with an interest in Lean Education.

  12. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

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    C. Scott Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1 The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence; (2 logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3 a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  13. Twelve tips for getting started using mixed methods in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Ellen; Vuk, Jasna; Barber, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    Mixed methods research, which is gaining popularity in medical education, provides a new and comprehensive approach for addressing teaching, learning, and evaluation issues in the field. The aim of this article is to provide medical education researchers with 12 tips, based on consideration of current literature in the health professions and in educational research, for conducting and disseminating mixed methods research. Engaging in mixed methods research requires consideration of several major components: the mixed methods paradigm, types of problems, mixed method designs, collaboration, and developing or extending theory. Mixed methods is an ideal tool for addressing a full range of problems in medical education to include development of theory and improving practice.

  14. The failure of medical education to develop moral reasoning in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Vicki S

    2014-12-27

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in moral judgment among students in medical school. This cross-sectional study involved students currently enrolled in undergraduate medical education. Recruited via email, 192 students took an online version of the Defining Issues Test to determine their current stage of moral judgment, as well as their percentage of postconventional thought. Independent variables included year of graduation, which indicated curriculum completion as well as participation in a professionalism course. Data was analyzed primarily using One-Way Analysis of Variance. Of the 192 participants, 165 responses were utilized. ANOVA showed no significant differences in moral judgment between or among any of the student cohorts, which were grouped by year of matriculation. Comparisons included students in the four years of medical school, divided by graduation year; students about to graduate (n=30) vs. those still in school (n=135); and students who had participated in a course in professionalism (n=91) vs. those who had not (n=74). These results demonstrate a lack of evolution in the moral reasoning of medical students and raise the issue of what might stimulate positive changes in moral judgment during the medical school experience.

  15. Funding medical education: should we follow a different model to general higher education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ISSUE. There has been much recent discussion on the funding of medical education. There has also been much discussion about the funding of higher education more generally. EVIDENCE. The topics of discussion have included the rising costs of education; who should pay; the various potential models of funding; and how best to ensure maximum returns from investment. IMPLICATIONS. Medical education has largely followed the emerging models of funding for higher education. However there are important reasons why the funding models for higher education may not suit medical education. These reasons include the fact that medical education is as important to the public as it is to the learner; the range of funding sources available to medical schools; the strict regulation of medical education; and the fact that the privatisation and commercialisation of higher education may not been in keeping with the social goals of medical schools and the agenda of diversification within the medical student population.

  16. Funding medical education: should we follow a different model to general higher education? Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    There has been much recent discussion on the funding of medical education. There has also been much discussion about the funding of higher education more generally. The topics of discussion have included the rising costs of education; who should pay; the various potential models of funding; and how best to ensure maximum returns from investment. Medical education has largely followed the emerging models of funding for higher education. However there are important reasons why the funding models for higher education may not suit medical education. These reasons include the fact that medical education is as important to the public as it is to the learner; the range of funding sources available to medical schools; the strict regulation of medical education; and the fact that the privatisation and commercialisation of higher education may not been in keeping with the social goals of medical schools and the agenda of diversification within the medical student population.

  17. Education and training of medical physicists in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, V.; Vassileva, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Medical radiology is chronologically the first and widest field of work of medical physicists. Therefore the education and training of medical radiological physicists is of big importance for both diagnostics and therapy. The education of medical radiological physicists in Bulgaria is organized in two levels: university and postgraduate, which is a good achievement of Bulgarian educational system. University education is in the framework of the M. Sc. program in Medical physics with a prevalent training in medical radiological physics. Three universities in the country have been carrying out this education since more than ten years. Postgraduate education covers specialties Medical Radiological Physics and Radiation Hygiene. It is organized by the Medical University but the training is opened also to specialists outside the health care system. The interests in both levels of education and training in Medical Physics is increasing with about 40 trainees in last years. The university and postgraduate education has good quality in theory but still inadequate in practical aspects. The continuous training and qualification of medical physicists has also difficulties; the main reasons are insufficient technical and financial resources as well as the lack of interest of the staff of the training centers. The responsibilities for education and training of medical physicists in radiology should be shared between physicists and physicians in the country

  18. [VR and AR Applications in Medical Practice and Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Chai; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2017-12-01

    As technology advances, mobile devices have gradually turned into wearable devices. Furthermore, virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) are being increasingly applied in medical fields such as medical education and training, surgical simulation, neurological rehabilitation, psychotherapy, and telemedicine. Research results demonstrate the ability of VR, AR, and MR to ameliorate the inconveniences that are often associated with traditional medical care, reduce incidents of medical malpractice caused by unskilled operations, and reduce the cost of medical education and training. What is more, the application of these technologies has enhanced the effectiveness of medical education and training, raised the level of diagnosis and treatment, improved the doctor-patient relationship, and boosted the efficiency of medical execution. The present study introduces VR, AR, and MR applications in medical practice and education with the aim of helping health professionals better understand the applications and use these technologies to improve the quality of medical care.

  19. Gendered specialities during medical education: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, M.; Leerdam, L. van; Dielissen, P.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The careers of male and female physicians indicate gender differences, whereas in medical education a feminization is occurring. Our review aims to specify gender-related speciality preferences during medical education. A literature search on gender differences in medical students' speciality

  20. COMMUNITARIAN INSTITUTIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION: CURRENT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Radke Bittencourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Brazilian communitarian institutions for higher education are not included officially under this designation in the INEP’s microdata, with the extinction of the category “communitarian, religious and philanthropic”. Since then, the Brazilian private’s higher education institutions are classified according to their legal nature: for-profit or non-profit. Nevertheless, the new law 12.881 of 2013, enacted in November 2013, has changed this reality after the approval by the National Congress, establishing the definition and purpose of the Community institutions, and confirming, in particular, their characteristics of non-profit institutions belonging to civil society, and their organization into associations or foundations (BRAZIL, 2013. The recent expansion of the federal and for-profit higher education institutions has directly affected the so far called communitarian institutions, which present differentiated characteristics compared to forprofit private higher education institutions as well as public education. In this article, data and contemporary aspects related to the new scenario of Brazilian higher education are analyzed, with special focus on higher education institutions members of the Association of Community Universities (ABRUC, and were found better performance of these ones in comparison to the private for-profit higher education institutions. The obtained results, combined with the regional impact of the communitarian higher education institutions, justify the importance of these institutions to improve the consolidation of higher education in Brazil.

  1. Current status of information literacy instruction practices in medical libraries of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal

    2014-10-01

    The research explored the current practices of information literacy (IL) instruction in medical libraries of Pakistan. A semi-structured questionnaire was mailed to the head librarians of all 114 academic medical libraries in Pakistan. It investigated the types of IL instruction provided, topics covered, methods of delivery and assessment, level of integration in the curriculum, and level of collaboration with teaching staff. The study revealed that 74% of the respondents had offered some types of IL instruction in their institutions during the previous year, ranging from library orientation to research-level skills. IL instruction is typically only offered to new students or first-time library users or on demand. A majority of the respondents developed IL instruction programs without faculty involvement. Librarians were primarily responsible for offering IL instruction in medical institutions. Face-to-face instruction in computer labs or lecture halls and individual instruction at reference desks were identified as the most common IL instruction delivery methods. The data indicated that oral feedback, written feedback, and searching in a computer lab were the most popular assessment methods that medical librarians used. IL instruction activities in medical libraries of Pakistan are in their infancy. Medical librarians also lack systematic approaches to IL instruction. Medical librarians need to develop educational partnerships with faculty for integrating IL instruction into the mainstream curriculum.

  2. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics.

  3. Improving medical students’ knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student’s critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. PMID:26604852

  4. How lead consultants approach educational change in postgraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Joanne P I; Westerman, Michiel; Teunissen, Pim W; van der Lee, Nadine; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Dörr, P Joep; Scheele, Fedde

    2012-04-01

      Consultants in charge of postgraduate medical education (PGME) in hospital departments ('lead consultants') are responsible for the implementation of educational change. Although difficulties in innovating in medical education are described in the literature, little is known about how lead consultants approach educational change.   This study was conducted to explore lead consultants' approaches to educational change in specialty training and factors influencing these approaches.   From an interpretative constructivist perspective, we conducted a qualitative exploratory study using semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 16 lead consultants in the Netherlands between August 2010 and February 2011. The study design was based on the research questions and notions from corporate business and social psychology about the roles of change managers. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using template analysis.   The lead consultants described change processes with different stages, including cause, development of content, and the execution and evaluation of change, and used individual change strategies consisting of elements such as ideas, intentions and behaviour. Communication is necessary to the forming of a strategy and the implementation of change, but the nature of communication is influenced by the strategy in use. Lead consultants differed in their degree of awareness of the strategies they used. Factors influencing approaches to change were: knowledge, ideas and beliefs about change; level of reflection; task interpretation; personal style, and department culture.   Most lead consultants showed limited awareness of their own approaches to change. This can lead them to adopt a rigid approach, whereas the ability to adapt strategies to circumstances is considered important to effective change management. Interventions and research should be aimed at enhancing the awareness of lead consultants of approaches to change in PGME.

  5. Accreditation of Medical Education in China: Accomplishments and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    As an external review mechanism, accreditation has played a positive global role in quality assurance and promotion of educational reform. Accreditation systems for medical education have been developed in more than 100 countries including China. In the past decade, Chinese standards for basic medical education have been issued together with…

  6. 'Soft and fluffy': medical students' attitudes towards psychology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students opting for a career in general practice. In summary, appreciation of psychology in medical education will only happen if all educators involved in medical education value and respect each other's speciality and expertise. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. 78 FR 45917 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and... meeting of the National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). Parts of this...

  8. Nursing Associated Medication Errors: Are Internationally Educated Nurses Different from U.S. Educated Nurses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay J. Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors can be detrimental to patient safety and contribute to additional costs in healthcare. The United States has seen a steady increase in internationally-educated nurses (IENs entering the nursing workforce. The current study builds upon the existing research examining the relationship between IENs and medication errors by controlling for confounding factors and testing whether IENs were more likely to make multiple medication errors compared to USENs. This study was a quasi-case control study. The 2006 and 2010 medication error incident data from hospital risk management departments were used. The final sample was 1,773, representing 788 registered nurse in the case group and 985 registered nurses in the control group. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine single medication error, multiple errors, and consequence of medication errors, in comparing the IENs to USENs. IENs tended to have multiple errors more often than USENs in 2006 (31.7% for IENs and 20.5% for USENs, p = 0.03, but these differences became marginally significant after combining both years of data and completing the multivariable models adjusting for covariates (Odds ratio = 1.38, p = 0.06. No significant differences in making a single error and medication error consequences were observed between IENs and USENs. Although no significant differences between IENs and USENs in having medication error incidents were observed, IENs might be more likely to have multiple medication error incidents in a year compared to USENs. Policies that encourage targeted orientation addressing implicit belief systems about the nursing role and explains patient safety expectations as well as procedures for medication administration may be beneficial for IENs. Supportive leadership that is culturally competent, ensures ongoing continuing education in pharmacology, and provides culturally appropriate incentives for self-reporting medication errors are important.

  9. Relevance of the Flexner Report to contemporary medical education in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Zubair; Burdick, William P; Supe, Avinash; Singh, Tejinder

    2010-02-01

    A century after the publication of Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (the Flexner Report), the quality of medical education in much of Asia is threatened by weak regulation, inadequate public funding, and explosive growth of private medical schools. Competition for students' fees and an ineffectual accreditation process have resulted in questionable admission practices, stagnant curricula, antiquated learning methods, and dubious assessment practices. The authors' purpose is to explore the relevance of Flexner's observations, as detailed in his report, to contemporary medical education in South Asia, to analyze the consequences of growth, and to recommend pragmatic changes. Major drivers for growth are the supply-demand mismatch for medical school positions, weak governmental regulation, private sector participation, and corruption. The consequences are urban-centric growth, shortage of qualified faculty, commercialization of postgraduate education, untenable assessment practices, emphasis on rote learning, and inadequate clinical exposure. Recommendations include strengthening accreditation standards and processes possibly by introducing regional or national student assessment, developing defensible student assessment systems, recognizing health profession education as a field of scholarship, and creating a tiered approach to faculty development in education. The relevance of Flexner's recommendations to the current status of medical education in South Asia is striking, in terms of both the progressive nature of his thinking in 1910 and the need to improve medical education in Asia today. In a highly connected world, the improvement of Asian medical education will have a global impact.

  10. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.

  11. Internationalization of medical education in Iran: A way towards implementation of the plans of development and innovation in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EHSAN SHAMSI GOOSHKI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Academic institutions are the most important organizations for implementation of internationalization policies and practices for integrating an international, intercultural and global dimension in higher education system. Also, a globally increasing demand for higher education has been seen in the past two decades so that the number of students enrolled in higher education institutions in the worldwide nation-states has increased dramatically. The National Plan of International Development of Medical Education was designed with the aim of identifying available potentials in all the universities of medical sciences, encouraging the development of international standards of medical education, and planning for the utilization of the existing capacity in Islamic republic of Iran. Methods: Authors have tried to review the several aspects of international activities in higher education in the world and describe national experiences and main policies in globalization of medical education in Iran within implementation of the National Plan for Development and Innovation in Medical Education. Results: The findings of some global experiences provide the policy makers with clear directions in order to develop internationalization of higher education. Conclusion: The Program for International Development of Medical Education was designed by the Deputy of Education in the Ministry of Health and the effective implementation of this Program was so important for promotion of Iranian medical education. But there were some challenges in this regard; addressing them through inter-sectoral collaboration is one of the most important strategies for the development of internationalization of education in the field of medical sciences.

  12. Internationalization of medical education in Iran: A way towards implementation of the plans of development and innovation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Pourabbasi, Ata; Akbari, Hamid; Rezaei, Nima; Arab Kheradmand, Ali; Kheiry, Zahra; Peykari, Niloufar; Momeni Javid, Fatereh; Hajipour, Firouzeh; Larijani, Bagher

    2018-01-01

    Academic institutions are the most important organizations for implementation of internationalization policies and practices for integrating an international, intercultural and global dimension in higher education system. Also, a globally increasing demand for higher education has been seen in the past two decades so that the number of students enrolled in higher education institutions in the worldwide nation-states has increased dramatically. The National Plan of International Development of Medical Education was designed with the aim of identifying available potentials in all the universities of medical sciences, encouraging the development of international standards of medical education, and planning for the utilization of the existing capacity in Islamic republic of Iran. Authors have tried to review the several aspects of international activities in higher education in the world and describe national experiences and main policies in globalization of medical education in Iran within implementation of the National Plan for Development and Innovation in Medical Education. The findings of some global experiences provide the policy makers with clear directions in order to develop internationalization of higher education. The Program for International Development of Medical Education was designed by the Deputy of Education in the Ministry of Health and the effective implementation of this Program was so important for promotion of Iranian medical education. But there were some challenges in this regard; addressing them through inter-sectoral collaboration is one of the most important strategies for the development of internationalization of education in the field of medical sciences.

