WorldWideScience

Sample records for current market situation

  1. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  2. The current situation of deaf people in the labour market in the Czech Rebublic

    OpenAIRE

    Vyšínová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the current situation of deaf people in the labour market in the Czech Republic. It emphasizes on differentiation of individual hearing impairment which is very important to explore the issue. The work examines the offer of education for deaf and deals with obstacles in the transition from school to working life, which is closely related to future labour market outcomes. It also focuses on organizations that help deaf people to overcome these barriers. It defines employ...

  3. The mobile marketing in Colombia- its current situation and projection Year 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Martínez Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg El mercadeo móvil ha avanzado vertiginosamente a nivel mundial, porque los canales de comunicación logran llegar efectivamente a la población objetivo. Es por esta razón, que el área de mercadeo puede conocer y aprovechar las características personales de las comunicaciones móviles usadas. El incremento de la penetración celular, la innovación y desarrollo de los sistemas operativos, de las aplicaciones, de las tecnologías de datos, de los terminales como los Smartphones y las tabletas facilitan el crecimiento del uso tecnológico y del mercadeo móvil. Ante la percepción de que Colombia se encuentra rezagada en el uso del mercadeo móvil, el presente estudio buscó identificar el estado de desarrollo del esta estrategia a nivel mundial y de algunos aspectos de este en Colombia. Se seleccionaron fuentes secundarias de información sobre el contexto y las herramientas de Mercadeo Móvil en el mundo, sobre las alternativas ofertadas en Colombia, y después de identificar las principales empresas del ecosistema de mobile marketing en Colombia les fue aplicada una encuesta semi-estructurada para conocer algunas de sus características y logros en este sector. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en la investigación, encontramos que actualmente el Mobile Marketing en Colombia presenta barreras relacionadas con la composición del mercado de telecomunicaciones, donde un operador dominante impone tarifas y reglas de comercialización desiguales.

  4. Marketing Situational Analysis of a chosen Company

    OpenAIRE

    Doležal, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the proposal to improve the current situation on the basis of marketing situational analysis of the company which is engaged in the providing services. The company DOPRAVA ZÁRUBA M&K Ltd. provides tire services, vehicle servicing, petrol station, testing centers and emission. The main activity of the company is international road transport. The theoretical part deals with concepts such as the definition of marketing and the marketing environment, marketing mix and SWOT...

  5. Situational Marketing: Application for Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Raymond E.; Reed, Rosetta R.

    1995-01-01

    Marketing higher education has been criticized for its consumer (interpreted as student) orientation. An alternative concept, situational marketing, considers the student as one of a number of environmental forces on which the marketing mix focuses. Other forces include funding and regulatory agencies, businesses, alumni, faculty, parents, the…

  6. 我国农村中药市场现状及对策%Current Situation and Countermeasures of China’s Rural Drug Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曦; 莫颖宁; 顾正位

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解我国农村中药市场存在的突出问题并提出解决对策。方法:采用文献研究、内容分析的方法,结合相关法律法规,对2015年有关农村中药市场研究的文献进行归纳与分析。结果:目前农村药品市场规模小,分布广,用药安全存在隐患;药品价格不稳;农村医药整体消费低,法律意识淡薄,普遍存在用药不合理;药品从业人员素质偏低,定点医疗落后或不完善。结论:在建设社会主义新农村进行的同时,不仅要让农村的表面变化,还要推进农村医疗机构药品管理法制化道路,包括加强药品价格管理,营造良好的农村用药环境,加强药品相关知识宣传培训力度,不断提升药品监管水平和质量,建立多形式医疗保障制度,提高农民的健康水平,使我国农村中药市场井然有序发展。%Objective:To investigate outstanding problems of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)market of our country and put forward solutions.Methods:We summarized and analyzed literature on country drug market of this year,with literature research and contents analysis combined with related laws and legislations.Results:We found that current TCM market was characterized by small scale,wide spread,drug use safety hazard,unstable price,lower general consumption level of country drugs,faint legal consciousness,widespread irrational use of drugs,lower quality of medicine practitioners, poor appointed medical situations.Conclusion:With the Construction of Socialistic New Country,we should not only alter the countryside superficially,but also promote rural medical institutions and drug management legalization path,including strengthening drug price management,improving drug attack mode.To strengthen publicity and study of drug use knowledge, we should increase comprehensive quality of medicine practitioners,establish multi-form medical insurance system and improve farmers

  7. [Current situation for nursing specialities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Máximo González

    2008-01-01

    Almost three years ago, on May 6, 2005, the Spanish government published in its official register, the Boletin Oficial de Estado, a decree on Nursing Specialities. This law is one which answers one of the historical Spanish nursing profession complaints. Its development will radically change the structure of the Spanish health system. An event which bears such consequences requires certain steps and a serene undertaking for those steps which will become the fundamental bases for each of them. Nonetheless, for professionals who greeted the passage of this decree with pleasure and illusion, this whole process has been one long wait. Now is the time to analyze the different specialities and to know the developmental situation of each one. The overall balance is seen in a very positive light.

  8. 商洛市农家乐网络营销模式现状及对策%Farmhouse Holiday in Shangluo City Current Situation and Countermeasures of Network Marketing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田祎

    2013-01-01

    @@@@Internet marketing gradually becoming an important marketing mode of modern farmhouse tourism, For an analysis of two main Sectors between Current network-marketing situation of farmhouse in shangluo city and Restricting shangluo farmhouse holiday network-marketing, also given a concrete solutions in the way in order to make better development prospects in the futures .%网络营销逐渐成为现代农家乐旅游的重要营销模式,针对商洛市农家乐目前的营销状况以及制约商洛农家乐网络营销的主要因素两个方面进行了分析,并提出了具体的解决方案,以期使商洛农家乐具有更好的发展前景.

  9. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  10. Current situation and development of solar heating technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ruicheng

    2009-01-01

    It is introduced the current situation and development for solar heating technology including passive solar heat-ing and solar heating combisystems in China in this paper. Combined with the engineering application projects, the au-thor gave the technical and economic analysis of the passive solar and solar heating combisystems in China and summa-rized the developing obstacle and the spreading tactics for raising marketing of the solar heating in China.

  11. Therapy of Human African Trypanosomiasis: Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Atouguia

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the current situation of the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. The existing approved drugs are old, toxic and/or expensive. Therapeutic failures are common. Several factors may contribute to the problems of chemotherapy, including differences in the epidemiology of the disease, difficulties in the diagnosis and staging of the infection, availability, distribution and pharmacologic properties of drugs, standardization of treatment regimens, response to therapy, follow-up period, and relapses and clinical trials. The new therapeutic approaches include the development and approval of new drugs, the use of new therapeutic regimens, the study of drug combinations, and the development of new formulations.

  12. Space Situational Awareness using Market Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C.; Pier, E.; Gregory, S.; Bush, M.

    2012-09-01

    Space surveillance for the DoD is not limited to the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Other DoD-owned assets have some existing capabilities for tasking but have no systematic way to work collaboratively with the SSN. These are run by diverse organizations including the Services, other defense and intelligence agencies and national laboratories. Beyond these organizations, academic and commercial entities have systems that possess SSA capability. Most all of these assets have some level of connectivity, security, and potential autonomy. Exploiting them in a mutually beneficial structure could provide a more comprehensive, efficient and cost effective solution for SSA. The collection of all potential assets, providers and consumers of SSA data comprises a market which is functionally illiquid. The development of a dynamic marketplace for SSA data could enable would-be providers the opportunity to sell data to SSA consumers for monetary or incentive based compensation. A well-conceived market architecture could drive down SSA data costs through increased supply and improve efficiency through increased competition. Oceanit will investigate market and market agent architectures, protocols, standards, and incentives toward producing high-volume/low-cost SSA.

  13. Current Situations and Development Ideas of Buckwheat Tea Industry in Liangshan Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fayong; GONG; Shiming; XIAO; Jing; LI

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces current situations of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture,current situations of intellectual property right of buckwheat tea in whole China,and total flavonoid content in buckwheat tea. On the basis of these current situations,it analyzes drawbacks of buckwheat tea sold in the market. Finally,it presents development ideas of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture.

  14. Current Economic Situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Mirascic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the current economic situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Beginning in the second half of 2008, macroeconomic conditions in B&H began precipitating a decline in economic activity. While the global financial crisis was among the factors contributing to this decline, it was far from the only factor. Problematic macroeconomic conditions were also a result of B&H’s own structural and political problems, caused largely by the shortcomings of a political entity comprising two autonomous entities. Due to such problems, the governments of B&H turned to the International Monetary Fund for assistance. This article analyzes the effects of the first two “stand by” arrangements made between the IMF and B&H and discusses implications for further, ongoing stand by arrangements made between the IMF and B&H. This paper also examines the lack of unified economic space between The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and The Republic of Srpska, which has resulted not only in ineffective monetary policy but also in different fiscal and taxation systems between the two entities. While various existing analyses claim that B&H has little hope of resolving its economic woes due to its current political and economic structure, this article offers solutions and measures that, if successfully implemented, would lead to more efficient recovery and self-sustainable economic growth.

  15. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  16. 乌克兰汽车市场现状及我国汽车进入当地对策%Current Situation of Ukraine Auto Market and Countermeasures for Chinese Auto's Access to Ukraine Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈庆

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:As Eastern Europe has become a key export market for China's complete vehicles, getting to know this market and its policy becomes an urgent need for Chinese auto enterprises. Through introducing the auto industry, market and relevant policies of Ukraine as well as analyzing Chinese automobiles sold in Ukrainian market, the paper puts forward several suggestions, including strengthening the establishment of after-sales service system and speeding up the localization production of complete vehicles, which are of great significance in helping Chinese auto enterprises expand the Ukrainian market.%东欧市场已经成为我国重要的整车出口市场,我国汽车企业急需了解东欧汽车市场及政策信息、文章通过介绍乌克兰汽车产业、市场和相关政策情况,深入分析我国汽车产品在乌克兰市场情况,提出了企业应加强售后服务体系建设和加快整车本地化生产等建议,对帮助我国汽车企业开拓乌克兰市场具有非常重要的指导意义.

  17. Current situation of lipoprotein apheresis in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, U; Taseva, K; Fischer, S; Passauer, J; Bornstein, S R

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the situation pertinent to treatment via lipoprotein apheresis in the federal state of Saxony, Germany in 2010. In total, 119 predominately male patients were treated in 10 centers; the majority of the patients was older than the mean age of the general population. Several risk factors were present, particularly a familial predisposition and hypertension. All patients had experienced cardiovascular events and the majority was taking statins. Patient data from the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus in Dresden concurred with data derived from patients treated at nephrological practices. In the mean, patients attended the centers for about 6 years, the majority weekly. LDL cholesterol concentrations prior to apheresis were clearly higher than target levels; apheresis sessions decreased LDL cholesterol by 69%. Lipoprotein(a) levels could be measured in 75 patients and were effectively reduced by lipoprotein apheresis. In Saxony, 29 patients per 1 million inhabitants received lipoprotein apheresis, which is higher than the proportion of patients treated in Germany as a whole. The need for this extracorporeal treatment seems to be much greater than its current utilization. Among the patients only one homozygous patient with familial hypercholesterolemia was observed. Physicians should be actively informed about this therapeutic possibility to reduce the cardiovascular risk efficiently. The introduction of new drugs may alter the position of lipoprotein apheresis within the therapeutic spectrum.

  18. Current Situation, Causes and Countermeasures of Capital Market Financing in Xinjiang Small and Medium-sized Enterprises%新疆中小企业资本市场融资现状、成因及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旻; 南晓芳

    2014-01-01

    资本市场是国家融资体系的重要组成部分,是企业融资的重要来源和渠道。但新疆中小企业资本市场融资现状堪忧,资本市场发展缓慢、企业自身落后等因素严重阻滞了中小企业直接融资能力和规模。因此,建议加快多层次资本市场建设、完善资本市场制度建设、加强监管,促进新疆中小企业资本市场融资能力的提升。%The capital market is an important part of national financing system, which is also an important financing source or channel of enterprises. While the situation of capital market financing of small and medium-sized enterprises in Xinjiang is not very good. The slow development of capital market, the backward of enterprise itself and other factors seriously hinder the direct financing ability and scale of small and medium-sized enterprises. Thus, this paper proposed to speed up construction of the multi-level capital market, to improve the capital market system construction, to strengthen supervision, to promote the financing capacity of small and medium-sized enterprises in Xinjiang capital market.

  19. Possible Futures for the HR Function in Different Market Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.T. Williams (Roger); J. Paauwe (Jaap); A. Keegan (Anne)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA hypothetical model is made of the possible future prospects for the human resource management (HRM) function - as an internal, specialised function - within organisations. This model is based on two premises. Firstly that the market situation will influence how many and what type of em

  20. Possible Futures for the HR Function in Different Market Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.T. Williams (Roger); J. Paauwe (Jaap); A. Keegan (Anne)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA hypothetical model is made of the possible future prospects for the human resource management (HRM) function - as an internal, specialised function - within organisations. This model is based on two premises. Firstly that the market situation will influence how many and what type of em

  1. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. Methods: The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016. Results: Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012. Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32, three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M and Doctorate (PhD. The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2 jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Conclusion: Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity

  2. Vietnam anthracite - current situation and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan van Kien [Vietnam National Coal Corporation (Vietnam)

    2004-07-01

    A resume is given of Vietnam's resources of anthracite, sub-bituminous coal, peat, coking coal and brown coal. Details are given of anthracite produced by the Vietnam National Coal Corporation (VINACOAL). Sales, coal quality and markets are discussed. Markets include the steel, non-ferrous metal and cement industries, power generation, water treatment and electrode and calcium carbide manufacture. VINACOAL is aiming to increase anthracite production especially for PCI, and is investing in coal mining and coal preparation plants and expansion of Cam Pha port. A series of eight slides/overheads accompanies the presentation (file Doan van Kien.pdf).

  3. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  4. Bulgaria in the Current Geopolitical Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    have clashed with those of the Ottoman Empire , Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, and later - in Germany and the United States. Russia sees its...twentieth century, the United States patiently built their empire . American hegemony in the world was maintained 9 more by economic rather than...of the new status of Kosovo.P57F58 The situation in Macedonia is closely related to processes in Kosovo. The international community imposes the

  5. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG) of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016). Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012). Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32), three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M) and Doctorate (PhD). The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2) jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity reaching a high level and matched to areas of greatest

  6. Current situation of wind energy in the world and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper Kaplan, Yusuf; San, Ismail [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anadolu University (Turkey)], email: yakaplan@anadolu.edu.tr, email: isan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current situation of wind power in Turkey and in the world by evaluating installed wind power using current data. It also looks at the political conditions of Turkey in relation to the current installed wind energy power in Turkey compared with that of certain developed countries. The problems encountered are also illustrated as a basis for proposing solutions. Turkey's wind energy potential is 48,000 MW but installed wind power was only 1,329 MW as of 2011. Wind energy is at present one of the most cost-competitive renewable energy technologies in the world when technical, geographical and social issues are taken into consideration. Economic sources should be researched. The development of current potential and the market entry of renewable energy resources requires a legal and regulatory framework that support suitable mechanisms. Local support is recommended together with tax exemptions. Long-term fixed-price guarantees should also be considered by government.

  7. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Development of Kiwifruit Industry in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; WAN Ming-chang; YANG Sheng-jun; ZHANG Xue; QIAO Rong

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of current development situations of planting, scientific research and processing of kiwifruit industry in Guizhou Province, the paper analyzes main factors restricting development of kiwifruit industry, including lack of unified planning, standardized planting specifications, and backward management of kiwifruit orchard. In accordance with current development situations and restricting factors, the paper presents some countermeasures for development of kiwifruit industry in Guizhou Province, including scientific planning, optimizing variety structure, management of cultivation technology, training of kiwifruit farmers, as well as marketing.

  8. Assessing the viability of situationally driven segmentation opportunities in the health care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1993-01-01

    The impact of situational factors has typically been investigated in the context of goods marketing. Very few studies have investigated the influence of situational factors on services marketing. This study demonstrates the importance of situational influence on services marketing by delineating a consumer-based, situationally characterized competitive market structure for health care services. The competitive structure of the health care market is delineated in terms of the similarity/substitutability of the three-factor, situational characterizations of ten health care alternatives. The general marketing implications of the market-structure delineation procedure and the health care-specific implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Current Situation of English Translation Courses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕾

    2016-01-01

    After 1978, according to the foreign language teaching program and outline requirements which were established by the Ministry of Education, most colleges and universities identified translation as important foreign language professional courses for English majors. But currently, there are still many errors in positioning the teaching English translation at most colleges and universities, and their teaching and research are also at the margins.

  10. An exploration of the applicability of situational segmentation in the health care market: development of a situational taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrt, K C; Pinto, M B

    1990-01-01

    Competition in the health care market has intensified in recent years. Health care providers are increasingly adopting innovative marketing techniques to secure their positions in the marketplace. This paper examines an innovative marketing technique, situational segmentation, and assesses its applicability to the health care market. Situational segmentation has proven useful in many consumer goods markets but has received little attention in the context of health care marketing. A two-stage research process is used to develop a taxonomy of situational factors pertinent to health care choice. In stage one, focus group interviews are used to gather information which is instrumental to questionnaire development. In stage two, the responses of 151 subjects to a 51 item questionnaire are factor analyzed. The results demonstrate that situational segmentation is a viable strategy in the health care market.

  11. [Drug treatment of obesity--current situation and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, Vojtech

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy of obesity should be an integral part of the comprehensive obesity management program which includes diet, exercise and cognitive behavioural intervention. Currently available antiobesity drugs result in only modest weight loss, however it is still accompanied by reduction of cardiometabolic health risks. In the past several antiobesity drugs were removed from the market because of serious adverse effects (psychostimulatory, cardiovascular, pulmonary hypertension, valvular disease, depression, addiction etc.). Such situations led some investigators and clinicians to nihilistic approaches to the drug treatment of obesity. This paper aims to review the data on clinical efficiency and safety of currently available antiobesity drugs and to summarize our knowledge on the recently discovered antiobesity agents which underwent clinical trials (such as lorcaserin, tesofensine, cetilistat, combination drugs, gut hormone analogues etc.). Approaches with two drug combination of decreased doses were recommended to increase both safety and efficacy of antiobesity treatment. However, previous experiences that antiobesity drug combinations (e.g. fenfluramine/phentermine) may also potentiate adverse events should be carefully considered in the evaluation of recently tested compounds. Administration of physiological doses of gut hormones - derived appetite regulating agents seems to be a promising, efficient, specific and thus, low side-effect approach in the treatment of obesity. To confirm the strong role of antiobesity drugs in the treatment of obesity and its complications further long-term studies evaluating their effect on morbidity and mortality end points in appropriate target populations are needed.

  12. [Current situation of health surveys in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, María Luisa; Suárez, Mónica; Pérez, Óscar

    2013-01-01

    To describe the evolution of health interview surveys in Spain (as of 01/01/2012), whether national or regional, its main characteristics and methodology, and in the case of general health surveys (GHIS), its contents. An adapted version of Eurostat quality control template European Health Interview Survey Technical and Methodological Report was filled in by those responsible for GHIS in each region (autonomous communities) and at the national level. The first part (11 questions) gathers general information about health surveys, both GHIS and surveys targeted to specific populations or health problems (SHIS). The second part (109 questions) asks about methodological characteristics of most recent GHIS. 1) regional or supra-regional scope; 2) for the second part, GHIS currently active series. Quality control was performed using double data entry and validated by informants.100 HIS were identified. 16 were GHIS and 84 SHIS. 32 (38%) of the latter were national and 52 (62%) regional. Nutrition 21 (25%), drug use 10 (12%), opinion polls 7 (9%) and dental health 7 (9%) were the most frequent topics in SHIS. Highest GHIS density was reached after year 2000, with several surveys on field at a time (mode=3). 11 GHIS (2 national, 9 regional) met inclusion criteria for the second part. All complied with general quality benchmarks. Few differences were observed in content.GHIS show more similarities than differences in objectives, methods and content. Rationalization and harmonization are needed. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, quality of life and mental health instruments are not yet consensual. Valid and comparable data are required on health status and its determinants to inform health policy.

  13. Market Situation for Wheat during the Period 2005 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Bălan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the 2005-2013 timeframe, the wheat world market has witnessed an upward trend of quotations at the main stock exchanges in the United States and Europe, while all other agricultural raw materials have seen fluctuations in prices, caused by the global economic crisis. An important influence on the evolution of quotations had the fundamental factors (production, consumption, trade specific to that product. This paper examines the influences which led to the wheat quotes trends at The Chicago Board of Trade, The London International Financial Futures Exchange and MATIF Futures Exchange (Paris, identifying characteristics of the international market in the period 2005-2012 as a whole, but also a thorough approach of the situation in the year 2013. Also, the second section analyzes the fundamentals of the world wheat market, the main producing, consuming, importing and exporting countries in the agricultural seasons. In addition, a distinct point is represented by the analysis of the wheat market in Romania, both from the prices point of view, and fundamental factors.

  14. Current Situation and Countermeasures for Green Electricity in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Rui; Gao Yang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The present situation of the green electricity in Shanghai is briefly introduced. The author analyzes various advantages in natural environment, market environment and social environment as well as various disadvantages in the respects of cost, price, economy for Shanghai to develop green electricity. It is pointed out that governments, non-government organizations, consumers and enterprises shall jointly make efforts to promote the green electricity in Shanghai. Finally,concrete countermeasures and suggestions are put forward.

  15. The Current Situation and Exploration of Market Prospect of Water Soluble Fertilizers in China%我国水溶性肥料的现状与市场前景探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊思健; 陈绍荣; 刘园园

    2013-01-01

    The development history of water soluble fertilizers in China is outlined .By analyzing the current situation of production of water soluble fertilizers , suggests are made that their development trend should be high efficiency and multi-effect with the emphases of promoting development of chelate technology and additive technology and expanding functions of water soluble fertilizers .%概述了我国水溶性肥料的发展历史。在分析我国水溶肥生产现状的基础上,提出了高效化、多效化的发展方向,并加强螯合技术、助剂技术以及扩大水溶性肥料功能范围方面的研究。

  16. Russian electricity market. Current state and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdurafikov, R.

    2009-06-15

    The Russian electricity market is currently in transition. The restructuring of the sector has been completed and former public vertically integrated monopolies have been unbundled and partly privatised. The government retained control in all the network companies, the system operator, nuclear generation, and hydro generation. The state retains control also via owner-ship in several TGCs and WGCs in the strategic regions of Moscow and Saint-Petersburg via the state owned gas monopoly Gazprom. The liberalization takes place within two price zones, Europe and Siberia, where more than 90%, 913 TWh in 2007, of Russian electricity consumption takes place. In the rest of Russia, e.g. the Far East and isolated areas like Kaliningrad, electricity is supplied at regulated rates. Only a minor part of electricity in the price zones is currently traded at free prices. The share of electricity traded at free market prices will increase according to the liberalization schedule, reaching ca 90%, all except households, by 2011. Wholesale electricity market bids are aggregated in a detailed power system model of the Russian power grid, taking into account the physical locations of the facilities. The resulting 7700+ nodal market prices, scattered across the 7 time zones of the Russian market area, capture costs of congestion and load losses in the grid. The price level of electricity seems to be rather low at a glance - about 21 euro and 15 euro per MWh in Europe and Siberia respectively. On the other hand, wholesale market buyers have to pay for capacity availability, on average around 3000 euro/MW monthly. With greater share of electricity traded at free prices there will be an increased need to hedge price risks. For this reason a financial market is planned. There are also plans for support schemes for renewable generation and to limit environmental pollution as well as ancillary services markets. Some areas do not experience a likewise opening of the competition in Russia, for

  17. Current Situations and Developing Tendency of China Post's Logistic Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ru-wei; LI Xue-ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the construction of China Post's physical network and information network and offers some general ideas about how to develop modern postal logistics. It dwells on the sortation technology, the Chinese Character Recognition Technology and the current situations and tendencies of the Research and Development (R&D) of the Logistic Information Management System.

  18. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  19. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  20. The Current Situation of Informatics Education in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambuu UYANGA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mongolia started using Information and Communication Technology (ICT in secondary education relatively late. The computer training and informatics has been included as a subject in the secondary school curriculum in Mongolia since 1988 and in the university curriculum since 1982. This paper presents current situation of informatics education in Mongolia. SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat analysis of Informatics Education in Mongolia, conclusions and future recommendations are also presented.

  1. THE ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT SITUATION AND PROBLEMS OF THE CITY MARKETING IN NANYANG CITY%南阳市城市营销的现状及问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢红央

    2012-01-01

    With the development of city marketing theory, the city marketing, as a kind of new management concept, becomes an ef- fective method of promoting the city economic development and improving the city competition ability. This paper analyzes the main problems of Nanyang city , such as scarce realization of city marketing, vague city positioning and lacking of total planning and so on by taking the Nanyang city as the research objective and considering the resources condition and development condition of the Nanyang cit- y, and makes the conclusion that it is necessary to implement city marketing for Nanyang city.%随着城市营销理论的发展,城市营销已成为提升城市竞争力的有效手段和重要战略选择。本人以南阳市为研究对象,结合南阳市资源概况、城市发展情况分析了南阳市存在的城市营销观念不强、城市定位模糊、缺乏整体规划等问题,提出了南阳市实施城市营销的策略。

  2. TRENDS AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES ON THE GAS MARKET UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei E. Shmagin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of natural gas as an energy source increasingly grows. The rate of demand growth and the gas market development depend on a variety of key conditions discussed in the paper. The current market situation and trends are analyzed in the context of the global balance of energy.

  3. TRENDS AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES ON THE GAS MARKET UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei E. Shmagin

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of natural gas as an energy source increasingly grows. The rate of demand growth and the gas market development depend on a variety of key conditions discussed in the paper. The current market situation and trends are analyzed in the context of the global balance of energy.

  4. 广东省餐饮网络营销的现状、问题与战略选择%Current Situation, Problems and Strategic Choices of Network Marketing of the Catering Industry in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏鹂

    2012-01-01

    随着互联网逐渐成为日常生活不可或缺的一部分,网络营销成为餐饮营销的重要手段。广东省餐饮收入居全国首位,但利润却排在全国十强末位,国内外“航空母舰”级餐饮管理集团倚仗其庞大的网络销售系统,严重威胁广东餐饮业做大做强。使其面对严峻的竞争环境。本文在分析研究广东省餐饮网络营销现状的基础上,探讨我省餐饮网络营销中存在的障碍及问题,并为我省餐饮网络营销发展提出相应的对策建议如提高消费者黏性,丰富餐饮营销理念和策略,加强网民互动,培养餐饮网络营销人才等等,以期推动我省餐饮网络营销,提升我省餐饮业竞争力。%As the Intemet becomes an essential part of everyday life, network marketing is becoming an important marketing measure for catering business. Since large-scale domestic and foreign catering groups with their skillful network marketing have taken up a large proportion of market share, the catering industry in Guangdong province is more competitive than before. Based on the analysis of the status quo of the network marketing of the catering industry in Guangdong, the paper explores how to further promote the competitiveness of local caterin~ businesses.

  5. 河南省二级及二级以上医院医疗市场份额现状分析%Analysis on Current Situation of Market Share of Secondary and Tertiary Hospitals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏万宏; 魏东晓; 周志楠

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To Study medical services workload index in the secondary and tertiary hospitals in Henan Province and to analyze their market shares.Methods:Data was descriptively analyzed with available material analysis with HHI index.Results:In 2013, the increased extent of four indicators were as follows:8.82%, 9.43%, 14.96%, and 7.67%.HHI index was significantly less than 500.Conclusion: The province's health care utilization has increased steadily;different levels, types and areas of hospitals present differences;regional market is stable and competitive; the whole provincial market stays in a low concentration competition stage.%目的:了解河南省二级及二级以上医院医疗服务量的变化及分布,分析其医疗市场份额情况。方法:对现成资料的分布进行描述性分析,运用HHI指数进行市场集中度分析。结果:2013年,总诊疗、门诊、住院、手术同比增幅分别为8.82%、9.43%、14.96%和7.67%,HHI值显著小于500。结论:全省卫生服务利用稳步增加;不同级别、类别、区域的医院之间呈现差异;地域性医疗市场具有一定的稳定性和竞争性;省域内医疗市场整体处于低集中度竞争阶段。

  6. 从旅游者风险知觉看中小城市营销%Assessing current marketing situation of small-medium cities from the perspective of tourism risk perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖翔慧

    2012-01-01

      随着新时期社会资源要素的新一轮合理流动,中小城市如何吸引外界资源要素,发展壮大自身并带动一方社会发展,成为一个新的话题。本文尝试从旅游者风险知觉的角度谈中小城市营销,要利用好差异化战略,品牌营销战略,优化旅游资源,提升旅游资源的开放度和支持性,塑造现代文明的旅游地形象%  In the new period,the new round reasonable flow of social resource has appeared. It has become a new topic that small and medium city how to attract external resources, to develop and expand itself and then led a party of social development. This paper discusses the small and medium city marketing ,from the perspective of tourism risk perception. It should make good use of difference strategy, brand marketing strategy, and optimize tourism resources, promote tourism resources opening and supporting, shape modern civilization tourism destination image.

  7. Analysis of the Reinsurance Market Situation under Conditions of Volatility of the World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhenko Andriy S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts analysis of the modern state and prospects of further development of the reinsurance market through identification of prerequisites of establishment and systematisation of main stages of formation of this market situation. It studies main parameters of formation of the studies economic category: volume of the global market of reinsurance, factors of interaction of demand and supply; interconnection of participants of this market under conditions of volatility of the world economy. Results of the study, stated in this article, give a possibility to affirm that analysis and process of formation of the reinsurance market situation is a complex and multi-sided topic for conducting further studies. Using the obtained data, one can forecast future behaviour of the market participants when unfavourable situations occur and find the most optimal ways of their solution.

  8. Current Development Situation and Prospects of Blueberry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixia; GAO; Hualan; XIAO; Sen; LI; Fengmin; LIU; Aiqiong; MO

    2015-01-01

    With high nutrition and health value,blueberry receives much concern in recent years. Blueberry experts in the world are cultivating new blueberry varieties. They have come up with constructive theoretical support and planting technology researches and are constantly devoted to expanding blueberry planting latitudes. This paper elaborated researches of blueberry at home and abroad,current development situation of blueberry in China and Guangdong Province,analyzed strengths of planting blueberry in Guangdong. Besides,it came up with recommendations for development of blueberry industry. Finally,it discussed development prospects of blueberry planting in Guangdong.

  9. Chinese Cuisine Culture and Current Situation of its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi-dan

    2013-01-01

    Chinese cuisine is the main reflection of our country’s cuisine culture. It contains profound historical and cultural background. Besides, it permeates folk-custom taste and local manners. Since the name of a cuisine is the first impression given to a dining person, undoubtedly, its translation is very important in cultural dissemination and communication. But actually, there are many problems exist in Chinese cuisine translation at present. This paper is based on a massive collection of Chinese cuisine ’s translation, classification, analysis. Besides, it has found out cultural connotation, current situation and the causes from the cultural angle;discussed the basic requirements of translating Chinese cuisine.

  10. The Current Situation of Agriculture Wholesale Market in China and the Related Hot Issues%中国农产品批发市场发展现状及热点问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马増俊

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of agriculture wholesale market in China during the past 30 years,which plays an important role in promoting the institutional reform in agricultural product circulation industry,the process of circulation modernization of China’s agricultural product has been accelerated. At present,in developing agriculture wholesale industry,it is urgent for us to solve the problem of public welfare,the new round of cutthroat competition and being grouped,e-commerce, and cold chain logistics;we should also accelerate the development of the third generation wholesale market,realize the harmonious development,take quality as the core competitiveness,create brand,realize management systemization,do a better job in waste disposal,develop the circular economy,develop the partnership relation with wholesalers,and establish the international trade platform of the wholesale market.%农产品批发市场三十多年来发展迅猛,不仅加快了我国农产品流通现代化进程,而且对农产品流通体制改革起了重要作用。当前,迫切需要解决好农产品批发市场的公益性问题、新一轮恶性竞争和集团化问题、电子商务问题、农产品冷链物流问题,加快发展第三代批发市场,使之与城市和谐发展,以保证农产品质量为核心竞争力,创立品牌,管理系统化,做好废弃物处理,发展循环经济,与批发商建立合作伙伴关系,打造批发市场的国际贸易平台功能。

  11. Situation Analysis of Organic Food Production with Qualitative Market Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Szente

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During past decade the general attitude of the population toward health, nutrition, quality and environment remarkably changed. Consequently ecological farming showed an upswing especially in developed countries. Due to growing demand, government subsidies and other economic advantages the cropping area increased and it will keep its pace in the near future. In Hungary the actors of economy have not fitted themselves to changed conditions. Main problem is the presence of quite a narrow domestic market resulting from a purchasing boom by western trading companies. In our survey the input, production and marketing aspects of organic farming were studied through interviewing farmers being involved into organic farming. results highlight the specific features of production in Hungary, its management relations, production structure and environment protectional considerations. As an overall goal it was set forth to identify the main limiting factors of domestic market growth, define the most marketable products and related companyforms. Producers´ opinion helped us with conducting the above process. Results of interviews were supported by our former experiences.

  12. Current Market Trends Maritime Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dan Puscaciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transport services is a fundamental component of international logistics, given that approximately 80% of world trade is carried by sea. Also, considering the spatial distribution of resources according to the processing sites and disposal of finished goods and the fact that nearly two thirds of the globe is covered by water, has led a Norwegian ship-owner, Erling Næss, to claim that "Divinity has been very generous with ship owners."In the 3rd millennium, when this study was done, there were a number of trends representing some sequels of a prior period and also a series of phenomenon of the current period. We aim to address key market segments of shipping. In order to carry out the graphs and determine the indicators we used Matlab software.

  13. Waste management in Greenland: current situation and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Waste management in Greenland (56 000 inhabitants) is characterized by landfilling, incineration and export to Denmark of small quantities of metals and hazardous waste. The annual amount of waste is estimated to about 50 000 tons but actual data are scarce. Data on the waste composition is basic...... are small and equipped with only moderate flue gas cleaning technology. This report summarizes the current waste management situation in Greenland and identifies important challenges in improving the waste management.......Waste management in Greenland (56 000 inhabitants) is characterized by landfilling, incineration and export to Denmark of small quantities of metals and hazardous waste. The annual amount of waste is estimated to about 50 000 tons but actual data are scarce. Data on the waste composition...... is basically lacking. The scattered small towns and settlements, the climate and the long transport distances between towns and also to recycling industries abroad constitute a complex situation with respect to waste management. The landfills have no collection of gas and leachate and the incinerators...

  14. Legal assessment of current situation on orphan patients in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokiene, Indre

    2008-01-01

    After Lithuania joined the European Union, the Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000 on orphan medicinal products and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 847/2000 came into force as part of national legislation. Member States must adopt specific measures to increase knowledge on rare diseases and to improve their detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The aim of this article was to present and to assess the current legal situation on orphan patients and their treatment in Lithuania, to identify legislation gaps, and to propose some ideas how to facilitate the solution of the existing problems in this field. For this purpose, European Union and Lithuanian legal documents on rare medicinal products are examined using a comparative method. With reference to inventory of Member States' incentives for rare diseases in national level, the most important issues, which orphan patients face to in Lithuania, are singled out. In Lithuania, the situation of orphan patients in terms of protection of patient rights is insufficiently determined. The access to effective health care services or approved therapies in some cases is restricted. Working relationships between genetic services and various clinical specialists as well as with those in primary care are not legally determined; the number of clinical trials aimed at orphan medicinal products is low. These results suggest a need for awareness raising among Lithuanian Government, health care specialists, patient organizations about the importance to improve practical implementation of European Union legislation and progressive experience of some European countries in this field.

  15. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  16. Current situation and countermeasures of port logistics park information construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Improve work efficiency of logistics park department, and drive the economy of the park and its surrounding areas. Design/methodology/approach: Analyze the information development situation and existent questions of current national logistics park, and design proper scheme to meet the demand of port logistics park. Findings: Proposed an information construction implementation plan using technology of the Internet of things which can be applied to port logistics park. Designed a scheme for the park information construction and explained the system's implementation strategy and implementation steps. Practical implications: The proposed construction program is particularly suitable for the northwest port logistics parks in China, and also has reference function to other logistics park construction. Originality/value: Group the information construction of the logistics park into four levels, three types of users, and two requirements. The scheme is innovative and comprehensive, which can ensure the development of port logistics park.

  17. 龙狮运动市场化运营现状调查研究%Investigation and Study of Current Marketization Operation Situation of Chinese Dragon and Lion Dance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟伟; 李晓呜; 林劲杨

    2012-01-01

    With the methodd of literature, expert interview, survey, mathematical statistics, induction and deduction and other research methods, the paper studies the current conditions and the influencing factor of Chinese dragon and lion dance, the long-term planning and countermeasures of Chinese dragon and lion dance Association's development trend. On the current conditions of Chinese dragon and lion dance, attention of the government, public participation, social support, frequent events and activities organized, all these gradually increase have taken shape, they became drive national dragon lion movement development leader and lever, and play a positive role for the promotion and development of Chinese dragon and lion dance.%文章运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、调查法、数理统计、归纳演绎法等研究方法,对龙狮运动发展的现状和影响因素,以及龙狮运动协会的发展趋势进行长远规划与对策研究;,就龙狮运动目前发展而言,政府的重视、群众的参与、社会的支持、赛事活动的频繁举办并逐渐增加的局面已经形成,成为带动全国龙狮运动发展的龙头和杠杆,为龙狮运动的推广和发展发挥了积极的作用。

  18. Socially Situated Financial Markets: A Neo-Behavioral Perspective on Firms, Investors and Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Naumovska (Ivana)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this dissertation I seek to redirect the conversation on stock market evaluations from the more traditional economic and behavioral finance theories, by proposing a neo-behavioral perspective, which views financial markets as socially situated. Specifically I combine

  19. Challenges of Location-Based Services market analysis: current market description

    OpenAIRE

    Basiri, Anahid; Moore, Terry; Hill, Chris; Bhatia, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Location-Based Services (LBS) have a huge and rapidly growing market, however LBS market reports do not fully agree about the current market size, the exact number of LBS users, market growth rate, etc. Different market study reports describe LBS market size, number of LBS subscribers and frequent users, revenues and costs and most appreciated application types with different and sometimes extremely contrasting numbers and figures and this becomes more problematic when it comes to forecasting...

  20. Current Situation and Suggestions of Decorative Fishery Development in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi; ZHANG; Ning; YANG; Hai; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Decorative fishery is an important part of recreational fisheries,Hainan has the potential to develop decorative fishery.In this paper,on the basis of the deep-going survey on the current situation of decorative fishery development in Hainan,the main questions of decorative fish cultivation and market were discussed.At the same time,many suggestions were brought up,such as exploiting the biological resources of Hainan Island,strengthening scientific research efforts,introducing new varieties of ornamental species,strengthening industrial guidance and market management,etc.,which will benefit the rational utilization of tropical biological resources and increase the whole competitive advantage of decorative fishery in Hainan Province.

  1. China Rubber Chemicals Production and Market Situation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Because the stimulus driven impact of the rapid growth of tire and other rubber products' output,in recent years,the production and marketing of domestic rubber chemicals appear to increase,and the specific production and marketing conditions are as follows: 1.Rapid Growth of Chemicals Output From 2009 to 2010,in China an upsurge of expanding or building new rubber chemicals equipment was raised.These equipment were planned to be put into production in 2010 with newly increased production capacity of about 120,000 tons,among which there were 40,000 tons antioxidant 4020,50,000tons accelerator M,and about 40,000 tons other Chemicals.In 2010,the total output was 701,000 tons,with year-on-year growth of 17.8% or so.In 2010,the total sales volume of domestic rubber chemicals were 13 billion yuan,and the export volume was about 180,000 tons,basically the same with that in 2009.See the statistics of domestic rubber chemicals output from 2009 to 2010 in Table 1.

  2. The Current Situation on Malaria in Astrakhan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Arakelian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. To describe the current situation on malaria in Astrakhan region for 2000–2014. Materials and methods. The first data on malarious situation in the Astrakhan region belongs to 1894, when in the Astrakhan province there were registered 54 952 cases of malaria. The results of the study. In Astrakhan region for the period from 2000 to 2014 there were registered 90 cases of human malaria, including imported cases from the CIS — 70 (78 %, secondary from imported — 11 (12 % and relapse — 9 (10 %. Geographically, the foci of malaria were distributed as follows: Astrakhan — 58 foci (65 %, including Leninskyi district — 27 cases (46 % of all urban cases, the Kirov and the Soviet districts — 15 foci (26 % and Truso district — 1 case (2 % and passing through Astrakhan — 2 foci (2 %; Astrakhan region — 30 sites (33 %, including Krasnoyarsk district — 9 sites (30 %, Narimanov district — 8 CL. (27 % of all rural cases, Akhtubinsky district — 5 cases (17 %, Kharabalinskyi district — 4 sites (13 %, Chernoyarskyi district — 2 sites (7 %, Kamyziakskyi and Limansky districts 1 site (3 %. Conclusions. On the territory of Astrakhan region throughout the transmission season of effective contamination of mosquitoes (May — September over the last 10 years there have been imported cases of malaria. The maximum number of reported imported malaria cases was observed in 2001 — 35 cases. In Astrakhan region the most frequently recorded is the three-day malaria — 94 %. The importation of malaria in the region was carried out in 78 % of cases from Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. After a long break, in Astrakhan region there were registered new active lesions, indicating the presence of secondary from imported malaria cases and the emergence of new active foci of the 1st degree. The disease was recorded more often in the warmer months, as evidenced by the incidence — 80 % of all reported cases.

  3. Generation and marketing of secondaries. Situation and potentials; Herstellung und Vermarktung von Sekundaerrohstoffen. Situation, Probleme, Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, T.U. [bvse - Bundesverband Sekundaerrohstoffe und Entsorgung e.V., Bonn (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    For reasons of protection of the environment and the climate waste management is shifted more and more towards the generation of resources meeting the requirements of an industrial society. This development of sustainable use of waste derived resources is supported by the steadily increasing prices for energy and primary sources. National, European, and international politics enhance the generation of secondaries for instance by the 3R initiative of the G8 nations. Thus, waste management is performed to obtain more secondaries, to use their energy contents, and to reduce the hazardous potential in waste flows. Secondaries are used either to substitute primary sources or fuels. For years, medium sized companies extract valuable resource from waste flows, especially since they do not operate disposal sites. Thus, secondary raw materials can be generated, on the background of better prices, more competitive to primary sources out of monofractions and from mixture flows. Besides the use of secondaries in primary markets they created their own markets. To enhance the quantities of secondaries, the various waste flows have to be kept strictly separately from household wastes. Thus, the medium sized companies efficiently fulfil the political and market requirements and generate valuable resources. (orig.)

  4. The present shortage situation on the maintenance service market. A hopeless situation?; Marktengpaesse bei der Beschaffung von Instandhaltungsleistungen. Eine ausweglose Situation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzel, F. [RWE Power AG, Grevenbroich (Germany). Technische Vergabe; Hopstein, H. [RWE Power AG, Grevenbroich (Germany). Einkauf Verfahrenstechnik FKW

    2008-07-01

    The market for new power plants is presently being dominated by dramatic price rises and fully booked manufacturing capacities over the next few years. This situation also causes severe problems in the procurement of maintenance services and spares. In many cases the suppliers of new power plants and maintenance services are identical and access the same human and production resources. The paper provides an insight into the measures taken by RWE Power to assure a reliable procurement of services. (orig.)

  5. [Social and health resources in Catalonia. Current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullich-Marín, Ingrid; Sánchez-Ferrín, Pau; Cabanes-Duran, Concepció; Salvà-Casanovas, Antoni

    2017-03-20

    The network of social and health care has advanced since its inception. Furthermore, news services have been created and some resources have been adapted within the framework of respective health plans. This article presents the current situation of the different social and health resources in Catalonia, as well as the main changes that have occurred in recent years, more specifically in the period of the Health Plan 2011-2015. This period is characterised by an adaptation of the social and health network within the context of chronic care, for which the development of intermediate care resources has become the most relevant aspect. There is also a need to create a single long-term care sector in which the health care quality is guaranteed. Moreover, in this period, integral and cross-care level is promoted in the health system through a greater coordination between all different levels of care. The social and health network, due to its trajectory and expertise, plays a key role in the quality of care for people with social and medical needs. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  7. Educating teachers in Switzerland – reform and current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wiśniewska-Paź

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Educating teachers in the scope of higher (non-academic education sector has been a relatively new phenomenon in Switzerland. Until the end of the 90's, when Higher Pedagogical Schools were established, teachers had been educated at teaching seminars.Establishment of Higher Pedagogical Schools gave rise to a thorough reform in educating teachers in Switzerland, which aimed at improving the quality of work and professionalism of the teachers through science-oriented education (similar to the university education, and at establishing international and all-Swiss system of acknowledging diplomas received in particular canton institutions of higher education. This system makes it possible for the graduates to commence work at schools/ kindergarten departments not only in a canton of their choice, but also in a country chosen by them. At present, 12 000 students study in higher pedagogical schools, which constitutes 7% of all students in both (academic and non-academic sectors of higher education. This article describes current situation of this type of universities in Switzerland, their location, specializations, availability issues, duration of the studies and also the number of students (including percentage of foreigners, as well as the issues of prestige of the profession of a teacher, average age of the personnel in relation to education levels, degree of feminization of the profession and the demands.

