WorldWideScience

Sample records for current materials science

  1. Translating Current Science into Materials for High School via a Scientist-Teacher Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.; Bokor, Julie R.; Crippen, Kent J.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique form of professional development that can assist teachers in translating current science into classroom instruction by involving them in meaningful collaborations with university researchers. However, few reported models aim to directly alter science teachers' practices by supporting them in the…

  2. Translating Current Science into Materials for High School via a Scientist-Teacher Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.; Bokor, Julie R.; Crippen, Kent J.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique form of professional development that can assist teachers in translating current science into classroom instruction by involving them in meaningful collaborations with university researchers. However, few reported models aim to directly alter science teachers' practices by supporting them in the…

  3. PREFACE: National Seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, R.; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2013-05-01

    India is going through an era of many changes in its higher education system. Emphasis is being given to research and development initiatives at Universities and colleges. The teaching community is faced with the challenge of coping with both regular academic activities and research initiatives. The teaching faculties need to keep in step with the momentous research output being generated globally. To mold young talent that will be sought after, teachers need to undertake challenging initiatives. Research in emerging areas like nanotechnology, meta materials, functional materials and structures is being pursued vigorously in Universities and colleges in the state of Kerala. Awareness of the impact of integrating teaching and research in basic science has inspired the teaching faculty. The number of seminars and conferences is not commensurate with the amount of research being conducted in this state. The state lags behind in the number of institutes with state of the art facilities and human resource with cutting edge knowledge. The national seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011) is organized by the Department of Physics, Christian College, Chengannur. It is a continuation of the initiatives of the Department to bridge the haitus between teaching and research. Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2007) was successfully conducted with over 80 research paper presentations and participation of delegates from the states of Karnataka, Andhrapradesh, Tamilnadu and Kerala. CTMS-2011 is a sequel envisaged to serve as an effective platform for teachers to interact with eminent scientists and share their knowledge and experience. Papers were invited from the subject area comprising glasses and ceramics, crystal growth, nanotechnology, semiconductors thin films and polymers. We are delighted that after a peer review process of the papers we have selected ten of the best papers presented at the seminar for publication in IOP Conference Series

  4. Using materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W O

    1981-01-23

    The science of the solid state has joined nuclear science and molecular biology as a field of major importance in the latter half of the 20th century. It took particular shape during the genesis of solid-state electronics and the post-transistor era of integrated circuits for telecommunications, computers, and digital signal machines. However, these developments were soon joined by techniques from the ancient fields of metallurgy and ceramics and contributions from the more current fields of synthetic polymers, rubbers, plastics, and modified bioorganic substances. This vast realm was characterized by a National Academy of Sciences study of the 1970's as "materials science and engineering." The public, as well as the scientific and engineering community, are currently concerned about the uses of research and development and the applications of knowledge for national progress. Consideration is given here to how well we are using the science of materials for industrial strength and such governmental objectives as national security and energy economy.

  5. Lasers in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Ossi, Paolo; Zhigilei, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems.  The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications.  Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers...

  6. Composite materials from forest biomass : a review of current practices, science, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    Renewable and sustainable composite materials can be produced using forest biomass if we maintain healthy forests. Small diameter trees and other forest biomass can be processed in the forest into small solid wood pieces, sliced veneers, strands, flakes, chips, particles and fiber that can be used to make construction composite products such as glued-laminated lumber,...

  7. Rudiments of materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, SO

    2007-01-01

    Writing a comprehensive book on Materials Science for the benefit of undergraduate courses in Science and Engineering was a day dream of the first author, Dr. S.O. Pillai for a long period. However, the dream became true after a lapse of couple of years. Lucid and logical exposition of the subject matter is the special feature of this book.

  8. Materials Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  9. Materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

  10. Materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, T.M.

    1995-10-01

    The science-based stockpile stewardship program emphasizes a better understanding of how complex components function through advanced computer calculations. Many of the problem areas are in the behavior of materials making up the equipment. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) can contribute to solving these problems by providing diagnostic tools to examine parts noninvasively and by providing the experimental tools to understand material behavior in terms of both the atomic structure and the microstructure. Advanced computer codes need experimental information on material behavior in response to stress, temperature, and pressure as input, and they need benchmarking experiments to test the model predictions for the finished part.

  11. EDITORIAL: Computational materials science Computational materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Kresse, Georg

    2011-10-01

    Special issue in honour of Jürgen Hafner On 30 September 2010, Jürgen Hafner, one of the most prominent and influential members within the solid state community, retired. His remarkably broad scientific oeuvre has made him one of the founding fathers of modern computational materials science: more than 600 scientific publications, numerous contributions to books, and a highly cited monograph, which has become a standard reference in the theory of metals, witness not only the remarkable productivity of Jürgen Hafner but also his impact in theoretical solid state physics. In an effort to duly acknowledge Jürgen Hafner's lasting impact in this field, a Festsymposium was held on 27-29 September 2010 at the Universität Wien. The organizers of this symposium (and authors of this editorial) are proud to say that a large number of highly renowned scientists in theoretical condensed matter theory—co-workers, friends and students—accepted the invitation to this celebration of Hafner's jubilee. Some of these speakers also followed our invitation to submit their contribution to this Festschrift, published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, a journal which Jürgen Hafner served in 2000-2003 and 2003-2006 as a member of the Advisory Editorial Board and member of the Executive Board, respectively. In the subsequent article, Volker Heine, friend and co-worker of Jürgen Hafner over many decades, gives an account of Hafner's impact in the field of theoretical condensed matter physics. Computational materials science contents Theoretical study of structural, mechanical and spectroscopic properties of boehmite (γ-AlOOH) D Tunega, H Pašalić, M H Gerzabek and H Lischka Ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by chlorine-promoted silver oxide M O Ozbek, I Onal and R A Van Santen First-principles study of Cu2ZnSnS4 and the related band offsets for photovoltaic applicationsA Nagoya, R Asahi and G Kresse Renormalization group study of random quantum magnetsIstván A Kovács and

  12. Panel 3 - material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yip, Sidney [MIT

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, NNSA's national security challenge has evolved, and the role of simulation and computation has grown dramatically. The process of certifying nuclear weapons performance has changed from one based on integrated tests to science-based certification in which underground nuclear tests have been replaced by large-scale simulations, appropriately validated with fundamental experimental data. Further, the breadth of national security challenges has expanded beyond stewardship of a nuclear deterrent to a broad range of global and asymmetric threats. Materials challenges are central to the full suite of these national security challenges. Mission requirements demand that materials perform predictably in extreme environments -- high pressure, high strain rate, and hostile irradiation and chemical conditions. Considerable advances have been made in incorporating fundamental materials physics into integrated codes used for component certification. On the other hand, significant uncertainties still remain, and materials properties, especially at the mesoscale, are key to understanding uncertainties that remain in integrated weapons performance codes and that at present are treated as empirical knobs. Further, additional national security mission challenges could be addressed more robustly with new and higher performing materials.

  13. Teaching materials science and engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bernhard Ilschner

    2003-06-01

    This paper is written with the intention of simulating discussion on teaching materials science and engineering in the universities. The article illustrates the tasks, priorities, goals and means lying ahead in the teaching of materials science and engineering for a sustainable future.

  14. Computer simulation in materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, R.J.; Beeler, J.R.; Esterling, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers on the subject of modeling in materials science. Topics include thermodynamics of metallic solids and fluids, grain-boundary modeling, fracture from an atomistic point of view, and computer simulation of dislocations on an atomistic level.

  15. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Menas C; Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D

    2015-11-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe.

  16. Physical foundations of materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Gottstein, Günter

    2004-01-01

    In this vivid and comprehensible introduction to materials science, the author expands the modern concepts of metal physics to formulate basic theory applicable to other engineering materials, such as ceramics and polymers. Written for engineering students and working engineers with little previous knowledge of solid-state physics, this textbook enables the reader to study more specialized and fundamental literature of materials science. Dozens of illustrative photographs, many of them Transmission Electron Microscopy images, plus line drawings, aid developing a firm appreciation of this complex topic. Hard-to-grasp terms such as "textures" are lucidly explained - not only the phenomenon itself, but also its consequences for the material properties. This excellent book makes materials science more transparent.

  17. Weightless Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Gravity affects everything we do. Only in very recent years have we been able to carry out experiments in orbit around the Earth and see for the first time how things behave in its absence. This has allowed us to understand fundamental processes better and to design new materials using this knowledge. (Contains 6 figures.)

  18. Research in Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-31

    236. (1966) 836. 11. Noah Hendelsohn, S.B. Thesis, MIT (Physics, 1974) unpublished; Myron Hale Frommer , Ph.D. Thesis, MIT (Metallurgy and Materials...iiiK±\\fju\\mki^m\\IUW<MfW.imK-VlWW I 1 ■77- 12. J. Bostock, Kofi Agyeman, M.ll. Frommer , and M.L.A. MacVicar, J. Appl. Phys. 44 (1973) 5567. 13. W. N

  19. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close

  20. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance

  1. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was

  2. Materials Science in Ancient Rome

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Two books, the "De Architectura" by Vitruvius and the "Naturalis Historia" by Pliny the Elder, give us a portrait of the Materials Science, that is, the knowledge of materials, in Rome at the beginning of the Empire. Here, I am reporting some very attractive contents that we can find in these books. The reader will see the discussion proposed in fours case studies: concretes, coatings, amorphous materials and colloidal crystals, to describe them in modern words.

  3. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materialsC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  4. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable

  5. Biological materials: a materials science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Marc A; Chen, Po-Yu; Lopez, Maria I; Seki, Yasuaki; Lin, Albert Y M

    2011-07-01

    The approach used by Materials Science and Engineering is revealing new aspects in the structure and properties of biological materials. The integration of advanced characterization, mechanical testing, and modeling methods can rationalize heretofore unexplained aspects of these structures. As an illustration of the power of this methodology, we apply it to biomineralized shells, avian beaks and feathers, and fish scales. We also present a few selected bioinspired applications: Velcro, an Al2O3-PMMA composite inspired by the abalone shell, and synthetic attachment devices inspired by gecko.

  6. Materials Science with Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bernas, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces materials scientists and designers, physicists and chemists to the properties of materials that can be modified by ion irradiation or implantation. These techniques can help design new materials or to test modified properties; novel applications already show that ion-beam techniques are complementary to others, yielding previously unattainable properties. Also, ion-beam interactions modify materials at the nanoscale, avoiding the often detrimental results of lithographic or chemical techniques. Here, the effects are related to better-known quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics, and the consequences to materials are discussed with concepts that are familiar to materials science. Examples addressed concern semiconductor physics, crystal and nanocluster growth, optics, magnetism, and applications to geology and biology.

  7. Setting science free from materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary science is based on the claim that all reality is material or physical. There is no reality but material reality. Consciousness is a by-product of the physical activity of the brain. Matter is unconscious. Evolution is purposeless. This view is now undergoing a credibility crunch. The biggest problem of all for materialism is the existence of consciousness. Panpsychism provides a way forward. So does the recognition that minds are not confined to brains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase change materials science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Raoux, Simone

    2009-01-01

    ""Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications"" provides a unique introduction of this rapidly developing field. This clearly written volume describes the material science of these fascinating materials from a theoretical and experimental perspective.

  9. Materials science experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, S. H.; Giessen, B. C.; Glicksman, M. E.; Margrave, J. L.; Markovitz, H.; Nowick, A. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.; Witt, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The criteria for the selection of the experimental areas and individual experiments were that the experiment or area must make a meaningful contribution to the field of material science and that the space environment was either an absolute requirement for the successful execution of the experiment or that the experiment can be more economically or more conveniently performed in space. A number of experimental areas and individual experiments were recommended for further consideration as space experiments. Areas not considered to be fruitful and others needing additional analysis in order to determine their suitability for conduct in space are also listed. Recommendations were made concerning the manner in which these materials science experiments are carried out and the related studies that should be pursued.

  10. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  11. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  12. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  13. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  14. Current trends of surface science and catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jeong Young

    2014-01-01

    Including detail on applying surface science in renewable energy conversion, this book covers the latest results on model catalysts including single crystals, bridging "materials and pressure gaps", and hot electron flows in heterogeneous catalysis.

  15. Nanoscale tomography in materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Möbus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In materials science, various techniques for three-dimensional reconstruction of microstructures have been applied successfully for decades, such as X-ray tomography and mechanical sectioning. However, in the last decade the family tree of methods has grown significantly. This is partly through advances in instrumentation. The introduction of the focused ion beam microscope and the transformation of transmission electron microscopy into a multipurpose analytical and structural tool have made major impacts. The main driving force for progress is perhaps the advent of nanotechnology with the need to achieve nanometer-scale resolution and the desire to get a real three-dimensional view of the nanoscale world.

  16. Current materiality guidance for auditors

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Thomas E.; Eilifsen, Aasmund

    2000-01-01

    Auditors have to make materiality judgments on every audit. This is a difficult process, as both quantitative and qualitative factors have to be evaluated. Additionally, there is no formal guidance for how to implement the materiality concepts discussed in the auditing standards. Although they are sometimes difficult to make, good materiality judgments are crucial for the conduct of a successful audit as poor judgments can result in an audit that is ineffective and/or inefficient. This report...

  17. Phospholipid Vesicles in Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granick, Steve [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-05-11

    The objective of this research was to develop the science basis needed to deploy phospholipid vesicles as functional materials in energy contexts. Specifically, we sought to: (1) Develop an integrated molecular-level understanding of what determines their dynamical shape, spatial organization, and responsiveness to complex, time-varying environments; and (2) Develop understanding of their active transportation in crowded environments, which our preliminary measurements in cells suggest may hold design principles for targeting improved energy efficiency in new materials systems. The methods to do this largely involved fluorescence imaging and other spectroscopy involving single particles, vesicles, particles, DNA, and endosomes. An unexpected importance outcome was a new method to image light-emitting diodes during actual operation using super-resolution spectroscopy.

  18. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  19. Ukrainian Program for Material Science in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Oleg

    Ukrainian Program for Material Sciences in Microgravity O.P. Fedorov, Space Research Insti-tute of NASU -NSAU, Kyiv, The aim of the report is to present previous and current approach of Ukrainian research society to the prospect of material sciences in microgravity. This approach is based on analysis of Ukrainian program of research in microgravity, preparation of Russian -Ukrainian experiments on Russian segment of ISS and development of new Ukrainian strategy of space activity for the years 2010-2030. Two parts of issues are discussed: (i) the evolution of our views on the priorities in microgravity research (ii) current experiments under preparation and important ground-based results. item1 The concept of "space industrialization" and relevant efforts in Soviet and post -Soviet Ukrainian research institutions are reviewed. The main topics are: melt supercooling, crystal growing, testing of materials, electric welding and study of near-Earth environment. The anticipated and current results are compared. item 2. The main experiments in the framework of Ukrainian-Russian Research Program for Russian Segment of ISS are reviewed. Flight installations under development and ground-based results of the experiments on directional solidification, heat pipes, tribological testing, biocorrosion study is presented. Ground-based experiments and theoretical study of directional solidification of transparent alloys are reviewed as well as preparation of MORPHOS installation for study of succinonitrile -acetone in microgravity.

  20. Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-04

    Producing Kovar-To-Glass Seals by Heating With Light From Xenon^Arc Lamps CM. 1, Oparin , V. B. Redchits; SVAROCHNOYE PROIZVODSTVO, No 11, Nov 87) 28...10-11 iArticle by M, I, Oparin , candidate of technical sciences, and V, B. Redchits, engineer] [Abstract] Hermetic Kovar-to-glass seals were

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-15

    of Smelting 12Crl2NiCu Cast Steel for Water-Turbine Blades (I.A. Kuntsevich , V.V. Kobzistyy et al.; LITEYNOYE PROIZVODSTVO, No 4, Apr 87) Alloying...Moscow LITEYNOYE PROIZVODSTVO in Russian No 4, Apr 87 pp 9-10 [Article by I.A. Kuntsevich , candidate of technical sciences, V.V. Kobzistyy, engineer

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Semiconductor Physics Institute, Siberian Department, USSR Academy of Sciences] [Abstract] An experimental study was made concerning use of binary Bi...begun at the "round table". We are waiting for letters with your opinions and suggestions which, we hope, will help accelerate the solution of the...received 23 Jun 86) pp 516-520 [Article "by B. I. Kosilo, L. I. Polezhayeva, L. P. Polyakova, Ye. G. Polyakov and A. B. Smirnov, Institute of the

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    JPRS-UPIS-90-Q03 1 MAY 1990 S#J1%\\ ■ ■■in FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE .JPRS Report — 19981021 129 Science & Technology USSR... entity , with average temperature of its own, engaged in heat exchange with the two-phase zone according to the convection law. However, such a model...it represents a definite technological complication and requires separate solution. 7. Problems of mechanizing the loading of the initial blank

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-11

    material possess special heat-stability. The optical characteristics of metals usually used as selective solar cell absorbers (high absorbability in the...single-phase crystalline (spinel- perovskite -, garnet-like materials), as well as composite. Electrical, mechanical, optical, magnetic, and biological...Dielectrics Ferroelectries Piezoelectrics Semiconductors Electron-ion semiconductors Ion conductors AI2O3, BeO BaTi03, SrTi03 Pb (Ti, Zr)Oß

  6. Materials sciences programs: Fiscal year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects.

  7. Materials sciences programs, fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects.

  8. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    structural materials and the formation of macroscopic and microscopic over- growth on them. Specimens measuring 100x50x2 mm were attached by PVC ...composition, in percent: 0.10 C; 0.39 Mn; 0.019 S; 0.020 P. A boron-containing slag-forming mixture was placed in the mold before pouring of one of the...steel making system consisting of oxygen converters, steel-pouring ladles, installations for blowing argon through the steel and continuous casting

  9. Perspectives on Materials Science in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Materials characterization in 3D has opened a new era in materials science, which is discussed in this paper. The original motivations and visions behind the development of one of the new 3D techniques, namely the three dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) method, are presented and the route...... to its implementation is described. The present status of materials science in 3D is illustrated by examples related to recrystallization. Finally, challenges and suggestions for the future success for 3D Materials Science relating to hardware evolution, data analysis, data exchange and modeling...

  10. Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

  11. The Science of Smart Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boohan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, smart materials have become increasingly important in the design of products. Essentially, a smart material is one that has been designed to respond to a stimulus, such as a change in temperature or magnetic field, in a particular and useful way. This article looks at a range of smart materials that are relatively…

  12. JPRS report: Science and technology. Central Eurasia: Materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    A bibliography is given of Central Eurasian research in materials science. Topics covered include analysis and testing; corrosion resistance; ferrous metals; nonferrous alloys, brazes, and solders; heat treatment; welding, brazing, and soldering; and extractive metallurgy.

  13. Materials science for nuclear detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Peurrung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of nuclear detection technology has led to a variety of research efforts that seek to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials. These efforts aim to improve our understanding of how these materials perform, develop formalized discovery tools, and enable rapid and effective performance characterization. We provide an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of radiation detection materials.

  14. Recent progress in hybrid materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Clément; Shea, Kenneth J; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2011-02-01

    This themed issue of Chemical Society Reviews reviews recent progress made in hybrid materials science. Guest editors Clément Sanchez, Susumu Kitagawa and Ken Shea introduce the issue and the academic and industrial importance of the field.

  15. Overview of HVEM Investigations in Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaro Mori

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-voltage electron microscopy possesses a number of advantages that cannot be afforded by conventional electron microscopy. Topics in recent investigations with HVEMs in materials science are reviewed.

  16. First Materials Science Research Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D.; King, R.; Cobb, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) will accommodate dual Experiment Modules (EM's) and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first international Materials Science Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 is an international cooperative research activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center. (ESTEC). This International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) will contain the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) developed by ESA as an Experiment Module. The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts. Module Inserts currently planned are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, Solidification with Quench Furnace, and Diffusion Module Insert. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Department (SPD). It includes capabilities for vapor transport processes and liquid metal sintering. This Experiment Module will be replaced on-orbit with other NASA Materials Science EMs.

  17. Computational materials science: Nanoscale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour.......How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour....

  18. BUILDING MATERIAL SUPPORT FOR TEACHING OF MATERIALS SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García-Lira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows a number of materials that have processor is presented to facilitate and enhance the learning process of the subject of materials science by students who are studying mechanical engineering, with the always present possibility of use in other common or related field. These materials can be accessible to students in the virtual field, as new more active and participatory teaching methodologies focused on learning are presented.

  19. Carbon Nanotubes: Miracle of Materials Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley S.; Mayeaux, Brian M.

    1999-01-01

    Article to be sent to Advanced Materials and Processes, journal of ASM International, as attached. This is a news-type technical journal for a large organization of scientists, engineers, salesmen, and managers. The article is quite general, meant to be an introduction to the properties of nanotubes. This is a materials science organization, therefore the article is geared toward using nanotubes for materials uses. Pictures have not been included in this version.

  20. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, James Patton

    2012-01-01

    The microgravity materials program was nearly eliminated in the middle of the aughts due to budget constraints. Hardware developments were eliminated. Some investigators with experiments that could be performed using ISS partner hardware received continued funding. Partnerships were established between US investigators and ESA science teams for several investigations. ESA conducted peer reviews on the proposals of various science teams as part of an ESA AO process. Assuming he or she was part of a science team that was selected by the ESA process, a US investigator would submit a proposal to NASA for grant funding to support their part of the science team effort. In a similar manner, a US materials investigator (Dr. Rohit Trivedi) is working as a part of a CNES selected science team. As funding began to increase another seven materials investigators were selected in 2010 through an NRA mechanism to perform research related to development of Materials Science Research Rack investigations. One of these has since been converted to a Glovebox investigation.

  1. Materials Science and Technology Teachers Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieda, Karen J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Bliss, Mary; Pitman, Stan G.; Eschbach, Eugene A.

    2008-09-04

    The Materials Science and Technology (MST) Handbook was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in Richland, Washington, under support from the U.S. Department of Energy. Many individuals have been involved in writing and reviewing materials for this project since it began at Richland High School in 1986, including contributions from educators at the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, Central Washington University, the University of Washington, teachers from Northwest Schools, and science and education personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Support for its development was also provided by the U.S. Department of Education. This introductory course combines the academic disciplines of chemistry, physics, and engineering to create a materials science and technology curriculum. The course covers the fundamentals of ceramics, glass, metals, polymers and composites. Designed to appeal to a broad range of students, the course combines hands-on activities, demonstrations and long term student project descriptions. The basic philosophy of the course is for students to observe, experiment, record, question, seek additional information, and, through creative and insightful thinking, solve problems related to materials science and technology. The MST Teacher Handbook contains a course description, philosophy, student learning objectives, and instructional approach and processes. Science and technology teachers can collaborate to build the course from their own interests, strengths, and experience while incorporating existing school and community resources. The course is intended to meet local educational requirements for technology, vocational and science education.

  2. FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

  3. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of science. I stress the international aspects of science communication, the national politico-scientific context as well as more local contexts as equally important conditions for understanding current Danish science communication.

  4. Learning about materials science and technology by deconstructing modern products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    Get the attention of young engineering students, interest and inspire them. Encourage them to think about materials science and technology by looking at the consumer products and gadgets that interest them. Analyse what modern products are constructed of, and how and why the materials...... and the processes have been chosen in their manufacture i.e. deconstruct modern products. Suitable items can easily be found in personal communication and entertainment, including all manner of sports goods. Further, the current pace of materials product development ensures that using these objects to focus...... teaching encourages and demands constant modernisation of the course and the materials being presented. A consideration of material and process selection for components in a modern product can be a dynamic starting point for a course on materials science and engineering; providing inspiration and showing...

  5. Density functional theory in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Hickel, Tilmann

    2013-09-01

    Materials science is a highly interdisciplinary field. It is devoted to the understanding of the relationship between (a) fundamental physical and chemical properties governing processes at the atomistic scale with (b) typically macroscopic properties required of materials in engineering applications. For many materials, this relationship is not only determined by chemical composition, but strongly governed by microstructure. The latter is a consequence of carefully selected process conditions (e.g., mechanical forming and annealing in metallurgy or epitaxial growth in semiconductor technology). A key task of computational materials science is to unravel the often hidden composition-structure-property relationships using computational techniques. The present paper does not aim to give a complete review of all aspects of materials science. Rather, we will present the key concepts underlying the computation of selected material properties and discuss the major classes of materials to which they are applied. Specifically, our focus will be on methods used to describe single or polycrystalline bulk materials of semiconductor, metal or ceramic form.

  6. Material Science Experiments on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity materials experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. There were six experiments, all of which investigated some aspect of diffusivity in liquid melts. The Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD) experiment investigated the diffusivity of molten Indium samples at 185 C using a radioactive tracer, In-114m. By monitoring two different gamma ray energies (190 keV and 24 keV) emitted by the samples it was possible to measure independently the diffusion rates in the bulk and at the surface of the samples. The Queens University Experiment in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD) was the furnace facility used to process 213 samples for the five other experiments. These experiments investigated the diffusion, ripening, crystal growth, and glass formation in metal, semiconductor, and glass samples. This facility had the capability to process samples in an isothermal or gradient configuration for varying periods of time at temperatures up to 900 C. Both the LMD and the QUELD furnaces were mounted on the Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM) which provided isolation from g-jitter. All the microgravity experiments were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS); a three head three axes acceleration monitoring system which measured and recorded the acceleration environment.

  7. Material Science Experiments on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity materials experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. There were six experiments, all of which investigated some aspect of diffusivity in liquid melts. The Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD) experiment investigated the diffusivity of molten Indium samples at 185 C using a radioactive tracer, In-114m. By monitoring two different gamma ray energies (190 keV and 24 keV) emitted by the samples it was possible to measure independently the diffusion rates in the bulk and at the surface of the samples. The Queens University Experiment in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD) was the furnace facility used to process 213 samples for the five other experiments. These experiments investigated the diffusion, ripening, crystal growth, and glass formation in metal, semiconductor, and glass samples. This facility had the capability to process samples in an isothermal or gradient configuration for varying periods of time at temperatures up to 900 C. Both the LMD and the QUELD furnaces were mounted on the Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM) which provided isolation from g-jitter. All the microgravity experiments were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS); a three head three axes acceleration monitoring system which measured and recorded the acceleration environment.

  8. Analysis of the Current Literature of Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jerry B.

    Presented is a study designed to analyze nine journals that contain substantial material devoted to the field of science education for the period 1970 through 1971: "American Journal of Physics,""Chemistry,""Journal of Chemical Education,""Journal of Research in Science Teaching,""Physics Today,""School Science and Mathematics,""Science and…

  9. Metallurgy, the Father of Materials Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of the discipline of materials science during the second half of the twentieth century is outlined. The concept emerged in the USA, almost simultaneously in an academic metallurgy department and in an avant-garde industrial research laboratory, and its development subsequently all over the world has been a joint enterprise involving universities, industrial laboratories and government establishments. The initial impetus came unambiguously from the well established discipline of physical metallurgy, but from the 1960s onwards, the input from solid-state physicists grew very rapidly, while materials chemistry is a later addition. Of all the many subdivisions of modern materials science, polymer science has been the slowest to fit under the umbrella of the broad discipline; its concepts are very different from those familiar to metallurgists. Two fields have contributed mightily to the creation of modern materials science: One is nuclear energy and, more specifically, the study of radiation damage, the other is the huge field of electronic and opto-electronic materials in which physics, chemistry and metallurgy are seamlessly combined.

  10. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  11. Materials and Chemical Sciences Division annual report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Research programs from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in materials science, chemical science, nuclear science, fossil energy, energy storage, health and environmental sciences, program development funds, and work for others is briefly described. (CBS)

  12. Materials Sciences programs, Fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    This report provides a compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs; the compilation is to assist administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into 7 sections: laboratory projects, contract research projects, small business innovation research, major user facilities, other user facilities, funding level distributions, and indexes.

  13. Chemistry and Materials Science Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodie, K B; Mailhiot, C; Eaglesham, D; Hartmann-Siantar, C L; Turpin, L S; Allen, P G

    2004-04-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's mission is as clear today as it was in 1952 when the Laboratory was founded--to ensure our country's national security and the safety and reliability of its nuclear deterrent. As a laboratory pursuing applied science in the national interest, we strive to accomplish our mission through excellence in science and technology. We do this while developing and implementing sound and robust business practices in an environment that emphasizes security and ensures our safety and the safety of the community around us. Our mission as a directorate derives directly from the Laboratory's charter. When I accepted the assignment of Associate Director for Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS), I talked to you about the need for strategic balance and excellence in all our endeavors. We also discussed how to take the directorate to the next level. The long-range CMS strategic plan presented here was developed with this purpose in mind. It also aligns with the Lab's institutional long-range science and technology plan and its 10-year facilities and infrastructure site plan. The plan is aimed at ensuring that we fulfill our directorate's two governing principles: (1) delivering on our commitments to Laboratory programs and sponsors, and (2) anticipating change and capitalizing on opportunities through innovation in science and technology. This will require us to attain a new level of creativity, agility, and flexibility as we move forward. Moreover, a new level of engagement in partnerships with other directorates across the Laboratory as well as with universities and other national labs will also be required. The group of managers and staff that I chartered to build a strategic plan identified four organizing themes that define our directorate's work and unite our staff with a set of common goals. The plan presented here explains how we will proceed in each of these four theme areas: (1) Materials properties and

  14. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of sci...

  15. Understanding solids the science of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Richard J D

    2005-01-01

    A modern introduction to the subject taking a unique integrated approach designed to appeal to both science and engineering students. Covering a broad spectrum of topics, this book includes numerous up-to-date examples of real materials with relevant applications and a modern treatment of key concepts. The science bias allows this book to be equally accessible to engineers, chemists and physicists. * Carefully structured into self-contained bite-sized chapters to enhance student understanding * Questions have been designed to reinforce the concepts presented * Includes coverage of radioactivit

  16. Educators Guide to Free Science Materials, 11th Annual Edition--1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saterstrom, Mary Horkheimer; Renner, John W.

    This eleventh edition of the Educators Guide to Free Science Materials is devoted exclusively to free science materials, based on the cross-media approach. It is designed to provide a continuing means of identifying existing materials that are currently available. It is a complete, up-to-date, annotated schedule of selected free or inexpensive…

  17. Brilliant Light in Life and Material Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tsakanov, Vasili

    2007-01-01

    The present book contains an excellent overview of the status and highlights of brilliant light facilities and their applications in biology, chemistry, medicine, materials and environmental sciences. Overview papers on diverse fields of research by leading experts are accompanied by the highlights in the near and long-term perspectives of brilliant X-Ray photon beam usage for fundamental and applied research. The book includes advanced topics in the fields of high brightness photon beams, instrumentation, the spectroscopy, microscopy, scattering and imaging experimental techniques and their applications. The book is strongly recommended for students, engineers and scientists in the field of accelerator physics, X-ray optics and instrumentation, life, materials and environmental sciences, bio and nanotechnology.

  18. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  19. Material science experiments at the ATLAS facility

    CERN Document Server

    Keinigs, R K; Atchison, W L; Bartsch, R R; Faehl, R J; Flower-Maudlin, E C; Hammerberg, J E; Holtkamp, D B; Kyrala, G A; Oro, D M; Parker, J V; Preston, D L; Removsky, R E; Scudder, D W; Sheehey, P T; Shlachter, J S; Taylor, A J; Tonks, D L; Turchi, P J; Chandler, E A

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Three experimental campaigns designed for fielding on the Atlas Pulsed Power Facility are discussed. The foci of these experiments are directed toward a better understanding of three material science issues; (1) strength at high strain and high strain rate, (2) friction at material interfaces moving at high relative velocities, and (3) material failure in convergent geometry. Atlas provides an environment for investigating these problems in parameter regimes and geometries that are inaccessible with standard techniques. For example, flow stress measurements of material strength using conventional Hopkinson bar experiments are limited to strain rates ~10/sup 4/ sec/sup -1/. Atlas will be capable of imploding metal shells to combined strains of 200% and strain rates >10/sup 6/ sec/sup -1/. Data obtained regimes is used to test different constitutive strength models used in several Los Alamos hydrocodes. Dynamic friction has been investigated for nearly 300 years, but a first...

  20. Thermal Boundary Conductance: A Materials Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monachon, Christian; Weber, Ludger; Dames, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of materials pairs in atomically intimate contact is reviewed as a practical guide for materials scientists. First, analytical and computational models of TBC are reviewed. Five measurement methods are then compared in terms of their sensitivity to TBC: the 3ω method, frequency- and time-domain thermoreflectance, the cut-bar method, and a composite effective thermal conductivity method. The heart of the review surveys 30 years of TBC measurements around room temperature, highlighting the materials science factors experimentally proven to influence TBC. These factors include the bulk dispersion relations, acoustic contrast, and interfacial chemistry and bonding. The measured TBCs are compared across a wide range of materials systems by using the maximum transmission limit, which with an attenuated transmission coefficient proves to be a good guideline for most clean, strongly bonded interfaces. Finally, opportunities for future research are discussed.