  13. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  14. Urogenital disease: current medical need and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoboski, M

    1998-11-01

    The Medicinal Chemistry Division session on Urogenital Disease began with an overview by Dr P-O Andersson (Pharmacia and Upjohn, MI, USA) of current medical need and recent advances in the field. Dr Andersson drew attention to the limited interest that pharmaceutical companies have historically shown in the area of non-malignant diseases of the urogenital tract. Conditions such as bladder overactivity and urinary incontinence, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction have been poorly understood and have been regarded as unavoidable consequences of old age. One factor, which further compounds the problem, is that many people do not seek treatment, a practice which tends to lower the awareness of these conditions.

  15. Medical telerobotic systems: current status and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Sotiris; Christoforou, Eftychios G; Panayides, Andreas S; Voskarides, Sotos; Novales, Cyril; Nouaille, Laurence; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Vieyres, Pierre

    2016-08-12

    Teleoperated medical robotic systems allow procedures such as surgeries, treatments, and diagnoses to be conducted across short or long distances while utilizing wired and/or wireless communication networks. This study presents a systematic review of the relevant literature between the years 2004 and 2015, focusing on medical teleoperated robotic systems which have witnessed tremendous growth over the examined period. A thorough insight of telerobotics systems discussing design concepts, enabling technologies (namely robotic manipulation, telecommunications, and vision systems), and potential applications in clinical practice is provided, while existing limitations and future trends are also highlighted. A representative paradigm of the short-distance case is the da Vinci Surgical System which is described in order to highlight relevant issues. The long-distance telerobotics concept is exemplified through a case study on diagnostic ultrasound scanning. Moreover, the present review provides a classification into short- and long-distance telerobotic systems, depending on the distance from which they are operated. Telerobotic systems are further categorized with respect to their application field. For the reviewed systems are also examined their engineering characteristics and the employed robotics technology. The current status of the field, its significance, the potential, as well as the challenges that lie ahead are thoroughly discussed.

  16. A current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Gerald J; Roderer, Nancy K; Assar, Soraya

    2005-04-01

    The article offers a current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship. The authors: (1) discuss how definitions of medical informatics have changed in relation to health sciences librarianship and the broader domain of information science; (2) compare the missions of health sciences librarianship and health sciences informatics, reviewing the characteristics of both disciplines; (3) propose a new definition of health sciences informatics; (4) consider the research agendas of both disciplines and the possibility that they have merged; and (5) conclude with some comments about actions and roles for health sciences librarians to flourish in the biomedical information environment of today and tomorrow. Boundaries are disappearing between the sources and types of and uses for health information managed by informaticians and librarians. Definitions of the professional domains of each have been impacted by these changes in information. Evolving definitions reflect the increasingly overlapping research agendas of both disciplines. Professionals in these disciplines are increasingly functioning collaboratively as "boundary spanners," incorporating human factors that unite technology with health care delivery.

  17. CURRENT FRAMEWORK OF EDUCATIONAL DIGITAL BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida, P.S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The constant changes in society and the expansion of information and communication technologies present new challenges for all sectors, mainly in educational areas, where new forms of work are The constant changes in society and the expansion of information and communication technologies present new challenges for all sectors, mainly in educational areas, where new forms of work are

  18. Special Education in Arab Countries: Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…

  19. Stakeholders Perception of Current Health Education Situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Education is one of the critical eight essential pillars of the primary health care (PHC) adopted world-wide by WHO member countries in 1978. After over two decades of health education to support PHC implementation, the epidemiological profile of Ghana continues to be dominated by communicable diseases, and ...

  20. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  1. Current neurotrauma treatment practice in secondary medical service centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Eiichi; Yoshino, Hiroko; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2011-01-01

    Despite neurotrauma treatment practices comprising a significant amount of neurosurgical work for secondary medical service centers, little attention has been placed on neurotrauma cases and evaluation of current neurotrauma treatment practices is limited. Therefore we investigated current neurotrauma practices in our hospital located in a Japanese suburban city. We analyzed 439 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to our hospital between April 2004 and October 2010. Patients were divided into three groups based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission: mild TBI (GCS 14-15) in 252 patients (57.4%), moderate TBI (GCS 9-13) in 116 patients (26.4%), and severe TBI (GCS 3-8) in 71 patients (16.2%). Age, gender, alcohol consumption, cause of injury, cranial CT findings, neurosurgical procedure, length of hospital stay, and clinical outcome were analyzed. The average age of the patients was 59.2 years old. Male patients comprised 65%. Alcohol consumption was reported in 81 cases (18.5%), most of them with moderate TBI. Fall (208 cases, 47.4%) was the most frequent cause of injury, followed by traffic accident (115 cases, 26.2%) and high fall (73 cases, 16.6%). Acute subdural hematoma (174 cases, 39.6%) was most frequently seen in cranial CT findings on admission, which significantly increased with severity. A neurosurgical procedure was performed for 70 cases (15.9%), of which 15 (6.0%) were mild TBI and 18 (15.5%) were moderate TBI. The average hospital stay was 20.8 days, which significantly increased with severity. The overall rate of favorable outcome was 82.7%, and mortality was 8.2%; outcome deteriorated with severity. Some mild and moderate TBI cases had deteriorated and required surgery or resulted in death. These findings suggest that cautious treatment is necessary even in mild to moderate TBI cases which are often encountered in secondary medical service centers. (author)

  2. Mobile technologies in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken; Ellaway, Rachel H; Topps, David; Archibald, Douglas; Hogue, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile technologies (including handheld and wearable devices) have the potential to enhance learning activities from basic medical undergraduate education through residency and beyond. In order to use these technologies successfully, medical educators need to be aware of the underpinning socio-theoretical concepts that influence their usage, the pre-clinical and clinical educational environment in which the educational activities occur, and the practical possibilities and limitations of their usage. This Guide builds upon the previous AMEE Guide to e-Learning in medical education by providing medical teachers with conceptual frameworks and practical examples of using mobile technologies in medical education. The goal is to help medical teachers to use these concepts and technologies at all levels of medical education to improve the education of medical and healthcare personnel, and ultimately contribute to improved patient healthcare. This Guide begins by reviewing some of the technological changes that have occurred in recent years, and then examines the theoretical basis (both social and educational) for understanding mobile technology usage. From there, the Guide progresses through a hierarchy of institutional, teacher and learner needs, identifying issues, problems and solutions for the effective use of mobile technology in medical education. This Guide ends with a brief look to the future.

  3. Medical education in paradise: another facet of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joshua L; Kasuya, Richard; Sakai, Damon; Haning, William; Izutsu, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    Hawaii is synonymous with paradise in the minds of many. Few know that it is also an environment where high quality medical education is thriving. This paper outlines medical education initiatives beginning with native Hawaiian healers of centuries ago, and continuing to present-day efforts to support top-notch multicultural United States medical education across the continuum of training. The undergraduate medical education program has as its core community-based problem-based learning. The community basis of training is continued in graduate medical education, with resident doctors in the various programs rotating through different clinical experiences at various hospitals and clinics. Continuing medical education is provided by nationally accredited entities, within the local context. Educational outreach activities extend into primary and secondary schools, homeless shelters, neighbouring islands, and to countries throughout the Pacific. Challenges facing the medical education community in Hawaii are similar to those faced elsewhere and include incorporating more technology to improve efficiency, strengthening the vertical integration of the training continuum, better meeting the needs of the state, and paying for it all. Readers are invited to join in addressing these challenges to further the realisation of medical education in paradise as a paradise of medical education.

  4. Ten years of medical education registrars: Value added?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Victoria; Davin, Lorna

    2018-05-22

    There is a paucity of any long-term follow up of trainees' career pathways or organisational outcomes from medical education registrar posts in emergency medicine training. We report on the experience of a selected group of medical education trainees during and subsequent to their post and reflect on the value added to emergency medical education at three institutions. We conducted an online survey study, examining quantitative outcomes and qualitative reflections, of emergency physicians who had previously undertaken a medical education registrar post. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise responses to Likert items. The authors independently analysed and interpreted the reflective responses to identify key themes and sub-themes. Nineteen of 21 surveys were completed. Most respondents were in formal educational roles, in addition to clinical practice. The thematic analysis revealed that the medical education registrar experience, and the subsequent contribution of these trainees to medical education, is significantly shaped by external factors. These include the extent of faculty support, and the value placed on medical education by hospitals/departments/leaders. Acquisition of knowledge and skills in medical education was only part of a broader developmental journey and transitioning of identity for the trainees. Our findings suggest that medical education trainees in emergency medicine progress to educational roles, and most respondents attribute their career progression to the medical education training experience. We recommend that medical education registrar programmes need to be valued within the clinical service, supported by faculty and a 'community of practice', to support trainees' transition to clinician educator leadership roles. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  5. On Development of Medical Informatics Education via European Cooperation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (1998), s. 219-223 ISSN 1386-5056 Keywords : information technologies * education * training * medical informatics * medical statistics * epidemiology Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.357, year: 1998

  6. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified.

  7. "Profession": a working definition for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Sylvia R; Johnston, Sharon; Cruess, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    To provide a working definition of professionalism for medical educators. Thus far, the literature has not provided a concise and inclusive definition of the word profession. There appears to be a need for one as a basis for teaching the cognitive aspects of the subject and for evaluating behaviors characteristic of professionals. Furthermore, a knowledge of the meaning of the word is important as it serves as the basis of the contract between medicine and society, and hence, of the obligations required of medicine to sustain the contract. A definition is proposed based on the Oxford English Dictionary and the literature on the subject. It is suggested that this can be useful to medical educators with responsibilities for teaching about the professions, professional responsibilities, and professional behavior. The proposed definition is as follows: Profession: An occupation whose core element is work based upon the mastery of a complex body of knowledge and skills. It is a vocation in which knowledge of some department of science or learning or the practice of an art founded upon it is used in the service of others. Its members are governed by codes of ethics and profess a commitment to competence, integrity and morality, altruism, and the promotion of the public good within their domain. These commitments form the basis of a social contract between a profession and society, which in return grants the profession a monopoly over the use of its knowledge base, the right to considerable autonomy in practice and the privilege of self-regulation. Professions and their members are accountable to those served and to society.

  8. Evaluation Apprehension and Impression Management in Clinical Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C

    2018-05-01

    Historically, clinical medical education has relied on subjective evaluations of students and residents to judge their clinical competence. The uncertainty associated with these subjective clinical evaluations has produced evaluation apprehension among learners and attempts to manage one's professional persona (impression management) among peers and supervisors. Such behavior has been documented from antiquity through the Middle Ages to the present, including in two new qualitative studies in this issue of Academic Medicine on the social psychology of clinical medical education. New approaches to medical education, including competency-based education, mastery learning, and assessment methods that unite evaluation and education, are slowly changing the culture of clinical medical education. The author of this Invited Commentary argues that this shift will bring greater transparency and accountability to clinical medical education and gradually reduce evaluation apprehension and the impression management motives it produces.

  9. Getting started on your research: practical advice for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Ronald J

    2010-10-01

    Guidance and mentorship benefit faculty who having little or no background conducting research in medical education. From his experience the author suggests three characteristics that distinguish medical educators who are especially productive in their scholarly activities: intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivation, collaboration with colleagues, and the personal qualities of patience and organization. He then expands on these characteristics by offering practical advice in the form of eight tips for faculty seeking to acquire or improve their medical education research skills.

  10. Twelve tips for using Twitter as a learning tool in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgie, Sarah Edith; Duff, Jon P; Ross, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Twitter is an online social networking service, accessible from any Internet-capable device. While other social networking sites are online confessionals or portfolios of personal current events, Twitter is designed and used as a vehicle to converse and share ideas. For this reason, we believe that Twitter may be the most likely candidate for integrating social networking with medical education. Using current research in medical education, motivation and the use of social media in higher education, we aim to show the ways Twitter may be used as a learning tool in medical education. A literature search of several databases, online sources and blogs was carried out examining the use of Twitter in higher education. We created 12 tips for using Twitter as a learning tool and organized them into: the mechanics of using Twitter, suggestions and evidence for incorporating Twitter into many medical education contexts, and promoting research into the use of Twitter in medical education. Twitter is a relatively new social medium, and its use in higher education is in its infancy. With further research and thoughtful application of media literacy, Twitter is likely to become a useful adjunct for more personalized teaching and learning in medical education.

  11. Innovation in medical education: summer studentships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Engel, Naomi; Dunlop, Ross; Kay, Christine

    2010-03-01

    few doctors choose academic medicine as a career. Reasons suggested for this include a lack of exposure. Thus, we wished to broaden the opportunities available for undergraduate medical students to experience academic medicine, specifically medical education. The approach selected was to establish a programme of competitive Teaching Development Awards: the 'Summer Studentship Scheme'. this article describes the approach taken, including an overview of the organisation of the Summer Studentship Scheme, and provides preliminary data on gains from the programme. Twenty studentships were funded over a 3-year period. The projects covered a wide range of topics. Information on what the students gained from the projects and supervisor views of the programme were sought by questionnaire and self-reflective statements. the academic gains to date include nine presentations at national conferences and four published papers. All student respondents (87%) agreed that they would recommend a summer studentship to another student. Supervising a studentship (86% response rate) was seen as a positive experience. a relatively small level of funding can lead to great gains, in terms of academic output, internally, and in terms of external dissemination, as well as in gains to participating students and staff. We plan to track the career developments of participating students to see if they are more likely to pursue academic medicine as their peers. Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  12. Bioinformatics Education in Pathology Training: Current Scope and Future Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Clay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Training anatomic and clinical pathology residents in the principles of bioinformatics is a challenging endeavor. Most residents receive little to no formal exposure to bioinformatics during medical education, and most of the pathology training is spent interpreting histopathology slides using light microscopy or focused on laboratory regulation, management, and interpretation of discrete laboratory data. At a minimum, residents should be familiar with data structure, data pipelines, data manipulation, and data regulations within clinical laboratories. Fellowship-level training should incorporate advanced principles unique to each subspecialty. Barriers to bioinformatics education include the clinical apprenticeship training model, ill-defined educational milestones, inadequate faculty expertise, and limited exposure during medical training. Online educational resources, case-based learning, and incorporation into molecular genomics education could serve as effective educational strategies. Overall, pathology bioinformatics training can be incorporated into pathology resident curricula, provided there is motivation to incorporate, institutional support, educational resources, and adequate faculty expertise.