  8. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  9. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  10. The Current State of Marketing Activity among Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Cynthia M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the current state of marketing, marketing research, and planning practices at four-year higher education institutions. Builds upon previous studies by Blackburn (1979) and Goldgehn (1982 and 1989). Determined whether the use and apparent understanding of marketing and its attendant activities by admissions and enrollment management…

  11. Preparation and Current Situation of Proton-ICCHIBAN-2 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihori, Yukio; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Kitamura, H.; Kodaira, S.; Benton, Eric; Hajek, Michael; Berger, Thomas; Jadrnickova, Iva; Ploc, Ondrej

    The ICCHIBAN (Inter Comparison for Cosmicrays with Heavy Ion Beams at NIRS) working group has organized and performed various ICCHIBAN runs for active and passive radiation detectors at HIMAC, NIRS, Japan, Loma Linda and Brookhaven, USA and CERN, Switzer-land since the start of the ICCHIBAN project in the year 2002. One of the main focus points of this project is to understand the response of the applied detector systems (either active or passive) for personal and area dosimetry in space environment to a simulated sub-set of the space radiation environment, focusing on the heavy ion response. This is of special importance for the further intercomparison of space radiation data gathered by various international in-stitutes and universities for space radiation experiments as MATROSHKA, DOSIS, DOBIES, BRADOS, MATROSHKA-R etc. The ICCHIBAN experiments have created a big database of response data, especially for all the different passive radiation detectors and detector materials (Thermoluminescence (TLD) and Optical Luminescence (OSL)) over the last 7 years, resulting in a better understanding of how and why we still have differences in the measurement results from common space experiments -as the Space ICCHIBAN 2 experiment. One of the reasons why for the differences in the TLD/OSL results is the lack of intercomparison and response data for low LET particles up to around 10 keV/m, especially protons. Due to the fact, that the main contribution to absorbed dose in low earth orbit is due to protons, the ICCHIBAN working group has started the set-up of a Proton ICCHIBAN intercomparison experiment at NIRS. The Proton ICCHIBAN run has been performed at the cyclotron at NIRS, Chiba in February 2010. 15 institutes from 12 countries sent or brought their dosimeters and exposed them to 40 and 70 MeV proton beams with the same doses and exposure conditions. In this paper, the experiment procedures and current situation of the intercomparision experiments will be shown.

  12. Study on International Market Current Situation and Development Trend of Anti-tumor DC-CIK Cells Biological Treatment Industry%肿瘤DC-CIK细胞生物治疗产业的国际市场现状及发展趋势探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洋; 刘永军

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the market situation and trends of biological DC-CIK cell therapy in anti-tumor field.Methods:Use Porter′s five forces model to analyze the competition in this industry.Results:Current international cell therapy company hasn′t set up joint ventures or wholly-owned agencies in China.Local enterprises are emerging.Some foreign pharmaceutical companies began to in-vest by biomedical research; There is no other alternative to emerge; supply-side of technology and talent have a strong negotiation strength;buyers′bargaining power is strengthening.Conclusion:In macro aspect, increase funding and policy preferences.Create op-portunities of international cooperation and exchange.Encourage research innovation and complete the education support; In micro as-pect, based on domestic actual cancer optimization technology, marketing driven development.Focus on personnel training and establish brand awareness.Enter in the mainstream market.%目的:分析DC-CIK细胞生物治疗在抗肿瘤领域的市场现状与趋势。方法:应用波特五力模型分析该产业竞争情况。结果:当前国际知名的细胞治疗公司大多未在我国成立合资或独资机构,我国个别企业正在涉及该领域;一些国外实力雄厚的医药公司开始有所投入,通过生物医学研发进入;目前并无其他替代品出现;技术和人才供方具有较强谈判能力;买方议价能力逐渐增强。结论:宏观方面,增加政策倾斜和资金投入;创造国际间合作交流机会;鼓励科研创新和完善教育支撑;微观方面,立足国内肿瘤发病实际优化技术,营销带动研发;注重人才培养,树立品牌意识;以主流方式融入主流市场。

  13. Market situation of PVC in China%中国PVC市场状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白海丹

    2012-01-01

    介绍了2011年中国PVC的生产和消费情况,通过具体的PVC进出口量数据及价格走势,预测了PVC的消费及市场状况。%The production situation and consumption situation of PVC in China in the ycar 2011 were introduced. Based on the detailed import & export data and the price movement of PVC, the consumption and market situations of PVC were predicted.

  14. 中国 PVC市场状况%PVC market situation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白海丹; 贺宁

    2013-01-01

    The production situation and consumption situation of PVC in China in the year 2012 were introduced .On the basis of the detailed import&export data and the price movement of PVC ,the consumption and market situations of PVC were predicted .%  介绍了2012年中国PVC的生产和消费情况,通过具体的 PVC进出口量数据及价格走势,预测了PVC的消费及市场状况。

  15. [Current epidemiological malaria situation in Kyrgyzstan (1995-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikarimov, S T

    2001-01-01

    Kyzgyzstan is situated in an area which is potentially at risk for malaria. In 1995-1999, 58 cases of malaria were recorded, six of them were local cases. The factors that promote the spread of malaria in Kyrgyzstan are the widespread and constant migration of people from Tajikistan and close economic ties between Kyrgyzstan and a number of Asian countries with widespread malaria epidemics. Most cases of malaria in Kyrgyzstan were imported from Tajikistan (39 cases or 75% of all imported cases). Plasmodium vivax, P. falciparum and P. malariae were identified in 95.9, 1.7, and 2.1%, respectively. There is a widespread irrigation network in the country, along with a large number of reservoirs, ponds, lakes, springs, streams, gullies, and marshy floodplains. As of 1 January 2000, there are 2833 water areas that can support Anopheles mosquitoes, with a total area of 5008.5 ha. The total length of the sewerage and drainage system is 5,440 km. There is a great potential for the spread of malaria in the south of the republic, i.e. the Osh and Zhalalabad Regions, especially due to a large number of state rice (paddy) fields covering an area of over 3,500 ha. Small rice-growing plots close to private dwellings, which are cultivated without any mosquito control measures, currently provide further breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Almost 80% of the population of these areas is at risk for malaria. Almost all species of malaria mosquitoes have been identified in Kyrgyzstan. An. claviger and An. messeae have too, two other species have also spread through the country, these are An. martinius and An. superpictus which became the main vectors of malaria epidemics in the south in the 1930s-1950s. Large-scale development of the pre-imago stages of the mosquito (a larval, water-based stage) takes place 5-7 months within which 4-6 mosquito generations develop. At present, there is a shortage of staff in Kyrgyzstan, especially at a local level, who has thorough knowledge of malaria and

  16. Multifractal analysis and instability index of prior-to-crash market situations

    CERN Document Server

    Piacquadio, M

    2009-01-01

    We take prior-to-crash market prices (NASDAQ, Dow Jones Industrial Average) as a signal, a function of time, we project these discrete values onto a vertical axis, thus obtaining a Cantordust. We study said cantordust with the tools of multifractal analysis, obtaining spectra by definition and by lagrangian coordinates. These spectra have properties that typify the prior-to-crash market situation. Any of these spectra entail elaborate processing of the raw signal data. With the unprocessed raw data we obtain an instability index, also with properties that typify the prior-to-crisis market situation. Both spectra and the instability index agree in characterizing such crashes, and in giving an early warning of them.

  17. The Current Situation of Quality Supervision and Production Safety of Aquatic Products in Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqin; ZHOU; Wenjie; LI

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the work of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City has been carried out rapidly, and the system of "origin exit, market access, sign traceability, real-time monitoring" has been basically formed, initially realizing the whole-process monitoring on the quality safety of aquatic products from "pond to table". We take the current situation of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City as the study object, take the basic work of supervision on aquatic products in Nanjing City and advancing both in scope and in depth as breakthrough point, to sum up the results achieved in the work of quality supervision and production safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City in recent years; make initial exploration and research, in order to consolidate the existing achievements, and further enhance the level of supervision on quality safety of aquatic products in Nanjing City.

  18. Current experimental situation in heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.K.

    1978-06-01

    A detailed survey of the present experimental situation in heavy-ion physics is presented. The discussion begins by considering the simple excitation of discrete states in elastic scattering, transfer, and compound-nucleus reactions; it then turns to more drastic perturbations of the nucleus high in the continuum through fusion, fission, and deeply inelastic scattering, and concludes with the (possibly) limiting asymptotic phenomena of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. 138 figures, 5 tables, 451 references. (RWR)

  19. Current Situation and Progress in Integrative Medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years,integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine,known as the Chinese version of integrative medicine (IM),has achieved significant developments.In this article,the present situation and progress in IM development in China are summarized from the aspects of IM application,policy making,scientific research,education,academic exchanges,and its future development.With continuous support from the Chinese government and successful scientific achievements in the past 50 years,the authors believe that IM will be moving forwards to a full globalization.

  20. Pharmacovigilance in China: current situation, successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wong, Lisa Y L; He, Ying; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-10-01

    With the integration of the global pharmaceutical economy and the gradual transformation of the healthcare insurance system in China, the legislative framework for a comprehensive regulatory system monitoring the whole process including drug development, manufacture, distribution and use has been established by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medication use. China has established a relatively comprehensive pharmacovigilance system covering regulation, organisation and technology from 1989 to 2014. As of 2013, one national centre, 34 provincial centres and more than 400 municipal centres for adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring were included in the four-level pharmacovigilance network (national, provincial, municipal and county) with more than 200,000 grassroot organisation users. The China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System (CADRMS) is an online spontaneous reporting system which connects the four-level pharmacovigilance network. By 2013, CADRMS had received over 6.6 million ADR case reports. After integrating and analysing pharmacovigilance data, the National Centre for ADR Monitoring (NCADRM) publishes medication safety information by releasing ADR bulletins, National ADR Annual Reports and International Pharmacovigilance Newsletters. The NCADRM also routinely provides CADRMS data feedback to manufacturers. The CFDA implemented risk management through several approaches, including arranging 'manufacturer communication meetings', modification of medication package inserts, and restriction, suspension or withdrawal of marketing authorisations. Seamless information exchange with overseas regulatory authorities and organisations remains an area for improvement. Further development of the China pharmacovigilance system in terms of signal generation, post-marketing pharmacoepidemiology research and education is also needed.

  1. Marketing Situation of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Limited (ICBC) Anhui Anqing Branch

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Ltd. (ICBC) is the largest bank of the four state-owned commercial banks in China. The bank has many provincial branches and one of them is the Commercial Bank of China Ltd (ICBC) Anhui Anqing Branch situated in the City of Anqing. The objective of this thesis was to study the market situation of ICBC Anhui Anqing Branch in Anqing city and to find out the main problems in the operation of the bank. Both a quantitative questionnaire survey and qualit...

  2. The current situation and development of medical device testing institutes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Mu, Ruihong; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Chunren; Li, Deyu

    2017-04-01

    This article analyses the current situation and development of Chinese medical device testing institutes from the perspectives of the two most important functions - testing functions and medical device standardization functions. Areas Covered: The objective of the Chinese government regulations for medical device industry is to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices for Chinese patients. To support the regulation system, the Chinese government has established medical device testing institutes at different levels for example, the national, provincial, and municipal levels. These testing institutes also play an important role in technical support during medical device premarket registration and post market surveillance, they are also the vital practitioners of Chinese medical device standardization. Expert Commentary: Chinese medical device testing institutes are technical departments established by government, and serve the regulatory functions of government agency. In recent years, with the rapid development of medical device industry as well as constantly increasing international and domestic medical device market, the importance of medical device testing institute is more prominent, However, there are still some problems unsolved, such as their overall capacity remains to be improved, construction of standardization is to be strengthened, etc.

  3. ORGANIC PRODUCTS, CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ON MARKET AND EUROPEAN ORGANIC PRODUCT MARKET SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Chreneková

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The market of organic products around the world increased its volume in Central and Eastern Europe with organic food market has a number of shared features, which include the relatively low demand for organic food, low share of regular customers, the problems of producers marketing, the lack of enterprises which process organic products. Consumer behavior purchasing organic foods is influenced by several factors, among which is dominated consumer personality, income, finances and lifestyle, as well as psychological factors such as perception, motivation, learning, cognition and attitudes. Cultural and social factors in consumer behavior exhibit a lesser degree. Organic fruit and organic vegetables quality is generally higher for content of biologically active substances such as vitamins, polyphenols and flavonoids. The content of pesticide residues in organic food is significantly lower than conventional production. Regular monitoring of chemical and microbiological safety of organic products already in the primary production occurring in the raw state and after working in various sectors of food, an intensification of awareness raising and targeted increased support for organic agriculture. Multifunctional sector and increased support for family farms oriented for sectors with higher added value than the home sale, production processing on the farm and so on. By support of the sale of high quality domestic production by the state will be possible to persuade more people to personal health status and greater consumption of organic food  affects the health and prevent the occurrence of various diseases.doi:10.5219/96  

  4. [Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza Ramos, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Control and eradication of zoonoses is a priority because there can only be human health if there is animal health, and both will not exist if the environment is not healthy. This concept is called "One Health" Mexico has demonstrated its capacity to eradicate various zoonoses such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis, yellow fever cattle screwworm, and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Zoonoses and emerging and reemerging diseases and food-borne diseases are called neglected diseases. They provoke disease and diminish food security. Their presence is seen in marginalized populations with lags in their development that reflect the lack of equity in our society; these diseases are the product of the lack of attention to the social determinants of health and risk factors. Tackling these diseases should be comprehensive, with intersectoral, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary approaches. Government agencies located in the human/animal health environment interface do not have established limits of liability and there are overlapping and empty spots; legislation is insufficient to guarantee collaboration. It is urgent to have reforms and new forms of organizations, regionalized according to the epidemiological situation; at the municipal level, a priority is to formalize an effective service of veterinary public health. New impetuses to address the persistent social and health lags are proposed.

  5. [Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Castro, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Zoonoses are at the present time more important than ever due to their magnitude and impact. The international trade in animals, products and sub products, as well as the intense travel of people around the world, represent risks of dissemination of infectious diseases, and are the reason for a new age of emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases. Under these conditions, public health and animal health authorities are obliged to work together in order to get more efficient control programs. In this paper the actual situation of some important emerging and reemerging zoonoses is analyzed, including: anthrax, rabies, tuberculosis, brucellosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hanta virus, Hendra and Nipah virus. Particular attention is given to leptospirosis, due to the fact that it is considered by WHO and OIE as the widest spread zoonotic disease in the world. Zoonoses caused by ingestion of animal food products are discussed. They are responsible for the death of almost 2.2 million people. Bacteria of genus salmonella and campylobacter are considered. Some recommendations are given for the control and prevention of zoonoses, emphasizing the "One Health" concept.

  6. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum.

  7. Under the new situation and the current situation of our English education and reform development prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Ruan

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, China has achieved a certain degree of English education development. However, with the global trend of strengthening economic integration in the new era background, English education is gradually showing some difficult problems. Therefore, strengthening English education reform has become a hot topic of concern. The author based on the status quo of China' s English education, focusing on analysis of the content of the current English education reform.

  8. Evolving PBPK applications in regulatory risk assessment: current situation and future goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation includes current applications of PBPK modeling in regulatory risk assessment and discussions on conflicts between assuring consistency with experimental data in current situation and the desire for animal-free model development.

  9. Science communication in India: current situation, history and future developments

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzonetto Marzia

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, India is experiencing a widespread diffusion of science communication activities. Public institutions, non-governmental organisations and a number of associations are busy spreading scientific knowledge not only via traditional media but also through specific forms of interaction with a varied public. This report aims to provide a historical overview of the diffusion of science communication in India, illustrating its current development and its future prospects.

  10. Current situation of geoengineering and its impact on biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Interests in the process of geoengineering have grown and geoengineering is a focus for the Convention on Biological Diversity now. Geoengineering programs and experiments have been carried out tovarying extent globally and are of significance to Chinese interests. This paper originates from a review of a conference discussion and of relevant literatures. It introduces the concept of geoengineering, describes the current status of its development and discusses the potential impacts geoenginee...

  11. Current Situation of University Bilingual Teaching and Countermeasures Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜有为

    2012-01-01

      The development of education in China has become increasingly international. Therefore, carrying out bilingual teach⁃ing in Universities is of great significance to cultivating international talents. However, the current bilingual teaching in Universities of our country is not optimistic, facing many difficulties and challenges. In order to provide students with advanced international and dynamic culture, educators should continue to explore research and analyze bilingual teaching rationally and work out effective measures.

  12. Current Situation of International Nuclear Arms Control and Nuclear Disarmament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong; Xianfu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Currently,international nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament process is showing both encouraging and frustrating signs,with a stress on the latter.The following is a general picture:First,the new U.S.-Russian nuclear disarmament process faces challenges and prospect of a new round of nuclear disarmament negotiation is grim.As a result of implementing the New START signed in February 2011,as of March 1,2014,the United States has 1585

  13. Marketing communications in nonbusiness situations or why it's so hard to sell brotherhood like soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, M L

    1979-01-01

    Marketing tools, techniques, and theories developed in the private sector can be applied in the public and nonprofit sectors; however, their limitations must be recognized. Nonbusiness communications campaigns should consider the involvedness (high or low) of the situation and the relevant segments, available positive and negative reinforcers, nonmonetary costs, the level of latent demand, and the wide range of communications alternatives. 5 hypotheses can be proposed regarding communications effectiveness outside of the private sector: 1) the lower the perceived personal value to the individual, relative to the cost, the more difficult the behavior change task and the lower the likelihood of success of marketing communications; 2) the lower the latent or pre-existing demand for the object, the more difficult the behavior change task and the lower the likelihood of marketing communications success; 3) the greater the involvement level of the object, situation, or issue, the more difficult the behavior change task and the lower the likelihood of marketing success; 4) the greater the past involvement level of the individual, the more difficult the behavior change task and the lower the likelihood of success; and 5) the greater the level of participation needed within the society, the more difficult the behavior change and the lower the likelihood of sucess of marketing communications. Many nonbusiness issues exist in either very high or very low involvement environments, calling for an enlarged set of communications strategies. More attention should be given to communications alternatives such as movies, television programs, and in-home and in-school educational communications, especially since it appears that public service spots are not very effective. Finally, more research is needed to generate and test the effectiveness of various marketing strategies aimed at overcoming inherent characteristics that suggest a low likelihood of success.

  14. Pediatric minimally invasive surgery in Africa: limitations and current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Jerome; Numanoglu, Alp; Hay, Sameh Abdel

    2012-05-01

    The second largest and most populous continent, with an exploding pediatric population, Africa has an overwhelming burden on its very limited pediatric surgical services. In an international environment of progressively advancing endoscopic and robotic surgical techniques, the authors focus on the current role of endoscopic surgery on the continent and explore the potential reasons for its delayed acceptance and implementation. They proceed to document the spectrum of what is available and, using their "African experience," expand on financially viable models of further rolling out these techniques, including discussion around suitable training models for surgeons and their teams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  16. Eradication of malaria through genetic engineering:the current situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wing-Chui Chong; Rusliza Basir; Yam Mun Fei

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is an intra-cellular parasitic protozoon responsible for millions of deaths annually.Host and parasite genetic factors are crucial in affecting susceptibility to malaria and progression of the disease.Recent increased deployment of vector controls and new artemisinin combination therapies have dramatically reduced the mortality and morbidity of malaria worldwide.However, the gradual emergence of parasite and mosquito resistance has raised alarm regarding the effectiveness of current artemisinin-based therapies.In this review, mechanisms of anti-malarial drug resistance in thePlasmodium parasite and new genetically engineered tools of research priorities are discussed.The complexity of the parasite lifecycle demands novel interventions to achieve global eradication.However, turning laboratory discovered transgenic interventions into functional products entails multiple experimental phases in addition to ethical and safety hurdles.Uncertainty over the regulatory status and public acceptance further discourage the implementation of genetically modified organisms.

  17. Nuclear energy: current situation and prospects to 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2007-04-15

    For close to half a century nuclear fission has been providing reliable supplies of electricity to the UK, with virtually no emissions of carbon dioxide. Over that period, the UK nuclear industry has avoided the emission of over one and a half billion tonnes of CO2. Yet no nuclear plant has been built in the UK for over two decades even though many of the stations in our current fleet are now within a decade or so of the end of their lifetime. Without new plants being ordered soon, the UK's nuclear capacity will decline dramatically, from 23% today to 3% post-2020--just as considerations of supply security and climate change are becoming increasingly important. Elsewhere in the world, many countries such as China, India, Japan, South Korea, Finland and France are building new stations. Other countries such as the USA, South Africa, and some nations that currently do not have nuclear stations (such as Indonesia and Poland) are making preparations for future nuclear stations. Globally capacity factors for nuclear plants are higher than they have ever been, averaging around 85% and with the best stations achieving well over 90%. Lifetime can be 60 years. That the economics of such stations compete well with other technologies is well founded and easily verifiable--especially in the face of rising fossil fuel prices and the pricing in of costs for CO2 emissions--both of which stand to improve the economics of nuclear energy still further. Waste volumes arising from modern plants are just a fraction of those of some earlier stations, and the technologies are in place to deal with them safely and effectively. Following recent reviews and international developments, there is growing confidence that internationally available competitive designs of nuclear plant will provide part of the solution to the UK's long-term energy needs.

  18. Current situation and development of wind power in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Nengsheng; NI Weidou

    2007-01-01

    The current development of wind power in China was presented in this paper.Many regions such as Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and southeast coastal region,etc.in China have abundant wind energy resource.At the same time,the utilization of wind power in China has been developing quickly and its prospect is promising in spite of many some obstacles.With the implementation of the Renewable Energy Law,some previous obstacles have been or are being eliminated.Much investment and many enterprises start to enter this field.In spite of this,there still exist some financial and technological obstacles.One of the technological obstacles is the stability of local power grid owing to the increasing proportion of the wind power capacity.Because the centralized development mode of wind power was adopted,the quick fluctuation of wind speed will influence the voltage and frequency stability of local power grid.In addition,large wind farm has little dispatching ability because of the uncontrollability,randomness and fluctuation of natural incoming wind.To erase these obstacles,a novel hybrid power system combining wind farm and small gas turbine power plants is discussed.

  19. Current situation of geoengineering and its impact on biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senlu Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interests in the process of geoengineering have grown and geoengineering is a focus for the Convention on Biological Diversity now. Geoengineering programs and experiments have been carried out tovarying extent globally and are of significance to Chinese interests. This paper originates from a review of a conference discussion and of relevant literatures. It introduces the concept of geoengineering, describes the current status of its development and discusses the potential impacts geoengineering may have on biodiversity. Arguments about geoengineering in the Convention on Biological Diversity are also discussed. Researches show that geoengineering programs mainly affect biodiversity by changing the local or regional climate and environment. Large scale geoengineering programs may be prohibited in future due to uncertainty over their potential impacts on biodiversity. However, the necessity for energy saving and obligationsto reduce emissions will drive the progress of geoenginering. The future development of geoengineering is also examined. It is concluded that the techniques involved need to be of a high standard, highly efficient, low in cost and environmentally safe. Precautionary measures should be taken in the implementation of geoenginering related activities, and mechanisms for monitoring their effects should be thoroughly explored.

  20. Sentinel Node Mapping for Breast Cancer: Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vidal-Sicart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axillary node status is a major prognostic factor in early-stage disease. Traditional staging needs levels I and II axillary lymph node dissection. Axillary involvement is found in 10%–30% of patients with T1 (<2 cm tumours. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimal invasive method of checking the potential nodal involvement. It is based on the assumption of an orderly progression of lymph node invasion by metastatic cells from tumour site. Thus, when sentinel node is free of metastases the remaining nodes are free, too (with a false negative rate lesser than 5%. Moreover, Randomized trials demonstrated a marked reduction of complications associated with the sentinel lymph node biopsy when compared with axillary lymph node dissection. Currently, the sentinel node biopsy procedure is recognized as the standard treatment for stages I and II. In these stages, this approach has a positive node rate similar to those observed after lymphadenectomy, a significant decrease in morbidity and similar nodal relapse rates at 5 years. In this review, the indications and contraindications of the sentinel node biopsy are summarized and the methodological aspects discussed. Finally, the new technologic and histologic developments allow to develop a more accurate and refinate technique that can achieve virtually the identification of 100% of sentinel nodes and reduce the false negative rate.

  1. Overview of the Situation on Photovoltaic Market in Selected Eastern European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Pavlíček

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this article: Purpose is to research situation on photovoltaic markets in Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary. It is focused on market development, market segmentation and product features. Raising trend on photovoltaic markets is expected due to favourable conditions given by states. However, state legislative harms competitive environment. Between customers preferences in product features are big differences. Scientific aim: The aim is to collect and analyze data for fuzzy mathematical model which building up will be output of the dissertation. Methodology/methods: To attain the stated objectives, research based on the collection of primary and secondary data was carried out. Secondary data was obtained from both domestic and foreign literature. Additional information was used from documents from ministries, state institutions and local distributors of electric energy. Primary research was carried out with the employment of qualitative and quantitative methods. From qualitative methods, a structured interview was chosen. Findings: The Balkan states are very different in conditions for installation of photovoltaic systems. The market in Slovenia has consistently growth exponentially. In Croatia it is more in form of step increase. Hungary seems to be the slowest-growing markets due to focus on other sources of energy. Conclusion: Slovenia is the best market for investments into photovoltaic systems from the described states. Slovenia has almost no entry barriers. Croatia stagnates due to the restrictive conditions in the legislation that allows only 1 MWp as an ongrid power. Unfavourable conditions of this market should be changed thanks to new legislation in 2011. Hungarian system, that supports investors with subsidy for technology, will start up this market. These investments will grow mainly thanks to qualified organizations. Thanks to conducted analysis of the data obtained, it is possible to compile fuzzy

  2. The current economic situation in China and its impact on the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Stverkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many companies try to enter to the international sector and to extend here their activity. Their international cooperation is an integral part of the action; it is necessary to know the cultural differences. Therefore it is important to understand the social development including the Social Progress Index and the secondary analysis of an economic situation in China; and its subsequent impact on the economy not only in the Czech Republic based on evaluation of Czech-Chinese business relations. China was in the last five years the male rotor of the world economic growth and became a significant importer of commodities. Last year, the Chinese economic growth rate slowed down, which could have negative consequences on other economies. This is also the possible reason for some Czech companies leaving the Chinese market; they transfer their production parts back to Europe or India. A presumption of high living standard, which all countries of the world and their inhabitants want to achieve, is according to the current paradigm of economic science the economic growth. The economy does not take pace in a vertical line, but at the horizontal level as the meaning of sharing in the net among the individuals. And the cooperation does not take place in the horizontal line but in the vertical line, which essentially changes the way of people's working.

  3. Current Situation and Problems of Export-oriented Tilapia Processing in Guangxi and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; ZHANG; Gaozhong; JIANG; Qiong; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is an excellent area for tilapia breeding in China,and the development of tilapia industry has received high attention of both the state and Guangxi government. The foreign exchange earning is an essential industrial form of tilapia industry in Guangxi. Thus,enhancing the competitiveness of export-oriented tilapia processing is of great significance to the development of tilapia industry. On the basis of field survey,this paper analyzed current situation of export-oriented tilapia processing in Guangxi. At present,tilapia processing industry in Guangxi has realized preliminary standardization,large-scale and grouping,but it is still faced with some problems and challenges,such as low industrialization level,no balanced marketing,and imperfect product quality safety monitoring measures. Therefore,it is required to create favorable environment for export-oriented tilapia processing industry in Guangxi through enhancing policy support,increasing financial input and supporting tilapia processing leading enterprises.

  4. Heat supply from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Japan: Current situation and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Tsai, Peii

    2016-02-01

    The use of waste-to-energy technology as part of a municipal solid waste management strategy could reduce the use of fossil fuels and contribute to prevention of global warming. In this study, we examined current heat and electricity production by incineration plants in Japan for external use. Herein, we discuss specific challenges to the promotion of heat utilisation and future municipal solid waste management strategies. We conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the actual conditions of heat production by incineration plants. From the survey results, information of about 498 incineration plants was extracted. When we investigated the relationship between heat production for external use and population density where incineration plants were located, we found that regions with a population density heat. We also found that external use of such energy for factories, markets, and related use, was noted in cities with a population density of 2000 to 4000 persons (km(2))(-1). Several incineration plants have poor performance for heat production because there are few facilities near them to provide demand for the energy. This is the result of redundant capacity, and is reflected in the heat production performance. Given these results, we discussed future challenges to creating energy demand around incineration plants where there is presently none. We also examined the challenges involved in increasing heat supply beyond the present situation.

  5. Current Situation Analysis for Oral English Learning of Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2013-01-01

    Through the questionnaire, this paper makes survey and analysis on the current oral English learning situation of the vocational college students, and explores the methods and approaches to improve the vocational college students ’oral English communication ability.

  6. Building an information security strategy for EHR: guidelines for assessing the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Yara; Stergioulas, Lampros

    2010-01-01

    This paper is looking at electronic health record (EHR) systems and their information security strategy. It focuses on the first step of building an information security strategy which is analysing the current situation of an EHR system. This research is based on different research methods applied to different EHR systems. In this paper we define eight elements that can be used as guidelines for how best to assess the current situation of any EHR system.

  7. MARKETTING SITUATIONS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDS IN WELMERA AND DENDI WEREDA OF WEST SHOA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MESFIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the status of livestock feed resources and market situations in Welmera and Dendi weredas of West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. The objective of the survey was to assess the potentials and constraints of feed resources and related marketing practices and suggest appropriate intervention options to overcome the constraints. Majority (76% of the interviewed farmers have faced shortage of livestock feeds. The diminishing trend of grazing land from time to time, roughage, concentrate feeds are the factors contributing to feed shortage. Moreover, the increasing trend in selling price of hay and concentrate feeds aggravates more to the problem. This situation is limiting livestock productiv in the highlands of Ethiopia. Under this condition, farmers purchase feeds to both local and crossbred animals. The purchased feeds include: hay, straw, grazing area, oilseed cakes, wheat bran and wet grass. Among these, the grazing area purchased takes the highest (52% proportion. Farmers and traders participate in purchasing of livestock feeds. The proportion of farmers that purchase feeds is higher (30% than that of the traders (1%. To alleviate the problems related to shortage of livestock feeds and decline of animal production and productivity, rearing of improved crossbred dairy cattle under intensive management and forage/fodder development and feeds conservation schemes should be promoted in a wider scale. Considering the ever-increasing price of feeds, there is a need to shift from purchased commercial feeds to the use of farm produced feed resources.

  8. A Study on the Current Status and Prospects of Development of the Tourism Services Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnyk Mariia V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the world trends in the developmet of services market, and it has been determined that the service sector is about 70% of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP. It has been noted that the tourism sector is one of the largest in the world economy, and its market in terms of investment efficiency is among the highly profitable markets along with the gas and oil producing, industrial, and automotive markets. The tourism market in Ukraine is only about 2% of the country’s GDP, but has great potential for innovation development and tourism perspectives. Such a situation requires constant monitoring and analyzing, which makes the selected study relevant. The purpose of the article was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current status of the market for tourism services in Ukraine and to determine the main tendencies in its further development. It has been found that the tourism industry sector in Ukraine is formed by three components: outbound (international, internal, and inbound (foreign tourism, the quantitative increase of which will increase the efficiency of the country’s tourism potential and reinforce its positive image abroad.

  9. How to Improve Current Situation of the Communicative Approach in High School EFL Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽芳

    2009-01-01

    The Communicative Approach has been used in EFL teaching of China for years; but still there are some problems centers around it when it is applied in high school English teaching. This paper explores the current situation of the Communicative Approach in Chinese high school EFL teaching by first looking at a simple case study, and then some suggestions are given as to how to improve this situation.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION IN PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ON THE NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to analyses of existing photovoltaic cells, its parameters, considering lifetime, efficiency and price. It was established, that efficiency of PV cells is situated in range of 5-30 percents. The PV cells with high efficiency (more than 20% have a cost in 5-10 times more than PV cells with efficiency up to 15%. On the market of Republic Moldova are commercialized PV cells with efficiency up to 15% only. The lifetime of PV cells are situated between 20 and 30 years and after 15 years of life service its efficiency decreasing on about 10%. Additional, efficiency of PV cells depends also from temperature of environment and decreasing on 0,3% on each degree. It technical parameters a given at temperature of 25oC of environment. At the same time, it can be underlined, that in near future the development of PV cells will be aimed to using of organic cells which now have efficiency about 5-7%. In order to develop a new generation of PV cells more usefully it can be considered design, where nanocristal silicon layer is infed between thin layers of amorphous silicon. It offer a very high efficiency of PV battery, and more, it is possible to exclude bulkiness intermediate layers from silicon monocrystal and as a result the material cost decreasing.

  11. The New Guide to Student Recruitment Marketing. The Best of "Case Currents."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia Carter, Ed.; Hunt, Susan, Ed.

    The 53 best articles from "Case Currents" on student recruitment marketing are presented. The importance of a marketing plan and ways to apply basic marketing principles to recruitment programs are explained. Eight sections cover: exploring the marketing concept; conducting market research and putting the data to work; reaching out to recruit…

  12. A study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ran

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety is concerned with in this paper. The author adopted Horwitz's Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) to measure the level of foreign language anxiety of 325 participants and then the conclusions are drawn.

  13. The Current Methods of Measurement of Market Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Ing. Eva Tomaskova

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the new trends in measurement of market orientation. Market orientation is one of the most investigated methods founded on marketing conception. Market orientation comes back in 90th of 20th century by workers Kohli and Jaworski and Narver and Slater. It is described as a method to contribute better managing of company by many researchers. These research studies involved definition of market orientation, impact market orientation on business performance, methods for mea...

  14. Cerâmicas odontológicas: o estado atual Ceramic in dentistry: current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Gomes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As cerâmicas dentais são conhecidas pela sua excelência em reproduzir artificialmente os dentes naturais. No século XVIII foi empregada pela primeira vez na Odontologia como dente artificial para próteses totais. A partir do século XX passou a ser utilizada para a confecção de restaurações metalocerâmicas e mais recentemente, com o aprimoramento da tecnologia cerâmica, surgiram as restaurações livres de metal. As cerâmicas têm apresentado rápida evolução em âmbito científico com o intuito de melhorar suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas para suprir as necessidades estéticas que são cada vez mais exigidas pela sociedade moderna. Nesse contexto, é preciso conhecer cada sistema cerâmico disponível atualmente no mercado, desde suas principais características até suas limitações, para saber indicá-lo de modo correto em cada situação clínica específica.Dental ceramics are known for their excellence in artificially reproduce natural teeth. In the XVIII century they were employed for the first time in Dentistry as artificial tooth for complete dentures. Since the XX century they were used to fabricate metal ceramic restorations and, nowadays, all-ceramic restorations are obtained as a result of ceramic technology improvement. Ceramics present a fast progress in the scientific field in order to improve their physical and mechanical properties to provide for aesthetic needs so required by modern society. In this context, it is important to know each ceramic system currently available on the market, regarding not only its main features but also its limitations, to an accurate indication for each specific clinical situation.

  15. Current situation of endoscopic biliary cannulation and salvage techniques for difficult cases: Current strategies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Bhatia, Vikram

    2016-04-01

    In the pancreatobiliary session at Endoscopic Forum Japan (EFJ) 2015, current trends of routine biliary cannulation techniques and salvage techniques for difficult biliary cannulation cases were discussed. Endoscopists from nine Japanese high-volume centers along with two overseas centers participated in the questionnaires and discussion. It was concluded that, currently, in Western countries, the wire-guided cannulation (WGC) technique is favored during initial cannulation attempts. However, the conventional technique using an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter with contrast medium injection is still used as first choice at most Japanese high-volume centers. The WGC technique is used as the second choice at some institutions only. After failed biliary cannulation attempts, the initial salvage option preferred in most centers includes pancreatic guidewire placement, followed by precut techniques as the second salvage choice. Among several precut techniques, the free-hand needle knife sphincterotomy with cutting upwards from the pancreatic duct is most popular. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided rendezvous technique is also carried out as a final salvage option at select institutions.

  16. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    radioactive contamination. Monitoring of radioactive materials in food products in the prefectures has been mainly conducted before shipment to restrict the distribution of radio-contaminated foods. Between March 2011 and March 2012, 133,832 tests of non-commercial and commercial products were conducted, and 1,204 tests (0.9%) were found to violate the provisional standards. Since April 2012, 278,275 tests were conducted, and 2,372 tests (0.9%) were found to violate the revised standards. MHLW assessment of representative market baskets of foodstuffs at 15 locations throughout Japan between February and March 2014 found very low estimated dietary intake of radioactive cesium (0.0007-0.019 mSv/year), as did assessments of the contents of an average day's food. Monitoring of fisheries products in coastal areas affected by the nuclear accident found very limited and declining radio-contamination of live fish outside of Fukushima prefecture. Fisheries monitoring is of limited geographical scope and covers only certain fishes. Area-specific bans on production and distribution have been effective in preventing radioactive contamination in the Japanese food market. Currently there is no major concern about radioactive cesium concentrations in retail foodstuffs in Japan, and very low levels of contamination at the production and wholesale stage. However, because the residue limits and food safety policies were revised on an ad hoc, emergency basis after the nuclear accident, the monitoring procedure needs to be reviewed based on objective and scientifically rational criteria. A transparent and objective scientific framework is needed for prioritizing foodstuffs for inspection and revising Prefecture-specific restrictions. Monitoring of fishes and other seafood products in the wild should be regularized and the information made more publicly accessible, and monitoring activities expanded to identify foodstuffs that are no longer a food safety risk. Consultation with producers and

  17. Current situation and development of RE optical glass (continued)%Current situation and development of RE optical glass (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    IV Market analysis of RE-based La series optical glass 1. RE production and market status Huge RE reserve has always been regarded as one of the advantages for China's rare earths application in high tech fields.

  18. Current Situation and Developing Countermeasures of Postgraduate Innovation Center in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is the driving force to promote the development of our nation. Postgraduate education, as an important approach to cultivate high-level talents, is a major part of the national innovation system. The establishment of the Postgraduate Innovation Center has an important significance for the cultivation of innovative talents in colleges and universities. This paper expounds the connotation and characteristics of Postgraduate Innovation Center and analyzes its current situation, operation mode, function orientation, institution settings and the innovative products. The paper also points out the problems in the current situation of the Postgraduate Innovation Center and finds the factors which restrict the development of the center. Finally, the paper puts forward some corresponding countermeasures.

  19. Hospital based ethics, current situation in France: between "Espaces" and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrier, M

    2006-09-01

    Unlike research ethics committees, which were created in 1988, the number of functioning hospital based ethical organisations in France, such as clinical ethics committees, is unknown. The objectives of such structures are diverse. A recent law created regional ethical forums, the objectives of which are education, debate, and research in relation to healthcare ethics. This paper discusses the current situation in France and the possible evolution and conflicts induced by this law. The creation of official healthcare ethics structures raises several issues.

  20. Current situation of Chinese forestry tactics and strategy of sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the current situation of Chinese forestry and aseries of ecological, environmental, economic, and social problems, this paper emphasized on the importance of forests in social and economic development in China The author pointed out that sustainable development, particularly the sustainable development of forestry, is the inevitable choice to solve the problems of ecological environment and social economics. The objectives, criteria, and strategies of sustaining forestry were also demonstrated and expounded, from the viewpoints of ecology, economics, and sociology.

  1. Current situation for cultivating reflective thinking in English reading instruction--The influence of teaching models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qinglan

    2013-01-01

    Reflective thinking plays an essential role in cultivating students’creative ability. It’s essential to cultivate this ability in the process of reading instruction,while the present traditional English teaching models hinder its development. This paper tries to analyze the current situation in cultivating students’reflective thinking in English reading instruction from the traditional teaching models,in the hope of refreshing the teachers’consciousness on their teaching methods.

  2. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China.

  3. Analysis of the Mechanism and the Current Situation of the Plasma Purification Technology for Diesel Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Guo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanism and the current situation of the plasma purification technology for diesel exhaust is introduced. Research indicates that cleaning the diesel exhaust with the plasma produced by corona discharge or dielectric barrier discharge has too high energy consumption to direct use without catalyst. To solve this problem, the study gives some new ways about cleaning diesel exhaust with arc discharge.

  4. Current Situation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Farmland Soil and Phytoremediation Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfei HUANG; Guifen CHEN; Liumei XIONG; Yuyi HUANG

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation technology is a newly-developed way of soil heavy metal pollution repair with high efficiency and good ecological comprehensive benefit. This paper briefly introduces the soil heavy metal pollution status at home and abroad,and focuses on the analysis of harm,sources and current situation of soil heavy metal pollution at home and abroad as well as mechanism and application of phytoremediation.Finally it discusses the key problems in phytoremediation technology that need to resolve in the future.

  5. Current Development Situations of Ziziphus Jujuba Industry in South Xinjiang and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwen; JIN; Xuedong; YAO; Chengjiang; LIU; Hai; LIN; Zheng; LOU; Zhenjiang; GAO

    2015-01-01

    Through surveying current development situations and existing problems of planting and processing of Ziziphus jujuba in south Xinjiang,this paper discussed planting,processing mode of Ziziphus Jujuba in south Xinjiang and development direction of enterprises in Ziziphus Jujuba production. It is expected to ensure and increase quality and sales volume of Ziziphus Jujuba and promote sound and sustainable development of Ziziphus Jujuba industrial chain in south Xinjiang.

  6. Plagiarism: A Shared Responsibility of All, Current Situation, and Future Actions in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    As combating plagiarism is a shared responsibility of all, this article focuses on presenting the current situation of higher education in Yemen. The critical review of four implementable policy documents and interviews revealed the absence of research ethics code, research misconduct policy, and institutional policies in the country. This led to the presence of several acts of research dishonesty. The article concludes with an initiative for necessary future actions in the nation.

  7. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gilmour

    areas at risk of radioactive contamination. Monitoring of radioactive materials in food products in the prefectures has been mainly conducted before shipment to restrict the distribution of radio-contaminated foods. Between March 2011 and March 2012, 133,832 tests of non-commercial and commercial products were conducted, and 1,204 tests (0.9% were found to violate the provisional standards. Since April 2012, 278,275 tests were conducted, and 2,372 tests (0.9% were found to violate the revised standards. MHLW assessment of representative market baskets of foodstuffs at 15 locations throughout Japan between February and March 2014 found very low estimated dietary intake of radioactive cesium (0.0007-0.019 mSv/year, as did assessments of the contents of an average day's food. Monitoring of fisheries products in coastal areas affected by the nuclear accident found very limited and declining radio-contamination of live fish outside of Fukushima prefecture. Fisheries monitoring is of limited geographical scope and covers only certain fishes.Area-specific bans on production and distribution have been effective in preventing radioactive contamination in the Japanese food market. Currently there is no major concern about radioactive cesium concentrations in retail foodstuffs in Japan, and very low levels of contamination at the production and wholesale stage. However, because the residue limits and food safety policies were revised on an ad hoc, emergency basis after the nuclear accident, the monitoring procedure needs to be reviewed based on objective and scientifically rational criteria. A transparent and objective scientific framework is needed for prioritizing foodstuffs for inspection and revising Prefecture-specific restrictions. Monitoring of fishes and other seafood products in the wild should be regularized and the information made more publicly accessible, and monitoring activities expanded to identify foodstuffs that are no longer a food safety risk. Consultation with

  8. Current Situation of Land Use in Three-gorges Reservoir Region in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuhai; WANG; Qigang; ZHOU; Fei; YANG; Pengwu; YANG; Yao; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Land is rare natural resource.Production and construction of all sectors in a region must be based on land.Thus,overall research and analysis on current situation of land use can reveal scope,depth and reasonableness of land use,is helpful for analyzing internal mechanism land use change,and can reflect production scale,level and characteristics,and also can provide basis for optimization and adjustment of land use structure.Based on RS and GIS technologies,with the aid of TM image data of the Three-gorges Reservoir Region in 2010,the data of current situation of land use in Three-gorges Reservoir Region was obtained,and current land use situation was analyzed using geographimetrics and landscape ecology methods.Results show that since natural,social and economic conditions are different,land type diversity,combination type and location index of counties in the Three-gorges Reservoir Region are varied.In the land use diversity index,Xingshan County has the most single land use type(mainly forest land); in land use degree,Yuzhong District has the highest land use degree; in the integrated index of land use,Changshou District has the lowest integrated index of land use.This study is expected to provide reference and basis for formulating policies of protecting ecological environment of the Three-gorges Reservoir Region.

  9. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    . The Colombian pisciculture is based on red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. (Linnaeus), Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier), which currently represent around 96% of the total national production. The remaining 4% comes from other farmed species such as bocachico......, food conversion and disease resistance. The limited offer of Colombian fish farmed species determines its currently low competitiveness and restricted impact on the international markets; thus making necessary to explore the potential of new fish species in order to introduce them to the pisciculture...