  1. Numerical modeling in materials science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaz, Michel; Deville, Michel

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts and methodologies related to the modelling of the complex phenomena occurring in materials processing. After a short reminder of conservation laws and constitutive relationships, the authors introduce the main numerical methods: finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements. These techniques are developed in three main chapters of the book that tackle more specific problems: phase transformation, solid mechanics and fluid flow. The two last chapters treat inverse methods to obtain the boundary conditions or the material properties and stochastic methods for microstructural simulation. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering and physics and for engineering professionals or researchers who want to get acquainted with numerical simulation to model and compute materials processing.

  2. Materials sciences programs fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

  3. Materials sciences programs: Fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Science Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

  4. Five Aspects of Current Trends in German Library Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steierwald, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The specialisation Library Science at the Hochschule Darmstadt/University of Applied Science Darmstadt is the newest academic program in Germany for the higher education of librarians. Five current trends in library science in Germany reflect the new "Darmstadt Model": (1) The delimitation of a specific professional field…

  5. Five Aspects of Current Trends in German Library Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steierwald, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The specialisation Library Science at the Hochschule Darmstadt/University of Applied Science Darmstadt is the newest academic program in Germany for the higher education of librarians. Five current trends in library science in Germany reflect the new "Darmstadt Model": (1) The delimitation of a specific professional field "library" is obsolete, so…

  6. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  7. SCOPE OF MEDICINE BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY, HYDRO AND MATERIALS SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, L.; Universidad de Leipzig/Alemania, Facultad de Química y Mineralogía,Instituto de Química Inorgánica.Talstr. 35 041034 Leipzig República Federal Alemana; Angulo Cornejo, J.; Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de química e Ingeniería Química. Departamento de Química inorgánica. Av. Venezuela S/N, Ciudad universitaria, Apartado 05-018 Breña, Lima-Perú

    2014-01-01

    The Bioinorganic Chemistry is the newest discipline of Inorganic Chemistry. Despite his youth, has found many applications in various fields such as medicine, Hidrometalugia and Materials Science. in this article an overview of the current status of research in this area is presented through concrete examples of the principles and applications as the study of biominerals, biomineralization processes, bioceramic, bioleaching and metal complexes for medicinal use (therapeutic and diagnostic). T...

  8. Chemistry and materials science research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-31

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  9. Progress in the materials science of silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada-Takamura, Yukiko; Friedlein, Rainer

    2014-12-01

    In its freestanding, yet hypothetical form, the Si counterpart of graphene called silicene is predicted to possess massless Dirac fermions and to exhibit an experimentally accessible quantum spin Hall effect. Such interesting electronic properties are not realized in two-dimensional (2D) Si honeycomb lattices prepared recently on metallic substrates where the crystal and hybrid electronic structures of these 'epitaxial silicene' phases are strongly influenced by the substrate, and thus different from those predicted for isolated 2D structures. While the realization of such low-dimensional Si π materials has hardly been imagined previously, it is evident that the materials science behind silicene remains challenging. In this contribution, we will review our recent results that lead to an enhanced understanding of epitaxial silicene formed on diboride thin films, and discuss the remaining challenges that must be addressed in order to turn Si 2D nanostructures into technologically interesting nanoelectronic materials.

  10. Material science lesson from the biological photosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Lee, Jun Ho; Ha, Heonjin; Im, Sang Won; Nam, Ki Tae

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by photosynthesis, artificial systems for a sustainable energy supply are being designed. Each sequential energy conversion process from light to biomass in natural photosynthesis is a valuable model for an energy collection, transport and conversion system. Notwithstanding the numerous lessons of nature that provide inspiration for new developments, the features of natural photosynthesis need to be reengineered to meet man's demands. This review describes recent strategies toward adapting key lessons from natural photosynthesis to artificial systems. We focus on the underlying material science in photosynthesis that combines photosystems as pivotal functional materials and a range of materials into an integrated system. Finally, a perspective on the future development of photosynthesis mimetic energy systems is proposed.

  11. Evaluation of microelectrode materials for direct-current electrocorticography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Narayan, Raj K; Wu, Pei-Ming; Rajan, Neena; Wu, Zhizhen; Mehan, Neal; Golanov, Eugene V; Ahn, Chong H; Hartings, Jed A

    2016-02-01

    Direct-current electrocorticography (DC-ECoG) allows a more complete characterization of brain states and pathologies than traditional alternating-current recordings (AC-ECoG). However, reliable recording of DC signals is challenging because of electrode polarization-induced potential drift, particularly at low frequencies and for more conducting materials. Further challenges arise as electrode size decreases, since impedance is increased and the potential drift is augmented. While microelectrodes have been investigated for AC-ECoG recordings, little work has addressed microelectrode properties for DC-signal recording. In this paper, we investigated several common microelectrode materials used in biomedical application for DC-ECoG. Five of the most common materials including gold (Au), silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl), platinum (Pt), Iridium oxide (IrOx), and platinum-iridium oxide (Pt/IrOx) were investigated for electrode diameters of 300 μm. The critical characteristics such as polarization impedance, AC current-induced polarization, long-term stability and low-frequency noise were studied in vitro (0.9% saline). The two most promising materials, Pt and Pt/lrOx were further investigated in vivo by recording waves of spreading depolarization, one of the most important applications for DC-ECoG in clinical and basic science research. Our experimental results indicate that IrOx-based microelectrodes, particularly with composite layers of nanostructures, are excellent in all of the common evaluation characteristics both in vitro and in vivo and are most suitable for multimodal monitoring applications. Pt electrodes suffer high current-induced polarization, but have acceptable long-term stability suitable for DC-ECoG. Major significance. The results of this study provide quantitative data on the electrical properties of microelectrodes with commonly-used materials and will be valuable for development of neural recordings inclusive of low frequencies.

  12. Evaluation of microelectrode materials for direct-current electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Narayan, Raj K.; Wu, Pei-Ming; Rajan, Neena; Wu, Zhizhen; Mehan, Neal; Golanov, Eugene V.; Ahn, Chong H.; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Direct-current electrocorticography (DC-ECoG) allows a more complete characterization of brain states and pathologies than traditional alternating-current recordings (AC-ECoG). However, reliable recording of DC signals is challenging because of electrode polarization-induced potential drift, particularly at low frequencies and for more conducting materials. Further challenges arise as electrode size decreases, since impedance is increased and the potential drift is augmented. While microelectrodes have been investigated for AC-ECoG recordings, little work has addressed microelectrode properties for DC-signal recording. In this paper, we investigated several common microelectrode materials used in biomedical application for DC-ECoG. Approach. Five of the most common materials including gold (Au), silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl), platinum (Pt), Iridium oxide (IrOx), and platinum-iridium oxide (Pt/IrOx) were investigated for electrode diameters of 300 μm. The critical characteristics such as polarization impedance, AC current-induced polarization, long-term stability and low-frequency noise were studied in vitro (0.9% saline). The two most promising materials, Pt and Pt/lrOx were further investigated in vivo by recording waves of spreading depolarization, one of the most important applications for DC-ECoG in clinical and basic science research. Main results. Our experimental results indicate that IrOx-based microelectrodes, particularly with composite layers of nanostructures, are excellent in all of the common evaluation characteristics both in vitro and in vivo and are most suitable for multimodal monitoring applications. Pt electrodes suffer high current-induced polarization, but have acceptable long-term stability suitable for DC-ECoG. Major significance. The results of this study provide quantitative data on the electrical properties of microelectrodes with commonly-used materials and will be valuable for development of neural recordings inclusive of

  13. Perspective: Materials informatics and big data: Realization of the "fourth paradigm" of science in materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok

    2016-05-01

    Our ability to collect "big data" has greatly surpassed our capability to analyze it, underscoring the emergence of the fourth paradigm of science, which is data-driven discovery. The need for data informatics is also emphasized by the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI), further boosting the emerging field of materials informatics. In this article, we look at how data-driven techniques are playing a big role in deciphering processing-structure-property-performance relationships in materials, with illustrative examples of both forward models (property prediction) and inverse models (materials discovery). Such analytics can significantly reduce time-to-insight and accelerate cost-effective materials discovery, which is the goal of MGI.

  14. Nanobiotechnology: synthetic biology meets materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Michael C; Patolsky, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology, the area of science focused on the control of matter in the nanometer scale, allows ground-breaking changes of the fundamental properties of matter that are often radically different compared to those exhibited by the bulk counterparts. In view of the fact that dimensionality plays a key role in determining the qualities of matter, the realization of the great potential of nanotechnology has opened the door to other disciplines such as life sciences and medicine, where the merging between them offers exciting new applications, along with basic science research. The application of nanotechnology in life sciences, nanobiotechnology, is now having a profound impact on biological circuit design, bioproduction systems, synthetic biology, medical diagnostics, disease therapy and drug delivery. This special issue is dedicated to the overview of how we are learning to control biopolymers and biological machines at the molecular- and nanoscale. In addition, it covers far-reaching progress in the design and synthesis of nanoscale materials, thus enabling the construction of integrated systems in which the component blocks are comparable in size to the chemical and biological entities under investigation.

  15. Current tools and techniques in library science

    CERN Document Server

    Ralhan, Punit

    2009-01-01

    The book undertakes a comprehensive look at the trend of information explosion in library science throughout the ages with the aid of technology, and the contemporary tools in the field. The trend of library policy is clearly towards the ideal of making all information available without delay to all people. Because of technological progress, however, the difficulties of accomplishing this goal is formidable and growing.

  16. Computational materials science: The emergence of predictive capabilities of material behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kumar

    2003-06-01

    The availability of high performance computers and development of efficient algorithms has led to the emergence of computational materials science as the third branch of materials research complementing the traditional theoretical and experimental approaches. It has created new virtual realities in materials design that are either experimentally not realizable easily or are prohibitively expensive. The possibilities of doing calculations from first principles have led to predictive capabilities that open up new avenues of discovering novel materials with desired properties, understanding material behaviour on the nano- to the macroscopic scale and helping research in new frontiers that could interface between nano-materials and drug design, as well as in understanding biological systems. Here, we describe some significant recent developments related to alloy and steel design as well as the study of matter on the nano-scale — an area that has gained much prominence in current materials research.

  17. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, S. E.; Lehman, J. R.; Frazier, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400degC. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  18. Multicultural Science Education and Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes multicultural science education and explains the purposes of multicultural science curricula. It also serves as an introductory article for the other multicultural science education activities in this special issue of "Science Activities".

  19. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  20. Surface science principles and current applications

    CERN Document Server

    Taglauer, E; Wandelt, K

    1996-01-01

    Modern technologies increasingly rely on low-dimensional physics at interfaces and in thin-films and nano-structures. Surface science holds a key position in providing the experimental methods and theoretical models for a basic understanding of these effects. This book includes case studies and status reports about research topics such as: surface structure determination by tensor-LEED and surface X-ray diffraction; the preparation and detection of low-dimensional electronic surface states; quantitative surface compositional analysis; the dynamics of adsorption and reaction of adsorbates, e.g. kinetic oscillations; the characterization and control of thin-film and multilayer growth including the influence of surfactants; a critical assessment of the surface physics approach to heterogeneous catalysis.

  1. A new direction in mathematics for materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first volume of the SpringerBriefs in the Mathematics of Materials and provides a comprehensive guide to the interaction of mathematics with materials science. The anterior part of the book describes a selected history of materials science as well as the interaction between mathematics and materials in history. The emergence of materials science was itself a result of an interdisciplinary movement in the 1950s and 1960s. Materials science was formed by the integration of metallurgy, polymer science, ceramics, solid state physics, and related disciplines. We believe that such historical background helps readers to understand the importance of interdisciplinary interaction such as mathematics–materials science collaboration. The middle part of the book describes mathematical ideas and methods that can be applied to materials problems and introduces some examples of specific studies—for example, computational homology applied to structural analysis of glassy materials, stochastic models for ...

  2. The science of geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) phenomenon impacting long conductor systems on the ground can be considered as the end link of chain of complex physical processes comprising the Sun-Earth system. In this paper I briefly review the current status of our understanding of the physics of GIC and novel applications enabled by the new understanding. More specifically, I will demonstrate how we can follow the chain of physical processes from the solar corona down to the upper mantle of the Earth and to GIC. Further, I will show how state-of-the-art models enable predictive modeling of the entire chain of complex processes. The potential for severe societal consequences has been driving recent increasing interest in extreme GIC events. I will show how we have addressed the issue by generating 100-year GIC event scenarios. These scenarios are of substantial power grid industry interest and have been fed directly into further engineering analyses. I will review the results of our of 100-year geomagnetically induced current scenarios work and discuss some of the future directions in the field.

  3. Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus Rockett

    2008-12-01

    At the request of the University Materials Council, a national workshop was convened to examine 'Gender Equity Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.' The workshop considered causes of the historic underrepresentation of women in materials science and engineering (MSE), with a goal of developing strategies to increase the gender diversity of the discipline in universities and national laboratories. Specific workshop objectives were to examine efforts to level the playing field, understand implicit biases, develop methods to minimize bias in all aspects of training and employment, and create the means to implement a broadly inclusive, family-friendly work environment in MSE departments. Held May 18-20, 2008, at the Conference Center at the University of Maryland, the workshop included heads and chairs of university MSE departments and representatives of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (DOE-BES), and the national laboratories. The following recommendations are made based on the outcomes of the discussions at the workshop. Many or all of these apply equally well to universities and national laboratories and should be considered in context of industrial environments as well. First, there should be a follow-up process by which the University Materials Council (UMC) reviews the status of women in the field of MSE on a periodic basis and determines what additional changes should be made to accelerate progress in gender equity. Second, all departments should strengthen documentation and enforcement of departmental procedures such that hiring, promotion, compensation, and tenure decisions are more transparent, that the reasons why a candidate was not selected or promoted are clear, and that faculty are less able to apply their biases to personnel decisions. Third, all departments should strengthen mentoring of junior faculty. Fourth, all departments must raise awareness of gender biases

  4. Polyoxometalates: from inorganic chemistry to materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casañ-Pastor, Nieves; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2004-05-01

    Polyoxometalates have been traditionally the subject of study of molecular inorganic chemistry. Yet, these polynuclear molecules, reminiscent of oxide clusters, present a wide range of structures and with them ideal frameworks for the deployment of a plethora of useful magnetic, electroionic, catalytic, bioactive and photochemical properties. With this in mind, a new trend towards the application of these remarkable species in materials science is beginning to develop. In this review we analyze this trend and discuss two main lines of thought for the application of polyoxometalates as materials. On the one hand, there is their use as clusters with inherently useful properties on themselves, a line which has produced fundamental studies of their magnetic, electronic or photoelectrochemical properties and has shown these clusters as models for quantum-sized oxides. On the other hand, the encapsulation or integration of polyoxometalates into organic, polymeric or inorganic matrices or substrates opens a whole new field within the area of hybrid materials for harnessing the multifunctional properties of these versatile species in a wide variety of applications, ranging from catalysis to energy storage to biomedicine.

  5. Women in science: Current advances and challenges in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-01

    Women constitute 49% of all natural scientists in Belarus. However, fewer than 18% of Belarusian natural scientists who hold a doctor of science degree are women. The proportion of women decreases with increasing rank at universities and institutes in Belarus. Gender imbalance at the level of full professor is striking at just 17.5% women, and illuminates the vertical segregation of women in the natural sciences. This report reviews the positions of women in science in Belarus to draw out current advances and challenges encountered by female scientists in the former socialist country. New statistical data are broken down by gender and aimed at advancing the general agenda for women in science.

  6. Innovative Video Diagnostic Equipment for Material Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, G.; Titomanlio, D.; Soellner, W.; Seidel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Materials science experiments under microgravity increasingly rely on advanced optical systems to determine the physical properties of the samples under investigation. This includes video systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. The acquisition, handling, storage and transmission to ground of the resulting video data are very challenging. Since the available downlink data rate is limited, the capability to compress the video data significantly without compromising the data quality is essential. We report on the development of a Digital Video System (DVS) for EML (Electro Magnetic Levitator) which provides real-time video acquisition, high compression using advanced Wavelet algorithms, storage and transmission of a continuous flow of video with different characteristics in terms of image dimensions and frame rates. The DVS is able to operate with the latest generation of high-performance cameras acquiring high resolution video images up to 4Mpixels@60 fps or high frame rate video images up to about 1000 fps@512x512pixels.

  7. Diamond detector - material science, design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaowei, Mengjia

    Modern synchrotrons, such as the NSLS-II, will enable unprecedented science by having extremely high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. These capabilities create a harsh and demanding environment for measuring the characteristics of the x-ray beam. In many cases, existing measurement techniques fail completely, requiring the development of new detectors which can meet the demands of the synchrotron. The combination of diamond properties ranked diamond an appealing candidate in the field of radiation detection in extreme conditions and it has been used as x-ray sensor material for decades. However, only until the development of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the synthesis of diamond that has it been considered for wider applications in the state-of-art synchrotron light sources as part of beamline diagnostics, including the detection of x-ray beam flux and position. While defects and dislocations in CVD grown single crystal diamonds are inevitable, there are solutions in other aspects of a device fabrication to compensate this technological downside, including improving device performance in engineering diamond surface electrode materials and patterns and slicing and polishing diamond plates into thinner pieces. The content of this dissertation summarizes our effort in addressing several problems we encounter in the process of design and fabrication of single crystal CVD diamond based electronic devices. In order to study the generation of post-anneal photoconductive gain in our devices we have discussed in section 3 and 4 the two criteria for the observation of photoconductive current. In section 3 we reveal the correlation between structural defects in diamond and the post-anneal photoconductive regions. Section 4 introduces the measurements of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) we applied to investigate the diamond-metal Schottky barrier height for several metals and diamond surface terminations. The position of the

  8. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  9. Medipix3 CT for material sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procz, S.; Wartig, K.-A.; Fauler, A.; Zwerger, A.; Luebke, J.; Ballabriga, R.; Blaj, G.; Campbell, M.; Mix, M.; Fiederle, M.

    2013-01-01

    Innovative detector systems for non-destructive material analysis and for medical diagnosis are an important development to improve the performance and the quality of examination methods. For a number of years now photon-counting X-ray detectors are being developed to process incoming X-ray photons as single events. These detectors facilitate a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than conventional, non-photon-counting, scintillator based detector systems, which detect X-ray photons indirectly through conversion into visible light. The Medipix is a pixelated photon counting semiconductor detector which features adjustable energy thresholds allowing energy selective, multispectral X-ray imaging. The Medipix chip is under continued development by the ``Medipix2 Collaboration'' and ``Medipix3 Collaboration'' at CERN [1]. The Medipix electronic offers 256 × 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 × 55 μm2 and can be hybridized with different sensor materials like Si, CdTe or GaAs. The newest member of the Medipix family is the Medipix3 (ASIC in 0.13 μm CMOS technology) providing up to eight separate 12-bit counters per pixel. It offers a couple of different working modes [2], which are useful for X-ray imaging applications. A Medipix3 CT X-ray measuring station was built up for small animal X-ray imaging and non-destructive material analysis [3]. The combination of the low energy threshold ( ~ 4 keV) of the Medipix3 with its multispectral capability enables tomographic investigations on objects with low absorption contrast. The advantage of photon counting, multispectral detectors like Medipix3 for material sciences will be presented here as well as a comparison with a scintillator based CT.

  10. Focuses of material science development in recent years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing

    2011-01-01

    Materials science is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering.This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties.It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry.With significant media attention focused on nanoscience and nanotechnology in recent years,materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities.Materials science encompasses various classes of materials,including electronic materials,functional ceramics,magnesium,material and processes for flat-panel displays,eco/environmental materials,sustainable energy materials,transportation materials,electronic packaging materials,etc.

  11. Current status of family intervention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G; Siqueland, L

    2001-07-01

    reductions of oppositional and antisocial behavior. Clinical programs that treat these populations without using a family-based intervention as at least a component of a treatment package are seriously ignoring the findings of contemporary intervention science. Programs of research by Henggeler, Szapocznik, and Liddle demonstrate similarly impressive results for substance abusing adolescents. Although preliminary results from the Dennis et al study suggest that various treatment approaches may benefit this population. Family interventions have had less success in reducing ADHD symptoms, yet these psychosocial treatments have been essential in reducing much of the family and school behavior problems associated with this disorder. Many investigators would agree that a combined medication and family treatment approach may be the treatment of choice for children with ADHD. In fact, many studies across various disorders suggest that patients respond best to comprehensive treatment packages, of which a family treatment is at least one component. Although the data are promising, many challenges lie ahead. Although collectively many family intervention studies exist, many disorders lack enough rigorous and large-scale investigations to make any strong conclusions. Kazdin argues that sample sizes of 150 are essential to detect significant differences between active treatments, and few of the reviewed studies include these kinds of patient numbers. Furthermore, not enough committed and sophisticated family treatment researchers have carried out some of the major studies. For example, the Brent study on depression and the Barkley study of ADHD, although testing family approaches, lacked well-developed and published treatment manuals, a demonstration of the necessary expertise to supervise these treatments, and data about training and adherence to these models. Although the absence of expertise limits investigator allegiance biases, treatment development and modification are essential

  12. Fabrication of brittle materials -- current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    The research initiatives in the area of precision fabrication will be continued in the upcoming year. Three students, T. Bifano (PhD), P. Blake (PhD) and E. Smith (MS), finished their research programs in the last year. Sections 13 and 14 will summarize the essential results from the work of the Materials Engineering students Blake and Smith. Further details will be presented in forthcoming publications that are now in preparation. The results from Bifano`s thesis have been published in adequate detail and need not be summarized further. Three new students, S. Blackley (MS), H. Paul (PhD), and S. Smith (PhD) have joined the program and will continue the research efforts in precision fabrication. The programs for these students will be outlined in Sections 15 and 16. Because of the success of the earlier work in establishing new process models and experimental techniques for the study of diamond turning and diamond grinding, the new programs will, in part, build upon the earlier work. This is especially true for investigations concerned with brittle materials. The basic understanding of material response of nominally brittle materials during machining or grinding operations remains as a challenge. The precision fabrication of brittle materials will continue as an area of emphasis for the Precision Engineering Center.

  13. Critical current densities in superconducting materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chaddah

    2003-02-01

    We discuss recent research in the area of critical current densities $(J_C)$ in superconductors. This shall cover recent work on newly discovered superconductors, as well as on the magnetic-field dependence of $J_C$.

  14. Chemistry and Materials Science progress report, FY 1994. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research include surface science, fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals, energetic materials, etc. The laboratory directed R and D include director`s initiatives, individual projects, and transactinium science studies.

  15. Current trends in scintillator detectors and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, W W

    2002-01-01

    The last decade has seen a renaissance in inorganic scintillator development for gamma ray detection. Lead tungstate (PbWO sub 4) has been developed for high-energy physics experiments, and possesses exceptionally high density and radiation hardness, albeit with low luminous efficiency. Lutetium orthosilicate or LSO (Lu sub 2 SiO sub 5 :Ce) possesses a unique combination of high luminous efficiency, high density, and reasonably short decay time, and is now incorporated in commercial positron emission tomography cameras. There have been advances in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that limit energy resolution, and several recently discovered materials (such as LaBr sub 3 :Ce) possess energy resolution that approaches that of direct solid state detectors. Finally, there are indications that a neglected class of scintillator materials that exhibit near band-edge fluorescence could provide scintillators with sub-nanosecond decay times and high luminescent efficiency.

  16. Pulsed Neutron Powder Diffraction for Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, T.

    2008-03-01

    The accelerator-based neutron diffraction began in the end of 60's at Tohoku University which was succeeded by the four spallation neutron facilities with proton accelerators at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan), Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos Laboratory (USA), and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). Since then, the next generation source has been pursued for 20 years, and 1MW-class spallation neutron sources will be appeared in about three years at the three parts of the world: Japan, UK and USA. The joint proton accelerator project (J-PARC), a collaborative project between KEK and JAEA, is one of them. The aim of the talk is to describe about J-PARC and the neutron diffractometers being installed at the materials and life science facility of J-PARC. The materials and life science facility of J-PARC has 23 neutron beam ports and will start delivering the first neutron beam of 25 Hz from 2008 May. Until now, more than 20 proposals have been reviewed by the review committee, and accepted proposal groups have started to get fund. Those proposals include five polycrystalline diffractometers: a super high resolution powder diffractometer (SHRPD), a 0.2%-resolution powder diffractometer of Ibaraki prefecture (IPD), an engineering diffractometers (Takumi), a high intensity S(Q) diffractometer (VSD), and a high-pressure dedicated diffractometer. SHRPD, Takumi and IPD are being designed and constructed by the joint team of KEK, JAEA and Ibaraki University, whose member are originally from the KEK powder group. These three instruments are expected to start in 2008. VSD is a super high intensity diffractometer with the highest resolution of Δd/d = 0.3%. VSD can measure rapid time-dependent phenomena of crystalline materials as well as glass, liquid and amorphous materials. The pair distribution function will be routinely obtained by the Fourier transiformation of S(Q) data. Q range of VSD will be as wide as 0.01 Å-1industries based on

  17. Science communication in India: current situation, history and future developments

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzonetto Marzia

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, India is experiencing a widespread diffusion of science communication activities. Public institutions, non-governmental organisations and a number of associations are busy spreading scientific knowledge not only via traditional media but also through specific forms of interaction with a varied public. This report aims to provide a historical overview of the diffusion of science communication in India, illustrating its current development and its future prospects.

  18. Plastic materials currently used in Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruvjir Shagdarsuren; Nachin Baasanjav; Sosor Baatarjav

    2007-01-01

    The first skin-flap procedures were performed in Mongolia by a team of Chinese doctors ( Chenod, Chen)who treated children with burn injuries in the 1950s. The field of plastic surgery was further developed through assistance from the former Soviet Union and is now widely practiced by a number of surgeons around the country.In recent years, the fast evolving field of plastic surgery in Mongolia has created a need for clear and consistent system for the classification of various plastic materials. A team of Mongolian surgeons at the National Hospital for Traumatology, Orthopedics, Rehabilitation and Teaching Research have completed a research programme aimed at adopting a leading classification system that can facilitate effective communication between plastic surgeons. This requires the chosen system to be in line with modern trends in plastic surgery and the established international norms.As a result of extensive research and analysis, they have developed a customized version of Vasiliev's classification that focuses on formulating general principles of the description of plastic materials based on their functional characteristics. The main reason for this selection is its similarity with existing Mongolian standards as well as its principles that contain important implications for surgery.

  19. ION BEAM TECHNOLOGY IN MATERIALS SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Dutt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ion beam processing of materials in general and semiconductors in particular, started with ion implantation in semiconductors; first used by Ohl at Bell Labs in 1952 toimprove the electrical characteristics of silicon point contact diodes by implanting H, He, N and Ar ions.The improvement was obvious but it was caused by surface damage and notthe ion implantation. However, in the process, ion implantation had an entry and slowly it became popular among the scientists and the technocrats. Thus, over the last six decades, demands continued for new and improved materials and devices that has pushed ion implanter to expand to ion beam technology. In the semiconductor industry alone, the processes have evolved so much so that in today’s world, there are morethan 4000 ion implanters in the IC fab lines apart from otherion beam-assisted processing machines. Ion beam deposition techniques, ion beam lithography, ion beam etching, ion beammilling are all ion beam beam-assisted techniques that arebeing extensively used in semiconductor industries. In this backdrop, it was thought that a compilation of uses of allthese techniques together with relevant tools of analysis toserve as a guide to the semiconductor scientists and technologists for a glimpse of the ongoing efforts being madein this direction. Fortunately enough, Indian research is not lagging in use of all these modern day technologies that will be evident as the reader will go from one article to the other of this special volume.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.328-328, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1530

  20. Effect of High-K Dielectric Materials on Leakage Current

    OpenAIRE

    Puneet Kundu; Rekha Yadav

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study of different high-k dielectric materials based on tunneling current density has been deployed. The various types of high-k dielectric materials such as aluminium oxide, hafnium oxide, silicon nitride are compared using Schrödinger equation. The analytical model of tunneling current density has been computed using WKB approximation method. The simulation results of various high-k dielectric materials have also been computed. Different high-k dielectric materi...

  1. Chemistry and materials science progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Research is reported in the areas of surface science, fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals, energetic materials, transactinide materials and properties and other indirectly related areas of weapons research.

  2. Chemistry and materials science progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Research is reported in the areas of surface science, fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals, energetic materials, transactinide materials and properties and other indirectly related areas of weapons research.

  3. CSIR eNews: Materials science and manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available knowledge and networks within these fields. A major competitive advantage is the wide coverage of materials (e.g. fibres, textiles, polymers, ceramics, composites, metals) and manufacturing disciplines within one unit. This enables CSIR Materials Science...

  4. CSIR eNews: Materials science and manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available knowledge and networks within these fields. A major competitive advantage is the wide coverage of materials (e.g. fibres, textiles, polymers, ceramics, composites, metals) and manufacturing disciplines within one unit. This enables CSIR Materials Science...

  5. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Bio-Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-17

    BIO -Functional Materials Selected abstracts on the design, structure, and functions of bio -functional materials; "priority areas of research" sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

  6. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  7. Mineral Surface Reactivity in teaching of Science Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In the last fifty years, science materials issues has required the study of air pollution, water and soil to prevent and remedy the adverse effects of waste originating from anthropogenic activity and the development of new energies and new materials. The teaching of this discipline has been marked by lectures on general lines, materials, disciplines, who explained biased objects of reality, but often forgot the task of reconstruction and integration of such visions. Moving from that model, otherwise quite static, to a dynamic relational model, would in our view, a real revolution in education. This means taking a systematic approach to complex both in interpreting reality and in favor when learning. Children relationships are as important or more than single objects, and it is to discover fundamental organizational principles of phenomena we seek to interpret or in other words, find the pattern that connects. Thus, we must work on relationships and also take into account the relation between the observer and the observed. Educate about relationships means that studies should always be considered within a framework of probabilities, not absolute certainties. This model of systemic thinking, dealing with complexity, is a possibility to bring coherence to our educational work, because the complexity is not taught, complexity is live, so that complex thinking is extended (and fed) in a form educate complex. It is the task of teaching to help people move from level to level of decision reviews. This means that systems thinking should be extended in a local action, action that engages the individual and the environment. Science Materials has emerged as a discipline of free choice for pupils attending chemical engineering which has been assigned 6.0 credits. The chemical engineer's professional profile within the current framework is defined as a professional knowledge as a specialization technical / functional, working in a learning organization and the formation of

  8. Materials and Chemical Sciences Division annual report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    This report describes research conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, programs are discussed in the following topics: materials sciences; chemical sciences; fossil energy; energy storage systems; health and environmental sciences; exploratory research and development funds; and work for others. A total of fifty eight programs are briefly presented. References, figures, and tables are included where appropriate with each program.

  9. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  10. Current Status of Regulatory Science Education in Faculties of Pharmaceutical Science in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohkin, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

     I introduce the current pharmaceutical education system in Japan, focusing on regulatory science. University schools or faculties of pharmaceutical science in Japan offer two courses: a six-year course for pharmacists and a four-year course for scientists and technicians. Students in the six-year pharmaceutical course receive training in hospitals and pharmacies during their fifth year, and those in the four-year life science course start research activities during their third year. The current model core curriculum for pharmaceutical education requires them to "explain the necessity and significance of regulatory science" as a specific behavior object. This means that pharmacists should understand the significance of "regulatory science", which will lead to the proper use of pharmaceuticals in clinical practice. Most regulatory science laboratories are in the university schools or faculties of pharmaceutical sciences; however, there are too few to conduct regulatory science education. There are many problems in regulatory science education, and I hope that those problems will be resolved not only by university-based regulatory science researchers but also by those from the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory authorities.

  11. The Usage of Recycle Materials for Science Practicum: Is There Any Effect on Science Process Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajoko, Setiyo; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur; Gipayana, Muhana

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the effect of recycle materials usage for science practicum on students' basic science process skills of the Open University, Surakarta. Recycle materials are the term used for the obtained materials and equipment from the students' environment by taking back the garbage or secondhand objects into goods or new…

  12. Cartography and Geographic Information Science in Current Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-01-01

    The Cartography and Geographic Information Science (CaGIS) journal was published as The American Cartographer from 1974 to 1989, after that as Cartography and Geographic Information System, and since then has been published with its current name. It is published by the Cartography and Geographic Information Society, a member of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.