  13. Towards a Uniform European Education for Medical Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofides, S.

    2008-01-01

    The European Federation of Organisations in Medical Physics (EFOMP) mission and objectives are briefly presented. The most attention is given to the education and training activities of the EFOMP. Revised EFOMP recommendations on Education, Training and CPD of Medical Physicists and Policy Statements are listed. In order for Medical Physics to be recognised by the European Union as a profession some future activities like Bologna Declaration process, continuous professional development, European Network for Medical Physics training Schools, actions for the harmonisation of the Education and Training of the Medical Physicist in Europe in accordance with EU Directive 2005/36/EC and EU Recommendation 2008/C 111/01 are also discussed

  14. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  15. Ethics curriculum for emergency medicine graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Lu, Dave W; Stettner, Edward; Sokolove, Peter E; Ufberg, Jacob W; Noeller, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    Ethics education is an essential component of graduate medical education in emergency medicine. A sound understanding of principles of bioethics and a rational approach to ethical decision-making are imperative. This article addresses ethics curriculum content, educational approaches, educational resources, and resident feedback and evaluation. Ethics curriculum content should include elements suggested by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. Essential ethics content includes ethical principles, the physician-patient relationship, patient autonomy, clinical issues, end-of-life decisions, justice, education in emergency medicine, research ethics, and professionalism. The appropriate curriculum in ethics education in emergency medicine should include some of the content and educational approaches outlined in this article, although the optimal methods for meeting these educational goals may vary by institution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nurses’ attitudes and behaviors on patient medication education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen JF

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication education is vital for positive patient outcomes. However, there is limited information about optimal medication education by nurses during hospitalization and care transitions. Objective: Examine nurses’ attitudes and behaviors regarding the provision of patient medication education. The secondary objectives were to determine if nurses’ medication education attitudes explain their behaviors, describe nurses’ confidence in patient medication knowledge and abilities, and identify challenges to and improvements for medication education. Methods: A cross sectional survey was administered to nurses servicing internal medicine, cardiology, or medical-surgical patients. Results: Twenty-four nurses completed the survey. Greater than 90% of nurses believed it is important to provide information on new medications and medical conditions, utilize resources, assess patient understanding and adherence, and use open ended question. Only 58% believed it is important to provide information on refill medications. Greater than 80% of nurses consistently provided information on new medications, assessed patient understanding, and utilized resources, but one-third or less used open-ended questions or provided information on refill medications. Most nurses spend 5-9 minutes per patient on medication education and their attitudes matched the following medication education behaviors: assessing adherence (0.57; p<0.01, providing information on new medications (0.52; p<0.05, using open-ended questions (0.51; p<0.01, and providing information on refill medications (0.39; p<0.05. Nurses had higher confidence that patients can understand and follow medication instructions, and identify names and purpose of their medications. Nurses had lower confidence that patients know what to expect from their medication or how to manage potential side effects. Communication, including language barriers and difficulty determining the patient

  17. Implementation and outcome evaluation of the Medical Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation and outcome evaluation of the Medical Education ... the pretest median score was 55% (interquartile range (IQR) 40 - 62%) and the posttest ... This education mode offers the opportunity for health researchers to advance their ...

  18. Teaching cultural diversity: current status in U.K., U.S., and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Nisha; Reitmanova, Sylvia; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the current state of cultural diversity education for undergraduate medical students in three English-speaking countries: the United Kingdom (U.K.), United States (U.S.) and Canada. We review key documents that have shaped cultural diversity education in each country and compare and contrast current issues. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the varied terminology that is immediately evident. Suffice it to say that there are many terms (e.g. cultural awareness, competence, sensitivity, sensibility, diversity and critical cultural diversity) used in different contexts with different meanings. The major issues that all three countries face include a lack of conceptual clarity, and fragmented and variable programs to teach cultural diversity. Faculty and staff support and development, and ambivalence from both staff and students continue to be a challenge. We suggest that greater international collaboration may help provide some solutions.

  19. The Canada-Guyana medical education partnership: using videoconferencing to supplement post-graduate medical education among internal medicine trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stokes

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The formation of a resident-led, videoconference teaching series is a mutually beneficial partnership for Canadian and Guyanese medical residents and fosters international collaboration in medical education.

  20. Digital games in medical education: Key terms, concepts, and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Kaufman, David

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Game-based education is fast becoming a key instrument in medical education. Method: In this study, papers related to games were filtered and limited to full-text peer-reviewed published in English. Results: To the best of researchers' knowledge, the concepts used in the literature are varied and distinct, and the literature is not conclusive on the definition of educational games for medical education. Conclusion: This paper attempts to classify terms, concepts and definitions common to gamification in medical education.

  1. The health sciences librarian in medical education: a vital pathways project task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Diane G; Blobaum, Paul M; Shipman, Jean P; Markwell, Linda Garr; Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2009-10-01

    The Medical Education Task Force of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians reviewed current and future roles of health sciences librarians in medical education at the graduate and undergraduate levels and worked with national organizations to integrate library services, education, and staff into the requirements for training medical students and residents. Standards for medical education accreditation programs were studied, and a literature search was conducted on the topic of the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education. Expectations for library and information services in current standards were documented, and a draft standard prepared. A comprehensive bibliography on the role of the health sciences librarian in medical education was completed, and an analysis of the services provided by health sciences librarians was created. An essential role and responsibility of the health sciences librarian will be to provide the health care professional with the skills needed to access, manage, and use library and information resources effectively. Validation and recognition of the health sciences librarian's contributions to medical education by accrediting agencies will be critical. The opportunity lies in health sciences librarians embracing the diverse roles that can be served in this vital activity, regardless of accrediting agency mandates.

  2. Establishment of medical education upon internalization of virtue ethics: bridging the gap between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Mansoureh; Larijani, Bagher; Madani, Ensieh; Ghasemzadeh, Nazafarin

    2017-01-01

    During medical training, students obtain enough skills and knowledge. However, medical ethics accomplishes its goals when, together with training medical courses, it guides students behavior towards morality so that ethics-oriented medical practice is internalized. Medical ethics is a branch of applied ethics which tries to introduce ethics into physicians' practice and ethical decisions; thus, it necessitates the behavior to be ethical. Therefore, when students are being trained, they need to be supplied with those guidelines which turn ethical instructions into practice to the extent possible. The current text discusses the narrowing of the gap between ethical theory and practice, especially in the field of medical education. The current study was composed using analytical review procedures. Thus, classical ethics philosophy, psychology books, and related articles were used to select the relevant pieces of information about internalizing behavior and medical education. The aim of the present study was to propose a theory by analyzing the related articles and books. The attempt to fill the gap between medical theory and practice using external factors such as law has been faced with a great deal of limitations. Accordingly, the present article tries to investigate how and why medical training must take internalizing ethical instructions into consideration, and indicate the importance of influential internal factors. Virtue-centered education, education of moral emotions, changing and strengthening of attitudes through education, and the wise use of administrative regulations can be an effective way of teaching ethical practice in medicine.

  3. Computers, the Internet and medical education in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher D; Pitchforth, Emma L; O'Callaghan, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to explore the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in undergraduate medical education in developing countries. METHODS Educators (deans and heads of medical education) in English-speaking countries across Africa were sent a questionnaire to establish the current state of ICT at medical schools. Non-respondents were contacted firstly by e-mail, subsequently by two postal mailings at 3-month intervals, and finally by telephone. Main outcome measures included cross-sectional data about the availability of computers, specifications, Internet connection speeds, use of ICT by students, and teaching of ICT and computerised research skills, presented by country or region. RESULTS The mean computer : student ratio was 0.123. Internet speeds were rated as 'slow' or 'very slow' on a 5-point Likert scale by 25.0% of respondents overall, but by 58.3% in East Africa and 33.3% in West Africa (including Cameroon). Mean estimates showed that campus computers more commonly supported CD-ROM (91.4%) and sound (87.3%) than DVD-ROM (48.1%) and Internet (72.5%). The teaching of ICT and computerised research skills, and the use of computers by medical students for research, assignments and personal projects were common. CONCLUSIONS It is clear that ICT infrastructure in Africa lags behind that in other regions. Poor download speeds limit the potential of Internet resources (especially videos, sound and other large downloads) to benefit students, particularly in East and West (including Cameroon) Africa. CD-ROM capability is more widely available, but has not yet gained momentum as a means of distributing materials. Despite infrastructure limitations, ICT is already being used and there is enthusiasm for developing this further. Priority should be given to developing partnerships to improve ICT infrastructure and maximise the potential of existing technology.

  4. South African medical schools: Current state of selection criteria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of medical students at South African (SA) medical schools must promote ... groups, while ensuring optimal student throughput and success, and training future ... In keeping = with international practices, a variety of academic and ...

  5. Exploring the tensions of being and becoming a medical educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ahsan; Ajjawi, Rola; McAleer, Sean; Schofield, Susie

    2017-03-23

    Previous studies have identified tensions medical faculty encounter in their roles but not specifically those with a qualification in medical education. It is likely that those with postgraduate qualifications may face additional tensions (i.e., internal or external conflicts or concerns) from differentiation by others, greater responsibilities and translational work against the status quo. This study explores the complex and multi-faceted tensions of educators with qualifications in medical education at various stages in their career. The data described were collected in 2013-14 as part of a larger, three-phase mixed-methods research study employing a constructivist grounded theory analytic approach to understand identity formation among medical educators. The over-arching theoretical framework for the study was Communities of Practice. Thirty-six educators who had undertaken or were undertaking a postgraduate qualification in medical education took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants expressed multiple tensions associated with both becoming and being a healthcare educator. Educational roles had to be juggled with clinical work, challenging their work-life balance. Medical education was regarded as having lower prestige, and therefore pay, than other healthcare career tracks. Medical education is a vast speciality, making it difficult as a generalist to keep up-to-date in all its areas. Interestingly, the graduates with extensive experience in education reported no fears, rather asserting that the qualification gave them job variety. This is the first detailed study exploring the tensions of educators with postgraduate qualifications in medical education. It complements and extends the findings of the previous studies by identifying tensions common as well as specific to active students and graduates. These tensions may lead to detachment, cynicism and a weak sense of identity among healthcare educators. Postgraduate programmes in medical education

  6. [Humanities in medical education: between reduction and integration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taehee

    2015-09-01

    Reductive logic has been a major reasoning style in development of modern biomedical sciences. However, when "medical humanities" is developed by reductive reasoning, integrative and holistic values of humanities tend to be weakened. In that sense, identity and significance of "medical humanities" continue to be controversial despite of its literal clarity. Humanities in medical education should be established by strengthening humanistic and socialistic aspects of regular medical curriculum as well as developing individual "medical humanities" programs.

  7. Educational testing validity and reliability in pharmacy and medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew J; Jung, Rose; Jacobs, David M; Peeters, Michael J

    2013-12-16

    To evaluate and compare the reliability and validity of educational testing reported in pharmacy education journals to medical education literature. Descriptions of validity evidence sources (content, construct, criterion, and reliability) were extracted from articles that reported educational testing of learners' knowledge, skills, and/or abilities. Using educational testing, the findings of 108 pharmacy education articles were compared to the findings of 198 medical education articles. For pharmacy educational testing, 14 articles (13%) reported more than 1 validity evidence source while 83 articles (77%) reported 1 validity evidence source and 11 articles (10%) did not have evidence. Among validity evidence sources, content validity was reported most frequently. Compared with pharmacy education literature, more medical education articles reported both validity and reliability (59%; particles in pharmacy education compared to medical education, validity, and reliability reporting were limited in the pharmacy education literature.

  8. Traditional Chinese Medical Journals currently published in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei-Yu; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Pan, Yan-Li; Shang, Wen-Ling; Shen, Jia-Yi; Li, Wei; Li, Li-Jun

    2008-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medical (TCM) journals have been playing an important role in scholarly communication in China. However, the information in those periodicals was not enough for international readers. This study aims to provide an overview of TCM journals in China. TCM journals currently published in mainland China were identified from Chinese databases and journal subscription catalogs. Data on publication start year, publishing region, language, whether core journals, whether indexed in famous international databases, with/without accessible URL were investigated, and subjects of journals were categorized. One hundred and forty-nine (149) TCM journals are currently published in mainland China; 88.59% of them are academic journals. The subjects of those journals are various, ranging from the general TCM, integrative medicine, herbal medicines, to veterinary TCM. The publishing areas are distributed in 27 regions, with Beijing having the most TCM journals published. One hundred and forty-two (142) of those periodicals are in Chinese, while 4 are also in English, and 3 in other languages. Only 8 TCM journals were recognized as core journals, and 5 were identified as both core journals and journals with high impacted articles by all evaluation systems in China. A few of the TCM journals from mainland China are indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE (10), EMBASE (5), Biological Abstracts (2), or AMED (1). Online full-text Chinese databases CJFD, COJ, and CSTPD cover most of TCM the journals published in the country. One hundred (100) TCM journals have accessible URLs, but only 3 are open access with free full texts. Publication of TCM journals in China has been active in academic communication in the past 20 years. However, only a few of them received recognized high evaluation. English information from them is not sufficient. Open access is not extensively acceptable. The accessibility of those journals to international readers needs to be improved.

  9. Medical Typewriting; Business Education: 7705.32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Amy P.

    This guide describes a course designed to prepare students for employment as medical records clerks capable of handling all types of medical forms and reports, and using and spelling medical terminology correctly. The need for medical typists is critical. The guide contains enrollment guidelines, performance objectives (i.e., type medical…

  10. Patient-centered medical home cyberinfrastructure current and future landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Barr, Michael S; Kothari, Pranav P; Nace, David K; Quinn, Matthew

    2011-05-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an approach that evolved from the understanding that a well-organized, proactive clinical team working in a tandem with well-informed patients is better able to address the preventive and disease management needs in a guideline-concordant manner. This approach represents a fundamental shift from episodic acute care models and has become an integral part of health reform supported on a federal level. The major aspects of PCMH, especially pertinent to its information infrastructure, have been discussed by an expert panel organized by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality at the Informatics for Consumer Health Summit. The goal of this article is to summarize the panel discussions along the four major domains presented at the summit: (1) PCMH as an Evolving Model of Healthcare Delivery; (2) Health Information Technology (HIT) Applications to Support the PCMH; (3) Current HIT Landscape of PCMH: Challenges and Opportunities; and (4) Future HIT Landscape of PCMH: Federal Initiatives on Health Informatics, Legislation, and Standardization. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvised explosive devices: pathophysiology, injury profiles and current medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    The improvised explosive device (IED), in all its forms, has become the most significant threat to troops operating in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices range from rudimentary home made explosives to sophisticated weapon systems containing high-grade explosives. Within this broad definition they may be classified as roadside explosives and blast mines, explosive formed pojectile (EFP) devices and suicide bombings. Each of these groups causeinjury through a number of different mechanisms and can result in vastly different injury profiles. The "Global War on Terror" has meant that incidents which were previously exclusively seen in conflict areas, can occur anywhere, and clinicians who are involved in emergency trauma care may be required to manage casualties from similar terrorist attacks. An understanding of the types of devices and their pathophysiological effects is necessary to allow proper planning of mass casualty events and to allow appropriate management of the complex poly-trauma casualties they invariably cause. The aim of this review article is to firstly describe the physics and injury profile from these different devices and secondly to present the current clinical evidence that underpins their medical management.