  10. Mobile applications for obesity and weight management: current market characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, C K; Lean, M E J

    2017-01-01

    Mobile-Health (mHealth) is the fastest-developing eHealth sector, with over 100 000 health applications (apps) currently available. Overweight/obesity is a problem of wide public concern that is potentially treatable/preventable through mHealth. This study describes the current weight-management app-market. Five app stores (Apple, Google, Amazon, Windows and Blackberry) in UK, US, Russia, Japan and Germany, Italy, France, China, Australia and Canada were searched for keywords: 'weight', 'calorie', 'weight-loss', 'slimming', 'diet', 'dietitian' and 'overweight' in January/February 2016 using App-Annie software. The 10 most downloaded apps in the lifetime of an app were recorded. Developers' lists and the app descriptions were searched to identify any professional input with keywords 'professional', 'dietitian' and 'nutritionist'. A total of 28 905 relevant apps were identified as follows: Apple iTunes=8559 (4634, 54% paid), Google Play=1762 (597, 33.9% paid), Amazon App=13569 (4821, 35.5% paid), Windows=2419 (819, 17% paid) and Blackberry=2596 (940, 36% paid). The 28 905 identified apps focused mainly on physical activity (34%), diet (31%), and recording/monitoring of exercise, calorie intake and body weight (23%). Only 17 apps (0.05%) were developed with identifiable professional input. Apps on weight management are widely available and very popular but currently lack professional content expertise. Encouraging app development based on evidence-based online approaches would assure content quality, allowing healthcare professionals to recommend their use.

  11. Current Situation and Prospect of White Carbon Black Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Chunyu

    2011-01-01

    1.Analysis of Market Operation in 2010 Year 2010 is the ending year of the "11th Five-Year Plan".Under the effect of a series of central government policies including coping with the international financial crisis,accelerating the transformation of economic development pattern and economic restructuring,and promoting steady and rapid development of economy,the situation is basically established that industrial economy operation changes from turnaround to steady growth,and industrial economy develops steadily and rapidly.This can be shown in the white carbon black industry,through the whole year,white carbon black industry maintains steady and rapid development,and the output of which has grown greatly compared with last year.

  12. The 1957 Valencia flood: hydrological and sedimentological reconstruction and comparison to the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Puertes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to improve the knowledge of the flood that took place in Valencia, Spain, in 1957. In other words, the aim is to test if it is possible to explain the flood waves with the incorporation of sediment cycle to a distributed hydrological model. Furthermore, this work aims to be aware of the current consequences of a similar event, taking into account land use changes, particularly, the urban rise in the lower basin, and the current flood defenses of the city. To do this, the hydrological model was implemented in the current basin situation. Once implemented, a reconstruction of precipitation at hourly discretization for the 1957 event was made and the sedimentological sub-model was calibrated. Then, the hydrographs in the chosen points were obtained. Finally, a simulation using the 1957 precipitation in the current basin situation was made, in order to be aware of the current consequences.

  13. Current Situation of World Clean Energy%世界清洁能源发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海峰; 李鲜

    2012-01-01

    21世纪人类面临严重的资源、环境考验,因此发展清洁能源、实现经济社会可持续发展已成为当今世界的主流,各国政府竞相争夺未来清洁能源市场,从政策导向到资金支持方面都对清洁能源市场给予厚爱.文章主要依托美国皮尤慈善基金会发布的《谁将赢得世界清洁能源之赛2010》的报告来分析G-20国家清洁能源发展现状和投融资情况.%In the twenty-first Century, human being faces with serious problems of resources and environment, therefore, the development of clean energy, achieving economics and society sustainable development have become the mainstream of the world, governments compete for future clean energy market, from the policy guidance to the capital investment to support the clean energy market. This paper mainly relies on "Who's Winning the Clean Energy Race! 2010 Edition: G-20 Investment Powering Forward" released by the United States Pew Charitable Trusts to analyze the clean energy development and investment in current situation among G-20.

  14. Small Business Marketing Logistics Management Situation and Innovation Strategies%中小物流企业营销管理现状及创新对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛媛媛

    2015-01-01

    This paper will analyze the current situation of small and medium logistics enterprises manage marketing and marketing management put forward corresponding countermeasures to contribute to the development of China's logistics services.%文中将分析中小物流企业的营销管理现状,并提出对应的营销管理对策,以期为我国物流服务业发展做出贡献。

  15. Current Status and Progress of Market for Forest Environmental Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; CHEN Jie

    2006-01-01

    With the analyses of the reasons for the emergence of domestic and overseas markets for forest environmental service and its significance, this paper summarizes the progress in the research on the market and reviews the operations of the markets for 4 kinds of forest environmental services that are watershed protection services, biodiversity protection services, carbon sequestration services and landscape services. At the end, the paper discusses the major problems arising in the creation of markets for environmental services and the developing tendency.

  16. The current situation and prospect of oil steel pipe in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; He-lin; JI; Ling-kang; XIE; Li-hua

    2005-01-01

    The oil steel pipe in the petroleum industry is very important for its high price, large consumption volume and great effect on thedevelopment of petroleum industry. The oil steel pipe mainly includes oil well pipe (drill pipe, drill collar, casing and tubing etc. ) and oil-gas transportation pipe. This paper is an attempt to make a comprehensive review on the current situation and prospect of the oil steel pipe in China, presenting the past , today and future of the China oil pipe.The first section is a historical review of the China oil pipe. The developing course and progress of the oil steel pipe products are presented. The second section is about the current situation of the China oil pipe. The general situation of the China's steel pipe corporation and their products types,capability, etc. is introduced. The third section is about the prospect of the China oil pipe. This part mainly describes the new product research and development in China steel pipe corporations,which are facing more and more strict technical requirements of the petroleum industry in oil pipe,and reveals the prosperity of China's steel pipe corporations.

  17. 中国石榴产销情况%Production and Marketing Situation of Pomegranate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛洪波; 王正兴; 孙志强

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, planting situation of pomegranate in domestic and abroad was introduced, production and marketing situation, existing problems were analyzed. Based on above analysis, the author presented the suggestions and strategies of pomegranate industry development.%院本文介绍了国内外石榴的种植情况,分析了我国石榴的产销情况及存在的问题,在此基础上提出了石榴产业发展的建议和策略。

  18. Analysis on Current Situation of Xinjiang Photography Current Situation Analysis and Development Ponders%新疆摄影现状简析与发展之思辩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李太保

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the current situation of Xinjiang photography, and focuses on the analysis of two viewpoints, which are "The scenery photography hindered Xinjiang photography's all-round development" and "Xinjiang shotfld develop the scenery photography primarily". The author thinks that, both views are biased, only emphasized the side, and ignored the other side. In the history new starting point of Xin- jiang leapfrog development, Xinjiang photography is necessary to make great efforts to foster the develop- ment of Xinjiang documentary photography, but also insists on the development of Xinjiang's landscape photography, h is necessary to advocate diversity, but also should pay attention to features and brand.%文章简析了当前新疆的摄影现状,并重点对“风光摄影阻碍了新疆摄影的全面发展”和“新疆应该以发展风光摄影为主”的观点进行了剖析。在新疆跨越式发展的历史新起点上,新疆摄影界既要下大力培育发展新疆的纪实摄影,又要坚持发展新疆的风光摄影;既要大力倡导多元化,又要抓特色、闯品牌。

  19. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  20. The Hydraulic Option in Former Soviet Central Asia. Historical Perspective and Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vea Rodríguez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the situation of water resource management in the five Central Asian republics that formed part of the USSR. By way of introduction, it lists the characteristics of water as a resource and then analyses the uses and distribution of water in the region.For this, it outlines a brief historical approach which helps to understand, in all its magnitude, the current situation of ecological degradation and how it determines living conditions in the region. Likewise, it deals with the policies of intervention in water resource management of the Central Asian states and of international institutions, and it includes the description of two specific case studies which form part of initiatives devoted to reversing a processwhich has led to the greatest ecological disaster on the planet, the most well-known aspect of which is the practical disappearance of the Aral Sea.

  1. Current marketing practices in the nursing home sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Judith G; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Hearld, Larry R

    2006-01-01

    Marketing is widely recognized as an essential business function across all industries, including healthcare. While many long-term care facilities adopted basic healthcare marketing practices and hired marketing staff by the early 1990s, a paucity of research on nursing home marketing exists in the literature. This study examines the extent to which nursing homes have developed more formulated marketing and related communication and promotional strategies as market competition has increased in this sector during the past two decades. In addition, we explored managers' perceptions of their control over marketing decision making, the impact of competition on the use of marketing practices, and areas for enhanced competitive positioning. Administrators from 230 nursing homes in 18 Southeastern Michigan counties were surveyed regarding (1) the adoption level of approximately 40 literature-based, best-practice marketing strategies; (2) the types of staff involved with the marketing function; and (3) their perception of their level of control over marketing functions and of local competition. Results from 101 (44 percent) survey participants revealed that although respondents viewed their markets as highly competitive, their marketing practices remained focused on traditional and relatively constrained practices. In relation to the importance of customer relationship management, the majority of the administrators reported intensive efforts being focused on residents and their families, referrers, and staff, with minimal efforts being extended to insurers and other types of payers. A significant positive relation was found between the intensity of marketing initiatives and the size of the facility (number of beds), whereas significant negative correlations were revealed in relation to occupancy and the perceived level of control over the function.

  2. Assessing the situational factors and impulsive buying behavior: Market segmentation approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić, Mirela; Kursan, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between situational factors and impulsive buying behavior with the aim of separating an adequate number of different customer segments. The study will try to provide answers to the following questions: Can situational factors stimulate impulsive purchase and to what extent? Considering the effect of the analyzed situational factors on impulsive buying is it possible to isolate different consumer segments? Do these segments differ in te...

  3. China's gas market under new situations: Trends and countermeasures – Taking Sichuan and Chongqing gas provinces as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi'ang Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The world oil and gas market has entered a new period of low oil prices, which has inevitably affected the natural gas market in China. So, it is urgent to timely study the market trends and to actively seek for appropriate countermeasures. In this paper, the development trends of China's gas market under the situations of New Normal and low oil prices were analyzed from the perspective of sustainable development of the natural gas industrial chain and market, by taking the Sichuan and Chongqing gas provinces as an example, which are of representative and of great significance to China in its natural gas market. The following trends were identified. First, the gas market reform will be deepened. Second, the competition among major market players will be intensified. Third, supply will exceed demand. Fourth, export tasks will be difficult. Fifth, higher demand of “guarantees of the minimum GDP, tax and profit” will be raised for local government. And sixth, low-cost strategy will be indispensable to oil and gas enterprises. In order to cater to these trends, some countermeasures were presented during the 13th Five-Year Plan. First, to improve the natural gas market system, to strengthen the supply-side reform, to complete market development modes, and to promote the introduction of governmental policies for relevant industries. Second, to develop the efficient gas-consuming clusters such as industrial parks, LNG-fueled vehicles and vessels, and distributed energy sources system, to establish innovative marketing strategy systems, and to boost the localization of resource consumption, through the establishment of strategic alliances for natural gas terminal markets in partnership with local governments and competitive enterprises, while the Chinese government is intensifying efforts in promoting energy conservation and pollution reduction and haze control. Third, to improve the cobweb pipeline network system, and to establish the strategic

  4. Current situation of depression healthcare in Spain: results of a psychiatrists' survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Martín-Águeda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the current situation of healthcare for depression in Spain, according to psychiatrists opinion, and how it has evolved over the last 20 years, comparativily with the results reported in previous studies of our group. Methods: Throughout 2002, we recorded the opinions of 101 specialists in psychiatry after asking them to fill out structured questionnaires in which they rated care, clinical, therapeutic and care quality. Results: The presence of depressive disorders in healthcare is substantial, despite the high figures for "concealed epidemiology", with an increase in these last 20 years of disorders comorbid with anxiety. Currently, most patients arrive at the psychiatrist having been referred by their general practitioners (GP, as there is now less reluctance in depressive patients to such referral. In the last years there has been an increase in pharmacological treatment, with adverse effects of the drugs representing the major obstacle to non-adherence to such treatment. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs constitute the pharmacological group of choice, and are the drugs most commonly used in the treatment of depression, together with venlafaxine. Areas where there is a need for improvement are time devoted to consultation, coordination between GPs and psychiatrists, waiting lists, and resources available to Mental Health Units. Conclusions: Current situation of depression healthcare in Spain has substantially changed in recent years, improving in some aspects, thanks, in part, to the attitudes of GPs with this disorder and to evolution of pharmacological treatment.

  5. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  6. [Current situation of toxicity classification of Chinese materia medica and its research thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.

  7. Analysis of the status’current situation and reflection on the development of circular economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟程

    2013-01-01

    It is the mainstream of the times building a moderately prosperous society, build a harmonious home, guiding eco-nomic development with scientific Outlook on Development. It is the objective requirements of social development, current more and more prominent, ecological construction and environmental protection increasingly grim situation along with Chi-na's rapid economic growth and increasing population, water, land, mineral, etc. like this it is particularly important and urgent. According to the scientific development concept, vigorously develop the circular economy;accelerate the establishment of a resource-saving society.

  8. Current Development Situations and Countermeasures for Tobacco Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinbin; LUO; Jianqiang; XU

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces development history of China’s farmers’ specialized cooperatives and connotation and mechanism of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives. Then, it analyzes current development situations of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives in Hunan Province. On the basis of analysis, it puts forward development countermeasures, including realizing circulation of tobacco land, strengthening propaganda of laws on tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, increasing operation effect of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, enhancing guidance and supervision of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, as well as improving specialized service level.

  9. Current Situations of Agricultural Sci-tech Innovation and Development Path in Nantong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Chun-xin; SUN Qing-shan; QIU Hai-rong; ZHU Hai-yan; TANG Ming-xia; XUE Chen-xia

    2012-01-01

    Nantong is a typical region of large population and little land.The conflict between resources and environment is growing.Thus,the improvement of independent innovation ability based on current situations,oriented towards the future and relying on scientific and technological force directly decides the effect of strong economic city construction.Through analysis on achievements of agricultural sci-tech innovation works,existing problems and demand for developing modern agriculture in Nantong,we present development ideas,target orientation and basic principles of agricultural sci-tech innovation works in Nantong,and put forward eight paths.

  10. Current Situation of Introduction and Use of African Crop Germplasm Resources and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili; DING; Minghua; YAO; Chunhai; JIAO

    2015-01-01

    Africa is the origin center of many crops. It is rich in original ecological resources,especially special resources which are excellent materials for breeding research. With acceleration of commercial seeds in agriculture of African countries,some original ecological resources are disappearing. Through experience of introduction of African varieties in recent years,it analyzed current situation of introduction and use of African crop germplasm resources. Finally,it came up with recommendations for rescuing and taking full advantage of excellent African resources,solving difficult problem restricting crop breeding,enriching China’s crop germplasm bank,and improving China’s and African crop breeding level and innovation ability.

  11. Review of the current wind energy technologies and global market

    OpenAIRE

    Komarov, Dragan; Stupar, Slobodan; Posteljnik, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The modern wind energy technologies and recent global wind energy market trends are reviewed in the paper. Basic principles of conversion of wind energy to electricity are described with brief overview of the state-of-the-art technologies for subassemblies such as wind turbine blades and drive trains. Global wind energy market was reviewed in order to attain notion of wind power market developments in the future. The most developed countries in terms of wind energy utilization such as Denmark...

  12. College Graduates and Jobs. Adjusting to a New Labor Market Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie Commission on Higher Education , Berkeley, CA.

    For more than three centuries, college graduates have enjoyed a preferred place in the U. S. job market. The report evaluates predictions about the future job market and indicates necessary adjustments for campuses, public policy, employers, and young people themselves. The appendices contain statistical tables related to the text, and previous…

  13. Labour Market in Lithuania: Gender Situation Darbo rinka Lietuvoje: moterų ir vyrų padėtis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Guščinskienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses the situation of men and women in the labour market in the globalization and economic integration into the European Union conditions and demonstrates that gender equality under the current conditions and social life, politics and economy is becoming a political priority. The aim of the paper is: to analyze the situation of men and women in the labour market and its regulation; to study the respondents’ view on the situation of men and women in the labour market. Empirical study showed that 42% of women and 26% of men have never lost their jobs and the people who have, have men-tioned several reasons for this. Respondents, both women and men, generally lose work because of inadequate working conditions and the company’s bankruptcy. Meanwhile, the response of men’s and women’s opinion on the inequality/discrimination experience is different. According to women, involved in the study, in Lithuania they mostly experienced discrimination based on sex and age, while men consider to be most discriminated on grounds of sex, disability and age. Almost one fifth of the respondents have personally experienced discrimination themselves in the labour market because of sex.

    Keywords: labour market, equal opportunities, discrimination, employment, entrepre-neurship.

    Reguliuojant Europos Sąjungos (ES plėtros tolesnę ekonominę politiką daugiausia dėmesio skiriama darbo rinkai ir pirmiausia – moterų ir vyrų lygioms galimyb

  14. FINANCIAL MARKET OF AZERBAIJAN: CURRENT CONDITION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guliyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the economic model of Azerbaijan. Main components of the financial market are being analyzed: state budget, state oil fund, banking system, foreign debt and etc. This article assesses the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy. Moreover, future development perspectives of the financial market and the economy are being examined as well.

  15. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  16. The Marketing Ethics Course: Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, O. C.; Keig, Dawn L.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the critical issues facing modern businesses can be considered marketing ethics issues. It follows that as the field of business ethics has evolved, marketing has played a key role in the development of business ethics education. Despite a general trend of increasingly larger amounts of ethical content included in business curricula, prior…

  17. The Marketing Ethics Course: Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, O. C.; Keig, Dawn L.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the critical issues facing modern businesses can be considered marketing ethics issues. It follows that as the field of business ethics has evolved, marketing has played a key role in the development of business ethics education. Despite a general trend of increasingly larger amounts of ethical content included in business curricula, prior…

  18. Traditional Medicine in Madagascar - Current Situation and the Institutional Context of Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pierlovisi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following WHO recommandations and in order to improve medical coverage, Madagascar officially recognized in 2007 its traditional medicine as a legitimate practice.UNESCO, to sustain traditional healers in the Indian Ocean, wanted to use anthropological tools to explore the current situation in Madagascar.Despit a plurality of practices, data collected for three months in the Southeast of the Island, allowed us to identify some fundamental aspects of Malagasy traditional medicine, such as the omnipresence of symbolism or the complexity of healers’ roles at the crossroads of social, sacred and therapeutic registries.The study shows that the national policy on traditional medicine improves gradually the promotion of these practices too often undervalued. Nevertheless, the institutional context exposes weaknesses which might explain the difficulty encountered by some tradipractitioners to find their place in this new regulation. Indeed, regarding the current context, a reducing process of the healers' practices is likely to emerge.

  19. Analysis on Current Situations of Endangered P.intermedius S.Y.Chen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a general survey of current situations of P.intermedius S.Y.Chen.Results show that P.intermedius S.Y.Chen is distributed in Dongkeng Township,Jingnan Township and Yanxi Township.It covers an area of 262.51 hm2.The distribution areas are narrow and limited.What’s worse,it suffers from serious destruction and has been withered in large areas.Besides,according to current introduction test,it is difficult to survive in other places.In accordance with Exploring the Criteria for Endangered Categories of Bamboo Species from China put forward by Ma Naixun et al from the Research Institute of Subtropical Forestry of Chinese Academy of Forestry(RISFCAF),we propose incorporating P.intermedius S.Y.Chen into vulnerable species for protection.

  20. MAIN THREATS TO THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET IN THE CURRENT CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMIAN Gina Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s topic is focused on the Romanian labour market prospects, which is going to be affected by two main threats: aging and population decline. These two factors are supposed to dramatically change Romania’s economic structure. It is therefore necessary to know how they will evolve in the next decades, facts which represent the main objective of our article. These topics are debated at large scale at the European and national level, because they describe a process which implies European Union as a whole. The methodology used in order to quantify this phenomenon includes statistical methods (correlation analysis and descriptive statistics. We have used data available at national and European level in order to build a proper argumentation. The results obtained are worrying because there is a high risk to assist at an accelerated aging of the Romanian people, doubled by a very low birth rate. This might create huge problems in the economic and social system due to productivity decrease and the pressures on the pension’s funds. The paper offers scientific arguments for developing macroeconomic policies in order to prevent the negative situation in which we could be within less than 40 years. As a comparison term we brought into attention the Germany situation, country which offers economic equilibrium to the EU, but is also affected by aging. The manner in which this problem has been approached is an original one because we tried to put Romania’s situation into the context of the European Union general situation, the threat being emphasised by the fact that it is going to be a trend for the whole continent. Actually, if it is not taken adequate measures, we will be confronted with a demographic crisis, much worse than the current financial one, because the effort of the country to reverse a birth rate decreasing trend with an aged population will take decades.

  1. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position mor

  2. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  3. Real convergence, financial markets, and the current account – Emerging Europe versus emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Sabine; Winkler, Adalbert

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relevance of financial market characteristics for explaining the catching-up process in Europe and Asia. Global financial integration has been associated with divergent patterns of real convergence and the current account in emerging markets. While countries in emerging Asia have been running sizeable current account surpluses, countries in emerging Europe have been facing large current account deficits. In this paper we test for the relevance of financial market chara...

  4. Certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European union legislations: Current situation, problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of the current situation in the area of certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European Union legislation referring to the placement of wood and wood products on this market. The objective of the research was to observe the situation, phases which Serbia implemented in the process of forest and wood products certification until now, as well as the problems and challenges the companies in this process face. Based on research results, future development of the market of certified wood products in Serbia was assessed and the proposal of measures which should be realized in order for Serbia to become a country whose companies will be ready for the moment when provisions and measures of the new EU legislation become effective was given. The selection of the abovementioned objective was conditioned by the fact that from January 1st, 2013 new legislation takes effect, with significantly stricter terms for the placement of wood and wood products from other countries on this market. One of the conditions which will have to be fulfilled by the companies wishing to export their products on this market refers to proving their origin. Since the EU is the most significant market for wood products exported from Serbia, fulfillment of the stated and other terms from the new EU legislation is of great importance to Serbian companies. Until the beginning of September 2010, only 387,000 ha were certified, namely 17.2% of the total area under forests. In the same period, only 33 wood processing companies in Serbia possessed CoC certificates for their products. Such a small number of companies possessing certificates for their wood products compared to competitive neighboring countries can represent a serious limitation in achieving their satisfactory competitiveness on the EU market in the following period.

  5. Current Situation of the Solid Waste Management in Gjirokastra Region: Problems and Challenges for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORNELA ÇUÇI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The system of collecting waste and the current situation in their management is the main objective of this paper, to help the local government for sustainable waste management in the district of Gjirokastra. Through this study it was possible the provision of a database for the management of actual waste at the regional level, an analysis of actual system of waste management, the criteria necessary for managing them through an approach of sustainable development environmental, economic and social. Geographical space, which is the objective of this study is Gjirokastra district, consisting of three districts and currently, according to the new territorial division of 6 municipalities. To provide data on the current situation of waste used the data of municipalities and communes under the old territorial division. Processing of this database, the most important qualities and characteristics of the area are classified into 6 new municipalities functioning. Also they have interviewed over 250 employees and stakeholders the respective municipalities, and are inventoried evidence on policy practices and technologies used. They were examined waste prevention policies at national, regional and local enforcement practices, and based on general descriptions of available activities to prevent / reuse / recycling has prepared a detailed SWOT analyze. With SWOT analysis and data arising from it the results of this study suggest measures for the sustainable management of waste in the district of Gjirokastra, because the waste generated is collected without any prior sorting and no recycling process for hazardous waste appliances (batteries, etc. together with them even hospital waste. Disposal of waste from communities and municipalities realized using plastic bags or not, but without any preliminary separation according to their content or without taking into consideration all the resource sharing and protection from further urbanization

  6. On the Current Situation and Measures of the DeveIopment of Outdoor Sports in Guangxi Based on the Sports Tourism Marketing ModeI%体育旅游营销模式下的广西户外运动发展现状与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建达; 蒋小翠

    2015-01-01

    Based on the experience of Guangxi outdoor sports events, this paper studies the status quo of outdoor sports in Guangxi by means of literature review, experts interviews, field survey and other research methods to help outdoor sports quickly integrate into the market, establish sports tourism marketing awareness, broaden the development approach of local outdoor sports characteristics, and construct a set of regional characteristics.It will provide references and lessons for development of culture, economy, society and sustainable P.E. development.%文章结合广西户外运动赛事运作的经验,用文献资料法、专家访谈法、实地调查法等研究方法对广西户外运动的现状进行研究,帮助户外运动迅速融入到市场,建立体育旅游的营销意识,拓宽当地户外运动特色项目的发展途径,建构一套有区域特色的户外运动赛事运作模式,为文化资源建设、经济建设、社会进步以及实现体育旅游的可持续发展提供参考和借鉴。

  7. Current Status of Agricultural Extension Services for Market Oriented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    An International Multi-disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 10(3) ... capacity of producer groups to facilitate input and output marketing systems has also ... documented, though not widespread, as the capacity at the local level to bring these.

  8. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  9. THE CAPITAL MARKET IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN RADU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For nearly a century now, economists have studied the advantages and disadvantages of financial systems based on either banks or financial markets in their attempt to forward economic growth and a better capital resources allocation. Nevertheless, the effects of the financial crisis that began in 2007 over the capital market are not only numerous, but also affect financial institutions, the stock exchange volume and list, the behaviour of market investors and not least such generate the need for capital market regulations to be amended. Even so, due to measures that have been taken, in Romania the stock exchange works on profit, while the effects of the financial crisis over such still fail to occur.

  10. Current Status and Trend of Forest Hydrological Services Market Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Of the many services that forests provide, hydrological services are among the most valuable, and it becomes more scarce with the growing demands by human beings. As a kind of incentive measure for protecting forest, forest hydrological services markets have been developed in many countries around the world and some valuable experiences have been achieved. The paper reviews the experiments carried out in the world and their research findings on forest hydrological services market, and presents the issues to...

  11. CURRENT COORDINATES OF THE INSURANCE MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Corneliu Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the insurance activity is well known to the Romanian market ever since the 14th century, when insurance was all about mutual help, this activity evolved rapidly in the period before the First World War and in the period between the World Wars, and it manifested itself as the entrance on the market of insurance companies representatives from countries as Austria, Italy, Great Britain. facultative insurance.

  12. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  13. Marketing Analysis of a chosen Company

    OpenAIRE

    Mihályová, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is a proposal for improvement current situation in the company, which is engaged in manufacturing machinery for the food industry. The theoretical part includes the definition of market of organizations, marketing environment, marketing mix and marketing situation analysis. The practical part describes the company NATE - Marketing, Inc. and marketing mix of the company. The thesis also includes a proposal to improve current situation based on an analysis of t...

  14. Everyday, everywhere: alcohol marketing and social media--current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, James

    2012-01-01

    To provide a snapshot content analysis of social media marketing among leading alcohol brands in the UK, and to outline the implications for both regulatory policies and further research. Using screengrab technology, the complete Facebook walls and Twitter timelines for 12 leading UK alcohol brands in November 2011 were captured and archived. A total of 701 brand-authored posts were identified and categorized using a thematic coding frame. Key strategic trends were identified and analysed in the light of contextual research into recent developments in marketing practice within the alcohol industry. A number of dominating trends were identified. These included the use of real-world tie-ins, interactive games, competitions and time-specific suggestions to drink. These methods reflect a strategy of branded conversation-stimulus which is favoured by social media marketing agencies. A number of distinct marketing methods are deployed by alcohol brands when using social media. These may undermine policies which seek to change social norms around drinking, especially the normalization of daily consumption. Social media marketing also raises questions regarding the efficacy of reactive regulatory frameworks. Further research into both the nature and impact of alcohol marketing on social media is needed.

  15. Comparing the Current Situation versus Desirable Perspective of Academic Libraries in Yazd University in Implementation of Total Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathemeh Makkizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available : Implementation of total quality management plays an important role as a progressive phenomenon in educational and cultural organizations. The main objective of this study is to compare the current situation versus desirable perspective of academic libraries in Yazd University in implementation of total quality management evaluated by managers and staff of the libraries. Independent t-test results suggested the managers have estimated the situation (M= 3.33. The independent t-test results to assess the difference in employees' attitudes about the desirable situation, was obtained as 4.33, compared with that of the managers which was 4.22. Apparently, the employees have higher expectations over the desirable situation rather than the managers. The dependent t-test results to assess the difference in managers’ attitudes about the current versus desirable situation, showed a meaningful difference of (p<0.01. The employees’ attitude towards the desirable situation (s= 0.39, M= 4.15 had a meaningful difference with their attitudes towards the current situation (s= 0.65, M= 3.04. People’s attitudes towards the current and desirable situation, had a high meaningfulness among all the eleven principles of quality management (p< 0.01. Meaningful differences were observed in multivariate analysis of variance aiming at assessing the effects of position and qualifications on the current eleven principles (p< 0.05. The results of multivariate analysis of variance to assess the effects of position and qualifications on the current eleven principles suggested that the effect of position on the components of desirable situation was not meaningful. Meanwhile, the results in effects of qualification suggested that individuals with different qualifications and university degrees had diverse attitudes towards the principles regarding the desirable situation.

  16. Aspects of the Current Fiscal - Budgetary Situation in Some Euro Area Countries. Implications for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic global crisis has exacerbated some of the imbalances existent in all EU Member States, in particular the fiscal-budgetary imbalances. For some countries whose currency is euro, the fiscal and budgetary challenges seem to threaten even the stability of the euro area. Thus, in the context of financial and economic global crisis, this article aims at identifying a number of negative aspects of the fiscal-budgetary situation of some euro area countries, more seriously affected (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and at revealing a series of possible implications of this phenomenon for Romania, thus giving originality of the conducted analysis. A fulcrum in this approach is the economic literature and the authors’ research work in the field of European integration. Through a comparative approach, the authors have identified some weaknesses of the Romanian economy generated by the current situation of some euro area countries. Given the place of the theme within the frame of present interest researches, the article’s results will be of interest for both academics and practitioners.

  17. Drug interaction studies on new drug applications: current situations and regulatory views in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Drug interaction studies on new drug applications (NDAs) for new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in Japan between 1997 and 2008 are examined in the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). The situations of drug interaction studies in NDAs have changed over the past 12 years, especially in metabolizing enzyme and transporter-based drug interactions. Materials and approaches to study drug-metabolizing enzyme-based drug interactions have improved, and become more rational based on mechanistic theory and new technologies. On the basis of incremental evidence of transporter roles in human pharmacokinetics, transporter-based drug interactions have been increasingly studied during drug development and submitted in recent NDAs. Some recently approved NMEs include transporter-based drug interaction information in their package inserts (PIs). The regulatory document "Methods of Drug Interaction Studies," in addition to recent advances in science and technology, has also contributed to plan and evaluation of drug interaction studies in recent new drug development. This review summarizes current situations and further discussion points on drug interaction studies in NDAs in Japan.

  18. Current Situations and Problems of Logistics for Guangxi Fresh Agricultural Products in the New Period and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixiong; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,Guangxi realized consecutive bumper harvests in fresh agricultural products,leading increase of logistics demand;logistics infrastructure begins to take shape,and logistics of fresh agricultural products takes on diversified development form with wholesale market as main form. However,traditional fresh agricultural products are not selling well and it lacks construction of supply chain; the construction of logistics information system for fresh agricultural products lags behind; organizational level of production and operation of fresh agricultural products is low. Through analyzing current situations and existing problems of logistics of Guangxi fresh agricultural products in the new period( 21 st century),this paper came up with recommendations for developing logistics of fresh agricultural products of Guangxi. Government should increase policy and financial support,build and manage supply chain of fresh agricultural products,accelerate construction of logistics information system for agricultural products,and improve organizational level of logistics of fresh agricultural products,to ensure healthy development of logistics of fresh agricultural products in Guangxi.

  19. Characteristics of gifted and talented student: the current situation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the current situation in Portugal with regard to high capability and talented students, focusing on the authors’ experience in the National Association for Study and Intervention in Giftedness (ANEIS. In a sequential argument, we focus on the concept of giftedness, the most specific characteristics of high ability students, and the procedures used in their initial identification and assessment. Also, the most frequent educational responses to these students are described. Finally, we underline some studies conducted as a result of the collaboration between ANEIS and several Portuguese universities. These studies refer to the instruments and procedures used for the assessment of giftedness and talent, and the impact of the implemented educational measures.

  20. Current situation and development tendency of thermal spraying materials in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Yue-guang

    2005-01-01

    The current situations of thermal spraying materials in China are described in this paper.The thermal spraying technology in China has a great progress over tens of years. More than one hundred varieties of material products serve thermal spraying producing now. They belong to three kinds, powders,wires and rods. Technologies for producing alloy, ceramic and composite powders, alloy and cored wires,and oxide ceramic rods are applied to large-scale production. Many research and development works on advanced materials for thermal spraying are carrying out recent years. They show that the general tendencies of thermal spraying materials in China are composite or low-impurity component, ultrafine or nanosized microstructure, high properties, and specialized and systematized applications. Thermal spraying materials have great prospects with the development of saving society in China.

  1. Publishing in Psychology: A description of the current situation in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS FREY

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current publication situation in the German field of psychology from an author’s viewpoint and examines the authors’ acceptance regarding open access journals. The review is based on the answers of 28 authors to a questionnaire on official statistics about psychological journals and on information obtained from journal editors. The results show that accessibility to journals does not pose problems to authors in Germany. The authors are clearly oriented towards the Anglo-American branch of scientific psychology, writing mostly in the English language and submitting their manuscripts to international journals. The whole publication process takes rather long but could be substantially quicker if the publication lag was abbreviated. Most of the authors appreciate the general idea of open access journals but see serious challenges that need to be overcome when a new journal is to be established. The circumstances under which a new psychological open access journal could be successful are briefly discussed.

  2. Current Situation and Demand of Rural Endowment Security in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunmei; LIU; Lutang; LI

    2013-01-01

    With intensification of population aging and rise in elderly dependency ratio,the demand for endowment security becomes higher and higher,particularly in rural areas.Taking Shaanxi Province as an example,the authors selected people older than 65 in 18 natural villages in north Shaanxi,south Shaanxi and Guanzhong.With the aid of survey data and related official statistical data,they made an evaluation of current situation of the rural endowment security in Shaanxi Province.Results indicate that home-based endowment is the major endowment method of rural elderly,but such method is influenced by family’s economic support ability and children’s support willingness,thus facing big demand gap.On the basis of analyzing gap problem,the authors recommended that government should increase financial and policy supports,optimize management and monitoring,actively develop non-government organizations,and promote socialization of rural endowment service.

  3. Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykha Mariya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

  4. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.

  5. A status analysis of current digital marketing: a case study of Kauneusstudio FAB

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a small company's current digital marketing status. This study was con-ducted in order for the owners of the beauty and hair salon Kauneusstudio FAB to improve their understanding of their customers’ behavior online and the significance of each digital channel they are using in the present marketing strategy. The goal of this study is to provide information for the company to recognize the strengths and the development points of the current digital marketing stra...

  6. Marketing Tourism Services in Romania. The Opportunities and Challenges of the Current Context

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Romanian tourism activity does not measure up to the tourism potential of the country and the efficient marketing of tourism services is often mentioned as a means to improve and develop tourism. In our opinion the current international context generates both opportunities and challenges for tourism services marketing. This paper aims at identifying and at presenting the key aspects that tourism services marketing faces in Romania, considering the main characteristics shaping the current ...

  7. Study on the Current Situation and Protection Countermeasures of Wild Plant Resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the current situation and protection countermeasures of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve. [Method] The current situation of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve was researched by means of route survey, sample plot survey and literature survey, and then the main impact factors of wild plant resources were analyzed by using participatory rural appraisal and problem tree analysis, finally protection countermeasures were put ...

  8. Experiential and Cooperative Learning: Using a Situation Analysis Project in Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Caroline; Huser, Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a semester-long experiential-learning project for introductory marketing students. The project requires an analysis of a product category, competition, and consumer base to support a new product proposal. The purpose is to (a) put into practice the concepts and definitions taught in an introductory marketing…

  9. Experiential and Cooperative Learning: Using a Situation Analysis Project in Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Caroline; Huser, Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a semester-long experiential-learning project for introductory marketing students. The project requires an analysis of a product category, competition, and consumer base to support a new product proposal. The purpose is to (a) put into practice the concepts and definitions taught in an introductory marketing…

  10. Comparison of Women’s Situation in the Labour Market in the Former GDR and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska Dorota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five years have passed since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the beginning of transition in the former socialist countries. The aim of this research is to find out how women in East Germany and Poland, which followed completely different transformation patterns, have been affected by the introduction of market reforms.

  11. Veterinary medicinal products for the bees - the current situation and future strategies - an important topic discussed at European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Karina Draghici,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the current situation and future issues relating to health and treatment options bees, bee breeders in Europe, agencies and drug manufacturers in Europe have held several meetings. One of thesetook place last year in December at the EMEA (European Medicines Agency in London, United Kingdom. The purpose of this meeting was to consider the current situation of pathology in bees to identify the most common diseases found in this species, identification and lack of treatment options for some diseases, and identifying solutions to improve the situation.

  12. Financial markets and the current account: emerging Europe versus emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Sabine; Winkler, Adalbert

    2009-01-01

    Financial globalisation has been associated with divergent current account patterns in emerging market economies. While countries in emerging Asia have been running sizeable current account surpluses, countries in emerging Europe have been facing large current account deficits. In this paper we test for the relevance of financial market characteristics in explaining divergent current account patterns in emerging Europe and emerging Asia based on the assumption that both regions constitute two...

  13. 新形势下煤炭营销的发展趋势探讨%Development Trend of Coal Marketing Under New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晶; 李玉晗

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, China's coal enterprises do not attach importance to the research on marketing. But with the rapid development of our country industry, the coal demand increase, and decrease in the number of coal enterprises, and regional and structural imbalance problem, and the influence of national macroscopic economic policy, make the coal enterprise must to learn how to use marketing strategy to win the competition in the market. Aiming at our country current marketing present situation has carried on the brief analysis of coal enterprises, this paper analyzed the development trend of coal marketing.%长期以来,我国煤炭企业对市场营销方面的研究并不重视。但随着我国工业的快速发展,煤炭需求量进一步加大,而煤炭企业数量的缩减,并存在地区性和结构性的不平衡的问题,以及国家宏观经济政策的影响,使煤炭企业必须要学会运用市场营销的策略赢得市场竞争的胜利。文章针对我们国家目前煤炭企业的营销现状进行了简要分析,分析探讨了煤炭营销的发展趋势。

  14. Cystic Echinococcosis in Spain: Current Situation and Relevance for Other Endemic Areas in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Vazquez, Francisco A.; Pardo-Lledias, Javier; Francos-Von Hunefeld, Marcelo; Cordero-Sanchez, Miguel; Alamo-Sanz, Rufino; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Ana; Brunetti, Enrico; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) remains an important health problem in many regions of the world, both where no control measures have been implemented, and where control programs have been incompletely successful with ensuing re-emergence of the disease. In Spain, official data on CE show an increase in the proportion of intermediate hosts with CE during the last few years, and autochthonous pediatric patients have been reported, a sign of active local transmission of disease. A similar picture emerges from data reported to the European Food Safety Authority by other European countries. Nevertheless, several crucial aspects related to CE that would help better understand and control the disease have not been tackled appropriately, in particular the emergence of infection in specific geographical areas. In this respect, while some data are missing, other data are conflicting because they come from different databases. We review the current situation of CE in Spain compared with areas in which similar problems in the CE field exist, and offer recommendations on how to overcome those limitations. Specifically, we believe that the introduction of national registries for CE with online data entry, following the example set by the European Registry for Alveolar Echinococcosis, would help streamline data collection on CE by eliminating the need for evaluating and integrating data from multiple regions, by avoiding duplication of data from patients who access several different health facilities over time, and by providing much needed clinical and epidemiological data that are currently accessible only to clinicians. PMID:21283615

  15. [Survey of current situation of schistosomiasis health education in Wuxi City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao-jun; Gao, Dong-lin; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Bing

    2015-04-01

    To understand the current situation of schistosomiasis health education in in Wuxi City where schistosomiasis transmission has been interrupted, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the health education strategies. Face to face interviews and a professional designed questionnaire were used to collect the information of the current schistosomiasis health education and investigate the awareness of schistosomiasis knowledge in primary and middle schools and in communities. The total awareness rate of schistosomiasis knowledge was 87.7% among 873 students and the figure was 83.0% among 693 community residents. The students who studied in the schools with more than 1 class hour of schistosomiasis health education, completed schistosomiasis health education material or teaching plan, and implementing health education through multiple ways had higher knowledge awareness rates compared with the schools without (χ2 = 291.408, 709.622, 13.751, all P education through broadcast/TV or square propaganda had a higher knowledge awareness rate compared with the communities without (χ2= 90.772, 47.436, all P education should be strengthened.

  16. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  17. Domestic Market Situation for China’s Textile Machinery Building (2001-2005)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the lOth Five-Year-Plan period, the textile industry will further underline the structural rationalization, and intensify the reform and renovation to set us a modern enterprise system, and encourage and direct the growth of the non-stateowned economy. And new & high-tech, will be applied to the traditional industry and the enough attention will be given to sourcing the new potentials for economic growth, and also to actively exploring the international and domestic market to

  18. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers. Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper aims to briefly outline the trends on the Romanian residential market in the aftermath of the current crisis.

  19. Current Status & Development Trend of VSAT Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Nutu

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. General Status of VSAT Market Development in China 1)Development History Development in China The history of the application of satellite communication in China is not too long and it was dated from the early seventies of the 20th century. In 1973, approved by Chinese government,Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications purchased satellite earth equipment from foreign country and constructed 3 stations in Shanghai and Beijing.

  20. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means-end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). This study conducted one-on-one in-depth interviews with participants. The interview content was subsequently analyzed and coded to produce an implication matrix and a hierarchical value map, which was further used to determine customers' value perceptions. The results indicate the terminal values of the highest strength comprised economy, pleasure, and efficiency. Pleasure was emphasized among consumers who were on a date or gathering with friends, whereas satisfaction was emphasized among consumers who craved ice cream. Based on the results, the study also provides suggestions to the industry and future researchers.

  1. [Current situation in clinical trials with vaccines in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čečetková, B; Smetana, J; Chlíbek, R

    2014-11-01

    Clinical trials are an important part of clinical research. The conduction of clinical trials is strictly regulated and has to comply with an approved protocol. Local regulatory authorities, independent ethic committees, sponsors of clinical trials as well as the investigators are involved from the submission until the very end of the trial. All clinical trials performed in the Czech Republic have to be approved by the State Institute for Drug Control and by the Ethics Committee. The regulatory bodies and independent ethics committees evaluate and continuously supervise the justification and protocol of the clinical trial, quality of the investigational medicinal products and, primarily, the safety of the participants (patients and/or healthy volunteers) in clinical trials. In the Czech Republic there are many advanced clinical research centres, either located in private practices or within hospitals. The investigators are able to conduct a wide variety of clinical trials and recruit a high number of subjects for the trials, as well as to comply with the Good Clinical Practice guidelines and other regulatory requirements. The aim of this article is to summarise the current situation of clinical trials in the Czech Republic as well as the opportunities for getting involved in clinical trials and obligations arising for health professionals from such an involvement.

  2. Current situation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rogerio Matias Vidal da; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento, E-mail: rmv.fisica@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Pinezi, Juliana Castro Dourado [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias (PUC-Goias), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Macedo, Luiz Eduardo Andrade [Hospital Chama, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    To assess the current situation of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix in Brazil, regarding apparatuses, planning methods, prescription, fractionation schedule and evaluation of dose in organs at risk. Materials and methods: in the period between March/2012 and May/2013, a multiple choice questionnaire was developed and sent to 89 Brazilian hospitals which perform HDR brachytherapy. Results: sixty-one services answered the questionnaire. All regions of the country experienced a sharp increase in the number of HDR brachytherapy services in the period from 2001 to 2013. As regards planning, although a three-dimensional planning software was available in 91% of the centers, conventional radiography was mentioned by 92% of the respondents as their routine imaging method for such a purpose. Approximately 35% of respondents said that brachytherapy sessions are performed after teletherapy. The scheme of four 7 Gy intracavitary insertions was mentioned as the most frequently practiced. Conclusion: the authors observed that professionals have difficulty accessing adjuvant three-dimensional planning tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  3. [Current situation of suicide in Japan, and what pharmacists contribute to suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

      In Japan, a national countermeasure has been forwarded since the enactment of the Basic Act on Suicide Countermeasures in 2006 and the Comprehensive Suicide Prevention Initiative in 2007. The distinctive policy of the Japanese countermeasure is expressed as the word, "comprehensive," which means that suicide prevention may not only be carried out only by mental health measures but also by comprehensive measures including chance of administrative practices. This policy is proper, although mental health measures appear to be too simple inclining to psychiatric treatments for the classic type of "depression" by a pharmacotherapy. The authors have insisted that mental health measures including psychiatric treatments are also required to be more comprehensive. This paper describes that benzodiazepine (BZ)-abuse problems including overdosing by suicidal intents have got worse recently as psychiatric clinics have increased and most of BZ abusers obtain the abused drugs form psychiatrists. This current situation indicates that pharmacists need to monitor psychiatrists' prescribing behavior and qualities of psychiatric treatment is required to be refined, suggesting pharmacists may be one of the "Gate Keeper," as supporting resources for suicide prevention. Additionally, this paper explained that basic attitudes and responses acquired by pharmacists as a supporter for suicide prevention.