  13. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  14. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  15. Low Gravity Materials Science Research for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Semmes, Edmund B.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Cook, Mary Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    2004-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, the President of the United States announced a new vision for the United States civil space program. The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility to implement this new vision. The President also created a Presidential Commission 'to obtain recommendations concerning implementation of the new vision for space exploration.' The President's Commission recognized that achieving the exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as 'enabling technologies.' Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were advanced structures; advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity system; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis; biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. The Commission also recommended realignment of NASA Headquarters organizations to support the vision for space exploration. NASA has aggressively responded in its planning to support the vision for space exploration and with the current considerations of the findings and recommendations from the Presidential Commission. This presentation will examine the transformation and realignment activities to support the vision for space exploration that are underway in the microgravity materials science program. The heritage of the microgravity materials science program, in the context of residence within the organizational structure of the Office of Biological and Physical Research, and thematic and sub-discipline based research content areas, will be briefly examined as the starting point for the ongoing transformation. Overviews of future research directions will be presented and the status of organizational restructuring at NASA Headquarters, with respect to influences on the microgravity materials science program, will be discussed

  16. PREFACE: Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Masashi; Ohshima, Kenichi; Kojima, Seiji; Nagasaki, Yukio; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kim, Hee Young; Kadowaki, Kazuo; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Nakamura, Junji; Yamamoto, Yohei; Goto, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science (TICMS) was held from 28th August to 6th September, 2013 for the celebration of 40th year anniversary of the University of Tsukuba. The conference was organized by the Division of Materials Science, in cooperation with the Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, and Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science. The purpose of the conference was to provide a unique forum for researchers and students working in various fields of materials science, which have been progressing so rapidly that no single society could cover. The conference consists of following seven workshops to cover various fields. The organizing committee believed that the conference gave all participants new insights into the widespread development of materials science and enhanced the circulation, among them, of information released at the conference. The organizers are grateful for the financial support from University of Tsukuba. This volume contains 25 selected papers from invited and contributed papers, all of which have been screened on the basis of the standard review process of the program committee. The editors express their thanks to those authors who contributed the papers published in this proceedings, which reflects the scientific value of the conference. Nov. 20, 2013 Seiji Kojima, Prof. Dr. Chair, Division of Materials Science Chair, Doctoral Program in Materials Science TICMS 2013 (http://www.ticonfms.tsukuba.ac.jp/) Workshop list The 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Materials Science Summer School of Biomaterials Science The Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies The 2nd Workshop on THz Radiation from Intrinsic Josephson Junctions The 3rd German-Japan Nanoworkshop TICMS and IWP Joint Workshop on Conjugated Polymers International Workshop on Science and Patents (IWP) 2013

  17. The materiality of materials and artefacts used in science classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    and ends of artefacts/ materials. They explored artefacts/materials and how they could be used and through this exemplified materiality in the objects. More deliberate and focused attention to what constitutes materiality can support collaboration and communication to support and enhance learning...... materials as natural objects in this world and artefacts as manmade objects. We are aware that in a classroom material objects and artefacts shape, and are shaped by classroom practice through the way they selectively present scientific explanations. However, materials and artefacts have no intrinsic...... and constrain forms of action and insights that are likely to “emerge” (Wells, 2003). Methods The study's teachers considered that students enjoy and benefit from “hands–on” learning activities and many commented that tasks and interactions incorporated the use of materials. These included material objects...

  18. Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis.

  19. Materials Centered Science and Manipulative Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struve, Nancy L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Evaluated were effects of experience with two physical science units adapted for use by the visually impaired on the manipulative skills of 14 visually impaired low income students from 9 to 19 years of age. (DB)

  20. Materials science: Lessons from tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D.; Soler-Crespo, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    A remarkable composite material has been made that mimics the structure of tooth enamel. This achievement opens up the exploration of new composite materials and of computational methods that reliably predict their properties. See Letter p.95

  1. Materials science: Chemistry and physics happily wed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiete, Gregory A.

    2017-07-01

    A major advance in the quantum theory of solids allows materials to be identified whose electronic states have a non-trivial topology. Such materials could have many computing and electronics applications. See Article p.298

  2. Piezoelectric materials and devices applications in engineering and medical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Vijaya, M S

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric Materials and Devices: Applications in Engineering and Medical Sciences provides a complete overview of piezoelectric materials, covering all aspects of the materials starting from fundamental concepts. The treatment includes physics of piezoelectric materials, their characteristics and applications. The author uses simple language to explain the theory of piezoelectricity and introduce readers to the properties and design of different types of piezoelectric materials, such as those used in engineering and medical device applications.This book: Introduces various types of dielect

  3. Effect of High-K Dielectric Materials on Leakage Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kundu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of different high-k dielectric materials based on tunneling current density has been deployed. The various types of high-k dielectric materials such as aluminium oxide, hafnium oxide, silicon nitride are compared using Schrödinger equation. The analytical model of tunneling current density has been computed using WKB approximation method. The simulation results of various high-k dielectric materials have also been computed. Different high-k dielectric materials are also compared on the basis of barrier height and effective mass etc.

  4. The use of historical materials in elementary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J.

    2001-07-01

    Science educators have stressed in recent years the importance of providing students with an historical understanding of the development of scientific knowledge. Although many approaches have been suggested for building historical understanding of science, historical source materials have often been deemed too difficult to use with elementary school students. This article reports on a case study that used archival and contemporary source materials in project activities, such as photographs and field notes, to engage students in the processes of data generation, selection, annotation, and evaluation. The curricular science activities of one elementary classroom with 29 fourth and fifth grade students are decribed and analyzed as they build and use archives of historical and contemporary naturalist materials. The article concludes with a discussion of the feasibility and benefits of using historical source materials within elementary science education, as well as the implications for selecting and preparing historical source materials in digital format for use in elementary education.

  5. Making Audio-Visual Teaching Materials for Elementary Science

    OpenAIRE

    永田, 四郎

    1980-01-01

    For the elementary science, some audio-visual teaching materials were made by author and our students. These materials are slides for projector, transparencies and materials for OHP, 8 mm sound films and video tapes. We hope this kind of study will continue.

  6. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  7. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  8. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  9. Forensic Science and the Internet - Current Utilization and Future Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamakura, R P

    1997-12-01

    The Internet has become a very powerful and inexpensive tool for the free distribution of knowledge and information. It is a learning and research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a help desk, and a publication house providing newspapers with current information and journals with instant publication. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet (popularly referred to as the Net) also will be a live classroom and everyday conference site. This article provides a brief overview of the basic structure and essential components of the Internet. A limited number of home pages/Web sites that are already made available on the Net by scientists, laboratories, and colleges in the forensic science community are presented in table forms. Home pages/Web sites containing useful information pertinent to different disciplines of forensic science are also categorized in various tables. The ease and benefits of the Internet use are exemplified by the author's personal experience. Currently, only a few forensic scientists and institutions have made their presence felt. More participation and active contribution and the creation of on-line searchable databases in all specialties of forensic science are urgently needed. Leading forensic journals should take the lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. Creating Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Leading forensic science institutions should also develop use of the Net to provide training and retraining opportunities for forensic scientists.

  10. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Elementary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum materials are important resources with which teachers make pedagogical decisions about the design of science learning environments. To become well-started beginning elementary teachers capable of engaging their students in inquiry-based science, preservice elementary teachers need to learn to use science curriculum materials…

  11. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  12. Biological issues in materials science and engineering: Interdisciplinarity and the bio-materials paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L. E.

    2006-07-01

    Biological systems and processes have had, and continue to have, important implications and applications in materials extraction, processing, and performance. This paper illustrates some interdisciplinary, biological issues in materials science and engineering. These include metal extraction involving bacterial catalysis, galvanic couples, bacterial-assisted corrosion and degradation of materials, biosorption and bioremediation of toxic and other heavy metals, metal and material implants and prostheses and related dental and medical biomaterials developments and applications, nanomaterials health benefits and toxicity issue, and biomimetics and biologically inspired materials developments. These and other examples provide compelling evidence and arguments for emphasizing biological sicences in materials science and engineering curricula and the implementation of a bio-materials paradigm to facilitate the emergence of innovative interdisciplinarity involving the biological sciences and materials sciences and engineering.

  13. Current Status and Prospects of New Architecture Materials from Bamboo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of the technologies has been discussed in the paper that bamboo is used for middling and top-grade building construction, architecture decorating, and other major applications. The content includes the current application of bamboo materials in construction field; the bamboo bearing material technological process such as the laminated bamboo board, bamboo mat plywood processes; bamboo ceiling and wall material technologies such as the bamboo particleboard, cement-bonded bamboo particlebo...

  14. U.S. Materials Science on the International Space Station: Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Kelton, Kenneth F.; Matson, Douglas M.; Poirier, David R.; Trivedi, Rohit K.; Su, Ching-Hua; Volz, Martin P.; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current status and NASA plans for materials science on the International Space Station. The contents include: 1) Investigations Launched in 2009; 2) DECLIC in an EXPRESS rack; 3) Dynamical Selection of Three-Dimensional Interface Patterns in Directional Solidification (DSIP); 4) Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR); 5) Materials Science Laboratory; 6) Comparison of Structure and Segregation in Alloys Directionally Solidified in Terrestrial and Microgravity Environments (MICAST/CETSOL); 7) Coarsening in Solid Liquid Mixtures 2 Reflight (CSLM 2R); 8) Crystal Growth Investigations; 9) Levitator Investigations; 10) Quasi Crystalline Undercooled Alloys for Space Investigation (QUASI); 11) The Role of Convection and Growth Competition in Phase Selection in Microgravity (LODESTARS); 12) Planned Additional Investigations; 13) SETA; 14) METCOMP; and 15) Materials Science NRA.

  15. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U

    2011-01-01

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from ~65 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently ~15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of ~80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions i...

  16. The materiality of materials and artefacts used in science classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    materials as natural objects in this world and artefacts as manmade objects. We are aware that in a classroom material objects and artefacts shape, and are shaped by classroom practice through the way they selectively present scientific explanations. However, materials and artefacts have no intrinsic...... such as fossils, plant samples and artefacts like test tubes, worksheets and digital tools along with written inscriptions produced during interactions and that served as artefacts in subsequent interactions (Roehl, 2012). Data sources Data were generated via classroom observation using video, student work sample....... d) Artefacts as an adjunct to talk. The use of sets of cards or actual objects. Students changed the position of the cards/ objects as a dynamic visual representation of consensus thinking. Significance The teachers in our study did not view materials as being neutral objects but thought about means...

  17. Materials science. Materials that couple sensing, actuation, computation, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, M A; Correll, N

    2015-03-20

    Tightly integrating sensing, actuation, and computation into composites could enable a new generation of truly smart material systems that can change their appearance and shape autonomously. Applications for such materials include airfoils that change their aerodynamic profile, vehicles with camouflage abilities, bridges that detect and repair damage, or robotic skins and prosthetics with a realistic sense of touch. Although integrating sensors and actuators into composites is becoming increasingly common, the opportunities afforded by embedded computation have only been marginally explored. Here, the key challenge is the gap between the continuous physics of materials and the discrete mathematics of computation. Bridging this gap requires a fundamental understanding of the constituents of such robotic materials and the distributed algorithms and controls that make these structures smart.

  18. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  19. Surface physics of materials materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Blakely, J M

    2013-01-01

    Surface Physics of Materials presents accounts of the physical properties of solid surfaces. The book contains selected articles that deal with research emphasizing surface properties rather than experimental techniques in the field of surface physics. Topics discussed include transport of matter at surfaces; interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces; chemical analysis of surfaces; and adhesion and friction. Research workers, teachers and graduate students in surface physics, and materials scientist will find the book highly useful.

  20. Materials science: Nanomagnets boost thermoelectric output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boona, Stephen R.

    2017-09-01

    The direct conversion of heat into electricity -- a reversible process known as the thermoelectric effect -- can be greatly enhanced in some materials by embedding them with a small number of magnetic nanoparticles. See Letter p.247

  1. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Richard; Clark, Brett

    2010-01-01

    There are widely divergent views on how science and technology are connected to environmental problems. A view commonly held among natural scientists and policy makers is that environmental problems are primarily technical problems that can be solved via the development and implementation of technological innovations. This technologically optimistic view tends to ignore power relationships in society and the political-economic order that drives environmental degradation. An opposed view, common among postmodernist and poststructuralist scholars, is that the emergence of the scientific worldview is one of the fundamental causes of human oppression. This postmodernist view rejects scientific epistemology and often is associated with an anti-realist stance, which ultimately serves to deny the reality of environmental problems, thus (unintentionally) abetting right-wing efforts to scuttle environmental protection. We argue that both the technologically optimistic and the postmodernist views are misguided, and both undermine our ability to address environmental crises. We advocate the adoption of a critical materialist stance, which recognizes the importance of natural science for helping us to understand the world while also recognizing the social embeddedness of the scientific establishment and the need to challenge the manipulation of science by the elite.

  2. Materials science: Like cartilage, but simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties.......The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties....

  3. Using Federally Funded Curricular Materials to meet Next Geneartion Science Standards in Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) describe teaching and learning goals for Earth system science at all levels of K-12, including elementary, middle school, and high school. Teachers must consider science and engineering practices, cross-cutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. The National Science Foundation and other federal organizations have supported the development of reformed curricular materials at the K-12 level for many years. Although developed before the adoption of NGSS, many of these Earth system science resources are, in fact, NGSS congruent. Such resources include those developed by TERC, SERC, EDC, NASA, NOAA, USGS, and others. This session features NGSS congruent materials, carefully examining and dissecting the performance expectations that embody these materials. It also shares a process of tagging these materials via NSTA's, NGSS portal guidelines.

  4. Enlivening basic-science learning with current journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, W A

    1996-01-01

    Pre-clinical medical students are often unconvinced that the basic sciences are clinically valuable. Also, they are hesitant about formulating ideas on their own from non-textbook sources. First-year medical students taking histology or neurobiology were persuaded to consult articles from the current biomedical literature. I set brief short-answer and labeled-sketch questions well before the course theoretical examinations, where the answers counted toward the score. The answers could only be found by reading in articles made available in the laboratory. The articles were chosen to display basic-science knowledge in action in clinical contexts. The questions offer an additional curriculum that can be steered toward, for example, concerns of family practice, mechanisms of common diseases, and topics of fast-increasing clinical importance.

  5. MateriApps — a Portal Site of Materials Science Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yusuke; Igarashi, Ryo; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Kato, Takeo; Kawashima, Naoki; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Kouta, Hikaru; Noda, Masashi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Terada, Yayoi; Todo, Synge; Tsuchida, Shigehiro; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Kanako

    "MateriApps" is a portal website of computational materials science simulation that has a database containing over 100 application software including density functional theory calculation, quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc. On the MateriApps website, researchers can find applications suitable for their own research in materials science by browsing the website or searching by keywords. We also provide forums and tutorial courses of applications. In order to avoid troublesome installation procedures and provide users an environment in which they can try out various applications easily, we develop and freely distribute "MateriApps LIVE!," a live Linux system, in which several applications introduced in MateriApps are pre-installed.

  6. Understanding structural conservation through materials science:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties and the structure of materials are key elements in understanding how structural interventions in conservation treatments affect cultural heritage objects. In this context, engineering mechanics can help determine the strength and stability found in art objects as it can...... with tools to avoid future problems, it should be present in all conservation-restoration training programs to help promote students’ understanding of the degradation mechanisms in cultural materials (and their correlation with chemical and biological degradation) as well as the implications behind...

  7. Materials science: Crystals aligned through graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2017-04-01

    Graphene has been used as a 'transparent' layer that allows single crystals of a material to be grown on a substrate, and then lifted off -- in much the same way that baking paper lets cakes be removed easily from tins. See Letter p.340

  8. The science and engineering of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askeland, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The book includes contents from atomic and crystal structure through strengthening mechanisms to service behaviour and failure analysis. The range of materials studied include metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers, and composites-is truly catholic. Properties covered include mechanical (creep, hardness, brittle, failure, etc.), electrical (dielectric and magnetic), optical, thermal, and elastic.

  9. Understanding structural conservation through materials science:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    with tools to avoid future problems, it should be present in all conservation-restoration training programs to help promote students’ understanding of the degradation mechanisms in cultural materials (and their correlation with chemical and biological degradation) as well as the implications behind...

  10. Understanding solids: the science of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Richard J. D.

    2013-01-01

    This edition contains new sections on the use of computing methods to solve materials problems and has been thoroughly updated to include the many developments and advances made in the past 10 years, e.g.  batteries, solar cells, lighting technology, laser...

  11. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  12. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique of Instructional Materials for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Science teachers must adapt curriculum materials, so preservice teachers must develop beginning proficiency with this authentic task of teaching. What criteria do they use when they critique these materials in preparation for adapting them, when they develop the criteria themselves and when they are given a set of criteria from which to choose?…

  13. International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers the proceedings of the plenary sessions, invited lectures, and papers presented at the International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Applications (ICRTMSA-2016). It also features revealing presentations on various aspects of Materials Science, such as nanomaterials, photonic crystal fibers, quantum dots, thin film techniques, crystal growth, spectroscopic procedures, fabrication and characterisation of new materials / compounds with enhanced features, and potential applications in nonlinear optical and electro-optic devices, solar cell device, chemical sensing, biomedical imaging, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, energy storage device etc. This book will be of great interest to beginning and seasoned researchers alike.

  14. Application of nuclear-physics methods in space materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, L. S.; Voronina, E. N.; Galanina, L. I.; Chirskaya, N. P.

    2017-07-01

    The brief history of the development of investigations at the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in the field of space materials science is outlined. A generalized scheme of a numerical simulation of the radiation impact on spacecraft materials and elements of spacecraft equipment is examined. The results obtained by solving some of the most important problems that modern space materials science should address in studying nuclear processes, the interaction of charged particles with matter, particle detection, the protection from ionizing radiation, and the impact of particles on nanostructures and nanomaterials are presented.

  15. Bipolar electrochemistry: from materials science to motion and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Zigah, Dodzi; Bouffier, Laurent; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander

    2013-11-19

    Bipolar electrochemistry, a phenomenon which generates an asymmetric reactivity on the surface of conductive objects in a wireless manner, is an important concept for many purposes, from analysis to materials science as well as for the generation of motion. Chemists have known the basic concept for a long time, but it has recently attracted additional attention, especially in the context of micro- and nanoscience. In this Account, we introduce the fundamentals of bipolar electrochemistry and illustrate its recent applications, with a particular focus on the fields of materials science and dynamic systems. Janus particles, named after the Roman god depicted with two faces, are currently in the heart of many original investigations. These objects exhibit different physicochemical properties on two opposite sides. This makes them a unique class of materials, showing interesting features. They have received increasing attention from the materials science community, since they can be used for a large variety of applications, ranging from sensing to photosplitting of water. So far the great majority of methods developed for the generation of Janus particles breaks the symmetry by using interfaces or surfaces. The consequence is often a low time-space yield, which limits their large scale production. In this context, chemists have successfully used bipolar electrodeposition to break the symmetry. This provides a single-step technique for the bulk production of Janus particles with a high control over the deposit structure and morphology, as well as a significantly improved yield. In this context, researchers have used the bipolar electrodeposition of molecular layers, metals, semiconductors, and insulators at one or both reactive poles of bipolar electrodes to generate a wide range of Janus particles with different size, composition and shape. In using bipolar electrochemistry as a driving force for generating motion, its intrinsic asymmetric reactivity is again the

  16. The NASA Materials Science Research Program: It's New Strategic Goals and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Stagg, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    In the past year, the NASA s Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has formulated a long term plan to perform strategical and fundamental research bringing together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to solve problems needed for current and future agency mission goals. Materials Science is one of basic disciplines within the Enterprise s Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program participates to utilize effective use of International Space Station (ISS) and various world class ground laboratory facilities to solve new scientific and technology questions and transfer these results for public and agency benefits. The program has recently targeted new investigative research in strategic areas necessary to expand NASA knowledge base for exploration of the universe and some of these experiments will need access to the microgravity of space. The program is implementing a wide variety of traditional ground and flight based research related types of fundamental science related to materials crystallization, fundamental processing, and properties characterization in order to obtain basic understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. , In addition new initiatives in radiation protection, materials for propulsion and In-space fabrication and repair focus on research helping the agency solve problems needed for future transportation into the solar system. A summary of the types and sources for this research is presented including those experiments planned for a low gravity environment. Areas to help expand the science basis for NASA future missions are described. An overview of the program is given including the scope of the current and future NASA Research Announcements with emphasis on new materials science initiatives. A description of the planned flight experiments to be conducted on the International Space Station program along with the planned

  17. Diffraction phase microscopy: monitoring nanoscale dynamics in materials science [invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Chris; Zhou, Renjie; Hwang, Suk-Won; McKeown, Steven J; Wang, Kaiyuan; Bhaduri, Basanta; Ganti, Raman; Yunker, Peter J; Yodh, Arjun G; Rogers, John A; Goddard, Lynford L; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-20

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) utilizes the fact that the phase of an imaging field is much more sensitive than its amplitude. As fields from the source interact with the specimen, local variations in the phase front are produced, which provide structural information about the sample and can be used to reconstruct its topography with nanometer accuracy. QPI techniques do not require staining or coating of the specimen and are therefore nondestructive. Diffraction phase microscopy (DPM) combines many of the best attributes of current QPI methods; its compact configuration uses a common-path off-axis geometry which realizes the benefits of both low noise and single-shot imaging. This unique collection of features enables the DPM system to monitor, at the nanoscale, a wide variety of phenomena in their natural environments. Over the past decade, QPI techniques have become ubiquitous in biological studies and a recent effort has been made to extend QPI to materials science applications. We briefly review several recent studies which include real-time monitoring of wet etching, photochemical etching, surface wetting and evaporation, dissolution of biodegradable electronic materials, and the expansion and deformation of thin-films. We also discuss recent advances in semiconductor wafer defect detection using QPI.

  18. Understanding Materials Science History · Properties · Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Rolf E

    2005-01-01

    This introduction to materials science both for students of engineering and physics and for the interested general public examines not only the physical and engineering properties of virtually all kinds of materials, but also their history, uses, development, and some of the implications of resource depletion and recycling. It covers all topics on materials from an entirely novel perspective: the role materials have played throughout history in the development of humankind and technologies. Specifically, it shows the connection between the technical and the cultural, economic, ecological, and societal aspects of materials science. It aims to whet the appetite of its readers and inspire them to further explore the properties and applications of metals, alloys, ceramics, plastics, and electronic materials by presenting easily understandable explanations and entertaining historical facts. It is also intended to raise the reader’s awareness of their obligations to society as practicing engineers and scientists....

  19. Chemistry and Materials Science 2004 Annual Report, Preview Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, S; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Rennie, G

    2005-05-16

    Thriving from change is a constant element at LLNL. Through our commitment to scientific accomplishments, we have met the challenges posed by our evolving missions in 2004. It is the scientific breakthroughs that substantiate our strategic directions. Investments based on our strategic directions are bearing fruit, as illustrated in this preview of the 2004 Annual Report. We describe how our science is built around a strategic plan with four organizing themes: {sm_bullet} Materials properties and performance under extreme conditions {sm_bullet} Chemistry under extreme conditions and chemical engineering in support of national-security programs {sm_bullet} Science supporting national objectives at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and biology {sm_bullet} Applied nuclear science for human health and national security We are particularly pleased with achievements within the 'intersection of chemistry, materials science, and biology,' an emerging area of science that may reshape the landscape of our national-security mission. CMS continues to have an unambiguous role both as a technology leader and as a partner for all of the four theme areas. We look forward to expanding the frontiers of science and continuing our partnership with the worldwide scientific community, as we firmly respond to the changing environment with agility and flexibility.

  20. Addgene: making materials sharing "science as usual".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Kamens

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addgene (www.addgene.org is a nonprofit organization that facilitates biomedical research and discovery by improving access to useful research materials and information. To fulfill this mission, Addgene works with hundreds of laboratories all over the world to collect high-quality published plasmids and data for the repository that can then be distributed to academic institutions and used to further research. Biological resource centers such as Addgene are an important part of the scientific infrastructure. They play a key role in helping scientists overcome logistical barriers to sharing, improving experimental reproducibility, and optimizing use of limited resources.

  1. Incorporating Science News Into Middle School Curricula: Current Events in the 21st Century Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, E.

    2010-12-01

    Middle school students are instructed with the aid of textbooks, lectures, and activities to teach topics that satisfy state standards. However, teaching materials created to convey standard-aligned science concepts often leave students asking how the content relates to their lives and why they should be learning it. Conveying relevance, especially in science when abstract concepts can often be incorrectly perceived as irrelevant, is important for student learning and retention. One way to create an educational link between classroom content and everyday life is through the use of scientific current events. Students read, hear, and watch media coverage of natural events (such as the Haiti or Chile earthquakes in 2010), but do not necessarily relate the scientific information from media sources to classroom studies. Taking advantage of these brief ‘teachable moments’-when student interest is high- provides a valuable opportunity to make classroom-to-everyday life associations and to incorporate inquiry based learning. To address this need, we are creating pre-packaged current event materials for middle school teachers in Arizona that align to state standards and which are short, effective, and easy to implement in the classroom. Each lesson takes approximately 15 minutes to implement, allowing teachers time to facilitate brief but meaningful discussions. Materials are assembled within approximately one week of the regional or global science event (e.g., volcanic eruptions, earthquakes) and may include a short slide show, maps, videos, pictures, and real-time data. A listserv is used to send biweekly emails to subscribed instructors. The email contains the current event topic, specific Arizona science standards addressed, and a link to download the materials. All materials are hosted on the Arizona State University Education Outreach website and are archived. Early implementation efforts have been received positively by participating teachers. In one case

  2. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Janese C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  3. Understanding current causes of women's underrepresentation in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Williams, Wendy M

    2011-02-22

    Explanations for women's underrepresentation in math-intensive fields of science often focus on sex discrimination in grant and manuscript reviewing, interviewing, and hiring. Claims that women scientists suffer discrimination in these arenas rest on a set of studies undergirding policies and programs aimed at remediation. More recent and robust empiricism, however, fails to support assertions of discrimination in these domains. To better understand women's underrepresentation in math-intensive fields and its causes, we reprise claims of discrimination and their evidentiary bases. Based on a review of the past 20 y of data, we suggest that some of these claims are no longer valid and, if uncritically accepted as current causes of women's lack of progress, can delay or prevent understanding of contemporary determinants of women's underrepresentation. We conclude that differential gendered outcomes in the real world result from differences in resources attributable to choices, whether free or constrained, and that such choices could be influenced and better informed through education if resources were so directed. Thus, the ongoing focus on sex discrimination in reviewing, interviewing, and hiring represents costly, misplaced effort: Society is engaged in the present in solving problems of the past, rather than in addressing meaningful limitations deterring women's participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers today. Addressing today's causes of underrepresentation requires focusing on education and policy changes that will make institutions responsive to differing biological realities of the sexes. Finally, we suggest potential avenues of intervention to increase gender fairness that accord with current, as opposed to historical, findings.

  4. Models and Materials: Bridging Art and Science in the Secondary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D.; Cavazos, L.

    2006-12-01

    Creating and sustaining student engagement in science is one challenge facing secondary teachers. The visual arts provide an alternative means of communicating scientific concepts to students who may not respond to traditional formats or identify themselves as interested in science. We have initiated a three-year teacher professional development program at U C Santa Barbara focused on bridging art and science in secondary curricula, to engage students underrepresented in science majors, including girls, English language learners and non-traditional learners. The three-year format provides the teams of teachers with the time and resources necessary to create innovative learning experiences for students that will enhance their understanding of both art and science content. Models and Materials brings together ten secondary art and science teachers from six Santa Barbara County schools. Of the five participating science teachers, three teach Earth Science and two teach Life Science. Art and science teachers from each school are teamed and challenged with the task of creating integrated curriculum projects that bring visual art concepts to the science classroom and science concepts to the art classroom. Models and Materials were selected as unifying themes; understanding the concept of models, their development and limitations, is a prominent goal in the California State Science and Art Standards. Similarly, the relationship between composition, structure and properties of materials is important to both art and science learning. The program began with a 2-week institute designed to highlight the natural links between art and science through presentations and activities by both artists and scientists, to inspire teachers to develop new ways to present models in their classrooms, and for the teacher teams to brainstorm ideas for curriculum projects. During the current school year, teachers will begin to integrate science and art and the themes of modeling and materials

  5. Development Approach for the Accommodation of Materials Science Research for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.

  6. Direct Current and Pulsed Direct Current Plasma Nitriding of Ferrous Materials a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łępicka Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the improvement of ferrous materials performance is a problem of high interest. One of well-known wear- and corrosion properties improving technique is plasma nitriding, in which elemental nitrogen is introduced to the surface of a metal part for subsequent diffusion into the material. As a result, a compound, “white” layer and a diffusion zone are formed at the detail’s surface. Most of the authors positively describe the effects of surface ion nitiding. On the other hand, there are also reports on adverse effects of direct current and pulsed direct current plasma nitriding on ferrous materials performance. Therefore, an attempt to provide comprehensive summary on direct current and pulsed direct current ion nitriding and its influence on ferrous materials’ mechanical and corrosion properties has been made. According to the results, some of the technique drawbacks are hard to avoid in mass production.

  7. Learning physical descriptors for materials science by compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Vybiral, Jan; Ahmetcik, Emre; Ouyang, Runhai; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Draxl, Claudia; Scheffler, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    The availability of big data in materials science offers new routes for analyzing materials properties and functions and achieving scientific understanding. Finding structure in these data that is not directly visible by standard tools and exploitation of the scientific information requires new and dedicated methodology based on approaches from statistical learning, compressed sensing, and other recent methods from applied mathematics, computer science, statistics, signal processing, and information science. In this paper, we explain and demonstrate a compressed-sensing based methodology for feature selection, specifically for discovering physical descriptors, i.e., physical parameters that describe the material and its properties of interest, and associated equations that explicitly and quantitatively describe those relevant properties. As showcase application and proof of concept, we describe how to build a physical model for the quantitative prediction of the crystal structure of binary compound semiconductors.

  8. Materials Knowledge Systems in Python - A Data Science Framework for Accelerated Development of Hierarchical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, David B; Wheeler, Daniel; Kalidindi, Surya R

    2017-03-01

    There is a critical need for customized analytics that take into account the stochastic nature of the internal structure of materials at multiple length scales in order to extract relevant and transferable knowledge. Data driven Process-Structure-Property (PSP) linkages provide systemic, modular and hierarchical framework for community driven curation of materials knowledge, and its transference to design and manufacturing experts. The Materials Knowledge Systems in Python project (PyMKS) is the first open source materials data science framework that can be used to create high value PSP linkages for hierarchical materials that can be leveraged by experts in materials science and engineering, manufacturing, machine learning and data science communities. This paper describes the main functions available from this repository, along with illustrations of how these can be accessed, utilized, and potentially further refined by the broader community of researchers.

  9. Contribution of Frenkel's theory to the development of materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović V.B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The original and comprehensive research of Yakov Ilich Frenkel in physics and physical chemistry of condensed states, nuclear physics, electrodynamics, science of sintering has significantly contributed to the development of modern scientific knowledge and his scientific ideas are still an inspiration to many scientists. Having in mind the wealth of scientific ideas he had in the research of electroconductivity in metals, crystal structure imperfections and phase transitions and in founding the science of sintering, the contribution of individual theories of Frenkel of significance to materials science are presented in this paper.

  10. Additive Technology: Update on Current Materials and Applications in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazanchi, Abdullah; Li, Kai Chun; Al-Amleh, Basil; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, J Neil

    2017-02-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is becoming an alternative to subtractive manufacturing or milling in the area of computer-aided manufacturing. Research on material for use in additive manufacturing is ongoing, and a wide variety of materials are being used or developed for use in dentistry. Some materials, however, such as cobalt chromium, still lack sufficient research to allow definite conclusions about the suitability of their use in clinical dental practice. Despite this, due to the wide variety of machines that use additive manufacturing, there is much more flexibility in the build material and geometry when building structures compared with subtractive manufacturing. Overall additive manufacturing produces little material waste and is energy efficient when compared to subtractive manufacturing, due to passivity and the additive layering nature of the build process. Such features make the technique suitable to be used with fabricating structures out of hard to handle materials such as cobalt chromium. The main limitations of this technology include the appearance of steps due to layering of material and difficulty in fabricating certain material generally used in dentistry for use in 3D printing such as ceramics. The current pace of technological development, however, promises exciting possibilities. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. SciNews: Incorporating Science Current Events in 21st Century Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaggio, E.

    2011-12-01

    Middle school students are instructed with the aid of textbooks, lectures, and activities to teach topics that satisfy state standards. However, teaching materials created to convey standard-aligned science concepts often leave students asking how the content relates to their lives and why they should be learning it. Conveying relevance is important for student learning and retention, especially in science where abstract concepts can often be incorrectly perceived as irrelevant. One way to create an educational link between classroom content and everyday life is through the use of scientific current events. Students read, hear, and watch media coverage of natural events (such as the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan), but do not necessarily relate the scientific information from media sources to classroom studies. Taking advantage of these brief 'teachable moments'--when student interest is high--provides a valuable opportunity to make classroom-to-everyday life associations and to incorporate inquiry based learning. To address this need, I create pre-packaged current event materials for middle to high school teachers that align to state standards, and which are short, effective, and easy to implement in the classroom. Each lesson takes approximately 15-30 minutes to implement, allowing teachers time to facilitate brief but meaningful discussions. I assemble materials within approximately one week of the regional or global science event, consisting of short slide shows, maps, videos, pictures, and real-time data. I use a listserv to send biweekly emails to subscribed instructors containing the current event topic and a link to download the materials. All materials are hosted on the Arizona State University Education Outreach SciNews website (http://sese.asu.edu/teacher-resources) and are archived. Currently, 285 educators subscribe to the SciNews listserv, representing 36 states and 19 countries. In order to assess the effectiveness and usefulness of Sci

  12. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  13. Materials Science Standard Rack on Interntional Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Line drawing depicts the location of one of three racks that will make up the Materials Science Research Facility in the U.S. Destiny laboratory module to be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Other positions will be occupied by a variety of racks supporting research in combustion, fluids, biotechnology, and human physiology, and racks to support lab and station opertions. The Materials Science Research Facility is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  14. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station Hardware and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly, logging more than 620 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) which accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample-Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400 C. Once an SCA is installed, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via

  15. Astrobites: Engaging Undergraduate Science Majors with Current Astrophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Michael; Astrobites

    2017-01-01

    Astrobites is a graduate-student organization that publishes an online astrophysical literature blog (astrobites.com). The purpose of the site is to make current astrophysical research accessible to and exciting for undergraduate physical science majors and astronomy enthusiasts, and the site now hosts an archive of over 1300 posts summarizing recent astrophysical research. In addition, Astrobites presents posts on career guidance, practical 'how-to' articles, conference summaries, and astronomy news. Astrobites has an average of more than 1000 pageviews per day and reaches not only its target audience of undergraduates, but also graduate students and professionals within astronomy, astronomy enthusiasts, and educators. As we enter our seventh year of successful blogging, we share here the most up-to-date summary of our organization, readership, and growth.