  12. Attention to gender in communication skills assessment instruments in medical education: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dielissen, P.W.; Bottema, B.J.A.M.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Gender is increasingly regarded as an important factor in doctor-patient communication education. This review aims to assess if and how gender is addressed by current assessment instruments for communication skills in medical education. METHODS: In 2009 at Radboud University Nijmegen

  13. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  14. Business Education at Catholic Universities: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Stephen J.; McCall, John J.; DiAngelo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Is business education at Catholic colleges and universities different than business education at secular institutions? This study assesses the current state of business education at Catholic colleges and universities based on a national survey of business school deans and faculty members and an audit of business unit web sites. Results suggest…

  15. Inclusive Education in Georgia: Current Trends and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchintcharauli, Tinatin; Javakhishvili, Nino

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the first comprehensive study of the Georgian inclusive education system launched nationwide in 2006. An internationally recognised tool, the "Pathway to Inclusion--Barometer of Inclusive Education", was applied within the country to highlight the current position of inclusive education in Georgia. The collected…

  16. Retheorizing sexual harassment in medical education: women students' perceptions at five U.S. medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese; Aultman, Julie M; Borges, Nicole J

    2007-01-01

    The literature consistently reports that sexual harassment occurs with regularity in medical education, mostly in clinical settings, and most of it goes unreported. Reasons for nonreporting include the fear of retaliation, a reluctance to be viewed as a victim, a fear that one is being "too sensitive," and the belief that nothing will be done. We wanted to examine with greater concentration the stories women students tell about sexual harassment, including what they count as sexual harassment, for more or different clues to their persistent nonreporting. We used focus groups to interview 30 women students at 5 U.S. medical schools. We used systematic inductive guidelines to analyze the transcribed data, linking to and building new theoretical frameworks to provide an interpretive understanding of the lived experiences of the women in our study. Consistent with previous literature, most of the students interviewed had either witnessed or observed sexual harassment. We selected 2 theoretical lenses heretofore not used to explain responses to sexual harassment: 3rd-wave feminist theory to think about how current women students conceive sexual harassment and personality theory to explain beliefs about nonreporting. Medical educators need new ways to understand how contemporary women students define and respond to sexual harassment.

  17. Scenario-based teaching in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kunj Patel, Omar El Tokhy Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWe read with great interest the study by Frost et al1 which highlights the importance of scenario-based teaching (SBT of clinical communication in medical undergraduate pediatrics teaching. SBT involves students navigating a storyline based around a complex problem, running in parallel with case-based learning. We were impressed by the results of the SBT program at Cardiff University School of Medicine. As medical students currently on our pediatric rotation at Imperial College London, we have experienced at first hand the benefits of SBT. Throughout the placement, it continues to help us tackle the complexities which arise when communicating with children and their families. We have noted its particular benefit in breaking bad news to families. Without effective teaching on this particular scenario, a failure to grasp this skill could exacerbate patient and parent concerns. Much like the authors of this study highlight,1 we believe specific teaching on communication skills should be a mandatory part of medical undergraduate education at every institution. Imperial College School of Medicine has developed a similar teaching style which has been unparalleled in its benefit to us during our pediatric rotation. Although there is scant literature available specifically addressing communicating with children and parents at undergraduate level, the use of SBT throughout undergraduate medical teaching should not be underestimated. Read the original paper by Frost et al

  18. The development of scientific reasoning in medical education: a psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Daniela Luminita; Achimaş-Cadariu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reasoning has been studied from a variety of theoretical perspectives, which have tried to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of this particular cognitive process. Scientific reasoning has been defined as a problem-solving process that involves critical thinking in relation to content, procedural, and epistemic knowledge. The development of scientific reasoning in medical education was influenced by current paradigmatic trends, it could be traced along educational curriculum and followed cognitive processes. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the role of scientific reasoning in medical education and outline educational methods for its development. Current evidence suggests that medical education should foster a new ways of development of scientific reasoning, which include exploration of the complexity of scientific inquiry, and also take into consideration the heterogeneity of clinical cases found in practice.

  19. Status of neurology medical school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155

  20. Nutrition education in Japanese medical schools: a follow-up survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimo, Hideo; Ueno, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Akira; Itakura, Hiroshige

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was used to determine the status of nutrition education in Japanese medical schools in 2009. A similar survey was conducted in 2004, at which time nutritional education was determined to be inadequate in Japanese medical schools. The current questionnaire was sent to the directors of Centers for Medical Education of 80 medical schools, who represented all medical schools in Japan. Sixty-seven medical schools (83.8%) responded, of which 25 schools (37.3%) offered dedicated nutrition courses and 36 schools (53.7%) did not offer dedicated nutrition courses but offered something related to nutrition in other courses; six schools (9.0%) did not offer any nutrition education. Overall, 61 schools (91.0%) offered at least some nutritional topics in their undergraduate education. Nevertheless, only 11 schools (16.4%) seem to dedicate more than 5 hours to substantial nutrition education as judged by their syllabi. Although the mean length of the course was 11 hours, substantial nutrition education accounted for only 4.2 hours. Of the 25 medical schools that offered dedicated nutrition courses, seven schools offered the nutrition course as a stand-alone course and 18 schools offered it as an integrated course. In conclusion, the status of nutrition education in Japan has improved slightly but is still inadequate.

  1. [Formation of medical education in North Korea: 1945-1948].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yun-Jung; Cho, Young-Soo

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on the formation of medical education in North Korea from 1945 to 1948 in terms of the centralization of medical education, and on the process and significance of the systemization of medical education. Doctors of the past trained under the Japanese colonial system lived and worked as liberalists. More than half of these doctors who were in North Korea defected to South Korea after the country was liberated. Thus the North Korean regime faced the urgent task of cultivating new doctors who would 'serve the state and people.' Since the autumn of 1945, right after national liberation, Local People's Committees organized and implemented medical education autonomously. Following the establishment of the Provisional People's Committee of North Korea, democratic reform was launched, leading to the centralized administration of education. Consequently, medical educational institutions were realigned, with some elevated to medical colleges and others shut down. The North Korean state criticised the liberalistic attitude of doctors and the bureaucratic style of health administration, and tried to reform their political consciousness through political inculcation programs. The state also grant doctors living and housing privileges, which show its endeavor to build 'state medicine'. By 1947, a medical education system was established in which the education administration was put in charge of training new doctors while the health administration was put in charge of nurturing and retraining health workers. In this way, the state was the principal agent that actively established a centralized administrative system in the process of the formation of medical education in North Korea following national liberation. Another agent was deeply involved in this process - the faculty that was directly in charge of educating the new doctors. Studying the medical faculty remains another research task for the future. By exploring how the knowledge, generational experience

  2. Ecological theories of systems and contextual change in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Bates, Joanna; Teunissen, Pim W

    2017-12-01

    Contemporary medical practice is subject to many kinds of change, to which both individuals and systems have to respond and adapt. Many medical education programmes have their learners rotating through different training contexts, which means that they too must learn to adapt to contextual change. Contextual change presents many challenges to medical education scholars and practitioners, not least because of a somewhat fractured and contested theoretical basis for responding to these challenges. There is a need for robust concepts to articulate and connect the various debates on contextual change in medical education. Ecological theories of systems encompass a range of concepts of how and why systems change and how and why they respond to change. The use of these concepts has the potential to help medical education scholars explore the nature of change and understand the role it plays in affording as well as limiting teaching and learning. This paper, aimed at health professional education scholars and policy makers, explores a number of key concepts from ecological theories of systems to present a comprehensive model of contextual change in medical education to inform theory and practice in all areas of medical education. The paper considers a range of concepts drawn from ecological theories of systems, including biotic and abiotic factors, panarchy, attractors and repellers, basins of attraction, homeostasis, resilience, adaptability, transformability and hysteresis. Each concept is grounded in practical examples from medical education. Ecological theories of systems consider change and response in terms of adaptive cycles functioning at different scales and speeds. This can afford opportunities for systematic consideration of responses to contextual change in medical education, which in turn can inform the design of education programmes, activities, evaluations, assessments and research that accommodates the dynamics and consequences of contextual change.

  3. Guiding principles for successful innovation in regional medical education development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Richard B

    2006-01-01

    This is an era of extraordinary expansion in medical education in both the developed and developing world. This article reflects on the author's experience in implementing new regional medical education programs, and distils ten principles to guide successful innovation once funding for such development has been achieved.

  4. Social Media: Portrait of an Emerging Tool in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Durga; Taylor, Jacob; Cheston, Christine C; Flickinger, Tabor E; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2016-02-01

    The authors compare the prevalence of challenges and opportunities in commentaries and descriptive accounts versus evaluative studies of social media use in medical education. A previously published report of social media use in medical education provided an in-depth discussion of 14 evaluative studies, a small subset of the total number of 99 articles on this topic. This study used the full set of articles identified by that review, including the 58 commentaries and 27 descriptive accounts which had not been previously reported, to provide a glimpse into how emerging tools in medical education are initially perceived. Each commentary, descriptive account, and evaluative study was identified and compared on various characteristics, including discussion themes regarding the challenges and opportunities of social media use in medical education. Themes related to the challenges of social media use in medical education were more prevalent in commentaries and descriptive accounts than in evaluative studies. The potential of social media to affect medical professionalism adversely was the most commonly discussed challenge in the commentaries (53%) and descriptive accounts (63%) in comparison to technical issues related to implementation in the evaluative studies (50%). Results suggest that the early body of literature on social media use in medical education-like that of previous innovative education tools-comprises primarily commentaries and descriptive accounts that focus more on the challenges of social media than on potential opportunities. These results place social media tools in historical context and lay the groundwork for expanding on this novel approach to medical education.

  5. World Federation for Medical Education Policy on international recognition of medical schools' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of medicine, as manifested in the migration rate of medical doctors and in the growth of cross-border education providers, has inflicted a wave of quality assurance efforts in medical education, and underlined the need for definition of standards and for introduction of effective and transparent accreditation systems. In 2004, reflecting the importance of the interface between medical education and the healthcare delivery sector, a World Health Organization (WHO)/World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education was formed. In 2005, the partnership published Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education. The WHO/WFME Guidelines recommend the establishment of proper accreditation systems that are effective, independent, transparent and based on medical education-specific criteria. An important prerequisite for this development was the WFME Global Standards programme, initiated in 1997 and widely endorsed. The standards are now being used in all 6 WHO/WFME regions as a basis for quality improvement of medical education throughout its continuum and as a template for national and regional accreditation standards. Promotion of national accreditation systems will have a pivotal influence on future international appraisal of medical education. Information about accreditation status - the agencies involved and the criteria and procedure used - will be an essential component of new Global Directories of Health Professions Educational Institutions. According to an agreement between the WHO and the University of Copenhagen (UC), these Directories (the Avicenna Directories) will be developed and published by the UC with the assistance of the WFME, starting with renewal of the WHO World Directory of Medical Schools, and sequentially expanding to cover educational institutions for other health professions. The Directories will be a foundation for international meta-recognition ("accrediting the

  6. Perspectives in medical education 9. Revisiting the blueprint for reform of medical education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Harsha; Rao, Kanchan H

    2010-01-01

    Reform of medical education at Keio University has been underway since 2003. We measure the progress made since then in five specific categories that span fifteen recommendations presented in our "Blueprint for Reform" at the outset of the effort. These are effectiveness of leadership, curriculum reform, recognition of teaching, clinical competence, and comprehensive training in general internal medicine (GIM). First, effective leadership is being sustained through a succession of Deans, although a potentially crippling loss of leadership in the Department of Medical Education must be offset through timely appointment. Second, curriculum reform is awaiting the implementation in 2012 of an integrated, organ system-based curriculum with an emphasis on ward clerkships, but the introduction of PBL has been delayed indefinitely. Third, teaching is being recognized through the use of student feedback to reward good teachers and through funds for six full-time equivalent salaries dedicated to medical education, but promotions still depend exclusively on research, without consideration of teaching ability. Fourth, clinical skills training is still lacking, although enthusiasm for it seems to be building, thanks to the presence on the wards of a (still miniscule) cadre of dedicated teachers. Finally, exposure to GIM remains non-existent; however, visionary leadership in a newly-independent Emergency Department and the wide variety of medical problems seen there provide a remarkable opportunity to craft a uniquely Japanese solution to the problem. The changes implemented to date are impressive, and we remain enthusiastic about the future, even as we recognize the magnitude of the task that lies ahead.

  7. CURRENT STATUS OF RESEARCH PROJECT ACTIVITIES IN MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Bulgaria there are five medical universities: in the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Pleven and Stara Zagora. Their main mission is training specialists in the fields of medicine and health care, increasing their qualification by means of postgraduate education and performing research activities. One of medical universities’ top priorities is encouraging research activities mainly aimed at preparation and implementation of research projects. Aim: The purpose of our study is to examine the current status of research project activities in Bulgarian medical universities.Material and methods: In order to define the science competitions related to Bulgarian medical universities we have applied a documentary and sociological approach. Results: Research projects that Bulgarian medical universities can apply for are divided into two groups – national and international. The most significant international projects are European ones since Bulgaria is an EU member state and this allows us to participate in such projects. Conclusion: Universities should strive for establishing even better conditions for encouraging application for research projects aimed at developing competent and experienced staff, even though the majority of them may not obtain approval for financing.The changes in the situation regarding Bulgarian science require the implementation and development of more research staff motivated to improve their knowledge and skills in the relevant dynamically changing competition and project field.