  4. Analysis of the current situation regarding the aging rural population in China and proposed countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Li, Xiyuan; Liu, Jie; Mao, Jiawen

    2012-06-01

    China has become a country with an aging population. Compared with the aged in urban areas, the aged in rural areas have low income and are subject to social security deficiencies; the oldest among them are the most vulnerable group. If an effective mechanism for handling health risk is not available, the poor health of the rural elderly will cause an increase in their poverty level, which in turn will cause their health to become worse. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the current situation regarding rural population aging in China and to develop countermeasures. Data from 4 national health services surveys were used to analyze the differences between urban and rural populations. The results of the analysis revealed that the aged population in rural areas has poor health; economic security for the aged population is insufficient; and resources for the aged are lacking in rural areas. The Chinese government should improve medicare for the aged in rural areas, and establish a medical treatment subsidy system and a medical support system for the aged in rural areas.

  5. Water quality, agriculture and food safety in China:Current situation, trends, interdependencies, and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-nan; GUO Qiu-ping; SHEN Xiao-xue; YU Sheng-wen; QIU Guo-yu

    2015-01-01

    Water quality in China is becoming a severe chalenge for agriculture and food safety, and it might also impact health of populationvia agriculture and food. Thus, it is causing widespread concern. Based on extensive literatures review and data mining, current situation of water polution in China and its effects on food safety were analyzed.The 2nd National Water Resource Survey in China show that the surface water al over the country was under slight polution and about 60% of groundwater is poluted. Drinking water quality is basicaly guaranteed in urban area but it is worrisome in rural areas. In addition, China is the largest consumer of fertilizer and pesticide in the world and the amounts of application stil show increasing trends. Fertilizers and pesticides are the most important sources of polution, which affect human health as persistent organic polutants and environmental endocrine disruptors. Eutrophication of surface water and nitrate polution of groundwater are serious threats to drinking water safety. Sewage irrigation is becoming a polution source to China’s water and land because of lacking of effective regulations. Although, with the advance in technology and management level, control of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions and reducing water polution is stil a major chalenge for China.

  6. [Current situation and measures to promote anti-doping activities in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Shin

    2011-01-01

    After the Ministry of Edcation, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan has ratified the UNESCO "International Convention Fight against Doping in Sport" in December 2006, the government increased its support to Anti-Doping activities. About 5 years ago, the total number of doping control samples a year in Japan was around 2000, and this number was not enough to demonstrate Japanese athletes' cleanness to the rest of the world. However, after the government's ratification of the UNESCO international convention, the government increased its support both financially and politically. By receiving the increased support from the government, testing number has increased and reached 5000 samples a year. 5 years ago, our target athletes range was only international level athletes who compete in the Olympics or international events. As we expanded our testing numbers, the target range of the athletes was also expanded and national level athletes also became our targets. As a result, athletes without having adequate knowledge about anti-doping regulations became our target. This situation caused inadvertent anti-doping rule violation cases. Most of those anti-doping rule violations were the result of taking over-the-counter medicines, etc. In order to cope with those inadvertent anti-doping rule violation problems, we, Japan Anti-Doping Agency launched "Sport Pharmacist Project" in cooperation with Japan Pharmaceutical Association. In this project, we provide anti-doping information/regulation to the pharmacists and make those pharmacists knowledgeable about the current anti-doping rules and regulations.

  7. Current Situations of the Integration of RTIs Prevention and Treatment into Routine FP Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-xia DOU; Wei YUAN; Meng-ye PENG; Er-sheng GAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of the integration of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment into routine Family planning (FP) program. Methods Literature review, in depth interview and focus group discussion were employed to collect the related information. Questionnaire survey was conducted in 59 county level FP facilities. Results Both central and local governments provide policy supports to RTIs prevention and treatment. Nearly 98.3% of local FP facilities had integrated this work into their routine FP program. A comprehensive network system of family planning has been established in China and there were plenty of FP human resources. The existing FP resource should be effectively used, which could produce great social benefit if RTIs prevention and treatment be integrated into routine FP program. However, some problems still need to be solved in the integrated program, such as insufficient finance support, low quality of service, lack of co-operations between different sectors, etc. Conclusion It is possible and feasible to develop RTIs controlling projects in the family planning system. However, intensive training and close co-operation need to be applied respectively into FP staffs and relative departments.

  8. Water Utility Management Strategies in Turkey: The current situation and the challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, E.; Aksoy, M. N.; Koçer, B.

    2013-12-01

    As the effects of climate change becomes more prominent, current challenges related to water and wastewater management is becoming more serious. Providing water that satisfies environmental and safety standards in terms of quantity and quality is needed to maintain human life without compromising the need of future generations. Besides providing safe and affordable water, necessary treatment should be achieved according to several important factors such as receiving body standards, discharge standards, water reuse options. Therefore, management of water becomes more crucial than ever that states have to provide accessibility of safe water with affordable cost to its citizens with the means of effective utility management, including water treatment facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, water supply facilities and water distribution systems. Water utilities encounter with several challenges related to cost, infrastructure, population, legislation, workforce and resource. This study aims to determine the current situation and the necessary strategies to improve utility management in Turkish municipalities in a sustainable manner. US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has formed a tool on effective utility management that assists utilities to provide a solution for both current and future challenges. In this study, we used EPA's guidelines and developed a survey consists of 60 questions under 10 sub-topics (Product Quality, Employee & Leadership Development, Stakeholder Understanding & Support, Operational Optimization, Infrastructure Stability, Financial Viability, Community Sustainability, Customer Satisfaction, Operational Resiliency, and Water Resource Adequacy). This survey was sent to the managers of 25 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey to assess the current condition of municipalities. After the evaluation of the survey results for each topic, including the importance given by managers, facilities were rated according to their level of achievement

  9. Analysis of the Domestic Market Situation and Demands of Yoga Clothes%我国瑜伽服市场现状及需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪梅; 王建萍

    2011-01-01

    Combined with the current market situation of domestic Yoga clothes,it researched comfort evaluations and demands of Yoga practitioners by questionnaire investigation.The statistical analysis showed that when choosing Yoga clothes,the majority of practitioners placed most importance to fabric and structure,and hoped to improve the comfort of Yoga clothes by structural optimization.%通过调查问卷结合瑜珈服市场现状调研了瑜伽修习者对裤装的需求和舒适性评价。统计分析得出,多数修习者在选择瑜伽服时最看重面料和结构,希望通过结构优化来提升瑜伽服的舒适性。

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-01-01

    The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers). Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper a...

  11. B2B marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  12. APPROACH METHOD OF CURRENT COMPETITIVE MARKET - AGILE INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERGHEL Sabina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “agility” - agile enterprise - was introduced by a group of American researchers led by R.Dove as a result of some studies in a program sponsored by the US government, a program that primarily aimed at exploring the possibilities of making up production systems which could compete with the efficient production system "lean", introduced in most Japanese companies. Researchers involved in this program have formed Agility Forum, which aims to develop the concepts introduced. In 2001 appears the first paper, by R. Dove, entitled “Response Ability - Understanding the Agile Enterprise”, John Wiley and Sons Editors, in which was synthesized the phase of research field. Agility can be defined as “the ability with which an organization manages to develop successfully in a business environment whose changes are unpredictable.” Being agile means to control change, to notice market opportunities and by being continuously innovating, to succed on the market. The purpose of this paper is to support the idea that agility is a feature derived from the design and also to show that by applying the principles of RRS, which characterize agile systems, it is confirmed the fact that any industrial production system which wishes to be agile it should be designed.

  13. 当前国内汽车营销策略重构探析%An Analysis of the Reconstruction of China's Current Automobile Marketing Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海侠

    2012-01-01

    China's automobile market is now showing the competition of a "post-market", which means that the past 4S sales mode and marketing strategy is lagging behind the current situation and there is an imperative need to introduce the management concept of integrated marketing communication and the new 4V marketing strategy. The new approaches require intensive service marketing, enriched marketing modes and service items and differentiated marketing methods. The new approaches also call for the full exploitation of products and services, the increased value for money and the rapid improvement of informationization and marketing talent training. Only in this way can the new market trends be met.%目前国内汽车市场正进入“后市场”竞争时代,原有的4S销售模式和营销策略已经有所滞后,急需引入整合营销传播的管理理念和4V新型营销策略,深化服务营销,扩充营销模式和服务内涵,体现差异化营销,充分挖掘产品和服务功能,增加附加值,并加速完善信息化和营销人才培养机制,以适应新市场趋势的需求。

  14. An Analysis of Current Labor Market Developments and Structures in European Union – in Correlation with Labor Market Flexicurity Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ştefania CHENIC (CREŢU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Althougt at first sight the crisis appears as a disturbance of the regular course of economic, social and organizational, this is a necessary step that turns old structures and relations to some superior functional. Under these conditions, hawever, it is absolutely necessary that the situation be properly evaluated by an analysis of developments and labour market structures and be taken right decision for the purposes of proper management of existing and potential recovery so far underused resources: people, values and strategies. The impact of the economic crisis on labour markets displays significant variation from one country to another. Employment rates and unemployment rates will be compared between European countries and for different groups of workers. Some countries have succeeded in keeping employment levels up and unemployment levels down through recourse to employmentpreservation and employment-creation measures combined with an expansion of active labour market policies. Moreover, certain labour market groups or categories have been particularly hard hit by the crisis. These include men, temporary workers, youth and migrant workers. In the EU Member States, crossing the crisis period was marked by changes in the sense orientation flexibleworking time and conservation work, a strategy that ensures rapid and reversible adaptation to the needs ofproduction entities present.

  15. Identification and prioritization of the effective factors on the choice of optimal marketing strategy in recession situations using fuzzy and Group Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kariznoee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that recession situation leads to demands reduction. Therefore, companies encounter challenges and weak businesses are disappeared and resistant and strength companies remain. In this situation considering the marketing department especially marketing strategy play a significant role. There are many marketing strategies. Companies use these strategies based on their needs or formulate new strategy with regard to their internal and external circumstances. This paper identify and prioritize the important factors in determination and selection appropriate marketing strategy through reviewing previous studies related to strategies used in recession condition and interviewing with experts. Thus, fuzzy and group analytic hierarchy process, which is a common and widely used decision making method, have been used in this study also the excel software was used in this study. The results of this study indicate that the major factors influencing the selection of appropriate marketing strategies, in order of preference, are price, product, distribution networks, and staff.

  16. [Access to drugs and the situation of the pharmaceutical market in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Galarza, Claudio; León, Fernando Cornejo; Ponce, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    In the area of public health, it is fundamental to understand the structure and dynamics of the Ecuadorian pharmaceutical market, its segmentation between the public and private sectors, and its relationship with supply and demand, both for generic and brand-name drugs. To achieve this, an observational descriptive study was conducted with information obtained from the available scientific, institutional, technical-administrative, and economic databases. Furthermore, the scientific information concerning the Ecuadorian and regional pharmaceutical market was reviewed through the PubMed and Ovid search engines. In Ecuador, 69.6% of dispensed drugs are brand-name and 30.4% are generics. Of all registered drugs in the country, 1,829 (13.6%) are considered over-the-counter and 11,622 (86.4%) are for sale under medical prescription. In terms of sales, 93.15% correspond to brand-name drugs and only 6.85% to generics. Ninety percent of the pharmacies are located in urban areas and only 10% in rural areas. In the last five years, prices have increased by 12.5% for brand-name drugs and 0.86% for generics. Brand-name drugs are dispensed and consumed 2.3 times more than generics. The majority of pharmacies are located in urban areas, showing that there is a relationship between purchasing power and access to drugs. Although the regulatory authority stipulates that 13% of drugs should be over-the-counter, approximately 60% of the population acquires drugs without a medical prescription.

  17. Contemporary art and its commercial markets: a report on current conditions and future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind, M.; Velthuis, O.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary Art and Its Commercial Markets: A Report on Current Conditions and Future Scenarios maps and analyzes the complex and contested entanglements of contemporary art and its commercial markets. Contemporary art as an asset category and celebrity accessory, the rise of the art fair, and the

  18. Contemporary art and its commercial markets: a report on current conditions and future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind, M.; Velthuis, O.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary Art and Its Commercial Markets: A Report on Current Conditions and Future Scenarios maps and analyzes the complex and contested entanglements of contemporary art and its commercial markets. Contemporary art as an asset category and celebrity accessory, the rise of the art fair, and the

  19. NOKIA MOBILE PHONE MARKETING IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yayi

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis is to analyze the Nokia mobile’s sales in the Chinese market, including product type, product competitiveness, market awareness, price difference, market segmentation, market position, and market share. This thesis provides the market research indicating the sales, competitors, Nokia’s market strategy, the environment analysis and a SWOT analysis of Chinese market. The final part of my thesis is the description of the current situation of Nokia in addition to suggestions...

  20. Studying the start of the Maunder Minimum to understand the current situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Ralph; Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.

    2016-04-01

    To investigate whether we now enter a Maunder-like grand minimum, we have to compare the current situation with the time around the start of the Maunder minimum. Sunspot observations in the 1610s are of particular importance and relevance, because they are shortly before the start of the Maunder Grand Minimum. While the Maunder Minimum it is usually dated from 1645 to 1715, Vaquero & Trigo (2015) argue that what they call the "Extended Maunder Minimum" would have started in 1618 during or around a Schwabe cycle minimum around that time. We have therefore studied the sunspot record of that time in detail. Hoyt & Schatten (1998) compiled for all known telescopic observers a list of their observations; recent solar activity studies for the past four centuries are based on their compilation. In addition to 12 observers listed by Hoyt & Schatten (1998) for the 1610s, we list six more observers with datable spot observations. Furthermore, while Hoyt & Schatten (1998) argue that Simon Marius would have observed from mid 1617 to the end of 1618 almost every day, but would have never seen a spot, we can show with the original reports by Marius that he observed from Aug 1611 to spring 1619 with a lot of sunspot detections. Similar, while Hoyt & Schatten (1998) argue that Giovanni Riccioli would have observed on almost every day in 1618, but would have never seen a spot, he did not report any own observations at all that year, but quoted Argoli for that there were no spots during the periods with comets in 1618. The data base by Hoyt & Schatten (1998) has several more errors in the 1610s, as we show also for the observations by Harriot, Scheiner, Malapert, Saxonius, and Tarde. We also compare drawings from Jungius with the observations by Harriot, Galilei, and Marius. In contrast to what is specified in Hoyt & Schatten (1998), after Harriot, the two Fabricius (father and son), Scheiner and Cysat, Marius and Schmidnerus are among the earliest datable telescopic sunspot

  1. An Investigation on the Current Situation of Management Information Systems Discipline in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar YARLIKAŞ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the development of management information systems field by evaluating the theses conducted at universities in Turkey in the departments of management information systems and science of management information systems. First, this study aims to determine the distribution of the theses in terms of years, subjects and the research methods used. Another purpose of this study was to determine which of the related disciplines of management information systems are used most in the theses. In addition, as a result of the study, the compatibility degree between the theses written and the courses taught in the graduate programs of management information systems were determined. In this research, content analysis method is used. Through this method, each of the theses was evaluated with a 10-question ‘thesis evaluation question set' constructed towards the purpose of the study. Through this evaluation, the current situation of the field was determined. It was observed that the number of doctoral theses associated with the field was less. Using the combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques most in the theses denoted that the interdisciplinary approaches were adopted in the theses associated with management information systems. It was observed that the literature analysis and survey techniques were the most studied research methods in the theses. Besides, statistical techniques were used highly in the theses. As a result of this study, it was concluded that out of the associated disciplines of management information systems, management science, computer science and statistics disciplines were more associated with the investigated theses. When the study results were evaluated as a whole, it was seen that significant progress was made in the discipline of management information systems compared to the early 2000s.

  2. TBLT IN CHINA (2001-2011: THE CURRENT SITUATION, PREDICAMENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Shaoqian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With the reform of English education in China since 2001, a communicative and task-based language teaching has emerged into Chinese English classroom. To understand task-based language teaching (TBLT practice in China, a synthesis study was conducted to analyze the current situation and predicament of TBLT in China over the last ten years based on the published TBLT articles (2001-2011 in Chinese journals and educational newspapers. The study shows that there is questioning and criticism on the effectiveness of TBLT in the forein languagae teaching classes despite the amazing growth of research in TBLT in China. It is also found that the predicament of TBLT may be attributable to a variety of factors such as no professional and systematic training TBLT for teachers, little knowledge of the latest development of TBLT, differences in student English proficiency, gap between local educational levels, no enough educational funds as well as misunderstanding and mispractice of TBLT. Thus, how to appropriately adapt and localize TBLT in China has become the major concern of researchers and educators as well as teachers. To solve the problem, this paper puts forward some suggestions to localize TBLT in the Chinese context, which is concerned with (1 task design; (2 integrating target tasks and pedagogical tasks; (3 balance between meaning and form; (4 tasks for big classes; (5 developing school based textbooks and (6 combining tasks and other teaching principles. Such a context-based approach to TBLT could provide a reference for other contexts similar to China.

  3. Open access to journal articles in oncology: current situation and citation impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, F; Sun, H; Walsh, T; Glenny, A-M; Worthington, H

    2017-10-01

    Recent years have seen numerous efforts and resources devoted to the development of open access (OA), but the current OA situation of the oncology literature remains unknown. We conducted this cross-sectional study to determine the current share and provision methods of OA in the field of oncology, identify predictors of OA status (OA versus non-OA), and study the association between OA and citation counts. PubMed was searched for oncology-related, peer-reviewed journal articles published in December 2014. Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, ResearchGate, OpenDOAR and OAIster were manually checked to assess the OA status of each included article. Citation data were extracted from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the OA proportion (primary outcome) and OA provision methods. Multivariable logistic regression and multilevel generalized linear model analyses were performed to study predictors of OA status and the association between OA and citation counts, respectively. In a random sample of 1000 articles, 912 were deemed eligible and therefore included. Of these, the full-texts of 530 articles (58.1%; 95% CI: 54.9-61.3) were freely available online: 314 (34.4%) were available from publishers ('Gold road' to OA), 424 (46.5%) were available via self-archiving ('Green road' to OA). According to multivariable regression analyses, impact factor, publisher type, language, research type, number of authors, continent of origin, and country income were significant predictors of articles' OA status; OA articles received a citation rate 1.24 times the incidence rate for non-OA articles (95% CI: 1.05-1.47; P = 0.012). Based on our sample, in the field of oncology, 42% of recent journal articles are behind the pay-wall (non-OA) 1 year after publication; the 'Green road' of providing OA is more common than the 'Gold road'; OA is associated with higher citation counts.

  4. 肉类食品的现状%The Current Situation of Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盼盼

    2009-01-01

    Meat products are indispensable food resource in human life. The safety of meat products has great influential in human body health. This article reviewed the present situation, problem and countermeasure of meat product's safety system.

  5. Market potential of superconductor current limiters; Marktpotential von supraleitenden Strombegrenzern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakner, M.; Braun, D. [ABB Schweiz AG, Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the two concepts - 'resistive' and 'inductive' - used for Superconducting Fault Current Limiters (SCFCL) that utilise the transition from zero to finite resistance to limit short-circuit currents. The main advantages of SCFCL are compared to other current-limiting technologies: They can limit any type of prospective fault current, operate fail-safe, be self-triggered and self-restoring. Their main disadvantage - the cooling effort necessary - is also discussed. The application possibilities of SCFCL were investigated by simulating the impact on utility and industrial grids. Applications of SCFCL such as the coupling of medium-voltage grids and their use in series with a circuit-breaker on the secondary side of a substation transformer are discussed. It is also shown that, by using fault current limiters, considerable cost savings can be made, especially in connection with new installations or the extension of existing plants.

  6. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.

  7. Monitoring the benzene contents in soft drinks using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: a survey of the situation on the belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, Christof; Detavernier, Christ'l; Van Bocxlaer, Jan F; Vermeylen, Rudi; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2008-06-25

    Whenever benzoic acid is combined with ascorbic acid in acidic beverages such as soft drinks, benzene can be formed. To determine the current situation on the Belgian market, a headspace gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method was developed, which needs little to no sample preparation. This method was then used to analyze 134 soft drinks sampled on the Belgian market by the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain. Thirty-three percent of the samples contained no detectable benzene, whereas the majority of the samples (47%) contained trace amounts below the limit of quantification of the method (0.3 microg L (-1)). Ten samples were above the European limit for benzene in drinking water of 1 microg L (-1), and one sample had a concentration of 10.98 microg L (-1), thereby exceeding the action limit for benzene in soft drinks of 10 microg L (-1) discussed at the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health of the European Commission. Statistical analyses revealed that besides benzoic acid, ascorbic acid, and acidity regulators, the packing may also play an important role in benzene formation.

  8. Problems of Assessment of Influence of the Market Situation upon Competitive Position of an Enterprise in the Process of Managing its Products Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fartushnyak Olga Victorovna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article justifies a possibility of use of natural-science approaches when assessing the market situation in the process of forecasting competitive position of an enterprise. In order to develop further the methods of forecasting competitive position of the producer, the article offers to use approaches of the turbulent theory of motion of continuum, in particular, the Kolmogorov law of dissipation of energy of continuum when forecasting market situation values. The practical benefit of the proposed methodical approach to forecasting lies in the fact that it gives a possibility of proposing scientifically justified solutions with respect to selection of different strategies to enterprise management. Its main purpose is to clarify the way of development of a decision on the basis of revealed basic competitive positions of an enterprise, basic tendencies, main critical zones, risks of uneven changes, most difficult problems and identification of the forecast position of an enterprise with consideration of the market situation forecast.

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease control in Zambia: A review of the current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2012-06-01

    . Presented with the current poverty levels failure to institute result oriented control measures will exacerbate the already life-threatening situation.

  10. Current situation on the reporting quality of randomized controlled trials in 5 leading Chinese medical journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wei; Li Tiejun; Wu Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) statement has already proved to be an efficient standard for reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, most of the Chinese medical journals have not endorsed the CONSORT statement. The current situation about the reporting quality of RCTs in Chinese medical journals is still unclear. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reporting quality of RCTs on papers published in 5 leading Chinese medical journals. Methods: We evaluated 232 original RCT papers using a reporting quality scale based on CONSORT statement from 2001 to 2006 in 5 Chinese medical journals (Journal type 1) without adoption of CONSORT and Chinese Journal of Evidence-based Medicine (Journal type 2) which adopted CONSORT in 2004. We measured the inclusion of 26 items for the reporting quality scale and 6 core items of each RCT report, gave score to each item and calculated the total score obtained in each report and the proportion of reports including individual items. The reporting quality of RCT trials from 2001 to 2003 (pre-adoption period) was compared with that from 2004 to 2006 (post-adoption period). Results: The average reporting quality of RCTs was moderate (mean score, 15.18), and the mean score of the 6 core items was low (mean score, 1.09)in 5 leading journals. The difference in the total score and the score of the 6 core items between pre-adoption period (2001-2003) and post-adoption period (2004-2006) was statistically significant (P=0.003; P=0.000). Interaction between journal type and period was not significant (F=0.76; P=0.383). We concluded that the change tendency of reporting quality between Journal type 1 and 2 was not different. But as to the core items of sequence concealment and intention-to-treat analysis,the increases were greater for Journal type 2 when evaluated against Journal type 1 (P=0.038; P=0.016). Conclusion: The reporting quality of RCT trials in 5 leading Chinese

  11. Safety assurance of cosmetics in Japan: current situation and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law distinguishes cosmetics from quasi-drugs, and specifies that they must have a mild effect on the human body and must be safe to use over the long term. Therefore, the safety of cosmetics needs to be thoroughly evaluated and confirmed, taking into account the type of cosmetic, application method, conditions of use and so on. Post-marketing surveys of customers' complaints and case reports of adverse effects are important to monitor and confirm the safety of products. Although manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics are becoming more globalized, the regulations relevant to cosmetics safety still vary from country to country. Thus, compliance with different regulations in various markets is a major issue for producers. In particular, further development of alternatives to animal testing remains an urgent global issue.

  12. Current Situation of Job Burnout of Junior High School Teachers in Shangqiu Urban Areas and Its Relationship with Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhongying

    2008-01-01

    This study surveyed the current situation of teacher burnout in a sample of 400 teachers from urban junior high school in Shangqiu of Henan Province with scales, and examined the relationship between dimensions of teacher burnout and sources and types of social support they received. The results show that Shangqiu urban junior high school…

  13. Current Situation and Reforms Making Way for Future Positive Developments in the National Education System of Bulgaria: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper on the education system of Bulgaria is aimed at presenting its structure, current situation, problems and challenges that it faces, and on-going reforms leading to some positive trends in the development of the national education sector. At the moment of writing this paper in the year 2015, we will mark the 1160th anniversary of the…

  14. The current situation of wood plastic composites%塑木复合材料发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何阳; 郑德; 黄锐

    2012-01-01

    The current situation of wood plastic composties are introduced, the development of wood plastic composties are analyzed in the future.%介绍了塑木复合材料的发展现状,并对其未来的发展作了分析。

  15. ANDREEA NICOLĂESCU, The Work-Life Balance in Current EU Labour Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A work-life balance is one of the factors that increases an employee's individual satisfaction, leading to higher economic performance, an aspect that is found in most EU strategic documents dealing with the labour market. Focusing on gender differences, the article carries out a comparative analysis of the situation in EU Member States, on several dimensions: working time, flexible work arrangements, providing opportunities for assuming different domestic responsibilities etc.

  16. Current Situation of English Major Students’ Web-based Autonomous English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华

    2015-01-01

    Through an interview of three English major students and a field observation, the study explores English major students’ web-based autonomous English learning situation and the problems on their way. The findings show that web-based English materials are most helpful to speaking and listening, and that students’ insufficient information retrieval skill is the main problem on their way.

  17. 75 FR 60713 - Farmers' Market Promotion Program: Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Farmers' Market Promotion Program: Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Promotion Program (FMPP) was created through an amendment of the Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act...

  18. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  19. 我国网络营销的现状分析与对策%Situation Analysis and Countermeasure of Internet Marketing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莲

    2012-01-01

    本文从网络营销的概念和内涵出发,分析了我国企业的网络营销现状,指出了我国企业发展网络营销的存在的问题,并提出了解决对策.%Proceeding from the concept and connotation of internet marketing, this paper analyzed the present situation of network marketing business in China, pointed out the problems in developing internet marketing business in China, and offered solutions.

  20. Marketing of library and information services in global era: A current approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Karn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the marketing of library and information services in the global era. It discusses about the marketing concept of today's library and information centers covering various topics such as management of libraries and commitment to customer's satisfaction. It also defines the marketing and its current approach to library and information services at the global level. It also describes customer/user's topic such as customers' priorities, customers' expectations, individuality responsiveness, relationships, quality of services, professional skills and competencies and value added services. The 5 Ps of marketing mix, i.e. product, pricing, place, promotion and person (staff have been discussed. The marketing should aim at effective library and information services. The "service trinity", i.e. users (customers, the staff (service provider and information resources and system should be taken care of from the view of these services. In the modern age, the library and information services (LIS are customer (user oriented. Therefore, users' priorities, expectations and needs should be taken into account. The services should be value added according to the current requirement of the users. It is concluded that the modern libraries are information markets and the library users are consumers of information. The ultimate objective of the marketing of library and information services should be the dissemination of the right information to the right customer (user at the right time.

  1. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. [The current state of the organizational component of the personality identification procedures for the unrecognized casualties of emergency situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkutin, V V; Stepanov, A A; Minaeva, P V

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of analysis of organizational problems related to personality identification of unrecognized casualties in a variety of emergency situations. The necessity of purpose-oriented introduction of high-technology methods into the practical work of forensic medical experts is emphasized. The priority of the organizational component in the interdepartmental interactions during joint expertise actions at the sites of emergency situations is substantiated. The specific features of injuries in unrecognized subjects who died or suffered in emergency situations are considered with reference to the latter's peculiar conditions. The authors discuss prospects for the further development of organizational and legal basis of research for the purpose of personality identification with the use of the database of human medico-biological characteristics as envisaged by the current legislation.

  3. Current Situation of English Major Students’ Web-based Autonomous English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新华

    2015-01-01

    Through an interview of three English major students and a fi eld observation,the study explores English major students’web-based autonomous English learning situation and the problems on their way.The findings show that web-based English materials are most helpful to speaking and listening,and that students’insufficient information retrieval skill is the main problem on their way.

  4. Current situation of hospital-based endocrinology and clinical nutrition in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles Gálvez Moreno, M

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Healthcare Commission of Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition did a survey in order to know the actual situation of endocrinology and clinical nutrition healthcare in Public Sanitary Systems in Spain. The survey has been more extensive than the last and it has taken up number and geographical distribution of specialists in Spain in addition to data about clinical assistance. The mean of public hospitals with endocrinologist participation has been 50%.

  5. Current state and near-term prospects for development of the transport logistics market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Karpenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article has studied the current state of the transport services market in Ukraine, characterized features of the favorable geopolitical position of the country, identified segments of the market of transport and logistics services in Ukraine, made an analysis of the dynamics of freight transportation by land transport, determined its capacity in money terms and calculated the component share of this type of activity in the country’s GDP.

  6. A Glance of College Students Tourism Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍艾琳

    2015-01-01

    This paper points out the situation of the development of college student tourism market at current stage.To help the readers better understand about operation and mechanism of the college student tourism market and industry.

  7. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  8. The Current Situation, Problems and Countermeasure Research of Chain-management Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, Chinese Chain-management, which is still at the initial stage of development, is in obvious disadvantage in the competition with foreign large-scale chain enterprises. Merger, franchise and some other approaches should be adopted by Chinese chain enterprises in order to broad in scale. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to informatization system, constant optimization and upgrade information system. By choosing good promotion and advertising modes to increase customer’s awareness to chain enterprises brand, we could smoothly implement the chain enterprise brand strategy. Finally, chain enterprise management in China will expand under the context of new market.

  9. The current situation of e-books in academic and public libraries in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Macevičiūtė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducing e-books into Swedish libraries has been influenced by the idea of equal access to all media for all Swedish citizens as well as by librarians’ wish to provide the best possible service to their users. Libraries perceived this new resource and service as a way of fulfilling their specific function in a democratic society, which is usually described as mediation (or transfer of knowledge and culture to all. This is a common basis for the incorporation of new media and information resources (including e-books into Swedish academic and public libraries. Apart from this common platform, we see other similarities in working with e-books in both types of libraries, but also a number of differences. Most of them relate to the position of libraries within their respective context and in relation to their specific role. Academic libraries are quite influential players in the global scholarly communication and supporters of both research and study processes. As such they are embedded in a mainly international market of scientific information and scholarly materials. They have significant resources provided by their parent universities for the acquisition of scholarly material and a wide choice of commercially available material from different providers. They are also incorporated into a national library consortium with great negotiation power. Thus, they have more freedom to experiment with a variety of business and pricing models offered on the international market. They also have a high competence in publishing and are often publishers themselves. Their involvement in research processes and in open access initiatives puts them in a position to provide expertise to researchers in the areas of publishing and intellectual property protection. Public libraries are part of the local cultural and educational landscape. As such, they depend on the production of media and content in national languages which helps cater to the needs and demands of

  10. Status of the Wind-Diesel Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation offers an overview of the wind-diesel market, including the range of power systems, recent progress, current energy situation of remote communities, operating projects, current market approaches and ongoing challenges.

  11. Biosimilars and non-innovator biotherapeutics in India: an overview of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Hemant

    2011-09-01

    Globally, a large number of blockbuster biotherapeutic molecules are going off patent in the next few years. For emerging economies, like India, it is imperative to be able to provide safe and cost effective drugs for its huge, non-insured and poor population. India has a robust pharmaceutical industry including the biopharmaceutical sector which is actively engaged in the production and marketing of 'non-innovator' or 'copy' biotherapeutic products These products are approved through an abbreviated route which relies on limited safety and efficacy data enabling the local companies to keep the production costs low and pass on the price benefit to the patient and make the product affordable to the masses. Some of the available products may not be truly 'similar' and may be of suspect quality. The WHO [1] and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) [2] have published guidelines for the development and marketing of biosimilar products. These products, as stated in both guidelines undergo extensive head-to-head comparability testing with the reference biotherapeutic product (RBP) to show their similarity to the RBP in terms of quality, efficacy and safety. Regulators and administrators of different countries need to strike a balance in cost-to-benefit versus risks that are perceived for these products, keeping in mind global regulatory issues.

  12. Current Situation and Development Tendency of China’s Electronic Copper Foil Industry——Part Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The China’s import & export data of the electronic copper foil industry in recent years is a microcosm of the current development situation of the industry, which may help us gain a deeper understanding of product level, competitive strength, technological and management level as well as national foreign trade policies of the industry.China now has become the largest copper foil

  13. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  14. Domestic Situation and Market Status of Polyethylene Special Materials for Gas Pipe%国内聚乙烯燃气管专用料的开发现状及市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍光复

    2011-01-01

    The current domestic situation of polyethylene special materials for gas pipe and the market status are analyzed. The polyethylene gas pipe industry are reviewed. The development status of domestic polyethylene special materials for gas pipe, the current domestic market status and the future prospects are introduced.%分析了目前国内聚乙烯燃气管专用料的现状及市场情况.分别介绍了聚乙烯燃气管行业的发展、国内聚乙烯燃气管专用料的开发现状、当前国内的市场情况以及未来发展前景.

  15. [Adolescent pregnancy in Peru: its current situation and implications for public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Walter; Subiría, Gracia

    2013-07-01

    This article ellaborates on the relation between peruvian pregnant adolescents of 15 to 19 years of age and poverty, malnutrition and social exclusion, proposing alternatives for their medical care within the frame of social programs and the fight against poverty. Likewise, it describes and analyzes the trends recorded over the past 20 years, emphasizing the multiple and persistent inequalities. Over this period, prevalences have not changed substantially, despite a slight drop recorded in the rural area. First, the article analyzes these trends in the light of their closest determinants, including changes in teenagers'exposure to the risk of an unplanned pregnancy. Then, it describes the impact this situation has on adolescents and their children, as well as the economic and labour impacts. Finally, it examines the experiences of countries with social programs similar to the one in Peru, highlighting those which could be implemented in our country.

  16. Current situation and consideration of training base hospitals for residents of neurosurgical specialization in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-zeng JIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resident training of neurosurgical specialization will be tried and carried out in all over China. From the point of view of training base hospitals, a majority of 3A level hospitals have sufficient patients and good equipments which will ensure the success of training process; however, division of subspecialty, teaching motivation and teaching method still have a great potential to improve. In order to establish and improve training bases for residents of specialization, supervision from national administrative department should be strengthened; professional society also plays an important role in standardizing and controlling the training quality. Considering our nation's situation, integration of postgraduate education and resident training is worth of discussion. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.015

  17. [School escorts in inclusive education- the current situation in the state of Baden-Wurttemberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Katharina; Thurn, Leonore; Besier, Tanja; Künster, Anne K; Fegert, Jörg M; Ziegenhain, Ute

    2014-11-01

    In the context of inclusive education, so-called «Schulbegleiter» (school escorts) have been installed to assist children with special needs. However, adequate conceptions of their role are lacking, and no provisions exist describing the exact tasks and duties of these school escorts. This article presents data on a statewide empirical study and provides information on the professional background, qualifications, and assignments of such escorts as well as the nature of the assisted children in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The data were collected in nearly 50 % of all schools providing general education in Baden-Württemberg, and a total of 526 school escorts completed a questionnaire on their work. Children with special needs who received such assistance were aged 6 to 19 years (M = 10.4) and had a mental disorder in nearly three-fourths of all cases, with autism spectrum disorders being most common (59.4 %). The most frequent assignments of the escorts were providing practical assistance during classes and mobilizing the child as well as providing direct support in emotionally challenging situations. Such escorts can make a significant contribution to the inclusive education of disabled children. They do, however, need an adequate qualification and practical competences to meet the diverse challenges of children with special needs. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are supposed to stay involved in the process, not only by planning interventions, but also during the course of inclusive education itself. Thus, the emotional situation and adjustment of included children with mental disorders over time must be monitored adequately.

  18. Current situation and future potential of further integration between UK and EU

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses potential consequences of Brexit as well as the current costs and benefits of UK’s membership in the EU, furthermore focusing on alternative agreements that may result between the members.

  19. [The current situation with amendments to the scale of remuneration for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulf, W

    2012-08-01

    The regulation for the scale of remuneration for physicians (GÖA) is a Federal act which must be approved by the Federal Council. The structure and specification of the services in the current scales are out of date. The current performance ratings should be replaced by a strict economic analysis calculation model. This is the only way the Medical Council (BÄK) can foresee that higher performance ratings for services can be enforced against the health insurance companies.

  20. Pharmaceutical Market Access: current state of affairs and key challenges – results of the Market Access Launch Excellence Inventory (MALEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A. Koch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To take inventory of the current state of affairs of Market Access Launch Excellence in the life sciences industry. To identify key gaps and challenges for Market Access (MA and discuss how they can be addressed. To generate a baseline for benchmarking MA launch excellence. Methodology: An online survey was conducted with pharmaceutical executives primarily working in MA, marketing, or general management. The survey aimed to evaluate MA excellence prerequisites across the product life cycle (rated by importance and level of implementation and to describe MA activity models in the respective companies. Composite scores were calculated from respondents’ ratings and answers. Results: Implementation levels of MA excellence prerequisites generally lagged behind their perceived importance. Item importance and the respective level of implementation correlated well, which can be interpreted as proof of the validity of the questionnaire. The following areas were shown to be particularly underimplemented: 1 early integration of MA and health economic considerations in research and development decision making, 2 developing true partnerships with payers, including the development of services ‘beyond the pill’, and 3 consideration of human resource and talent management. The concept of importance-adjusted implementation levels as a hybrid parameter was introduced and shown to be a viable tool for benchmarking purposes. More than 70% of respondents indicated that their companies will invest broadly in MA in terms of capital and headcount within the next 3 years. Conclusions: MA (launch excellence needs to be further developed in order to close implementation gaps across the entire product life cycle. As MA is a comparatively young pharmaceutical discipline in a complex and dynamic environment, this effort will require strategic focus and dedication. The Market Access Launch Excellence Inventory benchmarking tool may help guide decision

  1. GLOBAL WOOD PELLET INDUSTRY AND MARKETCURRENT DEVELOPMENTS AND OUTLOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrän, Daniela; Peetz, David; Schaubach, Kay; Trømborg, Erik; Pellini, Alessandro; Lamers, Patrick; Hess, J. Richard; Schipfer, Fabian; Hektor, Bo; Olsson, Olle; Bruce, Lena; Stelte, Wolfgang; Proskurina, Svetlana; Heinimo, Jussi; Benedetti, Luca; Mai-Moulin, Thuy; Junginger, Martin; Craggs, Laura; Wild, Michael; Murray, Gordan; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio; Thiermann, Ute; Escobar, F. J.; Goldemberg, J.; Coelho, S. T.

    2017-06-01

    The wood pellet use in the heating and electricity sector has recorded a steady growth in the last years. IEA bioenergy task 40 carried out an update of the situation on the national pellet markets in the most relevant pellet producing countries and the global development as well. Various country specific data is collected and compiled for more than 30 countries, containing updated information about regulatory framework, production, consumption, price trends, quality standards and trade aspects. The analysis confirmed the positive development in terms of production and consumption of wood pellets in almost all countries. In 2015 more than 26 Mt of wood pellets have been produced and consumed worldwide. Technologies and markets become more mature. Increased international pellet trade needs to be supported by adequate frame condition not only for commerce, but also with regard to sustainability issues.

  2. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  3. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  4. The European wood pellet markets: current status and prospects for 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Steiner, M.; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Hiegl, W.; Hansen, M.T.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    The wood pellet market is booming in Europe. The EU 2020 policy targets for renewable energy sources and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction are among the main drivers. The aim of this analysis is to map current European national wood pellet demand and supplies, to provide a comprehensive

  5. A situational analysis of current antimicrobial governance, regulation and utilisation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellack, Natalie; Benjamin, Deon; Brink, Adrian; Duse, Adriano; Faure, Kim; Goff, Debra; Mendelson, Marc; Meyer, Johanna; Miot, Jacqui; Perovic, Olga; Pople, Troy; Suleman, Fatima; van Vuuren, Moritza; Essack, Sabiha

    2017-09-08

    The Global Action Plan (GAP) on AMR calls for optimising the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health, in tandem with strengthening of the knowledge and evidence base through surveillance and research. However, there is a paucity of consumption data in African countries such as South Africa. Determining antimicrobial consumption data in low resource settings remains a challenge. This paper describes alternative mechanisms of assessing antimicrobial consumption data such as Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS), and contract data arising from tenders (an open Request for Proposal, RFP) as opposed to the international norms of daily defined doses per 100 patient days, or per 1000 of the population. Despite its limitations, this serves as an indicator of antimicrobial exposure at population level and as an alternate method for ascertaining antimicrobial consumption in human health. Furthermore, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme globally and carries a high burden of tuberculosis (TB). This prompted the inclusion of antiretroviral and anti-TB antibiotic consumption data. Knowledge of antimicrobial utilisation is imperative to make meaningful future interventions. Baseline antimicrobial utilisation data could guide future research initiatives that could provide a better understanding of the different measures of antibiotic use and the level of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Current situation and challenges in implementing Malaria control strategies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanchi, N K; Shakoor, S; Thaver, A M; Khan, M S; Janjua, A; Beg, M A

    2016-08-01

    Malaria transmission is unstable in Pakistan with the highest number of cases reported during the monsoon season. Despite its high incidence, malaria is still a poorly resourced, poorly funded and an uncontrolled disease especially in far-flung areas. Pakistan's National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), although operational since its inception in 1947, has suffered due to the unstable political, socioeconomic and financial situation prevalent in the country. In Pakistan, more than 300 000 cases of malaria are reported every year with 68% of the cases caused by Plasmodium vivax. It is estimated that about 70-80% of the population accesses the private sector for treatment. As the private sector does not routinely report data to the government, the actual malaria burden could be 4-5 times higher than reported. P. vivax now accounts for more than 85% of all cases requiring hospital admission compared to 54% in 2000. In this review, we have described the saga of poor control of malaria in Pakistan over several years in context of restructuring of the Malaria Control Program, challenges to improvement, and way forward.

  7. The public debt of the Republic of Serbia: The current situation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošnjak Marinko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the internal and external debt situation of the Republic of Serbia based on the data relating to 2000 and 2004, issued by the Ministry of Finance, as well as the basic macroeconomic assumptions for the regular servicing of debts. The general results of this research indicate that the key institutional assumptions for the strengthening of annuity payment ability are consistent reforms and economic policies, and the key economic assumptions for debt repayment are economics growth, stability and reduction in the volume and changing the structure of government consumption. Investment and export growth which provides for growth in gross domestic product and income in foreign currency, which should be sufficient for debts repayment in the next five years, expressed in time periods as well as annuity payments per year, are the key significance for servicing of debts. Increase in economy efficiency, as well as the efficient use of resources obtained by credit facilities, are guaranties of maintaining the balance between volume and repayment capabilities of debts.

  8. Funding of Ukrainian universities: Current situation and possible ways of its solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Konstantiuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative analysis of Ukrainian education funding and funding education of some developed countries. The relationship between the financing of education and GDP is shown in article. It proved the importance of higher education in economic development of the country. However, despite the importance of higher education, Ukrainian universities have significant difficulties. Three groups of the challenges are discovered that are faced today Ukrainian universities. All groups of problems mentioned above, which the higher educational institutions deal with, cause the worsening of their financial situation and result in the disadvantage of the national science and education. Expenditures on education and science are offered viewed as an investment in human capital and the country's economy. Such investments in the sphere of education have proved to be correct, because the reversible effect is seen. These are those countries, which are the leaders in the amount of GDP in the world. That is, the investments in education are justified for both the country and the individual. So, the system of higher education is very important for future economic development of Ukraine. But it doesn't have enough financial resources for successful existence. All this results in looking for the intensive means of financial support of the higher educational institutions, the most important of which can be financial diversification and broadening of the institution autonomy.

  9. Prospects for Vascular Access Education in Developing Countries: Current Situation in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Toshihide; Takemoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-05

    We report our activities training doctors on vascular access procedures at International University (IU) Hospital in Cambodia through a program facilitated by Ubiquitous Blood Purification International, a nonprofit organization that provides medical support to developing countries in the field of dialysis medicine. Six doctors from Japan have been involved in the education of medical personnel at IU, and we have collectively visited Cambodia about 15 times from 2010 to 2016. In these visits, we have performed many operations, including 42 for arteriovenous fistula, 1 arteriovenous graft, and 1 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Stable development and management of vascular access is increasingly required in Cambodia due to increased use of dialysis therapy, and training of doctors in this technique is urgently required. However, we have encountered several difficulties that need to be addressed, including (1) the situation of personnel receiving this training, (2) problems with facilities, including medical equipment and drugs, (3) financial limitations, and (4) problems with management of vascular access. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Current Situation of Household Income as a Factor, Having Impact on Mortgage Lending in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuselchimeg Batbileg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amount of household income is the most important factor for housing loan. The article studies mortgage lending in Ulaanbaatar in 2007–2009, the factor, having great impact on the current economy of Mongolia, carries out the comparative analysis of capital’s medium and low income households and presents methods, which will help to solve these problems.