  16. Understanding current causes of women's underrepresentation in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Explanations for women's underrepresentation in math-intensive fields of science often focus on sex discrimination in grant and manuscript reviewing, interviewing, and hiring. Claims that women scientists suffer discrimination in these arenas rest on a set of studies undergirding policies and programs aimed at remediation. More recent and robust empiricism, however, fails to support assertions of discrimination in these domains. To better understand women's underrepresentation in math-intensive fields and its causes, we reprise claims of discrimination and their evidentiary bases. Based on a review of the past 20 y of data, we suggest that some of these claims are no longer valid and, if uncritically accepted as current causes of women's lack of progress, can delay or prevent understanding of contemporary determinants of women's underrepresentation. We conclude that differential gendered outcomes in the real world result from differences in resources attributable to choices, whether free or constrained, and that such choices could be influenced and better informed through education if resources were so directed. Thus, the ongoing focus on sex discrimination in reviewing, interviewing, and hiring represents costly, misplaced effort: Society is engaged in the present in solving problems of the past, rather than in addressing meaningful limitations deterring women's participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers today. Addressing today's causes of underrepresentation requires focusing on education and policy changes that will make institutions responsive to differing biological realities of the sexes. Finally, we suggest potential avenues of intervention to increase gender fairness that accord with current, as opposed to historical, findings. PMID:21300892

  17. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark (Danish original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of science. I stress the international aspects of science communication, the national politico-scientific context as well as more local contexts as equally important conditions for understanding current Danish science communication.

  18. Biomimetics in materials science self-healing, self-lubricating, and self-cleaning materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nosonovsky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetics in Materials Science provides a comprehensive theoretical and practical review of biomimetic materials with self-healing, self-lubricating and self-cleaning properties. These three topics are closely related and constitute rapidly developing areas of study. The field of self-healing materials requires a new conceptual understanding of this biomimetic technology, which is in contrast to traditional  engineering processes such as wear and fatigue.  Biomimetics in Materials Science is the first monograph to be devoted to these materials. A new theoretical framework for these processes is presented based on the concept of multi-scale structure of entropy and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, together with a detailed review of the available technology. The latter includes experimental, modeling, and simulation results obtained on self-healing/lubricating/cleaning materials since their emergence in the past decade. Describes smart, biomimetic materials in the context of nanotechnology, biotechnology, an...

  19. Research in Materials Science: Superconducting Transition Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-31

    Myron Hale Frommer , Ph.D. Thesis, MIT (Metallurgy and Materials Science, 1973) unpublished. t-1.■>-’-■ ^mm^m^^^m^^ßm^^^^f*rm**^^1**^^^*mi^^~*^^^^^m...77- 12. J. Bostock, Kofi Agyeman, M.H. Frommer , and M.L.A. MacVicar, J. Appl. Phys. 44 (1973j 5567. 13. W. N. Cheung (unpublished

  20. Mathematical Research in Materials Science: Opportunities and Perspectives. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    mainly involves classical mathematics and therefore little knowledge of modern mathematics , especially tools that might be beneficial for exploring...application. The committee believes that a considerable amount of modern mathematics and statistics would be useful in resolving problems of materials science

  1. Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdon, William M.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes how molecular simulation of polymerization reactions can be used to enrich introductory polymer or material science courses to give students a deeper understanding of free-radical chain and stepwise growth polymerization reactions. These simulations have proven to be effective media for instruction that do not require material…

  2. Introduction of Materials Science Through Solid State Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, William M.

    Presented is a report of a program of the American Society for Metals, designed to introduce materials science principles via solid state chemistry into high school chemistry courses. At the time of the inception of this program in the mid-sixties, it was felt that high school students were not being adequately exposed to career opportunities in…

  3. Materials for construction and civil engineering science, processing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Margarido, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This expansive volume presents the essential topics related to construction materials composition and their practical application in structures and civil installations. The book's diverse slate of expert authors assemble invaluable case examples and performance data on the most important groups of materials used in construction, highlighting aspects such as nomenclature, the properties, the manufacturing processes, the selection criteria, the products/applications, the life cycle and recyclability, and the normalization. Civil Engineering Materials: Science, Processing, and Design is ideal for practicing architects; civil, construction, and structural engineers, and serves as a comprehensive reference for students of these disciplines. This book also: ·       Provides a substantial and detailed overview of traditional materials used in structures and civil infrastructure ·       Discusses properties of natural and synthetic materials in construction and materials' manufacturing processes ·  �...

  4. Eddy current characterization of magnetic treatment of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. James

    1992-01-01

    Eddy current impedance measuring methods have been applied to study the effect that magnetically treated materials have on service life extension. Eddy current impedance measurements have been performed on Nickel 200 specimens that have been subjected to many mechanical and magnetic engineering processes: annealing, applied strain, magnetic field, shot peening, and magnetic field after peening. Experimental results have demonstrated a functional relationship between coil impedance, resistance and reactance, and specimens subjected to various engineering processes. It has shown that magnetic treatment does induce changes in a material's electromagnetic properties and does exhibit evidence of stress relief. However, further fundamental studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the exact mechanism of the magnetic-field processing effect on machine tool service life.

  5. Materials Science Experiments Under Microgravity - A Review of History, Facilities, and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Materials science experiments have been a key issue already since the early days of research under microgravity conditions. A microgravity environment facilitates processing of metallic and semiconductor melts without buoyancy driven convection and sedimentation. Hence, crystal growth of semiconductors, solidification of metallic alloys, and the measurement of thermo-physical parameters are the major applications in the field of materials science making use of these dedicated conditions in space. In the last three decades a large number of successful experiments have been performed, mainly in international collaborations. In parallel, the development of high-performance research facilities and the technological upgrade of diagnostic and stimuli elements have also contributed to providing optimum conditions to perform such experiments. A review of the history of materials science experiments in space focussing on the development of research facilities is given. Furthermore, current opportunities to perform such experiments onboard ISS are described and potential future options are outlined.

  6. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of

  7. Density-Driven Currents and Deposition of Fine Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saremi, Sina

    Dredging is a key element in river, ports, coastal and offshore development. In general dredging is conducted for excavation at the river,lake or seabed, relocation of the material, maintenance of the navigation channels, mining underwater deposits, land reclamation or cleaning up the environment....... Dredging activities always make changes to the environment, such as alteration of the coastal or river morphology, currents and wave climates, and water quality. Such changes may be considered improving or degrading to the environment. The type of material being dredged, type of the dredging equipment...... and type of sediments change along and into the seabed. Variations in the material entering the hopper have been studied by assuming fluctuating inflow concentrations. The fluctuations impose a mean net change on the overflow concentrations. In the third part of this study, the above described CFD model...

  8. Perspective: Codesign for materials science: An optimal learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lookman, Turab; Alexander, Francis J.; Bishop, Alan R.

    2016-05-01

    A key element of materials discovery and design is to learn from available data and prior knowledge to guide the next experiments or calculations in order to focus in on materials with targeted properties. We suggest that the tight coupling and feedback between experiments, theory and informatics demands a codesign approach, very reminiscent of computational codesign involving software and hardware in computer science. This requires dealing with a constrained optimization problem in which uncertainties are used to adaptively explore and exploit the predictions of a surrogate model to search the vast high dimensional space where the desired material may be found.

  9. Ultrasonic spectroscopy applications in condensed matter physics and materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Leisure, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.

  10. Nature of science in instruction materials of science through the model of educational reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, Nur; Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to reconstruct the science teaching materials charged view of the nature of science (VNOS). This reconstruction process using the Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER), which is the framework for research and development of science education as well as a guide for planning the teaching of science in the schools is limited in two stages, namely: content structure analysis, and empirical studies of learners. The purpose of this study is to obtain a pre-conception of learners and prospective scientists to the topic of the nature of the material and utilization. The method used to descriptive with the instruments is guidelines for interviews for 15 students of class VIII, text analysis sheet, sheet analysis of the concept, and the validation sheet indicators and learning objectives NOS charged on cognitive and affective aspects. The results obtained in the form of pre-conceptions of learners who demonstrate almost 100% of students know the types of materials and some of its nature, the results of the scientist's perspective on the topic of the nature of the material and its use, as well as the results of the validation indicators and learning objectives charged NOS and competencies PISA 2015 cognitive and affective aspects with CVI value of 0.99 and 1.0 after being validated by five experts. This suggests that the indicators and the resulting learning objectives feasible and can proceed to the reconstruction of teaching materials on the topic of material properties and utilization.

  11. An Interdisciplinary Program in Materials Science at James Madison University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris

    2008-03-01

    Over the past decade a core group of faculty at James Madison University has created an interdisciplinary program in materials science that provides our students with unique courses and research experiences that augment the existing, high-quality majors in physics and astronomy, chemistry and biochemistry, geology and environmental science, mathematics and statistics, and integrated science and technology. The university started this program by creating a Center for Materials Science whose budget is directly allocated by the provost. This source of funds acts as seed money for research, support for students, and a motivating factor for each of the academic units to support the participation of their faculty in the program. Courses were created at the introductory and intermediate level that are cross-listed by the departments to encourage students to enroll in them as electives toward their majors. Furthermore, the students are encouraged to participate in undergraduate research in materials since this is the most fundamental unifying theme across the disciplines. This talk will cover some of the curricular innovations that went into the design of the program to make it successful, examples of faculty and student research and how that feeds back into the classroom, and success stories of the interactions that have developed between departments because of this program. Student outcomes and future plans to improve the program will also be discussed.

  12. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  13. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  14. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  15. What is the current state of the science of Cyber defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-09

    My overall sense of the cyber defense field is one of an adolescent discipline currently bogged down in a cloud of issues, the most iconic of which is the great diversity of approaches that are being aggregated to form a coherent field. Because my own expertise is complex systems and materials physics research, I have limited direct experience in cyber security sciences except as a user of secure networks and computing resources. However, in producing this report, I have found with certainty that there exists no calculus for cyber risk assessment, mitigation, and response, although some hopeful precepts toward this end are emerging.

  16. Teachers' use of educative curriculum materials to engage students in science practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Anna Maria; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Marino, John-Carlos; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Sullivan Palincsar, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    New reform documents underscore the importance of integrating science practices into the learning of science. This integration requires sophisticated teaching that does not often happen. Educative curriculum materials - materials explicitly designed to support teacher and student learning - have been posited as a way to support teachers to achieve these ambitious goals, yet little is known about how elementary teachers actually use educative curriculum materials to support student engagement in science practices. To address this gap, this study investigated how five upper elementary teachers supported students to engage in science practices during an enactment of two curriculum units. Three of the teachers had units enhanced with educative features, informed by current research and reforms, while two of the teachers had units without these features. The teachers varied in how they supported students in the science practices of justifying predictions, constructing evidence-based claims, recording observations, and planning investigations. For example, some of the teachers with the educative features supported students in constructing evidence-based claims and justifying predictions in ways called for by the educative features. Implications for curriculum developers and teacher educators are discussed based on the patterns found in the teachers' use of the educative curriculum materials.

  17. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz De La Rubia, T; Fluss, M J; Rath, K; Rennie, G; Shang, S; Kitrinos, G

    2006-08-08

    In 1952, we began laboratory operations in the barracks building of the Naval Air Station with approximately 50 employees. Today, the Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS) Directorate is a major organization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with more than 500 employees who continue to contribute to our evolving national security mission. For more than half a century, the mission of the Laboratory revolved primarily around nuclear deterrence and associated defense technologies. Today, Livermore supports a broad-based national security mission, and our specialized capabilities increasingly support emerging missions in human health and energy security. In the future, CMS will play a significantly expanded role in science and technology at the intersection of national security, energy and environment, and health. Our world-class workforce will provide the science and technology base for radically innovative materials to our programs and sponsors. Our 2005 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Organized into two major sections-research themes and dynamic teams, this report focuses on achievements arising from earlier investments that address future challenges. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national security mission. Research Themes: (1) Materials Properties and Performance under Extreme Conditions--We are developing ultrahard nanocrystalline metals, exploring the properties of nanotubes when exposed to very high temperatures, and engineering stronger materials to meet future needs for materials that can withstand extreme conditions. (2) Chemistry under Extreme Conditions and Chemical Engineering to Support National-Security Programs--Our recent

  18. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz De La Rubia, T; Fluss, M J; Rath, K; Rennie, G; Shang, S; Kitrinos, G

    2006-08-08

    In 1952, we began laboratory operations in the barracks building of the Naval Air Station with approximately 50 employees. Today, the Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS) Directorate is a major organization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with more than 500 employees who continue to contribute to our evolving national security mission. For more than half a century, the mission of the Laboratory revolved primarily around nuclear deterrence and associated defense technologies. Today, Livermore supports a broad-based national security mission, and our specialized capabilities increasingly support emerging missions in human health and energy security. In the future, CMS will play a significantly expanded role in science and technology at the intersection of national security, energy and environment, and health. Our world-class workforce will provide the science and technology base for radically innovative materials to our programs and sponsors. Our 2005 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Organized into two major sections-research themes and dynamic teams, this report focuses on achievements arising from earlier investments that address future challenges. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national security mission. Research Themes: (1) Materials Properties and Performance under Extreme Conditions--We are developing ultrahard nanocrystalline metals, exploring the properties of nanotubes when exposed to very high temperatures, and engineering stronger materials to meet future needs for materials that can withstand extreme conditions. (2) Chemistry under Extreme Conditions and Chemical Engineering to Support National-Security Programs--Our recent

  19. Perspective: Materials Informatics and Big Data: Realization of the Fourth Paradigm of Science in Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    regression techniques can be used for predic- tive modeling and if it is categorical (e.g., whether a compound is metallic or not), classification... clustering and relationship mining depending on the goal of the project, for instance, to find group similar materials or discovering hidden patterns and...analytics framework on simulation data from quantum mechanical DFT calculations. Performing a DFT simulation on a material requires its composition and

  20. Product ecodesign and materials: current status and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieux, Fabrice; Zwolinski, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the current status of ecodesign in the industry and its future implications for materials. There is today more and more focus on the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. In particular, ecodesign aims at integrating environmental aspects during the product's design process as any other criterion, in order to reduce the life cycle impacts. Although a lot of product environmental impact assessment and Design for Environment tools already exist, environmental aspects are unfortunately rarely routinely integrated into product development process in the industry. This is mainly due to the fact that current ecodesign tools are little adapted to designers' practices, requirements and competencies. After the sequential and DfX paradigms, design of products is today maturing into Integrated Design, where multiple points of views and expertise have to be considered at the same time to progressively define the product.

  1. Semiconductor Nanowires from Materials Science and Device Physics Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Lars

    2005-03-01

    Realization of extremely down-scaled devices gives tough challenges related to technology and materials science. One reason for the concern is that top-down fabricated nano-devices tend to have their properties dominated by process-induced damage, rendering ultra-small devices not so useful. Alternatively, bottom-up fabrication methods may allow dimensions on the scale even below 10 nm, still with superb device properties. I will in this talk describe our research on catalytically induced growth of semiconductor nanowires. Our method uses catalytic gold nanoparticles, allowing tight control of diameter as well as position of where the nanowire grows, with our work completely focused on epitaxially nucleated nanowires in which the nanowire structure can be seen as a coherent, monolithic extension of the crystalline substrate material. One of the most important achievements in this field of research is the realization of atomically abrupt heterostructures within nanowires, in which the material composition can be altered within only one or a few monolayers, thus allowing 1D heterostructure devices to be realized. This has allowed a variety of quantum devices to be realized, such as single-electron transistors, resonant tunneling devices as well as memory storage devices. A related recent field of progress has been the realization of ideally nucleated III-V nanowires on Si substrates, cases where we have also reported functioning III-V heterostructure device structures on Si. All of these device related challenges evolve from an improved understanding of the materials science involved in nucleation of nanowires, in altering of composition of the growing nanowire, in control of the growth direction etc. I will give examples of these materials science issues and will especially dwell on the opportunities to form new kinds of materials, e.g. as 3D complex nanowire structures, resembling nanotrees or nanoforests.

  2. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  3. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials.

  4. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of

  5. Neutron scattering treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kostorz, G

    1979-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 15: Neutron Scattering shows how neutron scattering methods can be used to obtain important information on materials. The book discusses the general principles of neutron scattering; the techniques used in neutron crystallography; and the applications of nuclear and magnetic scattering. The text also describes the measurement of phonons, their role in phase transformations, and their behavior in the presence of crystal defects; and quasi-elastic scattering, with its special merits in the study of microscopic dynamical phenomena in solids and

  6. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  7. Review on the EFDA programme on tungsten materials technology and science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M., E-mail: Michael.rieth@imf.fzk.de [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boutard, J.L. [EFDA-Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Ahlgren, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Antusch, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baluc, N. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Polytech ou Faculte des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Becquart, C.S. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ciupinski, L. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Correia, J.B. [IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Domain, C. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Fikar, J. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Fortuna, E. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Fu, C.-C. [CEA, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Saclay (France); Gaganidze, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Galan, T.L. [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Materials Science and Engineering, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Rosales, C. [CEIT, San Sebastian (Spain); Gludovatz, B. [OAW, Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Leoben (Austria); Greuner, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Heinola, K. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-01

    All the recent DEMO design studies for helium cooled divertors utilize tungsten materials and alloys, mainly due to their high temperature strength, good thermal conductivity, low erosion, and comparably low activation under neutron irradiation. The long-term objective of the EFDA fusion materials programme is to develop structural as well as armor materials in combination with the necessary production and fabrication technologies for future divertor concepts. The programmatic roadmap is structured into four engineering research lines which comprise fabrication process development, structural material development, armor material optimization, and irradiation performance testing, which are complemented by a fundamental research programme on 'Materials Science and Modeling'. This paper presents the current research status of the EFDA experimental and testing investigations, and gives a detailed overview of the latest results on fabrication, joining, high heat flux testing, plasticity, modeling, and validation experiments.

  8. Bioinformatics: Current Practice and Future Challenges for Life Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Catherine; Kendall, Gary

    2005-01-01

    It is widely predicted that the application of high-throughput technologies to the quantification and identification of biological molecules will cause a paradigm shift in the life sciences. However, if the biosciences are to evolve from a predominantly descriptive discipline to an information science, practitioners will require enhanced skills in…

  9. Accelerating the design of biomimetic materials by integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Paul A; Hoon, Shawn; Seow, Yiqi; Raida, Manfred; Masic, Admir; Wong, Fong T; Ho, Vincent H B; Kong, Kiat Whye; Demirel, Melik C; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Amini, Shahrouz; Tay, Gavin Z; Ding, Dawei; Miserez, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Efforts to engineer new materials inspired by biological structures are hampered by the lack of genomic data from many model organisms studied in biomimetic research. Here we show that biomimetic engineering can be accelerated by integrating high-throughput RNA-seq with proteomics and advanced materials characterization. This approach can be applied to a broad range of systems, as we illustrate by investigating diverse high-performance biological materials involved in embryo protection, adhesion and predation. In one example, we rapidly engineer recombinant squid sucker ring teeth proteins into a range of structural and functional materials, including nanopatterned surfaces and photo-cross-linked films that exceed the mechanical properties of most natural and synthetic polymers. Integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science facilitates the molecular characterization of natural materials and the effective translation of their molecular designs into a wide range of bio-inspired materials.

  10. Between understanding and appreciation. Current science communication in Denmark (Danish original version)

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I use the concepts “understanding of science” and “appreciation of science” to analyze selected case studies of current science communication in Denmark. The Danish science communication system has many similarities with science communication in other countries: the increasing political and scientific interest in science communication, the co-existence of many different kinds of science communication, and the multiple uses of the concepts of understanding vs. appreciation of sci...

  11. The Future of Boundary Plasma and Material Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2012-03-01

    The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. It is becoming clear that due to fundamental limits of plasma stability and material response the boundary will largely define the viability of an MFE reactor. However we face an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices and ITER towards a demonstration power plant. We outline the future of boundary research required to address this deficit. The boundary should be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are assessed. Dimensionless parameters, often used to organized core plasma transport on similarity arguments, can be extended to the boundary plasma, plasma-surface interactions and material response. This methodology suggests an intriguing way forward to prescribe and understand the boundary issues of an eventual reactor in intermediate devices. A particularly critical issue is that the physical chemistry of the material, which is mostly determined by the material temperature, has been too neglected; pointing to the requirement for boundary plasma experiments at appropriate material temperatures. Finally the boundary plasma requirements for quiescent heat exhaust and control of transient events, such as ELMs, will be examined.

  12. Teleconferences and Audiovisual Materials in Earth Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, L. M.

    2007-05-01

    Unidad de Educacion Continua y a Distancia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoaca 04510 Mexico, MEXICO As stated in the special session description, 21st century undergraduate education has access to resources/experiences that go beyond university classrooms. However in some cases, resources may go largely unused and a number of factors may be cited such as logistic problems, restricted internet and telecommunication service access, miss-information, etc. We present and comment on our efforts and experiences at the National University of Mexico in a new unit dedicated to teleconferences and audio-visual materials. The unit forms part of the geosciences institutes, located in the central UNAM campus and campuses in other States. The use of teleconference in formal graduate and undergraduate education allows teachers and lecturers to distribute course material as in classrooms. Course by teleconference requires learning and student and teacher effort without physical contact, but they have access to multimedia available to support their exhibition. Well selected multimedia material allows the students to identify and recognize digital information to aid understanding natural phenomena integral to Earth Sciences. Cooperation with international partnerships providing access to new materials and experiences and to field practices will greatly add to our efforts. We will present specific examples of the experiences that we have at the Earth Sciences Postgraduate Program of UNAM with the use of technology in the education in geosciences.

  13. E-learning on the example of materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of this article is to present the use of the Moodle educational platform in teaching Fundamentals of Materials Science and Metal Materials in the Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials at Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, and to analyse the efficacy of e-learning as the means of introducing education within a traditional model.Design/methodology/approach: This article contains the description of learning within the mixed mode, which is education embracing a face to face method and distance learning method for the first-year students. The comparison of the efficacy of mixed mode learning versus traditional learning will be presented.Findings: The efficient method of assisting remotely the e-learning students acquiring skills and knowledge at a varying pace has been developed, providing them with the personalised support.Research limitations/implications: Larger population of students should be tested so as to give measurable results, which would imply what needs to be worked on and what changes to introduce in order to improve the e-learning process.Originality/value: The course presented in this article confirms that e-learning enables the introduction of the new education formula, which may embrace advantages of traditional teaching and distance education as far as Materials Science is concerned.

  14. Components of abstracts in materials science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the structure of abstracts in Slovenian and international journals in the field of materials and technology. The aim of the study was to analyze the adherence of the abstracts published in Materials and Technology (MIT and Materials Science and Technology (MST to two different instructions for the preparation of abstracts (scheme based on ISO 214:1976 and Spanring system. 25 abstracts from each journal were divided into sentences. We tried to place the sentences into one of the categories of the above mentioned schemes. The research was a part of the postgraduate study in the Department of Library and Information Science and Book Studies (Faculty of Arts, Ljubljana in September and October 2008. There are no important differences between MIT and MST. Spanring system seems more appropriate for the field of materials and technology. The place and the time of the research should be added to abstracts and the Hu-bit category should be distributed into two parts: Hu-M (method and Hu-R (results. The recommended Spanring system should be harmonized with authors, who publish in these serials and the effect of the instructions should be analyzed, too.

  15. Coal conversion processes and their materials requirements. Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.B.; Voorde, M. van de; Betteridge, W.

    1984-01-01

    The coal conversion processes combustion, gasification and liquefaction are discussed with respect to current industrial developments and material problems in industrial plants due to fouling, corrosion and erosion. The available materials are discussed by means of high temperature corrosion, erosion, ductibility, creep, fatigue and physical properties. Ceramics and refractories which are particularly used as thermal insulation are also discussed by means of corrosion and erosion and mechanical properties.

  16. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  17. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Harsh R; Martinez, Luis R

    2016-03-01

    Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K-12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community.

  18. Current Approaches in Implementing Citizen Science in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh R. Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science involves a partnership between inexperienced volunteers and trained scientists engaging in research. In addition to its obvious benefit of accelerating data collection, citizen science has an unexplored role in the classroom, from K–12 schools to higher education. With recent studies showing a weakening in scientific competency of American students, incorporating citizen science initiatives in the curriculum provides a means to address deficiencies in a fragmented educational system. The integration of traditional and innovative pedagogical methods to reform our educational system is therefore imperative in order to provide practical experiences in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving for school-age individuals. Citizen science can be used to emphasize the recognition and use of systematic approaches to solve problems affecting the community.

  19. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszek, T F

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  20. Recent trends in physics of material science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Shrivastava, Keshav; Akhtar, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the recent trends in Computational Physics, Nano-physics and Devices Technology. Numerous modern devices with very high accuracy, are explored In conditions such as longevity and extended possibilities to work in wide temperature and pressure ranges, aggressive media, etc. This edited volume presents 32 selected papers  of the 2013 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics . The book is divided into three  scientific Sections: (i) Computational Physics, (ii) Nanophysics and Technology, (iii) Devices and Systems and is addressed to Professors, post-graduate students, scientists and engineers taking part in R&D of nano-materials, ferro-piezoelectrics, computational Physics and devices system, and also different devices based on broad applications in different areas of modern science and technology.

  1. Statistical analysis and interpolation of compositional data in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenson, Misha Z; Suram, Santosh K; Gregoire, John M

    2015-02-01

    Compositional data are ubiquitous in chemistry and materials science: analysis of elements in multicomponent systems, combinatorial problems, etc., lead to data that are non-negative and sum to a constant (for example, atomic concentrations). The constant sum constraint restricts the sampling space to a simplex instead of the usual Euclidean space. Since statistical measures such as mean and standard deviation are defined for the Euclidean space, traditional correlation studies, multivariate analysis, and hypothesis testing may lead to erroneous dependencies and incorrect inferences when applied to compositional data. Furthermore, composition measurements that are used for data analytics may not include all of the elements contained in the material; that is, the measurements may be subcompositions of a higher-dimensional parent composition. Physically meaningful statistical analysis must yield results that are invariant under the number of composition elements, requiring the application of specialized statistical tools. We present specifics and subtleties of compositional data processing through discussion of illustrative examples. We introduce basic concepts, terminology, and methods required for the analysis of compositional data and utilize them for the spatial interpolation of composition in a sputtered thin film. The results demonstrate the importance of this mathematical framework for compositional data analysis (CDA) in the fields of materials science and chemistry.

  2. Chemistry and Materials Science Department annual report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, R.J.; Sugihara, T.T.; Cherniak, J.C.; Corey, C.W. [eds.

    1989-12-31

    This is the first annual report of the Chemistry & Materials Science (C&MS) Department. The principal purpose of this report is to provide a concise summary of our scientific and technical accomplishments for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. The report is also tended to become part of the archival record of the Department`s activities. We plan to publish future editions annually. The activities of the Department can be divided into three broad categories. First, C&MS staff are assigned by the matrix system to work directly in a program. These programmatic assignments typically involve short deadlines and critical time schedules. A second category is longer-term research and development in technologies important to Laboratory programs. The focus and direction of this technology-base work are generally determined by programmatic needs. Finally, the Department manages its own research program, mostly long-range in outlook and basic in orientation. These three categories are not mutually exclusive but form a continuum of technical activities. Representative examples of all three are included in this report. The principal subject matter of this report has been divided into six sections: Innovations in Analysis and Characterization, Advanced Materials, Metallurgical Science and Technology, Surfaces and Interfaces, Energetic Materials and Chemical Synthesis, and Energy-Related Research and Development.

  3. Analysis of Current Information Education in Mainland China for Science and Technology Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijian, Liang

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the current state of affairs in the field of library and information science in China highlights the specialty of science and technology information science. The information education system and curriculum are described, illiteracy and attitudes toward information are discussed, and the need for continuing education is suggested.…

  4. Living in a Materials World: Materials Science Engineering Professional Development for K-12 Educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne Seifert; Louis Nadelson

    2011-06-01

    Advances in materials science are fundamental to technological developments and have broad societal impacs. For example, a cellular phone is composed of a polymer case, liquid crystal displays, LEDs, silicon chips, Ni-Cd batteries, resistors, capacitors, speakers, microphones all of which have required advances in materials science to be compacted into a phone which is typically smaller than a deck of cards. Like many technological developments, cellular phones have become a ubiquitous part of society, and yet most people know little about the materials science associated with their manufacture. The probable condition of constrained knowledge of materials science was the motivation for developing and offering a 20 hour fourday course called 'Living in a Materials World.' In addition, materials science provides a connection between our every day experiences and the work of scientists and engineers. The course was offered as part of a larger K-12 teacher professional development project and was a component of a week-long summer institute designed specifically for upper elementary and middle school teachers which included 20 hour content strands, and 12 hours of plenary sessions, planning, and collaborative sharing. The focus of the institute was on enhancing teacher content knowledge in STEM, their capacity for teaching using inquiry, their comfort and positive attitudes toward teaching STEM, their knowledge of how people learn, and strategies for integrating STEM throughout the curriculum. In addition to the summer institute the participating teachers were provided with a kit of about $300 worth of materials and equipment to use to implement the content they learned in their classrooms. As part of this professional development project the participants were required to design and implement 5 lesson plans with their students this fall and report on the results, as part of the continuing education course associated with the project. 'Living in a

  5. Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology Based on NASA's Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James A.

    2003-01-01

    The grant NAG-1 -2125, Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology, based on NASA s Materials Research, involves collaborative effort among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC), Norfolk State University (NSU), national research centers, private industry, technical societies, colleges and universities. The collaboration aims to strengthen math, science and technology education by providing outreach related to materials science and technology (MST). The goal of the project is to transfer new developments from LaRC s Center for Excellence for Structures and Materials and other NASA materials research into technical education across the nation to provide educational outreach and strengthen technical education. To achieve this goal we are employing two main strategies: 1) development of the gateway website and 2) using the National Educators Workshop: Update in Engineering Materials, Science and Technology (NEW:Updates). We have also participated in a number of national projects, presented talks at technical meetings and published articles aimed at improving k-12 technical education. Through the three years of this project the NSU team developed the successful MST-Online site and continued to upgrade and update it as our limited resources permitted. Three annual NEW:Updates conducted from 2000 though 2002 overcame the challenges presented first by the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks and the slow U.S. economy and still managed to conduct very effective workshops and expand our outreach efforts. Plans began on NEW:Update 2003 to be hosted by NASA Langley as a part of the celebration of the Centennial of Controlled Flight.

  6. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  7. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  8. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, U., E-mail: uwahl@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from {approx}70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently {approx}15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of {approx}80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions in biological systems. The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, emission channeling, and tracer diffusion studies. In addition to these 'classic' methods of nuclear solid state physics, also standard semiconductor analysis techniques such as photoluminescence or deep level transient spectroscopy profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps them to overcome their chemical 'blindness' since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves. In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and biophysics at ISOLDE, presenting some of the highlights during the last five years, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.

  9. 10th International School of Materials Science and Technology : Intercalation in Layered Materials "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This volume is prepared from lecture notes for the course "Intercalation in Layered Materials" which was held at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture at Erice, Sicily in July, 1986, as part of the International School of Materials Science and Tech­ nology. The course itself consisted of formal tutorial lectures, workshops, and informal discussions. Lecture notes were prepared for the formal lectures, and short summaries of many of the workshop presentations were prepared. This volume is based on these lecture notes and research summaries. The material is addressed to advanced graduate students and postdoctoral researchers and assumes a background in basic solid state physics. The goals of this volume on Intercalation in Layered Materials include an introduc­ tion to the field for potential new participants, an in-depth and broad exposure for stu­ dents and young investigators already working in the field, a basis for cross-fertilization between workers on various layered host materials...

  10. Materials science symposium 'heavy ion science in tandem energy region'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Suehiro (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    The facility of the JAERI tandem accelerator and its booster has been contributing to obtain plenty of fruitful results in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, atomic and solid state physics and materials science, taking an advantage of its prominent performances of heavy ion acceleration. The previous meeting held in 1999 also offered an opportunity to scientists from all over the heavy ion science fields, including nuclear physics, solid state physics and cross-field physics to have active discussions. This meeting included oral presentations with a new plan and with a new scope of fields expected from now on, as an occasion for opening the 21st century in heavy ion science. The 50 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Multiscale paradigms in integrated computational materials science and engineering materials theory, modeling, and simulation for predictive design

    CERN Document Server

    Runge, Keith; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge concepts, paradigms, and research highlights in the field of computational materials science and engineering, and provides a fresh, up-to-date perspective on solving present and future materials challenges. The chapters are written by not only pioneers in the fields of computational materials chemistry and materials science, but also experts in multi-scale modeling and simulation as applied to materials engineering. Pedagogical introductions to the different topics and continuity between the chapters are provided to ensure the appeal to a broad audience and to address the applicability of integrated computational materials science and engineering for solving real-world problems.