  8. Enabling Access to Medical and Health Education in Rwanda Using Mobile Technology: Needs Assessment for the Development of Mobile Medical Educator Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusatira, Jean Christophe; Tomaszewski, Brian; Dusabejambo, Vincent; Ndayiragije, Vincent; Gonsalves, Snedden; Sawant, Aishwarya; Mumararungu, Angeline; Gasana, George; Amendezo, Etienne; Haake, Anne; Mutesa, Leon

    2016-06-01

    Lack of access to health and medical education resources for doctors in the developing world is a serious global health problem. In Rwanda, with a population of 11 million, there is only one medical school, hence a shortage in well-trained medical staff. The growth of interactive health technologies has played a role in the improvement of health care in developed countries and has offered alternative ways to offer continuous medical education while improving patient's care. However, low and middle-income countries (LMIC) like Rwanda have struggled to implement medical education technologies adapted to local settings in medical practice and continuing education. Developing a user-centered mobile computing approach for medical and health education programs has potential to bring continuous medical education to doctors in rural and urban areas of Rwanda and influence patient care outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine user requirements, currently available resources, and perspectives for potential medical education technologies in Rwanda. Information baseline and needs assessments data collection were conducted in all 44 district hospitals (DHs) throughout Rwanda. The research team collected qualitative data through interviews with 16 general practitioners working across Rwanda and 97 self-administered online questionnaires for rural areas. Data were collected and analyzed to address two key questions: (1) what are the currently available tools for the use of mobile-based technology for medical education in Rwanda, and (2) what are user's requirements for the creation of a mobile medical education technology in Rwanda? General practitioners from different hospitals highlighted that none of the available technologies avail local resources such as the Ministry of Health (MOH) clinical treatment guidelines. Considering the number of patients that doctors see in Rwanda, an average of 32 patients per day, there is need for a locally adapted mobile education app

  9. Narrative inquiry: a relational research methodology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie T; Berendonk, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Narrative research, an inclusive term for a range of methodologies, has rapidly become part of medical education scholarship. In this paper we identify narrative inquiry as a particular theoretical and methodological framework within narrative research and outline its characteristics. We briefly summarise how narrative research has been used in studying medical learners' identity making in medical education. We then turn to the uses of narrative inquiry in studying medical learners' professional identity making. With the turn to narrative inquiry, the shift is to thinking with stories instead of about stories. We highlight four challenges in engaging in narrative inquiry in medical education and point toward promising future research and practice possibilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  10. Economic analysis in medical education: definition of essential terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs.

  11. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Medical education for social justice: Paulo Freire revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DasGupta, Sayantani; Fornari, Alice; Geer, Kamini; Hahn, Louisa; Kumar, Vanita; Lee, Hyun Joon; Rubin, Susan; Gold, Marji

    2006-01-01

    Although social justice is an integral component of medical professionalism, there is little discussion in medical education about how to teach it to future physicians. Using adult learning theory and the work of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire, medical educators can teach a socially-conscious professionalism through educational content and teaching strategies. Such teaching can model non-hierarchical relationships to learners, which can translate to their clinical interactions with patients. Freirian teaching can additionally foster professionalism in both teachers and learners by ensuring that they are involved citizens in their local, national and international communities.

  13. Effects on Deaf Patients of Medication Education by Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyoguchi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Deaf people often experience difficulty in understanding medication information provided by pharmacists due to communication barriers. We held medication education lectures for deaf and hard of hearing (HH) individuals and examined the extent to which deaf participants understood medication-related information as well as their attitude about…

  14. Widening Participation in Medical Education: Challenging Elitism and Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursicot, Kathy; Roberts, Trudie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine issues relating to the enduring nature of elitism and exclusion in medical education by exploring the changes in social and policy influences on the admission and inclusion of women and disabled people to undergraduate medical courses and the medical profession. The widening participation imperative in the United Kingdom…

  15. Medical Students' Perceptions and Preferences for Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, Brian; Bezek, Katelyn

    2017-01-01

    Sexual health topics are not well-covered in US medical schools. Research has not typically asked medical students what sexual health topics they would like addressed and their preferred methods of sexual health education. This study attempted to address this deficit via an online survey of medical students at an institution where little sexual…

  16. [Current status of medical accident prevention in our pathology section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Honda, Takayuki

    2010-08-01

    Preventive measures against medical accident should be addressed in the pathology section. Medical accidents occur while preparing tissue specimens and making pathological diagnoses. For the preparation of tissue specimens, we have developed a work manual in consultation with past incident reports and update this manual regularly. We can reduce medical accidents by including a check system for each task. For pathological diagnosis, we perform some of the same checks as for tissue specimen preparation and can make more correct diagnoses by conferring with other departments. It is also important to check each other's work to prevent medical accidents.

  17. Achieving the Desired Transformation: Thoughts on Next Steps for Outcomes-Based Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric S; Batalden, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Since the introduction of the outcomes-based medical education (OBME) movement, progress toward implementation has been active but challenging. Much of the angst and criticism has been directed at the approaches to assessment that are associated with outcomes-based or competency frameworks, particularly defining the outcomes. In addition, these changes to graduate medical education (GME) are concomitant with major change in health care systems--specifically, changes to increase quality and safety while reducing cost. Every sector, from medical education to health care delivery and financing, is in the midst of substantial change and disruption.The recent release of the Institute of Medicine's report on the financing and governance of GME highlights the urgent need to accelerate the transformation of medical education. One source of continued tension within the medical education community arises from the assumption that the much-needed increases in value and improvement in health care can be achieved by holding the current educational structures and architecture of learning in place while concomitantly withdrawing resources. The authors of this Perspective seek to reframe the important and necessary debate surrounding the current challenges to implementing OBME. Building on recent change and service theories (e.g., Theory U and coproduction), they propose several areas of redirection, including reexamination of curricular models and greater involvement of learners, teachers, and regulators in cocreating new training models, to help facilitate the desired transformation in medical education.

  18. Limitations of poster presentations reporting educational innovations at a major international medical education conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Gordon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most areas of medical research, the label of ‘quality’ is associated with well-accepted standards. Whilst its interpretation in the field of medical education is contentious, there is agreement on the key elements required when reporting novel teaching strategies. We set out to assess if these features had been fulfilled by poster presentations at a major international medical education conference. Methods: Such posters were analysed in four key areas: reporting of theoretical underpinning, explanation of instructional design methods, descriptions of the resources needed for introduction, and the offering of materials to support dissemination. Results: Three hundred and twelve posters were reviewed with 170 suitable for analysis. Forty-one percent described their methods of instruction or innovation design. Thirty-three percent gave details of equipment, and 29% of studies described resources that may be required for delivering such an intervention. Further resources to support dissemination of their innovation were offered by 36%. Twenty-three percent described the theoretical underpinning or conceptual frameworks upon which their work was based. Conclusions: These findings suggest that posters presenting educational innovation are currently limited in what they offer to educators. Presenters should seek to enhance their reporting of these crucial aspects by employing existing published guidance, and organising committees may wish to consider explicitly requesting such information at the time of initial submission.

  19. Limitations of poster presentations reporting educational innovations at a major international medical education conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Darbyshire, Daniel; Saifuddin, Aamir; Vimalesvaran, Kavitha

    2013-02-19

    In most areas of medical research, the label of 'quality' is associated with well-accepted standards. Whilst its interpretation in the field of medical education is contentious, there is agreement on the key elements required when reporting novel teaching strategies. We set out to assess if these features had been fulfilled by poster presentations at a major international medical education conference. Such posters were analysed in four key areas: reporting of theoretical underpinning, explanation of instructional design methods, descriptions of the resources needed for introduction, and the offering of materials to support dissemination. Three hundred and twelve posters were reviewed with 170 suitable for analysis. Forty-one percent described their methods of instruction or innovation design. Thirty-three percent gave details of equipment, and 29% of studies described resources that may be required for delivering such an intervention. Further resources to support dissemination of their innovation were offered by 36%. Twenty-three percent described the theoretical underpinning or conceptual frameworks upon which their work was based. These findings suggest that posters presenting educational innovation are currently limited in what they offer to educators. Presenters should seek to enhance their reporting of these crucial aspects by employing existing published guidance, and organising committees may wish to consider explicitly requesting such information at the time of initial submission.

  20. Radiation education in India: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Bhagwat, D.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pune (India)

    1999-09-01

    Like others, Indians too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of weaker systems of proper radiation-education to the sizable illiterates. Even in urban areas, laboratories are ill equipped and radioactivity-wise practically non-functional. Only through textbooks, some concepts are introduced and the media and Internet are yet almost non-influential. Some national institutes (DAE Labs.) and a few universities including ours are involved in research and teaching. National associations (INS, IANCAS) voluntarily organize workshops, symposia, practicals for the teachers/students and informative speeches for all. Syllabus emphasizing experiments for the age group 14-17 years is proposed and implementation-methodology is discussed. (author)

  1. Radiation education in India: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Bhagwat, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Like others, Indians too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of weaker systems of proper radiation-education to the sizable illiterates. Even in urban areas, laboratories are ill equipped and radioactivity-wise practically non-functional. Only through textbooks, some concepts are introduced and the media and Internet are yet almost non-influential. Some national institutes (DAE Labs.) and a few universities including ours are involved in research and teaching. National associations (INS, IANCAS) voluntarily organize workshops, symposia, practicals for the teachers/students and informative speeches for all. Syllabus emphasizing experiments for the age group 14-17 years is proposed and implementation-methodology is discussed. (author)

  2. Thinking the post-colonial in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan; Brice, Julie; Bligh, John

    2008-03-01

    Western medicine and medical techniques are being exported to all corners of the world at an increasing rate. In a parallel wave of globalisation, Western medical education is also making inroads into medical schools, hospitals and clinics across the world. Despite this rapidly expanding field of activity, there is no body of literature discussing the relationship between post-colonial theory and medical education. Although the potential benefits of international partnerships and collaborations in education are incontrovertible, many medical educators are sometimes too unreflecting about what they are doing when they advocate the export of Western curricula, educational approaches and teaching technologies. The Western medical curriculum is steeped in a particular set of cultural attitudes that are rarely questioned. We argue that, from a critical theoretical perspective, the unconsidered enterprise of globalising the medical curriculum risks coming to represent a 'new wave' of imperialism. Using examples from Japan, India and Southeast Asia, we show how medical schools in non-Western countries struggle with the ingrained cultural assumptions of some curricular innovations such as the objective structured clinical examination, problem-based learning and the teaching of clinical skills. We need to develop greater understanding of the relationship between post-colonial studies and medical education if we are to prevent a new wave of imperialism through the unreflecting dissemination of conceptual frameworks and practices which assume that 'metropolitan West is best'.

  3. The medical elective: A unique educational opportunity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the core values of service learning. The community ... parent medical school requires a year's clinical tuition in another country, including ... 'Medical tourism' has been criticised, as the net gain favours the trainee participant and ...

  4. Identifying facilitators and barriers for implementation of interprofessional education: Perspectives from medical educators in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries-Erich, Joy; Reuchlin, Kirsten; de Maaijer, Paul; van de Ridder, J M Monica

    2017-03-01

    Patient care and patient safety can be compromised by the lack of interprofessional collaboration and communication between healthcare providers. Interprofessional education (IPE) should therefore start during medical training and not be postponed until after graduation. This case study explored the current situation in the Dutch context and interviewed experts within medical education and with pioneers of successful best practices to learn more about their experiences with IPE. Data analysis started while new data were still collected, resulting in an iterative, constant comparative process. Using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis framework, we identified barriers and facilitators such as lack of a collective professional language, insufficient time or budget, stakeholders' resistance, and hierarchy. Opportunities and strengths identified were developing a collective vision, more attention for patient safety, and commitment of teachers. The facilitators and barriers relate to the organisational level of IPE and the educational content and practice. In particular, communication, cohesiveness, and support are influenced by these facilitators. An adequate identification of the SWOT elements in the current situation could prove beneficial for a successful implementation of IPE within the healthcare educational system.

  5. Advancing medical education: connecting interprofessional collaboration and education opportunities with integrative medicine initiatives to build shared learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundImproved teamwork between conventional and complementary medicine (CM) practitioners is indicated to achieve effective healthcare. However, little is known about interprofessional collaboration and education in the context of integrative medicine (IM). MethodsThis paper reports the findings from a constructivist-grounded theory method study that explored and highlighted Australian medical students' experiences and opportunities for linking interprofessional collaboration and learning in the context of IM. Following ethical approval, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 medical students from 10 medical education faculties across Australian universities. Results Medical students recognised the importance of interprofessional teamwork between general medical practitioners and CM professionals in patient care and described perspectives of shared responsibilities, profession-specific responsibilities, and collaborative approaches within IM. While students identified that limited interprofessional collaboration currently occurred in the medical curriculum, interprofessional education was considered a means of increasing communication and collaboration between healthcare professionals, helping coordinate effective patient care, and understanding each healthcare team members' professional role and value. Conclusions The findings suggest that medical curricula should include opportunities for medical students to develop required skills, behaviours, and attitudes for interprofessional collaboration and interprofessional education within the context of IM. While this is a qualitative study that reflects theoretical saturation from a selected cohort of medical students, the results also point to the importance of including CM professionals within interprofessional collaboration, thus contributing to more person-centred care.

  6. Data repositories for medical education research: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan; Pappas, Cleo; Sandlow, Leslie J

    2010-05-01

    The authors explore issues surrounding digital repositories with the twofold intention of clarifying their creation, structure, content, and use, and considering the implementation of a global digital repository for medical education research data sets-an online site where medical education researchers would be encouraged to deposit their data in order to facilitate the reuse and reanalysis of the data by other researchers. By motivating data sharing and reuse, investigators, medical schools, and other stakeholders might see substantial benefits to their own endeavors and to the progress of the field of medical education.The authors review digital repositories in medicine, social sciences, and education, describe the contents and scope of repositories, and present extant examples. The authors describe the potential benefits of a medical education data repository and report results of a survey of the Society for Directors of Research in Medicine Education, in which participants responded to questions about data sharing and a potential data repository. Respondents strongly endorsed data sharing, with the caveat that principal investigators should choose whether or not to share data they collect. A large majority believed that a repository would benefit their unit and the field of medical education. Few reported using existing repositories. Finally, the authors consider challenges to the establishment of such a repository, including taxonomic organization, intellectual property concerns, human subjects protection, technological infrastructure, and evaluation standards. The authors conclude with recommendations for how a medical education data repository could be successfully developed.

  7. Forty years of medical education through the eyes of Medical Teacher: From chrysalis to butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Ronald M; Lilley, Pat; McLaughlin, Jake

    2018-04-01

    To mark the 40th Anniversary of Medical Teacher, issues this year will document changes in medical education that have taken place over the past 40 years in undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education with regard to curriculum themes and approaches, teaching and learning methods, assessment techniques and management issues. Trends such as adaptive learning will be highlighted and one issue will look at the medical school of the future. An analysis of papers published in the journal has identified four general trends in medical education - increased collaboration, greater international interest, student engagement with the education process and a move to a more evidence-informed approach to medical education. These changes over the years have been dramatic.