  11. Factitious prey and artificial diets for predatory lady beetles: current situation, obstacles, and approaches for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are important natural enemies of many pests in crop ecosystems throughout the world. Although several species are currently mass-reared and sold by biocontrol companies, there is an urgent need to reduce rearing costs. Cost effective mass rearing of...

  12. Post market surveillance in the german medical device sector - current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Claus; Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine

    2017-08-01

    Medical devices play a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases but also bring the potential for adverse events, hazards or malfunction with serious consequences for patients and users. Medical device manufacturers are therefore required by law to monitor the performance of medical devices that have been approved by the competent authorities (post market surveillance). Conducting a nationwide online-survey in the German medical device sector in Q2/2014 in order to explore the current status of the use of post market instruments we obtained a total of 118 complete data sets, for a return rate of 36%. The survey included manufacturers of different sizes, producing medical devices of all risk classes. The post market instruments most frequently reported covered the fields of production monitoring and quality management as well as literature observation, regulatory vigilance systems, customer knowledge management and market observation while Post Market Clinical Follow-up and health services research were being used less for product monitoring. We found significant differences between the different risk classes of medical devices produced and the intensity of use of post market instruments. Differences between company size and the intensity of instruments used were hardly detected. Results may well contribute to the development of device monitoring which is a crucial element of the policy and regulatory system to identify device-related safety issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. STUDENT SATISFACTION, RESULTANT OF MARKETING ORIENTATION OF UNIVERSITY UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina DINESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present a relevant aspect of marketing approach of the activities carried by universities, respectively knowing, understanding and satisfying students’ needs, the main consumer category of the university product, in the conditions of current market of high education institutions. The universities are put in the position to find solutions to the problems caused by the stakeholders’ characteristics and by the existing competition on the educational market. The approach of marketing orientation in the university implies adapting the educational and scientific research step to create for the institution a brand image as a warranty of its sustainability on a competitive market by considering the needs and expectations of students. The conclusion is that there is a wide specialized literature that shows models that allow an adequate quantification of the students’ satisfaction as a resultant of concerning the insurance of high education quality by using univeristy marketing tools. Starting from the specialized literature, in the work was handled the quantification of the students’ satisfaction that have completed Bachelor and Master cycle in order to improve the activity of the university

  14. Current Situation and Characteristics Analysis on Cerebral Palsy Rehabilitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琴玉

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic characteristics and patterns of cerebral palsy rehabilitation in China. Method: To elaborate the specific acupuncture methods and action mechanism of cerebral palsy in China by combining analysis on the therapeutic situation of cerebral palsy from both home and abroad with research literatures. Conclusion: Acupuncture has great potential in social and economic benefits in the treatment of cerebral palsy. It is necessary to develop prospective, multi-center and randomly controlled trials on acupuncture treatment of cerebral palsy with exact and feasible therapeutic plans and establish acupuncture-centered cerebral palsy rehabilitation system with Chinese characteristics.%目的:探讨中国脑性瘫痪的康复治疗特点及模式.方法:分析国内外脑性瘫痪治疗现状,结合文献详细阐述国内采用针灸治疗脑瘫的具体方法及其机理研究.结论:针灸治疗脑瘫有着极大的潜在社会效益和经济效益.宜开展针灸治疗小儿脑瘫的前瞻性、多中心、随机对照试验,探索出疗效确切、可行性强的针灸治疗方案,建立以针灸为中心的有中国特色的脑性瘫痪康复体系.

  15. The use of elearning in medical education: a review of the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, A P

    2007-04-01

    Computers are increasingly used in medical education. Electronic learning (elearning) is moving from textbooks in electronic format (that are increasingly enhanced by the use of multimedia adjuncts) to a truly interactive medium that can be delivered to meet the educational needs of students and postgraduate learners. Computer technology can present reliable, reusable content in a format that is convenient to the learner. It can be used to transcend geographical boundaries and time zones. It is a valuable tool to add to the medical teacher's toolkit, but like all tools it must be used appropriately. This article endeavours to review the current "state of the art2 in use of elearning and its role in medical education alongside non-electronic methods-a combination that is currently referred to as "blended" learning.

  16. Current Situation and Issues in Career Support for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 正博; 篠田, 晴男

    2014-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the current problems in career support for students with developmental disorders. Specifically, wefocused on studies concerning autism spectrum disorder because of the difficulty students with these disorders often face in finding jobs. The majority of studies suggested that the acquisition of basic life skills is essential for a successful transition from the educational setting to the workplace. We also discussed carrier decision-making as it relates to the accuracyof th...

  17. THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE INFORMATION SOCIETY. THE CURRENT SITUATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    STELIAC Nela; POP Ciprian-Viorel; Diana-Aderina MOISUC

    2012-01-01

    Currently, human societies are experiencing a new type of economy: the knowledge economy which is founded on a knowledge society. The main driver of social and economic growth is knowledge itself. The new economy requires a rethinking of the production theory in that traditional factors change into secondary factors, while knowledge becomes the main, essential, production factor. An information society is a prerequisite stage towards a knowledge society; hence it needs to be implemented first...

  18. The Analysis of Current Situation of Cultural Self-Confidence of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛玉成; 黄秋生

    2013-01-01

    The high level of the cultural confidence is essential to instruct college students to integrate individual dream into Chinese dream, which is also the spirit source to transmit positive social energy. However,the current part of college students lack of cultural self-confidence,the loss display mainly that they are cognitive deficiencies on the national traditional culture,they blind recognition of western culture,they do not pay attention to contemporary Chinese advanced culture.

  19. Current situation of Leishmania infantum infection in shelter dogs in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miró Guadalupe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL caused by Leishmania infantum is a widespread endemic disease in the Mediterranean basin, though, so far, the north of Spain has been considered a non-endemic area. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of specific antibodies to L. infantum among stray dogs living in shelters in this area, and to evaluate the clinical status (both clinical signs and clinico-pathological abnormalities of seropositive dogs. Besides L. infantum infection, the epidemiological role of variables like sex, breed and age was also assessed. Methods Over the year 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 418 stray dogs. A preliminary entomological survey was carried out using CDC-light traps. The chi-squared test was used to examine relationships between L. infantum seroprevalence and the remaining variables. Results The overall seroprevalence of L. infantum infection detected was 3% in the Cantabrian coast. In Orense the seroprevalence was 35.6%. In this latter region, the presence of sand fly, Phlebotomus perniciosus was also detected. In general, seropositivity for L. infantum was related to size (large breed dogs versus small and age, with a significantly higher seroprevalence recorded in younger (0-3 years and older dogs (> 7 years than adult dogs. Clinical signs of CanL were observed in 41.3% of the seropositive dogs. The seropositivity for L. infantum infection associated with the presence of clinical signs and/or abnormal laboratory findings shows a prevalence of 4.5%. Conclusion Our data provide new insight into the prevalence of CanL across northern Spain. The situation observed in Orense seems to be worsening compared to the few reports available, with figures being similar to those cited for known endemic areas of Spain. Besides, the presence of P. perniciosus in Orense points out to a risk of the spread of this zoonotic disease in this geographical area. These findings

  20. The use of heat pipes in thermal control system for electronics: current situation and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairnasov S. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the widespread application of cooling systems based on heat pipes makes significant contribution to the solution of the thermal control of electronic equipment. The use of heat pipes as heat transfer devices and heat exchanging equipment allows creating an efficient new-generation heat sinks. Nowadays, heat pipes are widely used in the following areas: electronic equipment, special application computer equipment (from small computers to large data centres, high power electronics. The article provides an analysis of the current state and prospects of heat pipes application in thermal control systems for ground-based electronic equipment.

  1. The current situation of impact of coal mine developing on environment in China and government proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Ministry of Land and Resources

    2005-07-01

    Current environmental problems caused by coal mining in China, the importance of management of the environment, impact of coal mining on land and water resources, and upcoming coal development are discussed. It is suggested that the government should act in two ways: take responsibility for management of reclamation of mines existing before 1986, and set up mechanisms to protect the environment, starting with the publishing of relevant laws and regulations. Methods for solving environmental issues include: prepare a practical plan, establish an environmental control fund, establish a special fund to protect the environment, and develop new ways to combine protection of the biological environment and land reclamation. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Current Situation,Problems and Countermeasures of World Heritage Protection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The development of World Heritage protection in China can be characterized by four facts,which are the increasing number,the domination of cultural heritages,the uneven spatial distribution,and the abundant candidate reserve for nomination.Currently,the problems of the dislocation of understanding,the absence of planning,the disorder of management,the lack of relevant institutions still exist in the field of World Heritage protection,aiming at which,the author puts forward some countermeasures,such as completing legislation system,carrying out scientific planning,implementing hierarchical and assorted administration,strengthening supervision,increasing investments,and enhancing propaganda and education.

  3. Ecotourism in nature reserves in China: current situation,problems and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ju-chun; ZHENG Jing-ming

    2008-01-01

    Our presentation focuses on some important issues associated with ecotourism in nature reserves in mainland China. Conducting ecotourism in certain areas in nature reserves is important for its protection. However, some problems do exist because of special conditions in our society and in the current projects of nature reserves themselves, such as water and air pollution, unplanned construction of roads and facilities, damage of core zones and buffer zones, and confused ownership of nature reserves. These problems are discussed and solutions are proposed in detail, and we emphasize the participation of local communities in order to help residents fight against poverty.

  4. Smart grids in the colombian electric system: Current situation and potential opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mauricio Giral Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: This paper focuses on providing a functional analysis of smart grids, with the purpose of establishing a framework to identify the main characteristics of the current electric interconnection system in Colombia. It also names the positive incentives proposed by the Colombian government to support both research and development projects that implement non-conventional energy sources and promoting energy management based on efficiency. Method: An architecture model that describes the components interoperability of a smart grid is presented using a descriptive methodology. Results: The results include a list of the objectives established by the Colombian public and private entities related to energy development, specially focusing on the opportunities to provide some kind of artificial intelligence to the current electrical system. Conclusions: It is necessary for the Colombian energy system to supply the energy demand considering electrical safety, social equity, and the minimum environmental impact. These restrictions impose new challenges for the energy system itself: From a technical point of view, the traditional electrical grid must be outfitted with the characteristics of a smart grid, and from a legal perspective, it is essential to generate a clear regulatory framework that promotes the development of this type of technology.

  5. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  6. Current Situation and Evaluation of Clinical Studies on Acupuncture and Moxibustion Treatment of Peripheral Facial Paralysis at Selected Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; WU Xi; HU Ka-ming; CHEN Xiao-qin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Peripheral facial paralysis is a frequently encountered disease with a high incidence, and it is one of the most common diseases in acupuncture and moxibustion treatment. Because there are rich literatures in clinical studies on acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for this disease, and clinically, it is divided into different stages, in the present paper the current situation of clinical studies about acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for peripheral facial paralysis according to different stages in resent years are analyzed and evaluated including the stage division,the optimal time for treatment, location of injured nerves and assessment of the therapeutic effect, etc.

  7. The Current Situation of ICT Development in the Middle East and ICT Support Policies. The Case of Syrian Arab Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Yamamoto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how ICT development is progressing and what kind of political and social effects have been occurring (or could occur in the near future in Middle Eastern Arabic countries. To examine this theme, this paper will adopt the Syrian Arab Republic as a case. To understand the Syrian government's policy toward the ICT development, it is necessary to examine the domestic political situation, since they are closely related. Under the Bashar Al- Asad's regime, we can confirm several reasons why they have to move forward on their ICT development policy and why it has become a crucial issue, which they cannot evade, as they had done under the previous regime, Hafez Al- Asad's regime. The situation that the Syrian government is facing right now is known by the term, "Dictator's Dilemma". This paper tries to provide bases in order to examine and explore this dilemma in Syria. Also, when we examine ICT development in Syria, it is important to consider the ICT support policies, which are mainly conducted by OECD countries and international organizations and stem from the issue of "Digital Divide". This is why international assistances could have great effect on ICT development in Syria. As a provisional conclusion of this paper, I will summarize how we can understand the current situation of ICT development in Syria, and I will also comment on the future prospect of the dilemma that the Syrian government is facing at the present time.

  8. Food Marketing and Management of Mass Sports Games

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    It is a new development concept for the current food marketing to promote the enterprise's food marketing by means of mass sports games. In this study, with an overview of the sports marketing, it analyzes the present situation and the existed questions of Chinese sports nutrition food marketing, putting forward the implementation strategy of food marketing and management of mass sports games.

  9. Analysis of the Current Situation in North Africa & the Middle East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hongyu; Li Xiaosan

    2011-01-01

    After the upsurge of domestic turmoil in Tunis last December, unrest spread rapidly through North Africa and the Middle East, having a profound effect on current international relations. It will continue to affect relations between the major powers and the international system as a whole for some time to come. The regional turmoil of North Africa and the Middle East is of particular interest to International Political Economy (IPE) studies. It seems to embody a geostrategic conflict between the US and the EU in contending for leadership in North Africa and the Middle East. It is also an expression of the competition for dominance of the global financial structure between the major powers during a period of transition in the international system. Lastly, it is a manifestation of America's struggle to maintain its global economic hegemony.

  10. Quality management of eLearning for medical education: current situation and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusch, Jasmin; Marienhagen, Jörg; Böckers, Anja; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2008, the German Council of Science had advised universities to establish a quality management system (QMS) that conforms to international standards. The system was to be implemented within 5 years, i.e., until 2014 at the latest. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a QMS suitable for electronic learning (eLearning) domain of medical education to be used across Germany has meanwhile been identified. Methods: We approached all medical universities in Germany (n=35), using an anonymous questionnaire (8 domains, 50 items). Results: Our results (response rate 46.3%) indicated very reluctant application of QMS in eLearning and a major information deficit at the various institutions. Conclusions: Authors conclude that under the limitations of this study there seems to be a considerable need to improve the current knowledge on QMS for eLearning, and that clear guidelines and standards for their implementation should be further defined. PMID:26038685

  11. Inventory of managed aquifer recharge sites in Europe: historical development, current situation and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, C.; Hartog, N.; Hernández, M.; Vilanova, E.; Grützmacher, G.; Scheibler, F.; Hannappel, S.

    2017-03-01

    Different types of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are widely distributed and applied on various scales and for various purposes in the European countries, but a systematic categorization and compilation of data has been missing up to now. The European MAR catalogue presented herein contains various key parameters collected from the available literature. The catalogue includes 224 currently active MAR sites found in 23 European countries. Large quantities of drinking water are produced by MAR sites in Hungary, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Poland, Switzerland and France. This inventory highlights that, for over a century, MAR has played an important role in the development of European water supply and contributes to drinking-water production substantially. This development has occurred autonomously, with "trial-and-error" within the full range of climatically and hydrogeologically diverse conditions of the European countries. For the future, MAR has the potential to facilitate optimal (re)use and storage of available water resources and to take advantage of the natural purification and low energy requirements during MAR operations. Particularly with respect to the re-use of wastewater treatment-plant effluent and stormwater, which is currently underdeveloped, the use of MAR can support the public acceptance of such water-resource efficient schemes. Particularly for the highly productive and urbanized coastal zones, where the pressure on freshwater supplies increases by growing water demand, salinization and increased agricultural needs for food production (such as along the Mediterranean and North Sea coasts), MAR is expected to be increasingly relied on in Europe.

  12. Inventory of managed aquifer recharge sites in Europe: historical development, current situation and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, C.; Hartog, N.; Hernández, M.; Vilanova, E.; Grützmacher, G.; Scheibler, F.; Hannappel, S.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes are widely distributed and applied on various scales and for various purposes in the European countries, but a systematic categorization and compilation of data has been missing up to now. The European MAR catalogue presented herein contains various key parameters collected from the available literature. The catalogue includes 224 currently active MAR sites found in 23 European countries. Large quantities of drinking water are produced by MAR sites in Hungary, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, Poland, Switzerland and France. This inventory highlights that, for over a century, MAR has played an important role in the development of European water supply and contributes to drinking-water production substantially. This development has occurred autonomously, with "trial-and-error" within the full range of climatically and hydrogeologically diverse conditions of the European countries. For the future, MAR has the potential to facilitate optimal (re)use and storage of available water resources and to take advantage of the natural purification and low energy requirements during MAR operations. Particularly with respect to the re-use of wastewater treatment-plant effluent and stormwater, which is currently underdeveloped, the use of MAR can support the public acceptance of such water-resource efficient schemes. Particularly for the highly productive and urbanized coastal zones, where the pressure on freshwater supplies increases by growing water demand, salinization and increased agricultural needs for food production (such as along the Mediterranean and North Sea coasts), MAR is expected to be increasingly relied on in Europe.

  13. Situating the Rural Teacher Labor Market in the Broader Context: A Descriptive Analysis of the Market Dynamics in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke C.

    2012-01-01

    Expanding accountability systems that impose policies across all schools have amplified assertions that rural teacher labor markets differ from non-rural labor markets in meaningful ways that complicate rural schools' efforts to comply with the policy directives. The analysis presented here examines this claim by exploring teacher labor market…

  14. ABOUT THE STATE OF THE WORLD WHEAT MARKET AT THE CURRENT STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorelyy M.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the Phillips curve in the historical aspect. In the article there is a mention that there were examples when the Phillips curve was not confirmed. Then the author goes on to describe the post-crisis economic situation. The author refers to the food problem as a global problem, which has been designated in the papers of the Club of Rome. Then the author characterizes world wheat production for the period 2003-2013. The author gives an example that shows the volatility of the wheat market (CBOT. The author explains why he uses quotations of forward contracts, and not in the spot market. The author scrutinizes the quotations of CBOT wheat futures contracts in the paper. The author substantiates the need for an econometric model in the research process of futures CBOT wheat prices. The author justifies the chosen scientific approach that defines the methods of research and research model. The author uses econometric approach in the paper. The author uses linear regression as a method of the research. The author creates the equation of linear regression using the software. The author makes a conclusion that there is a certain linear relationship between the price of the futures contract CBOT wheat and the level of unemployment in the United States during the period. The author verifies the effect of Phillips curve. Results of this paper allow the analyst to make informed pricing decisions on the organized market of wheat trade in the medium term.

  15. Present Situation of Enterprises’ Micro-blog Marketing and Its Strategies Research%企业微博营销分析与策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢人强

    2013-01-01

      微博营销是一种现代化的营销手段,它具有成本低、互动性强、传播范围广等特点,随着电子商务的快速发展,越来越多的企业开始通过微博这个平台来开展营销活动。本文首先介绍了微博及微博营销的含义,然后分析了微博营销的现状,最后提出微博营销的策略。%The Micro-blog marketing is a modern marketing tool. It has lots of advantages, such as low cost, strong interaction, broad dissemination and so on. With the rapid development of E-commerce, more and more enterprises begin to use the platform of Micro-blog to carry out their marketing activities. To begin with, the article elaborates the meaning of Micro-blog and Micro-blog marketing. Then it analyzes the recent situation of Micro-blog marketing. At last the article puts forward some solutions about Micro-blog marketing.

  16. Current hepatitis B virus infection situation in Indonesia and its genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusida, Maria Inge; Juniastuti; Yano, Yoshihiko

    2016-08-28

    Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children. Although limited information is available for an analysis of occult HBV infection (OBI), several variations and substitutions in the pre-S/S region have been detected in Indonesian HBV strains. Additionally, persistent infection and disease progression of chronic hepatitis B are related to not only viral factors but also the host genome. Indonesia is one of the most ethnically heterogeneous nations, with Javanese and Sundanese as the two highest ethnic groups. This multi-ethnicity makes genomic research in Indonesia difficult. In this article, we focused on and reviewed the following aspects: the current hepatitis B immunization program and its efficacy, OBI, HBV infection among high-risk patients, such as hemodialysis patients, and research regarding the host genome in Indonesia.

  17. Induced abortion in Thailand: current situation in public hospitals and legal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warakamin, Suwanna; Boonthai, Nongluk; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2004-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Thailand unless the woman's health is at risk or pregnancy is due to rape. This study, carried out in 1999 in 787 government hospitals, examined the magnitude and profile of abortion in Thailand, using data collected prospectively through a review of 45,990 case records (of which 28.5% were classified as induced and 71.5% as spontaneous abortions) and face-to-face interviews with a sub-set of 1854 women patients. The estimated induced abortion ratio was 19.5 per 1000 live births. Almost half the induced abortions were in young women under 25 years of age, many of whom had little or no access to contraception. Socio-economic reasons accounted for 60.2% of abortions. Serious complications were observed in almost a third of cases, especially following abortions performed by non-health personnel. Government physicians' current provision of induced abortion went beyond the provisions of the law in almost half of cases, most commonly for intrauterine death and for congenital anomalies. The paper proposes a framework for policy discussions of the grey areas of maternal and fetal indications leading to legal reform, in order to facilitate safe abortion. A recommendation to amend the abortion law has been proposed to the Ministry of Public Health and the Thai Medical Council.

  18. Current Situation for Management of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in Japan - 13025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Keiji; Miyamoto, Yoichi [Japan Radioisotope Association, Radiopharmaceutical and Radioisotope Supply Business Promotion Department (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    As for the Sealed Radioactive Source currently used in Japan, many of them are imported from overseas. The U.S., Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Czech Republic are the main exporting States. Many of disused sealed radioactive sources are being returned to exporting States. The sealed radioactive sources which cannot be returned to exporting States are appropriately kept in the domestic storage facility. So, there are not main problem on the long term management of disused sealed radioactive sources in Japan. However, there are some difficulties on repatriate. One is reservation of a means of transport. The sea mail which conveys radioactive sources owing to reduction of movement of international cargo is decreasing in number. And there is a denial of shipment. Other one is that the manufacturer has already resigned from the work and cannot return disused sealed radioactive sources, or a manufacturer cannot specify and disused sources cannot be returned. The disused sealed radioactive source which cannot be repatriated is a little in term of radioactivity. As for the establishment of national measure of final disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources, in Japan, it is not yet installed with difficulty. Since there are many countries for which installation of a final disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources is difficult, the source manufacture country should respond positively to return the source which was manufactured and sold in the past. (authors)

  19. Human resources for mental health care: current situation and strategies for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuma, Ritsuko; Minas, Harry; van Ginneken, Nadja; Dal Poz, Mario R; Desiraju, Keshav; Morris, Jodi E; Saxena, Shekhar; Scheffler, Richard M

    2011-11-05

    A challenge faced by many countries is to provide adequate human resources for delivery of essential mental health interventions. The overwhelming worldwide shortage of human resources for mental health, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries, is well established. Here, we review the current state of human resources for mental health, needs, and strategies for action. At present, human resources for mental health in countries of low and middle income show a serious shortfall that is likely to grow unless effective steps are taken. Evidence suggests that mental health care can be delivered effectively in primary health-care settings, through community-based programmes and task-shifting approaches. Non-specialist health professionals, lay workers, affected individuals, and caregivers with brief training and appropriate supervision by mental health specialists are able to detect, diagnose, treat, and monitor individuals with mental disorders and reduce caregiver burden. We also discuss scale-up costs, human resources management, and leadership for mental health, particularly within the context of low-income and middle-income countries.

  20. Opening the black box of Anaplasma phagocytophilum diversity: current situation and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat, Thibaud; Lagrée, Anne-Claire; Maillard, Renaud; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic obligate intracellular bacterium known to be transmitted by ticks belonging to the Ixodes persulcatus complex. This bacterium can infect several mammalian species, and is known to cause diseases with variable symptoms in many domestic animals. Specifically, it is the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF), a disease of important economic impact in European domestic ruminants, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), an emerging zoonotic disease in Asia, USA and Europe. A. phagocytophilum epidemiological cycles are complex and involve different ecotypes, vectors, and mammalian host species. Moreover, the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum infection differs greatly between Europe and the USA. These different epidemiological contexts are associated with considerable variations in bacterial strains. Until recently, few A. phagocytophilum molecular typing tools were available, generating difficulties in completely elucidating the epidemiological cycles of this bacterium. Over the last few years, many A. phagocytophilum typing techniques have been developed, permitting in-depth epidemiological exploration. Here, we review the current knowledge and future perspectives regarding A. phagocytophilum epidemiology and phylogeny, and then focus on the molecular typing tools available for studying A. phagocytophilum genetic diversity. PMID:26322277

  1. Current hepatitis B virus infection situation in Indonesia and its genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusida, Maria Inge; Juniastuti; Yano, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children. Although limited information is available for an analysis of occult HBV infection (OBI), several variations and substitutions in the pre-S/S region have been detected in Indonesian HBV strains. Additionally, persistent infection and disease progression of chronic hepatitis B are related to not only viral factors but also the host genome. Indonesia is one of the most ethnically heterogeneous nations, with Javanese and Sundanese as the two highest ethnic groups. This multi-ethnicity makes genomic research in Indonesia difficult. In this article, we focused on and reviewed the following aspects: the current hepatitis B immunization program and its efficacy, OBI, HBV infection among high-risk patients, such as hemodialysis patients, and research regarding the host genome in Indonesia. PMID:27621573

  2. [Nursing education in Taiwan: the current situation and prospects for the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meei-Shiow

    2004-08-01

    Two factors which have a close bearing on nursing education are social and technological change. How nursing education meets social needs and how nursing students are best equipped with professional knowledge, attitudes, and skills in a rapidly changing society have become important issues. The purposes of this paper are to describe the current state of nursing education and to identify problems that need to be solved, including the complexity of the educational system, the quality and quantity of nursing manpower, the degree of compatibility between the aims of education and future social needs, the quality of nursing educators, courses and course delivery, and the clinical competence of nursing graduates. Based on the paradigm shifts of International Medical Care and higher education described by McBride, several suggestions for future educational reform are proposed, including simplifying the educational system, improving the development of both the quality and quantity of nursing manpower, matching educational aims with future social needs, bridging the gap between theory and clinical practice, promoting both instructional and clinical skills among nursing educators and enhancing the ability of graduates to deal with a contingency strain. It is expected that in order to meet the challenges presented by a rapidly changing society, nursing educators will have to develop a mixed role including clinical proficiency, outstanding research skills, and excellent leadership skills.

  3. General Technical Approvals for Decentralised Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS—The Current Situation in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Dierkes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of decentralised, sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS for the treatment of stormwater runoff is becoming increasingly prevalent in Germany. Decentralised SUDS can offer a viable and attractive alternative to end of pipe treatment systems for stormwater runoff from urban areas. However, there is still some uncertainty regarding the long-term performance of SUDS, and the general legislative requirements for SUDS approval and testing. Whilst the allowable pollution levels in stormwater runoff that infiltrate into ground and/or water table are regulated across Germany by the Federal Soil Protection Law, there is presently no federal law addressing the discharge requirements for surface water runoff. The lack of clear guidance can make it difficult for planners and designers to implement these innovative and sustainable stormwater treatment systems. This study clarifies the current understanding of urban stormwater treatment requirements and new technical approval guidelines for decentralised SUDS devices in Germany. The study findings should assist researchers, designers and asset managers to better anticipate and understand the performance, effective life-spans, and the planning and maintenance requirements for decentralised SUDS systems. This should help promote even greater use of these systems in the future.

  4. THE ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PERSONALITY: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Suárez-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental in modern society because it represents an important source of innovation, employment, productivity, and growth. While the first theoretical models arose from economic and sociological approaches, psychology provides models that integrate different aspects such as cognitions, attitudes and personality, which allow a more detailed study. The purpose of this paper is to show the main contributions of psychology to the assessment of the enterprising personality. For this purpose, the main models and instruments developed to date were reviewed. The results confirm that the enterprising personality has a multidimensional structure and eight personality traits can be highlighted: achievement motivation, risk-taking, autonomy, self-efficacy, stress tolerance, innovativeness, internal locus of control, and optimism. From a methodological point of view, Item Response Theory and Computerised Adaptive Tests represent the most advanced and modern methods for assessing enterprising personality. There are currently several measurement instruments available. Future areas of research should be directed at the construction of multidimensional models as well as providing alternatives that facilitate a reduction in social desirability and other biases inherent in self-reports.

  5. Prospective Analysis of the Current Demand of the Local Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinina Viktoriya V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in forecasting tendencies of the current demand of the local labour market on the basis of the method of statistical equations of dependencies and correlation and regression analysis for prolongation of relevant processes at the meso-level. The article considers a forecast model for co-ordination of dynamics of vacancies depending on socio-economic indicators of city development, which is formed on the basis of the method of statistical equations. This method requires identification of parameters of equations of single-factor dependencies and ratios of communication stability. On the basis of calculated values of these parameters and on the basis of economic and mathematical modelling of certain macro-economic indicators, the article builds equations of multiple regression, use of which would allow forecasting the current demand in the local labour market in the middle-term perspective. The prospect of further studies is forecasting the level of current balance of the local labour market, using the provided methods for forecasting the current supply.

  6. 78 FR 75560 - Green Current Solutions, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Current Solutions, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Green Current Solutions, LLC's application for market-based...

  7. Indonesia municiple solid waste life cycle and environmental monitoring: current situation, before and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmono

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a big country with circa 250 million population, with more than 500 Local Governments and they are going to improve their municiple solid waste dumping method from Open Dumping to Sanitary Landfill (SLF) and to promote Reduce-Reuse-Recycling (3R) since many years ago, and it is strengthened by issuing of Solid Waste Management Act No.18/2008, MSW Government Regulation No.12/2012 and other regulations which are issued by Central Government and Local Governments. During “Water and Sanitation Decade 1980-1990” through “Integrated Urban Infrastructures Development Program” some pilot project such as 30 units of 3R station were developed in the urban areas, and modified or simplification of SLF call Controlled Landfill (CLF) were implemented. In the year of 2002 about 45 units of composting pilot projects were developed under “Western Java Environmental Management Project”, and the result was notified that some of them are not sustain because many aspects. At the beginning of 2007 until now, some pilot projects of 3R were continued in some cities and since 2011 some Waste Banks are growing fast. In the year of 2014 was recorded that of 70 % of 3Rs in Java Island well developed (2014, Directorate of Environment Sanitation Report), and in the year of 2012 was recorded that development of Communal Waste Banks were growing fast during two months from 400 units to 800 units (2012, Ministry of Environment report), now more Communal Waste Banks all ready exist. After the last overview monitoring activity by Ministry of Environment and JICA (2008), because of lack of data is very difficult to give current accurate information of Municiple Solid Waste Handling in Indonesia. Nevertheless some innovation are developed because of impact of many pilot projects, Adipura City Cleanest Competition among Local Governments and growing of the spirit of autonomous policy of Local Governments, but some Local Governments still dependence on Central Government support

  8. Use and treatment of olive mill wastewater: current situation and prospects in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of olive mill wastewater are set out the viewpoint of their pollutant capacity and the problems arising from their tipping in olive-growing areas. The national administration's solutions for preventing pollutions of surface waters are also stated. Special detail is given to the action taken within a research and development program financed by the Spanish Government and the EEC through the Commission MEDSPA 89 for the technical-economic evaluation of different systems for eliminating and treating olive mill wastewater, in order to determine the feasibility of their introduction at industrial level. At the same time the systems currently under evaluation are described: - Intensification of natural evaporation from olive mill wastewater stored in ponds (two systems. - Physical processes using forced evaporation to eliminate the olive mill wastewater, followed by aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the condensate (two systems. - Application of physico-chemical processes to eliminate the greater part of the organic components of the olive mill wastewaters and the use of aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the clarified fraction (three systems. - Biological process for the complete treatment of the olive mill wastewaters by the successive application of processes: bioconversion, biomethanisation, aerobic treatment, and physico-chemical treatment. Treatment yields of the order of 99,6% are achieved, at the same time obtaining by-products of commercial interest (one system.

    Las características de los alpechines se establecen desde el punto de vista de su capacidad contaminante y de los problemas típicos que surgen en las zonas de cultivo del olivo. También están descritas las soluciones de la administración del Estado para la prevención de la contaminación de aguas de superficie

  9. Marketing in Peru and Globalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedro Barrientos Felipa

    2009-01-01

      BARRIENTOS FELIPA, Pedro. Marketing in Peru and Globalization. Semest. Econ. [online]. 2009, vol.12, n.23, pp. 59-75. ISSN 0120-6346. In general current situation of the world is affecting commercial development of companies...

  10. 危机情境下的品牌借势营销策略与陷阱规避%Taking advantage of brand marketing strategy and crisis situations to avoid the trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国强; 张朋辉

    2016-01-01

    危机事件作为热点事件的一种特殊类型本身具备较高的价值厚度,但危机情境下的品牌借势营销也需要更高的营销智慧,否则就容易陷入危机黑洞当中。%with the help of hot events to boost their own brand communication in recent years has become a highly respected marketing method, low cost, quick effect, wide spread and a series of advantages of so many businesses are eager to ride on the hot spots received wide attention, on the other hand out from the hot events and condensed in great just a little attention resource utiliG zation, brand information and events with bundled delivery, relying on high exposure event itself has a high degree of concern and will be "four two pounds", while the crisis as a special type of hot events itself also has high value of thickness, but on the other hand, critical under the situation of brand marketing occasion also requires higher marketing wisdom, otherwise it is easy to fall into a black hole in the crisis. In the face of marketing occasion negative effects of increasing current industry emerge in an endless stream of reality, the academic research is lagging behind, from the theoretical level, to distinguish the pros and cons of guidance is a realistic problem.

  11. 海南省观赏水族行业的发展前景及对策%Current Situation of Decorative Fishery in Hainan and Development Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张希; 杨宁; 黄海

    2012-01-01

    An important part of recreational fisheries is decorative fishery,which will become a trend in China.Decorative fishery is also an important direction of development in the building process of Hainan international tourism Island.On the base of the deep-going analysis about the current situation of decorative fishery development in Hainan,the main questions of decorative fish cultivation and market were found.At the same time many suggestions were brought up,such as exploiting the biological resources of Hainan Island;Strengthening the efforts of research institutes aquaculture R & D;introducing new varieties of ornamental species;Strengthening market management etc,which will benefit the rational utilization of tropical biological resources and increase a whole competitive advantage of Hainan decorative fishery industry.%观赏水族业是休闲渔业的重要组成部分,海南具有大力发展热带观赏水族行业的潜力。对海南省观赏水族市场进行深入调查,分析和总结海南省观赏水族行业的发展现状和存在的问题,提出发挥海南区位优势、挖掘本地热带生物资源、加强科研力量、引进国外观赏水族新品种、加强产业引导和市场管理等建议,促进热带生物资源的合理利用和观赏水族业结构的多元化,增加海南省观赏水族业的整体竞争优势。

  12. Developing Strategic Marketing Plan for International Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingmo

    2013-01-01

    International travel agency is the case company where I did my practical training. This thesis focuses on analyzing the case company’s current situation, market environment and competition situation in the tourism market. The main objective is to analyze the complex situation of the case company to develop a strategic marketing plan for the case company to gain competitive advantage. In order to reach the objective, the thesis finds answers to the questions of what the current strategic marke...

  13. Control of zoonoses in emergency situations: lessons learned during recent outbreaks (gaps and weaknesses of current zoonoses control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darem Tabbaa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In emergency situations, domestic animals and wildlife are, like people, exposed to infectious diseases and environmental contaminants in the air, soil, water and food. They can suffer from acute and/or chronic diseases from such exposure. Often animals serve as disease reservoirs or early warning systems for the community in regard to the spread of zoonotic diseases. Over 100 years of experience have shown that animal and human health are closely related. During the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic agents. As there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Today, in many emerging situations, different activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of failed investigative infrastructures or financial constraints. Considering that zoonotic diseases have their own characteristics, their prevention and control require unique strategies, based more on fundamental and applied research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require cooperation and coordination between animal and public health sectors and the involvement of other disciplines and experts such as epidemiologists, entomologists, environmentalists and climatologists. Lessons learned from the avian influenza pandemic threat, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and rabies outbreaks are presented and the gaps and weakness of current control programmes are discussed.

  14. [Uterus transplantation. Current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, T; Piver, P; Mesnard, C; Marquet, P; Pichon, N; Guillaudeau, A; Drouet, M; Gardet, E; Laskar, M; Essig, M; Aubard, Y

    2012-11-01

    Except adoption, absolute uterine factor infertility lacks solution in case of motherhood desire. Gestational surrogacy is still not approved in France. Over the last decade, uterus transplantation experimentation made advances. Data from animal research, progress in immunosuppressive treatment and knowledge about pregnancy after transplantation provide a scenario in which a human allotransplantation project can become reality.

  15. The Current Situation of Healthcare Industry%浅谈医疗健康气体产业的发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴福莉

    2016-01-01

    简述了国内外医疗健康气体产业的发展现状。重点针对国外大型工业气体公司在医疗健康产业的发展,从医用气体产品、医用气体供给模式和相关服务三个方面,进行了较为详细的阐述。提出了医疗健康产业在我国及浙江省将迎来发展新契机,并将成为今后我国大型工业气体生产企业扩大业务领域的新重地。%The current situation of healthcare industry in the world is described. Especially the development of healthcare industry in the large-scale industrial gas enterprises in foreign countries is indicated from three aspects of ( medical gas products, supply modes and services) . There will be new opportunities for the development of healthcare industry in Zhe-jiang province and even China. The healthcare industry will become the important field that the large-scale industrial gas enterprises expand the business market in the future.

  16. 耐火保温材料现状及发展%Current situation and development of thermal insulation refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小路; 黄晋; 张友寿; 龙威; 夏露; 李四年

    2016-01-01

    The current situation of thermal insulation refractories was expounded mainly on aspect of service temperatures,including glass wool,mineral (rock)wool,calcium silicate,composite silicate,closed pore perlite,hollow microsphere,vermiculite,refractory fibers,and nanopore silica based insulating materials, etc.The development tendency of thermal insulation refractories was forecast.%主要从使用温度范围对目前常用的耐火保温材料,如玻璃棉、矿(岩)棉、硅酸钙、复合硅酸盐、闭孔珍珠岩、漂珠、蛭石、耐火纤维以及纳米孔硅质隔热材料等的现状进行了分类阐述,并且展望了耐火保温材料的发展趋势。

  17. Brief Analysis on Causes and Current Situations of Desertification: A Case Study of Tongyu County in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; WANG; Yuqun; SU; Changlong; XUE

    2013-01-01

    Land desertification is a complex concept which refers to land degradation in the arid region, semi-arid region and sub-humid arid region caused by various factors including climate variability and human activities. It is not only an environmental problem, but also a social and economic one[1]. Land desertification will reduce the biological and economic production potential of the land and even exacerbate the trend of land desertification, leaving serious impact on the economic, social development and national lives of Jilin. In addition, it will result in ecological environment deterioration, microclimate variability, an increase in natural disaster and high frequency of sand blowing. Taking the special geographic area in western Jilin (especially the Tongyu County) as an example, this paper discusses the natural and social factors for the forming of desertification in the microcosmic level, analyzes the current situations and provides reasonable recommendations.

  18. 糖尿病足介入治疗现状%Current Situation Concerning Interventional Therapy of Diabetic Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀军; 郭志

    2012-01-01

    我国糖尿病发病率逐年增高,糖尿病足是其严重并发症之一.糖尿病足的治疗方法主要包括药物治疗、外科手术和介入治疗等,近年来介入治疗已成为首选方法.现综述目前糖尿病足介入治疗的现状.%The incidence of diabetes has been increasing with each passing year and diabetic foot has become one of the serious complications. The clinical therapies commonly employed for diabetic foot include medication, surgical procedure, interventional management, etc. Interventional management has become the treatment of first choice in dealing with diabetic foot in recent years. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review of the current situation concerning interventional therapy of diabetic foot.

  19. Analysis of the Current Situation of Chinese Animation%中国动画现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 刘超; 张天翔

    2012-01-01

    The current situation of animation in Europe and the United States and Japan is introduced.The status quo of animation in our country and the problems and hidden dangers of China's animation industry is analyzed and how to solve these problems is expounded.%介绍欧美及日本各国在动画方面的现状,分析我国现在在动画方面的现状以及我国动画产业现在存在的问题与隐患,以及我们如何解决我国动漫产业方面的种种问题。

  20. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  1. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  2. In search of critically endangered species: the current situation of two tiny salamander species in the Neotropical mountains of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sandoval-Comte

    Full Text Available Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion of their species in one of the risk categories, even higher than the frogs. To date there have been few studies that have used recent field data to examine the status of populations of endangered salamanders. In this study we evaluate the current situation of two tiny salamanders, Parvimolge townsendi and Thorius pennatulus, both of which are distributed at intermediate elevations in the mountains of the northern Neotropics and are considered to be critically endangered; the first has been proposed as possibly extinct. By carrying out exhaustive surveys in both historical and potentially suitable sites for these two species, we evaluated their abundance and the characteristics of their habitats, and we estimated their potential geographic distribution. We visited 22 sites, investing 672 person-hours of sampling effort in the surveys, and found 201 P. townsendi salamanders in 11 sites and only 13 T. pennatulus salamanders in 5 sites. Both species were preferentially found in cloud forest fragments that were well conserved or only moderately transformed, and some of the salamanders were found in shade coffee plantations. The potential distribution area of both species is markedly fragmented and we estimate that it has decreased by more than 48%. The results of this study highlight the importance of carrying out exhaustive, systematic field surveys to obtain accurate information about the current situation of critically endangered species, and help us better understand the crisis that amphibians are facing worldwide.

  3. The Current International Situation and Trends%当前国际形势及其发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向阳

    2012-01-01

    In the post- financial crisis era, the world and regional order is in transition and the current international situation is characterized by complexity, uncertainty and high risk. The major characters of the current international situation include the impact of the economic difficulty of the developed world on the world economic recovery, governance made difficult by global social and political conflicts, the competition-cooperation game between world powers, deteriorating security environment from increasing conventional and non- conventional challenges, and the restructuring of the Asian-pacific geopolitical pattern. In 2012, the world economy will recover slowly, the general election in the states will increase political sensitivity globally, the competition and cooperation between western powers and emerging powers will be more complex, social and political ideas are likely to influence the ideological realm, the restructuring of the Asian-pacific pattern is quite uncertain. The international situation will be quite instable because of the many interactive instability factors.%在"后金融危机时代",世界与地区秩序处于新旧交替之中,复杂性、不确定性与高风险性成为当今国际形势的阶段性主要特征。而发达国家经济困局严重拖累世界经济复苏进程,全球性社会政治抗争风潮迭起加剧各国治理难度,国际战略力量对比新变化催生大国"竞合"博弈,传统与非传统安全挑战同步增长恶化国际安全环境,亚太地缘战略格局复杂重组,这是当前国际形势的五大特征。展望2012年,世界经济复苏温和而曲折,"大选年"加剧国际政治经济敏感性,西方与新兴大国"竞合"关系更趋复杂,社会政治风潮可能向思想与意识形态领域扩散,亚太地缘战略格局重组磨合具有不确定性,各种不稳定因素相互交织、影响全球,国际形势动荡不定。

  4. FISH AND SHELLFISH PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED BY "ETHNIC" MINI-MARKET: CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT TO CURRENT LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giorgi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment on the quality and methods for marketing of fish products sold by ethnic minimarket. Has been inspected 20 supermarkets and buyed 60 fish and shellfish samples. The neatness of the rooms were evaluated during the shopping in the markets. Products purchased in the supermarket (about three samples for each shop were brought in Ichthypathology laboratory of State Veterinary Institute of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley, in Turin. Were conducted in the laboratory the readings of the labels. The conditions of hygiene were poor, especially in supermarket freezers. Only 16 samples were labelled in accordance with current legislation. According to the results obtained, the products 'ethnic' distributed in the supermarkets visited, may be considered a potential risk to human health.

  5. 我国区域建筑市场竞争强度研究%Investigation on the competitive situations in China's regional construction markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶堃晖; 李炳恒; 申立银; 崔兆

    2011-01-01

    Based on the five-year data collected from the construction industry, this study is intended to examine the competition situations in China's regional construction markets by using concentration approaches. The resulting concentration indices are employed to pinpoint various competition situations and to further classify the regional markets. Findings of the research are that regional construction markets cannot be labeled simply with geographic locations; the fiercer the competition, the more stable the market structure, and there exists potentially a collaboration mechanism between market competition intensity and the size of the industry. These research findings complement previous research with the newly identified regional market features, and suggest that either competitive strategies for construction business or regulations for local governments should be developed in line with special features of local construction markets.%通过收集近五年建筑业企业产值数据,运用集中度测评模型计算我国区域建筑市场竞争强度;从市场竞争的角度重新归类区域建筑市场,对比不同类别建筑市场的竞争状态,从而揭示了建筑市场区域分布特征.研究结果表明:我国建筑市场区域分布并非符合人们直觉上的东部、中部、西部的地理之分;建筑市场竞争越激烈的省份拥有稳定性越好的市场结构;市场竞争与行业规模可能存在着协同工作机制.这些研究新发现一方面弥补了之前研究的不足,另一方面也为建筑业企业制定区域竞争战略以及地方政府因地制宜拟定建筑市场管制策略提供新的理论导向.

  6. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  7. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  8. 78 FR 32226 - Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension... Livestock, Poultry, Meat, Grain, and Their Related Products Used as Market News Information AGENCY... collection. AMS recently merged its Livestock and Grain Market News Division with the Poultry Market...