  12. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes for nanoarchitectonic materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomonobu; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-11-01

    Nanoarchitectonic systems are of interest for utilizing a vast range of nanoscale materials for future applications requiring a huge number of elemental nanocomponents. To explore the science and technology of nanoarchitectonics, advanced characterization tools that can deal with both nanoscale objects and macroscopically extended nanosystems are demanded. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs) are powerful tools that meet this demand because they take the advantages of conventional scanning probe microscopes and realize atomically precise electrical measurements, which cannot be done with conventional microprobing systems widely used in characterizing materials and devices. Furthermore, an MP-SPM can be used to operate some nanoarchitectonic systems. In this review, we overview the indispensable features of MP-SPMs together with the past, present and future of MP-SPM technology.

  13. Materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orimo, S.; Fujii, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences

    2001-02-01

    One of the advantageous functional properties of Mg alloys (or compounds) is to exhibit the reversible hydriding reaction. In this paper, we present our systematic studies regarding the relationship between nanometer- or atomistic-scale structures and the specific hydriding properties of the Mg-Ni binary system, such as(1) nanostructured (n)-Mg{sub 2}Ni, (2) a mixture of n-Mg{sub 2}Ni and amorphous (a)-MgNi,(3) pure a-MgNi, and(4) n-MgNi{sub 2}. Further studies on(5) an a-MgNi-based system for clarifying the effect of the short-range ordering on the structural and hydriding properties and(6) a MgNi{sub 2}-based system for synthesizing the new Laves phase structure are also presented. The materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides will provide indispensable knowledge for practically developing the Mg alloys as hydrogen-storage materials. (orig.)

  14. The material science of minimally invasive esthetic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nový, Brian B; Fuller, Cameron E

    2008-01-01

    The term esthetic dentistry usually conjures up mental images of porcelain crowns and veneers. To some dentists, the term minimally invasive dentistry evokes thoughts of observing early lesions, and postponing treatment until lesions are closer to the pulp. (The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry defines minimally invasive dentistry as those techniques which respect health, function, and esthetics of oral tissue by preventing disease from occurring, or intercepting its progress with minimal tissue loss.) It would seem these two niches within dentistry are on opposite ends of the spectrum; however, composite resin and glass ionomer restorative materials unite these two ideologies. Understanding the limitations, benefits, and science behind each material allows clinicians to produce highly esthetic restorations that can resist future decay, internally remineralize the tooth, and help protect adjacent teeth from cariogenic attack.

  15. Materials Science Constraints on the Development of Aluminium Reduction Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, James; McIntosh, Grant; Etzion, Ronny

    The Hall-Heroult process for the production of Aluminium metal is some 125 years old. The process is energy constrained by the need to shed around half of the (electrical) energy supplied to the cell as waste heat. The molten cryolite electrolyte is sufficiently aggressive that the only reliable method of protecting the side wall of the cell is to maintain a frozen layer of electrolyte at the hot face of the sidewall. Thus the lack of a cryolite resistant sidewall is but one of several materials science constraints which still limit the energy efficiency of the process. An inert anode and non-consumable cathode are also significant challenges which limit cell life and energy efficiency. Thus there are major challenges in both materials development and new conceptual cell designs to improve the efficiency of this process.

  16. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index (the investigator index is in two parts - laboratory and contract research).

  17. Object-Oriented Heterogeneous Database for Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hansen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the scientific database research underway at the Oregon Graduate Institute, we are collaborating with materials scientists in the research and development of an extensible modeling and computation environment for materials science. Materials scientists are prolific users of computers for scientific research. Modeling techniques and algorithms are well known and refined, and computerized databases of chemical and physical property data abound. However, applications are typically developed in isolation, using information models specifically tailored for the needs of each application. Furthermore, available computerized databases in the form of CDs and on-line information services are still accessed manually by the scientist in an off-line fashion. Thus researchers are repeatedly constructing and populating new custom databases for each application. The goal of our research is to bridge this gulf between applications and sources of data. We believe that object-oriented technology in general and data-bases in particular, provide powerful tools for transparently bridging the gap between programs and data. An object-oriented database that not only manages data generated by user applications, but also provides access to relevant external data sources can be used to bridge this gap. An object-oriented database for materials science data is described that brings together data from heterogeneous non-object-oriented sources and formats, and presents the user with a single, uniform object-oriented schema that transparently integrates these diverse databases. A unique multilevel architecture is presented that provides a mechanism for efficiently accessing both heterogeneous external data sources and new data stored within the database.

  18. Reconstructing the history of science education through its materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Davida Pizzigoni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “Things of Science” is a project promoted in 2014 by the Polytechnic of Turin in partnership with several other scientific territorial institutions that intended to survey and study the educational scientific historical heritage of schools in Turin. It aims to derive from material traces some testimonies of teaching science in different historical periods. Through the project, over 47.000 historical teaching aids have been made available representing a significant basis for numerous studies and insights as well as a safeguard action towards this important source for scientific research in terms of the materiality of the school and in particular of science in school. Ricostruire la storia della didattica scientifica attraverso la sua materialità“Cose di Scienza” è un progetto promosso nel 2014 dal Politecnico di Torino in partenariato con diverse altre realtà scientifiche territoriali che ha inteso censire e studiare il patrimonio didattico scientifico storico presente nelle scuole torinesi, al fine di ricavare dalle tracce materiali alcune testimonianze di didattica della scienza nei diversi periodi storici. Attraverso il progetto sono stati reperiti oltre 47.000 supporti didattici storici che costituiscono da un lato una significativa base per numerosi studi e approfondimenti, e dall’altro una azione di salvaguardia verso questa importante fonte per la ricerca scientifica costituita dalla materialità della scuola e in particolare della scienza a scuola.

  19. Customization of Curriculum Materials in Science: Motives, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Banerjee, Tanvi

    2012-02-01

    Exemplary science instructors use inquiry to tailor content to student's learning needs; traditional textbooks treat science as a set of facts and a rigid curriculum. Publishers now allow instructors to compile pieces of published and/or self-authored text to make custom textbooks. This brings numerous advantages, including the ability to produce smaller, cheaper text and added flexibility on the teaching models used. Moreover, the internet allows instructors to decentralize textbooks through easy access to educational objects such as audiovisual simulations, individual textbook chapters, and scholarly research articles. However, these new opportunities bring with them new problems. With educational materials easy to access, manipulate and duplicate, it is necessary to define intellectual property boundaries, and the need to secure documents against unlawful copying and use is paramount. Engineers are developing and enhancing information embedding technologies, including steganography, cryptography, watermarking, and fingerprinting, to label and protect intellectual property. While these are showing their utility in securing information, hackers continue to find loop holes in these protection schemes, forcing engineers to constantly assess the algorithms to make them as secure as possible. As newer technologies rise, people still question whether custom publishing is desirable. Many instructors see the process as complex, costly, and substandard in comparison to using traditional text. Publishing companies are working to improve attitudes through advertising. What lacks is peer reviewed evidence showing that custom publishing improves learning. Studies exploring the effect of custom course materials on student attitude and learning outcomes are a necessary next step.

  20. Transmission electron microscopy a textbook for materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, David B

    1996-01-01

    Electron microscopy has revolutionized our understanding the extraordinary intellectual demands required of the mi­ of materials by completing the processing-structure-prop­ croscopist in order to do the job properly: crystallography, erties links down to atomistic levels. It now is even possible diffraction, image contrast, inelastic scattering events, and to tailor the microstructure (and meso structure ) of materials spectroscopy. Remember, these used to be fields in them­ to achieve specific sets of properties; the extraordinary abili­ selves. Today, one has to understand the fundamentals ties of modem transmission electron microscopy-TEM­ of all of these areas before one can hope to tackle signifi­ instruments to provide almost all of the structural, phase, cant problems in materials science. TEM is a technique of and crystallographic data allow us to accomplish this feat. characterizing materials down to the atomic limits. It must Therefore, it is obvious that any curriculum in modem mate­ be use...

  1. STEM: A Focus for Current Science Education Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Yager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics reforms remains unclear. STEM is not like a scientific term where scientists choose to replace a series of complex observations with a new word. Even with more and more money being spent to support STEM reforms in all K-12 classrooms, we continue to not have accurate ideas of what STEM efforts are and/or what they could/should accomplish. Some STEM changes have been proposed and considered for use in several statewide efforts across the United States. But, to what end? Will major funding improve the personal “doing” of science for all students and at all grade levels?

  2. Evaluation of Online Teacher and Student Materials for the Framework for K-12 Science Education Science and Engineering Crosscutting Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Council developed and published the "Framework for K-12 Science Education," a new set of concepts that many states were planning on adopting. Part of this new endeavor included a set of science and engineering crosscutting concepts to be incorporated into science materials and activities, a first in science…

  3. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T; Shang, S P; Kitrinos, G A; Fluss, M; Westbrook, C; Rennie, G

    2004-04-21

    Evolving challenges and solid accomplishments define the year 2003 for us. Our scientific breakthroughs validate our strategic directions and reaffirm our critical role in fulfilling the Laboratory's missions. Our growth continues in new research projects and significant new programmatic support. Our mission is clear: to enable the Laboratory to accomplish its primary mission through excellence in the chemical and materials sciences. The directorate's common theme and determination has remained constant: Deliver on our commitments, while anticipating and capitalizing on opportunities through innovation in science and technology. In this, the 2003 Annual Report, we describe how our science is built around a strategic plan with four organizing themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Our strategic plan is synergistic with the Laboratory's Long-Range Science and Technology Plan, which identifies six areas of institutional research and development strategy. This 2003 CMS Annual Report is organized into two major sections: research themes and dynamic teams. The research-theme section addresses challenges, achievements, and new frontiers within each of the four research themes. The dynamic-teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure of divisions, centers, and institutes that supports a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. The research presented gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with the institutional strategy. Our organizational structure offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, an environment that attracts and retains the best and the brightest from across the Laboratory and around the world.

  4. Ab initio density-functional calculations in materials science: from quasicrystals over microporous catalysts to spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Jürgen

    2010-09-29

    During the last 20 years computer simulations based on a quantum-mechanical description of the interactions between electrons and atomic nuclei have developed an increasingly important impact on materials science, not only in promoting a deeper understanding of the fundamental physical phenomena, but also enabling the computer-assisted design of materials for future technologies. The backbone of atomic-scale computational materials science is density-functional theory (DFT) which allows us to cast the intractable complexity of electron-electron interactions into the form of an effective single-particle equation determined by the exchange-correlation functional. Progress in DFT-based calculations of the properties of materials and of simulations of processes in materials depends on: (1) the development of improved exchange-correlation functionals and advanced post-DFT methods and their implementation in highly efficient computer codes, (2) the development of methods allowing us to bridge the gaps in the temperature, pressure, time and length scales between the ab initio calculations and real-world experiments and (3) the extension of the functionality of these codes, permitting us to treat additional properties and new processes. In this paper we discuss the current status of techniques for performing quantum-based simulations on materials and present some illustrative examples of applications to complex quasiperiodic alloys, cluster-support interactions in microporous acid catalysts and magnetic nanostructures.

  5. Global Systems Science and Hands-On Universe Course Materials for High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A.

    2011-09-01

    The University of California Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science has a project called Global Systems Science (GSS). GSS produced a set of course materials for high school science education that includes reading materials, investigations, and software for analyzing satellite images of Earth focusing on Earth systems as well as societal issues that require interdisciplinary science for full understanding. The software has general application in analysis of any digital images for a variety of purposes. NSF and NASA funding have contributed to the development of GSS. The current NASA-funded project of GSS is Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education (LHSCCE), which aims to establish professional learning communities (PLCs) to share curriculum resources and best practices for teaching about climate change in grades 9-12. The project explores ideal ways for teachers to meet either in-person or using simple yet effective distance-communication techniques (tele-meetings), depending on local preferences. Skills promoted include: how to set up a website to share resources; initiating tele-meetings with any available mechanism (webinars, Skype, telecons, moodles, social network tools, etc.); and easy ways of documenting and archiving presentations made at meetings. Twenty teacher leaders are forming the PLCs in their regions or districts. This is a national effort in which teachers share ideas, strategies, and resources aimed at making science education relevant to societal issues, improve students' understanding of climate change issues, and contribute to possible solutions. Although the binding theme is climate change, the application is to a wide variety of courses: Earth science, environmental science, biology, physics, and chemistry. Moreover, the PLCs formed can last as long as the members find it useful and can deal with any topics of interest, even if they are only distantly related to climate change.

  6. Romanian Libray Science Distance Education. Current Context and Possible Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2012-01-01

    We thought it would be very useful to propose a model of teaching, learning and assessment for distance higher librarianship tested on www.oll.ro, Open learning library platform to analyze the impact on students, and especially to test the effectiveness of teaching and assessing knowledge from distance. We set a rigorous approach that reflects the problems facing the Romanian LIS education system and emphasizes the optimal strategies that need to be implemented. The benefits of such an approach can and classified as: innovation in education, communicative facilities, and effective strategies for teaching library science.

  7. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density

  8. Current nanoscience and nanoengineering at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Hermann; R S Singh; V P Singh

    2006-07-01

    The Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CeNSE) at the University of Kentucky is a multidisciplinary group of faculty, students, and staff, with a shared vision and cutting-edge research facilities to study and develop materials and devices at the nanoscale. Current research projects at CeNSE span a number of diverse nanoscience thrusts in bio-engineering and medicine (nanosensors and nanoelectrodes, nanoparticle-based drug delivery), electronics (nanolithography, molecular electronics, nanotube FETs), nanotem-plates for electronics and gas sensors (functionalization of carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotube structures for gate-keeping, e-beam lithography with nanoscale precision), and nano–optoelectronics (nanoscale photonics for laser communications, quantum confinement in photovoltaic devices, and nanostructured displays). This paper provides glimpses of this research and future directions.

  9. Pre-Service Science Teachers Views on STEM Materials and STEM Competition in Instructional Technologies and Material Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ali; Balta, Nuri

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to introduce STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) activities to preservice science teachers and identify their views about STEM materials. In this context, a competition was organized with 42 preservice science teachers (13 male- 29 female) who took Instructional Technologies and Material…

  10. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    meetings. The Tomas Lang topics and subjects will be, but are not restricted to: Dep. de Arquitectura de Computadores . Role of real-time in DCCS...Astrophysics, oceans, and earth sciences components to maintain logs, manage a file system, and * Social and economic sciences. coordinate a collection of...get Hungary social sciences and the humanities, and there is a into EC research programs. Hungary has requested cooperative agreement with the Centre

  11. Material Science Image Analysis using Quant-CT in ImageJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela M.; Bianchi, Andrea G. C.; DeBianchi, Christina; Bethel, E. Wes

    2015-01-05

    We introduce a computational analysis workflow to access properties of solid objects using nondestructive imaging techniques that rely on X-ray imaging. The goal is to process and quantify structures from material science sample cross sections. The algorithms can differentiate the porous media (high density material) from the void (background, low density media) using a Boolean classifier, so that we can extract features, such as volume, surface area, granularity spectrum, porosity, among others. Our workflow, Quant-CT, leverages several algorithms from ImageJ, such as statistical region merging and 3D object counter. It also includes schemes for bilateral filtering that use a 3D kernel, for parallel processing of sub-stacks, and for handling over-segmentation using histogram similarities. The Quant-CT supports fast user interaction, providing the ability for the user to train the algorithm via subsamples to feed its core algorithms with automated parameterization. Quant-CT plugin is currently available for testing by personnel at the Advanced Light Source and Earth Sciences Divisions and Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), LBNL, as part of their research on porous materials. The goal is to understand the processes in fluid-rock systems for the geologic sequestration of CO2, and to develop technology for the safe storage of CO2 in deep subsurface rock formations. We describe our implementation, and demonstrate our plugin on porous material images. This paper targets end-users, with relevant information for developers to extend its current capabilities.

  12. Computed Tomography Support for Microgravity Materials Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accurate measurement of density in both liquid and solid samples is of considerable interest to Principal Investigators with materials science experiments slated for the ISS. The work to be described is an innovative application of a conventional industrial nondestructive evaluation instrument. Traditional applications of industrial computed tomography (CT) rely on reconstructing cross sections of large structures to provide two-dimensional planar views which can identify defects such as porosity, or other material anomalies. This has been done on microgravity materials science experiments to check the integrity of ampoule-cartridge assemblies for safety purposes. With a substantially monoenergetic flux, as can be obtained with a radioactive cobalt source, there will be a direct correlation between absorption and density. Under such conditions it then becomes possible to make accurate measurements of density throughout a sample, and even when the sample itself is enclosed within a furnace and a safety required cartridge. Such a system has been installed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and is available to PIs to examine samples before and after flight. The CT system is being used to provide density information for two purposes. Firstly, the determination of density changes from liquid to solid is vital information to the PI for purposes of modeling the solidification behavior of his sample, and to engineers who have to design containment ampoules and must allow for shrinkage and other volume changes that may occur during processing. While such information can be obtained by pycnometric measurements, the possibility of using a furnace installed on the CT system enables one to examine potentially dangerous materials having high vapor pressures, while not needing visible access to the material. In addition, uniform temperature can readily be obtained, and the system can be controlled to ramp up, hold, and ramp down while collecting data over a wide range of

  13. Computed Tomography Support for Microgravity Materials Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accurate measurement of density in both liquid and solid samples is of considerable interest to Principal Investigators with materials science experiments slated for the ISS. The work to be described is an innovative application of a conventional industrial nondestructive evaluation instrument. Traditional applications of industrial computed tomography (CT) rely on reconstructing cross sections of large structures to provide two-dimensional planar views which can identify defects such as porosity, or other material anomalies. This has been done on microgravity materials science experiments to check the integrity of ampoule-cartridge assemblies for safety purposes. With a substantially monoenergetic flux, as can be obtained with a radioactive cobalt source, there will be a direct correlation between absorption and density. Under such conditions it then becomes possible to make accurate measurements of density throughout a sample, and even when the sample itself is enclosed within a furnace and a safety required cartridge. Such a system has been installed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and is available to PIs to examine samples before and after flight. The CT system is being used to provide density information for two purposes. Firstly, the determination of density changes from liquid to solid is vital information to the PI for purposes of modeling the solidification behavior of his sample, and to engineers who have to design containment ampoules and must allow for shrinkage and other volume changes that may occur during processing. While such information can be obtained by pycnometric measurements, the possibility of using a furnace installed on the CT system enables one to examine potentially dangerous materials having high vapor pressures, while not needing visible access to the material. In addition, uniform temperature can readily be obtained, and the system can be controlled to ramp up, hold, and ramp down while collecting data over a wide range of

  14. Teachers and Science Curriculum Materials: Where We Are and Where We Need to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Janssen, Fred J. J. M.; Van Driel, Jan H.

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum materials serve as a key conceptual tool for science teachers, and better understanding how science teachers use these tools could help to improve both curriculum design and theory related to teacher learning and decision-making. The authors review the literature on teachers and science curriculum materials. The review is organised…

  15. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  16. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  17. 75 FR 39664 - Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc... Materials Science Technology, Inc., located in Conroe, Texas, (FTZ Docket 46-2009, filed October 27, 2009... Science Technology, Inc., located in Conroe, Texas (Subzone 265C), as described in the application...

  18. To Kit or Not to Kit? Evaluating and Implementing Science Materials and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ellen; Melin, Jacque; Bair, Mary

    2016-01-01

    With the release of the "Next Generation Science Standards," many schools are reexamining the science materials they are using. Textbook companies and kit developers are eager to meet the demand for "NGSS"-aligned teaching materials. Teacher may have been asked to serve on a science curriculum committee, or to evaluate current…

  19. Current Status of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO): Science & Science Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Blanc, M.; Clark, K.; Greeley, R.; Hendrix, A.; Lebreton, J.; Prockter, L.; Joint Jupiter Science Definition Team

    2008-09-01

    The Jupiter-Europa Orbiter (JEO) is one component of the proposed multi-spacecraft Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). The overarching goal of JEO is to explore Europa to investigate its habitability. Europa is believed to shelter an ocean between its geodynamically active icy shell and its rocky mantle, where the conditions for habitability may be fulfilled. With a warm, salty, water ocean and plausible chemical energy sources, Europa is the astrobiological archetype for icy satellite habitability. It is also a geophysical wonderland of interrelated ice shell processes that are intimately related to the ocean and tides, and of complex interactions among its interior, surface, atmosphere, and magnetospheric environments. A mission to Europa has been studied for a decade and has strong links to and recommendations from NASA reports. The conditions at Europa are well-understood, and JEO is prepared for the radiation environment at Europa. Europa science is mature, and hypotheses are well-formed. Five broad investigations have been defined to address the overarching goal: the Ocean, the Ice Shell, Chemistry, Geology and the Jupiter System. Measuring Europa's tides provides a simple and definitive test of the existence of an internal ocean - and the ocean and ice shell can be studied and characterized. Composition and chemistry form the linkages that enable understanding Europa's potential for life and habitability in the context of geologic processes, probe the interior structure, and record the evolution of the surface under the influence of internal and external processes. The search for recent or current geologic activity is important for understanding the origin of landforms, and especially significant for understanding Europa's potential for habitability. Understanding the Jupiter system as a whole is critical for placing Europa in its context as a member of the Jovian satellite system and for understanding the origin and evolution of the system, including

  20. Current Status of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO): Science and Science Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Clark, K.; Greeley, R.; Hendrix, A. R.; Lebreton, J.; Prockter, L.; JEO Definition Team

    2008-12-01

    The Jupiter-Europa Orbiter (JEO) is one component of the proposed multi-spacecraft Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). The overarching goal of JEO is to explore Europa to investigate its habitability. Europa is believed to shelter an ocean between its geodynamically active icy shell and its rocky mantle, where the conditions for habitability may be fulfilled. With a warm, salty, water ocean and plausible chemical energy sources, Europa is the astrobiological archetype for icy satellite habitability. It is also a geophysical wonderland of interrelated ice shell processes that are intimately related to the ocean and tides, and of complex interactions among its interior, surface, atmosphere, and magnetospheric environments. A mission to Europa has been studied for a decade and has strong links to and recommendations from NASA reports. The conditions at Europa are well-understood, and JEO is prepared for the radiation environment at Europa. Europa science is mature, and hypotheses are well-formed. Five broad investigations have been defined to address the overarching goal: the Ocean, the Ice Shell, Chemistry, Geology and the Jupiter System. Measuring Europa's tides provides a simple and definitive test of the existence of an internal ocean - and the ocean and ice shell can be studied and characterized. Composition and chemistry form the linkages that enable understanding Europa's potential for life and habitability in the context of geologic processes, probe the interior structure, and record the evolution of the surface under the influence of internal and external processes. The search for recent or current geologic activity is important for understanding the origin of landforms, and especially significant for understanding Europa's potential for habitability. Understanding the Jupiter system as a whole is critical for placing Europa in its context as a member of the Jovian satellite system and for understanding the origin and evolution of the system, including

  1. Remote Monitoring and Controlling of a Material Science Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wattanapong KURDTHONGMEE

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer industry’s remarkable ability to integrate more transistors into a small area of silicon is increasing the intelligence of our devices and simultaneously decreasing their cost and power consumption. In addition, the proliferation of wired and wireless networking spurred by the development of the world-wide web and demands for mobile access are enabling low-cost connectivity among computing devices. It is now possible to connect every computing device into a true world-wide web that connects the physical world of sensors and actuators to the virtual world of our information utilities and services. This paper examines an application of an integration of the intelligent chip with the network connectivity into a material science experiment designed to study the sorption of woods. The intelligence and network connectivity infrastructures of the system eliminate laborious tasks previously required during experiment control and data collection processes.

  2. 76 FR 65212 - Henkel Corporation, Currently Known as Henkel Electronic Materials, LLC, Electronic Adhesives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Henkel Corporation, Currently Known as Henkel Electronic Materials..., Massachusetts location to combine the legacy Henkel Electronic Materials business and The National Starch Electronic Materials business following a company purchase in April 2008. Workers separated from...

  3. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  4. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand's consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  5. Quasi-appropriation of dialectical materialism: a critical reading of Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, André; Camillo, Juliano; Mattos, Cristiano

    2014-09-01

    In this review essay we examine five categories of dialectical materialism proposed by Paulo Lima Junior, Fernanda Ostermann, and Flavia Rezende in their study of the extent to which the articles published in Cultural Studies of Science Education, that use a Vygotskian approach, are committed to Marxism/dialectical materialism. By closely examining these categories ("thesis, antithesis and synthesis," "unity of analysis," "History," "revolution," "materialism") we expect to enrich the general discussion about the possible contributions of Marxism to science education. We perceive part of science education practice as orientating toward positivism, which reduces human beings—teachers, learners and researchers—to isolated individuals who construct knowledge by themselves. The very same approach aggravates the inner contradiction of the capitalist society demanding commitments from researchers to continually build innovative science education from human praxis. Nevertheless, it is necessary to situate ourselves beyond a formal commitment with dialectical materialism and hence reach the heart of this method. Besides understanding the researchers' commitments, we question the extent to which the respective research helps to radically refresh the current view on science, science education practice, and research in science education.

  6. Material Science Activities for Fusion Reactors in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Kenzhin, E.; Kulsartov, T. [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V. [Kazakhstan State University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Chikhray, Y. [Kazakh National University, Kourmangazy 15, app.lO, 480100 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Azizov, E. [TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Filatov, O. [Effremov Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials, P.O. Box 369, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    techniques for prevention of failures of intra-chamber components. High parameters of power loads (up to 20 MWt/m{sup 2}), wide range of used techniques and diagnostics allow for carrying out the studies and tests in divertor volume and at first wall, including mockups of DEMO vanadium module and lithium divertor module on the basis of capillary-porous system. The paper contains description of tokamak KTM features and material science program in support of creation of experimental modules for DEMO, ITER and fusion power reactors. (authors)

  7. Materials science challenges for high-temperature superconducting wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, S R; Civale, L; Macmanus-Driscoll, J L; Jia, Q X; Maiorov, B; Wang, H; Maley, M

    2007-09-01

    Twenty years ago in a series of amazing discoveries it was found that a large family of ceramic cuprate materials exhibited superconductivity at temperatures above, and in some cases well above, that of liquid nitrogen. Imaginations were energized by the thought of applications for zero-resistance conductors cooled with an inexpensive and readily available cryogen. Early optimism, however, was soon tempered by the hard realities of these new materials: brittle ceramics are not easily formed into long flexible conductors; high current levels require near-perfect crystallinity; and--the downside of high transition temperature--performance drops rapidly in a magnetic field. Despite these formidable obstacles, thousands of kilometres of high-temperature superconducting wire have now been manufactured for demonstrations of transmission cables, motors and other electrical power components. The question is whether the advantages of superconducting wire, such as efficiency and compactness, can outweigh the disadvantage: cost. The remaining task for materials scientists is to return to the fundamentals and squeeze as much performance as possible from these wonderful and difficult materials.

  8. Hypertelescopes: potential science gains, current testing and prospects in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeyrie, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the way of giant dilute telescopes, the hypertelescope is a many-aperture interferometer, which provides direct high resolution images with efficient light concentration. Pending future versions in space, a prototype terrestrial hypertelescope is under test in a high valley of the southern Alps. A moving focal gondola, suspended 101 m above small static mirrors, is driven under computer control with millimeter accuracy. The coude focus at ground level has been qualified by observing a Vega image focused by one of the mirrors and transmitted through the gondola. Upgrades under way for multi-beam interference include full autoguiding, the installation of several cameras on the gondola and adaptive optics for cophasing. Science observing is expected to begin in a few years, and other potential sites are considered for a larger meta-aperture, in the kilometer range. Future space versions, utilizing a 10-1000 km flotilla of small mirrors, are also considered and proposed to NASA and ESA, but require different technical developments.

  9. The role of the computer in science fair projects: Current status and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for more students to enter the field of science is acute in the nation, and science fair projects provide a motivational mechanism to entice students into pursuing scientific careers. Computers play a major role in science today. Because computers are a major source of entertainment for our children, one would expect them to play a significant role in many science fair projects. This study investigated current and potential uses of computers in science fair projects and incorporated an informal case study of scientists, teachers, and students involved in science fair projects from a highly scientific community. Interviews, a survey, and observations were conducted. Results indicated that most projects either do not use or inadequately use computers and that a significant potential for more effective use of computers for science fair projects exists.

  10. A materials science vision of extracellular matrix mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, N.; Steele, J. A. M.; Fratzl, P.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    From an engineering perspective, skeletal tissues are remarkable structures because they are lightweight, stiff and tough, yet produced at ambient conditions. The biomechanical success of skeletal tissues is largely attributable to the process of biomineralization — a tightly regulated, cell-driven formation of billions of inorganic nanocrystals formed from ions found abundantly in body fluids. In this Review, we discuss nature's strategies to produce and sustain appropriate biomechanical properties in mineralizing (by the promotion of mineralization) and non-mineralizing (by the inhibition of mineralization) tissues. We review how perturbations of biomineralization are controlled over a continuum that spans from the desirable (or defective in disease) mineralization of the skeleton to pathological cardiovascular mineralization, and to mineralization of bioengineered constructs. A materials science vision of mineralization is presented with an emphasis on the micro- and nanostructure of mineralized tissues recently revealed by state-of-the-art analytical methods, and on how biomineralization-inspired designs are influencing the field of synthetic materials.

  11. Advances in materials science, metals and ceramics division. Triannual progress report, June-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhan, J.J.; Hopper, R.W.; Gordon, K.M. (eds.)

    1980-10-28

    Information is presented concerning the magnetic fusion energy program; the laser fusion energy program; geothermal research; nuclear waste management; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) research; diffusion in silicate minerals; chemistry research resources; and chemistry and materials science research.

  12. Concepts for Mars Polar Science in Current and Future Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, R.; Campbell, B.; Diniega, S.; Beaty, D. W.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2016-09-01

    Mars polar/non-polar ice science has been identified as a high priority for current and future Mars missions. As a guide to ongoing and future mission planning, further discussion of needs and capabilities related to ice science is warranted.

  13. Wolves in the Wild: Using Current Issues to Make Science Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jennie; Sadler, Troy D.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, one of our most important responsibilities is to help students develop dynamic and useful views of science. Using current issues to create learning experiences can help generate student interest in science and help students appreciate its significance in both personal and societal contexts. This article presents a lesson based on news…

  14. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    SCIENCES The First Joint Meeting of Portuguese and Spanish Social Psychology: A Conference Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, London...and Portugu ,.c research communities as a promising sign of a productive future for their work. Management of Combat Stress: Recent Developments in...Ph6nomnes 3/9/88 de Pulverisation, de Ruissellement et de Vaporisation Lies a I’- BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES The First Joint Meeting of Portuguese and

  15. 75 FR 69078 - Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... AGENCY Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) AGENCY... a workshop to evaluate initial draft materials for the Pb Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) is... the scientific content of initial draft materials or sections for the draft ISA. Workshop...

  16. Elementary Students' Learning of Materials Science Practices through Instruction Based on Engineering Design Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine…

  17. Magnet Science and Technology for Basic Research at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渡辺和雄

    2007-01-01

    Since the first practical cryocooled superconducting magnet using a GM-cryocooler and high temperature superconducting current leads has been demonstrated successfully at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (HFLSM), various kinds of cryocooled superconducting magnets in fields up to 15 T have been used to provide access for new research areas in fields of magneto-science. Recently, the HFLSM has succeeded in demonstrating a cryocooed 18 T high temperature superconducting magnet and a high field cryocooled 27.5 T hybrid magnet. Cryocooled magnet technology and basic research using high field magnets at the HFLSM are introduced.

  18. Random-phase approximation and its applications in computational chemistry and materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xinguo; Rinke, Patrick; Joas, Christian; Scheffler, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    The random-phase approximation (RPA) as an approach for computing the electronic correlation energy is reviewed. After a brief account of its basic concept and historical development, the paper is devoted to the theoretical formulations of RPA, and its applications to realistic systems. With several illustrating applications, we discuss the implications of RPA for computational chemistry and materials science. The computational cost of RPA is also addressed which is critical for its widespread use in future applications. In addition, current correction schemes going beyond RPA and directions of further development will be discussed.

  19. Life satisfaction, health, self-evaluation and sexuality in current university students of sport sciences, education and natural sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sigmund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle and health of an individual are influenced by many factors; a significant factor is life satisfaction. Life satisfaction is understood as a multidimensional construct closely related to the area of personal wellbeing and quality of life. Life satisfaction in university students represents one of the determinants of good health, high motivation for studying, work productivity, satisfactory interpersonal relationships and overall healthy lifestyle. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to identify and compare the level of overall life satisfaction and selected components of health, self-evaluation and sexuality in current university students with respect to their study specialization. Methods: The study included a total of 522 students from Palacký University. These were students from the Faculty of Physical Culture (n = 118, Faculty of Education (n = 218 and Faculty of Science (n = 186. In terms of age, the study focused on young adults aged 19 to 26. To assess the current level of life satisfaction, the research study used a standardized psychodiagnostic tool - Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ. The used diagnostic methods are fully standardized and contain domestic normative values. Statistical result processing was conducted using the Statistica programme v10.0. Results: The highest level of overall life satisfaction was revealed in university students of sport sciences. In comparison with the students of education and students of natural sciences the difference is significant. Satisfaction with health among the students of sport sciences is significantly higher than in the students of education (p ≤ .001; d = 0.53 and the students of natural sciences (p ≤ .05; d = 0.38. Similar results were found in the area of satisfaction with own person and self-evaluation, where the values of the students of sport sciences were significantly higher compared with the students of education (p

  20. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eHabuchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the super-resolution microscopy. I discuss the applications of super-resolution microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-nanotechnology.