  8. A critical review of the core medical training curriculum in the UK: A medical education perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Gkotsi, Despoina; Panteliou, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents a systematic evaluation of the Core Medical Training Curriculum in the UK. The authors critically review the curriculum from a medical education perspective based mainly on the medical education literature as well as their personal experience of this curriculum. They conclude in practical recommendations and suggestions which, if adopted, could improve the design and implementation of this postgraduate curriculum. The systematic evaluation approach described in this paper is transferable to the evaluation of other undergraduate or postgraduate curricula, and could be a helpful guide for medical teachers involved in the delivery and evaluation of any medical curriculum.

  9. Automated essay scoring and the future of educational assessment in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Latifi, Syed; Lai, Hollis; Boulais, André-Philippe; De Champlain, André

    2014-10-01

    Constructed-response tasks, which range from short-answer tests to essay questions, are included in assessments of medical knowledge because they allow educators to measure students' ability to think, reason, solve complex problems, communicate and collaborate through their use of writing. However, constructed-response tasks are also costly to administer and challenging to score because they rely on human raters. One alternative to the manual scoring process is to integrate computer technology with writing assessment. The process of scoring written responses using computer programs is known as 'automated essay scoring' (AES). An AES system uses a computer program that builds a scoring model by extracting linguistic features from a constructed-response prompt that has been pre-scored by human raters and then, using machine learning algorithms, maps the linguistic features to the human scores so that the computer can be used to classify (i.e. score or grade) the responses of a new group of students. The accuracy of the score classification can be evaluated using different measures of agreement. Automated essay scoring provides a method for scoring constructed-response tests that complements the current use of selected-response testing in medical education. The method can serve medical educators by providing the summative scores required for high-stakes testing. It can also serve medical students by providing them with detailed feedback as part of a formative assessment process. Automated essay scoring systems yield scores that consistently agree with those of human raters at a level as high, if not higher, as the level of agreement among human raters themselves. The system offers medical educators many benefits for scoring constructed-response tasks, such as improving the consistency of scoring, reducing the time required for scoring and reporting, minimising the costs of scoring, and providing students with immediate feedback on constructed-response tasks. © 2014

  10. Improving medical graduates' training in palliative care: advancing education and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head BA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barbara A Head,1 Tara J Schapmire,1 Lori Earnshaw,1 John Chenault,2 Mark Pfeifer,1 Susan Sawning,3 Monica A Shaw,3 1Division of General Internal Medicine, Palliative Care and Medical Education, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 2Kornhouser Health Sciences Library, University of Louisville, 3Undergraduate Medical Education Office, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The needs of an aging population and advancements in the treatment of both chronic and life-threatening diseases have resulted in increased demand for quality palliative care. The doctors of the future will need to be well prepared to provide expert symptom management and address the holistic needs (physical, psychosocial, and spiritual of patients dealing with serious illness and the end of life. Such preparation begins with general medical education. It has been recommended that teaching and clinical experiences in palliative care be integrated throughout the medical school curriculum, yet such education has not become the norm in medical schools across the world. This article explores the current status of undergraduate medical education in palliative care as published in the English literature and makes recommendations for educational improvements which will prepare doctors to address the needs of seriously ill and dying patients. Keywords: medical education, palliative care, end-of-life care

  11. Process-outcome interrelationship and standard setting in medical education: the need for a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Leif; Karle, Hans; Nystrup, Jørgen

    2007-09-01

    An outcome-based approach to medical education compared to a process/content orientation is currently being discussed intensively. In this article, the process and outcome interrelationship in medical education is discussed, with specific emphasis on the relation to the definition of standards in basic medical education. Perceptions of outcome have always been an integrated element of curricular planning. The present debate underlines the need for stronger focus on learning objectives and outcome assessment in many medical schools around the world. The need to maintain an integrated approach of process/content and outcome is underlined in this paper. A worry is expressed about the taxonomy of learning in pure outcome-based medical education, in which student assessment can be a major determinant for the learning process, leaving the control of the medical curriculum to medical examiners. Moreover, curricula which favour reductionism by stating everything in terms of instrumental outcomes or competences, do face a risk of lowering quality and do become a prey for political interference. Standards based on outcome alone rise unclarified problems in relationship to licensure requirements of medical doctors. It is argued that the alleged dichotomy between process/content and outcome seems artificial, and that formulation of standards in medical education must follow a comprehensive line in curricular planning.

  12. Sexual Health Competencies for Undergraduate Medical Education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Eckstrand, Kristen L; Knudson, Gail; Koehler, Jean; Leibowitz, Scott; Tsai, Perry; Feldman, Jamie L

    2017-04-01

    The number of hours spent teaching sexual health content and skills in medical education continues to decrease despite the increase in sexual health issues faced by patients across the lifespan. In 2012 and 2014, experts across sexuality disciplines convened for the Summits on Medical School Education and Sexual Health to strategize and recommend approaches to improve sexual health education in medical education systems and practice settings. One of the summit recommendations was to develop sexual health competencies that could be implemented in undergraduate medical education curricula. To discuss the process of developing sexual health competencies for undergraduate medical education in North America and present the resulting competencies. From 2014 to 2016, a summit multidisciplinary subcommittee met through face-to-face, phone conference, and email meetings to review prior competency-based guidelines and then draft and vet general sexual health competencies for integration into undergraduate medical school curricula. The process built off the Association of American Medical Colleges' competency development process for training medical students to care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and gender non-conforming patients and individuals born with differences of sex development. This report presents the final 20 sexual health competencies and 34 qualifiers aligned with the 8 overall domains of competence. Development of a comprehensive set of sexual health competencies is a necessary first step in standardizing learning expectations for medical students upon completion of undergraduate training. It is hoped that these competencies will guide the development of sexual health curricula and assessment tools that can be shared across medical schools to ensure that all medical school graduates will be adequately trained and comfortable addressing the different sexual health concerns presented by patients across the lifespan. Bayer CR, Eckstrand KL, Knudson G, et

  13. Transforming Medical Assessment: Integrating Uncertainty Into the Evaluation of Clinical Reasoning in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Suzette; Lemay, Jean-Francois

    2017-06-01

    In an age where practicing physicians have access to an overwhelming volume of clinical information and are faced with increasingly complex medical decisions, the ability to execute sound clinical reasoning is essential to optimal patient care. The authors propose two concepts that are philosophically paramount to the future assessment of clinical reasoning in medicine: assessment in the context of "uncertainty" (when, despite all of the information that is available, there is still significant doubt as to the best diagnosis, investigation, or treatment), and acknowledging that it is entirely possible (and reasonable) to have more than "one correct answer." The purpose of this article is to highlight key elements related to these two core concepts and discuss genuine barriers that currently exist on the pathway to creating such assessments. These include acknowledging situations of uncertainty, creating clear frameworks that define progressive levels of clinical reasoning skills, providing validity evidence to increase the defensibility of such assessments, considering the comparative feasibility with other forms of assessment, and developing strategies to evaluate the impact of these assessment methods on future learning and practice. The authors recommend that concerted efforts be directed toward these key areas to help advance the field of clinical reasoning assessment, improve the clinical care decisions made by current and future physicians, and have positive outcomes for patients. It is anticipated that these and subsequent efforts will aid in reaching the goal of making future assessment in medical education more representative of current-day clinical reasoning and decision making.

  14. Gamification and Multimedia for Medical Education: A Landscape Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Lewis, Joy H; Dalton, David

    2016-01-01

    Medical education is rapidly evolving. Students enter medical school with a high level of technological literacy and an expectation for instructional variety in the curriculum. In response, many medical schools now incorporate technology-enhanced active learning and multimedia education applications. Education games, medical mobile applications, and virtual patient simulations are together termed gamified training platforms. To review available literature for the benefits of using gamified training platforms for medical education (both preclinical and clinical) and training. Also, to identify platforms suitable for these purposes with links to multimedia content. Peer-reviewed literature, commercially published media, and grey literature were searched to compile an archive of recently published scientific evaluations of gamified training platforms for medical education. Specific educational games, mobile applications, and virtual simulations useful for preclinical and clinical training were identified and categorized. Available evidence was summarized as it related to potential educational advantages of the identified platforms for medical education. Overall, improved learning outcomes have been demonstrated with virtual patient simulations. Games have the potential to promote learning, increase engagement, allow for real-word application, and enhance collaboration. They can also provide opportunities for risk-free clinical decision making, distance training, learning analytics, and swift feedback. A total of 5 electronic games and 4 mobile applications were identified for preclinical training, and 5 electronic games, 10 mobile applications, and 12 virtual patient simulation tools were identified for clinical training. Nine additional gamified, virtual environment training tools not commercially available were also identified. Many published studies suggest possible benefits from using gamified media in medical curriculum. This is a rapidly growing field. More

  15. Update in medical education for pediatrics: insights and directions from the 2010 literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Barrett Fromme

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While most would agree that utilizing the literature to enhance individual educational practice and/or institutional success is the ideal method for improving medical education, methods to focus attention on the most relevant and valuable information have been heretofore lacking in the pediatric medical education literature. Methods : We performed a review of the medical education literature for the year 2010. Utilizing a similar strategy employed by others in Internal Medicine, we selected 12 high-yield education journals and manually reviewed the table of contents to select titles that would have grassroots applicability for medical educators. A broad search through PubMed was then completed using search terms adopted from prior studies, and titles from this search were similarly selected. The abstracts of selected titles (n=147 were each reviewed by two of the authors, then all authors reached consensus on articles for full review (n=34. The articles were then discussed and scored to achieve consensus for the 11 articles for inclusion in this paper. Results : Several themes emerged from reviewing these publications. We did not select topics or sections of interest a priori. The themes, grouped into four areas: supervision and leadership, hand-off communication, core competencies: teaching and assessment, and educational potpourri, reflect our community's current concerns, challenges, and engagement in addressing these topics. Each article is summarized below and begins with a brief statement of what the study adds to the practice of pediatric medical education. Discussion : This review highlights multiple ‘articles of value’ for all medical educators. We believe the value of these articles and the information they contain for improving the methods used to educate medical students, residents, and fellows are significant. The organically derived thematic areas of the representative articles offer a view of the landscape of

  16. [Give attention to war in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo; Groenewegen, Henk J; Meijman, Frans J

    2009-01-01

    Medical consequences of war are prominent in the media. The United Nations and the World Medical Association have called for medical curricula to permanently include consideration of human rights, in particular human rights in war time. Information on the medical consequences of war and weapon systems is valuable knowledge. Courses on this subject are popular amongst medical students, a considerable number of whom are willing to spend a period working for organisations as the Red Cross, Doctors without Borders or the Military Health Service. In spite of this, none of the Dutch medical faculties has given the subject a permanent place in its curriculum. Gathering knowledge on the medical consequences of war depends completely on the efforts of individuals.

  17. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.M.; Zanting, A.; van Beukelen, P.; de Grave, W.; Baane, J.A.; Bustraan, J.A.; Engbers, R.; Fick, T.E.; Jacobs, J.C.G.; Vervoorn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Aim: Because medical education takes a special position in higher education

  18. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W. M.; Zanting, A.; van Beukelen, P.; de Grave, W.; Baane, J. A.; Bustraan, J. A.; Engbers, R.; Fick, Th E.; Jacobs, J. C. G.; Vervoorn, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Because medical education takes a special position in higher education the Council of

  19. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W. M.; Zanting, A.; Van Beukelen, P.; De Grave, W.; Baane, J. A.; Bustraan, J. A.; Engbers, R.; Fick, Th E.; Jacobs, J. C. G.; Vervoorn, J. M.

    Background: The quality of teachers in higher education is Subject of increasing attention, its exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Aim: Because medical education takes a special position in higher education

  20. Current status of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 65 colleges and universities offering undergraduate degrees in nuclear engineering and the 15 schools offering strong nuclear engineering options are, in general, doing a good job to meet the current spectrum of job opportunities. But, nuclear engineering programs are not producing enough graduates to meet growing demands. They currently receive little aid and support from their customers --industry and government--in the form of scholarships, grants, faculty research support, student thesis and project support, or student summer jobs. There is not enough interaction between industry and universities. Most nuclear engineering programs are geared too closely to the technology of the present family of reactors and too little to the future breeder reactors and controlled thermonuclear reactors. In addition, nuclear engineering programs attract too few women and members of minority ethnic groups. Further study of the reasons for this fact is needed so that effective corrective action can be taken. Faculty in nuclear engineering programs should assume greater initiative to provide attractive and objective nuclear energy electives for technical and nontechnical students in other disciplines to improve their technical understanding of the safety and environmental issues involved. More aggressive and persistent efforts must be made by nuclear engineering schools to obtain industry support and involvement in their programs

  1. Reorientation of Educational Deputy of Ministry of Health and Medical Education in accreditation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einollahi B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently the Government of Islamic Republic of Iran has considered radical changes and innovation in the structure of medical education at all levels. Therefore the “Accreditation and Evaluation Plan of Medical Universities in Iran” is approved and emphasized in the Third 5-Year Development Program. Method. The Educational Deputy (ED of Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME considered three main plans: (1 Goal-based internal evaluation, and external evaluation of educational departments of medical universities based on internal evaluation. In 1995-6 ED began the internal evaluation, defining quality as fitness for purpose; and in 2000 started the external evaluation in some medical schools as a pilot study, based on previous internal evaluation. (2 Collaboration with World Federation for Medical Education (WFME, according to International Standards for Basic Medical Education Pilot Studies. Shiraz Medical University was co-opted by WFME to collaborate in the first stage; three medical universities (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti and Ahvaz are accepted for the second stage. (3 The project of “Standardization of Medical Education in Iran for Achieving International Accreditation”. This process is being performed in several steps: (a Study of three different sets of national (Australia, US and Mexico and international (WFME standards; (b Collection of the experts’ viewpoints specialized in medical education in this regard; (c Development of the first action plan; and (d Conduction of this project as pilot study in a number of medical universities. Results. Having primary results disseminated, motivated many other medical universities so that some announced their readiness to begin internal and external evaluation or standardization process. Conclusion. Regarding the importance of quality improvement in medical education, it is expected that even if this process would not lead to international accreditation acquisition, it

  2. Provider Education about Glaucoma and Glaucoma Medications during Videotaped Medical Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Sleath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine how patient, physician, and situational factors are associated with the extent to which providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications, and which patient and provider characteristics are associated with whether providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Methods. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited and a cross-sectional study was conducted at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients’ visits were videotape recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Providers were significantly more likely to educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications if they were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. Providers were significantly less likely to educate African American patients about glaucoma. Providers were significantly less likely to educate patients of lower health literacy about glaucoma medications. Conclusion. Eye care providers did not always educate patients about glaucoma or glaucoma medications. Practice Implications. Providers should consider educating more patients about what glaucoma is and how it is treated so that glaucoma patients can better understand their disease. Even if a patient has already been educated once, it is important to reinforce what has been taught before.