  9. The Current Situation and Trend in South China Sea%当前南海形势及走向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴士存

    2015-01-01

    南海问题的实质是南沙岛礁主权和海域管辖权争议,涉及“五国六方”。近年来,受美国全球战略调整等多重因素的影响,南海问题持续升温,有关争端国不断加大权益声索和实际管控力度,地区局势愈演愈烈。南海是我国国防安全海上屏障、发展制海权的重要战略出海口、经济和能源安全的海上运输要道及未来的能源和资源基地。新阶段,南海局势将继续保持升温态势,因此我国需要从国家总体发展战略全局出发,把握并延长战略机遇期,通盘考虑国际和国内影响因素,长远谋划妥善处理南海问题战略和战术决策,有效化解面临的巨大挑战,确保整体利益最大化。%The essence of the South China Sea issue is the dispute among five states and Chinese Taiwan over the sovereignty of Nansha Islands and jurisdiction of maritime zones in the South China Sea. In recent years,relevant disputants have been intensifying the attempts to bolster their claims and actual control. Regional situation has been moving towards greater tensions. The South China Sea acts as a maritime shield for China to strengthen na_tional defense,an important sea outlet for China to gain sea power,significant sea lanes for China to safeguard e_conomic and energy security,and a base for China to secure energy and other resources in the future. Therefore, it is imperative for China to maintain the maritime rights. In a new historical period when the South China Sea situation continue to intensify,we should approach the South China Sea issue from the standpoint of overall na_tional development strategy,seek important opportunities for strategic development,take international and domes_tic factors into account,develop long_term strategic and tactical countermeasures to alleviate the current situa_tion and maximize China′s interests.

  10. Biodiesel for Brazilian development: current situation and challenges for a sustainable future; Biodiesel para o desenvolvimento brasileiro: situacao atual e desafios para um futuro sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Aleksandra Sliwowska; Antunes, Adelaide Maria de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    This article aims at analyzing the state of art and trends of biodiesel in Brazil, with resort to the Industry Strategic Map, a tool developed by National Industry Federation (CNI). The situation of biodiesel will be analyzed considering : Bases for Development, Processes and Activities, Market and Results for Country. At the beginning is presented the evolution of biodiesel in Brazil e are explained the construction of the Strategic Map by CNI. (author)

  11. Knižní marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Rabasová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The thesis describes and analyzes the current situation of book marketing in the Czech Republic and attempts to evaluate its quality. Firstly, basic concepts related to marketing are defined, and then the Czech book market conditions, such as structure of production, history, sales volume and individual actors, are described. This theoretical ground is followed by a practical part where specifics of book marketing are mentioned in the light of the marketing mix. The last part of the thesis pr...

  12. Current Development Situation and Countermeasures of Northern Shaanxi Sports Tourism Industry%陕北体育产业发展现状与策略应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰峰; 李世荣

    2011-01-01

    运用经济学原理与方法,从区域经济学视角,探讨了陕北地区体育产业发展的现状、产业结构、社会经济环境、发展对策等方面问题。研究显示:陕北地区体育产业发展水平处于萌动时期,产业发展单一,体育产业资源开发滞后、居民体育消费意识欠缺;陕北体育产业在带动区域经济中还很薄弱,产业结构不合理,耐用消费品消费成为产业的主导;社会经济环境良好,大众体育消费潜力巨大;产业政策缺乏市场调节机制和激励政策的导向作用。基于该地区的基本现状,提出产业发展的应对策略。%This thesis deals with the current Development situation,industrial structure,social economic environment,development countermeasures of Northern Shaanxi sports tourism development with principles and methods of economics in the perspective of regional economics.Study shows:Northern Shaanxi sports tourism development is in the stir period with the aspects of sole structure,lagging-behind sports tourism resources and sports consumption awareness lacking;Northern Shaanxi sports tourism is weak in leading the regional economy with the aspects of irrational industrial structure and durable consumer goods leading consumption;with favorable socioeconomy environment,popular sports consumption has a great potential;industrial policy lacks market regulation mechanism and supportive policies as a guide.This thesis aims at putting forward to the countermeasures of the industrial development on the basis of the regional current situation.

  13. Assessment of the Impact of the Changes in the Situation of the World Markets on the Regional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya Valeryevna Yekimova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the issues of the influence of world economy on the development of regional processes. The nature of the dependence of the modern domestic economy on the trends of the world raw material markets is considered. The heterogeneity of the regional processes to the changes of the world environment indicators is revealed. The channels of the influence of the world market trends changes on the regional processes are investigated. The analysis of the world economy indicators has allowed to create a system of basic indicators whose change reflects the tendencies of the world economy. The offered methodological approach to the assessment of the reaction of the regional processes to the changes in the world market trends is based on the economic cycle concept. The methodological tools include the maps of the time shifts allowing to define the time lag of the retardation of the reaction of certain regional processes to the changes in world economy; the model of the evaluation of the influence of the world economy indicators on the regional process, based on the correlation analysis; the differential matrix of the reactions of regional processes to the changes in world market trends, which enables to group them according to the reaction speed and its value. The authors present the fundamental recommendations for the regional processes management based on the world market dynamics analysis. The approbation of the methodological tools was carried out in the terms of the “Consumer prices level changes” and covered the regional process across 83 regions of Russia. They were classified by the speed and the value of the reaction of the consumer prices level to the changes of world market trends. The research has determined the factors and time limits for necessary involvement of regional authorities into the regulation of the consumer prices level. The selection of the implemented method of the direct and indirect regulation of the

  14. Internet marketing a ICT ve Vietnamu

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with general theory of internet marketing, its opening and discrete premises for functioning, positive sides and threats that internet marketing can bring. An important part of the thesis is drawing an image of the current level of ICT infrastructure and the situation in internet marketing aplication in Vietnam.

  15. General organic beekeeping data and market trends

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador V.

    2011-01-01

    The presentation "General organic beekeeping data and market trends" was part of the workshop "Organic beekeeping and market trends" at the BioFach Congress 2011. The aim of this workshop was to inform and discuss the current situation of production and market trends of organic beekeeping products.

  16. 膨胀型阻燃剂的研究现状%Current Research Situation of Intumescent Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁基照; 冯金清

    2011-01-01

    The classification, history and recent development of intumescent fire-retardant were reviewed. The performances, advantages and disadvantages, and current research situation of mixed-type intumesceent flame retardant as well as single-component intumesceent flame retardant was introduced. The effects of several flame retardant synergist, such as montmorillonite, silica, zeolite, and metal compounds etc, on intumescent flame retardant system were introduced. Besides, three treatment techniques of intumescent fire-retardant, such as the nanominiaturization, surface modification and microencapsulation, were also briefly introduced.%概述了膨胀型阻燃剂的分类、发展历史和近况.介绍了混合型膨胀阻燃剂和单组分膨胀阻燃剂的性能、优缺点及研究现状.罗列了蒙脱土、二氧化硅、沸石以及金属化合物等多种膨胀协同阻燃助剂在膨胀阻燃体系中的作用.简单介绍了纳米化、表面改性以及微胶囊化三种膨胀型阻燃剂的处理技术.

  17. 糖尿病足介入治疗现状%Current situation concerning the interventional therapy of diabetic foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀军; 郭志

    2012-01-01

    我国糖尿病发病率逐年增高,糖尿病足是其严重并发症之一.糖尿病足的治疗方法主要包括药物治疗,外科手术和介入治疗等.近年来介入治疗已经成为首选治疗方法.本文综述了目前糖尿病下肢血管病变的临床特点及治疗,介入治疗的进展及存在的问题等现状.%The incidence of diabetes has been increasing with each passing year and diabetic foot has become one of the serious complications. The clinical therapies commonly employed for diabetic foot include medication, surgical procedure, interventional management, etc. Interventional management has become the treatment of first choice in dealing with diabetic foot in the recent years. This paper aims to make a comprehensive review of the current situation concerning interventional therapy of diabetic foot.

  18. Creating lift versus building the base : Current trends in marketing dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Doorn, J.; Hanssens, D.M.; van Heerde, H.J.; Verhoef, P.C.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Markets are dynamic by nature; and marketing-efforts can be directed to stimulate, reduce, or to utilize these dynamics. The field of marketing dynamics aims at modeling the effects of marketing actions and policies on short-term performance ("lift") and on long-term performance ("base"). One of the

  19. Production process and market situation of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride%氯化聚氯乙烯的生产工艺与市场现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林祥; 唐霞

    2001-01-01

    The application,production process and market situation ofchlorinated polyvinyl chloride are introduced, If CPVC can substitute 1 percent of PVC consumed at home, its domestic market demands will be up to 20 000 t/a. So it has bright market prospets. Because CPVC is a kind of product cosuming chlorine and its production can make good use of exiting production equipment of PVC, this kind of product is worth developing in domestic chlor-alkali plants.%介绍了氯化聚氯乙烯的国内外应用、生产工艺、市场现状,国内使用的PVC若有1%用CPVC代替,国内CPVC需求量将达到2万t/a,因此氯化聚氯乙烯具有广阔的市场前景。氯化聚氯乙烯是氯碱厂吃氯的下游产品,生产CPVC既可充分利用现有的PVC生产装置,又可充分发挥烧碱装置的生产能力,因此氯化聚氯乙烯是国内氯碱厂可以大力开发的产品。

  20. [Current situation of pediatric emergency in tertiary and teaching hospitals in 15 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China Mainland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pre-hospital care, emergency department and critical care medicine are the key components of emergency medical service system. Two investigations about the pediatric critical care medicine in China mainland showed great progress. In recent years, most hospitals in China mainland have established emergency department, hardware configuration and staff status were gradually standardized. But most of the emergency departments mainly provide service to adult patients and pediatric emergency medicine lags behind. The purpose of this investigation was to understand the current situation and main problems of pediatric emergency in China mainland. A questionnaire developed by the Subspecialty Group of Pediatrics, Chinese Society of Emergency Medicine and the Subspecialty Group of Emergency Medicine, Chinese Society of Pediatrics was e-mailed to the members of the above-mentioned two subspecialty groups. The contents of the questionnaire included 46 items which were divided into 5 categories: the general situation of the hospital, the pediatric emergency setting and composition, key equipments and techniques, staff status, training program and running data from 2011 to 2012. Sixty-three questionnaires were delivered and 27 (42.9%) hospitals responded which located in 15 different provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. Among the 27 hospitals, 10 (37.0%) had no pediatric resuscitation room; 25 (92.6%) had no equipments for cardiac output monitor and gastric lavage; 13 (48.1%) had no bedside fibrolaryngoscope or fiberbronchoscope; 5 (18.5%) had no blood gas analyzer; 4 (14.8%) without respirator, defibrillator, bedside radiography or ultrasonic equipment; 2 (7.4%) had no neonatal incubator; 9 (33.3%) could not do intraossous infusion. The average ratio of professional emergency pediatricians to all physicians was 43.5%. Twenty hospitals incompletely filled in the pediatric emergency running data. The main problems existing in pediatric emergency include: imperfect

  1. Sensitivity of runoff behaviour of Alpine catchments to system conditions - looking at the current and future situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißl, Gertraud; Klebinder, Klaus; Kerl, Florian; Dobler, Christian; Geitner, Clemens; Schöberl, Friedrich; Kohl, Bernhard; Markart, Gerhard; Sotier, Bernadette; Formayer, Herbert; Goler, Robert; Gorgas, Theresa; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Alpine settlements are often situated on alluvial fans at the outlet of small catchments. Thus they are - due to the short response time - exposed to a high risk in case of flash floods. Within the project "Sensitivity of the runoff characteristics of small Alpine catchments to climate change" we aim at identifying the critical combinations of event characteristics (intensity and duration of rain) and system conditions (soil moisture, state of vegetation and land use, snow cover) producing flash floods in order to improve the predictability of such events. We have investigated three Alpine catchments in western Austria with different altitudes and precipitation regimes. On the plot scale, field measurements, especially irrigation experiments, revealed that the rainfall-runoff reaction of slopes producing a high or low amount of surface runoff is relatively independent of the actual soil moisture content. However, plots producing a medium amount of surface runoff at dry conditions may generate significantly increased surface runoff volumes at moist conditions. Intensive grazing raises the amount of surface runoff with the duration of pasture season. Event analysis and mapping of the catchment inventories showed that the catchments with low (Ruggbachtal, 400 - 1000 m a.s.l, Vorarlberg) and medium altitude (Brixenbachtal, 800 - 2000 m a.s.l., Tyrol) tend to be sensitive to antecedent precipitation. Due to the high amount of pastured areas, the Brixenbach catchment shows a seasonal variation of runoff behaviour with a maximum of surface runoff in the late summer. The highly situated catchment (Längental, 2000 - 3000 m a.s.l., Tyrol) may show an increased runoff response at rain-on-snow-events. Because of its high portion of rock and talus slopes the runoff reaction of the catchment is quite insensitive to antecedent soil moisture content and grazing intensity. Currently ongoing hydrological modelling will show how seasonal system conditions (duration of snow cover

  2. Institutional and legal arrangements in the Nile river basin: suggestions to improve the current situation toward adaptive integrated water resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Khalid Mohamed El Hassan

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted in this work in order to investigate the current situation in the Nile river basin (NRB) regarding the institutional and legal arrangements needed to support the adaptive integrated water resources management (AIWRM) strategy. Two similar river basins were selected to achieve this comparison and to introduce suggestions to reform the current situation in the basin. Before that, the ideal situation is investigated to be as a yardstick for the desired situation. The study indicated that the necessary AIWRM criteria may include regulatory as well as implementation organizations that support shared-vision reaching with its all necessary features (cooperation, stakeholders' participation, subsidiarity, and information and knowledge exchange). Thus the main features of the desired situations regarding AIWRM in river basins are stakeholders' participation, learning-driven ability, quick response to risks and uncertainties, and finally a legal framework that could support these criteria. Although the AIWRM criteria seem to be satisfied in NRB, the basin lacks the necessary regulatory institutions as well as the legal framework. According to this, this study recommends to reform the current situation in NRB by creating regulator institutions (policy and decision making level) as well a legal framework to legitimate them.

  3. 房产基建类企业贷款的现状与风险%Current situation and risks of loans in real estate infrastructure enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世乾

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the central pitch stable housing consumption, several rounds of financial credit policy improve the market environment, and adjust measures to local conditions around a series of loose policies to promote the demand in the market. Data show that in the first half of 2016, 93 listed real estate and infrastructure companies achieve revenue 468.757 billion yuan, 343.648 billion yuan during the same period increased by 36.41% compared with 2015, a 11.6% drop in net profit margin amount. Industry revenue in the domestic real estate industry and infrastructure improvements, but under the condition of net margins have fallen significantly, bank loan balance is inverse to the two industry city to rise, so the banking industry in response to the rapid growth of capital requirements at the same time also faces a potential systemic risks. The article researches on the current situation and risks of loans in real estate infrastructure enterprises.%近年来,中央定调稳定住房消费,多轮金融信贷政策发力改善市场环境,各地也因地制宜出台了一系列宽松政策,促进需求入市。数据表明,2016年上半年93家上市房地产与基建类企业共实现营收4687.57亿元,相比2015年同期的3436.48亿元增加36.41%,净利润率合计下降11.6%。在国内房地产行业以及基建行业营收有所回暖、但是净利润率则有明显回落的情况下,银行向两行业贷款余额却逆市上升,因此银行业在应对快速增长的资金需求同时也面临着潜在的系统性风险,文章对房产基建类企业贷款的现状与风险进行了研究。

  4. Current situation and developing direction of textile waste comprehensive utilization%我国废旧纺织品综合利用现状及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明明; 唐世君

    2012-01-01

    通过分析废旧纺织品综合利用现状,总结了纯棉废旧纺织品、废旧民用纺织品、废旧军服等领域综合利用的初步进展,提出了我国目前废旧纺织品综合利用存在的主要问题,明确了废旧纺织品综合利用的发展方向,即废旧纺织品综合利用必须紧紧围绕“合理规划、分类回收、技术保障、市场拓展、政策引导、舆论宣传、全社会广泛参与”的指导方针,通过长期而系统的推进,最终实现行业规范化、专业化、集约化的健康科学发展。%Based on an analysis of the current situation of textile waste comprehensive utilization, the paper summarized the initial utilization progress of cotton waste, civilian waste and military uniforms waste. The major problems in textile waste utilization were pointed out, and the developing direction of textile waste comprehensive utilization was proposed. Comprehensive utilization of textile waste must focus on "rational planning, sorting recovery, technical support, market expansion, policy guidance, media publicity and extensive public participation", so as to realize normalized, specialized, intensified scientific development of the industry.

  5. 无锡市民家庭园艺消费现状研究%Investigation on current situation of consumption on home gardening in Wuxi residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珍; 包志毅

    2012-01-01

    The random questionnaires to residents about the basic situation of home gardening consumption, consumer psychology, consumption willingness to garden center and other status among seven administrative regions in Wuxi were conducted. The results show that 94.8% of residents have had to buy plants and garden supplies experience; One to two months visiting a flower market accounted for 35.2%; The annual mainly in the 100~500 yuan of spending on plants, gardening materials, maintenance costs accounted for 47.6%; the purpose of residents to buy home gardening products are mainly family and personal use; 40.9% of the people pay more attention to the appearance of home gardening products; most residents are not satisfied from the currently existing conditions of flower market; 74.5% of residents are willing to try to go to shopping at garden center; plants is preferred in garden center for consumers; hoping to know the home gardening products information of garden center by advertising media accounted for 29.4%. Low level of consumption, popular consumption, displeasure with the currently existing conditions of flower market, diversification of consumer demand, efficient communication channels to pay attention, look forward to the new consumer environment such as the garden center has become the basic characteristics of Wuxi residents consumption of home gardening.%在无锡市主要行政区域进行市民家庭园艺消费的基本情况、消费心理、花园中心消费意愿等现状的随机问卷调查。结果表明:有94.8%的市民有购买过植物及花园用品的经历;1~2个月逛1次花市的人占35.2%;而每年花销在植物、园艺资材、养护上主要在100~500元的占47.6%;市民购买家庭园艺产品主要是家庭和个人用;有40.9%的市民更注重家庭园艺产品的外观;绝大多数市民对于城市现有花市的条件不太满意、不太满足;有74.5%的市民愿意尝试去花园中心购物;植物类在花园中心

  6. [The health food product Noni--does marketing harmonize with the current status of research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Rolf

    2008-03-13

    Norwegian cancer patients frequently use Noni. The objective of this study was to find out whether the way noni is marketed in Norway and the health claims made about the product harmonize with current scientific knowledge of its benefits/adverse effects. An overview of medical research on noni was obtained from three databases. Web sites for private persons and for companies that sell noni in Norway were examined. Books, pamphlets etc. from a company specializing in selling information material about noni, were also examined. 48 scientific articles were included in the study, but none of these were clinical studies of humans. Several pharmacological effects of noni have been shown in vitro and in animal models (e.g., increased survival for animals with cancer). Information material describes noni as a health-promoting product that patients with most diseases will benefit from. Noni is to a great extent sold by multi-level marketing, but is also commonly sold by health food stores. There is no scientific basis for claiming that patients will benefit from using noni for any diseases. The way this product is sold has several worrying aspects.

  7. Research on the Current Telecommuting Trends in United States and European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Georgiana PICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and due to the accelerated progress made in information and communication technology, more and more companies offer their employees the option of telecommuting. For the past twenty years, telecommuting has been on an asceding trend, an incresing number of people embracing the ability to work from home, using a computer and internet connection to communicate for their jobs. The goal of the paper is to explain the overall notion of telecommuting and to analyze the current trends in the United States and European Union markets. Another objective is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting and the important role played by this concept within the striving purpose of corporations to achieve their strategic targets. The study is based upon specialized literature reviews regarding the emergence of telecommuting and the role it plays in organizations. A comparative analysis was conducted by the authors on two regional markets, United States and the European Union, in order to assess the trend in telecommuting and the factors that influence it. The outcome of the research shows that although the benefits of telecommuting are numerous, it does not come without challenges, both being applicable for both the employer, as well as for the employee. The research results of this study can be used by organizations when considering to offer their employees flexible work opportunities which can positively influence the long term business performance.

  8. Intern doctors’ views on the current and future antibiotic resistance situation of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rozina Hoque,1 Asma Mostafa,2 Mainul Haque3 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Anatomy, Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Agrabad, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia Background: Bacterial resistance due to antibiotic misuse is reported every day. Such threat calls for a consensus to develop new strategies to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Medical doctors must play a pivotal role to control and prevent the misuse of antibiotics. There were complaints that prescribers are lacking behind in updates and advancement in the field. To address such knowledge gap, a study was conducted to know the views of interns on the current antibiotic resistance situation in a teaching hospital in Bangladesh. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, randomized, and questionnaire-based survey. Interns of the medicine, gynecology, and surgery departments of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College were the study population. Results: Out of 50 respondents, 98% would like more education on antibiotic selection. All respondents believed that prescribing inappropriate or unnecessary antibiotics was professionally unethical. Ninety percent of the participants were confident in making an accurate diagnosis of infection. Eighty-four percent of them were confident about dosage schedule. In all, 98% participants thought that antibiotic resistance is a national problem and 64% of the respondents thought that same problem also existed in their hospital. Study participants were of the view that 41%–60% of antibiotic usages are irrational in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight percent of the study population thought that antimicrobial resistance (AR would be a greater problem in the future. Conclusion: The interns believe that there is a knowledge gap on AR. More emphasis should be given to AR and its implications in the undergraduate

  9. 道路交通伤的现状和未来%Current situation and future of road traffic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正国

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic injury is a global public health problem concerned seriously by the great majority of people. Based on the WHO reports, this article introduces the current situation and future of road traffic injury, deeply analyses human factors which lead to road traffic injury such as drinking driving, speeding, youth and road traffic injury ,individual protection, etc. The author presents remarkable progress and existing problems of road traf fic safety , and puts forward some prevention measures on road traffic crashes. It is believed that road traffic crashes will still exist in the future for a long period of time , and even increase in developing countries. Road traffic safety environment can be improved with the hard work of all the people in the world.%道路交通伤是备受关注的全球公共卫生问题.本文根据世界卫生组织道路安全报告,介绍了全球道路交通伤的现状和发生趋势,从酒后驾车、超速驾车、青少年交通伤、个人防护等方面对造成道路交通事故的人员因素作了深度分析,介绍了我国道路交通安全取得的显著进步和存在的问题,并提出了具体的道路交通事故预防措施.作者指出,道路交通事故在今后相当长的一段时间内还会继续存在,甚至有所发展,需要社会所有人士共同努力才能不断改善道路交通安全环境.

  10. Navigating the current job market--grab hold of your future now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Holiday A; McDermott, Ann Y

    2013-11-01

    Although the U.S. federal government, the National Science Foundation, and other influential groups have called for American universities to educate and train more scientists, a recent article in the Washington Post and broadcasting on National Public Radio affirmed a harsh reality: there are too few jobs for today's young scientists. Essentially, landing a job in science doesn't just happen, you must prepare! The intent of this education track session, targeted to students, postdoctorates, junior faculty, and other early- to midcareer professionals was to provide insights on trends in the current job market and offer strategies and resources to be competitive. The session featured speakers representing different work environments, such as academia, industry, health care institutions, public relations, and entrepreneurial positions.

  11. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  12. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the range of labour markets across the region and assesses the ongoing relevance of the development model that is posited on low labour cost manufacturing aimed at assisting export industries. Impacts considered include migration flows of labour, the possibility of augmenting added value to existing production and the need to upgrade skills and competencies.

  13. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  14. An in vitro investigation of two currently marketed dentin tubule occlusion dentifrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Charles R; Willson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative level of dentin tubule occlusion afforded by two dentifrices specifically developed to occlude dentin tubules, following finger-applied dab-on application and by repeated brushing, in a longitudinal acid-challenge-based dentin disk model. The impact of a dietary acid alone (grapefruit juice) on the level of dentin tubule occlusion conferred by each product following dab-on application was also explored in a separate short-term stand-alone exploratory dentin disk-based in vitro study. For the longitudinal study, 120 bovine dentin discs, polished and etched in citric acid for two minutes to provide a smooth dentin surface with patent tubules, were divided into three treatment groups and subjected to a finger application of the dentifrice only, or a combination of finger application and brushing. Prior to and between treatments, the dentin samples were stored in saliva (for > 60 minutes). The test products were an 8% w/w strontium acetate dentifrice (currently marketed as Sensodyne Rapid Relief), an arginine-based dentifrice (marketed as Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief), and deionized water. For the exploratory acid resistance study, 24 dentin samples were divided into two treatment groups. Treatment consisted of a single dab-on application with the test dentifrices to the hydrated surface of dentin, followed by exposure to either a 30-second or 10-minute grapefruit juice acid challenge. For both models, at the end of each treatment period, the samples were removed for scanning electron microscopy analysis and graded on a categorical visual scale. All data were analyzed statistically by unpaired t-test comparison. In the longitudinal (four-day) model, the strontium acetate-based dentifrice occluded dentin tubules significantly better than the currently marketed arginine-based dentifrice post-dab-on treatment and grapefruit juice challenge (p < 0.0001). At all other time points, the strontium acetate dentifrice

  15. Analyzing The Relationship Among The GDP - Current Account Deficit and Short Term Capital Flows: The Case of Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ekrem AKBAŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was analyzed if there was causal relationship among the current deficit, short term capital flows and economic growth in emerging markets. Before causality test was done, CDLM tests were done in order to the fact that to be able to determine if there was cross section dependence in countries form the panel. At the end of CDLM tests cross section dependence in emerging markets form the panel was determined. Then, panel causality test developed was done. According to the result of panel causality test bidirectional causality between current account deficit and GDP, unidirectional causality from short term capital flows to current deficit and GDP were determined.

  16. Situated University, Situated Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that teaching as a situated, civic activity must be a core intellectual activity in the engaged metropolitan university. Situated writing provides the key pedagogy for the Chicago Civic Leadership Certificate Program at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an engaged public research university. The role of writing, or…

  17. Current Status of Cable Television in the Top-100 Broadcast Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Stuart J.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the status of cable television in the major broadcast markets suggests that the cable industry has made very little progress in penetrating the top-100 markets, that the rate of development of new cable systems in the top-100 markets has slowed in recent years, and that the primary function of cable television is to retransmit…

  18. Current situation regarding the co-combustion of waste materials in power plants; Aktuelle Situation der Mitverbrennung von Abfallstoffen in Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, U.; Krueger, H.; Puch, K.H. [VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V., Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In view of the wholly insufficient capacity, relative to current arisings, of waste incineration plants, residue processing plants and plants for the utilisation of other combustible materials we are inevitably faced with the question whether power plant furnaces might not be suited for the thermal treatment and utilisation of wastes and residues. This possibility has been studied by many VGB member companies and seriously investigated for its practicability in several cases. The investigations were premised on the following fundamental positions. The VGB members are prepared to contribute to the solution of the above problems as long as this is possible without detriment to their duties as energy suppliers. They can only assume this responsibility if the requirements of the licensing laws are observed. This concerns the quality and arising quantities of wastes to be taken in, emissions, and the disposal of combustion residues. Power plants typically make more or less complete use of their own process residues, a feature which as far as possible should not be impaired by the co-combustion process. The technical problems posed by the co-combustion of suitable residues and wastes are usually solvable. Co-combustion offers an alternative and a supplement to dedicated waste utilisation plants or plants for the utilisation of suitable residues. Beyond this some companies are interested in profiting from the fees that will be due to them for utilising wastes. From 1990 to 1992 a VGB working group studied the option of co-combustion on the basis of the above premises. The material elaborated by the group now in turn serves as a basis for the following deliberations. [Deutsch] Da die Kapazitaet der Abfallverbrennungsanlagen, der Anlagen zur Reststoffverwertung und der Anlagen zur Nutzung sonstiger brennbaren Stoffe fuer das vorhandene Angebot bei weitem nicht ausreicht, ergibt sich die Frage der Eignung von Kraftwerksfeuerungen zur thermischen Behandlung und Verwertung von

  19. Assessing The Current Indonesia’s Electricity Market Arrangements and The Opportunities to Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhani Setyawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Existing subsidy arrangements and institutional settings in the Indonesian electricity sector distort investment decisions and lead to higher cost. Electricity supply is characterized by natural monopoly characteristics, requiring different management by governments than sectors with more straightforward market characteristics. Many countries have undergone significant re-structuring of their electricity sectors, away from one, state owned and vertically integrated monopoly supplier to a setting whereby competition has emerged either at the generation level and/or the retail level. Transmission and distribution networks are typically heavily regulated and transparent access arrangements are put in place as part of the restructuring efforts. The analysis showed that the current structure of Indonesia’s electricity sector firmly within Model 2 (the single buyer model and highlights that Indonesia is currently towards the less-competitive end of the spectrum of Model 2, identifying significant potential for efficiency enhancing reforms within this structure. Constitutional limitations have hampered previous efforts to restructure the sector in Indonesia but there is significant room for incremental reform to improve incentives in the sector and reduce the cost of generation in the process.

  20. Potato Production and Marketing Situation Aalysis 2010 and Forecast Poduction Situation 2011 in Qinghai Province%2010年青海省马铃薯产销形势分析及2011年生产形势预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓军

    2011-01-01

    This article from the production,processes and circulates three aspects introduce present situatio of potato industrial development Qinghai Province ; Based on this, in view of the seed tuber, the edible commodity potato,the processing raw material potato and so on three kind of potato' s market demands and sale carries on analyzes thoroughly;Through the calculation and comparison potato' s plant cost and the eco- nomic efficiency, obtained the potato income to create recent years the peak in 2010 that play important role in farmer income ,finally aims at 2011 potato production situation of 2011 to carry on the forecast.%从生产、加工及流通三个方面介绍青海省马铃薯产业发展现状;在此基础上,针对种薯、食用商品薯、加工原料薯等三类马铃薯的市场需求和销售进行较深入分析;通过推算和比较马铃薯的种植成本和经济效益,得出2010年马铃薯收益创近年最高点,对促进农民增收发挥重要作用;最后针对2011年马铃薯的生产形势进行预测。

  1. Experimental Section: On the magnetic field distribution generated by a dipolar current source situated in a realistically shaped compartment model of the head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.W.H.; Bosch, F.G.C.; Peters, M.J.; Lopes da silva, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution around the head is simulated using a realistically shaped compartment model of the head. The model is based on magnetic resonance images. The 3 compartments describe the brain, the skull and the scalp. The source is represented by a current dipole situated in the

  2. Analysis on Current Situation of English Teaching in Rural Primary Schools-Take Tai gu County in Shan Xi Province as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, English education in rural areas draws more attention in the society. However, the current situation of Eng-lish teaching is worrying. Visit and investigated Limeizhuang primary school in Taigu County, Shanxi province and found some problems, so as to promote English teaching in rural primary schools.

  3. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MOLĂNESCU

    2011-02-01

    influence on the mechanisms that generate economic stability and economic development effort. For example, on the short-term, the budget deficit reduces the national saving, leads to decreased supply of market funds, which increases the interest rates. In this context, the volume of investment decreases, the consumption is reduced, affecting the volume of economic activities and employment. The psychological influences combined with the economic boost caused by budget deficits act directly on financial markets, leading to falling down the values of capital markets and the depreciation of the currencies sometimes sudden for the national currency. Even if the depreciation of the exchange rate is often a method used to equilibrate the commercial balance, an uncontrolled amplification of budgetary deficits can sometimes lead to monetary depreciation. These, over a certain level, can neutralize the benefits obtained in the external plan by strong worsening of the internal imbalances, mainly through the increased inflationary pressures in the economy. So, in current circumstances, when you want to identify and encourage those branches and sub-branches of national economy which can be developed in the global economy, one of the basic decisions regarding the interpretation of economic processes is the adoption of a dynamic and creative concept which considers both requirements to use the fiscal levers in economic development policy and the possibility of modifying the structure of budgetary revenues and expenses.

  4. R 22 substitutes - points to be observed. Pt. 1. Current situation and material considerations; Ersatz von R 22 - Was ist zu beachten? T. 1. Ausgangssituation und stoffliche Ueberlegungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhoff, W. [GHC Gerling, Holz und Co. Handels GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Flohr, F. [Solvay Fluor GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Puhl, C. [Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Selmer, K. [Arctos Industriekaelte AG, Soerup (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The EU-wide impending ban on using new R22 for maintenance purposes from 1 January 2010 has livened up the discussion over finding an optimal substitute to R22 in its many and varied applications. This is the first part of a two-article series in which the subject is discussed both from the view of a refrigerant and oil producer and of a wholesale supplier and plant constructor. The first part starts by discussing the legal boundary conditions, the current situation, and the refrigerant and machine oil situation. (orig.)

  5. HEDGING CURRENCY RISK IN EUROPEAN STOCK MARKETS: EVIDENCE FROM THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra HOROBET; DRAGHICI Alina; CONSTANTIN Laura Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Our paper examines the impact of currency risk on investments made by a Euro based investor in European countries in normal versus turbulent times. We use unhedged and hedged stock market returns to see whether the performance of portfolios made up of stocks from developed markets could be enhanced by including stocks from emerging markets and hedging currency risk. The contribution of currency risk is highly fluctuating, but generally positive, indicating that currency risk adds to the local...

  6. The Dilemma of the Oil Market in the Current Geopolitical Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Balaceanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, where the effects of technology have an overwhelming impact on people's lives, meaning an increase in appetite for consumption of luxury goods, of lifestyle, it seems that conventional resources are becoming fewer and their use in industrial processes lead to environmental harm, at least from pollution. Essentially, oil prices influence governments, companies, and markets of raw materials markets of finite economic goods, markets of conventional and unconventional energy and an assumed oil crisis would lead to stronger inflections on the market, with repercussions on the overall level of prices, the oil price being generally regarded as decisive for the other prices in the economy.

  7. 南京市养老地产的供需现状及开发对策%Study on the Current Supply and Demand Situation and Development Strategy of the Real Estate Provided for the Aged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing city is one of the country's aging population with higher levels of city, the rapid pace of development, facing a severe test of the pension problem. Based on the current situation of Nanjing city housing supply and housing demand in the elderly elderly as the starting point,analysis of the current situation of the pension real estate development in Nanjing city and the development trend in the future. Through the questionnaire survey and the current situation of housing, Nanjing city elderly and elderly housing demand, there is a summary of Nanjing city at present endowment real estate development problems; try to judge the pension real estate market in Nanjing city and Nanjing city development stage, the three kinds of Pension --home care, community care and institutional care in the future the proportion of pension modechanges, which constitute the system of endowment real estate; national and internationalendowment of successful real estate development case, combined with China's pension policyinitiatives, from various measures more comprehensive perspective of Nanjing city pensionreal estate development.%以南京市老年住房的供给现状以及中老年住房需求为切入点,分析南京市养老地产开发的现状以及未来的发展趋势。通过问卷调查的形式分析南京市老年住房的现状及中老年住房需求,总结南京市目前养老地产开发过程中存在的问题。借鉴国外养老地产成功开发的案例,结合我国养老政策举措,研究南京市养老地产开发的对策。

  8. Hydrological engineering in the 21st century - current situation and future perspectives; Wasserkraft im 21. Jahrhundert - Bestandsaufnahme und Zukunftsperspektiven. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Content with following topics: Hydropower in Europe, general conditions and licensing, hydropower use in case of deregulation, Chance and market from the point of view of manufacturers, as futural perspectives of ''Green Power Generation''.(GL) [German] Inhalt mit folgenden Schwerpunkten: Wasserkraft in Europa, Rahmenbedingungen und Genehmigungen, Wasserkraftnutzung im liberalisierten Strommarkt, Chance und Markt aus Herstellersicht, sowie Zukunftsperspektiven der Erzeugung des ''Gruenen Stroms''.(GL)

  9. Recruiting Youth in the College Market: Current Practices and Future Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.; Asch, Beth J., Ed.

    This publication explores the enlistment potential of college-market youth by examining the characteristics of the college-market population and the implications of these characteristics for designing effective recruiting policies. Chapter 1, "Introduction: Trends and Theoretical Considerations" (M. Rebecca Kilburn, Beth J. Asch),…

  10. 我国名优茶发展现状与趋势%Current Situation and Tendency on the Development of Chinese Premium Teas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智修; 段文华; 吴海燕; 司智敏

    2013-01-01

    The current situation and tendency of the development for Chinese premium teas were investigated in analyzing the results of 3948 tea samples in nine “Zhongcha Cup” country wide premium tea competitions during 1994~2011. All the six types of Chinese tea developed well. Among them, green tea was the main tea, Oolong tea and dark tea increased steadily, black, white and yellow teas were in recovery growth. In the four tea growing areas, the Jiangnan (south Yangtze River) tea area developed strongly and has the highest prize awarded ratio. The premium tea in Zhejiang Province is leading its development in China, the quality of Jiangsu premium tea is at the top, Shandong province, a north tea area, has strong marketing and competition consciousness. And Fujian, Sichuan, Hubei, Guizhou, Guangdong, Anhui are also important premium tea producing provinces. The ratio of tea sample made by clonal tea cultivars increased continuously. „Fuding Dabaicha‟, „Baiye 1‟, „Fuding Dahaocha‟, Longjing series clones are main clonal tea cultivars. The quality of premium tea increased steadily. Nevertheless, the tea appearance is becoming similar. Hygian safety (the situation of heavy metal, pesticide residues) was satisfactory, and organic tea developed rather fast. The ratios of machinery processing, producing according to standard, and trade mark increased year by year and reached a higher level.%  通过对1994~2011年连续九届3948只“中茶杯”名优茶评比茶样数据分析,结果表明,我国六大茶类名优茶均呈现发展态势,绿茶是发展的主茶类,乌龙茶、黑茶稳步增长,红茶、白茶和黄茶呈恢复性增长。四大茶区中,江南茶区获奖率最高,发展势头强劲;浙江名优茶产业引领我国名优茶发展,江苏名优茶总体质量位居全国前列,山东显现强烈的市场竞争意识,福建、四川、湖北、贵州、广东和安徽等省也占重要地位。无性系品种茶样

  11. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  12. Interventions to Improve the Labour Market Situation of Adults with Physical and/or Sensory Disabilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripney, J

    2015-11-01

    areas in which more research needs to be conducted. OBJECTIVES • To describe the range and diversity of interventions available for addressing the low labour market participation of adults with physical and/or sensory disabilities in developing country contexts. • To systematically identify, assess, and synthesise the evidence on the effects of interventions on labour market outcomes for disabled adults in low- and middle-income countries. As part of this, to critically analyse the evidence along the causal chain framework, linking interventions with intermediate outcomes and final impacts, and document the level/strength of evidence on potential pathways of impact using the framework. • To assess if effects are moderated by characteristics of the participants, interventions, and/or settings. • To provide an explanation for the intervention effects by examining what participants in the included studies reported about why the interventions did, or did not, work for them. SELECTION CRITERIA To be included in the review, studies were required to meet several eligibility criteria. First, studies must have evaluated an intervention with the means to improve the labour market situation of adults with disabilities. Such interventions could take the form of a device, policy, programme, strategy, or other type of action. Second, studies must have investigated outcomes for adults aged 16-65 years with physical and/or sensory impairments associated with disability. Third, the study setting must have been a low-or middle-income country (LMIC. Fourth, studies must have utilised one of the following: (a randomised experimental design, (b rigorous quasi-experimental design that used robust methods for removing biases due to non-random assignment of treatment, or (c quasi-experimental design that used less rigorous methods for constructing the counterfactual, including uncontrolled studies. Fifth, studies must have reported at least one quantitative employment-related outcome

  13. The Effects of Liberalisation of the Passenger Railway Market on the Situation of Regional Rail Connections in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taczanowski Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Liberalisation of railway market can be an important instrument for increasing the attractiveness of local rail services and consequently for making the railways more competitive with other means of transport, which could result in changing the modal share in the favour of railways. The differences in the railway liberalisation level as well as in the policies towards rail transport between Central and Eastern European countries are vast, hence the present situation and the future prospects of regional services are diverse. Whereas there is only one railway line in Slovakia which is not operated by the state railway company ZSSK, a few private local connections which complement a very dense network of ČD state railways are in service in the Czech Republic. Poland, by contrast, is a country where liberalisation of railway market is most advanced as several different companies are responsible for transport in the regions. However, the results of this large scale liberalisation are ambiguous as the positive effects (reopening of some lines are balanced by isolation of the new regional government-owned systems from each other. In Austria, by contrast, the existence of several private and regional government-owned local railways which are an indispensable part of the regional transport networks has contributed to maintain an effective transport system. Although the effects of liberalisation on the local railway networks can often be ambiguous, several cases from the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland show that privatisation and municipalisation may have a positive effect on the railway service as it has enabled to maintain the service on many sections which were at risk of closure. However, the most important condition of the effective transport development seems to be an active cooperation between the railway operators and the local governments as an expression of appropriate transport policy.

  14. Russia's energy supply. Current situation and strategy until 2030; Energieversorgung Russlands. Aktuelle Lage und Strategie bis 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borozdina, Olga [Staatliche Univ. fuer Oekonomie und Finanzen, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-15

    Russia has extensive energy and fuel resources. Its energy production sector forms the basis of its economic development and determines Russia's foreign and domestic policy. The reliable supply of the country, its citizens, society and economic system with energy and fuel is an important part of Russia's energy policy. These goals determine the path which the Russian energy supply system must take up to the year 2030 and beyond: Its future energy strategy rests on the aims of capacity growth, improvement of energy efficiency and the continued liberalisation of the energy market.

  15. Current Status and Trend of Internet and E-Commerce Market in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Hongjoo; KIM Jongwoo; PARK Sungjoo

    2004-01-01

    After the remarkable increase of Internet users and broadband Internet subscribers at the end of the 20th century, the size of Korean Internet and e-commerce market steadily increased but the growth rate has been either stagnant or decreased. Trends of Korean Internet and e-commerce market are summarized in this paper the trends on Internet usage are introduced. Trends of online games, blogs and wireless Internet are introduced. The trends of Korean Internet market may have implications for China and Japan.

  16. BROKERAGE ACTIVITIES ON THE RUSSIAN STOCK MARKET IN THE CURRENT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Olga V. Pomaskina

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the basic functions of a broker in the securities market, analyzesthe brokerage activities in the stock marketof the Moscow Stock Exchange in 2014.A comparative analysis of the largestbrokers highlights perspective directionsof brokering services.

  17. BROKERAGE ACTIVITIES ON THE RUSSIAN STOCK MARKET IN THE CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Pomaskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the basic functions of a broker in the securities market, analyzesthe brokerage activities in the stock marketof the Moscow Stock Exchange in 2014.A comparative analysis of the largestbrokers highlights perspective directionsof brokering services.

  18. Current Behaviours and Future Prospects of Online Film Consumption in China: A Social Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Yunhong

    2013-01-01

    Free film downloading services have gained large popularity among Chinese consumers, although there is potential film copyright losses as many of the downloading resources offer pirated films. Based on previous studies of consumer behaviour theory, social marketing and film piracy, this research was an attempt to gain an understanding of the factors that influence consumer film downloading and to discuss the role of social marketing in changing such behaviour through promoting paid online fil...

  19. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  20. The Current Situation of Pharmaceutical Industrial Organization and Effects of Industry Policy in Jiangsu Province%江苏省医药产业组织现状及政策影响效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊季霞; 申俊龙

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解江苏省医药产业组织现状,提出促进江苏省医药产业可持续发展的政策建议.方法:通过文献检索与社会调研,以及运用传统产业组织理论的“结构-行为-绩效”分析范式,对江苏省医药产业组织现状及现有政策效果进行分析,并提出建议.结果与结论:江苏省医药产业组织市场集中度和进入壁垒有待提高,市场绩效较好,持续增长特性明显.江苏省已出台的多项产业政策的影响效果良好.建议还应整体规划,加强组织管理和政策扶持;培育大企业、大集团,积极发展产业集群;鼓励技术创新,加强新药研发;承接国际产业转移,大力开拓国际市场.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current situation of pharmaceutical industrial organization, and, to put forward the policy recommendations of improving the sustainable development of pharmaceutical industry in Jiangsu province. METHODS: Through literature search and society survey, using the "structure-conduct-performance" (SCP) paradigm of traditional industrial organization theory, the current situation of pharmaceutical industrial organization and the effect of industrial policy in Jiangsu province were analyzed to put forward suggestions. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The pharmaceutical industry of Jiangsu province has need to improve good market development potentiality and market entry barriers, good performance and rapid rising characteristic. Many pharmaceutical industrial policies have been published in Jiangsu province and have obtained good effects. It is suggested to plan overall and strengthen institution management and policy support; culture large enterprises and large group and develop industrial cluster; encourage renovation of production techniques and enhance R&D of new drugs; undertake from international industry and explore international markets.