  1. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-06-12

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various SR fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-)nanotechnology.

  2. Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Greg; Davison, Richard; Jeukendrup, Asker; Passfield, Louis

    2003-09-01

    In this holistic review of cycling science, the objectives are: (1) to identify the various human and environmental factors that influence cycling power output and velocity; (2) to discuss, with the aid of a schematic model, the often complex interrelationships between these factors; and (3) to suggest future directions for research to help clarify how cycling performance can be optimized, given different race disciplines, environments and riders. Most successful cyclists, irrespective of the race discipline, have a high maximal aerobic power output measured from an incremental test, and an ability to work at relatively high power outputs for long periods. The relationship between these characteristics and inherent physiological factors such as muscle capilliarization and muscle fibre type is complicated by inter-individual differences in selecting cadence for different race conditions. More research is needed on high-class professional riders, since they probably represent the pinnacle of natural selection for, and physiological adaptation to, endurance exercise. Recent advances in mathematical modelling and bicycle-mounted strain gauges, which can measure power directly in races, are starting to help unravel the interrelationships between the various resistive forces on the bicycle (e.g. air and rolling resistance, gravity). Interventions on rider position to optimize aerodynamics should also consider the impact on power output of the rider. All-terrain bicycle (ATB) racing is a neglected discipline in terms of the characterization of power outputs in race conditions and the modelling of the effects of the different design of bicycle frame and components on the magnitude of resistive forces. A direct application of mathematical models of cycling velocity has been in identifying optimal pacing strategies for different race conditions. Such data should, nevertheless, be considered alongside physiological optimization of power output in a race. An even distribution

  3. New approaches to business cycle theory in current economic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica DOBRESCU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern economies, current research generally acknowledges that the central issues in macroeconomics are essentially the same as those identified by Keynes in the General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. One way or the other, economists are trying to address the same macroeconomic issues that they did seven decades ago: How can we account for the different growth rates and various fluctuations observed in national economies? Which are the economic policies most suitable to solve the issues of growth and cyclic behavior? Both the new classicals and the new Keynesians have made considerable progress within their research paradigms: to explain economic fluctuations, the new classicals focus on technological perturbations, the intertemporal substitution of leisure and real business cycles; on the other hand, the new Keynesians speak in terms of monopolistic competition, menu costs or efficiency wages. On the whole, the new classicals believe that the business cycle can best be understood within the market-clearing model, whereas the new keynesians believe that business fluctuations are due to certain market failures of various sorts.The present paper focuses on the main directions of research of the new classical school on the business cycle, given that the theoretical progress in this field has been significant and relevant for economic policy during the past four decades.

  4. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  5. Structural integrity for DEMO: An opportunity to close the gap from materials science to engineering needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porton, M., E-mail: michael.porton@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wynne, B.P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Bamber, R.; Hardie, C.D.; Kalsey, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Key shortfalls in the current approaches to verification of structural integrity are outlined. • Case studies for high integrity applications in other demanding environments are examined. • Relevant lessons are drawn from fission and space for the design stage and through service life. • Future efforts are suggested to align materials and engineering for DEMO structural integrity. - Abstract: It is clear that fusion demonstration devices offer unique challenges due to the myriad, interacting material degradation effects and the numerous, conflicting requirements that must be addressed in order for in-vessel components to deliver satisfactory performance over the required lifetime. The link between mechanical engineering and materials science is pivotal to assure the timely realisation and exploitation of successful fusion power. A key aspect of this link is the verification of structural integrity, achieved at the design stage via structural design criteria against which designs are judged to be sufficiently resilient (or not) to failure, for a given set of loading conditions and desired lifetime. As various demonstration power plant designs progress through their current conceptual design phases, this paper seeks to highlight key shortfalls in this vital link between engineering needs and materials science, offering a perspective on where future attention can be prioritised to maximise impact. Firstly, issues in applying existing structural design criteria to demonstration power plant designs are identified. Whilst fusion offers particular challenges, there are significant insights to be gained from attempts to address such issues for high performance, high integrity applications in other demanding environments. Therefore case studies from beyond fusion are discussed. These offer examples where similar shortfalls have been successfully addressed, via approaches at the design stage and through service lifetime in order to deliver significant

  6. Chicanos: A Checklist of Current Materials, September 1972-December 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raquel Quiroz, Comp.; And Others

    Beginning in 1972 and now appearing approximately twice a year, this serial publication lists Chicano-related materials acquired by the Coleccion Tloque Nahuague within the Library of the University of California at Santa Barbara. This compilation of issues consists of a complete collection of the checklist for the 10-year period September 1972…

  7. Chicanos: A Checklist of Current Materials, September 1972-December 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raquel Quiroz, Comp.; And Others

    Beginning in 1972 and now appearing approximately twice a year, this serial publication lists Chicano-related materials acquired by the Coleccion Tloque Nahuague within the Library of the University of California at Santa Barbara. This compilation of issues consists of a complete collection of the checklist for the 10-year period September 1972…

  8. Materials for hydrogen storage: current research trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Annemieke W C; Areán, Carlos Otero

    2008-02-14

    Storage and transport of hydrogen constitutes a key enabling technology for the advent of a hydrogen-based energy transition. Main research trends on hydrogen storage materials, including metal hydrides, porous adsorbents and hydrogen clathrates, are reviewed with a focus on recent developments and an appraisal of the challenges ahead. .

  9. Current taxonomic composition of European genebank material documented in EURISCO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van T.J.L.; Knupffer, H.

    2010-01-01

    Taxonomy plays an essential role in genebank documentation. It is often the first level at which users search material, and it determines the protocols used in the management of collections. Especially, when plant genetic resources information is pooled in systems such as EURISCO, the European catal

  10. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    English) 28(10), 1396-1399 (1989). CONCLUSIONS 3. Serge Ricard and Robert II. Marchessault, "Pre- This meeting provided a perspective on potential...the Institute Lauc- Lange - ness will increasingly need to be tackled at a Europe- vin (ILL) and tile European Science Foundation an level. The EC

  11. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    focused on the deformation structures with particles 1-3 ,um in diameter. behavior of polystyrene (PS) and blends of PS with An interesting presentation...and Technology C.T. Owens, 02, 69-70 Science in Slovenia 1K E. Rto,.sel. 07, 360-361 Update on the French Programme Environnement Government Funding

  12. Defect detection in conducting materials using eddy current testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorentz force eddy current testing (LET is a novel nondestructive testing technique which can be applied preferably to the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic moving conductors. The LET is compared (similar testing conditions with the classical eddy current testing (ECT. Numerical FEM simulations have been performed to analyze the measurements as well as the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic conductors. The results are compared with measurements to test the feasibility of defect identification. Finally, the use of LET measurements to estimate of the electrical conductors under test are described as well.

  13. Forging the Solution to the Energy Challenge: The Role of Materials Science and Materials Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The energy challenge is central to the most important strategic problems facing the United States and the world. It is increasingly clear that even large-scale deployments of the best technologies available today cannot meet the rising energy demands of a growing world population. Achieving a secure and sustainable energy future will require full utilization of, and substantial improvements in, a comprehensive portfolio of energy systems and technologies. This goal is complicated by several factors. First, energy strategies are inextricably linked to national security and health issues. Second, in developing and deploying energy technologies, it is vital to consider not only environmental issues, such as global climate change, but also economic considerations, which strongly influence both public and political views on energy policy. Third, a significant and sustained effort in basic and applied research and development (R&D) will be required to deliver the innovations needed to ensure a desirable energy future. Innovations in materials science and engineering are especially needed to overcome the limits of essentially all energy technologies. A wealth of historical evidence demonstrates that such innovations are also the key to economic prosperity. From the development of the earliest cities around flint-trading centers, to the Industrial Revolution, to today’s silicon-based global economy, the advantage goes to those who lead in exploiting materials. I view our challenge by considering the rate of innovation and the transition of discovery to the marketplace as the relationship among R&D investment, a skilled and talented workforce, business innovations, and the activities of competitors. Most disturbing in analyzing this relationship is the need for trained workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To develop the STEM workforce needed for innovation, we need sustainable, positive change in STEM education at all levels from preschool

  14. Applications of density functional theory in materials science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Manuel, Jr.

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a powerful tool that can be used to model various systems in materials science. Our research applies DFT to two problems of interest. First, an organic/inorganic complex dye system known as a Mayan pigment is modeled to determine chemical binding sites, verifying each model with physical data such as UV/Vis spectra. Preliminary studies on palygorskite-based mayan pigments (mayacrom blue, mayacrom purple) show excellent agreement with experimental studies when using a dimer dye geometry binding with tetrahedrally-coordinated aluminum impurity sites in palygorksite. This approach is applied to a sepiolite-based organic/inorganic dye system using thioindigo attached to a tetrahedral aluminum impurity site with an additional aluminum impurity site in close proximity to the binding site. As a second application of DFT, various grain orientations in beta-Sn are modeled under imposed strains in order to calculate elastic properties of this system. These calculations are intended to clarify discrepancies in published, experimental crystal compliance values.

  15. Progress on research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application in Takasaki Establishment was reviewed. Especially, the recent progresses of research on semiconductors in space, creation of new functional materials and topics in biotechnology were reported. (author)

  16. Advances in materials science, Metals and Ceramics Division. Triannual progress report, October 1979-January 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-31

    Progress is summarized concerning magnetic fusion energy materials, laser fusion energy, aluminium-air battery and vehicle, geothermal research, oil-shale research, nuclear waste management, office of basic energy sciences research, and materials research notes. (FS)

  17. Information technologies and software packages for education of specialists in materials science [In Russian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Krzhizhanovskaya; S. Ryaboshuk

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents methodological materials, interactive text-books and software packages developed and extensively used for education of specialists in materials science. These virtual laboratories for education and research are equipped with tutorials and software environment for modeling complex

  18. Limiting the current with HTc materials; HTc pour la limitation du courant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbut, J.M.; Belmont, O.; Devismes, M.F.; Noudem, J.G.; Porcar, L.; Sanchez, J. [Schneider Electric, Grenoble (France); Tixador, P. [CRTBT, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Bourgault, D.; Tournier, R. [Matformag, CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    1998-01-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter could be used in high voltage network. A most part of existing HTc superconducting materials have been tested in situation to limit fault current. Bulk materials are classified by growing critical current density which correspond to different behaviours. Critical electrical field during transition seems to be about 1 kV/m. (orig.). 7 refs.

  19. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use.

  20. Materials science symposium 'heavy ion science in tandem energy region'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Suehiro [eds.

    2000-01-01

    The tandem accelerator established at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 1982 has been one of the most prominent electrostatic accelerators in the world. The accelerator has been serving for many researches planned by not only JAERI staff but also researchers of universities and national institutes. After the completion of the tandem booster in 1993, four times higher beam energy became available. These two facilities, the tandem accelerator and the booster, made great strides in heavy ion physics and a lot of achievements have been accumulated until now. The research departments of JAERI were reformed in 1998, and the accelerators section came under the Department of Materials Science. On this reform of the research system, the symposium 'Heavy Ion Science in Tandem Energy Region' was held in cooperation with nuclear and solid state physicists although there has been no such symposium for many years. The symposium was expected to stimulate novel development in both nuclear and solid state physics, and also interdisciplinary physics between nuclear and solid state physics. The 68 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Cloning humans? Current science, current views, and a perspective from Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rudolf B

    2002-01-01

    Therapeutic cloning is urgent and should be vigorously supported. To successfully argue for this position, the distinction between a human embryo and a human nuclear transplant may be helpful. Even if current technical difficulties should be solved, global legislation should prohibit cloning for the purpose of fabricating babies. This position originates from a view on human nature in general and from a Christian perspective in particular.

  2. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    smoothly," said 1992 in the Culture & Sports Center, Varna Bulgaria. Chairman, Dr. Nikola Dukov, President of the Center of More information will be...S. Di Capua Scanning Electron Microscopy Developments at the Institute of Scientific Instruments and TESLA in Brno 08:124 Marco S. Di Capua X-Ray...Institute of Scientific Instruments and TESLA in Brno 08:124 Marco S. Di Capua X-Ray Diagnostics and Laser Research at the Nuclear Science and

  3. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Progrjunme Environnement . .. .. . .. . .. . . ... Maria Casa 71 Reports on European Science and Technology from other Commands. .. .. . .. . . ...... 74 The...one study, polystyrene (PS) on glass was overcoated with This technique is very sensitive to the presence of bromopolystyrene. This polymer pair is...weight of 10,000, PS was modified by adding a there are exciting challenges and opportunities in surface small amount of polystyrene end functionalized

  4. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Office (ONR Europe) is to assist the Chief of Naval Research, the Chief of Naval Operations, and the Commandant of the Marine Corps in discharging their... BIOTECHNOLOGIE (DECHEMA) nated hydrocarbon replacement as the fourth DLR/UST category. Although not in the same As a nonprofit technical and scientific...around EC work Programme that supports many scientific funding. areas, including numerous Marine Sciences and The change to higher percentage of

  5. Future Directions for Selected Topics in Physics and Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    in the last decade? • New materials: (-materials (CNTs, graphene ) Correlated solids/oxides Metamaterials Superatoms/nanodroplets Highly spin...nanostructured materials, where the best multiferroics might be metamaterials . In addition to this important area, other types of materials that can...rather is engineered by purposeful nanostructuring. One of the more interesting metamaterials is the negative index of refraction materials that can

  6. Materials Science of Electrodes and Interfaces for High-Performance Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-11-18

    The science of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has made dramatic advances over the past three years with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) now reaching ~12%. The upper PCE limit of light-to-electrical power conversion for single-junction OPVs as predicted by theory is ~23%. With further basic research, the vision of such devices, composed of non-toxic, earth-abundant, readily easily processed materials replacing/supplementing current-generation inorganic solar cells may become a reality. Organic cells offer potentially low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturable, and durable solar power for diverse in-door and out-door applications. Importantly, further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with inorganic PVs, will require fundamental, understanding-based advances in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This team-science research effort brought together an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary group with expertise in hard and soft matter materials chemistry, materials electronic structure theory, solar cell fabrication and characterization, microstructure characterization, and low temperature materials processing. We addressed in unconventional ways critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance -- controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organic active-materials, addressing current loss/leakage phenomena at interfaces, and new techniques in cost-effective low temperature and large area cell fabrication. The research foci were: 1) Theory-guided design and synthesis of advanced crystalline and amorphous transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layers which test our basic understanding of TCO structure-transport property relationships, and have high conductivity, transparency, and tunable work functions but without (or minimizing) the dependence on indium. 2) Development of theory-based understanding of optimum configurations for the interfaces between oxide electrodes

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  8. Developing the Science and Technology for the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Juergen; Biewer, Theodore; Bigelow, Timothy; Caughman, John; Goulding, Richard; Lumsdaine, Arnold; MPEX Team Team

    2016-10-01

    The Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) is a device planned to address scientific and technological gaps for the development of viable plasma facing components for fusion reactor conditions (FNSF, DEMO). MPEX is designed to deliver those plasma conditions with a novel Radio Frequency plasma source able to produce high density plasmas and heat electron and ions separately with Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) heating and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) with a total installed power of 800 kW. The science and technology for this source system is currently being tested on Proto-MPEX. This is a linear device utilizing 12 water-cooled copper coils able to achieve peak magnetic fields of 1.6T. The currently total installed heating power (for helicon, EBW and ICRH) is 330kW. An overview of the status of this development program is given with an outlook to the next steps.

  9. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M. [comps.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory`s defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location.

  10. Bayer MaterialScience Is Committed to PC Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Bayer MaterialScience' Business Unit Polycarbonates is firmly committed to its customers in China and the wider Asia Pacific region. On May 22nd, at the Chinaplas 2007 exhibition in Guangzhou, Bayer MaterialScience announced further steps of its strategy aimed at improving its responsiveness to customer needs.

  11. Framework for Reducing Teaching Challenges Relating to Improvisation of Science Education Equipment and Materials in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuma, Fru Vitalis; Callaghan, Ronel

    2016-01-01

    The science education budget of many secondary schools has decreased, while shortages and environmental concerns linked to conventional Science Education Equipment and Materials (SEEMs) have emerged. Thus, in some schools, resourceful educators produce low-cost equipment from basic materials and use these so-called improvised SEEMs in practical…

  12. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J. (comp.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The major elements of the Materials Sciences Program can be grouped under the areas of (1) structural characterization, (2) high-temperature alloy studies, (3) structural ceramics, and (4) radiation effects.

  13. Book Review: Materials Science aAnd Engineering: An Introduction by William D. Callister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For a number of decades, Materials Science and Engineering an Introduction, has been an essential and trusted source of literature, as an introduction to Materials Science and Engineering. Now revised and updated the sixth edition is now available.

  14. Merton and Ziman's modes of science: the case of biological and similar material transfer agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes a connection between recent studies on research materials exchange and its effect on the progress of science. Academia fears that scientific development could be hampered by the privatised practices of research material exchange. Since post-academic science represents a sufficient d

  15. Materials Science Research Rack-1 Fire Suppressant Distribution Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2002-01-01

    Fire suppressant distribution testing was performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1), a furnace facility payload that will be installed in the U.S. Lab module of the International Space Station. Unlike racks that were tested previously, the MSRR-1 uses the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) to reduce vibration on experiments, so the effects of ARIS on fire suppressant distribution were unknown. Two tests were performed to map the distribution of CO2 fire suppressant throughout a mockup of the MSRR-1 designed to have the same component volumes and flowpath restrictions as the flight rack. For the first test, the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 60 percent, achieved within 45 s of discharge initiation, meeting the requirement to reach 50 percent throughout the rack within 1 min. For the second test, one of the experiment mockups was removed to provide a worst-case configuration, and the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 58 percent. Comparing the results of this testing with results from previous testing leads to several general conclusions that can be used to evaluate future racks. The MSRR-1 will meet the requirements for fire suppressant distribution. Primary factors that affect the ability to meet the CO2 distribution requirements are the free air volume in the rack and the total area and distribution of openings in the rack shell. The length of the suppressant flowpath and degree of tortuousness has little correlation with CO2 concentration. The total area of holes in the rack shell could be significantly increased. The free air volume could be significantly increased. To ensure the highest maximum CO2 concentration, the PFE nozzle should be inserted to the stop on the nozzle.

  16. Current status of duplex surface engineered Ti-based materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Bell

    2004-01-01

    Industrial exploitation of the high specific strength and corrosion resistance of titanium were dominated historically by the technological advances which have been made in gas-turbine engine and aircraft components. Realization of the possible benefits in general engineering has been limited by the absence of any proven and reliable means of overcoming the poor wear resistance and galling tendency suffered by titanium alloys when in contact with other materials. This problem can only be addressed by optimizing and demonstrating industrially viable surface engineering processes for titanium in general engineering. The status of single and duplex surface engineering systems are reviewed. In addition, in order to fully realize the potential of advanced surface engineering of titanium components contact mechanics models are developed to enable the automotive engineers to design dynamically the loaded automotive engine and transmission components.

  17. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.

  18. Current Realities and Future Possibilities: Language and science literacy—empowering research and informing instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Treagust, David F.

    2006-02-01

    In this final article, we briefly review and synthesize the science and language research and practice that arose from the current literature and presentations at an international conference, referred to as the first “Island Conference”. We add to the synthesis of the articles the conference deliberations and on-going discussions of the field and also offer our views as to how such contributions can take place. These central issues—the definition of science literacy; the models of learning, discourse, reading, and writing and their underlying pedagogical assumptions; the roles of discourse in doing, teaching, and learning science; and the demands on teacher education and professional development in the current reforms in language and science education—provide points of departure for discussion of four possible new considerations to research in this field of endeavour that could contribute to a broader and productive scholarship and deeper and enriched understanding of both teaching and learning. These considerations, each from well-established fields of research literature, are the need to develop support for a contemporary view of science literacy, the role of metacognition in science learning generally, the role of multiple representations in knowledge building and science literacy, and the need for more focused teacher education and professional development programmes.

  19. Small-angle neutron scattering in materials science - an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratzl, P. [Vienna Univ., Inst. fuer Materialphysik, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    The basic principles of the application of small-angle neutron scattering to materials research are summarized. The text focusses on the classical methods of data evaluation for isotropic and for anisotropic materials. Some examples of applications to the study of alloys, porous materials, composites and other complex materials are given. (author) 9 figs., 38 refs.

  20. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Report on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    between 40 Hz steady state MEG signals currents, from Alzheimer patients and normal patients of the However, by using a synthetic aperture ap- same...drawn from discussions held at this the second, the SQUID detected the presence of workshop and those given at the two conferences slots cut in aluminum

  1. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Hydrolytic Routes 0 Modification and Hydrolysis of Metal Alkoxides Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et * Nanomaterials Prepared by Sol-Gel Process...gel research in France is heavily dominat- Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Organoie- ed by chemists. Consequently, research emphasis tallique - J...section provides the titles of current projects at academic institutions in France. Overview of Research Laboratories Laboratoire de Chimie

  2. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    thin layer of the surface containing oxide. du’/dt which is an intrinsic feature of tur- m/s to give a chord Reynolds number of Further, as uranium has...their final report that en- the Materials Technology Laboratory by velocity components and the Reynolds ergy dispersive x-ray diffraction, Pofessor...shares ir, a certification, human factors engineering, Netherlands is the largest low-speed wind joint research program called Jessi (Joint and flight

  3. European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) Reports on Current European/Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Contracts from ESA. Tecnos - SESA to Produce Control Systems for Ariane 5 En- pazio, an Italian company, is working on many activities gnes. The Italian...34 project for the realization of an expert system for automatic interpretation of images. Tecnos - Italian National Program for Advanced Materials. pazio...years. In Milan, the infectious updated manual of operations and behavior for physi- disease hospital ’Sacco," stopped the admitting AIDS- cians and

  4. High magnetic field science and its application in the United States current status and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    National Research Council of the National Academies

    2013-01-01

    The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was convened by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation. This report answers three questions: (1) What is the current state of high-field magnet science, engineering, and technology in the United States, and are there any conspicuous needs to be addressed? (2) What are the current science drivers and which scientific opportunities and challenges can be anticipated over the next ten years? (3) What are the principal existing and planned high magnetic field facilities outside of the United States, what roles have U.S. high field magnet development efforts played in developing those facilities, and what potentials exist for further international collaboration in this area? A magnetic field is produced by an electrical current in a metal coil. This current exerts an expansive force on the coil, and a magnetic field is "high" if it challenges the str...

  5. Development of eddy current testing system using magnetic saturation in ferromagnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Je Joong; Ahn, Hyung Keun; Shin, Yong Hoon [Sae An Engineering Corperation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong Man [Kunjang College, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-15

    Ferromagnetic materials have difficulties of eddy current test using traditional eddy current equipment due to their electric character of high permeability and anomalous magnetic flux. Development of on-line eddy current test equipment for ferromagnetic materials is a goal of this research. as the first step for it, in this paper, a prove for ferromagnetic materials was developed and practical test was performed with it at a manufactory. For magnetic saturation of inside of ferromagnetic material, DC power supply was used. As increasement of applied voltage, signals of defects were distinguished.

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDED INQUIRY SCIENCE LEARNING MATERIALS TO IMPROVE SCIENCE LITERACY SKILL OF PROSPECTIVE MI TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. S. Putra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce valid, practical and effective guided inquiry model science learning materials to enhance science literacy skill of prospective MI teachers. The tryout of the materials was implementedto students of MI teacher educationof Unipdu Jombang at academic year of 2015/2016 semesters 3 using One Group Pretest Posttest Design. The data collections were done using observation, testing, and questionnaires. Data were analysed using descriptive analysis of quantitative, qualitative and non-parametric statistical tests. The findings of the research were: 1 the learning materials were valid; 2 Practicality of the materials was tested through the implementation of lesson plans, while the learners’ activity wereappropriate to the guided inquirymodel; and 3 The effectiveness of the learning materials in terms of improvement of learning outcomes of students was seen from the n-gain with high category and increasing mastery of science literacy skills of learners also scored n-gain with high category and the response of students to the device and the implementation of learning is very positive. It was concluded that the materials were valid, practical, and effective to enhance science literacy skills of prospective MI teachers.

  7. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-08-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  8. Gravitational biology and space life sciences: current status and implications for the Indian space programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanandan, P

    2011-12-01

    This paper is an introduction to gravitational and space life sciences and a summary of key achievements in the field. Current global research is focused on understanding the effects of gravity/microgravity onmicrobes, cells, plants, animals and humans. It is now established that many plants and animals can progress through several generations in microgravity. Astrobiology is emerging as an exciting field promoting research in biospherics and fabrication of controlled environmental life support systems. India is one of the 14-nation International Space Exploration Coordination Group (2007) that hopes that someday humans may live and work on other planets within the Solar System. The vision statement of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) includes planetary exploration and human spaceflight. While a leader in several fields of space science, India is yet to initiate serious research in gravitational and life sciences. Suggestions are made here for establishing a full-fledged Indian space life sciences programme.

  9. Gravitational biology and space life sciences: Current status and implications for the Indian space programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Dayanandan

    2011-12-01

    This paper is an introduction to gravitational and space life sciences and a summary of key achievements in the field. Current global research is focused on understanding the effects of gravity/microgravity onmicrobes, cells, plants, animals and humans. It is now established that many plants and animals can progress through several generations in microgravity. Astrobiology is emerging as an exciting field promoting research in biospherics and fabrication of controlled environmental life support systems. India is one of the 14-nation International Space Exploration Coordination Group (2007) that hopes that someday humans may live and work on other planets within the Solar System. The vision statement of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) includes planetary exploration and human spaceflight. While a leader in several fields of space science, India is yet to initiate serious research in gravitational and life sciences. Suggestions are made here for establishing a full-fledged Indian space life sciences programme.

  10. Current Status of a NASA High-Altitude Balloon-Based Observatory for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Denise M.; Dischner, Zach

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that progress can be made on over 20% of the key questions called out in the current Planetary Science Decadal Survey by a high-altitude balloon-borne observatory. Therefore, NASA has been assessing concepts for a gondola-based observatory that would achieve the greatest possible science return in a low-risk and cost-effective manner. This paper addresses results from the 2014 Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science (BOPPS) mission, namely successes in the design and performance of the Fine Pointing System. The paper also addresses technical challenges facing the new Gondola for High Altitude Planetary Science (GHAPS) reusable platform, including thermal control for the Optical Telescope Assembly, power generation and management, and weight-saving considerations that the team will be assessing in 2015 and beyond.

  11. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    work is being pursued as part of Kauffmann’s ces of propagation effects inherent in far-field target thesis for the Faculty of Mathematics and...vectorizable (they use the Siemans may be assigned as a thesis for a student working for the VP-100 computer in the Center), and is highly parallel as Diplom...local firm called ming. Called DOOM, the machine currently consists of QDOS that buys standard gate array blanks; e.g., from TI, 100 nodes. Each node

  12. The Development Materials from Substances Waste for Some Topics in Science and Technology Textbook for Primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to develop instructional materials from substances waste in which students teachers have problems to learn, taught in Instructional Technology and Materials Course at the third year of primary science teacher education program. The study was carried out with 54 primary science student teachers attending primary science teacher education program in Ahi Evran University Faculty of Education, in the fall term of the 2009-2010 academic year. Material design or development of prospective teachers' views were taken before and after. The findings from the material prepared were supported by the data obtained from the interviews conducted with 16 head student teachers. It was concluded that, based on the findings obtained from the material design the environmental pollution by waste products are designed for visual teaching materials. Can be taken into account the materials designed or developed by nominated teacher, during revised to be name of last books.

  13. An analysis of the current crises in the discipline of science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Robert E.; Bybee, Rodger; Gallagher, James J.; Renner, John W.

    Demographic information concerning the thirty-five largest graduate centers for science education was collected. The information verified the decrease in the average number of graduates, number of faculty members, external support for special projects in such centers for science education. Programs have remained static over the twenty-year period. Faculty members at the institutions are stable and possess similar backgrounds; research interests of the faculty members vary and do not represent major commitments for many. When perceptions of discipline problems are studied, lack of agreement concerning goals and objectives are most frequently cited. This is followed by perceived lack of vision and leadership in the profession. Other perceived problems include public and parental apathy toward science and science education, limited budgets and facilities, and limited dialogue among professionals and the public. Science educators have proposed solutions to discipline problems as further evidence of crisis. The most common solutions proposed include (1) development of a theory base for the discipline, (2) structuring of a rationale for the discipline, (3) greater financial and public support, and (4) improved programs, including inservice education.As a view of the future is provided, the central issue emerges regarding the absence of goals in science education that are relevant to contemporary priorities in science, society, and education. Suggestion is made that failure to correct this deficiency will result in further deterioration in all areas of the current crisis.

  14. Non-Structured Materials Science Data Sharing Based on Semantic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of non-structured materials science data makes it urgent for materials researchers to resolve the problem of how to effectively share this information. Materials science image data is an important class of non-structured data. This paper proposes a semantic annotation method to resolve the problem of materials science image data sharing. This method is implemented by a four-layer architecture, which includes ontology building, semantic annotation, reasoning service, and application. We take metallographic image data as an example and build a metallographic image OWL-ontology. Users can accomplish semantic annotation of metallographic image according to the ontology. Reasoning service is provided in a data sharing application to demonstrate the effective sharing of materials science image data through adding semantic annotation.

  15. An Analysis of Teaching Competence in Science Teachers Involved in the Design of Context-based Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Putter-Smits, Lesley G. A.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim; Van Driel, Jan

    2012-03-01

    The committees for the current Dutch context-based innovation in secondary science education employed teachers to design context-based curriculum materials. A study on the learning of science teachers in design teams for context-based curriculum materials is presented in this paper. In a correlation study, teachers with (n = 25 and 840 students) and without (n = 8 and 184 students) context-based curriculum material design experience were compared on context-based competence. Context-based competence comprises context handling, regulation, emphasis, design, and school innovation. Context-based teaching competence was mapped using both qualitative and quantitative research methods in a composite instrument. Due to the differences in design team set-up for different science subjects, teachers with design experience from different science subjects were also compared on their context-based competence. It was found that teachers with design experience showed more context-based competence than their non-designing colleagues. Furthermore, teachers designing for biology showed more context-based competence than their peers from other science subjects.

  16. Disturbingly Weak: The Current State of Financial Management Education in Library and Information Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Robert H.; Kaufman, Paula T.; Atkinson, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Financial management skills are necessary for responsible library management. In light of the profession's current emphasis on financial literacy, the authors posed four questions: (1) to what extent are library and information science schools providing courses in financial management for their graduates; (2) what is the quality and quantity of…

  17. Library and Information Science Education in Greece: Institutional Changes and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniarou-Papaconstantinou, Valentini; Tsatsaroni, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the historical development of Library and Information Science (LIS) Education in Greece, in order to understand its current position within the field of higher education, and to assess its future prospects. In particular, in tracing changes that LIS Education as an institution has undergone, it argues that institutional…

  18. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  19. Disturbingly Weak: The Current State of Financial Management Education in Library and Information Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Robert H.; Kaufman, Paula T.; Atkinson, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Financial management skills are necessary for responsible library management. In light of the profession's current emphasis on financial literacy, the authors posed four questions: (1) to what extent are library and information science schools providing courses in financial management for their graduates; (2) what is the quality and quantity of…

  20. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  1. Marginalization of Socioscientific Material in Science-Technology-Society Science Curricula: Some Implications for Gender Inclusivity and Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gwyneth

    2000-05-01

    Science education reformers have argued that presenting science in the abstract is neither motivating nor inclusive of the majority of students. Science-technology-society (STS) curricula that give science an accessible social context have developed in response, but controversy surrounds the extent to which students should be introduced to socioscientific debate. Using material from a case study of Salters' Advanced Chemistry in the United Kingdom, this article demonstrates how socioscientific material is marginalized through the structures and language of syllabus texts and through classroom practices. This means students are unlikely to engage with socioscientific aspects in their course. Socioscientific content is gendered through association with social concerns and epistemological uncertainty, and because gender is asymmetric, socioscience is devalued with respect to the masculinity of abstract science. Teachers fear that extensive coverage of socioscience devalues the curriculum, alienates traditional science students and jeopardizes their own status as gatekeepers of scientific knowledge. Thus, although STS curricula such as Salters' offer potential for making science more accessible, the article concludes that greater awareness of, and challenges to, gender binaries could result in more effective STS curriculum reform.