  3. Transformative learning: empathy and multicultural awareness in podiatric medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Craig M; Toomey, Robert J; Goodman, Brooke A; Barbosa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Short-term medical missions are common in medical educational settings and could possibly affect student learning. Little research has been conducted about the potential of these missions on students' transformative learning, in particular as it relates to empathy and multicultural awareness. Eight podiatric medical students who participated in short-term medical missions in 2008 and 2009 completed an electronic survey to investigate the effect of their experience as it relates to their learning. The empathy and multicultural awareness impact of the mission experience was emphasized. Qualitative questions in the survey were coded, themed, and triangulated with the quantitative responses. Six students (75%) "strongly agreed" that participating in the medical mission was a significant positive experience in their podiatric medical training. Six students felt that their experiences in serving these communities increased their personal awareness of multicultural/diversity needs in general. All of the students agreed that they will become better podiatric physicians because of their experiences in the medical missions. The qualitative data also indicate that the experience had an effect on the students' views of health care and increased empathy toward their patients. Short-term medical missions could play a significant role in the transformative learning experience in podiatric medical education. This could affect the empathy and multicultural awareness of podiatric medical students. Further and more extensive evaluations of the potential impact of short-term medical missions in podiatric medical education should be explored because it could influence curriculum and global health in the field of podiatric medicine.

  4. Simulation-based medical education: time for a pedagogical shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaniti, Kaarthigeyan; Campbell, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of medical education at all levels is to prepare physicians with the knowledge and comprehensive skills, required to deliver safe and effective patient care. The traditional 'apprentice' learning model in medical education is undergoing a pedagogical shift to a 'simulation-based' learning model. Experiential learning, deliberate practice and the ability to provide immediate feedback are the primary advantages of simulation-based medical education. It is an effective way to develop new skills, identify knowledge gaps, reduce medical errors, and maintain infrequently used clinical skills even among experienced clinical teams, with the overall goal of improving patient care. Although simulation cannot replace clinical exposure as a form of experiential learning, it promotes learning without compromising patient safety. This new paradigm shift is revolutionizing medical education in the Western world. It is time that the developing countries embrace this new pedagogical shift.

  5. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on culture as a dynamic process situated in a social context, and has been valued in diverse fields for yielding rich understandings of complex issues and key factors involved. This paper explains how activity theory can be used in (cross-)cultural medical education research. We discuss activity theory's theoretical background and principles, and we show how these can be applied to the cultural research practice by discussing the steps involved in a cross-cultural study that we conducted, from formulating research questions to drawing conclusions. We describe how the activity system, the unit of analysis in activity theory, can serve as an organizing principle to grasp cultural complexity. We end with reflections on the theoretical and practical use of activity theory for cultural research and note that it is not a shortcut to capture cultural complexity: it is a challenge for researchers to determine the boundaries of their study and to analyze and interpret the dynamics of the activity system.

  6. Medical students' use of Facebook for educational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anam

    2016-06-01

    Medical students use Facebook to interact with one another both socially and educationally. This study investigates how medical students in a UK medical school use Facebook to support their learning. In particular, it identifies the nature of their educational activities, and details their experiences of using an educational Facebook group. Twenty-four medical students who self-identified as being Facebook users were invited to focus groups to attain a general overview of Facebook use within an educational context. A textual analysis was then conducted on a small group of intercalating medical students who used a self-created Facebook group to supplement their learning. Five of these students participated in semi-structured interviews. Six common themes were generated. These included 'collaborative learning', 'strategic uses for the preparation for assessment', 'sharing experiences and providing support', 'creating and maintaining connections', 'personal planning and practical organization' and 'sharing and evaluating educational resources'. Evidence from this study shows that medical students are using Facebook informally to enhance their learning and undergraduate lives. Facebook has enabled students to create a supportive learning community amongst their peers. Medical educators wishing to capitalize on Facebook, as a platform for formal educational initiatives, should remain cautious of intruding on this peer online learning community.

  7. Patient Handoff Education: Are Medical Schools Catching Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robyn; Davis, Joshua; Berg, Katherine; Berg, Dale; Morgan, Charity J; Russo, Stefani; Riesenberg, Lee Ann

    Communication errors during shift-to-shift handoffs are a leading cause of preventable adverse events. Nevertheless, handoff skills are variably taught at medical schools. The authors administered questionnaires on handoffs to interns during orientation. Questions focused on medical school handoff education, experiences, and perceptions. The majority (546/718) reported having some form of education on handoffs during medical school, with 48% indicating this was 1 hour or less. Most respondents (98%) reported that they believe patients experience adverse events because of inadequate handoffs, and more than one third had witnessed a patient safety issue. Results show that medical school graduates are not receiving adequate handoff training. Yet graduates are expected to conduct safe patient handoffs at the start of residency. Given that ineffective handoffs pose a significant patient safety risk, medical school graduates should have a baseline competency in handoff skills. This will require medical schools to develop, implement, and study handoff education.

  8. Commentary: discovering a different model of medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Traditional medical schools in modern academic health centers make discoveries, create new knowledge and technology, provide innovative care to the sickest patients, and educate future academic and practicing physicians. Unfortunately, the growth of the research and clinical care missions has sometimes resulted in a loss of emphasis on the general professional education of medical students. The author concludes that it may not be practical for many established medical schools to functionally return to the reason they were created: for the education of medical students.He had the opportunity to discover a different model of medical student education at the first new MD-granting medical school created in the United States in 25 years (in 2000), the Florida State University College of Medicine. He was initially skeptical about how its distributed regional campuses model, using practicing primary care physicians to help medical students learn in mainly ambulatory settings, could be effective. But his experience as a faculty member at the school convinced him that the model works very well.He proposes a better alignment of form and function for many established medical schools and an extension of the regional community-based model to the formation of community-based primary care graduate medical education programs determined by physician workforce needs and available resources.

  9. Experiences of Accreditation of Medical Education in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wan Lai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to introduce the Taiwanese Medical Accreditation System: its history, role and future goals. In 1999, the Ministry of Education, Taiwanese Government commissioned the non-profit National Health Research Institutes (NHRI to develop a new medical accreditation system. According to that policy, the Taiwan Medical Accreditation Council (TMAC was established in the same year. The council serves a similar function to that of the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME of the United States and the Australian Medical Council (AMC. The accreditation process consists of a self-assessment plus a four-day site visit by a team of eight medical educators that are headed by one of the council members of the TMAC. The first cycle of initial visits was completed from 2001 to 2004. Subsequent follow-up visits were arranged according to the results of the survey with smaller-sized teams and shorter periods. There is evidence to suggest that the majority (seven of eleven of the medical schools in Taiwan have made good progress. TMAC’s next step will be to monitor the progress and raise the standard of medical education in individual schools with a homogenous, superior standard of medical education.

  10. Oncology Education in Medical Schools: Towards an Approach that Reflects Australia's Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Cancer has recently overtaken heart disease to become the number 1 cause of mortality both globally and in Australia. As such, adequate oncology education must be an integral component of medical school if students are to achieve learning outcomes that meet the needs of the population. The aim of this review is to evaluate the current state of undergraduate oncology education and identify how Australian medical schools can improve oncology learning outcomes for students and, by derivative, improve healthcare outcomes for Australians with cancer. The review shows that oncology is generally not well represented in medical school curricula, that few medical schools offer mandatory oncology or palliative care rotations, and that junior doctors are exhibiting declining oncology knowledge and skills. To address these issues, Australian medical schools should implement the Oncology Education Committee's Ideal Oncology Curriculum, enact mandatory oncology and palliative care clinical rotations for students, and in doing so, appreciate the importance of students' differing approaches to learning.

  11. Role of accrediting bodies in providing education leadership in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Leinster

    2014-01-01

    Role of accreditation authorities: If accreditation authorities are to provide leadership in medical education they must undertake regular review of their standards. This should be informed by all stakeholders and include experts in medical education. The format of the standards must provide clear direction to medical schools. Accreditation should take place regularly and should result in the production of a publicly accessible report.

  12. VR Medical Gamification for Training and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Stelian; Virag, Ioan; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2017-01-01

    The new virtual reality based medical applications is providing a better understanding of healthcare related subjects for both medical students and physicians. The work presented in this paper underlines gamification as a concept and uses VR as a new modality to study the human skeleton. The team proposes a mobile Android platform application based on Unity 5.4 editor and Google VR SDK. The results confirmed that the approach provides a more intuitive user experience during the learning process, concluding that the gamification of classical medical software provides an increased interactivity level for medical students during the study of the human skeleton.

  13. Medical simulation-based education improves medicos' clinical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Hai

    2013-03-01

    Clinical skill is an essential part of clinical medicine and plays quite an important role in bridging medicos and physicians. Due to the realities in China, traditional medical education is facing many challenges. There are few opportunities for students to practice their clinical skills and their dexterities are generally at a low level. Medical simulation-based education is a new teaching modality and helps to improve medicos' clinical skills to a large degree. Medical simulation-based education has many significant advantages and will be further developed and applied.

  14. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  15. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  16. Medical Education for Tennessee. A Report of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Jerry N.; Woods, Myra S.

    This study of medical education was conducted as a part of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission's responsibility to design a master plan for higher education in Tennessee. It provides a background of information on Tennessee's needs for physicians and on the production of physicians by the three medical schools in the state. The study…

  17. Policy issues related to educating the future Israeli medical workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Stephen C; Crome, Peter; Curry, Raymond H; Gershon, Elliot S; Glick, Shimon M; Katz, David R; Paltiel, Ora; Shapiro, Jo

    2015-01-01

    A 2014 external review of medical schools in Israel identified several issues of importance to the nation's health. This paper focuses on three inter-related policy-relevant topics: planning the physician and healthcare workforce to meet the needs of Israel's population in the 21(st) century; enhancing the coordination and efficiency of medical education across the continuum of education and training; and the financing of medical education. All three involve both education and health care delivery. The physician workforce is aging and will need to be replenished. Several physician specialties have been in short supply, and some are being addressed through incentive programs. Israel's needs for primary care clinicians are increasing due to growth and aging of the population and to the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions at all ages. Attention to the structure and content of both undergraduate and graduate medical education and to aligning incentives will be required to address current and projected workforce shortage areas. Effective workforce planning depends upon data that can inform the development of appropriate policies and on recognition of the time lag between developing such policies and seeing the results of their implementation. The preclinical and clinical phases of Israeli undergraduate medical education (medical school), the mandatory rotating internship (stáge), and graduate medical education (residency) are conducted as separate "silos" and not well coordinated. The content of basic science education should be relevant to clinical medicine and research. It should stimulate inquiry, scholarship, and lifelong learning. Clinical exposures should begin early and be as hands-on as possible. Medical students and residents should acquire specific competencies. With an increasing shift of medical care from hospitals to ambulatory settings, development of ambulatory teachers and learning environments is increasingly important. Objectives such as these

  18. Current Status and Issues in Basic Pharmaceutical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa

    2017-01-01

    Basic research in pharmaceutical sciences has a long and successful history. Researchers in this field have long given prime importance to the knowledge they have gained through their pharmaceutical education. The transition of pharmacy education to a 6-year course term has not only extended its duration but also placed more emphasis on practical clinical education. The School Education Act (in article 87, second paragraph) determines that "the term of the course, whose main purpose is to cultivate practical ability in clinical pharmacy, shall be six years" (excerpt). The 6-year pharmacy education is an exception to the general 4-year university term determined by the School Education Act. Therefore, the purpose of the 6-year course in pharmacy is clearly proscribed. This is true of the basic course in pharmaceutical education as well; hence, the basic course must be oriented toward developing "practical ability in clinical" education, too. The 6-year pharmacy course, starting from practice (Do), has evolved with the development of a syllabus that includes a model core curriculum (Plan). Furthermore, improvement in the course can be seen by the promoted development of faculty (Act). Now, evidence-based education research will be introduced (Check). This is how the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle in pharmaceutical education is expected to work. Currently, pedagogy research in pharmacy education has just begun, so it is difficult to evaluate at this time whether basic pharmaceutical education does in fact contribute to enhancing the "practical clinical ability" component of pharmaceutical education.

  19. Judicious use of simulation technology in continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael T; DiazGranados, Deborah; Feldman, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Use of simulation-based training is fast becoming a vital source of experiential learning in medical education. Although simulation is a common tool for undergraduate and graduate medical education curricula, the utilization of simulation in continuing medical education (CME) is still an area of growth. As more CME programs turn to simulation to address their training needs, it is important to highlight concepts of simulation technology that can help to optimize learning outcomes. This article discusses the role of fidelity in medical simulation. It provides support from a cross section of simulation training domains for determining the appropriate levels of fidelity, and it offers guidelines for creating an optimal balance of skill practice and realism for efficient training outcomes. After defining fidelity, 3 dimensions of fidelity, drawn from the human factors literature, are discussed in terms of their relevance to medical simulation. From this, research-based guidelines are provided to inform CME providers regarding the use of simulation in CME training. Copyright © 2012 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  20. Emotional intelligence as a crucial component to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Debbi R

    2015-12-06

    The primary focus of this review was to discover what is already known about Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the role it plays within social relationships, as well as its importance in the fields of health care and health care education. This article analyzes the importance of EI in the field of health care and recommends various ways that this important skill can be built into medical programs. Information was gathered using various database searches including EBSCOHOST, Academic Search Premier and ERIC. The search was conducted in English language journals from the last ten years. Descriptors include: Emotional Intelligence, medical students and communication skills, graduate medical education, Emotional Intelligence and graduate medical education, Emotional Intelligence training programs, program evaluation and development. Results of the study show a direct correlation between medical education and emotional intelligence competencies, which makes the field of medical education an ideal one in which to integrate further EI training. The definition of EI as an ability-based skill allows for training in specific competencies that can be directly applied to a specialized field. When EI is conceptualized as an ability that can be taught, learned, and changed, it may be used to address the specific aspects of the clinician-patient relationship that are not working well. For this reason, teaching EI should be a priority in the field of medical education in order to better facilitate this relationship in the future.