  1. Probiotic formulations and applications, the current probiotics market, and changes in the marketplace: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxelin, Maija

    2008-02-01

    Europe is a multicultural continent where the consumption of fermented milks has traditionally been high in several countries. Thus, it is no wonder that the market for fermented dairy products with probiotic bacteria has been successful. The market for food applications of probiotics is clearly larger than that for probiotics sold in capsules, sachets, and other pharmaceutical forms. Yogurt-type drinks are the fastest-growing product category, but the diversity of probiotic food applications is not limited to milk-based products. Probiotic fruit juices, berry soups, and soy- and cereal-based fermented products are also sold. Some probiotic strains that are successful in Europe are marketed globally, but there is also a variety of local probiotic strains that are key players in their limited markets. The health messages of probiotic products have focused mainly on general well-being and support of gastrointestinal microbiota. However, because of newly accepted regulation from the European Union regarding health claims, such claims will be evaluated officially, which may substantially change their content. However, more-specific product claims may also appear on the market. This article describes trends and phenomena in mainly the food sector, which covers the most-successful probiotic applications, but food supplements are also discussed.

  2. MARKETING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNA NARANJO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas del sector de la construcción son conscientes de la importancia de vincular la comercialización (o marketing a las funciones primordiales de la empresa, como respuesta ante la necesidad de adaptarse a los continuos cambios del sector, satisfacer las demandas de sus clientes, ser competitivos y mejorar su estrategia de negocio. El presente artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos del análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo del estado actual de conocimiento del marketing en el sector de la construcción. El estudio se realizó mediante una búsqueda bibliométrica y el posterior procesamiento y análisis de los artículos encontrados. A pesar de los esfuerzos realizados en la última década, es difícil generalizar cómo aplicar el marketing en las empresas del sector de la construcción debido a las particularidades del sector. Sin embargo, existe un abanico de posibles estrategias que pueden ser usadas; una vez las empresas conozcan las necesidades de los clientes serán capaces de escoger las estrategias que deben aplicar. Se proponen futuras líneas de investigación como la implementación del marketing, diferenciación del marketing de acuerdo con el tipo de cliente, y aplicación de las tecnologías y sistemas de información.

  3. Russia's Precious Metals Market: Condition and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTLYAR A. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The region of existence of phases in equilibrium with the solid solution based on palladium.Presented to analyze the current situation in the market of precious metals in Russia.Provides information about the production and processing of precious metals.Prospects for the most likely path of development of the Russian market of precious metals.

  4. Current Situation of the Carbon Fiber and Related Composites Industry%碳纤维及复合材料产业链现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传雄

    2015-01-01

    By discussing the spinning, pre-oxidation, carbonization, compounding and recycling technologies for making carbon ifber and related composites, the paper discussed the present situation of technological development in the field of carbon fiber and related composites; analyzed the market situation of such products and their application prospects in aerospace, national defense, wind turbine, sport and leisure, transportation vehicles, civil-engineering, etc. It also pointed out some problems existing in China’s carbon ifber industry and gave related solutions.%从碳纤维纺丝、预氧化、碳化、复合成型和回收利用等方面概述碳纤维及复合材料产业链技术现状,分析碳纤维及复合材料市场现状以及在国防航空、交通工具、风力发电、运动休闲、土木建筑等领域的应用前景,指出中国碳纤维产业发展存在的问题及建议。

  5. LED路灯的使用现状分析%Analysis on the Current Situation of LED Traffic Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2012-01-01

    本文论述了LED路灯的市场前景、技术指标、使用优势及存在的问题。虽然LED路灯“整体式”结构、高价格和光源不稳定等问题制约了其大范围推广,但是LED发光芯片作为第四代光源以其节能环保、高寿命、高光效等特点成为了接下传统HID光源的接力棒的最佳选择。%The market prospect, technical index and problem in the application of LED traffic light are described in this article. Although the structure, high price and unstable lamp-house affect the application of LED traffic light, LED traffic light with the advantage of energy saving, long life span became the best choice.

  6. Current Challenges for Healthcare Services and the Opportunities Created by the Marketing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcărea, T; Purcărea, LV; Raţiu, M

    2008-01-01

    Life is changing dramatically, market position as part of life is becoming more and more important, and marketing, considered a key cultural architect of nowadays that involves voluntary relation exchanges between the communicating partners, is placing the patient in the center of most adequate action towards the medical future which represents his life quality. We think that the moment has come to resort to marketing as a new method to identify innovation opportunities in healthcare services' delivery, considering that the high quality of healthcare services, answering to demands of healthcare systems' consumers, represents a well recognized priority for the European citizens. Consequently, the model of ‘healthcare business’ has to rely on the value for patient by creating competition concerning the results at medical condition level. PMID:20108474

  7. Current challenges for healthcare services and the opportunities created by the marketing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Florian; Purcărea, Theodor; Purcărea, Victor Lorin; Raţiu, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Life is changing dramatically, market position as part of life is becoming more and more important, and marketing, considered a key cultural architect of nowadays that involves voluntary relation exchanges between the communicating partners, is placing the patient in the center of most adequate action towards the medical future which represents his life quality. We think that the moment has come to resort to marketing as a new method to identify innovation opportunities in healthcare services' delivery, considering that the high quality of healthcare services, answering to demands of healthcare systems' consumers, represents a well recognized priority for the European citizens. Consequently, the model of "healthcare business" has to rely on the value for patient by creating competition concerning the results at medical condition level.

  8. The market of the activities bound to the wastes situation 2002-2003 and perspectives 2004; Le marche des activites liees aux dechets situation 2002-2003 et perspectives 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    This study presents the different activities bound to the wastes, evaluates the economical stakes, the short-dated development perspectives, identifies the new markets and analyzes the regulations impact on the short-dated markets. It concerns the non hazardous and hazardous wastes. (A.L.B.)

  9. Investigation of awareness rate and current situation in hormone replacement therapy in medical care personnel in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Hong-fang; Tao Min-fang; Sun Xun-yan; Jiang Li-zhen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To survey the cognition and requirement of perimenopause health care in Shanghai women,and provide updated situation about hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for further improving the quality of perimenopause health care.Methods: A large survey among 480 medical care personnel at age of 40-60 years in 12 hospitals in Shanghai was launched.The designed questionnaires included the awareness rate,basic knowledge of HRT and request for the information of HRT etc.The data were analyzed.Results: Among the respondents,35.81% (169/472) believed that it is necessary to start HRT in perimenopause women; 16.10 % (76/472) knew about H RT at some extent; 43.22 % (204/472) requested for the training of HRT; and 14.19%(67/472)would like to recommend patients using the hormone to treat perimenopause syndrome.In addition,52.41% (76/145)of the medical care personnel who refused to use HRT were worried about the side effects.Conclusion: In Shanghai,the awareness rate of HRT among medical care personnel was relatively low.Only a few medical care personnel prefer to use HRT in perimenopause patients.The main reasons for that were lack of understanding in the treatment of HRT and concerned side effects.

  10. Current situation of Radiotherapy procedures and technology; Situacion actual de los procedimientos y la tecnologia en Radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Leton, P.; Lopez Fernandez, A.

    2004-07-01

    The fight against cancer is currently being battled on three fronts: radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. In today's world, radiotherapy offers some advantageous characteristics to treat certain kinds of cancer, since enormous strides in technological development have been taken to increasingly adjust the precision and distribution of the dosage to the volume of the tumour. (Author) 8 refs.

  11. Mental Health Care in Nepal : Current Situation and Challenges for Development of a District Mental Health Care Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luitel, N.P., Jordans, M.J.D., Adhikari, Al, Upadhaya, N.P., Hanlon, C., Lund, C. & Komproe, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus of

  12. Mental health care in Nepal : current situation and challenges for development of a district mental health care plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luitel, Nagendra P; Jordans, Mark Jd; Adhikari, Anup; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Hanlon, Charlotte; Lund, Crick; Komproe, Ivan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142349321

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Globally mental health problems are a serious public health concern. Currently four out of five people with severe mental illness in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) receive no effective treatment. There is an urgent need to address this enormous treatment gap. Changing the focus

  13. The Current Situation and the Utilization Technique of Rare Earth in China%我国稀土废料回收利用技术与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚卫星; 李艳荣

    2013-01-01

    论述了我国稀土资源的回收利用现状,从磁性材料、发光材料及催化剂等可回收的稀土废料方面,说明我国回收稀土废料的利用技术仍处于攻坚阶段。如何回收稀土废料中有用的稀土元素,有待进一步研究。%This paper describes the current situation of recycling the rare earth in China. It proves that the utilization technique of rare earth in China is still in the crucial stage based on the recycling situation of rare earth from magnetic materials, luminescence materials and catalyst, etc,. It needs to be further studied on how to recycle the valuable rare earth elements from the rare earth waste.

  14. Managing the Current Situation of Young People in National and European Context in Terms of their Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braica Alexandra Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment and research into this phenomenon of social marginalization and social exclusion of young people at both national and European levels has as a target to find methods of prevention and reduction of this phenomenon and understand the fact that it is only through communication, debates and dialog that will we be able to establish benchmarks for joint action. Young people are one of the age segments which are most affected by the economic recession. It is also accepted that in each of the Member States of the EU, despite different circumstances and levels of economic development, major issues faced by young people are the same: from access to essential services (such as education and health and up to their integration into the labour market with a view to achieving a higher standard of living. The decision makers are constantly interested in solving these stringent problems, which can be found in the policies and strategies for economic recovery and fighting the austerity measures adopted by the Member States of the EU, through a series of programs that have as main objectives combating unemployment and poverty among young people and providing opportunities for more active involvement in their community life: political, social, economic, cultural. In Romania, the problem of young people constitutes an issue of major importance for the Government, which has drawn up for the first time an Integrated Strategy of Romania with regard to young people called "National Strategy for Youth 2014-2020", with particular emphasis on the first role that education must play in this context. Examples of solutions identified by the governors are: an increase in public funding for mentoring programs, for the prevention of school dropout rates, establishment of differentiated educational offers, training schemes designed to eliminate lack of qualification in young people, in such a way as to maintain a competitive and well-prepared generation in the country

  15. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huey T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU, and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  16. MR-PET的现状、挑战和前景%Current Situation, Challenges and Prospects of MR-PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 陈自谦; 倪萍

    2013-01-01

    Development of device of multimodality imaging is a milestone of medical imaging. After the huge success of SPECT-CT and PET-CT, more and more studies have been carried out on MR-PET. Combining multi-parameter anatomic and functional imaging of MRI with molecular imaging of PET is substantial to the scientific and clinical researches of nervous system, cardiovascular system and tumor, etc. In this paper, we reviews the research situation and challenge of MR-PET in 3 aspects including small animal MR-PET imaging, brain MR-PET imaging and whole body MR-PET imaging. Furthermore, superiority and prospect of MR-PET in biomedicine are also discussed.%多模态成像设备的发展是影像学发展的里程碑,继SPECT-CT和PET-CT后,人们开始致力于MR-PET的研究.MRI的多参数解剖成像、功能成像与PET的分子成像结合,对促进神经、心血管、肿瘤等方面的研究及临床诊断具有重要意义.本文将从小动物、脑部及全身MR-PET成像3个方面对MR-PET的研究现状及其面临的挑战进行综述,并探讨MR-PET在生物医学中的优越性及发展前景.

  17. Current Situation and Prospect of Solar Battery%太阳能电池发展现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维清; 程亮

    2011-01-01

    介绍了太阳能电池的发展历程。分析了太阳能电池产业的现状,并对太阳能电池产业的发展进行了展望。%In this paper, the author introduced development history of solar battery. Then, the author analyzed the current sit- uation, and looked into future of development of solar battery industry.

  18. Social Media and Marketing Education: A Review of Current Practices in Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, E. Deanne; White, Nathan James; Bartkus, Kenneth; Brocato, Ashley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Given the presumed importance of social media to marketing, along with the apparent lack of research concerning social media curriculum development, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic analysis of social media curriculum through the evaluation of undergraduate course syllabi in the United States. This research is intended to…

  19. Loyalty program: current content, types and methods of realization at B2C market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehaenko Ekaterina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to researching the content of the key concepts for partnership relations marketing – customer loyalty. It presents the results of scientific-theoretical substantiation of the typical structure and methods of implementation of loyalty programs in retail.

  20. College Students' Attitudes & Responses toward the Current Economy and Its Implications for Marketing Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lauren; Lamanette, Michelle; Silva, Alberto; Budden, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early months of 2009, the undeniable woes of the economy are being felt by many. With a record number of corporate closings, rising unemployment and the crises in the financial markets, this may prove to be a difficult year for many. This paper uses empirical evidence collected from Southeastern Louisiana University students to learn how…

  1. Social Media and Marketing Education: A Review of Current Practices in Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, E. Deanne; White, Nathan James; Bartkus, Kenneth; Brocato, Ashley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Given the presumed importance of social media to marketing, along with the apparent lack of research concerning social media curriculum development, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic analysis of social media curriculum through the evaluation of undergraduate course syllabi in the United States. This research is intended to…

  2. Distributed generation in European electricity markets. Current challenges and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    This Ph.D. thesis studies the role of distributed generation in European electricity markets. It focuses primarily on the interactions of economics and policy with the aim of contributing to the understanding of how distributed generation is embedded in the present regulatory and market framework, which barriers exist, and which role it may possibly play in the future. To capture the interdisciplinarity of the topic, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods is applied. Subsequent to the identification of barriers, this thesis turns to the microeconomic perspective on the interplay of vertical structure, regulation and distributed generation. This is done through the application of quantitative methods in the form of partial equilibrium models focusing on the effects induced by the vertical structure of the network operator, either a combined operator or a distribution system operator, in a market with small distributed producers. In areas where the promotion of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power has induced a substantial increase in distributed generation, new challenges in system integration arise. In particular, high levels of generation from intermittent energy sources, such as wind, add to the complexity of network operation and control, which can hardly be tackled with the present 'fit and forget' approach. The conclusion is that distributed generation has great potential to enhance competitiveness, sustainability and security of supply in European electricity markets. A prerequisite is the removal of market and regulatory barriers, taking the interdependencies of vertical structure, support mechanisms and network access into account. In the future, higher penetration levels of distributed generation necessitate changes in the power system and the adoption of new technologies, where hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis constitutes one example. (LN)

  3. 越南蚕业概况与发展方向%Vietnam senculture Current Situation and Its Development Direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎鸿云; 阮氏茉莉

    2013-01-01

    越南地处东南亚,养蚕历史悠久,几千年前就有了丝绸生产。缫丝产量一直不高,仅满足于农家居民消费需求和市场需求。蚕业是越南的一个传统的农产品加工产业。长期以来,蚕业在越南农业生产上排第二位置,仅次于水稻。如今,虽然越南正处于工业化快速发展的过程中,但是蚕桑业仍然是一项重要的农业生产活动。它不仅给农民带来收入,而且还包括了历史和文化。根据办公室、国家机关对630蚕农户,30家收藏蚕茧和40个缫丝车间的调查统计信息,本文回顾和分析了近一段时间内越南蚕业发展现状和存在的问题,并提出未来的发展方向。%Vietnam is located in South -East of Asia. Silk has been produced in Vietnam for thousands of years. Production has been small at the farmer level for household consumption and marketing demand. Sericul-ture is a traditional agro-industrial occupation. In the past, sericulture was ranked second position in Viet-namese production of agriculture next to water rice. Nowadays, Vietnam is being in industrialization process, but sericulture is still an important work in rural regions, not only good income for farmer but also culture and history. Based on the information of statistic offices, state organizations and survey 630 sericulturist, 30 co-coon collectors and 40 silk reeling workshops, this paper reviewed the development of sericulture in Vietnam within the recent period, and try to analyze the problems existed in sericulture industry and propose the direc-tion for future development.

  4. [Population, food production and nutrition in the Dominican Republic. Current situation and projections for 1985-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatis, A; Gomez De Santana, C

    1983-01-01

    This report, based on recent studies of family budgets, agricultural development plans, health status and planning, and nutritional status in the Dominican Republic, examines the causes and correlates of widespread malnutrition in the country and the likely evolution of food and nutrition through the year 2000 if no changes are made. Among the sociodemographic aspects of the food and nutrition problem is the rate of population growth, which increased in the Dominican Republic to its maximum in 1965 and dropped to 2.6% in 1980. At the same time, the urban component increased to 52% of the population in 1981 from 24% in 1950. Extreme class differentiation in the rural sector, with 70% of the population receiving 45% of the income, is another factor. Agricultural production is growing at one of the lowest rates in Latin America, and much of the crop is still exported, to the detriment of domestic consumption. 14 nutrition surveys between 1962-80 showed rates of malnutrition in children under 6 varying from 30.4% to 75.4%. Per capita food consumption in 1980 was 519.0 kg/year, less than the 579.0 kg/year of 1964. Food consumption is negatively affected by the lack of an overall government policy to confront malnutrition, the dependence of food consumption on employment and income distribution, the health problems of the population which prevent full biological assimilation of food, and inappropriate food beliefs and prejudices. A comparison of the balance between projected food production for the internal market and projected food requirements to meet the nutritional needs of the population through 2000 shows deficits in the majority of foodstuffs. For cereals, only rice and maize production will exceed demand, while wheat is not domestically produced. Large deficits of tubers and roots, legumes, bananas, oils, and milk are expected. By the year 2000, the country may however be able to satisfy 88% of its overall food needs, but there may be no improvement in

  5. Efficiency of Electrical Stunning by Electronarcosis: Current Situation and Perspective of Improvement in a Medium-Size Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrical stunning by electronarcosis in a medium-size poultry processing plant located in southern Brazil. The current measurement of this type of stunning is presented, and then improvements to this method are proposed. Data were collected for 90 days. A quality indicator was proposed: the Stunning Severity Index (SSI, which includes elements of Statistical Process Control (SPC using a p-chart (proportion chart and measures. This index comprises the variables "wing-flapping," "arched head," and "rhythmic breathing." Using the proposed index, 5% of the birds, on average, presented inefficient stunning symptoms.

  6. Industrial property as competitiveness factor, current situation and prospects; Propiedad industrial como factor de competitividad situacion actual y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado Cervino, A.

    2011-07-01

    Throughout this paper, we analyze what is the status of IP in national and international levels and the number and origin of IP applications. This analysis allows to state that our country needs a change in the current economic model in which IP rights must be central. Moreover, this is the purpose of PI Plan 2010-2012: Plan for the Promotion of Industrial Property in Spain, an initiative of the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade approved by the Council of Ministers on March 9, 2010- designed to strengthen the IP in the Spanish economy. (Author) 35 refs.

  7. 软木复合材料研究现状与发展趋势%Current Research Situation and Development Trend of Cork-based Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋孝周; 傅峰; 雷亚芳

    2011-01-01

    The definition and classification of cork-based composite are introduced briefly.Current research situations of cork-based composite were discussed in detail.The development trend of cork-based composite was analyzed and discussed.%简要介绍了软木复合材料的定义和分类,详细论述了软木复合材料的研究现状,对软木复合材料的发展趋势进行了分析和讨论,并提出了几点看法.

  8. Analysis on the Current Situation of Farmers' Credit Demand in Gansu Province%甘肃省农户信贷需求现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚玲

    2009-01-01

    The current situation of farmers' credit demand in rural areas of Gansu Province was studied by the method of interview and investigation. And some related policy proposals were put forward according to the economic development of rural areas in Gansu Province.%通过访谈、调查的形式对甘肃省农村地区农户信贷需求现状进行了考察,并针对甘肃农村经济发展的形势,提出了相关政策建议.

  9. 保康县核桃产业现状分析及发展对策%Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Walnut Industry in Baokang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰; 何宗念; 赵翠荣

    2013-01-01

    通过调查,分析了保康核桃(Juglans regia L.)种植区域的发展现状,找出了制约核桃产业发展的主要因素,提出了相应的对策,旨在为保康核桃产业规划提供参考.%In order to provide a reference for walnut industry plan in Baokang,the current situation of walnut industry in Baokang county of Hubei was analyzed,and the corresponding countermeasures were proposed for reference.

  10. Current situation and development countermeasure of China International Standard Dance%中国国际标准舞现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜静歌

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the international standard dance after entering our country ’s two main devel-opment direction ,Analyzes the current situation and existing problems of China international ballroom ,And put for-ward the development countermeasures of China’s international standard dance .%阐述了国际标准舞进入我国后的两种主要发展方向,分析了当前中国国际标准舞的现状和存在的问题,并提出了发展中国国际标准舞的对策。

  11. The Current Situation of the Lighting for Residential Buildings in Taiwan%台湾地区住宅照明现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鼎金

    2001-01-01

    本文对台北市、台中市、高雄市等都会城市住宅照明现况进行了调查,从而提出了今后住宅照明的发展方向。%The author has made an investigation on the current situation of the lighting for residential buildings in the cities such as Taibei, Taizhong and Gaoxiong of Taiwan. As a result of it, in this paper he has put forward a furture development trend of the lighting for residential buildings.

  12. CONSUMO DE CALCIO: EVOLUCIÓN Y SITUACIÓN ACTUAL The evolution and current situation of calcium consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Barrera P

    2012-03-01

    usually determined its consumption in different groups of the population, inadequate intake being found in most of them, covering less than 50% of the recommended intake, regardless of economic development. Nutritional situation surveys (Encuestas de la Situación Nutricional in Colombia (2005, 2010 have reported a deficit in dairy product consumption, especially in low socioeconomic strata and people living in Colombia's Pacific, Amazonian and Orinoquia regions. The Institute of Medicine (IOM has recently established the recommended daily calcium intake for covering the population's physiological needs; this measure is needed bearing in mind that the scientific evidence has revealed a strong association between low intake and reduced bone mineral density with increased osteoporosis and associated fractures. The IOM has also established maximum tolerable levels (UL for avoiding excess- and supplement useassociated problems. Dietary guidelines in all countries are aimed at promoting healthy eating habits; disclosing/ disseminating such instrument is thus the responsibility of all health professionals, especially nutritionists. Research must be strengthened and strategies developed involving different sectors to improve the population's calcium intake and bone health.

  13. Current Situation and Prospects of Mine Auxiliary Transportation%矿井辅助运输现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永

    2013-01-01

    equipment quality is not very stable. In particular, the reliability should be enhanced. Under the contemporary situation, except for a few number of mines, many coal mines can't achieve direct transport from the ground to the horizontal plane, and the transportation always includes many stages. The underground materials must be transferred many times. So the transport efficiency is particularly low, likely to cause accidents. Not only that, it needs more staff and more resources, especially in the transport process, some of the key equipments is very easy to go wrong, and the maintenance costs are also relatively high.

  14. Current situation of health care in India and corporation in emerging economies--what is the way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, Kumar; Amit, Sengupta; Kumar, Agarwal Vishnu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the management and operational problems faced by different categories of health care delivery platforms such as corporate hospitals, medium level private hospitals and public hospitals in Mumbai. Some suggestions are made and we believe many of the short falls or limitations that exist in the current set up can be removed and a way forward can be made in alleviating the suffering of vast majority of humankind living in our mega cities. Three major issues emerged as far as a public health system is concerned--that is shifting of trained health manpower from the public system to private or corporate hospitals, severe strain on the public health system's infrastructure and support services compounded by lack of accountability as far as management and governance are concerned.

  15. 通信网的现状及发展趋势%CURRENT SITUATION AND DEVELOPMENT TREND OF COMMUNICATION NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕永军; 尹传平; 林孝康

    2001-01-01

    The current status of the computer network, cable TV network andpublic switched telephone network is analyzed. The integration of the three kinds of networks has become an inevitable trend along with the development of the computer network. Several solutions to that network integration are discussed. Some suggestions are also given about using ATM core network to construct the next generation electric power communication network as a better solution and implementing the IP service by multiple protocol label switching (MPLS) technique.%分析了计算机网、有线电视网、电话网的现状,指出三网融合是通信网发展的必然趋势;分析了三网融合的几种方案;对于电力通信网提出了建设ATM核心骨干网,以MPLS实现IP业务的建议。

  16. Current Situation of Information Demand of Farmers in Taihang Mountain Area: A Case Study of Pingshan County in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lipeng; GUO; Haiyan; CAI

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,economy of mountain areas in China has realized considerable development.However,due to such factors as terrain,traffic,and individual differences,compared with plain and coastal areas,mountain areas still lag far behind.In recent years,informationization construction of China develops rapidly,but it nearly stagnates in mountain rural areas.Information has become an essential factor restricting economic development of rural areas.Based on the survey of current information demand of farmers carried out in Pingshan County in Hebei Province in 2010,this study came up with relevant recommendations,in order to speed up development of rural economic in mountain areas,narrow the regional gap,improve living condition of farmers in mountain areas,and increase income level of farmers in mountain areas.

  17. 浅析我国旅游饭店业的发展现状、趋势及对策%On Current Situation,Trends and Managing Strategies of Tourist Hotel Industry in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚芳

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,with the rapid development of tourism in our country,tourist hotels have become an important component in the industry of tourism. The current situation is that there is a steady increase in the number of high-star hotels,an upsurge of the in-vestment in high-star hotels,the great expansion of international brands,the heavy pressure faced by local hotels,as well as the imbal-ance in spatial location. In the years to come,the development trends of the hotel industry in our country are:a slower development speed of high-star hotels,the plural development of the hotel market,and the great potential for e-commerce. This paper puts forth some feasible managing strategies against the existing problems,on the basis of the analysis of the current situations and development trends.%近几年来,随着我国旅游业的飞速发展,旅游饭店业已成为我国旅游产业的重要组成部分。现阶段我国旅游饭店业高星级饭店数量稳增,高星级饭店投资涌现热潮,国际品牌大举扩张,本土品牌任重道远,空间布局不均衡。未来几年内,我国旅游饭店业高星级饭店将呈现增速趋缓、饭店业市场业态多元发展、电子商务发展增快的趋势。

  18. A qualitative study of the current situation of elderly care in Iran: what can we do for the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Goharinezhad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the successful improvement of global health systems and social security in societies, the world is now advancing toward aging. All countries have to face the phenomenon of population aging sooner or later depending on their degree of development; however, elderly care is predicted to soon become a major concern for developing countries such as Iran. Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the challenges of elderly care in Iran and to help policymakers develop roadmaps for the future through providing a clearer image of the current state of affairs in this area of healthcare. Design: This study has adopted a framework approach to qualitative data analysis. For this purpose, 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015 with a number of key informants in elderly care who were familiar with the process at macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Maximum variation purposive sampling was performed to select the study samples. A conceptual framework was designed using a review of the literature, and key issues were then identified for data analysis. Results: The elderly care process yielded five major challenges, including policymaking, access, technical infrastructure, integrity and coordination, and health-based care services. Discussion: According to the stakeholders of elderly care in Iran, the current care system is not well-suited for meeting the needs of the elderly, as the elderly tend to receive the services they need sporadically and in a non-coherent manner. Given the rapid growth of the elderly population in the coming decades, it is the authorities’ job to concentrate on the challenges faced by the health system and to use foresight methods for the comprehensive and systematical management of the issue.

  19. A qualitative study of the current situation of elderly care in Iran: what can we do for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharinezhad, Salime; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Ravaghi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background With the successful improvement of global health systems and social security in societies, the world is now advancing toward aging. All countries have to face the phenomenon of population aging sooner or later depending on their degree of development; however, elderly care is predicted to soon become a major concern for developing countries such as Iran. Objectives This study was conducted to identify the challenges of elderly care in Iran and to help policymakers develop roadmaps for the future through providing a clearer image of the current state of affairs in this area of healthcare. Design This study has adopted a framework approach to qualitative data analysis. For this purpose, 37 semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015 with a number of key informants in elderly care who were familiar with the process at macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Maximum variation purposive sampling was performed to select the study samples. A conceptual framework was designed using a review of the literature, and key issues were then identified for data analysis. Results The elderly care process yielded five major challenges, including policymaking, access, technical infrastructure, integrity and coordination, and health-based care services. Discussion According to the stakeholders of elderly care in Iran, the current care system is not well-suited for meeting the needs of the elderly, as the elderly tend to receive the services they need sporadically and in a non-coherent manner. Given the rapid growth of the elderly population in the coming decades, it is the authorities’ job to concentrate on the challenges faced by the health system and to use foresight methods for the comprehensive and systematical management of the issue. PMID:27876456

  20. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian labour markets are characterized by the diversity of the countries of which they are part and by the historical antecedents of colonialism that have largely given them their nature. Most have adopted a form of the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour cost manufacturing paradigm of economic development known as the East Asian Economic Model (EAEM). Having already passed through the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and its disruptive effects, workers in the region are f...

  1. Marketing of research institutes in view of current organizational and legal regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Slotorsz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to describe in a synthetic way some issues related to the marketing activity of R&D organizations in view of legal acts regulating the functioning of the state owned R&D organizations. The authors have analyzed some regulations related to research institutes and their activities, regulations specifying criteria and procedures of granting of a scientific category to a R&D unit as well as principals of financing of the science and regulations related to the operations of certifying units. Basing on this analysis the authors have elaborated a set of marketing goals of the R&D organizations, a list of their stakeholders and of specific marketing tools both accessible in view of the rules and regulations in force and effective from the point of view of parametric evaluation of the R&D organizations. Among the analyzed tools there are the following: issues related to publications, organization of conferences, seminars and popularizing events, organization of education and training courses, internal policies related to intellectual property protection, internal policies related to technology transfer, membership in international organizations and applied quality policies.

  2. The Current Situation and Development Countermeasure of Electronic Waste Treatment in Guangxi%广西电子废弃物处理现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾健华; 蒋中伟

    2012-01-01

    分析广西电子废弃物处理现状,认为广西电子废弃物处理还存在法律体系不够健全,缺乏规范的回收体系,处理技术落后,公众环保意识不强等问题,建议广西尽快采取加强立法、整顿市场、建立回收体系,加强科学研究和公众宣传等方面的措施,提升广西电子废弃物处理水平。%The current situation of electronic waste treatment in Guangxi was analyzed. Current problems in electronic waste treatment of Guangxi are no well-constructed legal system of electronic waste treatment,lack of specific recycling systems, unadvanced treatment technology and lack of public environment protection awareness. In order to solve these problems and improve the technology of electronic waste treatment,Guangxi government should strengthen the legislation,rectify the market and establish a recycling system. On the other hand, scientific researches and public awareness in electronic waste treatment should also be improved.

  3. Opening up mental health service delivery to cultural diversity: current situation, development and examples from three northern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Jávo, Cecilie; Mösko, Mike-Oliver

    2013-01-01

    There are inequalities in health among migrants and local populations in Europe. Due to migration, Germany, Norway and Sweden have become ethnic culturally diverse nations. There are barriers to mental health care access for refugees, migrants and minorities, and problems with quality of culturally sensitive care in the three countries. This is despite tax-funded health care systems based on equity in service provision. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive mental health services that respond to the increasing diversity of the populations. In this chapter, we will take a closer look at cultural diversity in the countries in question, discuss challenges and give examples of current work to open up mental health services to cultural diversity. The German example will focus on the movement of Interkulturelle Öffnung (cross-cultural opening of the health care system) and work on creating national guidelines and quality standards. From Norway, the work of the National Centre for Mental Health for the indigenous Sámi population will be presented. The Swedish example will focus on the work carried out by the Transcultural Centre. The latter is a competence centre supporting development of culturally sensitive care as an integrated part of the regional health and mental health care system in Stockholm. Finally, the relevance of mental health care for a culturally diverse population, as a part of the larger social project of building tolerant multicultural societies, will be discussed.

  4. Current situation of sexual and reproductive health of men deprived of liberty in the Institutional Care Center of San Jose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorita Rivas Fonseca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the current status of the issue of sexual and reproductive health ofthe prisoners Institutional Care Center (CAI of San Jose. It is a descriptive study. Through a strategic samplingdetermined the participation of 102 men. The information was obtained by applying a self-administeredquestionnaire with closed and open questions. As a result relevant to your socio-demographic profile, it appearsthat deprived of their liberty is a very heterogeneous group. As regards sexual and reproductive health, the firstconcept they relate to the prevention of disease and the second reproductive aspects, this shows limitations inknowledge on the topics, something that affects the daily life activities and self-care. It is concluded that researchby nurses Gyneco-obstetric in the deprived of liberty is almost null not only in the country but in the world,especially if it comes with the male population. In the case of CAI Prison, health care is not enough for thenumber of inmates who inhabit (overpopulation of almost 50%, this implies a deterioration in health and physicalcondition of these people, as well as sexual and reproductive health

  5. Fires in refugee and displaced persons settlements: The current situation and opportunities to improve fire prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, Yasaman; Gyedu, Adam; Burnham, Gilbert; Nwomeh, Benedict; Charles, Anthony; Mishra, Brijesh; Kuah, Solomon S; Kushner, Adam L; Stewart, Barclay T

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to describe the burden of fires in displaced persons settlements and identify interventions/innovations that might address gaps in current humanitarian guidelines. We performed a systematic review of: (i) academic and non-academic literature databases; and (ii) guidelines from leading humanitarian agencies/initiatives regarding fire prevention/control. Of the 1521 records retrieved, 131 reports described settlement fires in 31 hosting countries since 1990. These incidents resulted in 487 deaths, 790 burn injuries, displacement of 382,486 individuals and destruction of 50,509 shelters. There was a 25-fold increase in the rate of settlement fires from 1990 to 2015 (0.002-0.051 per 100,000 refugees, respectively). Only 4 of the 15 leading humanitarian agencies provided recommendations about fire prevention/control strategies. Potentially useful interventions/innovations included safer stoves (e.g. solar cookers) and fire retardant shelter materials. The large and increasing number of fires in displaced persons settlements highlights the need to redress gaps in humanitarian fire prevention/control guidelines. The way forward includes: (i) developing consensus among aid agencies regarding fire prevention/control strategies; (ii) evaluating the impact of interventions/innovations on the burden of fires; and (iii) engaging agencies in a broader discussion about protecting camp residents from armed groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. 移动医疗的现状与发展%The Current Situation and Development of m-health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷悦楚楚; 戴作雷; 刘云; 张昕

    2016-01-01

    As the coming of mobile informational age,mobile information service has been received more and more attention. Under this background, mobile medical began to draw people’s attention. M-health can provide efficient and convenient medical information and services anytime and anywhere through mobile communication technology. The development of m-health has greatly increased the working efficiency of medical staff and improved medical service level.This article introduecs the origin and rising reasons of m-health, and summarizes the development direction and current situaton both at home and abroad.%随着移动信息时代的来临,移动信息服务也逐渐得到了人们的重视。在这一背景下,移动医疗开始进入人们的视线。利用移动通信技术,移动医疗能够提供随时随地、高效便捷的医疗资讯和服务。移动医疗的发展提高了医务人员的工作效率,改善了医疗服务水平。本文介绍了移动医疗的起源及兴起原因,并对国内外现状和发展方向进行了整理。

  7. ANSYS Workbench的应用现状及分析%Current Situation and Analysis of ANSYS Workbench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻永巽

    2014-01-01

    ANSYS Workbench,a collaborative simulation platform launched by ANSYSTM,not only retains the core technology of classic ANSYS (ANSYS Classic),but also shows compatibility with the mainstream of CAD software. For example,it integrates with the powerful 3D modeling capacities supplied by UG, Pro/E and Fieldworks software. What is more, it takes the advantage of ISIGHT, LMS and other CAE software in simulation,optimization,and analysis. Modeling experience could be immediately shared within the enterprises, enabled by the powerful data management and its interactive functions. This paper mainly focuses on the current application of ANSYS Workbench.%ANSYS Workbench作为ANSYS公司推出的多物理协同仿真环境平台,具有与经典ANSYS (ANSYS Classic)核心产品完全统一的核心技术,而且结合了主流CAD软件,如UG、Pro/E、Fieldworks强大的三维建模功能和ISIGHT、LMS等CAE软件在仿真、优化、分析方面的优势,其强大的数据管理、交互功能可以使知识和经验在工作组间与企业内实现共享。主要探讨AN-SYS Workbench的应用现状及分析。

  8. The Current Situation Countermeasures of Chinese Water Fitness Sports%我国水中健身运动的现状及发展对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于荣; 王东

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the method of literature, questionnaire and interviews with experts, water, the present situation and development of fitness strategies of research and analysis. The conclusion:the water with srmfll, not easily fitness impact injuries, muscle development, interesting equilibrium strong characteristic;after more than ten years of development the water fitness gradually by people to understand and meet and become a kind of fashion fitness methods;the water temperature,by such factors as the limit,the water in our country in fitness are not widely available,need to be further cultivate market, and explore the right market operation mode.%运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、专家访谈法,对水中健身的现状及发展对策进行研究和分析,得出结论:水中健身具有冲击力小、不易受伤、发展肌肉均衡、趣味性强的特点;经过十几年的发展水中健身正逐渐被人们了解和认识,成为一种时尚的健身方式;受场地、水温等因素的限制,水中健身在我国开展还不够普及,需要进一步培育市场,探索合适的市场运作模式。

  9. Discussion on Current Situation of China's Environmental Legal System Construction%论我国的环境法制建设现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露

    2012-01-01

    介绍了我国经济发展所导致的环境问题及环境保护、环境立法的重要性,并论述了我国现行环境法律体系中存在的亟待解决的问题以及环境执法中存在的不到位现象,指出现行环境法的改善迫在眉睫。%The environmental problems caused by the development of our national economy, the importance of environmental protection and environmental legislation were introduced. At the same time, the present China's current environmental legal system existing problems to be solved and the present environmental law implementation situation to be unable to reach the designated position were discussed. So the improvement of the current environmental law was imminent.

  10. Future trials of endovascular mechanical recanalisation therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients: a position paper endorsed by ESMINT and ESNR. Pt. 1. Current situation and major research questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Soederman, Michael [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Turjman, Francis [Hopital Neurologique, Centre de Neurosciences Cognitives, Department of Neuroradiology, Lyon (France); White, Philip M. [Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bakke, Soeren Jacob [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Neuroradiology, Oslo (Norway); Mangiafico, Salvatore [University Hospital Careggi, Interventional Neuroradiology Unit, Florence (Italy); Kummer, Ruediger von [University of Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Muto, Mario [University of Naples, Department of Neuroradiology, Naples (Italy); Cognard, Christophe [Hopital Purpan, Service de Neuroradiologie, Toulouse (France); Gralla, Jan [Inselspital Bern, Department of Neuroradiology, Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    A new era of stroke treatment may have begun with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) by fully deployed closed-cell self-expanding stents (stent-triever). Multiple case series and the first randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have now been published. More studies are under way involving large numbers of patients, which in turn has resulted in less strict ''pragmatic'' study protocols. Problems with current trials include a lack of standardisation in the conduct of the recanalisation procedure, the definition of primary endpoints such as the grade of arterial recanalisation and tissue reperfusion, and the post-surgical care provided. In Part 1 of this two part series, we outline the current situation and the major research questions. (orig.)

  11. Pesticide regulation, utilization, and retailers' selling practices in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies: current situation and needed changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Lexley M; Boysielal, Kim; Siung-Chang, Avril

    2007-08-01

    To explore pesticide regulation in Trinidad and Tobago, and to ascertain pesticide utilization and retailers' selling practices on Trinidad, which is the larger of twin islands that constitute the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Between February and June 2005, agrochemical retailers in Trinidad were surveyed about the most frequently sold pesticides and their knowledge and practices of pesticide sale. The Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board of the Ministry of Health informed on legislature. Of 107 actively trading licensed pesticide outlets, 97 participated (91% response rate) in the survey. Currently only 2.9% (21) of 720 registered products from four chemical classes are frequently utilized. Paraquat, methomyl, and alpha-cypermethrin (respective trade names are Gramoxone, Lannate, and Fastac) from World Health Organization (WHO) Hazard Classes I and II, and glyphosate isopropylamine (Swiper, Class U) are the most frequently purchased pesticides. Pet shops constitute 39.2% (38) of retail shops selling pesticides. No regulations guide pesticide sale to agriculturists, and children may purchase them. Inadequate human and technical resources render legislative controls ineffective and disciplinary action against offenders is weak. Extensive governmental resources are employed in legislative procedures and product approval for the very low, 2.9% utilization rate, negatively impacting on monitoring pesticide sales. The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) does not liaise with the Poisons and Toxic Chemicals Control Board or provide educational interventions for the community. As a result of this survey, it was possible to develop the first database to include the chemical, brand, and colloquial names of pesticides used in Trinidad and Tobago; WHO classification of approved pesticides; manufacturers; packaging; and antidotes and their availability for use by the Board and health professionals in Trinidad. Urgent critical evaluation of legislation regarding pesticide

  12. Current Situation of Cancer Immunotherapy%肿瘤免疫治疗的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旻钰; 单风平

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of malignant tumor is elevating recently and it has been the main threatening factors to hu-man health. Cancer immunotherapy is a newly developing scenario,but it has guided the break through of carcinoma therapy. The scenario adopts complex immune regulation of target-oriented mechanisms to attack tumor cells and pre-vent it from relapse. Therefore,many research institutions make the cancer immunotherapy as their main study direc-tion conduct investigation in deep going way. Recently many studies have put forward a series of components possess-ing novel immunologic role and found a combination of application of the therapy scenario could optimize the effects of carcinoma therapy. The current studies on cancer immunotherapy were summarized in this paper.%恶性肿瘤的发病率近年持续走高并已成为威胁人类健康的主要因素。肿瘤免疫治疗是肿瘤治疗领域的新兴方案,引领了肿瘤治疗的重大突破。该方案通过复杂的免疫调节机制靶向攻击肿瘤细胞并防止肿瘤复发,因此众多研究机构以肿瘤免疫治疗为主要研究方向进行深入探讨。近年来多项研究提出了一系列具有肿瘤免疫作用的新型免疫组分且发现治疗方案的联合应用可优化肿瘤治疗效果。本文将就肿瘤免疫治疗的研究现状做一综述。

  13. In the New Financial Situation the Development of China Corporate Bond Market Prospects and Countermeasures%新金融形势下我国企业债券市场发展前瞻与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付彤杰; 林黎

    2013-01-01

    With the deepening of the reform of interest rate marketization, commercial banks lending spreads narrowed squeeze profit margins; maintain social financing scale reasonable growth regulation of target, the direct financing indirect fi- nancing of the substitution of "financial disintermediation " process to accelerate; Europe and the United States the quantita- tive easing monetary policy makes the input type inflation pressures. The three aspect is the current financial situation of main feature, different level land will have effect on the development of enterprise bond market, and the development of en- terprise bond market in China has been actively adapt to changes in the financial environment, dealers association, national development and Reform Commission, the Commission three examination and approval authority competition brings innovation and corporate bonds bank loans alternative enhancement, the enterprise bond market supply, demand expands increasingly ob- vious trend, this paper puts forward the examination and approval authority to maintain bonds, bond fund set up competitive, advocate the long-term bond investment mechanism, change idea of bond financing suggestions, aims at improving the bond market system construction, promote enterprise bond financing to provide reference.%  随着利率市场化改革的深化,存贷利差缩小挤压了商业银行的利润空间;保持社会融资规模合理增长的调控目标使得直接融资替代间接融资的“金融脱媒”进程加快;欧美国家量化宽松货币政策使得输入型通胀压力加大。此三方面是当前新金融形势的主要特征,不同程度地均将作用于企业债券市场的发展,而我国企业债券市场发展也已经在主动适应金融环境的变化,交易商协会、发改委、证监会三大审批机构的竞争带来了企业债券品种的创新和对银行贷款替代性的增强,企业债券市场的供给、需求扩张趋势日

  14. 对高校体育课太极拳教学的现状解析%On the Current Situation of College Physical Education Tai chi Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娜

    2014-01-01

    目前高校体育课太极拳教学的现状并不乐观,大多数高校太极拳教学都是注重形式,按太极拳套路进行教学,很少有高校体育课太极拳教学时注意对太极拳的基本功以及精髓的传授,达不到太极拳教学的目标与效果。本文从高校体育课太极拳教学的现状入手,分析太极拳教学中存在的问题,并根据问题探究高校体育课太极拳教学的改进方法与对策。%The current situation and the Teaching of College Physical Education is not optimistic, large number of colleges and universities are focusing on teaching tai chi form, according to Taijiquan teaching, there is little attention to the College Physical Taijiquan teaching basic skills as well as the essence of time teach, and the effect of the target is less than Taijiquan teaching. From the current situation of physical education teaching tai chi, analyzes the problems in teaching tai chi and ex-plore improved method based on issues and countermeasures of college PE tai chi teaching.