  2. High Tc Superconducting Materials for Strong Current Applications: Approach at the First Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jian-xun

    2007-01-01

    Strong current and large-scale application is the most important prospect of high Tc superconductors (HTS). Practical HTS samples in various forms have been produced with high critical currents operated at economic cryogenic temperatures. Engineering applications of those HTS materials have been studied with various HTS prototype devices. The applicable HTS materials produced in different forms are verified in this paper with regard to their strong current characterizations, and the HTS applications are summarized along with the HTS prototypes made.

  3. Design study of compact Laser-Electron X-ray Generator for material and life science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bessonov, E G; Kostrukov, P V; Maslova, Yu Ya; Tunkin, V G; Postnov, A A; Mikhailichenko, A A; Shvedunov, V I; Ishkhanov, B S; Vinogradov, A V

    2016-01-01

    X-Ray generations utilizing Thomson scattering fill in the gap that exists between conventional and synchrotron-based X-ray sources. They are expected to be more intense than X-ray tubes and more compact, accessible and less expensive than synchrotron. In this work, two operation modes of Thomson X-ray source are documented: quasi CW(QCW) and a pulsed one are considered for material sciences and medical applications being implemented currently at Synchrotron Radiation (SR) facilities.

  4. Analytical techniques for thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1988-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 27: Analytical Techniques for Thin Films covers a set of analytical techniques developed for thin films and interfaces, all based on scattering and excitation phenomena and theories. The book discusses photon beam and X-ray techniques; electron beam techniques; and ion beam techniques. Materials scientists, materials engineers, chemical engineers, and physicists will find the book invaluable.

  5. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...... collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector...

  6. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  7. Applications of synchrotron radiation techniques to materials science 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mini, S.M. [ed.] [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stock, S.R. [ed.] [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Perry, D.L. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Terminello, L.J. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    As more synchrotron facilities are constructed and go online both in the US and in other countries, even more applications of synchrotron radiation will be realized. Both basic and applied research possibilities are manifold, including studies of materials mentioned below and those that are yet to be discovered. Also, the combination of synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques with ever increasing high-resolution microscopy allows researchers to study very small domains of materials in an attempt to understand their chemical and electronic properties. This is especially important in the areas of composites and other related materials involving material bonding interfaces. The topics covered in this symposium include surfaces, interfaces, electronic materials, metal oxides, solar cells, thin films, carbides, polymers, alloys, nanoparticles, and graphitic materials. Results reported at this symposium relate recent advances in X-ray absorption and scattering, imaging, tomography, microscopy, and topography methods.

  8. The application of Principal Component Analysis to materials science data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwon Suh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between apparently disparate sets of data is a critical component of interpreting materials' behavior, especially in terms of assessing the impact of the microscopic characteristics of materials on their macroscopic or engineering behavior. In this paper we demonstrate the value of principal component analysis of property data associated with high temperature superconductivity to examine the statistical impact of the materials' intrinsic characteristics on high temperature superconducting behavior

  9. Tribology of ceramics and composites materials science perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Bikramjit

    2011-01-01

    This book helps students and practicing scientists alike understand that a comprehensive knowledge about the friction and wear properties of advanced materials is essential to further design and development of new materials. With important introductory chapters on the fundamentals, processing, and applications of tribology, the book then examines in detail the nature and properties of materials, the friction and wear of structural ceramics, bioceramics, biocomposites, and nanoceramics, as well as lightweight composites and the friction and wear of ceramics in a cryogenic environment.

  10. Solid-State Physics An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completly updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. From a review of the original edition �...

  11. The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the relationship between hard science fiction and physics and a gendered culture of science. Empirical studies indicate that science fiction references might spur some students' interest in physics and help develop this interest throughout school, into a university education and even further later inspire the practice of doing science. There are many kinds of fiction within the science fiction genre. In the presented empirical exploration physics students seem particularly fond of what is called `hard science fiction': a particular type of science fiction dealing with technological developments (Hartwell and Cramer in The hard SF renaissance, Orb/TOR, New York, 2002). Especially hard science fiction as a motivating fantasy may, however, also come with a gender bias. The locally materialized techno-fantasies spurring dreams of the terraforming of planets like Mars and travels in time and space may not be shared by all physics students. Especially female students express a need for other concerns in science. The entanglement of physics with hard science fiction may thus help develop some students' interest in learning school physics and help create an interest for studying physics at university level. But research indicates that especially female students are not captured by the hard techno-fantasies to the same extent as some of their male colleagues. Other visions (e.g. inspired by soft science fiction) are not materialized as a resource in the local educational culture. It calls for an argument of how teaching science is also teaching cultural values, ethics and concerns, which may be gendered. Teaching materials, like the use of hard science fiction in education, may not just be (yet another) gender bias in science education but also carrier of particular visions for scientific endeavours.

  12. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Materials science tetrahedron--a useful tool for pharmaceutical research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2009-05-01

    The concept of materials science tetrahedron (MST) concisely depicts the inter-dependent relationship among the structure, properties, performance, and processing of a drug. Similar to its role in traditional materials science, MST encompasses the development in the emerging field of pharmaceutical materials science and forms a scientific foundation to the design and development of new drug products. Examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of MST to both pharmaceutical research and product development. It is proposed that a systematic implementation of MST can expedite the transformation of pharmaceutical product development from an art to a science. By following the principle of MST, integration of research among different laboratories can be attained. The pharmaceutical science community as a whole can conduct more efficient, collaborative, and coherent research.

  14. Overview of the NIST Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    mechanical routes to weakened products were identified in polybenzoxazole (Zylon) fibers . [This work included testing on materials which had failed...to characterize the processing, structure, mechanics and long-term reliability of high performance polymeric fibers used for ballistic protection...Apparatus, modified for fiber testing •Measurement techniques and instrumentation for characterizing next generation hybrid materials which

  15. Some interrelationships between constructivist models of learning and current neurobiological theory, with implications for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. Roger

    Recent advances in the neurosciences have begun to elucidate how some fundamental mechanisms of nervous system activity can explain human information processing and the acquisition of knowledge. Some of these findings are consistent with a cognitive view of constructivist models of learning and provide additional theoretical support for constructivist applications to science education reform. Current thought at the interface between neurocognitive research and constructivist philosophy is summarized here and discussed in a context of implications for scientific epistemology and conceptual change processes in science education.

  16. Advances in materials science, Metals and Ceramics Division. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhan, J.J.; Weld, F.N.

    1979-10-25

    Research is reported on materials for magnetic fusion energy, laser fusion energy, Al-air batteries, geothermal energy, oil shale, nuclear waste management, thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production, chemistry, and basic energy science. (FS)

  17. 75 FR 16514 - Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics... Material Science, LLC, formally known as Sheffield Plastics, including on-site leased workers from... that Bayer Material Science, LLC was formally known as Sheffield Plastics. Some workers separated...

  18. A Study of Current Chopping Characteristics in Metal-Carbide Composite Contact Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kusano, Takashi; Okutomi, Tsutomu; Yokokura, Kunio; Homma, Mitsutaka

    To clarify the effect of carbides on current chopping characteristics chopping current was evaluated for various metalcarbide contact materials. As a result, it was found that the chopping current of metal-carbide contacts was related to the vapor pressure of metals and the work function of carbides. It was also found that the chopping current was reduced by the heat treatment when the melting point of contacts is lower than the temperature of heat teatment.

  19. Science of Materials: A Case Study of Intentional Teaching in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Barratt-Pugh, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Australia's Early Years Learning Framework and leading international researchers argue for more intentional and purposeful teaching of science in the early years. This case study of exemplary practice illustrates intentional teaching of science materials which opened-up learning opportunities in literacy and number. Student-led hands-on…

  20. Dispositions Supporting Elementary Interns in the Teaching of Reform-Based Science Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Charles J.; Stewart, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Dispositions supporting the teaching of science as structured inquiry by four elementary candidates are presented. Candidates were studied during student teaching based on their positive attitudes toward teaching science with reform-based materials in their methods course. Personal learning histories informed their attitudes, values, and beliefs…

  1. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R. Allen

    2011-12-01

    This is a document required by Basic Energy Sciences as part of a mid-term review, in the third year of the five-year award period and is intended to provide a critical assessment of the Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels (strategic vision, scientific plans and progress, and technical accomplishments).

  2. Electromagnetic Spectrum. 7th and 8th Grade Agriculture Science Curriculum. Teacher Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This curriculum guide, the second in a set of six, contains teacher and student materials for a unit on the electromagnetic spectrum prepared as part of a seventh- and eighth-grade agricultural science curriculum that is integrated with science instruction. The guide contains the state goals and sample learning objectives for each goal for…

  3. The Efficacy of Educative Curriculum Materials to Support Geospatial Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Peffer, Tamara; Kulo, Violet

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning about geospatial aspects of energy resource issues requires that science teachers apply effective science pedagogical approaches to implement geospatial technologies into classroom instruction. To address this need, we designed educative curriculum materials as an integral part of a comprehensive middle school energy…

  4. 3D construction and repair from welding and material science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean-Yves

    2016-10-01

    Additive manufacturing, based on layer-by-layer deposition of a feedstock material from a 3D data, can be mechanistically associated to welding. With feedstock fusion based processes, both additive manufacturing and welding implement similar heat sources, feedstock materials and translation mechanisms. From material science perspectives, additive manufacturing can take clue from lessons learned by millennium old welding technology to rapidly advance in its quest to generate fit for service metallic parts. This paper illustrates material science highlights extracted from the fabrication of a 316 L air vent and the functional repair of a Monel K500 (UNS N0500) with Inconel 625.

  5. Science of materials. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The research program includes studies of the microchemistry, microstructure, deformation, corrosion and fracture of metals, ceramics and alloy materials, of the hydrogen embrittlement of metals, the mechanism of heat transfer across interfacts, catalytic properties of surfaces, and erosion of surfaces by fluid suspended particles. The structure of liquids, polymers and disordered solids is under investigation with emphasis on molecular interactions and bonding, on ionic conduction, phase transitions and radiation damage. Ferro- and pyro-electric materials with potential for solar energy applications are under development. The study of optical properties includes the mechanism of luminescence, the design of molecular photoreceptors, and new semiconductor materials for photovoltaic devices.

  6. RIMS International Conference : Mathematical Challenges in a New Phase of Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Kotani, Motoko

    2016-01-01

    This volume comprises eight papers delivered at the RIMS International Conference "Mathematical Challenges in a New Phase of Materials Science", Kyoto, August 4–8, 2014. The contributions address subjects in defect dynamics, negatively curved carbon crystal, topological analysis of di-block copolymers, persistence modules, and fracture dynamics. These papers highlight the strong interaction between mathematics and materials science and also reflect the activity of WPI-AIMR at Tohoku University, in which collaborations between mathematicians and experimentalists are actively ongoing.

  7. The Life Cycle Application of Intelligent Software Modeling for the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda; Parris, Frank; Nerren, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been funding development of intelligent software models to benefit payload ground operations for nearly a decade. Experience gained from simulator development and real-time monitoring and control is being applied to engineering design, testing, and operation of the First Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1). MSRR-1 is the first rack in a suite of three racks comprising the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) which will operate on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRF will accommodate advanced microgravity investigations in areas such as the fields of solidification of metals and alloys, thermo-physical properties of polymers, crystal growth studies of semiconductor materials, and research in ceramics and glasses. The MSRR-1 is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to study the behavior of different materials during high temperature processing in a low gravity environment. The planned MSRR-1 mission duration is five (5) years on-orbit and the total design life is ten (IO) years. The MSRR-1 launch is scheduled on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3) to ISS, currently in February of 2003). The objective of MSRR-1 is to provide an early capability on the ISS to conduct material science, materials technology, and space product research investigations in microgravity. It will provide a modular, multi-user facility for microgravity research in materials crystal growth and solidification. An intelligent software model of MSRR-1 is under development and will serve multiple purposes to support the engineering analysis, testing, training, and operational phases of the MSRR-1 life cycle development. The G2 real-time expert system software environment developed by Gensym Corporation was selected as the intelligent system shell for this development work based on past experience gained and the effectiveness of the programming environment. Our approach of multi- uses of the simulation model and

  8. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, William D., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Now in its seventh edition, this accessible book provides readers with clear and concise discussions of key concepts while also incorporating familiar terminology. The author treats the important properties of the three primary types of materials (metals, ceramics, and polymers) and composites, as well as the relationships that exist between the structural elements of materials and their properties. Throughout, the emphasis is placed on mechanical behavior and failure, including techniques that are employed to improve performance.

  9. New Hydrophobic IOL Materials and Understanding the Science of Glistenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetz, Manfred; Jorgensen, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    An introduction to the history of intraocular lenses (IOLs) is given, leading up to modern hydrophobic examples. The roles of hydrophobicity, hygroscopy, materials chemistry, and edge design are discussed in the context of IOLs. The four major types of IOL materials are compared in terms of their chemistry and biocompatibility. An example of a modern "hydrophobic" acrylic polymer with higher water content is discussed in detail.

  10. Chemistry and Materials Science, 1990--1991. [Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, T.T.; Bruner, J.M.; McElroy, L.A. [eds.

    1991-12-31

    This 2-year (FY 1990-91) contains 49 technical articles in ten sections: research sampler, metals and alloys, energetic materials, chemistry and physics of advanced materials, bonding and reactions at surfaces and interfaces, superconductivity, energy R and D, waste processing and management, characterization and analysis, and facilities and instrumentation. Two more sections list department personnel, their publications etc., consultants, and summary of department budgets. The articles are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  11. Nature of ceramic materials: needs and opportunities for ceramic science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingery, W D

    1976-01-01

    Ceramic materials are inherently strong but brittle; many are stable and corrosion-resistant in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres to high temperatures, and they have a variety of useful optical, thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties. Because of their strength, brittleness, and high-temperature stability, they are inherently difficult to fabricate in a way that allows full use of their intrinsic properties. The needs and opportunities for new and improved ceramic science and technology are mostly related to the critical importance of ceramics in determining the feasibility or effectiveness of large complex systems. One example of a past success is the development of square-loop ferrites for computer memory systems. Many other systems now under development--magnetohydrodynamic power generation, solar energy systems, high-temperature gas turbines, nuclear waste management, optical communications systems, and many others--will become practical only if the fabrication of essential ceramic components with reliably controlled properties is achieved. Development of the science of ceramic characteristics and properties, development of technology for reliably producing desired characteristics and properties, and the training of ceramic scientists are currently progressing at a rate wholly inadequate for meeting the evident requirements.

  12. Implementing the Current Science and Citizenship Mandates: A Learning Theory Analysis and Set of Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Erikson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this research was to use learning theory to analyze the relationships between current views of citizenship, citizenship education, science and science education to develop a reasonably coherent and integrated view and approach to science and citizenship mandates that can be successfully implemented in our schools. Approach: The three models of citizenship education currently competing for dominance in our schools were: The national forging approach, the global education approach and the deliberative democratic approach. Results: Our conclusion was that it was only the use of the nation forging approach (teaching a common core of foundational knowledge and skills in both citizenship and science education at the elementary school level that was going to foster and help students develop the cognitive schemas and reasoning skills that are the necessary prerequisites for the Deliberative democracy approach. Conclusion: If and when students do develop the high level of knowledge and reasoning ability required to engage in deliberative democracy approach, possibly at the secondary level of schooling, then the DDA approach will, most definitely, foster and help students develop the common core cultural and deliberative skills and values that will, in turn, then allow the global education approach, with its multicultural (or rather more differentiated, nuanced and subtle if fuzzy views, to be pursued at the post-secondary level, producing informed and deliberative citizens for this country and the world. The implications of these analyses, findings and conclusions were discussed.

  13. Multiscale Materials Science - A Mathematical Approach to the Role of Defects and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0034 Multiscale materials science - a mathematical approach to the role of defects and uncertainty Claude Le Bris ECOLE... science - a mathematical approach to the role of defects and uncertainty 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA8655-13-1-3061 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...1FORM SF 298 10/31/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll Contract FA 8655-13-1-3061 Multiscale materials science : a mathematical

  14. Academic Entrepreneurship and Exchange of Scientific Resources: Material Transfer in Life and Materials Sciences in Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Sotaro; Walsh, John P.; Baba, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a sample of Japanese university scientists in life and materials sciences to examine how academic entrepreneurship has affected the norms and behaviors of academic scientists regarding sharing scientific resources. Results indicate that high levels of academic entrepreneurship in a scientific field are associated with less reliance…

  15. Current research trends and perspectives on materials-based hydrogen storage solutions: A critical review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective hydrogen storage solutions have been pursued for decades, and materials-based hydrogen storage is a research frontier of much current interest. Yet, no researched materials to date have come close to the DOE 2020 targets for hydrogen...

  16. Ultrafast laser inscribed integrated photonics: material science to device development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed studies of intense light – material interactions has led to new insights into fs laser induced refractive index change in a range of glass types. This body of knowledge enables the development of advanced processing methodologies, resulting in novel planar and 3D guided wave devices. We will review the chemistry and morphology associated with fs laser induced refractive index change in multi-component glasses such as ZBLAN, phosphates and silicates, and discuss how these material changes inform our research programs developing a range of active and passive lightwave systems.

  17. Colloid and materials science for the conservation of cultural heritage: cleaning, consolidation, and deacidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Piero; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Poggi, Giovanna

    2013-04-30

    Serendipity and experiment have been a frequent approach for the development of materials and methodologies used for a long time for either cleaning or consolidation of works of art. Recently, new perspectives have been opened by the application of materials science, colloid science, and interface science frameworks to conservation, generating a breakthrough in the development of innovative tools for the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage. This Article is an overview of the most recent contributions of colloid and materials science to the art conservation field, mainly focusing on the use of amphiphile-based fluids, gels, and alkaline earth metal hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions for the cleaning of pictorial surfaces, the consolidation of artistic substrates, and the deacidification of paper, canvas, and wood. Future possible directions for solving several conservation issues that still need to be faced are also highlighted.

  18. Oxygen Transport Membranes: A Material Science and Process Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several fundamental aspects on the membrane-integrated oxy-fuel combustion process and can be divided in two parts: 1) The development and characterization of membrane materials; 2) The design, simulation and evaluation of a coal-fired power plant, coupled with a membrane modul

  19. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    between Z=57 (lanthanum) and Z=72 ( hafnium ), inclusive, are very rare in commerce, making 72 a reasonable boundary between high Z and lower Z elements...materials used in nuclear weapons of other nations (e.g., for alloys ) for purposes of nuclear forensics. (2) Another task is to develop the algorithms

  20. Proton Conducting Fuel Cells where Electrochemistry Meets Material Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which directly convert the chemical energy of fuels into electrical energy. They are featured of high energy conversion efficiency and minimized pollutant emission. Proton conducting electrolytes are primarily used as separator materials for low and intermed...

  1. CSIR eNews: Materials science and manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR is in a unique position to add value and impact to the materials and manufacturing industries in Africa and to develop human capital through its critical mass of multi-disciplinary researchers, its equipment and infrastructure and its...

  2. Analyzing Science Textbook Materials to Determine How "Persuasive" They Are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Marilyn J.

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates the difference between typical textbook fare and textbook material designed to be comprehensive and built upon the reader's understanding, arguing that the hallmark of persuasion and learning must include comprehensibility and understandability. A taxonomy of text types is presented, examining the argument and explanation patterns and…

  3. [Science and Technology and Recycling: Instructional Materials on Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Association, New York, NY.

    Educational materials on the manufacture and use of aluminum are assembled in this multi-media unit for use by junior high and secondary school students. Student booklets and brochures include: "The Story of Aluminum,""Uses of Aluminum,""Independent Study Guide for School Research Projects,""Questions and Answers About Litter, Solid Waste, and…

  4. Chemistry and Materials Science. Progress report, first half, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research are growth, structure, and reactivity of surfaces and thin films; uranium research; physics and processing of metals; energetic materials; etc. The laboratory-directed R and D include director`s initiatives and individual projects, and transactinium institute studies.

  5. Curriculum Design for Inquiry: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mobilization and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Curriculum materials are crucial tools with which teachers engage students in science as inquiry. In order to use curriculum materials effectively, however, teachers must develop a robust capacity for pedagogical design, or the ability to mobilize a variety of personal and curricular resources to promote student learning. The purpose of this study…

  6. Materials science approaches to solve problems with emerging mycotoxins in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materials science technology is an attractive, cost effective, and robust alternative to address the limitations of highly selective natural receptors. These materials are especially well suited to address issues with emerging toxins for which a better understanding is needed to establish levels of ...

  7. Three-diemensional materials science: An intersection of three-dimensional reconstructions and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Katsuyo; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2008-01-01

    . Combined with three-dimensional (3D) simulations and analyses that are capable of handling the complexity of these microstructures, 3D reconstruction, or tomography, has become a powerful tool that provides clear insights into materials processing and properties. This introductory article provides...... an overview of this emerging field of materials science, as well as brief descriptions of selected methods and their applicability....

  8. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent

  9. JPRS Report - Science & Technology Japan: New Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Liquid Crystals Useful as a High-Performance Material [Akihiro Abe ] 7 Fundamental Analysis on the Effect of the Structural Modification on the...Optical Property of Conducting Polymer and Origin of Its Functionality [Katsumi Yoshino, Masanori Ozaki] lk Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Calculations of...Nishida, et al. ] 1+8 - d - Molecular Design of Polycationic Functional Elastomers [ Shinzo Yamashita, Shinzo Kohjiya] , ^9 Synthesis of

  10. Materials science research for sodium cooled fast reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baldev Raj

    2009-06-01

    The paper gives an insight into basic as well as applied research being carried out at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for the development of advanced materials for sodium cooled fast reactors towards extending the life of reactors to nearly 100 years and the burnup of fuel to 2,00,000 MWd/t with an objective of providing fast reactor electricity at an affordable and competitive price.

  11. Collimation and material science studies (ColMat) at GSI.

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Krause, M; Mustafin, E; Petzenhauser, I; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of the EuCARD program, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt is performing accelerator R&D in workpackage 8: ColMat. The coordinated effort is focussed on materials aspects important for building the FAIR accelerator facility at GSI and the LHC upgrade at CERN. Accelerator components and especially protection devices have to be operated in high dose environments. The radiation hazard occurs either by the primary proton and ion beams or the secondary radiation after initial beam loss. Detailed numerical simulations have been carried out to study the damage caused to solid targets by the full impact of the LHC beam as well as the SPS beam. Tungsten, copper and graphite as possible collimator materials have been studied. Experimental an theoretical studies on radiation damage on materials used for the LHC upgrade and the FAIR accelerators are performed at the present GSI experimental facilities. Technical decisions based on these results will have an impact on the F...

  12. The High Energy Materials Science Beamline (HEMS) at PETRA III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Norbert; King, Andrew; Beckmann, Felix; Ruhnau, Hans-Ulrich; Kirchhof, René; Kiehn, Rüdiger; Müller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    The HEMS Beamline at the German high-brilliance synchrotron radiation storage ring PETRA III is fully tunable between 30 and 250 keV and optimized for sub-micrometer focusing. Approximately 70 % of the beamtime will be dedicated to Materials Research. Fundamental research will encompass metallurgy, physics and chemistry with first experiments planned for the investigation of the relationship between macroscopic and micro-structural properties of polycrystalline materials, grain-grain-interactions, and the development of smart materials or processes. For this purpose a 3D-microsctructure-mapper has been designed. Applied research for manufacturing process optimization will benefit from high flux in combination with ultra-fast detector systems allowing complex and highly dynamic in-situ studies of micro-structural transformations, e.g. during welding processes. The beamline infrastructure allows accommodation of large and heavy user provided equipment. Experiments targeting the industrial user community will be based on well established techniques with standardized evaluation, allowing full service measurements, e.g. for tomography and texture determination. The beamline consists of a five meter in-vacuum undulator, a general optics hutch, an in-house test facility and three independent experimental hutches working alternately, plus additional set-up and storage space for long-term experiments. HEMS is under commissioning as one of the first beamlines running at PETRA III.

  13. Structural properties of porous materials and powders used in different fields of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Volfkovich, Yury Mironovich; Bagotsky, Vladimir Sergeevich

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and concise description of most important aspects of experimental and theoretical investigations of porous materials and powders, with the use and application of these materials in different fields of science, technology, national economy and environment. It allows the reader to understand the basic regularities of heat and mass transfer and adsorption occurring in qualitatively different porous materials and products, and allows the reader to optimize the functional properties of porous and powdered products and materials. Written in an straightforward and transparent manner, this book is accessible to both experts and those without specialist knowledge, and it is further elucidated by drawings, schemes and photographs. Porous materials and powders with different pore sizes are used in many areas of industry, geology, agriculture and science. These areas include (i) a variety of devices and supplies; (ii) thermal insulation and building materials; (iii) oil-bearing geologic...

  14. Ethnic Diversity in Materials Science and Engineering. A report on the workshop on ethnic diversity in materials science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin

    2014-06-30

    The immediate goal of the workshop was to elevate and identify issues and challenges that have impeded participation of diverse individuals in MSE. The longerterm goals are to continue forward by gathering and disseminating data, launching and tracking initiatives to mitigate the impediments, and increase the number of diverse individuals pursuing degrees and careers in MSE. The larger goal, however, is to create over time an ever-increasing number of role models in science fields who will, in turn, draw others in to contribute to the workforce of the future.

  15. Introduction to materials science: Preparation and characterization techniques. Introduccion a la ciencia de los materiales: tecnicas de preparacion y caracterizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albella, J.M.; Cintas, A.M.; Miranda, T.

    1993-01-01

    The materials science in this book is analyzed. Through 18 chapters the materials type, their structure, chemical reactions, mechanical properties are studied. Also optical properties of materials, magnetic properties, thin films, electronic microscopy and electric optic spectroscopy are analyzed.

  16. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J. (comp.)

    1984-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division for the period January 1, 1983, to June 30, 1984. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The emphasis of the program can be described as the scientific design of materials. The efforts are directed toward three classes of materials: high-temperature metallic alloys based on intermetallic compounds, structural ceramics, and radiation-resistant alloys.

  17. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 2

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 2 covers topics about complex oxide materials such as the garnets, which dominate the field of magnetoelasticity and are among the most important laser hosts, and sodalite, which is one of the classic photochromic materials. The book discusses the physics of the interactions of electromagnetic, elastic, and spin waves in single crystal magnetic insulators. The text then describes the mechanism on which inorganic photochromic materials are based, as observed in a variety of materials in single crystal, powder, and gl

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science, Mechanics and Technology of Metal and Metal Ceramic Composite Material Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-27

    produced, their phase composition and bending strength, as well as investigation of the promise of adding niobium carbide NbC to these materials. The...time increases, NbC does not inhibit shrink- niobium carbide was the same — 3 %. This content of age, which is a technological advantage. NbC is

  19. Topics in Current Science Research: Closing the Achievement Gap for Under Resourced Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya Villalpando, Alvaro; Daal, Miguel; Phipps, Arran; Speller, Danielle; Sadoulet, Bernard; Winheld, Rachel; Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Topics in Current Science Research (TCSR) is a five-week summer course offered at the University of California, Berkeley through a collaboration between the Level Playing Field Institute's Summer Math and Science Honors Academy (SMASH) Program and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) group at UC Berkeley. SMASH is an academic enrichment program geared towards under-resourced, high school students of color. The goals of the course are to expand the students' conception of STEM, to teach the students that science is a method of inquiry and not just a collection of facts that are taught in school, and to expose the scholars to critical thinking within a scientific setting. The course's curriculum engages the scholars in hands-on scientific research, project proposal writing, and presentation of their scientific work to their peers as well as to a panel of UC Berkeley scientists. In this talk, we describe the course and the impact it has had on previous scholars, we discuss how the course's pedagogy has evolved over the past 10 years to enhance students' perception and understanding of science, and we present previous participants' reflections and feedback about the course and its success in providing high school students a genuine research experience at the university level.

  20. Chemistry and material science at the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weian Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell surfaces are fertile ground for chemists and material scientists to manipulate or augment cell functions and phenotypes. This not only helps to answer basic biology questions but also has diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in the engineering of the cell surface. In particular, we focus on the potential applications of surface engineered cells for 1 targeting cells to desirable sites in cell therapy, 2 programming assembly of cells for tissue engineering, 3 bioimaging and sensing, and ultimately 4 manipulating cell biology.

  1. Graphene: A Rising Star on the Horizon of Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal Kumar Sur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, a one-atom thick planar sheet of sp2 bonded carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, is considered to be the mother of all graphitic materials like fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphite. Graphene has created tremendous interest to both physicists and chemists due to its various fascinating properties, both observed and predicted with possible potential applications in nanoelectronics, supercapacitors, solar cells, batteries, flexible displays, hydrogen storage, and sensors. In this paper, a brief overview on various aspects of graphene such as synthesis, functionalization, self-assembly, and some of its amazing properties along with its various applications ranging from sensors to energy storage devices had been illustrated.

  2. Physical Oceanography: Project Earth Science. Material for Middle School Teachers in Earth Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. Sean

    This book is one in a series of Earth science books and contains a collection of 18 hands-on activities/demonstrations developed for the middle/junior high school level. The activities are organized around three key concepts. First, students investigate the unique properties of water and how these properties shape the ocean and the global…

  3. OCRWM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM MATERIALS PERFORMANCE TARGETED THRUST FACT SHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-10-06

    In severe corrosive or abrasive environments, steel is rarely used since the range of properties available, in existing steels, are insufficient, resulting in the prevalent usage of either corrosion resistant materials like nickel based superalloys or abrasion resistant materials like tungsten carbide based hardmetals. Recently, a host of carbide based alloys including WC-Co-Cr, NiCr-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}, WC-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-Ni etc. have been developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between providing both wear and corrosion protection. In this presentation, data will be presented showing how a newly developed steel coating, SAM2X5, with an amorphous/nanocomposite structure can bridge the gap between conventional metallic alloys and ceramic hardmetal performance with excellent combinations of properties including corrosion resistance superior to nickel superalloys in a number of environments and wear resistance approaching that of tungsten carbide cobalt. The unique combination of damage tolerance developed should be especially applicable for the replacement of electrolytic hard chromium.

  4. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  5. Internationalization of the animal science undergraduate curriculum: a survey of its current status, barriers to its implementation and its value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, N E; Taur, J S; Xiao, Y; Chesbrough, H

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the current level at which internationalization has been adopted as a theme in the North American animal science curriculum and to identify its value and the barriers to its implementation. We surveyed animal, dairy, and poultry science departments across Canada and the United States. One hundred twenty-four surveys were mailed and 60% were returned. Associations between aspects of internationalization and student outcomes (admission to veterinary and graduate schools and starting salaries) were examined. Although administrators strongly believed internationalization had value, implementation was limited. The most common practices included international content in core animal science classes, advising, international internships, and participation of faculty in international scholarly activities. Few departments have incorporated internationalization into their mission statements or developed a specific international-themed class, scholarships devoted to international activities, or roles for international students. Few departments reported participation of students in international programs. Barriers included finances and limited commitment from higher administration. Student outcomes were positively associated with faculty size, percentage of international faculty, the ratio of international students to the total student population, international content in core animal science classes, a specific international-themed class, availability of international internships, and exchange of class material internationally via the Internet. Departments that did not offer international opportunities had a negative association (r = -0.79) with starting salary, but these relationships may not be causal. Alternatively, progressive departments may attract and retain exceptional students. The analysis indicated an awareness of the value of international programs, positive impacts in student outcomes, and financial barriers to implementation.

  6. Introducing interdisciplinary science to second year undergraduates in a Current Topics in Biophysics course

    CERN Document Server

    Jerzak, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    We offer second year students the opportunity to explore Current Topics in Biophysics in a course co-taught by a physicist and a biologist. The interdisciplinary course allows university students to engage in analytical thinking that integrates physics and biology. The students are either biophysics majors (50%) or from a diversity of science majors (about 30% life sciences). All will have taken first year courses in biology, physics and mathematics. The course is divided into: 1) The application of physical approaches to biological problems using case studies (how high can a tree grow? and biological pumps are two examples); 2) An introduction to physics concepts for which potential applications are explored (biophotonics and its application in fluorescence microscopy and photodynamic therapy is one example); and 3) Presentations from industry and university researchers who describe careers, research and clinical applications of biophysics. Over the six years the course has been offered, students have achiev...

  7. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.

  8. Fundamentals of radiation materials science metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Was, Gary S

    2017-01-01

    The revised second edition of this established text offers readers a significantly expanded introduction to the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. It describes the various processes that occur when energetic particles strike a solid, inducing changes to the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Specifically it covers particle interaction with the metals and alloys used in nuclear reactor cores and hence subject to intense radiation fields. It describes the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys. Updated throughout, some major enhancements for the new edition include improved treatment of low- and intermediate-energy elastic collisions and stopping power, expanded sections on molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methodologies describing collision cascade evolution, new treatment of t...

  9. The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fultz, Brent

    2007-03-15

    Rechargeable lithium batteries continue to play the central role in power systems for portable electronics, and could play a role of increasing importance for hybrid transportation systems that use either hydrogen or fossil fuels. For example, fuel cells provide a steady supply of power, whereas batteries are superior when bursts of power are needed. The National Research Council recently concluded that for dismounted soldiers "Among all possible energy sources, hybrid systems provide the most versatile solutions for meeting the diverse needs of the Future Force Warrior. The key advantage of hybrid systems is their ability to provide power over varying levels of energy use, by combining two power sources." The relative capacities of batteries versus fuel cells in a hybrid power system will depend on the capabilities of both. In the longer term, improvements in the cost and safety of lithium batteries should lead to a substantial role for electrochemical energy storage subsystems as components in fuel cell or hybrid vehicles. We have completed a basic research program for DOE BES on anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries, extending over 6 years with a 1 year phaseout period. The emphasis was on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the lithiation reaction, and how these pertain to basic electrochemical properties that we measure experimentally — voltage and capacity in particular. In the course of this work we also studied the kinetic processes of capacity fade after cycling, with unusual results for nanostructued Si and Ge materials, and the dynamics underlying electronic and ionic transport in LiFePO4. This document is the final report for this work.