  1. Teaching Medical Ethics in Graduate and Undergraduate Medical Education: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Santiago; Phuoc, Vania; Throneberry, Steven; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McCullough, Laurence; Coverdale, John

    2017-08-01

    One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes. Search terms included ethics, bioethics, medical ethics, medical students, residents/registrars, teaching, education, outcomes, and controlled trials. Nine studies were found that met inclusion criteria, including five randomized controlled trails and four controlled non-randomized trials. Subjects included medical students (5 studies), surgical residents (2 studies), internal medicine house officers (1 study), and family medicine preceptors and their medical students (1 study). Teaching methods, course content, and outcome measures varied considerably across studies. Common methodological issues included a lack of concealment of allocation, a lack of blinding, and generally low numbers of subjects as learners. One randomized controlled trial which taught surgical residents using a standardized patient was judged to be especially methodologically rigorous. None of the trials incorporated psychiatry residents. Ethics educators should undertake additional rigorously controlled trials in order to secure a strong evidence base for the design of medical ethics curricula. Psychiatry ethics educators can also benefit from the findings of trials in other disciplines and in undergraduate medical education.

  2. Special Education History, Current Status and Future: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Pavan John

    2013-01-01

    Education of all children in public schools, including those with disabilities, continues to be an unresolved issue in many countries around the globe. While education of all children is mandated by law and considered a basic human right in many countries, the current status of implementation varies. India, for example, is an ancient country that…

  3. Current Trends in Higher Education Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in higher education learning and teaching focuses on the use of technology, integrated learning through "blended learning" and writing for academic purposes. This introductory article initiates the debate around the context of South African higher education teaching and learning. It does so by contextualizing the South…

  4. Primary Geography Education in China: Past, Current and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xiaowei; Duan, Yushan; Sun, Yue

    2015-01-01

    In China, geography education in primary schools (grades 1 to 6) has not been emphasized, although some scholars have done research in this area. In order to deepen the understanding of primary geography education in China, this paper examines its history, current situation, and future trends. The authors used the method of document analysis and…

  5. A Brief History of the Current Reemergence of Contemplative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Patricia Fay

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history of the current reemergence of a contemplative orientation in education. While referencing an ancient history, it primarily examines the history of contemporary contemplative education through three significant stages, focusing on the third. The first was arguably initiated by the introduction of Buddhism to the…

  6. Current Trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jii

    A proposal for current trends in Aerospace Engineering Education on Taiwan has been drawn from the suggestions made after a national conference of "Workshop on Aerospace Engineering Education Reform." This workshop was held in January 18-20, 1998, at the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,…

  7. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT) classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  8. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A. Kusurkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion: Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion: Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  9. Accelerating physician workforce transformation through competitive graduate medical education funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, David C; Robertson, Russell G

    2013-11-01

    Graduate medical education (GME) has fallen short in training physicians to meet changes in the US population and health care delivery systems. The shortfall in training has happened despite a consensus on the need for accelerated change. This article discusses the varied causes of GME inertia and proposes a new funding mechanism coupled to a competitive peer-review process. The result would be to reward GME programs that are aligned with publicly set priorities for specialty numbers and training content. New teaching organizations and residency programs would compete on an equal footing with existing ones. Over a decade, all current programs would undergo peer review, with low review scores leading to partial, but meaningful, decreases in funding. This process would incentivize incremental and continual change in GME and would provide a mechanism for funding innovative training through special requests for proposals.

  10. Research priorities in medical education: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tootoonchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research prior-ities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final ques-tionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. Results: The most important research priorities included faculty members′ development methods, faculty members′ motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members′ promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. Conclusions: This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities.

  11. Research priorities in medical education: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. The most important research priorities included faculty members' development methods, faculty members' motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members' promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities.

  12. Activities for education at work for Medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna León Acebo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: the growing demands of a health professional that combines study and work, school with life and teaching-learning in primary and secondary health care constitute a current social problem for the country.Objective: to design a set of activities for education at work for first year medical students, from the family doctor's office, to contribute to health promotion and disease prevention in the community, favoring the integral formation of future doctors.Methods: the program was designed in work areas for the integrated teaching of biomedical disciplines for contributing to health promotion and disease prevention in "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” polyclinic in Las Tunas. It carried out the historic and graphical analysis of the problem; students’,  professors’ and community members’ behaviors were observed; interviews and surveys were applied to explore knowledge and experiences of students and health professionals on the promotion of health education at work; workshops on critical opinion and collective elaboration were carried out and permitted to  socialize with other teachers and health professionals the proposed program for its redesign based on collective criticism.Results: the shortcomings caused by the fragmentation of subject contents and biomedical disciplines in education at work were characterized and the plan to help to eliminate the inadequacies that occur in education at work was designed by work areas and determined by the general guidelines for its implementation, without specific indications.Conclusions: the clinical method was applied its pedagogical dimension, allowing the coordination between the traditional methods of teaching-learning and for diagnosing, to contribute to eliminate the spontaneous character in the development of education in the workplace. The program of activities was designed by work areas.

  13. Setting the standard: Medical Education's first 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Jaime C; Cartmill, Carrie; Kuper, Ayelet; Martimianakis, Maria A; Whitehead, Cynthia R

    2016-01-01

    By understanding its history, the medical education community gains insight into why it thinks and acts as it does. This piece provides a Foucauldian archaeological critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the journal Medical Education on the publication of its 50th Volume. This analysis draws upon critical social science perspectives to allow the examination of unstated assumptions that underpin and shape educational tools and practices. A Foucauldian form of CDA was utilised to examine the journal over its first half-century. This approach emphasises the importance of language, and the ways in which words used affect and are affected by educational practices and priorities. An iterative methodology was used to organise the very large dataset (12,000 articles). A distilled dataset, within which particular focus was placed on the editorial pieces in the journal, was analysed. A major finding was the diversity of the journal as a site that has permitted multiple - and sometimes contradictory - discursive trends to emerge. One particularly dominant discursive tension across the time span of the journal is that between a persistent drive for standardisation and a continued questioning of the desirability of standardisation. This tension was traced across three prominent areas of focus in the journal: objectivity and the nature of medical education knowledge; universality and local contexts, and the place of medical education between academia and the community. The journal has provided the medical education community with a place in which to both discuss practical pedagogical concerns and ponder conceptual and social issues affecting the medical education community. This dual nature of the journal brings together educators and researchers; it also gives particular focus to a major and rarely cited tension in medical education between the quest for objective standards and the limitations of standard measures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Development of national competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, R; Stausberg, J; Dugas, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a catalogue of competency-based learning objectives "Medical Informatics" for undergraduate medical education (abbreviated NKLM-MI in German). The development followed a multi-level annotation and consensus process. For each learning objective a reason why a physician needs this competence was required. In addition, each objective was categorized according to the competence context (A = covered by medical informatics, B = core subject of medical informatics, C = optional subject of medical informatics), the competence level (1 = referenced knowledge, 2 = applied knowledge, 3 = routine knowledge) and a CanMEDS competence role (medical expert, communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, professional, scholar). Overall 42 objectives in seven areas (medical documentation and information processing, medical classifications and terminologies, information systems in healthcare, health telematics and telemedicine, data protection and security, access to medical knowledge and medical signal-/image processing) were identified, defined and consented. With the NKLM-MI the competences in the field of medical informatics vital to a first year resident physician are identified, defined and operationalized. These competencies are consistent with the recommendations of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). The NKLM-MI will be submitted to the National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education. The next step is implementation of these objectives by the faculties.

  15. Medicine as a Community of Practice: Implications for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Steinert, Yvonne

    2018-02-01

    The presence of a variety of independent learning theories makes it difficult for medical educators to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework for medical education, resulting in numerous and often unrelated curricular, instructional, and assessment practices. Linked with an understanding of identity formation, the concept of communities of practice could provide such a framework, emphasizing the social nature of learning. Individuals wish to join the community, moving from legitimate peripheral to full participation, acquiring the identity of community members and accepting the community's norms.Having communities of practice as the theoretical basis of medical education does not diminish the value of other learning theories. Communities of practice can serve as the foundational theory, and other theories can provide a theoretical basis for the multiple educational activities that take place within the community, thus helping create an integrated theoretical approach.Communities of practice can guide the development of interventions to make medical education more effective and can help both learners and educators better cope with medical education's complexity. An initial step is to acknowledge the potential of communities of practice as the foundational theory. Educational initiatives that could result from this approach include adding communities of practice to the cognitive base; actively engaging students in joining the community; creating a welcoming community; expanding the emphasis on explicitly addressing role modeling, mentoring, experiential learning, and reflection; providing faculty development to support the program; and recognizing the necessity to chart progress toward membership in the community.

  16. EFSUMB Statement on Medical Student Education in Ultrasound [long version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantisani, V.; Dietrich, C F; Badea, R

    2016-01-01

    The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recommends that ultrasound should be used systematically as an easy accessible and instructive educational tool in the curriculum of modern medical schools. Medical students should acquire theoretical knowledge o...... of the modality and hands-on training should be implemented and adhere to evidence-based principles. In this paper we report EFSUMB policy statements on medical student education in ultrasound that in a short version is already published in Ultraschall in der Medizin 1.......The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recommends that ultrasound should be used systematically as an easy accessible and instructive educational tool in the curriculum of modern medical schools. Medical students should acquire theoretical knowledge...

  17. EFSUMB statement on medical student education in ultrasound [short version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantisani, V; Dietrich, C F; Badea, R

    2016-01-01

    The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recommends that ultrasound should be used systematically as an easy accessible and instructive educational tool in the curriculum of modern medical schools. Medical students should acquire theoretical knowledge o...... of the modality and hands-on training should be implemented and adhere to evidence-based principles. In this paper we summarise EFSUMB policy statements on medical student education in ultrasound.......The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recommends that ultrasound should be used systematically as an easy accessible and instructive educational tool in the curriculum of modern medical schools. Medical students should acquire theoretical knowledge...

  18. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  19. The new innovative medical education system in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Background: A New Innovative Medical Education Initiative (NIMEI) had been launched in Ethiopia in February ... development as well as for the overall health system of the country. .... A national survey was conducted in all regions of Ethiopia.

  20. 78 FR 18990 - Medical Professionals Recruitment and Continuing Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... have experience hosting healthcare forums and meetings combining modern medicine and traditional... care by promoting education in the medical disciplines, honoring traditional healing principles and... and/or biomedical research. Foster forums where modern medicine combines with traditional healing to...

  1. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Phillips, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions Current results provide some support for

  2. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Dacey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA, few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results: Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions: Current results provide

  3. Attitudes towards mental illness among medical students in China: Impact of medical education on stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifan; Zhang, Hanwen; Yang, Ge; Hu, Xinran; Liu, Zhening; Guo, Na; He, Hongbo; Sun, Bin; Rosenheck, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Stigma towards people with mental illness impedes effective treatment. A recent study found that Chinese students were less socially accepting of people with mental illness than counterparts from other countries. The current study examined stigma among Chinese medical students at different levels of training. Medical students (N = 1372 from 12 Chinese schools) were surveyed with a questionnaire addressing attitudes and beliefs about people with mental illness. Analysis of variance was used to compare responses from students: (1) with no psychiatry training; (2) who had only taken a didactic course; and (3) who had completed both a course and a clinical rotation. Specific attitudes were identified through factor analysis. Interest in further training and other personal experience were also examined. Factor analysis revealed attitudes favoring: (1) social acceptance of people with mental illness, (2) not believing in supernatural causes of mental illness, (3) bio-psycho-social causation, (4) rehabilitation, and (5) social integration. The absence of consistent trends across training levels suggested that education did not increase nonstigmatized attitudes. Areas of most stigmatization were low social acceptance and little favor for social integration. Measures most strongly correlated with nonstigmatized attitudes were as follows: interest in clinical psychiatry, belief that psychiatry should be more valued, and having friends with mental illness. Although medical school education showed little effect on attitudes, students with more individual experiences such as planning to continue clinical psychiatric training, believing psychiatry should be more valued, and having friends with mental illness had less stigmatized attitudes than others. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. The privatization of medical education in Brazil: trends and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mário C; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2015-12-17

    Like other countries, Brazil is struggling with issues related to public policies designed to influence the distribution, establishment, supply and education of doctors. While the number of undergraduate medical schools and places available on medical schools has risen, the increase in the number of doctors in Brazil in recent decades has not benefitted the population homogeneously. The government has expanded the medical schools at the country's federal universities, while providing incentives for the creation of new undergraduate courses at private establishments. This article examines the trends and challenges of the privatization of medical education in Brazil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study based on secondary data from official government databases on medical schools and courses and institutions offering such courses in Brazil. It takes into account the year when the medical schools received authorization to initiatte the activities, where they are situated, whether they are run by a public or private entity, how many places they offer, how many students they have enrolled, and their performance according to Ministry of Education evaluations. Brazil had 241 medical schools in 2014, offering a total of 20,340 places. The private higher education institutions are responsible for most of the enrolment of medical students nationally (54 %), especially in the southeast. However, enrolment in public institutions predominate more in the capitals than in other cities. Overal, the public medical schools performed better than the private schools in the last two National Exam of Students' (ENADE). The privatization of the teaching of medicine at undergraduate level in Brazil represents a great challenge: how to expand the number of places while assuring quality and democratic access to this form of education. Upon seeking to understand the configuration and trends in medical education in Brazil, it is hoped that this analysis may contribute to a broader

  5. Exploring the potential use of augmented reality in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Orraryd, Pontus

    2017-01-01

    Human anatomy is traditionally taught using textbooks and dissections. With the advent of computer graphics, using 3D applications have started to see much more use in medical educations around the world. Today, technology such as Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality are on everybody’s lips, and many are now curious what we can do with this new technology. This thesis explores how Augmented Reality can be used in medical education to teach human anatomy. Two application prototypes were devel...

  6. Educating Hungarian medical librarians in special literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantsits, G

    1974-01-01

    In Hungary the completion of a thirty-month course is required of those who wish to qualify as medium-level librarians. Medical librarians are given a special course which differs from the general course in that it covers the subjects of medical terminology and information in special literature. The latter subject is accorded the highest number of teaching hours, since the subject matter is vast and since, in addition to theory, much time must be spent on exercises and the presentation of reference books. The students become familiar with the main Hungarian and foreign information systems in the medical and related fields and with special bibliographies, encyclopedias, handbooks, and dictionaries. We take special care to familiarize students with the abstracting journals and indices. For several semesters they have homework and lesson exercises in the use of the Hungarian Medical Bibliography and Index Medicus.

  7. Changing concepts of neuroanatomy teaching in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Lara

    2011-10-01

    Anatomy teaching is often described as foundational in the education of physicians, but in recent years there has been increasing pressure on teachers of neuroanatomy to justify its place in the curriculum. This article examines theoretical assumptions that have traditionally influenced the neuroanatomy curriculum and explains how evolution of thought in the field of medical education has led to a shift in how the pedagogy of neuroanatomy is conceptualized. The widespread adopt