  15. Risk Factors of Young Graduates in the Competitive E.U. Labour Market at the End of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacerova Eliska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern development trends in the labour market have been an increasingly important political and economic issue not only domestically but also on the European level. It proves the fact that in The Europe 2020 strategy, one of the main five points is the aim to increase the employment rate of the population (age: 20–64 from the current 69% to at least 75%. Various risk groups of job candidates emerge among the unemployed. The economic crisis in 2007 made the situation in the labour markets worse. The demand for labour decreased while the number of candidates increased. In recent years, fresh graduates under the age of 25 have been regarded as a high risk group sometimes nicknamed “the lost generation” or Generation Y. This generation is well accustomed to modern technologies which they use for their own benefit and they are willing and able to work from anywhere. On the contrary, those over the age of 35, who are sometimes referred to as Generation X, have different attitudes and requirements for the labour market. Despite the increasing level of education among young people, their unemployment has been worsening since the economic crisis began. The aim of this article was to ascertain how future university graduates (491 final-year students from 5 faculties at Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Czech Republic perceive individual risk factors influencing the success of today’s graduate of Generation Y in the competitive labour market. The target group, future university graduates, evaluated 13 risk areas on a five-point scale. These 13 risk areas were identified based on primary research among 1.059 employers in the Czech Republic, which is a part of a complete two-year research project IGA/FaME/2013/030. This article focuses on only two areas which closely analysed the perception of graduates as drifters, and their demands for high starting salaries. These two risk areas were mentioned by employers as the areas with the highest risk and

  16. 全球铂金供需形势及市场分析%Global platinum supply and demand situation and market analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨蒙; 张艳松

    2015-01-01

    Platinum is one of the rarest elements in the crustal.Because of its good physical properties and stable chemical characteristic.Platinum is used in many fields,such as catalyst industry.Only a few countries produce platinum,Prices are affected by markets and national policies.Firstly,The paper analyzes the variation in supply and demand in the worldwide during the past ten years and summarizes the reasons for significant changes each time,According to the results,we can find that world platinum’s demand always exceeded supply .Mine production is the main factor affecting the supply,Meanwhile the macroeconomic situation in each country is a main factor influencing the demand.Secondly in the article we summarize the trends of price of the world platinum and discuss the factors affecting price.Finally,according to these historical data and the development of macroeconomic,we forecasts platinum supply and demand in the future.We conclude that the demand for platinum will further increase and the situation of in short supply will lead to a new round of rising price.%自然元素铂是地壳中最稀有的元素之一,以其良好的物理性质和稳定的化学性质而在汽车工业等领域应用。铂金产地较为集中,供需格局分离,价格受市场炒作及各国政策等因素制约。本文首先分析了近十年世界铂金的供需量的变化,并总结了每一次显著变化的原因,通过分析发现:近十年铂金一直是供不应求、影响供给量的主要因素是矿山的开采量、影响需求量的主要因素是各个国家的宏观经济状况;其次总结了世界铂金的价格变化趋势,并讨论了影响价格的因素;最后通过分析历史数据,依据宏观经济的发展状况,预测了未来铂金的供需趋势;最终得出结论,未来一段时间内铂金需求会进一步增加,仍会供不应求,与此同时需求的增长会带动新一轮价格的上涨。

  17. Situação atual e perspectivas do etanol The current situation and prospects for ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias C. Macedo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos trinta anos, a produção de etanol da cana-de-açúcar no Brasil avançou para 17 milhões de metros cúbicos, com perspectivas de atingir 35,7 milhões de metros cúbicos em 2012-2013. Esse crescimento ocorreu com grande aporte de tecnologia, por meio de geração, importação, adaptação e transferência interna. Uma análise das diferentes fases desse desenvolvimento é apresentada, com a evolução dos parâmetros tecnológicos e a grande competitividade atingida. A visão atual é que o setor poderá continuar a evoluir com melhorias contínuas ainda de modo importante, mas grandes "saltos" tecnológicos são possíveis mediante o desenvolvimento de tecnologias para o melhor uso da biomassa residual da cana (cerca de dois terços da biomassa total. Os estudos em curso indicam que a contribuição da cana para o suprimento de energia poderá ser muito superior (e diversificada que a atual, e poderá ocorrer em paralelo com o desenvolvimento de biorrefinarias, levando a produtos de maior valor agregado.In the last 30 years, the production of ethanol from sugar cane in Brazil reached 17 million cubic meters and it is expected to achieve 35.7 million cubic meters by 2012-2013. This growth has taken place due to great technological support by means of production, imports, adaptations and internal transferences. An analysis of the different phases of this development, with the evolution of its technological parameters and the great competition of the sector, is presented in the article. Nowadays, foresights state that the sector may keep evolving with continuous improvements, but sudden technological boosts are also possible through the development of technologies directed towards a better use of the residual biomass of sugar cane (which represents about two thirds of the total biomass. Studies in progress indicate that the sugar cane contribution to energy supply may be superior and more diversified than the current one. They

  18. Technical analysis and market study of electric bicycles

    OpenAIRE

    Matasyan, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This thesis project was done in collaboration with a Prismattery LLC, which is based in Tallinn, Estonia and is interested in entering the market of electric bicycles. For that reason in this report a detailed study concerning the market of electrical bicycles, its current situation and trends were performed and a promising target market was indicated. The market study showed that although in different countries the specifications and preferred types of electric bicycles may vary,...

  19. FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF BANK MARKETING IN ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevak U. Nersisyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of brief investigation of bank marketing in Armenia including its history, development and the current situation. The study objects are the commercial banks in the Republic of Armenia and their marketing activity. The competitiveness of the local and foreign banks is examined as well. Comparison of the market before and after the entry of foreign banks is performed. The role of the advertising in bank marketing is outlined.

  20. The Role of Marketing in Adult Permanent Vocational Training in the Context of the Current Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanina COLAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of permanent vocational training is important in sustaining thevocational conversion of the working class. A change of views and mentality isdesirable regarding vocational training, in the sense that people need to be moreaware of the importance of permanent learning, more motivated in order tobroaden their horizon and more willing to develop their professional skills. Thelabour market in Romania has suffered important changes due to the economictransition process, which has been materialized especially on the level ofreducing the number of active workers and of employees, thus maintaining arelatively constant rate of unemployment and affecting the labour marketingespecially by a limited number of jobs.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide - current knowledge on the pollution situation and health effects; Stickstoffdioxid - Kenntnisstand zur Belastungssituation und zu gesundheitlichen Wirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, H.G. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1999-07-01

    Since the 1990s atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) pollution has mainly been determined by the volume of road traffic, especially in the urban centres of Germany. NO{sub 2} can be regarded as an important air pollutant inasmuch as it affects the health of a large part of the population. In places exposed to road traffic NO{sub 2} concentrations can easily reach and even exceed mean annual values of 100 {mu}g/m-3 and short-time peaks of 200 {mu}g/m-3. The main NO{sub 2} sources of indoor air pollution are open fireplaces (e.g. gas stoves, gas-fired heating systems and water heaters) and tobacco smoking. NO{sub 2} measurements in German kitchens yielded mean concentrations of up to 50 {mu}g/m-3 and peak concentrations of almost 200 {mu}g/m-3. Indoor NO{sub 2} concentrations in rooms without internal NO{sub 2} sources are determined by local atmospheric concentrations and have been found to lie between 20 and 30 {mu}g/m-3 on average. The WHO's revised NO{sub 2} guide values of 1998 are 40 {mu}g/m-3 in the annual average and 200 {mu}g/m-3 as hourly mean level. Being an oxidative and slightly water-soluble the tear gas NO{sub 2} mainly affects the periphery of the lungs. Its chief health effects are changes in pulmonary function and an increase in bronchial reactivity. Exposure studies on current pollution levels have shown that indoor sources contribute up to 5 {mu}g/m-3 on average and airing habits are an important influencing factor. [German] Seit den 90er Jahren bestimmt ueberwiegend der Kfz-Verkehr die Belastung der Aussenluft durch Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}), vor allem in den staedtischen Ballungsraeumen Deutschlands. NO{sub 2} kann als eine wichtige Luftschadstoffkomponente fuer die Gesundheit eines Grossteils der Bevoelkerung angesehen werden. An Kfz-exponierten Messstellen koennen die NO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen durchaus 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} im Jahresmittel und 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} als kurzzeitige Spitzenwerte erreichen oder ueberschreiten. Offene

  2. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  3. 中国网络广告市场现状及趋势展望%The Present Situation and Development Trend of the Network Advertisement Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常缨征

    2014-01-01

    The network advertisement develop fast with its strong technological advantages, innovative forms and other characteristics. Be at the perspectives of the scale, growth rate, branch market scale and market customer distribution, this article expounds the presentr situation of network advertisement market, and forecast the development trend.%在网络广告自诞生伊始就以其强大的技术优势、不断创新的表现形式等特点,发展迅猛。本文从网络广告市场规模及增长率、细分市场规模和市场客户分布三个方面阐述了中国网络广告市场现状,在此基础上展望了中国网络广告的趋势。

  4. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ENVIRONMENT ON THE TOY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. ANDREIANA (Mihaescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the passage of time, parents have manifested a different attitude towards their children, trying to offer them everything they wanted in what concerns the toys. Therefore, the toy market is constantly expending, and the tough competition leads to the quality improvement of the toys and enforces certain standards on the market. The originality and topicality of the theme consist in the change in the toy consumers’ and users’ preferences which required greater attention to be paid to the influence manifested by the marketing environment on this market. The case study identifies the occurred problems and the toy influence factors by an analysis over the marketing environment components, i.e.: marketing internal environment, micro-environment and macro-environment. The study ends with the recommendation of several solutions for the improvement of the current situation.

  5. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING ENVIRONMENT ON THE TOY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. ANDREIANA (Mihaescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the passage of time, parents have manifested a different attitude towards their children, trying to offer them everything they wanted in what concerns the toys. Therefore, the toy market is constantly expending, and the tough competition leads to the quality improvement of the toys and enforces certain standards on the market. The originality and topicality of the theme consist in the change in the toy consumers’ and users’ preferences which required greater attention to be paid to the influence manifested by the marketing environment on this market. The case study identifies the occurred problems and the toy influence factors by an analysis over the marketing environment components, i.e.: marketing internal environment, micro-environment and macro-environment. The study ends with the recommendation of several solutions for the improvement of the current situation.

  6. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  7. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  8. Rural Medicare Advantage Market Dynamics and Quality: Historical Context and Current Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail R; Wilber, Lyndsey; McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Purpose. In this policy brief, we assess variation in Medicare’s star quality ratings of Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that are available to rural beneficiaries. Evidence from the recent Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) quality demonstration suggests that market dynamics, i.e., firms entering and exiting the MA marketplace, play a role in quality improvement. Therefore, we also discuss how market dynamics may impact the smaller and less wealthy populations that are characteristic of rural places. Key Data Findings. (1) Highly rated MA plans serving rural Medicare beneficiaries are more likely to be health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and local preferred provider organizations (PPOs), as opposed to regional PPOs. HMOs and local PPOs may be better able to improve their quality scores strategically in response to the bonus payment incentive due to existing internal monitoring mechanisms. (2) On average, the rural enrollment rate is lower in plans with higher quality scores (59 percent) than the corresponding urban rate (71 percent). This differential is likely due, in part, to lack of availability of highly rated plans in rural areas: 17.8 percent of rural counties lacked access to a plan with four or more (out of five) stars, while just 3.7 percent of urban counties lacked such access. (3) MA plans with high quality scores have been operating longer, on average, and have a lower percentage of rural counties within their contract service areas than plans with lower quality scores.

  9. Bulgarian wedding music between folk and chalg: Politics, markets and current directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Kerol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the performative relationship among folklore, the market, and the state through an analysis of the politics of Bulgarian wedding music. In the socialist period wedding music was condemned by the state and excluded from the category folk but was adored by thousands of fans as a counter-cultural manifestation. In the post-socialist period wedding music achieved recognition in the West but declined in popularity in Bulgarian as fusion music's, such as chalga (folk/pop, arose and as musicians faced challenges vis-à-vis capitalism. As the state withdrew and became weaker private companies with profit-making agendas arose. Although it inspired chalga, wedding music began to be seen in contrast to it, as folk music. Recently, fatigue with chalga and nationalistic ideologies are revitalizing wedding music.

  10. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede brand

  11. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  12. 护理人员工作倦怠状况及其影响因素%Current situation of nursing staff's job burnout and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常宗霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To learn about the current situation of nursing staffs job burnout and analyze its influencing factors. Methods: The nurses selected respectively from grade I, II and III hospital in Liaocheng municipality by using stratified cluster random sampling method were taken as investigation object and the Job Burnout Questionnaire was used to conduct a survey on the current situation of job burnout and analyze its influencing factors. Results: The hospital nurses were facing more occupational pressure, especially the pressure of interpersonal relationship and development in career. The job burnout like emotional exhaustion and low sense of achievement was relatively serious;the nurses personality was significantly correlated with job burnout in the nurses of Liaocheng municipal hospital. Conclusion: The current situation of job burnout of hospital nurses is serious, therefore we should pay more attention to it.%目的:了解护理工作人员的倦怠现状,分析其相关影响因素.方法:采用整群分层随机抽样方法选取聊城市1、2、3级医院护士作为调查对象,通过发放工作倦怠调查问卷的形式调查其工作倦怠状况,分析其影响因素.结果:医院护士所面临的职业压力较多,尤其是来自人际关系和职业发展方面的压力,同时表现出一定程度的工作倦怠,其中情感衰竭和低成就感较为严重;聊城市级医院护士的人格特征与工作倦怠之间存在相关性.结论:医院护士的工作倦怠程度较重,应引起我们的高度重视.

  13. The Spanish Wind Energy Situation and Comparison with Portugal and The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.; Gonzalez, R. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    This report review the institutional and legal framework of wind energy in Spain as well as the current market situation, considering the geographical distribution of power, its past evaluation, what are the spanish foreseen wind power. A review of main actor within the wind market: suppliers promoters, administrative bodies, is also performed. The second part of the report carries out a comparison of the Spanish wind energy situation with the current conditions in Portugal and The Netherlands. These two countries present different approaches to wind energy integration. Finally, the report states some differences and weak points comparing their wind energy situation with the Spanish one. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. 国内外军事物流现状与发展研究%Current Situation and Development of Military Logistics at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大鹏; 李良春

    2014-01-01

    我军军事物流起步晚,现有军事物流与国外发达国家相比,在各环节都有明显差距。目的:为寻找我军军事物流短板,制定发展对策;方法:本文结合我国地形、周边战争局势等因素,对我国军事物流现状进行了分析,并深入研究了美俄两国先进的军事物流模式;结果:针对国外发展经验提出了我国军事物流发展思路;结论:该研究为发展我国军事物流技术提供了有价值的参考。%For military logistics starting lately in China, there were obvious gaps between existing military logistics in China and developed countries in all aspects. According to the factors of terrain and war situation in surroundings, current situation of Chinese military logistics was analyzed. Meanwhile, military logistics patterns in U.S. and Russia were researched. At last, the developing strategies were proposed based on developed experiences abroad, which may improve the support to our military logistics technologies development.

  15. Market structure, opportunities, limitations and strategies for penetrating the Ukrainian market with Norsvin genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsyba, Yuliya

    2010-01-01

    English: The purpose of this study is to investigate the market structure of pig breeding in Ukraine, competitor survey, opportunities and limitations for penetrating the Ukrainian market with Norsvin genetics. In the first part, I review the structure of the pork chain on the international swine market. The current situation in the pig breeding and production sector is then reviewed and evaluated in detail. In addition, geographical and socio-economic factors expected to influ...

  16. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market May 10-20 Learned from Inner Mongolia Rare Earth Association,domestic rare earth market was in good situation driven by high demand. Price of neodymium rose strongly. Dysprosium oxide and terbium oxide still hovered at the higher price level. Price of europia remained stable.

  17. DISCOVERING SOCIAL MEDIA BEHAVIOR PATTERNS IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE MARKETING STRATEGY IN THE CURRENT CHAOTIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi DUMITRESCU; TICHINDELEAN Mihai; Simona VINEREAN

    2012-01-01

    Marketing used to imply paying for your target audience's attention. Nowadays, with the development of inbound marketing, marketers have to attract customers with valuable and useful information that will make them eager to buy. The ever-evolving technology has lead to an intense focus on inbound marketing, in its many forms, in order to lower marketing costs and gain a position in the social web. In this context, this paper explores how companies can benefit from social media marketing by un...

  18. Situational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Situational analysis (also known as situational logic) was popularized by Karl Popper as an appropriate method for the interpretation of history and as a basis for a scientific social science. It seeks an objective posit ive explanation of behavior through imputing a dominant goal or motive to individuals and then identifying the action that would be objectively appropriate to the situation as the action actually taken. Popper regarded situational analysis as a generalization to all of social...

  19. 西宁市残疾人就业现状及问题调查分析%Analysis of Current Situation of and Problems with Employment of the Disabled in Xining city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晶

    2015-01-01

    残疾人是最需要得到特别关心和帮助的群体,他们的生活、教育、就业仍然落后于社会的平均水平。在市场经济条件下,残疾人就业非常困难;而残疾人对于实现就业具有强烈的愿望。介绍西宁市残疾人就业的现状,分析影响西宁市残疾人就业的原因和存在问题,最后针对这些问题提出相应对策,目的是为了积极促进残疾人就业、提高残疾人的生活水平。%The disabled groups need special care and help because their lives,education,employment still lag behind the average level of society. Under the background of market economy,employment for the disabled is even worse although they have strong desires. This paper introduces the current situation of employment for the disabled and analyses the reasons that affect employment for the disabled in Xining city. The author finally puts forward the corresponding countermeasures to solve these problems so as to actively promote the employment for the disabled and improve their living standard.

  20. Cultivation of College Students'Entrepreneurial Consciousness under the Current Employment Situation%当前就业形势下大学生创业意识的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2016-01-01

    随着高校的不断扩招,越来越多的毕业生进入求职市场,大学生就业压力也在逐年增加,因此大学生就业成为高等教育和社会亟待解决的问题。根据目前这一现象,要积极引导就业人员转变就业观念,鼓励大学生参与多种形式的就业,高校需顺应时代的要求,培养学生的创新精神和创业能力,以创业来带动当前的就业形势。%With the continuous expansion of higher colleges,more and more graduates enter into the job market,college students employment pressure has also increased year by year,so the employment of college students become the problems that urgently to be solved in higher education and the society.According to the phenomenon,it is necessary to actively guide the employment and change the concept of employment as well as encourage the students to participate in various forms of employ-ment.Higher colleges must conform to the requirements and train the students'ability of innovation and entrepreneurship to start to drive the current employment situation.

  1. 地方本科院校转型发展的原因、现状与策略探析%Exploration on the Reasons, Current Situation and Strate- gies of the Transformation and Development of Local Undergraduate Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄倩

    2016-01-01

    "地方本科院校转型"自中央提出以来一直是社会各界人士争议的焦点.笔者试图从地方本科院校为什么要转型、转型的现状如何以及怎样解决转型中出现的问题及困难三个角度进行研究,以期能从政府、学校、市场和借鉴别国四个方面入手为地方本科院校的转型发展提供一定的发展思路.%Since it was proposed by the Central Committee,"transformation of local undergraduate universities" has always been a controversial focal point among people of all social circles. The writer attempts to carry out the research revolving around why local undergraduate universities should be transformed, the current situation of the transformation and how to solve the prob-lems and difficulties existing in the transformation, hoping to pro-vide some development ideas for the transformation and develop-ment of local undergraduate universities from the government, u-niversities, the market and referring to the experience of other countries.

  2. Analysis on the Current Situation and Development Trend of IEC/TC85 International Standardization%IEC/TC85国际标准化现状及发展动态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩桂菊; 罗玉荣; 陈闻新

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure our national economic interest and improve the innovational technology level in international competition, it is essential to concern the latest development of advanced technology abroad and to build a sound tracking study mechanism. Aiming at the field of electrical and electromagnetic quantity measuring equipment, this paper introduces the current situation, the business environment and market demand of IEC/TC85, and analyses in detail the development trend of IEC/TC85 international standardization.%为了保障我国的经济利益,提高我国自主创新技术标准国际竞争力,必须密切关注国际先进技术的发展动向,建立有效的国际标准跟踪机制。本文针对电工和电磁量测量设备领域,介绍了IEC/TC85的基本情况、当前所处的业务环境以及市场需求,并详细分析了IEC/TC85国际标准化的发展趋势。

  3. 医药产业及药品研发的现状与思考%Current situation and thinking of the pharmaceutical industry and drug R&D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 杨悦

    2011-01-01

    文中采用文献研究、比较研究方法,介绍了全球医药市场及药品研发现状,分析了我国的有利和不利因素,针对不足之处进行思考,并提出了建议.目前,我国医药产业机遇和挑战并存,建议有关各方加大药品研发投入、提高企业药品研发能力、加强药品知识产权保护等.%Based on literature and comparative methods, we introduced the current situation of the global pharmaceutical market and drug R&D, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages, and considered the solutions. The pharmaceutical industry and drug R&D in our country are now facing both opportunities and challenges, so we need to increase R&D investment, improve drug research capabilities, consummate drug intellectual property protection, and so on.

  4. On the Current Situation and Countermeasures of Uni-versity Students' Scientific Research Ability in Regular Undergraduate Universities%普通本科院校大学生科研能力现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵靖伟; 何小杨

    2015-01-01

    随着社会对人才的需求不断提高,用人单位选人的标准除了学生学习成绩之外,越来越注重考察学生的实践能力和科研能力。培养大学生科研能力不仅成为市场的迫切需求,更是我国高校教育改革的一项重要目标。因此,本文在对学生科研能力的现状、问题进行调查与分析的基础上,进一步探讨培养大学生科研能力的对策。%With the continuous raise of social demands for talents, in addition to students' academic performance, employers pay more attention to students' practical ability and scientific research ability. The cultivation of university students' scientific research ability has become not only an urgent demand of the market, but also an important objective of China's university education re-form. Therefore, based on investigating and analyzing the current situation and problems of students' scientific research ability, this paper further explores countermeasures of cultivating university students' scientific research ability.

  5. 智能家居的发展现状与发展趋势%The Current Situation and Development Trend of Smart Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩; 赵旭敏; 蒋佳伟

    2016-01-01

    介绍了智能家居的发展历程和发展现状,阐述了智能家居的十大系统组成部分,重点介绍了智能家居的关键技术,包括布线技术、家庭网关和网络以及智能家电。最后分析了智能家居目前所存在的问题和未来的发展趋势。%This paper introduces the development history and current situation of smart home, and expounds the ten system component of smart home. It mainly introduces the key technology of smart home, including wiring technol-ogy, family gateway, family networks, and intelligent household appliances. Finally, this paper analyzes the existing problems and development trend of smart home.

  6. 物流标准化发展现状研究综述%The Research Review of the Current Situation of the Development of Logistics Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳飞; 武赟; 戴铭卿

    2015-01-01

    The thesis reviews current situation of the development of logistics standardization systematically. It summarizes the general research contents from the four aspects: logistics standardization and management system, establishment of the standardization of logistics, implementation of the standardization of logistics and performance evaluation of the standardization.Moreover, the authors put forward with their own view.%本文系统回顾了有关物流标准化发展现状.分别从物流标准化和管理体制、物流标准化的建立、物流标准化的贯彻实施以及物流标准化的绩效评价四个方面进行综述,提出本文观点.

  7. Analysis of Current Situation and Path Optimization of Administration Cost in China%我国行政成本现状分析及优化路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金融

    2011-01-01

    One of the important ways for current administrative system reform is to control and optimize administration cost.This paper adopts relevant theories of public administration and financial expenditure,analyzes the situation of administration costs expansi%控制和优化行政成本是我国当前行政体制改革的重要内容和途径之一。本文运用公共管理和财政支出的相关理论,对我国行政成本扩张、结构和收益等现状进行分析,对行政成本发展趋势做出判断,并提出控制和优化行政成本的路径选择。

  8. Current situation and reflection of domestic intravenous pharmacy admixture models%国内静脉药物调配模式现状与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏英华; 毛燕君; 朱建英

    2012-01-01

    This article summarized the current situation of three intravenous pharmacy admixture models,including ward intravenous drag distribution model, Pharmacy Intravenous Admixture Services (PIVAS) and decentralized distribution model. It analyzed the advantages and disadvantages,and on the basis,reflection and suggestions of pharmacy admixture methods were put forward.%文章分别归纳了国内病区药物自配模式、静脉药物集中调配模式和分散药物调配模式的发展现状及其优缺点,在此基础上,对国内静脉药物调配模式的发展进行思考并提出建议.

  9. Analysis on current situation and advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacies%网上药店现状及优缺点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With the popularity of the internet and online shopping ,online pharmacies are getting more and more attentioned. Due to the late start of online pharmacies in China , the development of online pharmacies is relatively backward,so it not only have potential but also exists the the phenomenon of some good and some bad,the article analyzes the current situation of online pharmacies and the main advantages and disadvantages.%随着互联网和网络购物的普及,网上药店越来越受到关注。由于我国网上药店起步较晚,发展相对滞后,因此在具备有大潜力的同时也存在着良莠不齐的现象,文章分析了国内网上药店的主要优势和弊端。

  10. Current Situation and Discussion of Chinese Football Professionalism Reform%中国足球职业化改革的现状分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云广

    2012-01-01

    The main problems in Chinese football professionalism reform current situation was studied by the methods of documentary. The reform direction was pointed out at the same time, in order to provide some validity advices for healthy and rapid development of the Chinese football professionalism reform.%运用文献资料法对现行中国当前足球职业化改革现状中存在的主要问题进行分析,并指出相应的改革方向,为我国足球职业化改革、快速发展提供一些有效性的建议。

  11. Current Situation and Research of Intelligent Luminaire and Standard%智能灯具及其标准的现状和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施晓红; 庄晓波; 虞再道; 陈超中

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is the development trend of lighting system and luminaire .From the point of the definition of lighting system and based on the characteristics of intelligent lighting luminaire , this article discussed current situation of intelligent lighting system standards , and presented the basic ideas of developing intelligent standards of luminaire .%智能化是照明系统及其灯具的发展趋势. 本文以照明系统的相关定义为切入点, 在给出智能照明灯具构成特点的基础上, 讨论了智能照明系统标准现状, 表述了开发智能灯具标准的基本思路.

  12. 浅谈我国食品级石蜡的生产工艺及现状%Manufacturing technology and current situation of food-grade paraffin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关星

    2012-01-01

    The classification and use of food-grade paraffin was introduced. The manufacturing technology and current situation of food-grade paraffin in home was analyzed and advice were given by investigation to Daqing Refining and Chemical Co. And Fushun Petrochemical Co.%本文介绍了食品级石蜡的分类及用途,通过对大庆炼化公司、抚顺石化公司石油二厂等炼化公司石蜡生产现状的调研,分析我国食品级石蜡生产工艺现状,提出了相关的建议.

  13. Current Situation and Suggestions for Development of Recycling Agriculture in Lingwu Municipality%灵武市循环农业发展现状及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仲军; 杨金贵; 俞宏彪

    2015-01-01

    The combination of agriculture with animal husbandry as well as planting with livestock raising is a kind of recy-cling agriculture. Based on an investigation on the current situation of the combination of agriculture with animal husbandry as well as planting with livestock raising in Lingwu Municipality, an exploration is made on the development of recycling a-griculture, organic agriculture and the new ways for supporting animal husbandry with agriculture and promoting agriculture with animal husbandry.%农牧种养结合是循环农业的一种形式,通过对灵武市农牧种养结合现状调研,探索发展循环农业、有机农业、以"农养牧,以牧促农"的新路子.

  14. 我国主题宴会设计现状与创新研究%The Current Situation and Innovation Methods of Theme Banquet Design in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘澜江

    2012-01-01

    主题宴会设计的有效程度在很大程度上决定着主题宴会的成败.本文就我国主题宴会设计现状与创新方法进行分析与研究,对于酒店主题宴会开发具有理论与实践的指导意义.%In a large part, the effectiveness of theme banquet design determines whether your theme banquet is successful or not. This article will analyze and study the current situation and innovation methods of theme banquet design in China, and it has both theory instruction and practice inspiration for development of restaurant theme banquet design.

  15. CURRENT SITUATION AND COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF CHINESE DERMATOGLYPHICS%中国人肤纹学研究现状与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国昌

    2011-01-01

    肤纹主要包括掌纹、指纹、足纹。肤纹信息可反映个人、族群特征,与体质、智力及疾病也有一定关联。本文对中华民族肤纹学研究现状、肤纹与体质及疾病的关系、肤纹学标准及统计学方法、采集及识别技术进行概述。%Dermatoglyph consists of palm print, fingerprint and footprint. Information of dermatoglyph can be useful as tools for tracing individual or group' s characteristics, even have correlation with body constitution, intelligence and disease. This article overviewed current situation of the Chinese nation, relationship of dermatoglyph with body constitution and sickness, standard and statistics method, as well as collection and identification of dermatoglyph.

  16. 国内工业锅炉节能发展现状%Current Development Situation of Industrial Boiler Energy Saving in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠欣鑫; 孙振波; 邢璐

    2015-01-01

    目前国内工业锅炉与国外发达国家相比,热效率偏低。本文从能耗、数量、标准等方面系统阐述了国内工业锅炉的发展现状,描述了目前主要采用的节能技术,指出了影响锅炉热效率的主要因素,并给出了相关对策。%Compared with the industrial boiler of developed countries, the thermal efficiency of that in China is low. This paper expounds the current development situation of industrial boilers in China from aspects of energy consumption, quantity, standard, describes the main energy saving technology at present, points out the main factors influencing the boiler thermal efficiency and puts forawrd the relevant countermeasures.

  17. 数学专业英语的现状及教学%A Study of the Current Situation of Professional Mathematical English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洁; 茹静

    2012-01-01

    With the development of science and technology,mathematical English has become an important course in the university.This paper is aimed to find the problems by studying the current situation about mathematical English teaching in anticipation of getting solutions which can benefit the teaching of mathematical English.%随着科学技术的不断发展,专业英语已经成为大学一门非常重要的课程,本文通过对目前数学专业英语现状的研究,找出其中存在的问题,结合我院学生的实际情况,从几个方面找出解决方案,希望能对数学专业英语的教学起到促进作用。

  18. 远程皮肤病学的现状和展望%The Current Situation and Future Direction of Telemedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔勇; W.P.DanielSu; MarkD.P.Davis; MarkR.Pittelkow; 张学军

    2011-01-01

    远程医学泛指应用远程通讯技术交换医学信息,以达到诊断、咨询、治疗和教学目的.远程放射学、远程病理学和远程皮肤病学是目前应用较为广泛的远程医学领域.文中对远程皮肤病学的发展简史、现状和可能的发展趋势进行综述.%Telemedicine describe the use of telecommunication technologies for exchanging medical information for the purpose of diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and teaching. As visual fields, teleradiology, telepathology and teledermatology are well-suited to take advantage of the possibilities of telemedicine applications. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the development history, current situation and future direction of telemedermatology.

  19. 浅谈我国工程造价管理工作现状%Discuss the Current Situation of Project Cost Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈俊达

    2014-01-01

    工程造价管理是有效控制和真实反映工程造价、完善建设项目管理、提高投资效益的重要保障。本文从工程造价管理工作的重要意义,目前工作现状、促进其健康发展的途径等方面,谈了自己的有关看法,提出了有益见解。%The project cost management is an important saf-eguard of effective controlling and reflecting the project cost, perfecting the management of construction projects, and impr-oving the investment benefit. In this article, the author talks about his comments from the significance of the project cost management, the current work situation, and the promotion of the healthy development means and so on.

  20. 失眠症的诊断和药物治疗现状%Current situation of insomnia in the diagnosis and drug therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆峥

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. Sleep-promoting drugs are a major approach in the treatment of insomnia. In recent years, as a large number of new drugs with non-traditional targets are used in clinic and trial, some new ideas for the treatment of insomnia have been brought. This review describes the current situation of insomnia in the diagnosis and drug therapy.%失眠症是最常见的睡眠障碍.促睡眠药物是失眠症治疗的主要方案.近年来,大量以非传统作用靶点为目标的新型药物进入研究或临床使用,给失眠症的治疗带来了新思路.本文综述失眠症的诊断和药物治疗现状.

  1. Study on the Current Situation and Evolvement on Ad Hoc Network%Ad Hoc网络的研究现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 蔡振

    2012-01-01

    Ad Hoc networks as a way to temporarily speed automatic network of mobile communication technologyhas been moreattention to the experts, the current wireless Ad Hoc network is a focus of study. This article describes the characteristics of Ad Hoc Networks and applications, and the research situation.%Ad Hoc网络做为一种能够临时快速自动组网的移动通信技术越来越得到专家们的重视,目前Ad Hoc网络也是无线网络研究中的一个重点和热点。介绍了Ad Hoc网络的特点和应用以及Ad Hoc网络的研究状况。

  2. Belpex and trilateral market coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This document describes the operation of Belpex, the Belgian power transmission spot market, and its linking with the French (Powernext) and Dutch (APX) auction-style day-ahead spot markets. A last part deals with the extension of this trilateral market to other European countries. Content: Belpex day-ahead market (DAM) (Goals of the DAM: Provide consumers with a wider choice of electrical energy sources, Enable the ARP's to optimize their portfolio in terms of imbalance costs, Reduce trade and credit risks for market players compared with the risks involved in concluding bilateral contracts, Provide economic players with a transparent price benchmark, Stimulate the opening of the electricity market); Market model Product (description, Contracts, Collateral calculation, From 12 January to launch date Corporate and Legal Aspects, Next developments); Trilateral Market Coupling (What is market coupling and what are the benefits?, Implementation of trilateral market coupling ('TLC') in France/Belgium/Netherlands, From Trilateral to Multilateral, Implementation of Trilateral Market Coupling (TLC) in France/Belgium/Netherlands, Decentralized market coupling mechanism, influence of import and export on area prices); Decentralized market coupling (2 countries Situations: unconstrained/constrained, Decentralized market coupling: 3 countries, High Level Properties of Market Coupling, Maximize flow until prices across link converge (or ATC limit reached), Power flows from low price area to high price area, Implementing a decentralized technical approach, Market Coupling Daily Process, Impact on Existing Exchange Arrangements, Implementing a decentralized contractual approach, TLC Project Process); From Trilateral to Multilateral (Geographic extensions, Towards an Open and Multilateral Market Coupling, Management of Interconnection Capacities, Interconnection Capacities: current situation, TSO Roles and Responsibilities in the TLC, Other Import/Export products

  3. 全球移动通信基站设备及器件市场现状和发展分析%Market Situation and Development of Global Mobile Base Station Equipment and Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮闯; 王朝晖

    2014-01-01

    Based on the correlation analysis of industry chain segments, starting from the demands of global wireless communication market, the market situation and development of global base station devices as well as the market size and investment space (for radio frequency metal components) of the related devices are analyzed. The segment markets are identified and their sizes are predicted, which provides a certain reference model and basis for the investment and market analysis of mobile industry chain.%从全球无线通信市场需求出发,通过产业链上下游细分行业的关联分析法,分析了全球通信基站设备的现状和发展趋势以及对应相关器件市场的规模和投资空间(针对射频金属元器件),识别出其中的细分市场并预测其规模,为移动通信产业链方面的投资和市场分析提供了一定的参考模型和依据。

  4. CURRENT SITUATION OF POP SINGING TEACHING IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES%试论高校通俗歌曲演唱教学的培养现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐频频

    2016-01-01

    为满足社会生活需要,大多高校在原有音乐专业教育基础上设置通俗歌曲演唱专业,该专业设置的目的集中体现在提升学生音乐素养,且向社会输送更多通俗歌曲演唱歌手。然而从现行高校通俗歌曲演唱教学现状看,仍存在学生专业技能过于单一且艺术涵养缺失等问题,制约通俗歌手整体素质的提高。对此,本文将对通俗歌曲的相关概述、高校通俗歌手培养现状以及如何提升大学通俗歌曲演唱教学进行有效的探析。%In order to satisfy social needs, most universities set up pop singing major, which is aimed at improving students'mu-sic accomplishment and providing more pop song singers for society. However, according to current situation of pop singing teaching in colleges and universities, there are some problems such as singleness of professional skills and lack of art conser-vation which restrict the improvement of popular singers' overall quality. Therefore, the paper will analyze relevant summary of pop song, current situation of cultivating pop singers in colleges and universities and how to improve pop singing teaching.

  5. 试论我国当前的反腐败形势∗%On China's current situation of anti-corruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷西发; 郭永丽; 张芳

    2014-01-01

    腐败及其行为源远流长,是一个尚未找到预防药的世界性顽疾。能否理性地、正确地判断反腐败斗争形势,是我们打赢反腐败这场持久战的关键,也是提升全国人民反腐必胜信念的重要条件。我们要用马克思主义的辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的基本原理和方法论,科学的分析和评价我国当前的反腐败形势,既要看到反腐败取得的巨大成绩,又要承认当前反腐败面临巨大的难度,同时更要增强全国人民反腐败斗争必胜的信心。%a long history of corruption and its behavior,is a not yet found world ills of preventive medicine.Can ra-tionally,correctly determine the anti-corruption struggle situation,is our key to win the long war of anti-corruption,but also enhance the important conditions for the National People's anti-corruption of triumphalism.We're on the basic princi-ples and methods of dialectical materialism and historical materialism with the Marx doctrine,scientific analysis and eval-uation of our current anti-corruption situation,not only to see the tremendous achievements made anti-corruption,but al-so acknowledged that the current anti-corruption face great difficulty,to boost the people's confidence in the victory more anti-corruption struggle at the same time.

  6. E-WIN Project 2016: Evaluating the Current Gender Situation in Neurosurgery Across Europe-An Interactive, Multiple-Level Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklacova, Anna; Bradac, Ondrej; de Lacy, Patricia; Benes, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    The proportion of women among neurosurgeons appears to be growing worldwide with time. Official data concerning the current situation across Europe have not yet been published. Thus, there are still concerns about gender inequality. The European Women in Neurosurgery Project 2016 was designed to recognize the current situation across Europe. The office holders of the national neurosurgical societies of 39 countries forming the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies were contacted to provide data stating the proportion of women in neurosurgery. Obtained data were supplied with the results of an online survey. The response rate of national office holders was 90%. The number of reported neurosurgeons was 12,985, and overall proportion of women represented was 12%. Two hundred thirty-seven responses to online questionnaire were taken into account. The overall proportion of female respondents was 30%. There was no intergender variability in responses regarding amount of working time per week, exposure to surgeries, or administrative work. Male respondents reported dedicating significantly more time to scientific work and feeling more confident dictating own career direction. Female respondents reported being less often married, having fewer children, a stronger perception of gender significance level, and a higher appreciation of personal qualities. Neurosurgery is a challenging field of medicine. The results of our survey did not imply an overall feeling of gender inequality among European respondents, although women believe that the gender issue to be more important than men do and that they have to sacrifice more of their personal lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  8. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA); Constantin SASU; Geanina Constanța SPĂTARU (PRAVĂȚ)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presente...

  9. The Characteristics of the current situation of mineral resources%当前矿产资源形势的基本特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树臣; 崔荣国; 郭娟; 徐桂芬

    2012-01-01

    受世界经济增速减缓的影响,2011年四季度以来,主要矿产品需求萎缩,融资难度加大,成本不断上升,铁、铜、铝、铅、锌、镍等金属价格下降,矿业股市下跌,全球矿业又一次进入下行期.但我国矿产资源运行平稳,需求内紧外松,短期缓解、长期趋紧,采矿业固定资产投资逐季度提高,矿产品供应能力不断增强,大宗矿产进口持续增长,重要矿产品价格高位剧烈振荡,矿产权市场活跃.%As the world economic growth is slowing, the demand of major mineral commodities has been shrinking since the fourth quarter of 2011. At the same time, financing is more and more difficult, and the mining cost is rising, and the prices of iron ore, copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, nickel and other metal have declined, and mining stocks have fallen. As a result, the global mining has entered again into the down phase. However, the demestic situation of mineral resources runs smooth. The demand of mineral resources is tight in China and loose in the world, which will be relieving in short-term and tightening in long-term. First, the mining fixed asset investment growth has increased by quarter. Second, the supply capability of mineral products has been increasing constantly. Third, the imports of important minerals kept going up. Fourth, the prices of important mineral commodities have kept fluctuating at high level. At last, the markets of exploration and mining rights are active.

  10. 我国玉米品种权保护现状及建设%Current Situation and Suggestions on the Protection of Maize Variety Rights in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In order to strengthen the protection of maize new variety rightsm ,standardize seed market ,ensure food security ,the protection present situation of maize variety rights in China was discussed ,the existing prob-lems were analysed such as the too long period of the review ,the delay of economic transformation of author-ized varieties ,the seriousness of infringing upon variety rights and the difficulty of safeguarding the variety rights ,the improvement suggestions of maize variety rights in China were put forward .The protection strategy of variety rightsm were proposed ,including building up the system of approv combining between approbation and protection ,standardizing the trading platform of variety rightsm ,strengthen the peralties for infringement , encouraging the cooperation between school and enterprise ,speeding up the pace of achievement transformation%  为了加强玉米新品种权的保护,规范种子市场,确保粮食安全,阐述了我国玉米品种权保护的现状,分析了玉米品种权存在审查周期过长、授权品种经济转化滞后、侵权严重和维权艰难等问题,提出了应建立品种审定和保护相结合的体制、规范的品种权交易平台、加大对侵权的惩处力度、鼓励院企业作加速成果转化步伐等品种权保护策略。

  11. Current Situation,Problems and Counter Measures of Wheat Supply in Henan%河南省小麦供给现状、问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞红

    2011-01-01

    The changes and problems in the wheat supply in Henan during the past 10 years were analyzed.It was found that the wheat supply situation was influenced by the state policy, initial price,cost and natural conditions and many other factors. The initial price had especial effects on planting areas and production of wheat. Therefore,the wheat production in Henan province should take full advantage of the state policy supporting agricultural development based on the local resources, gradually increase the wheat planting areas,and promote the yield and quality,to ensure wheat supply and steadily promote the market competitiveness.%分析了近10a河南省小麦供给的变化与存在的问题,并提出了提高河南省小麦供给的对策建议.小麦供给受国家政策、前期价格、成本及自然条件等众多因素的影响,且前期价格对小麦种植面积及产量供给的影响尤为突出.因此,河南省小麦生产应充分利用国家支持农业发展的政策,立足河南省的资源优势,逐步增加小麦的播种面积,提高小麦的产量和品质,保证小麦供给及市场竞争力的稳步提升.

  12. 78 FR 23883 - Marketing Orders for Fruit Crops; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... selection process for industry members to serve on a marketing order's committee or board and ballots used...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Marketing Orders for Fruit Crops; Notice of Request... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  13. Marketing v automobilovém průmyslu

    OpenAIRE

    Čablová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the current situation in the automotive industry. It focuses on the development of the car market in recent months, the scrappage program and the marketing trends in automotive industry. After Sales marketing of Opel car maker is analyzed in detail in the last section on company Mikona Auto, Zlín.

  14. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Molănescu, Gabriela; Mirela Ionela ACELEANU

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance.     Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social...

  15. 省域副中心城市条件下宜昌市外语培训产业现状分析%Analysis on the Current Situation of Yichang' Foreign Language Training Industry According to Sub-center City Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武端理; 陈刚

    2012-01-01

    本文基于省域副中心城市的定位,跨区域的发展前景和其它城市的发展状况,分析了宜昌外语培训产业的现状,主要涉及办学条件,办学内容,师资和市场运作,以期为该市外语培训产业健康发展和省域副中心城市建设提供参考。%This paper analyzed the current situation of Yichang's foreign language training industry according to the sub-center city condition,cross-regional prospect and similar cutis's experience,mainly focusing on the market supervision,teaching content,qualified teachers and market operation for the healthy development and the construction sub-center city in Hubei.

  16. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  17. 村级集体资产监管现状及对策分析%Current Situations and Countermeasure of Management Village-level Assets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡荣富

    2011-01-01

    Management of village-level assets was the concerning hot issue and focus by farmers.It also has become the key point and difficult point of the current rural work.This paper analyzed the current situation and problem of the village-level asset management,and then proposed countermeasures and suggestions to further improve effective management of the village-level asset.The countermeasures comprised establishing rules and regulations,standardizing management with system,standardizing procedure of asset disposition,assuring the disposition procedure legal,loyal,and public,standardizing public system and strengthening supervisions,etc.%村级集体资产管理是农民关心的热点与焦点,也是当前农村工作的重点与难点。分析了村级资产管理存在的现状与问题,从建章立制,以制度规范管理;规范资产处置程序,保证处置工作合法、公正、透明;规范公开制度,强化内外监督等方面,提出了进一步加强村级资产有效管理的对策与建议。

  18. An Analysis on the Current Situation of the Chinese Teaching in Nepal%尼泊尔汉语教学现状探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲艳

    2014-01-01

    通过分析尼泊尔特里布文大学中文系、孔子学院、孔子课堂、普通中小学和社会语言培训机构等方面的汉语教学现状,提出尼泊尔现阶段汉语教学所面临的教师、教材和教学法等方面存在的问题,希望促进尼泊尔汉语教学的发展并为关心尼泊尔汉语教学的相关人士提供参考。%This paper analyzes the current situation of the Chinese teaching in different institu-tions such as: the department of Chinese language in Tribhuvan University , Confucius Institute , Confucius Classroom , primary and secondary schools and languages training institute in Nepal and further puts forward the problems of teachers , teaching materials ,and methodology which the current Chinese teaching are facing .The paper aims to stimulate the development of Chinese teaching in Ne-pal and to provide some references for those concerned with the Chinese teaching in Nepal .

  19. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  20. Current Situation and Trend of Digital Forensics Research%数字取证研究现状与发展态势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泽明; 刘宝旭; 许榕生

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the development and situation of digital forensics, and presents the technical challenges of current digital forensics research under the rapid development of cloud computing, mobile internet, big data and IoT, etc.. Furthermore, based on the related investigation of major research institutions, this paper introduces the current research hotspots and trends and gives some proposals about the development of digital forensics research.%本文介绍了数字取证技术的发展历程和现状,结合云计算、移动互联网、大数据、物联网等为代表的新一代信息技术发展,分析了当前数字取证面临的技术挑战,基于国内外主要研究机构的相关调研情况介绍了当前数字取证技术的若干研究热点和发展态势,并给出了数字取证技术方面的研究发展思考。