  10. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science.

  11. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  12. Current state of Czech astronomy popularization and its potential for enhancing science career interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříček, Radek

    2015-08-01

    The Czech Republic has a dense net of observatories, astronomical clubs and other activities for both adults and children. Can we use it to improve skills of our pupils and their motivation to choose their career in science? Does the situation in the Czech Republic differ from abroad? What can we improve in the future? These questions were not answered satisfactorily so far. We decided to contribute to solve this issue.We present our survey of current state based mainly on electronic sources and personal dealings. Besides of 56 observatories working with public and many interest clubs, there are other possibilities to meet astronomy. For example, Astronomical Olympiad attracts thousands of pupils across the country each year to solve both theoretical and practical tasks in astronomy. In other projects, children can visit Dark-Sky Parks, design experiments for a stratospheric balloon, observe with CCD or radio devices or build their own rockets.We outline our ongoing project to examine the link between popularization activities and pupils’ or high school students’ attitude toward science and science career. We plan to create a typology of both popularization activities and life stories of people dealing with astronomy. From the methodological point of view, the mixed method design, combining both the qualitative and quantitative approach, will be used to solve the research problems. The basic research plan will be a case study. So far the project is based on interviews with various subjects. We choose people with different life stories, all connected with astronomy or astronomy popularization in some period. We focus on important moments in their career, similarities between subjects, and various types of possible motivation to participate in astronomy-related activities or to study science at university.Future results can be used to help interested organizations such as universities, observatories or astronomical societies. They will be able to work more

  13. Impact Testing for Materials Science at NASA - MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikapizye, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    The Impact Testing Facility (ITF) at NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is host to different types of guns used to study the effects of high velocity impacts. The testing facility has been and continues to be utilized for all NASA missions where impact testing is essential. The Facility has also performed tests for the Department of Defense, other corporations, as well as universities across the nation. Current capabilities provided by Marshall include ballistic guns, light gas guns, exploding wire gun, and the Hydrometeor Impact Gun. A new plasma gun has also been developed which would be able to propel particles at velocities of 20km/s. This report includes some of the guns used for impact testing at NASA Marshall and their capabilities.

  14. Biotemplated materials for sustainable energy and environment: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2011-10-17

    Materials science will play a key role in the further development of emerging solutions for the increasing problems of energy and environment. Materials found in nature have many inspiring structures, such as hierarchical organizations, periodic architectures, or nanostructures, that endow them with amazing functions, such as energy harvesting and conversion, antireflection, structural coloration, superhydrophobicity, and biological self-assembly. Biotemplating is an effective strategy to obtain morphology-controllable materials with structural specificity, complexity, and related unique functions. Herein, we highlight the synthesis and application of biotemplated materials for six key areas of energy and environment technologies, namely, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, CO(2) reduction, solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, photocatalytic degradation, and gas/vapor sensing. Although the applications differ from each other, a common fundamental challenge is to realize optimum structures for improved performances. We highlight the role of four typical structures derived from biological systems exploited to optimize properties: hierarchical (porous) structures, periodic (porous) structures, hollow structures, and nanostructures. We also provide examples of using biogenic elements (e.g., C, Si, N, I, P, S) for the creation of active materials. Finally, we disscuss the challenges of achieving the desired performance for large-scale commercial applications and provide some useful prototypes from nature for the biomimetic design of new materials or systems. The emphasis is mainly focused on the structural effects and compositional utilization of biotemplated materials. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Opportunities for Teacher Learning During Enactment of Inquiry Science Curriculum Materials: Exploring the Potential for Teacher Educative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2013-03-01

    The development of curriculum materials that are also educative for teachers has been proposed as a strategy to support teachers learning to teach inquiry science. In this study, one seventh-grade teacher used five inquiry science units with varying support for teachers over a two-year period. Teacher journals, interviews, and classroom videotape were collected. Analysis focused on engagement in planning and teaching, pedagogical content knowledge, and the match to teacher learning needs. Findings indicate that this teacher's ideas developed as she interacted with materials and her students. Information about student ideas, task- and idea-specific support, and model teacher language was most helpful. Supports for understanding goals, assessment, and the teacher's role, particularly during discussions and group work, were most needed.

  16. Ultra Fast Tomography: New Developments for 4D Studies in Material Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuissier, Pierre; Scheel, Mario; Di Michiel, Marco; Boller, Elodie; Adrien, Jerome; Maire, Eric; Salvo, Luc; Blandin, Jean-Jacques; Suery, Michel

    X-ray tomography has become a widely used 3D characterization technique in materials science using either laboratory tomographs or large X-ray facilities. The two main improvements in the last decade are the decrease of the spatial resolution down to tens of nanometers and also the decrease in acquisition time of a complete scan down to 1 second with 2 µm spatial resolution. The aim of this presentation is to focus on the second point. We will present the technical problems arising due to ultra fast acquisition (development of specific sample environment) and its application in material science. We will show, that thanks to ultra fast tomography, it is now possible to investigate material science problems in 4D (crack propagation in metals and high temperature deformation).

  17. The material realization of science from Habermas to experimentation and referential realism

    CERN Document Server

    Radder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This book develops a conception of science as a multi-dimensional practice, which includes experimental action and production, conceptual-theoretical interpretation, and formal-mathematical work. On this basis, it addresses the topical issue of scientific realism and expounds a detailed, referentially realist account of the natural sciences. This account is shown to be compatible with the frequent occurrence of conceptual discontinuities in the historical development of the sciences. Referential realism exploits several fruitful ideas of Jürgen Habermas, especially his distinction between objectivity and truth; it builds on a in-depth analysis of scientific experiments, including their material realization; and it is developed through an extensive case study in the history and philosophy of quantum mechanics. The new postscript explains how the book relates to several important issues in recent philosophy of science and science studies.

  18. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  19. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing

  20. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-08

    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery.

  1. PREFACE: 36th Risø International Symposium on Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fæster, S.; Hansen, N.; Hong, C.; Huang, X.; Jensen, D. Juul; Mishin, O. V.; Sun, J.; Yu, T.; Zhang, Y. B.

    2015-08-01

    The 36th Risø Symposium focuses on the effects of deformation-induced structural variations on annealing mechanisms. Although it is widely recognized that the processes occurring during annealing of deformed metals are determined by the local environment in which they occur, much of the current understanding, analysis and modelling is based on larger scale considerations. Recent detailed investigations of deformation microstructures have led to a paradigm shift in the way these structures are characterized and analyzed. It is now clear that deformation microstructures are hierarchical, with dislocations and deformation-induced boundaries subdividing the original grains. This subdivision means that there are variations in the crystallographic orientations and in the distribution of stored energy on the scale of the subdivision, which typically is on the micrometer, sub-micrometer or nanometer scale. Structural variations in this subdivision may also be present from grain to grain in polycrystalline materials, thereby introducing variations on the grain scale. Finally, processing may also introduce structural variations on even larger scales. There are thus structural variations at many length scales, all of which play an essential role in subsequent annealing processes and in property optimization. Recent advances in incorporating these structural variations into the understanding of annealing mechanisms and of how they affect the mechanical and physical properties of annealed metals and alloys are addressed in these Proceedings. The Proceedings contain 15 key-note and 46 contributed papers. The 36th Risø International Symposium on Materials Science is organized by the Section for Materials Science and Advanced Characterization, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU). We would like to thank all those at DTU who assisted in the preparations for the Symposium. We appreciate additionally the help from the international advisory committee

  2. Education and training for implementation science: our interest in manuscripts describing education and training materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Sales, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Michie, Susan; Kent, Bridie; Foy, Robbie

    2015-09-28

    Alongside the growth in interest in implementation science, there has been a marked increase in training programs, educational courses, degrees, and other offerings in implementation research and practice to meet the demand for this expertise. We believe that the science of capacity building has matured but that we can advance it further by shining light on excellent work in this area and by highlighting gaps for future research. At Implementation Science, we regularly receive manuscripts that describe or evaluate training materials, competencies, and competency development in implementation curricula. We are announcing a renewed interest in manuscripts in this area, with specifications described below.

  3. Frontier Science in the Polar Regions: Current Activities of the Polar Research Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Academies (the umbrella term for the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council) is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1863. The Polar Research Board (PRB) is the focal point within the Academies for providing advice on issues related to the Arctic, Antarctic, and cold regions in general. Tasks within the PRB mission include: providing a forum for the polar science community to address research needs and policy issues; conducting studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues in response to requests from federal agencies and others; providing program reviews, guidance, and assessments of priorities; and facilitating communication on polar issues among academia, industry, and government. The PRB also serves as the US National Committee to two international, nongovernmental polar science organizations: the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The polar regions are experiencing rapid changes in environment and climate, and the PRB has a number of completed and ongoing studies that will enhance scientific understanding of these issues. This poster will illustrate current PRB activities as well as results from two recently released reports: Frontiers in Understanding Climate Change and Polar Ecosystems and Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. In the former, a set of frontier research questions are developed to help scientists understand the impacts of climate change on polar ecosystems. The report builds on existing knowledge of climate change impacts and highlights the next big topics to be addressed in the coming decades. In addition, a number of methods and technologies are identified that will be useful to advance future research in polar ecosystem science. In the latter, changes to important science conducted on Antarctica and the surrounding

  4. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  5. Resolution of effects in multi-frequency eddy current data for reliable diagnostics of conductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egorov, Alexander; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Polyakov, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    The effect of eddy currents is widely used for diagnostics of conductive materials. It allows to create very simple and inexpensive systems for non-destructive measurements. However, the results of the measurements depend on many factors, including first of all, a conductivity of material...... and a margin between a sample and a measurement sensor. If both are unknown, it is not possible to evaluate them. The present paper thoroughly reports on an attempt to resolve the influence of the two factors by applying chemometric methods to the eddy current measurements obtained for a set of frequencies....

  6. Fostering Student Sense Making in Elementary Science Learning Environments: Elementary Teachers' Use of Science Curriculum Materials to Promote Explanation Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.; Biggers, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    While research has shown that elementary (K-5) students are capable of engaging in the scientific practice of explanation construction, commonly-used elementary science curriculum materials may not always afford them opportunities to do so. As a result, elementary teachers must often adapt their science curriculum materials to better support…

  7. Non-destructive testing of composite materials used in military applications by eddy current thermography method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Waldemar

    2016-10-01

    Eddy current thermography is a new NDT-technique for the detection of cracks in electro conductive materials. It combines the well-established inspection techniques of eddy current testing and thermography. The technique uses induced eddy currents to heat the sample being tested and defect detection is based on the changes of induced eddy currents flows revealed by thermal visualization captured by an infrared camera. The advantage of this method is to use the high performance of eddy current testing that eliminates the known problem of the edge effect. Especially for components of complex geometry this is an important factor which may overcome the increased expense for inspection set-up. The paper presents the possibility of applying eddy current thermography method for detecting defects in ballistic covers made of carbon fiber reinforced composites used in the construction of military vehicles.

  8. Design Features and Capabilities of the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, P. J.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Cobb, S. D.; Holloway, T.; Kitchens, L.

    2003-01-01

    The First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will offer many unique capabilities and design features to facilitate a wide range of materials science investigations. The initial configuration of MSRR-1 will accommodate two independent Experiment Modules (EMS) and provide the capability for simultaneous on-orbit processing. The facility will provide the common subsystems and interfaces required for the operation of experiment hardware and accommodate telescience capabilities. MSRR1 will utilize an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) equipped with an Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for vibration isolation of the facility.

  9. Design Features and Capabilities of the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, P. J.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Cobb, S. D.; Holloway, T.; Kitchens, L.

    2003-01-01

    The First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will offer many unique capabilities and design features to facilitate a wide range of materials science investigations. The initial configuration of MSRR-1 will accommodate two independent Experiment Modules (EMS) and provide the capability for simultaneous on-orbit processing. The facility will provide the common subsystems and interfaces required for the operation of experiment hardware and accommodate telescience capabilities. MSRR1 will utilize an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) equipped with an Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for vibration isolation of the facility.

  10. Materials science in microelectronics I the relationships between thin film processing and structure

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Thin films play a key role in the material science of microelectronics, and the subject matter of thin-films divides naturally into two headings: processing / structure relationship, and structure / properties relationship.The first volume of Materials Science in Microelectronics focuses on the first relationship - that between processing and the structure of the thin-film. The state of the thin film's surface during the period that one monolayer exists - before being buried in the next layer - determines the ultimate structure of the thin film, and thus its properties. This

  11. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 3

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 3 covers reviews that are directly related to the two devices which are the epitome of applied solid state science - the transistor and the laser. The book discusses the physics of multilayer-gate IGFET memories; the application of the transient charge technique in drift velocity; and trapping in semiconductors and in materials used in xerography, nuclear particle detectors, and space-charge-limited devices; as well as thin film transistors. The text describes the manipulation of laser beams in solids and discusses

  12. The use of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, D B; Heuer, A H

    2010-12-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopes are essential and ubiquitous tools in the biological, biochemical and biomedical sciences, and play a similar role to scanning electron microscopes in materials science. However, modern laser scanning confocal microscopes have a number of advantages for the study of materials, in addition to their obvious uses for high resolution reflected and transmitted light optical microscopy. In this paper, we provide several examples that exploit the laser scanning confocal microscope's capabilities of pseudo-infinite depth of field imaging, topographic imaging, photo-stimulated luminescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic imaging. © 2010 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, William D., Jr.

    2004-04-01

    This Second Edition of Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering continues to take an integrated approach to the topic organization. One specific structure, characteristic, or property type at a time is discussed for all three basic material types--metals, ceramics, and polymeric materials. This order of presentation allows for early introduction of non-metals and supports the engineer's role of choosing a material based on its characteristics. New copies of this text include a CD at no additional charge. The CD is an integral part of the text package and features animated software modules and the last five text chapters in .pdf format.

  14. Subthreshold current model of fully depleted dual material gate SOI MOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dual material gate SOI MOSFET with asymmetrical halo can suppress short channel effect and increase carriers transport efficiency. The analytical model of its subthreshold drain current is derived based on the explicit solution of two-dimensional Poisson's equation in the depletion region. The model takes into consideration the channel length modulation effect and the contribution of the back channel current component. Its validation is verified by comparision with two dimensional device simulator MEDICI.

  15. Current situation and development tendency of thermal spraying materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Yue-guang

    2005-01-01

    The current situations of thermal spraying materials in China are described in this paper.The thermal spraying technology in China has a great progress over tens of years. More than one hundred varieties of material products serve thermal spraying producing now. They belong to three kinds, powders,wires and rods. Technologies for producing alloy, ceramic and composite powders, alloy and cored wires,and oxide ceramic rods are applied to large-scale production. Many research and development works on advanced materials for thermal spraying are carrying out recent years. They show that the general tendencies of thermal spraying materials in China are composite or low-impurity component, ultrafine or nanosized microstructure, high properties, and specialized and systematized applications. Thermal spraying materials have great prospects with the development of saving society in China.

  16. Graduate education of library science in China:Current status and recommendations for improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE; Ping; WANG; Ping; TANG; Chengxiu

    2008-01-01

    More than twenty years ago,Wuhan University and Nanjing University offered library science(LS)graduate programs.Since then,LS graduate education has been growing quickly in many aspects.At the same time,however,LS graduate education was also facing enormous challenges stemming from the dynamic development and wide applications of information technologies into the pedagogical arena of teaching and learning at all levels.Social evolution also made it necessary for LS educators to re-examine once again their graduate education model,curricular composition,educational philosophy and educational missions.In analyzing the present situation of LS graduate education in China,this paper focuses on the following issues:1)Growing size of LS graduate education(quantity and quality);2)educational objectives,including research direction and placement for graduates;3)structure of knowledge and curricular construction;4)conditions of administering a library school of high quality and 5)the management of teaching resources.The keystone of this paper is to pinpoint where current library science curricular deficiencies are lying.It is hoped that more serious scholarly discussions and perhaps also even concerted efforts among LS scholars and library practioners may be evoked in having the graduate education system of library and information science thoroughly realigned for the informational needs of the 21stcentury.

  17. The Use of Online Current Awareness Services by Natural Sciences and Engineering Faculty at Western Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Carrie C.; Eckel, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every commercial database that covers natural sciences and engineering offers some type of current awareness (CA) service that provides regular updates to users on current literature in a selected field of interest. Current awareness services include e-mail alerts, tables of contents, and RSS feeds. This study was designed to find out what…

  18. Physicians' current use and preferences for male HPV vaccine-related patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, Monica L; Lake, Paige; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2017-05-09

    Understanding physician preferences for educational materials to support male HPV vaccination is critical to improving vaccine uptake. Pediatric (Peds) and Family Medicine (FM) physicians in Florida completed a survey from May-August 2014 assessing current use of male-specific HPV vaccination patient education materials, and preferences for materials to increase HPV vaccination uptake. Peds and FM responses were compared with chi-squared or nonparametric tests. Most participants were FM (53.2%), White (66.6%), non-Hispanic (74.1%), and provided male patients/parents with HPV educational materials (59.1%). More than half (55.5%) provided a CDC factsheet for parents. Peds were more likely to indicate they provide educational materials (p<0.0001) than FM. The preferred source was the CDC (77.8%). Peds preferred using a factsheet as the medium of information more often than FM (85.6% vs. 68.0%; p<0.0001). When asked about preferences for targeted materials, 74.8% of providers indicated they would prefer materials targeted towards patients, 63.2% preferred information targeted towards parents, and 20.7% indicated they prefer non-targeted materials. Future research should focus on the development and testing of new HPV vaccine-specific materials and communication strategies for Peds and FM physicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutrons and synchrotron radiation in engineering materials science from fundamentals to material and component characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Reimers, W; Schreyer, A; Clemens, H; Kaysser-Pyzalla, Anke Rita

    2008-01-01

    Besides its coverage of the four important aspects of synchrotron sources, materials and material processes, measuring techniques, and applications, this ready reference presents both important method types: diffraction and tomography. Following an introduction, a general section leads on to methods, while further sections are devoted to emerging methods and industrial applications. In this way, the text provides new users of large-scale facilities with easy access to an understanding of both the methods and opportunities offered by different sources and instruments.

  20. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  1. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  2. Material science and Condensed matter Physics. 8th International Conference. Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyuk, L. L.; Paladi, Florentin; Canter, Valeriu; Nikorich, Valentina; Filippova, Irina

    2016-08-01

    The book includes the abstracts of the communications presented at the 8th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics (MSCMP 2016), a traditional biennial meeting organized by the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (IAP).A total of 346 abstracts has been included in the book. The Conference programm included plenary lectures, topical keynote lectures, contributed oral and poster presentations distributed into 7 sections: * Condensed Matter Theory; * Advanced Bulk Materials; * Design and Structural Characterization of Materials; * Solid State Nanophysics and Nanotechnology; * Energy Conversion and Storage. Solid State Devices; * Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry; * Digital and Optical holography: Materials and Methods. The abstracts are arranged according to the sections mentioned above. The Abstracts book includes a table of matters at the beginning of the book and an index of authors at the finish of the book.

  3. FWP executive summaries. Basic Energy Sciences/Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report is divided into: budget, capital equipment requests, general programmatic overview and institutional issues, DOE center of excellence for synthesis and processing of advanced materials, industrial interactions and technology transfer, and research program summaries (new proposals, existing programs). Ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, interfaces, CVD, tailored surfaces, adhesion, growth and epitaxy, boron-rich solids, nanoclusters, etc. are covered.

  4. Pulsed Excitation in Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing of Conductive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Janousek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with eddy current non-destructive testing of conductive materials. Basic principle of the method is explained. Two types of eddy current excitation, the harmonic one and the pulsed one, are discussed. The characteristics, advantages as well as disadvantages of the two excitation methods are compared. It is explained that the pulsed excitation gives more complex information about a tested object. Experimental results of the pulsed eddy current testing of a defect in an Aluminium plate are presented

  5. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…

  6. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…

  7. Measurement of critical current of superconducting materials at the changing magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qingrong; Hu Yongchang

    1986-06-01

    In this paper we present a new method for measuring the critical current of superconductor materials. The experimental results indicate the I/sub c/(H) character of the samples rather directly and, comparing with other methods, we can get more data at the same interval.

  8. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  9. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  10. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  11. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  12. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  13. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  14. Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography with Different Excitation Configurations for Metallic Material and Defect Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Gao, Yunlai; Li, Kongjing; Wang, Yizhe; Gao, Bin; He, Yunze

    2016-06-08

    This paper reviews recent developments of eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT) for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Due to the fact that line-coil-based ECPT, with the limitation of non-uniform heating and a restricted view, is not suitable for complex geometry structures evaluation, Helmholtz coils and ferrite-yoke-based excitation configurations of ECPT are proposed and compared. Simulations and experiments of new ECPT configurations considering the multi-physical-phenomenon of hysteresis losses, stray losses, and eddy current heating in conjunction with uniform induction magnetic field have been conducted and implemented for ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. These configurations of ECPT for metallic material and defect characterization are discussed and compared with conventional line-coil configuration. The results indicate that the proposed ECPT excitation configurations can be applied for different shapes of samples such as turbine blade edges and rail tracks.

  15. Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography with Different Excitation Configurations for Metallic Material and Defect Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Yun Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent developments of eddy current pulsed thermography (ECPT for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation (NDE. Due to the fact that line-coil-based ECPT, with the limitation of non-uniform heating and a restricted view, is not suitable for complex geometry structures evaluation, Helmholtz coils and ferrite-yoke-based excitation configurations of ECPT are proposed and compared. Simulations and experiments of new ECPT configurations considering the multi-physical-phenomenon of hysteresis losses, stray losses, and eddy current heating in conjunction with uniform induction magnetic field have been conducted and implemented for ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. These configurations of ECPT for metallic material and defect characterization are discussed and compared with conventional line-coil configuration. The results indicate that the proposed ECPT excitation configurations can be applied for different shapes of samples such as turbine blade edges and rail tracks.

  16. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling-the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field-is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams-which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics-we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism.

  17. Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2013-03-13

    The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies.

  18. New developments in the application of synchrotron radiation to material science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-04-21

    Recent developments in the application of synchrotrons radiation to materials science are discussed, using techniques which exploit the high brilliance of the newer synchrotrons sources, such as microbeam techniques and correlation spectroscopy. These include studies of environmental systems, residual stress, slow dynamics of condensed matter systems and studies of liquid surfaces and thin magnetic films.

  19. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  20. Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials in Respect to Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here represents a preliminary effort undertaken to address the role of teachers in supporting students' learning and decision-making about socioscientific issues (SSI) by characterizing preservice elementary teachers' critique and adaptation of SSI-based science curriculum materials and identifying factors that serve to mediate…

  1. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

  2. The Influence of Materials Science and Engineering Undergraduate Research Experiences on Public Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha; Fung, Wenson W.; Kisailus, David

    2013-01-01

    Communicating research findings with others is a skill essential to the success of future STEM professionals. However, little is known about how this skill can be nurtured through participating in undergraduate research. The purpose of this study is to quantify undergraduate participation in research in a materials science and engineering…

  3. A Place for Materials Science: Laboratory Buildings and Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsub; Shields, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM), University of Pennsylvania, was built in 1965 as part of the Advanced Research Projects Agency's (ARPA) Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDL) program intended to foster interdisciplinary research and training in materials science. The process that led to the construction of the…

  4. College-Mentored Polymer/Materials Science Modules for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Robert G.; Lewis, Maurica S.; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Polymers are materials with vast environmental and economic ramifications, yet are generally not discussed in secondary education science curricula. We describe a program in which college mentors develop and implement hands-on, polymer-related experiments to supplement a standard, state regents-prescribed high school chemistry course, as well as a…

  5. Identifying Characteristics of Science Teaching/Learning Materials Promoting Students' Intrinsic Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotkas, Tormi; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on concerns related to a lack of students' perception of relevance in school science seen as differing from educators' perception of relevance. In order to determine how relevance is portrayed in teaching and learning materials (TLMs), the titles and introductory texts (scenarios) from 77 TLMs, aiming to induce students'…

  6. Developing Teaching Materials PISA-Based for Mathematics and Science of Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somakim; Suharman, Andi; Madang, Kodri; Taufiq

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop valid and practical teaching materials for mathematics and science lesson PISA-based for junior high school students and to determine potential effects on students in scientific activity. Subjects of this study were students of Junior High School 9 Palembang (SMP Negeri 9 Palembang). The method used in this study is…

  7. Using Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Thin-Film Devices to Teach Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevian, Hannah; Muller, Sean; Rudmann, Hartmut; Rubner, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    Materials science can be taught by applying organic light-emitting electrochemical thin-film devices and in this method students were allowed to make a light-emitting device by spin coating a thin film containing ruthenium (II) complex ions onto a glass slide. Through this laboratory method students are provided with the opportunity to learn about…

  8. AREAL low energy electron beam applications in life and materials sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Aroutiounian, R.M. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Amatuni, G.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Aloyan, L.R.; Aslanyan, L.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Avagyan, V.Sh. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Babayan, N.S. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Institute of Molecular Biology NAS, 0014 Yerevan (Armenia); Buniatyan, V.V. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Dalyan, Y.B.; Davtyan, H.D. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Derdzyan, M.V. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Grigoryan, B.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Grigoryan, N.E. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hakobyan, L.S. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Haroutyunian, S.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Harutiunyan, V.V. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hovhannesyan, K.L. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Khachatryan, V.G. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Martirosyan, N.W. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Melikyan, G.S. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); and others

    2016-09-01

    The AREAL laser-driven RF gun provides 2–5 MeV energy ultrashort electron pulses for experimental study in life and materials sciences. We report the first experimental results of the AREAL beam application in the study of molecular-genetic effects, silicon-dielectric structures, ferroelectric nanofilms, and single crystals for scintillators.

  9. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  10. College-Mentored Polymer/Materials Science Modules for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Robert G.; Lewis, Maurica S.; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Polymers are materials with vast environmental and economic ramifications, yet are generally not discussed in secondary education science curricula. We describe a program in which college mentors develop and implement hands-on, polymer-related experiments to supplement a standard, state regents-prescribed high school chemistry course, as well as a…

  11. Computational techniques in tribology and material science at the atomic level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.; Bozzolo, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computations in tribology and material science at the atomic level present considerable difficulties. Computational techniques ranging from first-principles to semi-empirical and their limitations are discussed. Example calculations of metallic surface energies using semi-empirical techniques are presented. Finally, application of the methods to calculation of adhesion and friction are presented.

  12. Materials Sciences programs, fiscal year 1978: Office of Basic Energy Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    A compilation and index are provided of the the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs. The report is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index.

  13. Population and Family Education. Draft Sample Instructional Materials. Science/Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The sample first-draft materials, produced by participants at a UNESCO regional workshop on population and family life, are designed as a reference tool to be used by curriculum developers. Divided into two major parts -- in biological science and in mathematics -- the teaching guide is for secondary level students. The first part, consisting of…

  14. Focus: global currents in national histories of science: the "global turn" and the history of science in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    The "global turn" in the history of science offers new ways to think about how to do national and regional histories of science, in this case the history of science in Latin America. For example, it questions structuralist and diffusionist models of the spread of science and shows the often active role that people in Latin America (and the rest of the Global South) played in the construction of "universal" scientific knowledge. It suggests that even national or regional histories of science must be situated in a global context; all too often, such histories have treated global processes as a distant backdrop. At the same time, historians need to pay constant attention to the role of power in the construction of scientific knowledge. Finally, this essay highlights a methodological tool for writing globally inflected histories of science: the method of "following".

  15. The Life Cycle Application of Intelligent Software Modeling for the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda; Parris, Frank; Nerren, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been funding development of intelligent software models to benefit payload ground operations for nearly a decade. Experience gained from simulator development and real-time monitoring and control is being applied to engineering design, testing, and operation of the First Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1). MSRR-1 is the first rack in a suite of three racks comprising the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) which will operate on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRF will accommodate advanced microgravity investigations in areas such as the fields of solidification of metals and alloys, thermo-physical properties of polymers, crystal growth studies of semiconductor materials, and research in ceramics and glasses. The MSRR-1 is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to study the behavior of different materials during high temperature processing in a low gravity environment. The planned MSRR-1 mission duration is five (5) years on-orbit and the total design life is ten (IO) years. The MSRR-1 launch is scheduled on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3) to ISS, currently in February of 2003). The objective of MSRR-1 is to provide an early capability on the ISS to conduct material science, materials technology, and space product research investigations in microgravity. It will provide a modular, multi-user facility for microgravity research in materials crystal growth and solidification. An intelligent software model of MSRR-1 is under development and will serve multiple purposes to support the engineering analysis, testing, training, and operational phases of the MSRR-1 life cycle development. The G2 real-time expert system software environment developed by Gensym Corporation was selected as the intelligent system shell for this development work based on past experience gained and the effectiveness of the programming environment. Our approach of multi- uses of the simulation model and

  16. The Life Cycle Application of Intelligent Software Modeling for the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda; Parris, Frank; Nerren, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been funding development of intelligent software models to benefit payload ground operations for nearly a decade. Experience gained from simulator development and real-time monitoring and control is being applied to engineering design, testing, and operation of the First Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1). MSRR-1 is the first rack in a suite of three racks comprising the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) which will operate on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRF will accommodate advanced microgravity investigations in areas such as the fields of solidification of metals and alloys, thermo-physical properties of polymers, crystal growth studies of semiconductor materials, and research in ceramics and glasses. The MSRR-1 is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to study the behavior of different materials during high temperature processing in a low gravity environment. The planned MSRR-1 mission duration is five (5) years on-orbit and the total design life is ten (IO) years. The MSRR-1 launch is scheduled on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3) to ISS, currently in February of 2003). The objective of MSRR-1 is to provide an early capability on the ISS to conduct material science, materials technology, and space product research investigations in microgravity. It will provide a modular, multi-user facility for microgravity research in materials crystal growth and solidification. An intelligent software model of MSRR-1 is under development and will serve multiple purposes to support the engineering analysis, testing, training, and operational phases of the MSRR-1 life cycle development. The G2 real-time expert system software environment developed by Gensym Corporation was selected as the intelligent system shell for this development work based on past experience gained and the effectiveness of the programming environment. Our approach of multi- uses of the simulation model and

  17. Informatics for materials science and engineering data-driven discovery for accelerated experimentation and application

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Materials informatics: a 'hot topic' area in materials science, aims to combine traditionally bio-led informatics with computational methodologies, supporting more efficient research by identifying strategies for time- and cost-effective analysis. The discovery and maturation of new materials has been outpaced by the thicket of data created by new combinatorial and high throughput analytical techniques. The elaboration of this ""quantitative avalanche""-and the resulting complex, multi-factor analyses required to understand it-means that interest, investment, and research are revisiting in

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Metallo-supramolecular modules as a paradigm for materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G Kurth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ion coordination in discrete or extended metallo-supramolecular assemblies offers ample opportunity to fabricate and study devices and materials that are equally important for fundamental research and new technologies. Metal ions embedded in a specific ligand field offer diverse thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, physical and structural properties that make these systems promising candidates for active components in functional materials. A key challenge is to improve and develop methodologies for placing these active modules in suitable device architectures, such as thin films or mesophases. This review highlights recent developments in extended, polymeric metallo-supramolecular systems and discrete polyoxometalates with an emphasis on materials science.

  19. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 6

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 6 covers the application of composites in electronic systems. The book discusses different types of composite-composite materials consisting of finely dispersed mixtures of metals and insulators; composite devices in which two distinct semiconductor devices are combined in one package; and composite glass fibers with the core and cladding differing in their optical properties. The text describes articles dealing with properties that can be achieved in versatile materials; light-emitting diodes and photodetectors th

  20. Development and validation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) based instructional material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustiani, Ineu; Widodo, Ari; Suwarma, Irma Rahma

    2017-05-01

    This study is intended to examine the development and validation of simple machines instructional material that developed based on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) framework that provides guidance to help students learn and practice for real life and enable individuals to use knowledge and skills they need to be an informed citizen. Sample of this study consist of one class of 8th grader at a junior secondary school in Bandung, Indonesia. To measure student learning, a pre-test and post-test were given before and after implementation of the STEM based instructional material. In addition, a questionnaire of readability was given to examine the clarity and difficulty level of each page of instructional material. A questionnaire of students' response towards instructional material given to students and teachers at the end of instructional material reading session to measure layout aspects, content aspects and utility aspects of instructional material for being used in the junior secondary school classroom setting. The results show that readability aspect and students' response towards STEM based instructional material of STEM based instructional material is categorized as very high. Pretest and posttest responses revealed that students retained significant amounts information upon completion of the STEM instructional material. Student overall learning gain is 0.67 which is categorized as moderate. In summary, STEM based instructional material that was developed is valid enough to be used as educational materials necessary for conducting effective STEM education.